WorldWideScience

Sample records for symmetry restoration effects

  1. Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.) [pt

  2. Symmetry breaking and restoration in Lifshitz type theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farakos, K.; Metaxas, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the one-loop effective potential at zero and finite temperature in scalar field theories with anisotropic space-time scaling. For z=2, there is a symmetry breaking term induced at one loop at zero temperature and we find symmetry restoration through a first-order phase transition at high temperature. For z=3, we considered at first the case with a positive mass term at tree level and found no symmetry breaking effects induced at one loop, and then we study the case with a negative mass term at tree level where we cannot conclude about symmetry restoration effects at high temperature because of the imaginary parts that appear in the effective potential for small values of the scalar field.

  3. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in onedimensional loop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in ... Keywords. Non-local transformation; broken symmetry; sine-Gordon; sech interaction. ... A specific type of classically broken symmetry is restored in quantum theory. One-dimensional sine-Gordon system and ...

  4. Symmetry restoration in the Georgi-Glashow model at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Junior, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    Symmetry restoration in the SU(5) model is analysed by means of finite temperature field theory. In our calculations symmetry restoration is due to topological defects which appear thanks to thermodynamical effects. We apply our results in cosmology, in order to explain the primordial inhomogeneity. Our results are compatible with Zeldovich's spectrum. (author) [pt

  5. Emergent spontaneous symmetry breaking and emergent symmetry restoration in rippling gravitational background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurkov, Maxim A. [Universidade Federal do ABC, CMCC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    We study effects of a rippling gravitational background on a scalar field with a double well potential, focusing on the analogy with the well known dynamics of the Kapitza's pendulum. The ripples are rendered as infinitesimal but rapidly oscillating perturbations of the scale factor. We find that the resulting dynamics crucially depends on a value of the parameter ξ in the ξRφ{sup 2} vertex. For the time-dependent perturbations of a proper form the resulting effective action is generally covariant, and at a high enough frequency at ξ < 0 and at ξ > 1/6 the effective potential has a single minimum at zero, thereby restoring spontaneously broken symmetry of the ground state. On the other side, at 0 < ξ < 1/6 spontaneous symmetry breaking emerges even when it is absent in the unperturbed case. (orig.)

  6. Evidence for chiral symmetry restoration in heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, P.; Palmese, A.; Cassing, W.; Seifert, E.; Steinert, T.; Bratkovskaya, E. L.

    2017-11-01

    We study the effect of the chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) on heavy-ion collisions observables in the energy range √{sNN} = 3- 20GeV within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The PHSD includes the deconfinement phase transition as well as essential aspects of CSR in the dense and hot hadronic medium, which are incorporated in the Schwinger mechanism for particle production. Our systematic studies show that chiral symmetry restoration plays a crucial role in the description of heavy-ion collisions at √{sNN} = 3- 20GeV, realizing an increase of the hadronic particle production in the strangeness sector with respect to the non-strange one. Our results provide a microscopic explanation for the horn structure in the excitation function of the K+ /π+ ratio: the CSR in the hadronic phase produces the steep increase of this particle ratio up to √{sNN} ≈ 7GeV, while the drop at higher energies is associated to the appearance of a deconfined partonic medium. Furthermore, the appearance/disappearance of the horn structure is investigated as a function of the system size. We additionally present an analysis of strangeness production in the (T ,μB)-plane (as extracted from the PHSD for central Au+Au collisions) and discuss the perspectives to identify a possible critical point in the phase diagram.

  7. Effect of the particle-number symmetry restoration on root mean square radii of even–even neutron-deficient nuclei in the isovector pairing case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douici, M.; Allal, N.H.; Fellah, M.; Benhamouda, N.; Oudih, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the particle-number symmetry restoration on the root mean square (rms) proton and neutron radii of neutron-deficient nuclei is studied in the isovector pairing case. As a first step, an expression of the nuclear radii which includes the neutron–proton pairing effects and which strictly conserves the particle-number has been established using the SBCS (Sharp BCS) method. It is shown that this expression generalizes the one obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. As a second step, the proton and neutron rms radii are numerically evaluated for even–even nuclei such as 16⩽Z⩽56 and 0⩽(N-Z)⩽4 using the single-particle energies of a Woods–Saxon mean-field. The results are compared with experimental data when available and with the results obtained when one considers only the pairing between like-particles. (author)

  8. Chiral-symmetry restoration in baryon-rich environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogut, J.; Matsuoka, H.; Stone, M.; Wyld, H.W.; Shenker, S.; Shigemitsu, J.; Sinclair, D.K.

    1983-04-01

    Chiral symmetry restoration in an environment rich in baryons is studied by computer simulation methods in SU(2) and SU(3) gauge theories in the quenched approximation. The basic theory of symmetry restoration as a function of chemical potential is illustrated and the implementation of the ideas on a lattice is made explicit. A simple mean field model is presented to guide one's expectations. The second order conjugate-gradient iterative method and the pseudo-fermion Monte Carlo procedure are convergent methods of calculating the fermion propagator in an environment rich in baryons. Computer simulations of SU(3) gauge theory show an abrupt chiral symmetry restoring transition and the critical chemical potential and induced baryon density are estimated crudely. A smoother transition is observed for the color group SU(2)

  9. Is chiral symmetry restored in the excited meson spectrum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, J.; Entem, D. R.; Fernández, F.

    2008-04-01

    The large degeneracy observed in the excited meson spectrum by the Cristal Barrel Collaboration in the experimental data on proton-antiproton annihilation in flight into mesons in the range 1.9-2.4 GeV has been interpreted as a signal of chiral symmetry restoration. In this work we suggest that such degeneracy may be an indication of the confinement potential modification by color screening. The experimental data can be fairly well reproduced in a constituent quark model with a screened linear confinement potential without changing the dynamical quark mass. Observables that could discriminate our model from those which explicitly restore the chiral symmetry are proposed.

  10. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in one-dimensional loop ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 6. Quantum restoration of broken symmetry in onedimensional loop space. Pinaki Patra ... For one-dimensional loop space, a nonlinear nonlocal transformation of fields is given to make the action of the self-interacting quantum field to the free one. A specific ...

  11. Low-energy restoration of parity and maximal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.; Sarkar, U.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal symmetry of fermions of one generation, SU(16), which includes the left-right-symmetric Pati-Salam group, SU(4)/sub c/ x SU(2) /sub L/ x SU(2)/sub R/, as a subgroup, allows the possibility of a low-energy (M/sub R/approx.100 GeV) breaking of the left-right symmetry. It is known that such a low-energy restoration of parity can be consistent with weak-interaction phenomenology. We examine different chains of descent of SU(16) that admit a low value of M/sub R/ and determine the other intermediate symmetry-breaking mass scales associated with each of these chains. These additional mass scales provide an alternative to the ''great desert'' expected in some grand unifying models. The contributions of the Higgs fields in the renormalization-group equations are retained and are found to be important

  12. Chiral symmetry restoration and pion properties in a q-deformed NJL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoteo, V.S.; Lima, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    We review the implementation of a q-deformed fermionic algebra in the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model (NJL). The gap equations obtained from a deformed condensate as well as from the deformation of the NJL Hamiltonian are discussed. The effect of both temperature and deformation in the chiral symmetry restoration process as well as in the pion properties is studied. (author)

  13. When and where is the process of restoring symmetry important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reistad, Jone Peter; Østgaard, Nikolai; Magnus Laundal, Karl; Tenfjord, Paul; Snekvik, Kristian; Haaland, Stein; Milan, Steve; Ohma, Anders; Grocott, Adrian; Oksavik, Kjellmar

    2017-04-01

    We define the process of restoring symmetry as the gradual relaxation of a flux-tube participating in the Dyngey-type convection from nightside to dayside, starting out with asymmetric footpoints. The first observations linked to this penomenon was presented by Grocott et al. 2004 (Annales), observing fast ( 1000 m/s) east/west ionospheric convection across midnight, later shown to be simultaneous present in the opposite hemisphere, and oppositely directed for +/- IMF By. More recently, Tenfjord et al. 2015 (JGR) presented a framework for how the stress stored in a magnetic flux-tube around midnight having asymmetric footpoints, can dissipate preferentially into one hemisphere. In this model, the asymmetric dissipation of stress is communicated as Alfven waves, providing Birkeland currents and the jxB force needed to move the footpoint of the field-line toward a more symmetric configuration. Until recently, observations supporting this scenario has mainly been made during northward, but By dominated IMF. Reistad et al. 2016 (JGR) presented statistical maps of Birkeland currents during conditions favorable for large hemispheric asymmetry in footpoint locations during southward IMF. Significant differences in Birkeland current strength was seen between the two hemispheres, where the hemisphere having footpoints "lagging behind" (i.e. strongest expected return flow) having largest current densities. Reistad et al. 2016 suggested that the process of restoring symmetry was a likely explanation of at least some of these asymmetries. If that is the case, it indicates that the importance of the restoring symmetry process is more general, not only restricted to the northward and By dominating IMF. One way to test this is to look at corresponding differences in convection speed during conditions other than northward IMF. By looking at the average properties of the ionospheric return flow during periods associated with asymmetric footpoints, we seek to investigate the

  14. Symmetry breaking and restoring wave transmission in diode-antidiode double chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Stefano; Malomed, Boris A

    2013-04-01

    We introduce a system of two parallel-coupled discrete nonlinear Schrödinger inhomogeneous chains. Each one favors the unidirectional transmission of incident packets, in the opposite directions with respect to each other. Two different configurations of the diode-antidiode pair are considered, i.e., a ladder and a plaquette. They feature, respectively, the uniform transverse linear coupling or the coupling limited to the central nonlinear segment of the system. In the case of weak linear coupling, the symmetry breaking is observed (i.e., the pair still features the diode behavior), while the moderately strong coupling restores the symmetry, making the transmission effectively bidirectional. In the case of the ladder, an oscillatory dependence of the transmission on the strength of the coupling is observed and qualitatively explained.

  15. Effective operators and extended symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Frère, J M; Moreno, J M; Orloff, J

    1994-01-01

    In this note we expand on our previous study of the implications of LEP1 results for future colliders. We extend the effective operator-based analysis of De R\\'ujula et al. to a larger symmetry group, and show at which cost their expectations can be relaxed. Of particular interest to experiment is a rephrasing of our previous results in terms of the Renard et al. parametrization for the gauge boson self-couplings (slightly extended to include $\\delta g_{\\gamma}$). We suggest the use of a ($\\delta g_{\\gamma}$, $\\delta g_{Z}$) plot to confront the expectations of various models.

  16. Induced cosmological constant expected above the phase transition restoring the broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludman, S.A.; Ruderman, M.A.

    1977-01-01

    The vacuum energy density now is small or zero but must have been prodigious if the universe was once hotter than T/sub c/approx.10 15 K and if elementary-particle symmetry is spontaneously broken by a Higgs mechanism. If symmetry is broken nondynamically, in the hot disordered phase the huge vacuum energy density is nevertheless negligible, compared to the energy density of ultrarelativistic particles. Because the broken symmetry is non-Abelian, the long-range forces arising on symmetry restoration need not lead back to an anisotropic, inhomogeneous, or domain-structure universe

  17. Restoration of singlet axial symmetry at finite temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Benic, S.; Horvatic, D.; Kekez, D.; Klabucar, D.

    2012-01-01

    To accomodate recent RHIC data on eta prime multiplicity, we propose a minimal modification of the Witten-Veneziano relation at high temperature. This renders a significant drop of eta prime mass at high temperature signaling a restoration of the U(1)A, and the Goldstone character of etaprime.

  18. Consciousness induced restoration of time symmetry (CIRTS): a psychophysical theoretical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierman, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    A theoretical framework is proposed that starts from the assumption that information processing by a brain, while it is sustaining consciousness, is restoring the break in time symmetry in physics. No specifics are given with regard to which physical formalism, either quantum or classical, is the

  19. Signatures of chiral symmetry restoration and its survival throughout the hadronic phase interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Moreau, P.; Palmese, A.; Cassing, W.; Seifert, E.; Steinert, T.

    2018-02-01

    The effect of the chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) on observables from heavy-ion collisions is studied in the energy range =3-20 GeV within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The PHSD includes the deconfinement phase transition as well as essential aspects of CSR in the dense and hot hadronic medium, which are incorporated in the Schwinger mechanism for the hadronic particle production. We adopt different parametrizations of the nuclear equation of state from the non-linear σ - ω model, which enter in the computation of the quark scalar density for the CSR mechanism, in order to estimate the uncertainty in our calculations. For the pion-nucleon ∑-term we adopt ∑π ≈ 45 MeV which corresponds to a 'world average'. Our systematic studies show that chiral symmetry restoration plays a crucial role in the description of heavy-ion collisions at =3-20 GeV, realizing an increase of the hadronic particle production in the strangeness sector with respect to the non-strange one. We identify particle abundances and rapidity spectra to be suitable probes in order to extract information about CSR, while transverse mass spectra are less sensitive ones. Our results provide a microscopic explanation for the "horn" structure in the excitation function of the K+/π+ ratio: the CSR in the hadronic phase produces the steep increase of this particle ratio up to ≈ 7 GeV, while the drop at higher energies is associated to the appearance of a deconfined partonic medium.

  20. Chiral symmetry restoration versus deconfinement in heavy-ion collisions at high baryon density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratkovskaya, E. L.; Palmese, A.; Cassing, W.; Seifert, E.; Steinert, T.; Moreau, P.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of the chiral symmetry restoration (CSR) on observables from heavy-ion collisions is studied in the energy range \\sqrt{{s}NN}=3-20 {GeV} within the Parton-Hadron-String Dynamics (PHSD) transport approach. The PHSD includes the deconfinement phase transition as well as essential aspects of CSR in the dense and hot hadronic medium, which are incorporated in the Schwinger mechanism for the hadronic particle production. We adopt different parametrizations of the nuclear equation of state from the non-linear σ - ω model, which enter in the computation of the quark scalar density for the CSR mechanism, in order to estimate the uncertainty in our calculations. For the pion-nucleon Σ-term we adopt Σ π ≈ 45 MeV which corresponds to some ‘world average’. Our systematic studies show that chiral symmetry restoration plays a crucial role in the description of heavy-ion collisions at \\sqrt{{s}NN}=3-20 {GeV}, realizing an increase of the hadronic particle production in the strangeness sector with respect to the non-strange one. We identify particle abundances and rapidity spectra to be suitable probes in order to extract information about CSR, while transverse mass spectra are less sensitive. Our results provide a microscopic explanation for the “horn” structure in the excitation function of the K +/π + ratio: the CSR in the hadronic phase produces the steep increase of this particle ratio up to \\sqrt{{s}NN}≈ 7 {GeV}, while the drop at higher energies is associated to the appearance of a deconfined partonic medium.

  1. Restoring autonomy. Symmetry and asymmetry in care relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frits De Lange

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available

    In this article the complexity of a professional care relationship as a whole of symmetrical and asymmetrical, formal and informal dimensions, is presented. Its ethical simplicity, however, is safeguarded as long as the

    telos of a care relationship is seen as the restoration of the autonomy of the care receiver. Autonomy is interpreted as the capability of persons to develop their uniqueness throughout their life course. The undeniable asymmetry of the care relationship is an essential, but temporary moment in its dynamics. The dynamics of a care relationship corresponds to the heart of the Christian ethos: in the Christian narrative, the asymmetry of humiliation precedes the exaltation, understood as the restoration of human dignity as ‘living upright’. The theological concept of exaltation can be interpreted as God’s ‘care for autonomy’ in a ethics of care.

     

     

  2. Restoration of the symmetries broken by reversible growth in hyperelastic bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grillo Alfio

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we interpret the development of material in homogeneities in continuum, hyper elastic bodies in the presence of reversible growth in terms of broken symmetries [1]. By applying Noether's Theorem [1, 2, 3, 4], we find a set of equations yielding the fields necessary to compensate for the broken symmetry. As growth occurs, these fields provide for an instantaneously updated reference configuration of the body, and are responsible for the dynamical restoring of the body symmetries. In addition, we propose to use these compensating fields in order to generalize the definition of the transplant operator given in [5,6]. This work has been motivated by the current theoretical investigations on the biomechanical aspects of growth in particular cartilage.

  3. Direct composite restorations in anterior teeth. Managing symmetry in central incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    In direct restorations of anterior teeth, particularly central incisors, symmetry plays an important role. The clinician can take advantage of silicone indexes based on a wax-up to build palatal and incisal walls; however, when he has to reproduce free-hand chair-side symmetrical items like interproximal emergence profiles, macro- and microsurface textures, and chromatic characteristics, the result can often be unpredictable. A step-by-step class IV restoration treatment will be described, as well as a simple procedure to help reproduce, check and correct symmetrically interproximal wall contours and chromatic characteristics.

  4. Chiral symmetry restoration in σ-meson production in hadronic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kukulin V.I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Some puzzles about the nature and properties of the lightest scalar meson, σ or f0(500, are analyzed in the paper. We studied the σ-meson production both in N + N, N + d, etc., collisions and also in J/ψ, ψ(2S, ψ(3S, Υ(2S, etc., two-pion decays. The fundamental distinctions between the basic σ-meson parameters found in various hadronic processes can be explained most naturally by the chiral symmetry restoration in intermediate excited hadronic resonances. In the present paper we discuss some important aspects of chiral symmetry restoration in hadronic processes with interrelation to the basic features of QCD.

  5. Chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement beyond mean field in a magnetized PNJL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shijun

    2018-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry restoration and quark deconfinement beyond the mean field approximation in a magnetized PNJL model. The feedback from mesons to quarks modifies the quark coupling constant and Polyakov potential. As a result, the separate critical temperatures for the two phase transitions at the mean field level coincide, and the magnetic catalysis becomes an inverse magnetic catalysis when the meson contribution is included.

  6. Restoring the magnetism of ultrathin LaMn O3 films by surface symmetry engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, J. J.; Song, C.; Li, F.; Gu, Y. D.; Wang, G. Y.; Pan, F.

    2016-12-01

    The frustration of magnetization and conductivity properties of ultrathin manganite is detrimental to their device performance, preventing their scaling down process. Here we demonstrate that the magnetism of ultrathin LaMn O3 films can be restored by a SrTi O3 capping layer, which engineers the surface from a symmetry breaking induced out-of-plane orbital occupancy to the recovered in-plane orbital occupancy. The stabilized in-plane orbital occupancy would strengthen the intralayer double exchange and thus recovers the robust magnetism. This method is proved to be effective for films as thin as 2 unit cells, greatly shrinking the critical thickness of 6 unit cells for ferromagnetic LaMn O3 as demonstrated previously [Wang et al., Science 349, 716 (2015), 10.1126/science.aaa5198]. The achievement made in this work opens up new perspectives to an active control of surface states and thereby tailors the surface functional properties of transition metal oxides.

  7. En route to Background Independence: Broken split-symmetry, and how to restore it with bi-metric average actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.; Reuter, M.

    2014-01-01

    The most momentous requirement a quantum theory of gravity must satisfy is Background Independence, necessitating in particular an ab initio derivation of the arena all non-gravitational physics takes place in, namely spacetime. Using the background field technique, this requirement translates into the condition of an unbroken split-symmetry connecting the (quantized) metric fluctuations to the (classical) background metric. If the regularization scheme used violates split-symmetry during the quantization process it is mandatory to restore it in the end at the level of observable physics. In this paper we present a detailed investigation of split-symmetry breaking and restoration within the Effective Average Action (EAA) approach to Quantum Einstein Gravity (QEG) with a special emphasis on the Asymptotic Safety conjecture. In particular we demonstrate for the first time in a non-trivial setting that the two key requirements of Background Independence and Asymptotic Safety can be satisfied simultaneously. Carefully disentangling fluctuation and background fields, we employ a ‘bi-metric’ ansatz for the EAA and project the flow generated by its functional renormalization group equation on a truncated theory space spanned by two separate Einstein–Hilbert actions for the dynamical and the background metric, respectively. A new powerful method is used to derive the corresponding renormalization group (RG) equations for the Newton- and cosmological constant, both in the dynamical and the background sector. We classify and analyze their solutions in detail, determine their fixed point structure, and identify an attractor mechanism which turns out instrumental in the split-symmetry restoration. We show that there exists a subset of RG trajectories which are both asymptotically safe and split-symmetry restoring: In the ultraviolet they emanate from a non-Gaussian fixed point, and in the infrared they loose all symmetry violating contributions inflicted on them by the

  8. Configuration-mixed effective SU(3) symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Hess, P O; Hunyadi, M; Kvi, A G; Cseh, J

    2002-01-01

    The procedure of Jarrio et al. (Nucl. Phys. A 528, 409 (1991)) for the determination of the effective SU(3) symmetry of nuclear states is extended to small deformations and to oblate nuclei. Self-consistency checks are carried out both for light and for heavy nuclei. (orig.)

  9. Particle-hole symmetry for composite fermions: An emergent symmetry in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coimbatore Balram, Ajit; Jain, Jainendra

    2017-01-01

    The particle-hole (PH) symmetry of {\\em electrons} is an exact symmetry of the electronic Hamiltonian confined to a specific Landau level, and its interplay with the formation of composite fermions has attracted much attention of late. This article investigates an emergent symmetry in the fractio......The particle-hole (PH) symmetry of {\\em electrons} is an exact symmetry of the electronic Hamiltonian confined to a specific Landau level, and its interplay with the formation of composite fermions has attracted much attention of late. This article investigates an emergent symmetry...... in the fractional quantum Hall effect, namely the PH symmetry of {\\em composite fermions}, which relates states at composite fermion filling factors $\

  10. Statistical symmetry restoration in fully developed turbulence: Renormalization group analysis of two models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, N. V.; Gulitskiy, N. M.; Kostenko, M. M.; Malyshev, A. V.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we consider the model of incompressible fluid described by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with finite correlation time of a random force. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior of fully developed turbulence is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group within the one-loop approximation. It is corroborated that regardless of the values of model parameters and initial data the inertial-range behavior of the model is described by the limiting case of vanishing correlation time. This indicates that the Galilean symmetry of the model violated by the "colored" random force is restored in the inertial range. This regime corresponds to the only nontrivial fixed point of the renormalization group equation. The stability of this point depends on the relation between the exponents in the energy spectrum E ∝k1 -y and the dispersion law ω ∝k2 -η . The second analyzed problem is the passive advection of a scalar field by this velocity ensemble. Correlation functions of the scalar field exhibit anomalous scaling behavior in the inertial-convective range. We demonstrate that in accordance with Kolmogorov's hypothesis of the local symmetry restoration the main contribution to the operator product expansion is given by the isotropic operator, while anisotropic terms should be considered only as corrections.

  11. Breaking of electroweak symmetry: origin and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, C.

    2008-10-01

    The Higgs boson appears as the corner stone of high energy physics, it might be the cause of the excess of matter that led to the formation of the structures of the universe and it seems that it drives the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. Moreover, when the stability at low energies of the Higgs boson is assured by an extra space dimension, it appears that this extra dimension can explain most issues in the flavor physics that are not understood by the standard model. The first chapter presents the main tools of effective field theories, the role of experimental data in the construction of theories valid beyond the standard model is discussed. The second chapter focuses on the electroweak baryogenesis that allows the testing of new physics via the electroweak phase transition. We detail the calculation of a Higgs potential at finite temperature. We follow the dynamics of the phase transition including nucleation an supercooling. Finally we investigate the prospects of gravity wave detection to see the effects of a strong electroweak phase transition. The 2 last chapters are dedicated to the physics of extra-dimension. The properties of the dynamics of scalar, vector fields with a 1/2 spin plunged in a 5 d. Anti de Sitter geometry are reviewed. We present a model of lepton masses and mixings based on the A 4 non-Abelian discrete symmetry. It is shown that this model does not contradict the tests of electroweak precision. (A.C.)

  12. Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Furtado, C.; Bakke, K. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2015-09-15

    Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) correlations are discussed. From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the Lorentz symmetry violation and write an effective metric for the Minkowski spacetime. Then we obtain the Wigner rotation angle via the Fermi-Walker transport of spinors and consider the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation in order to study the influence of Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on the relativistic EPR correlations. (orig.)

  13. Chiral symmetry restoration in the massive Thirring model at finite /T and /μ: dimensional reduction and the Coulomb gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Nicola, A.; Rivers, R. J.; Steer, D. A.

    2000-03-01

    We show that in certain limits the (1+1)-dimensional massive Thirring model at finite temperature T is equivalent to a one-dimensional Coulomb gas of charged particles at the same T. This equivalence is then used to explore the phase structure of the massive Thirring model. For strong coupling and T ≫ m (the fermion mass), the system is shown to behave as a free gas of "molecules" (charge pairs in the Coulomb gas terminology) made of pairs of chiral condensates. This binding of chiral condensates is responsible for the restoration of chiral symmetry as T→∞. In addition, when a fermion chemical potential μ≠0 is included, the analogy with a Coulomb gas still holds with μ playing the rôle of a purely imaginary external electric field. For small T and μ we find a typical massive Fermi gas behaviour for the fermion density, whereas for large μ it shows chiral restoration by means of a vanishing effective fermion mass. Some similarities with the chiral properties of low-energy QCD at finite T and baryon chemical potential are discussed.

  14. Proper and improper zero energy modes in Hartree-Fock theory and their relevance for symmetry breaking and restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yao; Bulik, Ireneusz W; Jiménez-Hoyos, Carlos A; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2013-10-21

    We study the spectra of the molecular orbital Hessian (stability matrix) and random-phase approximation (RPA) Hamiltonian of broken-symmetry Hartree-Fock solutions, focusing on zero eigenvalue modes. After all negative eigenvalues are removed from the Hessian by following their eigenvectors downhill, one is left with only positive and zero eigenvalues. Zero modes correspond to orbital rotations with no restoring force. These rotations determine states in the Goldstone manifold, which originates from a spontaneously broken continuous symmetry in the wave function. Zero modes can be classified as improper or proper according to their different mathematical and physical properties. Improper modes arise from symmetry breaking and their restoration always lowers the energy. Proper modes, on the other hand, correspond to degeneracies of the wave function, and their symmetry restoration does not necessarily lower the energy. We discuss how the RPA Hamiltonian distinguishes between proper and improper modes by doubling the number of zero eigenvalues associated with the latter. Proper modes in the Hessian always appear in pairs which do not double in RPA. We present several pedagogical cases exemplifying the above statements. The relevance of these results for projected Hartree-Fock methods is also addressed.

  15. Effects of symmetry breaking in finite quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, J.L. [Department of Physics, City College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Nazmitdinov, R.G. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca 07122 (Spain); Bogolubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Yukalov, V.I., E-mail: yukalov@theor.jinr.ru [Bogolubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The review considers the peculiarities of symmetry breaking and symmetry transformations and the related physical effects in finite quantum systems. Some types of symmetry in finite systems can be broken only asymptotically. However, with a sufficiently large number of particles, crossover transitions become sharp, so that symmetry breaking happens similarly to that in macroscopic systems. This concerns, in particular, global gauge symmetry breaking, related to Bose–Einstein condensation and superconductivity, or isotropy breaking, related to the generation of quantum vortices, and the stratification in multicomponent mixtures. A special type of symmetry transformation, characteristic only for finite systems, is the change of shape symmetry. These phenomena are illustrated by the examples of several typical mesoscopic systems, such as trapped atoms, quantum dots, atomic nuclei, and metallic grains. The specific features of the review are: (i) the emphasis on the peculiarities of the symmetry breaking in finite mesoscopic systems; (ii) the analysis of common properties of physically different finite quantum systems; (iii) the manifestations of symmetry breaking in the spectra of collective excitations in finite quantum systems. The analysis of these features allows for the better understanding of the intimate relation between the type of symmetry and other physical properties of quantum systems. This also makes it possible to predict new effects by employing the analogies between finite quantum systems of different physical nature.

  16. Chiral Symmetry Restoration, Naturalness and the Absence of Fine-Tuning I: Global Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Lynn, Bryan W.

    2013-01-01

    The Standard Model (SM), and the scalar sector of its zero-gauge-coupling limit -- the chiral-symmetric limit of the Gell Mann-Levy Model (GML) -- have been shown not to suffer from a Higgs Fine-Tuning (FT) problem. All ultraviolet quadratic divergences (UVQD) are absorbed into the mass-squared of pseudo Nambu-Goldstone (pNGB) bosons, in GML. Since chiral SU(2)_{L-R} symmetry is restored as the pNGB mass-squared or as the Higgs vacuum expectation value (VEV) are taken to 0, small values of these quantities and of the Higgs mass are natural, and therefore not Fine-Tuned. In this letter, we extend our results on the absence of FT to a wide class of high-mass-scale (M_{Heavy}>>m_{Higgs}) extensions to a simplified SO(2) version of GML. We explicitly demonstrate naturalness and no-FT for two examples of heavy physics, both SO(2) singlets: a heavy (M_S >> m_{Higgs}) real scalar field (with or without a VEV); and a right-handed Type 1 See-Saw Majorana neutrino with M_R >> m_{Higgs}. We prove that for |q^2| <<...

  17. Effect of orbital symmetry on the anisotropic superexchange interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom Hyun; Min, B I

    2011-01-01

    Employing the microscopic superexchange model incorporating the effect of spin-orbit interaction, we have investigated the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) interaction in perovskite transition-metal (TM) oxides and explored the interplay between the DM interaction and the TM-3d orbital symmetry. For d 3 and d 5 systems with isotropic orbital symmetry, the DM vectors are well described by a simple symmetry analysis considering only the bond geometry. In contrast, the DM interaction for d 4 systems with anisotropic orbital symmetry shows slightly different behavior, which does not obey simple symmetry analysis. The direction as well as the strength of the DM vector varies depending on the occupied orbital shape. We have understood this behavior based on the orbital symmetry induced by local crystal field variation.

  18. How to fix a broken symmetry: quantum dynamics of symmetry restoration in a ferromagnetic Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damski, Bogdan; Zurek, Wojciech H

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the dynamics of a quantum phase transition in a spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate when it is driven from the magnetized broken-symmetry phase to the unmagnetized 'symmetric' polar phase. We determine where the condensate goes out of equilibrium as it approaches the critical point, and compute the condensate magnetization at the critical point. This is done within a quantum Kibble-Zurek scheme traditionally employed in the context of symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions. Then we study the influence of the non-equilibrium dynamics near a critical point on the condensate magnetization. In particular, when the quench stops at the critical point, nonlinear oscillations of magnetization occur. They are characterized by a period and an amplitude that are inversely proportional. If we keep driving the condensate far away from the critical point through the unmagnetized 'symmetric' polar phase, the amplitude of magnetization oscillations slowly decreases reaching a nonzero asymptotic value. That process is described by an equation that can be mapped onto the classical mechanical problem of a particle moving under the influence of harmonic and 'anti-friction' forces whose interplay leads to surprisingly simple fixed-amplitude oscillations. We obtain several scaling results relating the condensate magnetization to the quench rate, and verify numerically all analytical predictions

  19. Charge-exchange resonances and restoration of the Wigner SU(4-symmetry in heavy and superheavy nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutostansky Yu. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energies of the giant Gamow-Teller and analog resonances –EG and EA, respectively, – are calculated within the microscopic theory of finite Fermi system. The calculated energy difference ΔEG–A = EG–EA tends to zero with A in heavy nuclei indicating the restoration of Wigner SU(4-symmetry. The calculated ΔEG–A values are in good agreement with the experimental data. The average deviation is 0.30MeV for the 33 considered nuclei where experimental data are available. The ΔEG–A values are investigated for very heavy and superheavy nuclei up to the mass number A = 290. Using the experimental data for the analog resonance energies, the isotopic dependence of the Coulomb energy differences for neighboring isobars are analyzed within the SU(4-approach for more than 400 nuclei in the mass number range of A = 3–244. The Wigner SU(4-symmetry restoration for heavy and superheavy nuclei is confirmed. It is shown that the restoration of SU(4-symmetry does not contradict the possibility of the existence of the “island of stability” in the region of superheavy nuclei.

  20. Flavour symmetry restoration and kaon weak matrix elements in quenched twisted mass QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dimopoulos, P; Palombi, Filippo; Peña, C; Sint, S; Vladikas, A

    2007-01-01

    We simulate two variants of quenched twisted mass QCD (tmQCD), with degenerate Wilson quarks of masses equal to or heavier than half the strange quark mass. We use Ward identities in order to measure the twist angles of the theory and thus check the quality of the tuning of mass parameters to a physics condition which stays constant as the lattice spacing is varied. Flavour symmetry breaking in tmQCD is studied in a framework of two fully twisted and two standard Wilson quark flavours, tuned to be degenerate in the continuum. Comparing pseudoscalar masses, obtained from connected quark diagrams made of tmQCD and/or standard Wilson quark propagators, we confirm that flavour symmetry breaking effects, which are at most 5%, decrease as we approach the continuum limit. We also compute the pseudoscalar decay constant in the continuum limit, with reduced systematics. As a consequence of improved tuning of the mass parameters at $\\beta = 6.1$, we reanalyse our previous $B_K$ results. Our main phenomenological findin...

  1. Variational method of determining effective moduli of polycrystals: (A) hexagonal symmetry, (B) trigonal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Meister, R.

    1965-01-01

    Variational principles of anisotropic elasticity have been applied to aggregates of randomly oriented pure-phase polycrystals having hexagonal symmetry and trigonal symmetry. The bounds of the effective elastic moduli obtained in this way show a considerable improvement over the bounds obtained by means of the Voigt and Reuss assumptions. The Hill average is found to be in most cases a good approximation when compared to the bounds found from the variational method. The new bounds reduce in their limits to the Voigt and Reuss values. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. Anomalous transport effects and possible environmental symmetry ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... The heavy-ion collision provides a unique many-body environment where local domains of strongly interacting chiral medium may occur and in a sense allow environmental symmetry 'violation' phenomena. For example, certain anomalous transport processes, forbidden in usual medium, become possible ...

  3. Particle-hole symmetry for composite fermions: An emergent symmetry in the fractional quantum Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balram, Ajit C.; Jain, J. K.

    2017-12-01

    The particle-hole (PH) symmetry of electrons is an exact symmetry of the electronic Hamiltonian confined to a specific Landau level, and its interplay with the formation of composite fermions has attracted much attention of late. We investigate an emergent symmetry in the fractional quantum Hall effect, namely, the PH symmetry of composite fermions, which relates states at composite fermion filling factors ν*=n +ν ¯ and ν*=n +1 -ν ¯ , where the integer n is the Λ -level index and 0 ≤ν ¯≤1 . Detailed calculations using the microscopic theory of composite fermions demonstrate the following for low-lying Λ levels (small n ): (i) The two-body interaction between composite-fermion particles is very similar, apart from a constant additive term and an overall scale factor, to that between composite-fermion holes in the same Λ level; and (ii) the three-body interaction for composite fermions is an order of magnitude smaller than the two-body interaction. Taken together, these results imply an approximate PH symmetry for composite fermions in low Λ levels, which is also supported by exact-diagonalization studies and available experiments. This symmetry, which relates states at electron filling factors ν =n/+ν ¯ 2 (n +ν ¯)±1 and ν =n/+1 -ν ¯ 2 (n +1 -ν ¯)±1 , is not present in the original Hamiltonian and owes its existence entirely to the formation of composite fermions. With increasing Λ -level index, the two-body and three-body pseudopotentials become comparable, but at the same time they both diminish in magnitude, indicating that the interaction between composite fermions becomes weak as we approach ν =1 /2 .

  4. Confinement, Chiral Symmetry Breaking and it's Restoration using Dual QCD Formalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punetha Garima

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizing the dual QCD model in term of magnetic symmetry structure of non- Abelian gauge theories, the dynamical chiral-symmetry breaking using Schwinger-Dyson equation has been investigated. A close relation among the color confinement and chiralsymmetry breaking has been observed and demonstrated by computing dynamical parameters. The recovery of the chiral symmetry has also been discussed at finite temperature through the variation of quark mass function and quark condensate which gradually decreases with temperature and vanishes suddenly near the critical temperature.

  5. Symmetry restoration at high-temperature in two-color and two-flavor lattice gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong-Wan [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, SA2 8PP, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Pusan National University,Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Extreme Physics Institute, Pusan National University,Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Lucini, Biagio; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University,Singleton Park, SA2 8PP, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2017-04-07

    We consider the SU(2) gauge theory with N{sub f}=2 flavors of Dirac fundamental fermions. We study the high-temperature behavior of the spectra of mesons, discretizing the theory on anisotropic lattices, and measuring the two-point correlation functions in the temporal direction as well as screening masses in various channels. We identify the (pseudo-)critical temperature as the temperature at which the susceptibility associated with the Polyakov loop has a maximum. At high temperature both the spin-1 and spin-0 sectors of the light meson spectra exhibit enhanced symmetry properties, indicating the restoration of both the global SU(4) and the axial U(1){sub A} symmetries of the model.

  6. Effect of symmetry breaking on transition strength distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, G.E.; Shriner, J.F. Jr.

    2001-01-01

    The quantum numbers of over 100 states in 30 P have been determined from the ground state to 8 MeV. Previous measurements had provided complete spectroscopy in 26 Al. For these N=Z=odd nuclei, states of isospin T=0 and T=1 coexist at all energies. These spectra provide a unique opportunity to test the effect of symmetry breaking (of the approximate symmetry isospin) on the level statistics and on the transition strength distributions. The level statistics are strongly affected by the small symmetry breaking and the transition strength distributions differ from the Porter-Thomas distribution

  7. The Effects of Visual Feedback Distortion with Unilateral Leg Loading on Gait Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Carlos; Martinez, Eva; Rhouni, Nada; Kim, Seung-Jae

    2018-02-01

    Our prior work provides evidence that visual feedback distortion drives an implicit adaptation; a gradual distortion of visual representation of step length modulated subjects' step lengths away from symmetry. To further explore the effect of the visual feedback distortion on unconscious change in step symmetry, we investigated whether such adaptation would occur even in the presence of altered limb mechanics by adding mass to one side of the leg. 26 subjects performed three 8-min trials (weight only, weight plus visual feedback, and weight plus visual feedback distortion) of treadmill walking. During the weight only trial, the subjects wore a 5 lb mass around the right ankle. The modification of limb inertia caused asymmetric gait. The visual feedback showing right and left step length information as bar graphs was displayed on a computer screen. To add visual feedback distortion, we increased the length of one side of the visual bars by 10% above the actual step length, and the visual distortion was implemented for the side that took longer in response to the added mass. We found that even when adjustments were made to unilateral loading, the subjects spontaneously changed their step symmetry in response to the visual distortion, which resulted in a more symmetric gait. This change may be characterized by sensory prediction errors, and our results suggest that visual feedback distortion has a significant impact on gait symmetry regardless of other conditions affecting limb mechanics. A rehabilitation program employing visual feedback distortion may provide an effective way to restore gait symmetry.

  8. A UA(1 symmetry restoration scenario supported by the generalized Witten–Veneziano relation and its analytic solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Benić

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Witten–Veneziano relation, or, alternatively, its generalization proposed by Shore, facilitates understanding and describing the complex of η and η′ mesons. We present an analytic, closed-form solution to Shore's equations which gives results on the η–η′ complex in full agreement with results previously obtained numerically. Although the Witten–Veneziano relation and Shore's equations are related, the ways they were previously used in the context of dynamical models to calculate η and η′ properties, were rather different. However, with the analytic solution, the calculation can be formulated similarly to the approach through the Witten–Veneziano relation, and with some conceptual improvements. In the process, one strengthens the arguments in favor of a possible relation between the UA(1 and SUA(3 chiral symmetry breaking and restoration. To test this scenario, the experiments such as those at RHIC, NICA and FAIR, which extend the RHIC (and LHC high-temperature scans also to the finite-density parts of the QCD phase diagram, should pay particular attention to the signatures from the η′–η complex indicating the symmetry restoration.

  9. THE RESTORATIVE CLASSROOM: Using Restorative Approaches to Foster Effective Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Martha A. BROWN

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The book is divided into three sections. Part One, chapters 1-3, provides the reader with a framework for understanding relational and restorative pedagogy based on the Five Key Restorative Themes: Everyone has their own unique and equally valued perspectives Thoughts influence emotions, emotions influence actions Empathy and consideration Needs and unmet needs Collective responsibility for problem solving and decision making. (Hopkins, 2011, p.32These five themes form the basis for the rest of the book. Part Two, chapters 4-9, describes a range of restorative practices and exercises, such as mixers, circles, and community-building games, as well as the step-by-step instructions on how to implement and conduct them. Part Three, Chapter 10, succinctly discusses the whole-school approach, which is explained in greater detail in Just Schools (Hopkins, 2004. Still, Hopkins would be remiss not to emphasize the need for the whole-school adoption of restorative practices based on current school effectiveness and improvement literature, and again asserts that "developing a restorative staffroom and staff team is likely to be a pre-requisite for a successful, high-achieving school" (Hopkins, 2011, p. 225.

  10. Chiral symmetry and finite temperature effects in quantum theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, Aa.

    1987-01-01

    A computer simulation of the harmonic oscillator at finite temperature has been carried out, using the Monte Carlo Metropolis algorithm. Accurate results for the energy and fluctuations have been obtained, with special attention to the manifestation of the temperature effects. Varying the degree of symmetry breaking, the finite temperature behaviour of the asymmetric linear model in a linearized mean field approximation has been studied. In a study of the effects of chiral symmetry on baryon mass splittings, reasonable agreement with experiment has been obtained in a non-relativistic harmonic oscillator model

  11. Time-reversal symmetry breaking by ac field: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    possesses an interesting dualism: the periodic ac fields that are least effective in suppress- ing conductance fluctuations by dephasing, turn out to be the most effective in breaking the time-reversal symmetry. An important exception is the periodic ac field that is anti- symmetric with respect to a shift by a half-period τ/2.

  12. Soft pion theorem, asymptotic symmetry and new memory effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Sugishita, Sotaro

    2017-11-01

    It is known that soft photon and graviton theorems can be regarded as the Ward-Takahashi identities of asymptotic symmetries. In this paper, we consider soft theorem for pions, i.e., Nambu-Goldstone bosons associated with a spontaneously broken axial symmetry. The soft pion theorem is written as the Ward-Takahashi identities of the S-matrix under asymptotic transformations. We investigate the asymptotic dynamics, and find that the conservation of charges generating the asymptotic transformations can be interpreted as a pion memory effect.

  13. Evidence for Δ(22007/2− from photoproduction and consequence for chiral-symmetry restoration at high mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Anisovich

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a partial-wave analysis of new data on the double-polarization variable E for the reactions γp→π+n and γp→π0p and of further data published earlier. The analysis within the Bonn–Gatchina (BnGa formalism reveals evidence for a poorly known baryon resonance, the one-star Δ(22007/2−. This is the lowest-mass Δ⁎ resonance with spin-parity JP=7/2−. Its mass is significantly higher than the mass of its parity partner Δ(19507/2+ which is the lowest-mass Δ⁎ resonance with spin-parity JP=7/2+. It has been suggested that chiral symmetry might be restored in the high-mass region of hadron excitations, and that these two resonances should be degenerate in mass. Our findings are in conflict with this prediction.

  14. Time-reversal symmetry breaking by ac field: Effect of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Time-reversal symmetry breaking by ac field: Effect of commensurability in the frequency domain. V E KRAVTSOV. Present address: The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 586, 34100. Trieste, Italy. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 2 Kosygina Street, 117940 Moscow, Russia.

  15. Knee functional recovery and limb-to-limb symmetry restoration after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and ACL reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawasreh, Zakariya Hussein

    perturbation training using mechanical device provides effects similar to manual perturbation training on knee mechanics, knee functional performance, and neuromuscular activation pattern in patients with ACL rupture. The second aim of this study was to measure whether the mechanical perturbation training provides an effect similar to that of manual perturbation training on gait mechanics, knee functional performance, muscle co-contraction, and neuromuscular activation pattern in athletes with an acute ACL rupture who are managed non-surgically. The findings of this work revealed that mechanical perturbation training provides effects similar to the manual perturbation training on knee kinematics and kinetics during walking and performance-based and patient-reported measures. Gait limb-to-limb asymmetries continue persist after the training regardless of the treatment group which may indicate that patients require participating in an extended rehabilitation program. Additionally, Perturbation training attempts to resolve the neuromuscular deficits and restore a balance in muscle activation and strength between knee flexors and extensors to enhance the dynamic stability of the knee joint. There are moderate to strong relationships between time duration of muscles' activities and the muscle co-contraction that may reflect neuromuscular adaptations to provide dynamic knee stability.

  16. TOPICAL REVIEW: Tunneling magnetoresistance from a symmetry filtering effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Butler

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief overview of the young, but rapidly growing field of spintronics. Its primary objective is to explain how as electrons tunnel through simple insulators such as MgO, wavefunctions of certain symmetries are preferentially transmitted. This symmetry filtering property can be converted into a spin-filtering property if the insulator is joined epitaxially to a ferromagnetic electrode with the same two-dimensional symmetry parallel to the interface. A second requirement of the ferromagnetic electrodes is that a wavefunction with the preferred symmetry exists in one of the two spin channels but not in the other. These requirements are satisfied for electrons traveling perpendicular to the interface for Fe–MgO–Fe tunnel barriers. This leads to a large change in the resistance when the magnetic moment of one of the electrodes is rotated relative to those of the other electrode. This large tunneling magnetoresistance effect is being used as the read sensor in hard drives and may form the basis for a new type of magnetic memory.

  17. The Quantum Hall Effect: Novel Excitations and Broken Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Girvin, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    These pedagogical lecture notes present a general introduction to most aspects of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects. This is followed by an extensive discussion of quantum Hall ferromagnetism, both for spins in single-layer systems and `pseudospins' in double-layer systems. The effective field theories describing various broken symmetry states and `skyrmion' and `meron' spin textures are derived and discussed in some detail. Pedagogical presentations on Berry phases and lowest L...

  18. Time reversal symmetry breaking effects in resonant nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feshbach, H.; Hussein, M.S.; Kerman, A.K.

    1995-01-01

    We incorporate time reversal symmetry breaking (TRSB) effects into the theory of compound nuclear reactions. We show that the only meaningful test of TRSB in the overlapping resonances regime is through the study of cross-section correlations. The effect is channel-dependent. In the isolated resonance regime, we employ K-matrix theory to show the impact of TRSB using the fact that when only one eigen-channel participates in populating and depopulating the compound resonance. (orig.)

  19. Composite symmetry-protected topological order and effective models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietner, A.; Krumnow, C.; Bergholtz, E. J.; Eisert, J.

    2017-12-01

    Strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at low dimension exhibit a wealth of phenomena, ranging from features of geometric frustration to signatures of symmetry-protected topological order. In suitable descriptions of such systems, it can be helpful to resort to effective models, which focus on the essential degrees of freedom of the given model. In this work, we analyze how to determine the validity of an effective model by demanding it to be in the same phase as the original model. We focus our study on one-dimensional spin-1 /2 systems and explain how nontrivial symmetry-protected topologically ordered (SPT) phases of an effective spin-1 model can arise depending on the couplings in the original Hamiltonian. In this analysis, tensor network methods feature in two ways: on the one hand, we make use of recent techniques for the classification of SPT phases using matrix product states in order to identify the phases in the effective model with those in the underlying physical system, employing Künneth's theorem for cohomology. As an intuitive paradigmatic model we exemplify the developed methodology by investigating the bilayered Δ chain. For strong ferromagnetic interlayer couplings, we find the system to transit into exactly the same phase as an effective spin-1 model. However, for weak but finite coupling strength, we identify a symmetry broken phase differing from this effective spin-1 description. On the other hand, we underpin our argument with a numerical analysis making use of matrix product states.

  20. Test of fundamental symmetries via the Primakoff effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Liping

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The three neutral pseudoscalar mesons, π0, η and η′, represent one of the most interesting systems in strong interaction physics. A study of the electromagnetic properties of these mesons provides a sensitive probe of the symmetry structure of QCD at low energy. A comprehensive experimental program at Jefferson Laboratory (Jlab is aimed at gathering high precision measurements on the two-photon decay widths and transition form factors at low Q2 of π0, η and η′ via the Primakoff effect. The completed experiments on the π0 radiative decay width at Jlab 6 GeV, and other planned measurements at Jlab 12 GeV will provide a rich laboratory to test the chiral anomaly and to study the origin and dynamics of chiral symmetry breaking at the confinement scale of QCD.

  1. Brane Effective Actions, Kappa-Symmetry and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Simón

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a review on brane effective actions, their symmetries and some of their applications. Its first part covers the Green–Schwarz formulation of single M- and D-brane effective actions focusing on kinematical aspects: the identification of their degrees of freedom, the importance of world volume diffeomorphisms and kappa symmetry to achieve manifest spacetime covariance and supersymmetry, and the explicit construction of such actions in arbitrary on-shell supergravity backgrounds. Its second part deals with applications. First, the use of kappa symmetry to determine supersymmetric world volume solitons. This includes their explicit construction in flat and curved backgrounds, their interpretation as Bogomol’nyi–Prasad–Sommerfield (BPS states carrying (topological charges in the supersymmetry algebra and the connection between supersymmetry and Hamiltonian BPS bounds. When available, I emphasise the use of these solitons as constituents in microscopic models of black holes. Second, the use of probe approximations to infer about the non-trivial dynamics of strongly-coupled gauge theories using the anti de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT correspondence. This includes expectation values of Wilson loop operators, spectrum information and the general use of D-brane probes to approximate the dynamics of systems with small number of degrees of freedom interacting with larger systems allowing a dual gravitational description. Its final part briefly discusses effective actions for N D-branes and M2-branes. This includes both Super-Yang-Mills theories, their higher-order corrections and partial results in covariantising these couplings to curved backgrounds, and the more recent supersymmetric Chern–Simons matter theories describing M2-branes using field theory, brane constructions and 3-algebra considerations.

  2. Electron correlation effects on magnetism in superconductors without inversion symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Satoshi

    2007-01-01

    We investigate magnetic properties of superconductors without inversion symmetry with particular emphasis on the role played by electron correlation effects. It is found that the strong electron correlation seriously affects the temperature dependence of the spin susceptibility which consists of the Pauli term and the van-Vleck-like term, of which the existence is due to parity violating spin-orbit interaction. The implication of the results for the recent NMR measurement of the heavy fermion superconductor CePt 3 Si, which indicates the unchanged Knight shift below T c for any directions of a magnetic field, is presented

  3. Radioecological restoration by natural effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muck, K.

    2002-01-01

    A number of proposals have been put forward to reduce the long-term exposure of the population in areas contaminated after an accident in a nuclear power plant, a reprocessing plant or other accidental releases of activity to the environment, in particular with regard to long-lived radionuclides such as 9 0S r and 1 37C s. Each of these countermeasures incorporates a more or less significant negative impact on the population. Probably the most detrimental impact results from the resettlement of the population from a contaminated territory, both because of the social and psychological problems and the economic detriment involved. But also other countermeasures proposed to reduce the internal dose such as soil top layer removal, deep plowing or chemical treatment of the soil may have a significant, negative impact on the land. If they can be avoided, the impact on the population and the land would certainly be less. In that respect, it is well known that the bio-availability of both 9 0S r and 1 37C s for uptake by plants and thus in foodstuffs is reduced by natural effects far quicker than the corresponding half-life of these radionuclides would imply. These natural effects which are basically due to the increasing fixation of 9 0S r and 1 37C s in the soil, penetration into deeper soil layers and activity removal processes from bio-mass, show no influence or harm to the soil as they are occurring without any artificial measures to remediate the soil

  4. Interaction potentials and their effect on crystal nucleation and symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.S.; Rahman, A.

    1979-01-01

    Molecular dynamics technique has been used to study the effect of the interaction potential on crystal nucleation and the symmetry of the nucleated phase. Four systems, namely rubidium, Lennard-Jones, rubidium-truncated, and Lennard-Jones-truncated, have been studied each at reduced density 0.95. Two types of calculations were performed. Firstly, starting from a liquid state, each system was quenched rapidly to a reduced temperature of approx.0.1. The nucleation process for these systems was monitored by studying the time dependence of temperature and the pair correlation function, and the resulting crystalline structure analyzed using among other properties the Voronoi polyhedra. Only in the case of rubidium was a b.c.c. structure nucleated. In the other three cases we obtained a f.c.c. ordering. Secondly, we have studied the effect of changing the interaction potential in a system which has already achieved an ordered state under the action of some other potential. After establishing a b.c.c. structure in a rubidium system, the change in the symmetry of the system was studied when the pair potential was modified to one of the other three forms. The results from both types of calculations are consistent: the rubidium potential leads to a b.c.c. structure while the other three potentials give an f.c.c. structure. Metastable disordered structures were not obtained in any of the calculations. However, the time elapse between the moment when the system is quick-quenched and the moment when nucleation occurs appears to depend upon the potential of interaction

  5. Symmetry and environment effects on rectification mechanisms in quantum pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrachea, Liliana

    2005-09-01

    We consider a paradigmatic model of quantum pumps and discuss its rectification properties in the framework of a symmetry analysis proposed for ratchet systems. We discuss the role of the environment in breaking time-reversal symmetry and the possibility of a finite directed current in the Hamiltonian limit of annular systems.

  6. Symmetry and environment effects on rectification mechanisms in quantum pumps

    OpenAIRE

    Arrachea, Liliana

    2005-01-01

    We consider a paradigmatic model of quantum pumps and discuss its rectification properties in the framework of a symmetry analysis proposed for ratchet systems. We discuss the role of the environment in breaking time-reversal symmetry and the possibility of a finite directed current in the Hamiltonian limit of annular systems.

  7. Restorative effects of virtual nature settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtchanov, Deltcho; Barton, Kevin R; Ellard, Colin

    2010-10-01

    Previous research regarding the potential benefits of exposing individuals to surrogate nature (photographs and videos) has found that such immersion results in restorative effects such as increased positive affect, decreased negative affect, and decreased stress. In the current experiment, we examined whether immersion in a virtual computer-generated nature setting could produce restorative effects. Twenty-two participants were equally divided between two conditions, while controlling for gender. In each condition, participants performed a stress-induction task, and were then immersed in virtual reality (VR) for 10 minutes. The control condition featured a slide show in VR, and the nature experimental condition featured an active exploration of a virtual forest. Participants in the nature condition were found to exhibit increased positive affect and decreased stress after immersion in VR when compared to those in the control condition. The results suggest that immersion in virtual nature settings has similar beneficial effects as exposure to surrogate nature. These results also suggest that VR can be used as a tool to study and understand restorative effects.

  8. Exact RG invariance and symmetry improved 2PI effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Pilaftsis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Symmetry Improved Two-Particle-Irreducible (SI2PI formalism is a powerful tool to calculate the effective potential beyond perturbation theory, whereby infinite sets of selective loop-graph topologies can be resummed in a systematic and consistent manner. In this paper we study the Renormalization-Group (RG properties of this formalism, by proving for the first time a number of new field-theoretic results. First, the RG runnings of all proper 2PI couplings are found to be UV finite, in the Hartree–Fock and sunset approximations of the 2PI effective action. Second, the SI2PI effective potential is exactly RG invariant, in contrast to what happens in the ordinary One-Particle-Irreducible (1PI perturbation theory, where the effective potential is RG invariant only up to higher orders. Finally, we show how the effective potential of an O(2 theory evaluated in the SI2PI framework, appropriately RG improved, can reach a higher level of accuracy, even up to one order of magnitude, with respect to the corresponding one obtained in the 1PI formalism.

  9. Partial restoration of spin-isospin SU(4) symmetry and the one-quasiparticle random-phase approximation method in double-β decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, V. dos S.; Krmpotić, F.; Barbero, C. A.; Samana, A. R.

    2017-10-01

    The one-quasiparticle random-phase approximation (one-QRPA) method is used to describe simultaneously both double-β -decay modes, giving special attention to the partial restoration of spin-isospin SU(4 ) symmetry. To implement this restoration and to fix the model parameters, we resort to the energetics of Gamow-Teller resonances and to the minima of the single-β+-decay strengths. This makes the theory predictive regarding the β β2 ν decay, producing the 2 ν moments in 48Ca, 76Ge, 82Se, 96Zr, 100Mo, Te,130128, and 150Nd, that are of the same order of magnitude as the experimental ones; however, the agreement with β β2 ν data is only modest. To include contributions coming from induced nuclear weak currents, we extend the β β0 ν -decay formalism employed previously in C. Barbero et al., Nucl. Phys. A 628, 170 (1998), 10.1016/S0375-9474(97)00614-3, which is based on the Fourier-Bessel expansion. The numerical results for the β β0 ν moments in the above mentioned nuclei are similar to those obtained in other theoretical studies although smaller on average by ˜40 % . We attribute this difference basically to the one-QRPA method, employed here for the first time, instead of the currently used two-QRPA method. The difference is partially due also to the way of carrying out the restoration of the spin-isospin symmetry. It is hard to say which is the best way to make this restoration, since the β β0 ν moments are not experimentally measurable. The recipe proposed here is based on physically robust arguments. The numerical uncertainties in the β β moments, related to (i) their strong dependence on the residual interaction in the particle-particle channel when evaluated within the QRPA, and (ii) lack of proper knowledge of single-particle energies, have been quantified. It is concluded that the partial restoration of the SU(4 ) symmetry, generated by the residual interaction, is crucial in the description of the β β decays, regardless of the nuclear

  10. Correlation and symmetry effects in transport through an artificial molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, F. [Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Cota, E. [Centro de Ciencias de la Materia Condensada-UNAM, Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Ulloa, S.E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Condensed Matter and Surface Sciences Program, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701-2979 (United States)

    1999-02-01

    Spectral weights and current-voltage characteristics of an artificial diatomic molecule are calculated, considering cases where the dots connected in series are in general different. The spectral weights allow us to understand the effects of correlations, their connection with selection rules for transport, and the role of excited states in the experimental conductance spectra of these coupled double dot systems (DDS). An extended Hubbard Hamiltonian with varying interdot tunneling strength is used as a model, incorporating quantum confinement in the DDS, interdot tunneling as well as intra- and interdot Coulomb interactions. We find that interdot tunneling values determine to a great extent the resulting eigenstates and corresponding spectral weights. Details of the state correlations strongly suppress most of the possible conduction channels, giving rise to effective selection rules for conductance through the molecule. Most states are found to make insignificant contributions to the total current for finite biases. We find also that the symmetry of the structure is reflected in the I-V characteristics, and is in qualitative agreement with experiment. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. Correlation and symmetry effects in transport through an artificial molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez, F.; Cota, E.; Ulloa, S.E.

    1999-01-01

    Spectral weights and current-voltage characteristics of an artificial diatomic molecule are calculated, considering cases where the dots connected in series are in general different. The spectral weights allow us to understand the effects of correlations, their connection with selection rules for transport, and the role of excited states in the experimental conductance spectra of these coupled double dot systems (DDS). An extended Hubbard Hamiltonian with varying tunneling strength is used as a model, incorporating quantum confinement in the DDS, tunneling as well as intra- and Coulomb interactions. We find that tunneling values determine to a great extent the resulting eigenstates and corresponding spectral weights. Details of the state correlations strongly suppress most of the possible conduction channels, giving rise to effective selection rules for conductance through the molecule. Most states are found to make insignificant contributions to the total current for finite biases. We find also that the symmetry of the structure is reflected in the I-V characteristics, and is in qualitative agreement with experiment. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  12. Progress toward the effective Quantum Chromodynamic Lagrangian from symmetry considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    The properties of an effective Lagrangian which satisfies both the axial and trace anomaly equations of Quantum Chromodynamics are investigated both from the theoretical and phenomenological points of view. The model Lagrangian requires that chiral symmetry be broken spontaneously. The non-linear approximation of the model illuminates eta-glue duality or mixing. The phase transition behavior of the model of Quantum Chromodynamics can be studied as the numbers of flavors and the vacuum angle are varied by analyzing a simple mechanical analog. The analog of the model is similar to the massive Schwinger model. The possibility of a physical scalar glue state is discussed and it is shown that it is characterized by a pronounced eta to two glue decay width. A nonperturbative Quantum Chromodynamic vacuum is seen to follow directly from satisfying the trace anomaly. The quark matter meson, eta, is at least as prominent as the glueball, iota, in the gluon dominated reaction psi to gamma plus anything. An associated large breaking of flavor SU(3) is shown to be ameliorated as the model is made more realistic by lowering scalar meson masses from infinity. The pi delta decay of the iota (1440) can be reasonably well estimated without the need of introducing any new parameters

  13. Electron correlation effects in the presence of non-symmetry dictated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To explain this phase shift and the violation of parity effect, we first explain what are symmetry dictated nodes (SDN) and non-symmetry dictated nodes (NSDN) that can arise in a Q1D system. For example let us consider a rectangular quantum billiard or dot connected to leads by quantum mechanical tunneling as shown in ...

  14. The effect of atraumatic restorative treatment on adhesive restorations for dental caries in deciduous molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Batista de Medeiros Serpa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Minimal invasive approaches to managing caries, such as partial caries removal techniques and atraumatic restorative treatment (ART, are showing increasing evidence of improved outcomes over the conventional complete caries removal. Objective: To evaluate clinically and radiographically the effect of ART on restorations using restorative cement and glass ionomer cement (GIC for dental caries in the deciduous molars of children aged between 4 and 8 years. Settings and Design: The study design was a split-mouth, randomized, blind clinical trial. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients had 108 restorations placed with GIC (Ketac Molar Easy Mix – 3M ESPE and 108 restorations placed with composite resin (CR (Filtek Z250 – 3M ESPE. The restorations were assessed by means of images obtained with a digital camera and periapical radiographs at baseline and after 12 months of follow-up. Statistical Analysis: The Student's t-test, Pearson Chi-squared test, and Bonferroni paired comparison test were used to evaluate the differences in proportions and correlations between the variables. Results: After 12 months of follow-up, the restorations were considered clinically successful in 89.3% of cases and radiographically successful in 80.5% of cases. There was statistical difference neither between the two restorative materials used nor between the numbers of restored surfaces. Conclusions: GIC and CR can be used successfully for restorations of one or two dental surfaces after ART.

  15. Medium modifications of mesons. Chiral symmetry restoration, in-medium QCD sum rules for D and ρ mesons, and Bethe-Salpeter equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger, Thomas Uwe

    2012-04-11

    The interplay of hadron properties and their modification in an ambient nuclear medium on the one hand and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking and its restoration on the other hand is investigated. QCD sum rules for D and B mesons embedded in cold nuclear matter are evaluated. We quantify the mass splitting of D- anti D and B- anti B mesons as a function of the nuclear matter density and investigate the impact of various condensates in linear density approximation. The analysis also includes D{sub s} and D{sup *}{sub 0} mesons. QCD sum rules for chiral partners in the open-charm meson sector are presented at nonzero baryon net density or temperature. We focus on the differences between pseudo-scalar and scalar as well as vector and axial-vector D mesons and derive the corresponding Weinberg type sum rules. Based on QCD sum rules we explore the consequences of a scenario for the ρ meson, where the chiral symmetry breaking condensates are set to zero whereas the chirally symmetric condensates remain at their vacuum values. The complementarity of mass shift and broadening is discussed. An alternative approach which utilizes coupled Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations for quark-antiquark bound states is investigated. For this purpose we analyze the analytic structure of the quark propagators in the complex plane numerically and test the possibility to widen the applicability of the method to the sector of heavy-light mesons in the scalar and pseudo-scalar channels, such as the D mesons, by varying the momentum partitioning parameter. The solutions of the Dyson-Schwinger equation in the Wigner-Weyl phase of chiral symmetry at nonzero bare quark masses are used to investigate a scenario with explicit but without dynamical chiral symmetry breaking.

  16. Restoring the azimuthal symmetry of lateral distributions of charged particles in the range of the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Toma, G.; Manailescu, C.; Morariu, C.; Arteaga, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Bluemer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Chiavassa, A.; Cosavella, F.; Souza, V. de; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Finger, M.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) observed by particle detectors at the ground is based on the characteristics of observables like the lateral particle density and the arrival times. The lateral densities, inferred for different EAS components from detector data, are usually parameterised by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDFs). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles or the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the lateral particle density from this assumption arising from various reasons are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. The lateral distributions of charged particles are deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposits - first in the observation plane, then in the intrinsic shower plane. In all steps azimuthal dependences should be taken into account. As the energy deposit in the scintillators is dependent on the angles of incidence of the particles, azimuthal dependences are already involved in the first step: the conversion from the energy deposits to the charged particle density. This is done by using the Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF) that evaluates the mean energy deposited by a charged particle taking into account the contribution of other particles (e.g. photons) to the energy deposit. By using a very fast procedure for the evaluation of the energy deposited by various particles we prepared realistic LECFs depending on the angle of incidence of the shower and on the radial and

  17. Temperature effects on the nuclear symmetry energy and symmetry free energy with an isospin and momentum dependent interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jun; Ma, Hong-Ru; Chen, Lie-Wen; Li, Bao-An

    2007-01-01

    Within a self-consistent thermal model using an isospin and momentum dependent interaction (MDI) constrained by the isospin diffusion data in heavy-ion collisions, we investigate the temperature dependence of the symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) and symmetry free energy F sym (ρ,T) for hot, isospin asymmetric nuclear matter. It is shown that the symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) generally decreases with increasing temperature while the symmetry free energy F sym (ρ,T) exhibits opposite temperature dependence. The decrement of the symmetry energy with temperature is essentially due to the decrement of the potential energy part of the symmetry energy with temperature. The difference between the symmetry energy and symmetry free energy is found to be quite small around the saturation density of nuclear matter. While at very low densities, they differ significantly from each other. In comparison with the experimental data of temperature dependent symmetry energy extracted from the isotopic scaling analysis of intermediate mass fragments (IMF's) in heavy-ion collisions, the resulting density and temperature dependent symmetry energy E sym (ρ,T) is then used to estimate the average freeze-out density of the IMF's

  18. Additivity of Feature-based and Symmetry-based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chundi eWang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Multiple object tracking (MOT is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the laws of perceptual organization proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. Additive effect refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The where and what pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  19. Hair restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawnsley, Jeffrey D

    2008-08-01

    The impact of male hair loss as a personal and social marker of aging is tremendous and its persistence as a human concern throughout recorded history places it in the forefront of male concern about the physical signs of aging. Restoration of the frontal hairline has the visual effect of re-establishing facial symmetry and turning back time. Follicular unit transplantation has revolutionized hair restoration, with its focus on redistributing large numbers of genetically stable hair to balding scalp in a natural distribution. Follicular unit hair restoration surgery is a powerful tool for the facial plastic surgeon in male aesthetic facial rejuvenation because it offers high-impact, natural-appearing results with minimal downtime and risk for adverse outcome.

  20. Finite-temperature effective potential of a system with spontaneously broken symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemskov, E.P. [Yaroslavl State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-01

    A quantum-mechanical system with spontaneously broken symmetry is considered the effective potential is determined, and it is shown that with reduction of temperature the system undergoes a phase transition of the first kind.

  1. Combining symmetry breaking and restoration with configuration interaction: A highly accurate many-body scheme applied to the pairing Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripoche, J.; Lacroix, D.; Gambacurta, D.; Ebran, J.-P.; Duguet, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Ab initio many-body methods have been developed over the past ten years to address mid-mass nuclei. In their best current level of implementation, their accuracy is of the order of a few percent error on the ground-state correlation energy. Recently implemented variants of these methods are operating a breakthrough in the description of medium-mass open-shell nuclei at a polynomial computational cost while putting state-of-the-art models of internucleon interactions to the test. Purpose: As progress in the design of internucleon interactions is made, and as questions one wishes to answer are refined in connection with increasingly available experimental data, further efforts must be made to tailor many-body methods that can reach an even higher precision for an even larger number of observable quantum states or nuclei. The objective of the present work is to contribute to such a quest by designing and testing a new many-body scheme. Methods: We formulate a truncated configuration-interaction method that consists of diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in a highly truncated subspace of the total N -body Hilbert space. The reduced Hilbert space is generated via the particle-number projected BCS state along with projected seniority-zero two- and four-quasiparticle excitations. Furthermore, the extent by which the underlying BCS state breaks U(1 ) symmetry is optimized in the presence of the projected two- and four-quasiparticle excitations. This constitutes an extension of the so-called restricted variation after projection method in use within the frame of multireference energy density functional calculations. The quality of the newly designed method is tested against exact solutions of the so-called attractive pairing Hamiltonian problem. Results: By construction, the method reproduces exact results for N =2 and N =4 . For N =(8 ,16 ,20 ) , the error in the ground-state correlation energy is less than (0.006%, 0.1%, 0.15%) across the entire range of

  2. Native plants for effective coastal wetland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Plant communities, along with soils and appropriate water regimes, are essential components of healthy wetland systems. In Louisiana, the loss of wetland habitat continues to be an issue of major concern. Wetland loss is caused by several interacting factors, both natural and human-induced (e.g., erosion and saltwater intrusion from the construction of canals and levees). Recent estimates of annual coastal land loss rates of about 62 km2 (24 mi2 ) over the past decade emphasize the magnitude of this problem. In an attempt to slow the rate of loss and perhaps halt the overall trend, resource managers in Louisiana apply various techniques to restore damaged or degraded habitats to functioning wetland systems.Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) have cooperated with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in studies that address effective restoration strategies for coastal wetlands. The studies have identified differences in growth that naturally exist in native Louisiana wetland plant species and genetic varieties (i.e., clones) within species. Clones of a species have a distinctive genetic identity, and some clones may also have distinctive growth responses under various environmental conditions (i.e., preferences). Indeed, large areas of coastal marsh are typically populated by several clones of a plant species, each growing in a microenvironment suited to its preferences.These studies will provide information that will assist resource managers in selecting plant species and clones of species with known growth characteristics that can be matched to environmental conditions at potential restoration sites. Before the studies began, a collection of several clones from four plant species native to coastal Louisiana was established. The species collected included saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), common reed (Phragmites australis), giant bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), and saltmarsh bulrush (Schoenoplectus

  3. HDACi: cellular effects, opportunities for restorative dentistry.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H F

    2011-12-01

    Acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins alters gene expression and induces a host of cellular effects. The acetylation process is homeostatically balanced by two groups of cellular enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and histone deacetylases (HDACs). HAT activity relaxes the structure of the human chromatin, rendering it transcriptionally active, thereby increasing gene expression. In contrast, HDAC activity leads to gene silencing. The enzymatic balance can be \\'tipped\\' by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi), leading to an accumulation of acetylated proteins, which subsequently modify cellular processes including stem cell differentiation, cell cycle, apoptosis, gene expression, and angiogenesis. There is a variety of natural and synthetic HDACi available, and their pleiotropic effects have contributed to diverse clinical applications, not only in cancer but also in non-cancer areas, such as chronic inflammatory disease, bone engineering, and neurodegenerative disease. Indeed, it appears that HDACi-modulated effects may differ between \\'normal\\' and transformed cells, particularly with regard to reactive oxygen species accumulation, apoptosis, proliferation, and cell cycle arrest. The potential beneficial effects of HDACi for health, resulting from their ability to regulate global gene expression by epigenetic modification of DNA-associated proteins, also offer potential for application within restorative dentistry, where they may promote dental tissue regeneration following pulpal damage.

  4. Colour-symmetry-breaking effects in hard processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A possibility of colour symmetry U(1)xSU(3)sub(C) spontaneous breaking and integer-charged quarks is considered. It is argued that one-photon processes are sensitive only to the colour-averaged charges of quarks and gluons. The true charges can be observed in rigid processes involving at least two real photons. The available now experimental data on processes #betta#p → #betta#X, #betta##betta# → jet+jet are in better agreement with the integer-charges than with the standard QCD

  5. The effect of symmetry on resonant and nonresonant photoresponses in a field-effect terahertz detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, J. D.; Qin, H., E-mail: hqin2007@sinano.ac.cn; Yang, X. X.; Zhang, Z. P.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Y.; Cai, Y.; Wu, D. M.; Zhang, B. S. [Key Laboratory of Nanodevices and Applications, Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 398 Ruoshui Road, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Lewis, R. A. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Sun, Y. F. [College of Electronic and Information Enging, Suzhou University of Sciences and Technology, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215011 (China)

    2015-01-19

    The effect of the symmetries in the terahertz (THz) field distribution and the field-effect channel on THz photoresponse is examined. Resonant excitation of cavity plasmon modes and nonresonant self-mixing of THz waves are demonstrated in a GaN/AlGaN two-dimensional electron gas with symmetrically designed nanogates, antennas, and filters. We found that the self-mixing signal can be effectively suppressed by the symmetric design and the resonant response benefits from the residual asymmetry. The findings suggest that a single detector may provide both high sensitivity from the self-mixing mechanism and spectral resolution from the resonant response by optimizing the degree of geometrical and/or electronic symmetries.

  6. The effect of symmetry on resonant and nonresonant photoresponses in a field-effect terahertz detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J. D.; Qin, H.; Yang, X. X.; Zhang, Z. P.; Li, X. X.; Zhang, X. Y.; Cai, Y.; Wu, D. M.; Zhang, B. S.; Lewis, R. A.; Sun, Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the symmetries in the terahertz (THz) field distribution and the field-effect channel on THz photoresponse is examined. Resonant excitation of cavity plasmon modes and nonresonant self-mixing of THz waves are demonstrated in a GaN/AlGaN two-dimensional electron gas with symmetrically designed nanogates, antennas, and filters. We found that the self-mixing signal can be effectively suppressed by the symmetric design and the resonant response benefits from the residual asymmetry. The findings suggest that a single detector may provide both high sensitivity from the self-mixing mechanism and spectral resolution from the resonant response by optimizing the degree of geometrical and/or electronic symmetries

  7. Effective field theory of emergent symmetry breaking in deformed atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papenbrock, T; Weidenmüller, H A

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in non-relativistic quantum systems has previously been addressed in the framework of effective field theory. Low-lying excitations are constructed from Nambu–Goldstone modes using symmetry arguments only. We extend that approach to finite systems. The approach is very general. To be specific, however, we consider atomic nuclei with intrinsically deformed ground states. The emergent symmetry breaking in such systems requires the introduction of additional degrees of freedom on top of the Nambu–Goldstone modes. Symmetry arguments suffice to construct the low-lying states of the system. In deformed nuclei these are vibrational modes each of which serves as band head of a rotational band. (paper)

  8. Effects of symmetry reduction in two-dimensional square and triangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, T.; Marsal, L. F.; Rodríguez, A.; Pallarès, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate the absolute photonic band gap (PBG) formation in two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals designed using symmetry reduction approach. The lattice symmetry, shape and orientation of dielectric scatterers affect the photonic gap parameters. We use symmetry reduction, achieved either by including additional rods into the lattice unit cell or by reorienting noncircular scatterers to engineer the photonic band gaps in 2-D square and triangular structures. The case of air rods drilled into silicon background is considered. We show that for square structures symmetry reduction can be an effective way to enlarge the absolute PBG, but for triangular lattices any modification of the crystal structure considerably reduces the absolute PBG width. We also discuss the practical technological feasibility of the proposed structures.

  9. Effects of Meaning and Symmetry on Judgments of Size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reber, Rolf; Christensen, Bo T.; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that people judge words as having bigger font size than non-words. This finding has been interpreted in terms of processing fluency, with higher fluency leading to judgments of bigger size. If so, symmetric numbers (e.g., 44) which can be processed more fluently are predicted...... to be judged as larger than asymmetric numbers (e.g., 43). However, recent research found that symmetric numbers were judged to be smaller than asymmetric numbers. This finding suggests that the mechanisms underlying size judgments may differ in meaningful and meaningless materials. Supporting this notion, we...... showed in Experiment 1 that meaning increased judged size, whereas symmetry decreased judged size. In the next two experiments, we excluded several alternative explanations for the differences in size judgments between meaningful and meaningless materials in earlier studies. This finding contradicts...

  10. Searching for Affective and Cognitive Restoration: Examining the Restorative Effects of Casual Video Game Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Michael A; Sweetman, Richard; Sosa, Alejandra E; Smither, Janan A; McConnell, Daniel S

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the effects of a passive break, relaxation activity, and casual video game on affect, stress, engagement, and cognitive performance. Reducing stress and improving cognitive performance is critical across many domains. Previous studies investigated taking a break, relaxation techniques, or playing a game; however, these methods have not been compared within a single experiment. Participants completed a baseline affective and cognitive assessment (ACA), which included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, shortened version of the Dundee Stress State Questionnaire, and backward digit-span. Next, participants completed a vigilance task, followed by another ACA. Participants were then assigned at random to complete a break or relaxation activity or play a casual video game, followed by a final ACA. Participants who played the casual video game exhibited greater engagement and affective restoration than the relaxation condition. The break condition slightly decreased affect and prevented cognitive restoration. Playing a casual video game even briefly can restore individuals' affective abilities, making it a suitable activity to restore mood in response to stress. However, future research is needed to find activities capable of cognitive restoration. Many activities in life require sustained cognitive demand, which are stressful and decrease performance, especially for workers in performance-critical domains. Our research suggests some leisure activities are better than others for restoring fatigued affective processes.

  11. Effective meson lagrangian with chiral and heavy quark symmetries from quark flavor dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Feldmann, T.; Friedrich, R.; Reinhardt, H.

    1994-06-01

    By bosonization of an extended NJL model we derive an effective meson theory which describes the interplay between chiral symmetry and heavy quark dynamics. This effective theory is worked out in the low-energy regime using the gradient expansion. The resulting effective lagrangian describes strong and weak interactions of heavy B and D mesons with pseudoscalar Goldstone bosons and light vector and axial-vector mesons. Heavy meson weak decay constants, coupling constants and the Isgur-Wise function are predicted in terms of the model parameters partially fixed from the light quark sector. Explicit SU(3) F symmetry breaking effects are estimated and, if possible, confronted with experiment. (orig.)

  12. Effects of symmetry and familiarity on the attractiveness of human faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mentus Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of both symmetry (perceptual factor and familiarity (cognitive factor on facial attractiveness were investigated. From the photographs of original slightly asymmetric faces, symmetric left-left (LL and right-right (RR versions were generated. Familiarity was induced in the learning block using the repetitive presentation of original faces. In the test block participants rated the attractiveness of original, previously seen (familiar faces, original, not previously seen faces, and both LL and RR versions of all faces. The analysis of variance showed main effects of symmetry. Post hoc tests revealed that asymmetric original faces were rated as more attractive than both LL and RR symmetric versions. Familiarity doesn’t have a significant main effect, but the symmetry-familiarity interaction was obtained. Additional post hoc tests indicated that facial attractiveness is positively associated with natural slight asymmetry rather than with perfect symmetry. Also, unfamiliar LL symmetric versions were rated as more attractive than familiar LL versions, whereas familiar RR versions were rated as more attractive than RR unfamiliar faces. These results suggested that symmetry (perceptual factor and familiarity (cognitive or memorial factor play differential roles in facial attractiveness, and indicate a relatively stronger effect of the perceptual compared to the cognitive factor. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179018 i br. ON179033

  13. Relativistic Anandan quantum phase and the Aharonov–Casher effect under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects in the cosmic string spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Furtado, C., E-mail: furtado@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry and write an effective metric for the cosmic string spacetime. Then, we investigate the arising of an analogue of the Anandan quantum phase for a relativistic Dirac neutral particle with a permanent magnetic dipole moment in the cosmic string spacetime under Lorentz symmetry breaking effects. Besides, we analyse the influence of the effects of the Lorentz symmetry violation and the topology of the defect on the Aharonov–Casher geometric quantum phase in the nonrelativistic limit.

  14. Effective potential and spontaneous symmetry breaking in the noncommutative φ6 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking of the (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative φ 6 model in the small-θ limit. In this regime, considering the model as a cutoff theory, it is reasonable to assume translational invariance as a property of the vacuum state and study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking by an effective potential analysis. An investigation of up to the two-loop level reveals that noncommutative effects can modify drastically the shape of the effective potential. Under reasonable conditions, the nonplanar sector of the theory can become dominant and induce symmetry breaking for values of the mass and coupling constants not reached by the commutative counterpart

  15. Selecting cost-effective areas for restoration of ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adame, M F; Hermoso, V; Perhans, K; Lovelock, C E; Herrera-Silveira, J A

    2015-04-01

    Selection of areas for restoration should be based on cost-effectiveness analysis to attain the maximum benefit with a limited budget and overcome the traditional ad hoc allocation of funds for restoration projects. Restoration projects need to be planned on the basis of ecological knowledge and economic and social constraints. We devised a novel approach for selecting cost-effective areas for restoration on the basis of biodiversity and potential provision of 3 ecosystem services: carbon storage, water depuration, and coastal protection. We used Marxan, a spatial prioritization tool, to balance the provision of ecosystem services against the cost of restoration. We tested this approach in a mangrove ecosystem in the Caribbean. Our approach efficiently selected restoration areas that at low cost were compatible with biodiversity targets and that maximized the provision of one or more ecosystem services. Choosing areas for restoration of mangroves on the basis carbon storage potential, largely guaranteed the restoration of biodiversity and other ecosystem services. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Crossing symmetry and phenomenological widths in effective Lagrangian models of the pion photoproduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Ramirez, C. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cesar@nuc2.fis.ucm.es; Moya de Guerra, E. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departamento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-02-21

    We investigate the importance of crossing symmetry in effective field models and the effects of phenomenological nucleon resonance widths on the paradigmatic case of pion photoproduction. We use reaction models containing four star resonances up to 1.8 GeV ({delta}(1232), N(1440), N(1520), N(1535), {delta}(1620), N(1650), {delta}(1700), and N(1720)) with different prescriptions for crossed terms and widths, to fit the latest world database on pion photoproduction. We compare {chi}{sup 2} results from selected multipoles and fits. The {chi}{sup 2} is highly dependent on the fulfillment of crossing symmetry and the inclusion of u channels.

  17. Possible roles of Peccei-Quinn symmetry in an effective low energy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suematsu, Daijiro

    2017-12-01

    The strong C P problem is known to be solved by imposing Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry. However, the domain wall problem caused by the spontaneous breaking of its remnant discrete subgroup could make models invalid in many cases. We propose a model in which the PQ charge is assigned quarks so as to escape this problem without introducing any extra colored fermions. In the low energy effective model resulting after the PQ symmetry breaking, both the quark mass hierarchy and the CKM mixing could be explained through Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism. If the model is combined with the lepton sector supplemented by an inert doublet scalar and right-handed neutrinos, the effective model reduces to the scotogenic neutrino mass model in which both the origin of neutrino masses and dark matter are closely related. The strong C P problem could be related to the quark mass hierarchy, neutrino masses, and dark matter through the PQ symmetry.

  18. Electron correlation effects in the presence of non-symmetry dictated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We numerically study the effect of non-symmetry dictated nodes (NSDN) on electron correlation effects for spinless electrons. We find that repulsive interaction between electrons can enhance the overlap between nearest neighbors in the tight binding Hamiltonian, in the presence of NSDN. Normally, in the absence of ...

  19. Electron correlation effects in the presence of non-symmetry dictated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We numerically study the effect of non-symmetry dictated nodes (NSDN) on electron correlation effects for spinless electrons. We find that repulsive interaction between electrons can enhance the overlap between nearest neighbors in the tight binding Hamiltonian, in the presence of. NSDN. Normally, in the ...

  20. Restoration of a temperate reef: Effects on the fish community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støttrup, Josianne; Stenberg, Claus; Dahl, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of large boulders from coastal reefs for construction of harbours and coastal protection has led to habitat degradation for local fish populations through the destruction of cavernous reefs and changes in macroalgal cover resulting from a loss of substrate. The temperate reef at Læsø...... Trindel in Kattegat, Denmark, has now been re-established with the aim of restoring the reef’s historical structure and function. The effects of the restoration on the local fish community are reported here. Fishing surveys using gillnets and fyke nets were conducted before the restoration (2007) and four...... but were significantly more abundant in the catches in 2012. Cods were especially attracted to the shallow part of the reef that was restored by adding stones. For some species, such as ballan wrasse Labrus bergylta, and cod, the proportion of larger individuals increased after the restoration...

  1. Effects of symmetry reduction on magnon band gaps in two-dimensional magnonic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Zhang, Huaiwu; Tang, Xiaoli; Su, Hua; Bai, Feiming; Jing, Yulan; Zhong, Zhiyong

    2014-02-01

    Effects of symmetry reduction on the magnon band gaps (MBGs) in two-dimensional (2D) magnonic crystals (MCs) were investigated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz equation with the plane wave method. The symmetry reduction is achieved by introducing additional scatterers into each unit cell or by reorienting noncircular scatterers. The numerical results show that the MBGs in a square lattice can be improved by introducing additional scatterers or rotating the square rods. In honeycomb and triangular lattices, the MBGs can be improved only by introducing additional scatterers, however, rotating the square rods is an invalid way to increase the MBGs.

  2. Effects of translational symmetry breaking induced by the boundaries in a driven diffusive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Vitting; Leung, Kwan-tai

    1991-01-01

    We study the effects of the boundary conditions in a driven diffusive lattice-gas model which is known to display kinetic phase transitions. We find, in the case of attractive interaction, that a boundary-condition-induced symmetry breaking of the translational invariance, along the direction...

  3. Polar Kerr effect studies of time reversal symmetry breaking states in heavy fermion superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schemm, E.R., E-mail: eschemm@alumni.stanford.edu [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Levenson-Falk, E.M. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Kapitulnik, A. [Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Stanford Institute of Energy and Materials Science, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Polar Kerr effect (PKE) probes broken time-reversal symmetry (TRS) in superconductors. • Absence of PKE below Tc in CeCoIn{sub 5} is consistent with dx2-y2 order parameter symmetry. • PKE in the B phase of the multiphase superconductor UPt3 agrees with an E2u model. • Data on URu2Si2 show broken TRS and additional structure in the superconducting state. - Abstract: The connection between chiral superconductivity and topological order has emerged as an active direction in research as more instances of both have been identified in condensed matter systems. With the notable exception of {sup 3}He-B, all of the known or suspected chiral – that is to say time-reversal symmetry-breaking (TRSB) – superfluids arise in heavy fermion superconductors, although the vast majority of heavy fermion superconductors preserve time-reversal symmetry. Here we review recent experimental efforts to identify TRSB states in heavy fermion systems via measurement of polar Kerr effect, which is a direct consequence of TRSB.

  4. Effect of Industry Sponsorship on Dental Restorative Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendicke, F; Tu, Y-K; Blunck, U; Paris, S; Göstemeyer, G

    2016-01-01

    Industry sponsorship was found to potentially introduce bias into clinical trials. We assessed the effects of industry sponsorship on the design, comparator choice, and findings of randomized controlled trials on dental restorative materials. A systematic review was performed via MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and EMBASE. Randomized trials on dental restorative and adhesive materials published 2005 to 2015 were included. The design of sponsored and nonsponsored trials was compared statistically (risk of bias, treatment indication, setting, transferability, sample size). Comparator choice and network geometry of sponsored and nonsponsored trials were assessed via network analysis. Material performance rankings in different trial types were estimated via Bayesian network meta-analysis. Overall, 114 studies were included (15,321 restorations in 5,232 patients). We found 21 and 41 (18% and 36%) trials being clearly or possibly industry sponsored, respectively. Trial design of sponsored and nonsponsored trials did not significantly differ for most assessed items. Sponsored trials evaluated restorations of load-bearing cavities significantly more often than nonsponsored trials, had longer follow-up periods, and showed significantly increased risk of detection bias. Regardless of sponsorship status, comparisons were mainly performed within material classes. The proportion of trials comparing against gold standard restorative or adhesive materials did not differ between trial types. If ranked for performance according to the need to re-treat (best: least re-treatments), most material combinations were ranked similarly in sponsored and nonsponsored trials. The effect of industry sponsorship on dental restorative trials seems limited. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

  5. Casimir effect in presence of spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, C. A.

    2018-01-01

    The Casimir effect is one of the most remarkable consequences of the nonzero vacuum energy predicted by quantum field theory. In this contribution we study the Lorentz-violation effects of the minimal standard-model extension on the Casimir force between two parallel conducting plates in the vacuum. Using a perturbative method, we compute the relevant Green’s function which satisfies given boundary conditions. The standard point-splitting technique allow us to express the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor in terms of this Green’s function. Finally, we study the Casimir energy and the Casimir force paying particular attention to the quantum effects as approaching the plates.

  6. Effect of prosthetic restoration on implant survival and success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammelsberg, Peter; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Kappel, Stefanie

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of prosthetic restoration on the survival of implants and on the incidence of implant-related complications. From a prospectively documented clinical study, 1569 implants placed in 630 patients (mean age 59.56 years) were evaluated. Selection criteria were a conventional loading protocol, prosthetic restoration with at least one follow-up, and a minimum observation period of 9 months. Implants that failed before prosthetic restoration were excluded. The sample included 1345 tissue-level implants and 104 bone-level implants (Straumann), and 120 Replace implants (Nobel Biocare). The observation period ranged between 9 months and 11 years after prosthetic restoration (mean 4.0 years; SD 2.5). The implants were restored with single crowns (n = 557), fixed dental prostheses (n = 594), or removable dental prostheses (RDP) (n = 418). In the RDP group, 356 implants were restored with telescoping crowns, 22 with bar units 24 with bar joints, and 16 with locator attachments. The incidence of implant-related complications and failures was analyzed by use of Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Cox regression analysis was used to identify possible risk factors. Twenty-seven failures (1.8%; loosened or removed implants) were observed after prosthetic restoration; the incidence of failure was 3% for implants placed in males and 1% for implants placed in females. Other factors had no effect on the incidence of failure. Peri-implantitis (n = 29) and marginal bone loss >2 mm without acute inflammation (n = 6) also resulted in a 4% incidence of severe implant-related complications (62 of 1569; success 96%). Cox regression analysis revealed combined tooth-implant-supported restorations as a significant risk-reducing factor for severe implant-related complications (hazard ratio, HR = 0.34; P = 0.04). There was, furthermore, a tendency toward a greater incidence of complications for implants restored with RDPs than for

  7. Various Effects of Sandblasting of Dental Restorative Materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goro Nishigawa

    Full Text Available Sandblasting particles which remain on the surfaces of dental restorations are removed prior to cementation. It is probable that adhesive strength between luting material and sandblasting particle remnants might exceed that with restorative material. If that being the case, blasting particles adhere to sandblasted material surface could be instrumental to increasing adhesive strength like underlying bonding mechanism between luting material and silanized particles of tribochemical silica coating-treated surface. We hypothesize that ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces, which were pretreated with sandblasting, may affect adhesive strength of a resin luting material to dental restorative materials.We therefore observed adhesive strength of resin luting material to aluminum oxide was greater than those to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy beforehand. To measure the shear bond strengths of resin luting material to zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, forty specimens of each restorative material were prepared. Bonding surfaces were polished with silicon abrasive paper and then treated with sandblasting. For each restorative material, 40 sandblasted specimens were equally divided into two groups: ultrasonic cleaning (USC group and non-ultrasonic cleaning (NUSC group. After resin luting material was polymerized on bonding surface, shear test was performed to evaluate effect of ultrasonic cleaning of bonding surfaces pretreated with sandblasting on bond strength.For both zirconia ceramic and cobalt-chromium alloy, NUSC group showed significantly higher shear bond strength than USC group.Ultrasonic cleaning of dental restorations after sandblasting should be avoided to retain improved bonding between these materials.

  8. Half-integer flux quantum effect in cuprate superconductors - a probe of pairing symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuei, C.C.; Kirtley, J.R.; Gupta, A.; Sun, J.Z.; Moler, K.A.; Wang, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Based on macroscopic quantum coherence effects arising from pair tunneling and flux quantization, a series of tricrystal experiments have been designed and carried out to test the order parameter symmetry in high-T c cuprate superconductors. By using a scanning SQUID microscope, we have directly and non-invasively observed the spontaneously generated half-integer flux quantum effect in controlled-orientation tricrystal cuprate superconducting systems. The presence or absence of the half-integer flux quantum effect as a function of the tricrystal geometry allows us to prove that the order parameter symmetry in the YBCO and Tl2201 systems is consistent with that of the d x 2 -y 2 pair state. (orig.)

  9. Symmetries of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Abstract. Lie symmetry analysis is one of the powerful tools to analyse nonlinear ordinary dif- ferential equations. We review the effectiveness of this method in terms of various symmetries. We present the method of deriving Lie point symmetries, contact symmetries, hidden symmetries, nonlocal symmetries ...

  10. Report of the Primary Outcomes for Gait Mechanics in Men of the ACL-SPORTS Trial: Secondary Prevention With and Without Perturbation Training Does Not Restore Gait Symmetry in Men 1 or 2 Years After ACL Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capin, Jacob John; Zarzycki, Ryan; Arundale, Amelia; Cummer, Kathleen; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2017-10-01

    °; 2 years: 16° ± 5°) and SAP+PERT (1 year: 16° ± 5°; 2 years: 15° ± 4°) athletes was not different between groups at 1 year (mean difference: -1°; 95% confidence interval [CI], -5° to 2°; p = 0.49) or 2 years (mean difference: 1°; 95% CI, -2° to 4°; p = 0.54). There were no differences between SAP and SAP+PERT athletes regarding the elimination of gait asymmetries, and gait asymmetries persisted to a large degree in both groups 1 and 2 years postoperatively. At 1 year, 11 of 18 SAP and 11 of 20 SAP+PERT athletes walked with truncated knee excursions during weight acceptance (odds ratio: 0.8, p = 0.70) and midstance (SAP 12 of 18, SAP+PERT 12 of 20; odds ratio: 0.8, p = 0.67), whereas at 2 years postoperatively, truncated knee excursions during weight acceptance (SAP seven of 17, SAP+PERT eight of 19; odds ratio: 1.0, p = 0.96) and midstance (SAP five of 17, SAP+PERT 11 of 19; odds ratio: 3.3, p = 0.09) remained prevalent. We found that a comprehensive, progressive return-to-sport training program with or without perturbation was not effective at restoring interlimb symmetry among men 1 or 2 years after ACL reconstruction. Although gait asymmetries improved from 1 to 2 years postoperatively, meaningful asymmetries persisted in both groups. To restore gait symmetry after ACL reconstruction, additional interventions likely are necessary. Level II, therapeutic study.

  11. Evaluation of genotoxic effect of amalgam restorations in oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chennoju Sai Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mercury a popular heavy metal used in dentistry in the form of amalgam is a known clastogen. The assessment of micronuclei in cells is a promising tool for studying the genotoxic effect of mercury on them. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate the frequency of micronuclei in exfoliated buccal cells of subjects with amalgam restorations. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 subjects (age and gender-matched sample of 30 study group and 30 control group were included in this study. Smears were obtained with moistened wooden spatula from buccal mucosa in close contact with amalgam restoration and fixed with 100% ethyl alcohol. After staining with Papanicolaou stain, all the slides were examined under ×40 and 1,000 cells were counted for the presence of micronuclei. The data were entered into a spread sheet and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: A statistically significant increase in the number of micronuclei containing cells was observed in the study group when compared to control group (P < 0.05. A positive correlation was observed between the duration of restoration and frequency of micronuclei (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results showed a definite genotoxic effect of amalgam restorations on the oral cavity which can be attributed to the clastogenic action of mercury in amalgam restorations.

  12. Effect of Ecological Restoration on Body Condition of a Predator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel González-Tokman

    Full Text Available Ecological restoration attempts to recover the structure and function of ecosystems that have been degraded by human activities. A crucial test of ecosystem recovery would be to determine whether individuals in restored environments are as healthy as those in conserved environments. However, the impact of restoration on physiology of terrestrial animals has never been tested. Here, we evaluated the effect of two restoration methods on body condition measured as body size, body mass, lipid and muscle content of the spider Nephila clavipes in a tropical dry forest that has suffered chronic disturbance due to cattle grazing. We used experimental plots that had been excluded from disturbance by cattle grazing during eight years. Plots were either planted with native trees (i. e. maximal intervention, or only excluded from disturbance (i. e. minimal intervention, and were compared with control conserved (remnants of original forest and disturbed plots (where cattle is allowed to graze. We predicted (1 better body condition in spiders of conserved and restored sites, compared to disturbed sites, and (2 better body condition in plots with maximal intervention than in plots with minimal intervention. The first prediction was not supported in males or females, and the second prediction was only supported in females: body dry mass was higher in planted than in conserved plots for spiders of both sexes and also higher that in disturbed plots for males, suggesting that plantings are providing more resources. We discuss how different life histories and environmental pressures, such as food availability, parasitism, and competition for resources can explain our contrasting findings in male and female spiders. By studying animal physiology in restoration experiments it is possible to understand the mechanistic basis of ecological and evolutionary processes that determine success of ecological restoration.

  13. Effect of irregular interproximal dental restorations on periodontal status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matvijenko Vladimir B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Research of effects that irregular interproximal dental restoration have on supporting structures of the teeth and examination of evolution and course of changes in tissue structure is quite a poorly studied topic. Aim of this study is to examine and assess clinical and radiological changes in periodontal tissue caused by irregular interproximal dental restoration in particular group of patients with different age and sex. Methods. Irregularities which were assesed in this study are divided into two groups: a gap (cracks occurring between dental restorations and the gingival walls in Class II cavities, b prominence of dental fillings out of the teeth anatomical sphere, resulting with the positive step in gum third of tooth in Class II cavities. The study was based on whether in the particular forms of irregularities of the dental restorations are differences in the degree of change in the periodontal tissue, depending on the material from which the restoration is made, and the materials used were composite fillings and amalgams. Results of this study show that irregular dental fillings significantly affect the inflammatory response in periodontal tissue. Irregularities in the form of unfilled space cause major changes in periodontal tissue. Composite fillings cause a higher degree of inflammation in relation to amalgam fillings. Conclusion. Improper tooth fillings cause periodontal tissue damages.

  14. The effect of provisional restoration type on micromovement of implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Stefan; Geiselhoeringer, Hans; Wichmann, Manfred; Holst, Alexandra Ioana

    2008-09-01

    The osseointegration or fibrous encapsulation of immediately loaded dental implants depends largely on the extent of implant micromovement. The impact of acrylic resin or metal-reinforced acrylic resin provisional restorations on this movement is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to isolate and measure the effect of provisional restoration type on the vertical displacement of adjacent implants under load at 2 locations. Vertical loads ranging from 10-200 N were applied to polymethyl methacrylate resin (n=56) or metal-reinforced acrylic resin provisional restorations (n=56) supported by 4 implants inserted into homogenous artificial bone in a "u-shaped" alignment. Provisional restorations were first loaded in the anterior segment where the provisional restoration was supported by a mesial and distal implant, followed by loading on an extension 8 mm distal to the last implant. Vertical displacement of the 2 implants nearest the load application was measured and recorded using an optical image correlation technique based on photogrammetric principles. Data were subjected to a nonparametric multivariate analysis (generalized Wilcoxon test) and a Mann-Whitney test with a 2-tailed P value (alpha=.05). There was no significant difference in the vertical implant displacement of the 2 provisional restoration groups when they were loaded in the anterior segment. However, when loads were applied to the distal cantilever, metal reinforcement resulted in less vertical displacement of the next-to-last implant. The mean vertical displacement of the next-to-last implant when supporting an acrylic resin provisional restoration increased from 20 microm +/-3 microm (pooled loads of 10-50 N) to 130 microm +/-21 microm (pooled loads of 160-200 N), while the vertical displacement of the implant when retaining a metal-reinforced acrylic resin provisional restoration increased from 10 microm +/-2 microm to 69 microm +/-13 microm under the same loads (Pprovisional

  15. Effects of riparian vegetation development in a restored lowland stream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, A.; Crosato, A.; Hoitink, A.J.F.; Groot, J.; Uijttewaal, W.S.J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth in a lowland restored stream. Hydrological series, high-resolution bathymetric data and aerial photographs are combined in the study. The vegetation root system was found to assert a strong control on soil stabilization,

  16. Initial effects of restoring natural forest structures in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Laarmann; H. Korjus; A. Sims; A. Kangur; J.A. Stanturf

    2013-01-01

    The legacy of structural homogenization due to forest management for commercial products is a loss of biodiversity. A common policy in many European countries is to increase forest diversity by converting managed forests to more natural conditions. The aim of this study was to provide an early evaluation of the effectiveness of different restoration treatments to...

  17. Baryon spectroscopy: symmetries, symmetry breaking and hadronic loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenczykowski, P.

    1985-01-01

    The problem of hadronic loop effects in baryon spectroscopy is thoroughly discussed. It is argued that such effects very likely constitute the dominant contribution to the observed splitting and mixing pattern of the (56,0 + ) and (70,1 - ) baryon multiplets. In particular, this dominance is demonstrated in the original Isgur-Karl-Koniuk model of baryons, in which hadronic loops are shown to provide an explanation for at least 2/3 of the observed size of splittings, both for the ground-state and excited baryons. The unitarity-induced mixing angles in the (70,1 - )-multiplet are also shown to be in good agreement with experiment. For the ground-state baryons the formula relating Σ-Λ and Δ-Ν mass differences - as originally derived by de Rujula, Georgi and Glashow from the single gluon exchange-is obtained from the hadronic loop effects as well. This (and other) results are derived after taking into account a complete set of symmetry-related hadronic loops. Consideration of such a complete set of symmetry-related processes is shown to be crucial in restoring proper symmetry properties of the calculated spectrum. 74 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs. (author)

  18. Chiral symmetry and nuclear matter equation of state

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We investigate the effect on the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) due to modifica- tion of meson and nucleon parameters in nuclear medium as a consequence of partial restoration of chiral symmetry. To get the EOS, we have used Brueckner–Bethe–Golstone formalism with Bonn-B potential as two-body ...

  19. Evaluating Ecosystem effects of oyster restoration in the Mississippi Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klutse, C. K.; Milroy, S. P.

    2016-02-01

    Oyster reefs along the northern Gulf of Mexico are primarily formed by the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, and are among the few biogenic natural habitats in the region. The increasing awareness of ecosystem services that habitat-forming bivalves provide, and the decline of the native species' population has led to a myriad of restoration efforts which have yielded varying results. Successful reef restoration efforts requires a deeper understanding of how variations in the timing and scales of environmental stressors control the survival, growth, and recruitment of reef associated species like oysters, shrimps, pelagic and benthic fish species. A modeling approach has been designed for exploring optimal growth conditions for oysters, studying the effect of seasonal trends in environmental stressors on the growth and survival of reef-associated species, and performing scenario testing for alternative restoration plans in the Mississippi Sound. The model uses a carbon budget approach, accounts for different functional groups within the trophic network on the reef, and operates on daily temporal resolution. Preliminary results indicate that restoration efforts may maximize benefits from the interactions between different salinity regimes and growth as well as mortality of oysters at three different class sizes of sacks, seeds, and spats. The study also seeks to evaluate the effects of different restoration efforts on promotion and recruitments in oyster populations as well as other reef-associated fishes and invertebrates. The current capabilities of the model can be scaled up to include evaluating changes in ecosystem goods and assessing their contributions to human well-being, the results of which will inform management decisions. Keywords: ecosystem modeling, oyster ecology, ecosystem-based management.

  20. Effect of occlusal restoration on stresses around class V restoration interface: A finite-element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Vasudeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Causes of failures in class V restorations have always been controversial until now, since the biomechanical aspects of these restorations have been understood. Aims and Objective: This study was aimed to verify the hypothesis that eccentric forces are the cause of cuspal flexure, which lead to excessive stresses at the periphery of a class V restoration, further it identifies the amount of the stress and the flexure increase in the presence of an occlusal restoration using different restorative materials to restore (both cervical and occlusal along with their comparison with respect to amount of stresses around the cervical restorations. Materials and Methods : The study was done by modeling a mandibular first premolar which was sectioned bucco-lingually, in the NISA, EMRC II finite element software. A 100N eccentric load was applied on the tooth structure and stresses were observed at the peripheries of the class V restoration when it was restored with composite and with glass ionomer cement. The stresses were further analyzed in the presence of occlusal restorations with different materials and configurations. Results: It was seen that the stresses at the gingival wall interface in case of class V glass ionomer cement was more than that for composite. In the presence of an occlusal amalgam restoration, the cuspal flexure was more than that of occlusal composite and the stresses at the class V peripheries were also statistically significant. Conclusion: It was suggested that lower modulus composites can flex with the tooth structure decreasing the bond failure and that the stresses are much lesser when there is absence of an occlusal restoration. Occlusal composite restorations reinforce the tooth structure and reduce the cuspal flexure as compared to silver amalgam.

  1. Variational method of determining effective moduli of polycrystals with tetragonal symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, R.; Peselnick, L.

    1966-01-01

    Variational principles have been applied to aggregates of randomly oriented pure-phase polycrystals having tetragonal symmetry. The bounds of the effective elastic moduli obtained in this way show a substantial improvement over the bounds obtained by means of the Voigt and Reuss assumptions. The Hill average is found to be a good approximation in most cases when compared to the bounds found from the variational method. The new bounds reduce in their limits to the Voigt and Reuss values. ?? 1966 The American Institute of Physics.

  2. Quantum Space-Time Deformed Symmetries Versus Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, G

    2002-01-01

    Several recent studies have concerned the faith of classical symmetries in quantum space-time. In particular, it appears likely that quantum (discretized, noncommutative,...) versions of Minkowski space-time would not enjoy the classical Lorentz symmetries. I compare two interesting cases: the case in which the classical symmetries are "broken", i.e. at the quantum level some classical symmetries are lost, and the case in which the classical symmetries are "deformed", i.e. the quantum space-time has as many symmetries as its classical counterpart but the nature of these symmetries is affected by the space-time quantization procedure. While some general features, such as the emergence of deformed dispersion relations, characterize both the symmetry-breaking case and the symmetry-deformation case, the two scenarios are also characterized by sharp differences, even concerning the nature of the new effects predicted. I illustrate this point within an illustrative calculation concerning the role of space-time symm...

  3. The effectiveness of groundwater pumping as a restoration technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doty, C.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1991-05-01

    An in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of pumping groundwater for aquifer restoration was conducted based on: (1) performance records for 16 sites where pumping with the objective of aquifer restoration has been implemented for periods of 2 to 12 years, and (2) recent theoretical and modeling studies. The reduction of aquifer concentrations is the primary indicator of effectiveness of groundwater extraction. However, other indicators of effectiveness such as plume containment, mass reduction, and achievement of specific cleanup goals were also components of the evaluation. Based on our review of performance records and recent theoretical studies, the following can be concluded regarding the use of groundwater pumping for aquifer restoration: (1) Pumping is effective for contaminant mass reduction, plume containment and extraction of groundwater for point-of-use treatment. Its use for attaining these objectives should be encouraged. (2) Groundwater pumping is ineffective for restoring aquifers to health-based levels. This reality needs to be explicitly recognized by regulators. (3) The primary contributors to the ineffectiveness of pumping in meeting cleanup goals are the time-dependent decrease in the rate of desorption of contaminants from contaminated soils and the existence of immobile contaminants either in the non-aqueous phase or trapped in zones of low permeability. (4) Remedial time frames of 2 years to 30 years were predicted at the sites reviewed. Regulators currently maintain that 20 to 40 years may be needed to reach health-based cleanup goals. However, recent modeling studies estimate pump and treat time frames of 100 to 1000 years. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  4. The effectiveness of groundwater pumping as a restoration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doty, C.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1991-05-01

    An in-depth analysis of the effectiveness of pumping groundwater for aquifer restoration was conducted based on: (1) performance records for 16 sites where pumping with the objective of aquifer restoration has been implemented for periods of 2 to 12 years, and (2) recent theoretical and modeling studies. The reduction of aquifer concentrations is the primary indicator of effectiveness of groundwater extraction. However, other indicators of effectiveness such as plume containment, mass reduction, and achievement of specific cleanup goals were also components of the evaluation. Based on our review of performance records and recent theoretical studies, the following can be concluded regarding the use of groundwater pumping for aquifer restoration: (1) Pumping is effective for contaminant mass reduction, plume containment and extraction of groundwater for point-of-use treatment. Its use for attaining these objectives should be encouraged. (2) Groundwater pumping is ineffective for restoring aquifers to health-based levels. This reality needs to be explicitly recognized by regulators. (3) The primary contributors to the ineffectiveness of pumping in meeting cleanup goals are the time-dependent decrease in the rate of desorption of contaminants from contaminated soils and the existence of immobile contaminants either in the non-aqueous phase or trapped in zones of low permeability. (4) Remedial time frames of 2 years to 30 years were predicted at the sites reviewed. Regulators currently maintain that 20 to 40 years may be needed to reach health-based cleanup goals. However, recent modeling studies estimate pump and treat time frames of 100 to 1000 years. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Bloch-mode analysis for effective parameters restoration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Ha, Sangwoo

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Bloch-mode analysis of periodic composite structures to introduce an approach for retrieving effective parameters of homogenized metamaterials. In the case of single-mode propagation we can restore a complex effective refractive index with a high accuracy. By further employing...... surface or volume averaging of the electromagnetic fields of the dominating (fundamental) Bloch modes we are able to determine the Bloch and wave impedances, leading to wave and material effective parameters, respectively. The approach is demonstrated on several examples. We focus our discussion...

  6. Control of magnonic spectra in cobalt nanohole arrays: the effects of density, symmetry and defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barman, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic nanohole arrays are important systems for propagation of magnetic excitations and are among the potential candidates for magnonic crystals. A thorough investigation of magnonic band structures and the effect of the geometry of the array on them are important. Here, we present a systematic micromagnetic simulation study of magnonic modes in cobalt nanohole (antidot) arrays. In particular, we investigate the effects of the areal density and symmetry of the array and defects introduced in the array. The magnonic modes are strongly dependent on the density and the symmetry of the array but are weakly dependent on the defects. We have further investigated the modes in a tailored array consisting of equally wide hexagonal arrays with varying density. The magnonic spectrum of the tailored array contains additional modes above the modes of the constituent arrays due to the appearance of irregular domain structures at the regions joining arrays of two different types. This opens up the possibility of tuning the magnonic bands in magnetic nanohole arrays by careful design of the structure of the array.

  7. Effect of toothbrushing on color changes of esthetic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezgin, Tuğba; Özer, Levent; Tulga Öz, Firdevs; Özkan, Pelin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various drinks and toothbrushing on the color changes of esthetic restorative materials used in pediatric dentistry. Forty specimens were prepared from each of three restorative materials (compomer [Dyract AP], glass ionomer cement [Ionofil Molar AC, Voco], composite resin [Filtek Z 250]). Specimens were divided into four groups for immersion in three different staining solutions (cherry juice, cola, chocolate milk) and distilled water. Each group was subdivided into brushing and non-brushing groups. The specimens in the brushing subgroups were brushed with toothpaste once a day using an electric toothbrush. Color was measured using a colorimeter, and color changes were calculated between baseline and 1, 7, 30, 60 days. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon, and Wilcoxon Signed Rank tests. All the solutions evaluated yielded color changes, and these changes were significantly greater for composite resin than for glass ionomer cement or compomer (p toothbrushing that can remove the adsorbed colorants. The results of this study also showed that glass ionomer cements and compomers can be used in anterior restorations of children with their higher color stability than composite resins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Modeling finite-volume effects and chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor QCD thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Bertram

    2017-11-01

    Finite-volume effects in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) have been a subject of much theoretical interest for more than two decades. They are in particular important for the analysis and interpretation of QCD simulations on a finite, discrete space-time lattice. Most of these effects are closely related to the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of the chiral flavor symmetry and the emergence of pions as light Goldstone bosons. These long-range fluctuations are strongly affected by putting the system into a finite box, and an analysis with different methods can be organized according to the interplay between pion mass and box size. The finite volume also affects critical behavior at the chiral phase transition in QCD. In the present review, I will be mainly concerned with modeling such finite volume effects as they affect the thermodynamics of the chiral phase transition for two quark flavors. I review recent work on the analysis of finite-volume effects which makes use of the quark-meson model for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. To account for the effects of critical long-range fluctuations close to the phase transition, most of the calculations have been performed using non-perturbative Renormalization Group (RG) methods. I give an overview over the application of these methods to a finite volume. The method, the model and the results are put into the context of related work in random matrix theory for very small volumes, chiral perturbation theory for larger volumes, and related methods and approaches. They are applied towards the analysis of finite-volume effects in lattice QCD simulations and their interpretation, mainly in the context of the chiral phase transition for two quark flavors.

  9. Enantiodromic effective generators of a Markov jump process with Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terohid, S A A; Torkaman, P; Jafarpour, F H

    2016-11-01

    This paper deals with the properties of the stochastic generators of the effective (driven) processes associated with atypical values of transition-dependent time-integrated currents with Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry in Markov jump processes. Exploiting the concept of biased ensemble of trajectories by introducing a biasing field s, we show that the stochastic generators of the effective processes associated with the biasing fields s and E-s are enantiodromic with respect to each other where E is the conjugated field to the current. We illustrate our findings by considering an exactly solvable creation-annihilation process of classical particles with nearest-neighbor interactions defined on a one-dimensional lattice.

  10. Symmetry witnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniello, Paolo; Chruściński, Dariusz

    2017-07-01

    A symmetry witness is a suitable subset of the space of selfadjoint trace class operators that allows one to determine whether a linear map is a symmetry transformation, in the sense of Wigner. More precisely, such a set is invariant with respect to an injective densely defined linear operator in the Banach space of selfadjoint trace class operators (if and) only if this operator is a symmetry transformation. According to a linear version of Wigner’s theorem, the set of pure states—the rank-one projections—is a symmetry witness. We show that an analogous result holds for the set of projections with a fixed rank (with some mild constraint on this rank, in the finite-dimensional case). It turns out that this result provides a complete classification of the sets of projections with a fixed rank that are symmetry witnesses. These particular symmetry witnesses are projectable; i.e. reasoning in terms of quantum states, the sets of ‘uniform’ density operators of corresponding fixed rank are symmetry witnesses too.

  11. Effects of symmetry energy and momentum dependent interaction on low-energy reaction mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the dipole response associated with the Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR and the Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance (IVGDR, in connection with specific properties of the nuclear effective interaction (symmetry energy and momentum dependence, in the neutron-rich systems 68Ni, 132Sn and 208Pb. We perform our investigation within a microscopic transport model based on the Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation.We observe that the peak energies of PDR and IVGDR are shifted to higher values when employing momentum dependent interactions, with respect to the results obtained neglecting momentum dependence. The calculated energies are close to the experimental values and similar to the results obtained in Hartree-Fock (HF with Random Phase Approximation (RPA calculations.

  12. The role of symmetry in the mass independent isotope effect in ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Greg; Bhattacharya, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the internal distribution of “anomalous” isotope enrichments has important implications for validating theoretical postulates on the origin of these enrichments in molecules such as ozone and for understanding the transfer of these enrichments to other compounds in the atmosphere via mass transfer. Here, we present an approach, using the reaction NO2− + O3, for assessing the internal distribution of the Δ17O anomaly and the δ18O enrichment in ozone produced by electric discharge. The Δ17O results strongly support the symmetry mechanism for generating mass independent fractionations, and the δ18O results are consistent with published data. Positional Δ17O and δ18O enrichments in ozone can now be more effectively used in photochemical models that use mass balance oxygen atom transfer mechanisms to infer atmospheric oxidation chemistry. PMID:19307571

  13. Observation of resonant symmetry lifting by an effective bias field in a parametrically modulated atomic trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghee; Heo, Myoung-Sun; Moon, Geol; Kim, Ji-Hyoun; Jhe, Wonho; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate resonant symmetry lifting in a parametrically modulated magneto-optical trap of cold 85 Rb atoms. This is achieved by applying a weak additional modulation at half the frequency of the strong parametric modulation, which acts as an effective static bias field to the system. We measure the system response by varying the amplitude of the additional fictitious bias as well as the relative phase between the bias and the parametric drive, and the results are in good agreement with theory. The additional modulation provides an additional degree of freedom to control the system, which is useful for investigating system properties such as susceptibility, dynamic response, and related critical phenomena. We also have measured the amplitude of the response to higher harmonics of the additional modulation frequency, which allows more precise understanding of the system dynamics.

  14. Symmetry-Breaking Effect on the Electromagnetic Properties of Plasmonic Trimers Composed of Graphene Nanodisks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Qiu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmonic trimers composed of equal-sized graphene nanodisks are proposed in this paper. The symmetry-breaking effect on the electromagnetic properties of the nanostructure is numerically investigated by studying plasmon energy diagrams and optical scattering spectra in mid-infrared range with a gradient vertex angle. The degenerate plasmonic modes are lifted and new modes appear with increased vertex angle. The energy diagrams are consistent with scattering extinction spectra, about which the dipole moment distribution of the proposed structure is discussed to demonstrate the coupling strength of the collective plasmonic modes of the trimer. More specifically, the frequency tunability of the plasmonic trimer is pointed out by modifying the chemical potential of the graphene nanodisks without varying the geometric configuration. The proposed structure might find applications such as light-matter interaction, single molecule detection, and high-sensitivity chemical sensing.

  15. Collarless metal ceramic restorations to obscure the umbrella effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afroz Shaista

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Esthetics with porcelain fused to metal restoration in the anterior region can be adversely affected due to the inadequate teeth preparations and design of the prosthesis. We presented here a case report where esthetics was compromised due to darkening of the interdental papilla and marginal gingival and overcontoured restorations in relation to porcelain fused to metal restorations. Good esthetic results were obtained by using basic principles of tooth preparation and using collarless metal ceramic restorations.

  16. Mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Voisin, Claire

    1999-01-01

    This is the English translation of Professor Voisin's book reflecting the discovery of the mirror symmetry phenomenon. The first chapter is devoted to the geometry of Calabi-Yau manifolds, and the second describes, as motivation, the ideas from quantum field theory that led to the discovery of mirror symmetry. The other chapters deal with more specialized aspects of the subject: the work of Candelas, de la Ossa, Greene, and Parkes, based on the fact that under the mirror symmetry hypothesis, the variation of Hodge structure of a Calabi-Yau threefold determines the Gromov-Witten invariants of its mirror; Batyrev's construction, which exhibits the mirror symmetry phenomenon between hypersurfaces of toric Fano varieties, after a combinatorial classification of the latter; the mathematical construction of the Gromov-Witten potential, and the proof of its crucial property (that it satisfies the WDVV equation), which makes it possible to construct a flat connection underlying a variation of Hodge structure in the ...

  17. Fluorides leaching from restorative materials and the effect on adjacent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Poulsen, Agneta; Teglers, Poul Thorpen

    2010-01-01

    Placing a Class II restoration in a tooth changes the local environment, including that for the adjacent tooth. Apart from the change to a less- or non-cariogenic environment for the restored tooth, the effect of leachable components from a restoration in the adjacent tooth should be taken into c...

  18. Fluorides leaching from restorative materials and the effect on adjacent teeth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Vibeke; Poulsen, Agneta; Teglers, Poul Thorpen

    2010-01-01

    Placing a Class II restoration in a tooth changes the local environment, including that for the adjacent tooth. Apart from the change to a less- or non-cariogenic environment for the restored tooth, the effect of leachable components from a restoration in the adjacent tooth should be taken...

  19. Effects of river restoration on riparian ground beetles (Coleoptera Carabidae) in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Januschke, Kathrin; Verdonschot, R.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    Studies addressing the effects of river and floodplain restoration on riparian ground beetles mainly focus on single river sections or regions. We conducted a large-scale study of twenty paired restored and degraded river sections throughout Europe. It was tested (i) if restoration had an overall

  20. The role of benthic microhabitats in determining the effects of hydromorphological river restoration on macroinvertebrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdonschot, R.C.M.; Kail, Jochem; McKie, Brendan G.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of river restoration projects carried out worldwide, evidence for strong and long-term positive ecological effects of hydromorphological restoration on macroinvertebrates is scarce. To improve the understanding of the success and failure of restoration measures, a

  1. Effects of Sodium hypochlorite on the microleakage of composite restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arami S.

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Considering that the role of collagen fibers in dentin adhesion has not been thoroughly established yet, the removal of exposed collagen fibers with a deproteinization agent such as sodium hypochlorite following etching may facilitate access of adhesive resins to a substrate that is more penetrable and less sensitive to water content which in turn would lead to a more durable bonding system. Furthermore, due to sodium hypochlorite clinical application as a cleanser or canal irrigator, its effects on the surface before etching may influence adhesive bonding strength. Purpose: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of a two-minute 5.25% NaOCL application on composite restorations microleakage, using two different adhesive systems. Materials and Methods: In this interventional experimental study, on seventy-two extracted boving incisors class V cavities were prepared on dentinal surfaces. The specimens were then randomly divided into six equal groups: A1 Acid etch (AE dentin bonding Scontchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMBP, A2 AE/ dentin bonding One Step (OS, B1 NaOCL/ AE/SBMPp, B2 NaOCL/AE/OS, C1 AE/NaOCL/SBMPp, C2 AE/NaOCL/OS. After bonding procedures according to the manufacturer’s instructions, cavities were restored using Z100 composite. Then, the specimens were thermocycled for 500 times in water baths of 5 and 55C. After thermocycling, the specimens were immersed in a 0.2% solution of basic fuchsin for 24 hours. A buccolingual section at the center of each restoration was obtained and examined with a stereomicroscope to evaluate color penetration into cavities. The data were subjected to two-way variance analysis. Results: The microleakage of group B was significantly less than those of A and C (P<0.001. No significant difference was found between groups A and C (P=0.73. There were also no significant differences within groups A, B and C (P=0.852. No interaction was observered between dentin bondings and

  2. Recreation Embedded State Tuning for Optimal Readiness and Effectiveness (RESTORE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Alan T.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2005-01-01

    Physiological self-regulation training is a behavioral medicine intervention that has demonstrated capability to improve psychophysiological coping responses to stressful experiences and to foster optimal behavioral and cognitive performance. Once developed, these psychophysiological skills require regular practice for maintenance. A concomitant benefit of these physiologically monitored practice sessions is the opportunity to track crew psychophysiological responses to the challenges of the practice task in order to detect shifts in adaptability that may foretell performance degradation. Long-duration missions will include crew recreation periods that will afford physiological self-regulation training opportunities. However, to promote adherence to the regimen, the practice experience that occupies their recreation time must be perceived by the crew as engaging and entertaining throughout repeated reinforcement sessions on long-duration missions. NASA biocybernetic technologies and publications have developed a closed-loop concept that involves adjusting or modulating (cybernetic, for governing) a person's task environment based upon a comparison of that person's physiological responses (bio-) with a training or performance criterion. This approach affords the opportunity to deliver physiological self-regulation training in an entertaining and motivating fashion and can also be employed to create a conditioned association between effective performance state and task execution behaviors, while enabling tracking of individuals psychophysiological status over time in the context of an interactive task challenge. This paper describes the aerospace spin-off technologies in this training application area as well as the current spin-back application of the technologies to long-duration missions - the Recreation Embedded State Tuning for Optimal Readiness and Effectiveness (RESTORE) concept. The RESTORE technology is designed to provide a physiological self

  3. Continuum and symmetry-conserving effects in drip-line nuclei using finite-range forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunck, N.; Egido, J. L.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first calculations of nuclear properties near the drip lines using the spherical Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory with a finite-range force supplemented by continuum and particle-number projection effects. Calculations were carried out in a basis made of the eigenstates of a Woods-Saxon potential computed in a box, thereby guaranteeing that continuum effects were properly taken into account. Projection of the self-consistent solutions on good particle number was carried out after variation, and an approximation of the variation after projection result was used. We give the position of the drip lines and examine neutron densities in neutron-rich nuclei. We discuss the sensitivity of nuclear observables upon continuum and particle-number restoration effects

  4. Renormalization of the effective Lagrangian with spontaneous symmetry breaking: The SU(2) case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Qishu; Du Dongsheng

    2004-01-01

    We study the renormalization of the nonlinear effective SU(2) Lagrangian up to O(p 4 ) with spontaneous symmetry breaking. The Stueckelberg transformation, the background field gauge, the Schwinger proper time and heat kernel method, and the covariant short distance expansion technology guarantee gauge covariance and incorporate the Ward (Slavnov-Taylor) identities in the calculations. A modified power counting rule is introduced to consistently estimate and control the contributions of higher loops and higher-dimension operators. The one-loop renormalization group equations of the effective couplings are provided and analyzed. We find that the difference between the results obtained from the direct method and the renormalization group equation method can be quite large when the Higgs scalar boson is far below its decoupling limit. The exact one-loop calculation of d 1 in the renormalizable SU(2) Higgs model is provided to understand such a difference. A better way of calculating at the one-loop level in the framework of the effective theory method is suggested

  5. The effects of restorative care training on caregiver job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L; Harrington, Susan S

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of assisted living facility staff was examined as part of an evaluation study of a restorative care training program. Participants completed a job satisfaction survey at registration (before the training) and again at follow-up 3 months after registration (1 month after the conclusion of the training). Researchers examined the effects of training on job satisfaction. Researchers found a high level of job dissatisfaction at registration. At follow-up, responses were more positive on most of the items suggesting a slight but significant change to a more positive attitude toward their jobs. Improving staff job satisfaction in the assisted living environment is an important goal and needs further investigation. Providing staff with inservice training may be one way to help nurse educators achieve that goal.

  6. Dynamical symmetries for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Gauge symmetry from decoupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gauge symmetries emerge from a redundant description of the effective action for light degrees of freedom after the decoupling of heavy modes. This redundant description avoids the use of explicit constraints in configuration space. For non-linear constraints the gauge symmetries are non-linear. In a quantum field theory setting the gauge symmetries are local and can describe Yang–Mills theories or quantum gravity. We formulate gauge invariant fields that correspond to the non-linear light degrees of freedom. In the context of functional renormalization gauge symmetries can emerge if the flow generates or preserves large mass-like terms for the heavy degrees of freedom. They correspond to a particular form of gauge fixing terms in quantum field theories.

  8. Superconducting Gap Symmetry of LaFeP(O,F Observed by Impurity Doping Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Miyasaka

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated Mn, Co and Ni substitution effects on polycrystalline samples of LaFePO0.95F0.05 by resistivity and magnetoresistance measurements. In LaFe1-xMxPO0.95F0.05 (M = Mn, Co and Ni, the superconducting transition temperature (Tc monotonously decreases with increasing the impurity doping level of x. There is a clear difference of Tc suppression rates among Mn, Co and Ni doping cases, and the decreasing rate of Tc by Mn doping as a magnetic impurity is larger than those by the nonmagnetic doping impurities (Co/Ni. This result indicates that in LaFePO0.95F0.05, Tc is rapidly suppressed by the pair-breaking effect of magnetic impurities, and the pairing symmetry is a full-gapped s-wave. In the nonmagnetic impurity-doped systems, the residual resistivity in the normal state has nearly the same value when Tc becomes zero. The residual resistivity value is almost consistent with the universal value of sheet resistance for two-dimensional superconductors, suggesting that Tc is suppressed by electron localization in Co/Ni-doped LaFePO0.95F0.05.

  9. Discoloration Effects of Traditional Turkish Beverages on different Composite Restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglar, Serdar; Keskin, Erol; Orun, Tahir; Es, Abdulhamit

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the discoloring effects of five beverages including, especially, traditional Turkish ones on five commonly used dental composites by using a spectrophotometer device. Five methacrylate-based composites (shade A2) were selected to evaluate their color stability (175 disk samples). Four of them (Filtek Ultimate Universal, Clearfil Majesty ES-2, Tetric EvoCeram, and Cavex Quadrant Universal LC) were nanofilled universal composites for both anterior and posterior restorations, and one (Clearfil Majesty Posterior) was nano-superfilled for posterior restorations. The tested beverages were tamarind syrup, ottoman syrup, turnip juice, pomegranate juice, and distilled water (control). All samples were kept in an incubator at 37°C for 12 days (measured at 3rd, 6th, 12th day intervals) in immersion solutions which was equivalent to 1 year in vivo. Color measurements were made with VITA Easyshade Advance (Vident, Brea, CA) spectrophotometer device according to CIE L*a*b* system. Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and least significant difference test to analyze differences in L*a*b* and ΔE values. All materials showed significant discoloration (p < 0.05) when compared with the control group. The highest ΔE was observed in turnip juice, whereas ottoman syrup had the lowest ΔE. Tetric EvoCeram showed the lowest ΔE, while Clearfil Majesty ES-2 showed the highest ΔE. In all the groups tested, clinically unacceptable ΔE values were obtained. Although color stability of methacrylate-based composites has been widely investigated, this has not been done before with these kinds of immersion solutions. Potential discoloration might be limited by dietary adjustments based on in vitro evaluations.

  10. Phenotypic plasticity and effects of selection on cell division symmetry in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uttara N Lele

    Full Text Available Aging has been demonstrated in unicellular organisms and is presumably due to asymmetric distribution of damaged proteins and other components during cell division. Whether the asymmetry-induced aging is inevitable or an adaptive and adaptable response is debated. Although asymmetric division leads to aging and death of some cells, it increases the effective growth rate of the population as shown by theoretical and empirical studies. Mathematical models predict on the other hand, that if the cells divide symmetrically, cellular aging may be delayed or absent, growth rate will be reduced but growth yield will increase at optimum repair rates. Therefore in nutritionally dilute (oligotrophic environments, where growth yield may be more critical for survival, symmetric division may get selected. These predictions have not been empirically tested so far. We report here that Escherichia coli grown in oligotrophic environments had greater morphological and functional symmetry in cell division. Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic selection appeared to shape cell division time asymmetry but plasticity was lost on prolonged selection. Lineages selected on high nutrient concentration showed greater frequency of presumably old or dead cells. Further, there was a negative correlation between cell division time asymmetry and growth yield but there was no significant correlation between asymmetry and growth rate. The results suggest that cellular aging driven by asymmetric division may not be hardwired but shows substantial plasticity as well as evolvability in response to the nutritional environment.

  11. Symmetry consideration in zero loop-area Sagnac interferometry at oblique incidence for detecting magneto-optic Kerr effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X D

    2017-08-01

    I present a detailed account of a zero loop-area Sagnac interferometer operated at oblique incidence for detecting magneto-optic Kerr effects arising from a magnetized sample. In particular, I describe the symmetry consideration and various optical arrangements available to such an interferometer that enables measurements of magneto-optic effects due to both in-plane and out-of-plane magnetization of the sample with optimizable signal-to-noise ratios.

  12. Chiral symmetry and changes of properties in nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, G.E. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1995-12-31

    The decrease with density of the nucleon effective mass m{sub n}{sup *} as a movement towards chiral restoration, connecting m{sub n}{sup *} with the density dependent quark condensate (q-barq){sup *} is described. Roughly, m{sub n}{sup *} can be used as the order parameter for the phase of broken chiral symmetry. (author). 22 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Political and Economic Geomorphology: The Effect of Market Forces on Stream Restoration Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J.; Doyle, M. W.; Lave, R.; Robertson, M.

    2013-12-01

    Stream restoration in the U.S. is increasingly driven by compensatory mitigation; impacts to streams associated with typical land development activities must be offset via restoration of streams elsewhere. This policy application creates conditions in which restored stream ';credits' are traded under market-like conditions, comparable to wetland mitigation, carbon offsets, or endangered species habitat banking. The effect of this relatively new mechanism to finance stream restoration on design and construction is unknown. This research explores whether the introduction of a credit-based mitigation apparatus results in streams designed to maximize credit yields (i.e., ';credit-chasing') rather than focusing on restoring natural systems or functions. In other words, are market-based restored streams different from those designed for non-market purposes? We quantified geomorphic characteristics (e.g. hydraulic geometry, sinuosity, profile, bed sediment, LWD) of three types of streams: (1) a random sample of non-restored reaches, (2) streams restored for compensatory mitigation, and (3) streams restored under alternative funding sources (e.g., government grant programs, non-profit activities). We also compared the location of the types of stream reaches to determine whether there is a spatiality of restored streams. Physical data were complemented with a series of semi-structured interviews with key personnel in the stream restoration industry to solicit information on the influence of policy interpretation and market-driven factors on the design process. Preliminary analysis suggests that restoration is driving a directional shift in stream morphology in North Carolina. As a simple example, in the Piedmont, non-restored and restored channels had mean sinuosity of 1.17 and 1.23, respectively (p < 0.10). In the mountain region, non-restored and restored channels had mean sinuosity of 1.07 and 1.21, respectively (p < 0.01). In addition, restored streams were

  14. P1-30: Axis Orientation Effects on Interaction between Color-Selective Symmetry Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Ching Wu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We used a noise masking paradigm to examine the interaction between color-selective symmetry detection mechanisms in the visual system. We used a 2AFC paradigm in which a random dot noise mask was presented in both intervals. One interval contained a target, while the other, a random dot control. The target consisted of a red and a green symmetric pattern with the same (both were 45° or −45° or orthogonal (one 45°and the other −45° orientation. The observers were to determine which interval contained the symmetric target. We measured the target density threshold at various noise densities. For all conditions, the target density threshold increased with noise density with a slope 0.96 on log-log coordinates. The threshold for the same-orientation condition was lower than that for the orthogonal condition at all noise densities. We fit our data with a divisive inhibition model for symmetry pattern detection (Chen & Tyler, 2010 PLOS One, in which the response of a symmetry detector is the excitation of a linear symmetry operator raised to a power and then divided by the divisive inhibition from all relevant symmetry operators. The best fit showed that the mutual inhibition between symmetry detectors in the same-orientation condition was only 13% of that in the orthogonal condition. Hence, instead of a strong same-orientation inhibition commonly observed in experiments using Gabor patches, it is actually easier for the visual system to integrate symmetric patterns of the same symmetric axis.

  15. Broken SU(4) Symmetry and The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect in Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodemann, Inti; MacDonald, Allan

    2014-03-01

    We describe a simple variational approach to understand the spin-valley broken symmetry states in the fractional quantum Hall regime of graphene. Our approach allows to predict the incompressible ground states and their charge gaps and is able to explain the observed differences between filling factor ranges | ν | normal which allows to tune the relative strength of Zeeman and valley symmetry breaking interactions. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under grant DE-FG03-02ER45958 and by the Welch foundation under grant TBF1473.

  16. Symmetry induced peculiar Rashba effect on thallium adsorbed Si(1 1 1) surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Kazuyuki, E-mail: kazuyuki_sakamoto@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Nanomaterials Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Oda, Tatsuki [Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-1192 (Japan); Kimura, Akio [Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Takeichi, Yasuo [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Fujii, Jun [TASC Laboratory, IOM-CNR, SS 14, km 163.5, I-34012 Trieste (Italy); Uhrberg, R.I.G. [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology, Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Donath, Markus [Physikalisches Institut, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany); Yeom, Han Woong [Center for Low Dimensional Electronic Symmetry and Department of Physics, Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The geometric symmetry of the surface plays an important role for the spin–orbit-induced spin texture of two-dimensional electronic states. This article reviews the peculiar Rashba spins induced by a C{sub 3} symmetry, including the completely spin polarized surface states with the polarization vector oriented perpendicular to the surface, i.e. a direction that is not expected in a typical Rashba system. This review also describes that this peculiar Rashba situation has possibility to suppress backscattering and therefore to greatly improve the efficiency of spin transport, which is an essential issue in the development of high-performance semiconductor spintronic devices.

  17. The effect of slight thinning of managed coniferous forest on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Saito, Haruo; Fujiwara, Akio; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the influence of slight thinning (percentage of woods: 16.6%, basal area: 9.3%) on landscape appreciation and the psychological restorative effect of an on-site setting by exposing respondents to an ordinarily managed coniferous woodland. The experiments were conducted in an experimental plot in the same coniferous woodland in May (unthinned) and October 2013 (thinned). The respondents were the same 15 individuals for both experiments. Respondents were individually exposed to the enclosed plot and the forest-view plot within the same tent for 15 min. In both sessions, respondents were required to answer three questionnaires measuring their mood (Profile of Mood States), emotion (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and feeling of restoration (Restorative Outcome Scale) to investigate the psychological restorative effect before and after the experiment. They completed two other questionnaires measuring appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) and the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale) following the experiments. We first analyzed the difference in landscape appreciation between the unthinned and thinned conditions. We did not find any statistical difference in appreciation for the environment (Semantic Differential) or the restorative properties of the environment (Perceived Restorativeness Scale); rather, we found that weather conditions had a primary influence on landscape appreciation. With respect to the psychological restorative effect, a two-way repeated analysis of valiance (ANOVA) revealed significant main effects for a selection of indices, depending on the presence or absence of thinning. However, multiple comparison analyses revealed that these effects seemed to be due to the difference in the experimental experience rather than the presence or absence of thinning. In conclusion, the effect of the slight thinning of the managed coniferous forest was too weak to be reflected in the

  18. Mirror Lake contaminanats - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex and...

  19. Breaking Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that πmix (the π-calculus with mixed choice is more expressive than πsep (its subset with only separate choice. The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from πmix into πsep. We indicate how the respective proofs can be adapted and exhibit the consequences of varying notions of uniformity and reasonableness. In each case, the ability to break initial symmetries turns out to be essential.

  20. Visualization of anomalous Ettingshausen effect in a ferromagnetic film: Direct evidence of different symmetry from spin Peltier effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, T.; Iguchi, R.; Takanashi, K.; Uchida, K.

    2018-04-01

    Spatial distribution of temperature modulation due to the anomalous Ettingshausen effect (AEE) is visualized in a ferromagnetic FePt thin film with in-plane and out-of-plane magnetizations using the lock-in thermography technique. Comparing the AEE of FePt with the spin Peltier effect (SPE) of a Pt/yttrium iron garnet junction provides direct evidence of different symmetries of AEE and SPE. Our experiments and numerical calculations reveal that the distribution of heat sources induced by AEE strongly depends on the direction of magnetization, leading to the remarkable different temperature profiles in the FePt thin film between the in-plane and perpendicularly magnetized configurations.

  1. Monitoring effects of river restoration on groundwater with radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, Eduard

    2007-01-01

    The restoration of the perialpine river Toess in a floodplain of northern Switzerland (Linsental) included the removal of bank reinforcements and tracer studies in the river and in oberservation wells of the adjacent alluvial groundwater. The river water is continuously recharging the aquifer system and the groundwater is used extensively as drinking water. Radon activity concentrations of freshly infiltrated groundwater are interpreted as radon groundwater age between the river and a well. A first flood after the restoration operations resulted in a widening of the river bed and in a reduction of the flow distance to the wells. Sixteen days after a second flood, the results of radon measurements were compared with those from before the restoration. The radon age of the groundwater between the river and the wells decreased, probably as a result of the reduction of the flow distances. Concentrations of autochthonous and coliform bacteria increased after the restoration operation and even more one day after the first flood. Thus the findings on the bacteria corroborate the interpretation of the radon concentrations. The restoration has not yet reduced the quality of the groundwater, which is pumped for drinking water. The study is contributing to the solution of land-use conflicts between river restoration and the supply of drinking water from the alluvial groundwater. (orig.) [de

  2. Stability of effective thin-shell wormholes under Lorentz symmetry breaking supported by dark matter and dark energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Övgün, Ali; Jusufi, Kimet

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we construct generic, spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes and check their stabilities using the unified dark sector, including dark energy and dark matter. We give a master equation, from which one can recover, as a special case, other stability solutions for generic spherically symmetric thin-shell wormholes. In this context, we consider a particular solution; namely we construct an effective thin-shell wormhole under Lorentz symmetry breaking. We explore stability analyses using different models of the modified Chaplygin gas with constraints from cosmological observations, such as seventh-year full Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe data points, type Ia supernovae, and baryon acoustic oscillation. In all these models we find stable solutions by choosing suitable values for the parameters of the Lorentz symmetry breaking effect.

  3. Effect of topical fluoride application before and after amalgam restoration placement on recurrent caries inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donly, K J; Stufflebeam, M; García-Godoy, F

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the in vitro caries inhibition effects of 1.23% APF foam topical fluoride treatment of cavity preparations, prior to restoration placement and after restoration placement. Sixty standardized Class V preparations were placed in molars. Randomly, 40 teeth received an amalgam restoration: Twenty other teeth had 1cc 1.23% APF foam applied to preparation surfaces for 1 minute, then an amalgam restoration was placed. The APF was not rinsed away prior to restoration, it was displaced by the pressure of the amalgam being condensed into the preparation. Twenty of the initial 40 amalgam restorations had 1 cc 1.23% APF foam applied to the external tooth/restoration margins for 4 minutes, the remaining 20 amalgam restorations acted as the controls. Acid-resistant varnish was placed, leaving 1 mm of tooth adjacent to restoration margins exposed. All specimens were subjected to an artificial caries challenge (pH 4.4) for 5 days. Sections of 100 microns were cut longitudinally through the restored margins, photographed under polarized light microscopy, then demineralized areas adjacent to restoration margins were quantitated. Results demonstrated the mean (+/- S.D.) area (microns 2) of demineralization 100 microns from the restoration margins to be: amalgam 10,221 +/- 524, amalgam with 1-minute APF over preparation 529 +/- 557, amalgam with 4-minute APF over external surface 736 +/- 359. ANOVA and Duncan's (P < 0.05) indicated both 1.23% APF foam topical fluoride treatment regimens exhibited significantly less demineralization at restoration margins than the non-treated amalgam control. There was no significant difference between the two fluoride placement regimens examined in this study.

  4. Effective degrees of freedom at chiral restoration and the vector manifestation in HLS theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Masayasu; Kim, Youngman; Rho, Mannque; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2003-11-01

    The question as to what the relevant effective degrees of freedom at the chiral phase transition are remains largely unanswered and must be addressed in confronting both terrestrial and space laboratory observations purporting to probe matter under extreme conditions. We address this question in terms of the vector susceptibility χV (VSUS in short) and the axial-vector susceptibility χA (ASUS in short) at the temperature-induced chiral transition. We consider two possible, albeit simplified, cases that are contrasting, one that is given by the standard chiral theory where only the pions figure in the vicinity of the transition and the other that is described by hidden local symmetry (HLS) theory with the Harada-Yamawaki vector manifestation (VM) where nearly massless vector mesons also enter. We find that while in the standard chiral theory, the pion velocity vπ proportional to the ratio of the space component fπs of the pion decay constant over the time component fπt tends to zero near chiral restoration with fπt≠0, in the presence of the vector mesons with vanishing mass, the result is drastically different: HLS with VM predicts that χV automatically equals χA in consistency with chiral invariance and that vπ˜1 with fπt≈ fπs→0 as T→ Tc. These results are obtained in the leading order in power counting but we expect their qualitative features to remain valid more generally in the chiral limit thanks to the VM point.

  5. Effective degrees of freedom at chiral restoration and the vector manifestation in HLS theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Masayasu; Kim, Youngman E-mail: ykim@boson.physics.sc.edu; Rho, Mannque; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2003-11-17

    The question as to what the relevant effective degrees of freedom at the chiral phase transition are remains largely unanswered and must be addressed in confronting both terrestrial and space laboratory observations purporting to probe matter under extreme conditions. We address this question in terms of the vector susceptibility {chi}{sub V} (VSUS in short) and the axial-vector susceptibility {chi}{sub A} (ASUS in short) at the temperature-induced chiral transition. We consider two possible, albeit simplified, cases that are contrasting, one that is given by the standard chiral theory where only the pions figure in the vicinity of the transition and the other that is described by hidden local symmetry (HLS) theory with the Harada-Yamawaki vector manifestation (VM) where nearly massless vector mesons also enter. We find that while in the standard chiral theory, the pion velocity v{sub {pi}} proportional to the ratio of the space component f{sub {pi}}{sup s} of the pion decay constant over the time component f{sub {pi}}{sup t} tends to zero near chiral restoration with f{sub {pi}}{sup t}{ne}0, in the presence of the vector mesons with vanishing mass, the result is drastically different: HLS with VM predicts that {chi}{sub V} automatically equals {chi}{sub A} in consistency with chiral invariance and that v{sub {pi}}{approx}1 with f{sub {pi}}{sup t}{approx}f{sub {pi}}{sup s}{yields}0 as T{yields}T{sub c}. These results are obtained in the leading order in power counting but we expect their qualitative features to remain valid more generally in the chiral limit thanks to the VM point.

  6. Effect of a retention groove on the shear bond strength of dentin-bonded restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kok, P.; de Jager, N.; Veerman, I.A.M.; Hafeez, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Roeters, J.F.M.

    2016-01-01

    Statement of problem. With the increasing use of minimally invasive restorations, effective adhesion becomes more important. Applying mechanical retention to a flat dentin surface might improve the adhesion of ceramic and composite resin restorations. Purpose. The purpose of this in vitro study was

  7. The effectiveness of different polymerization protocols for class II composite resin restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, L.C.G. de; Opdam, N.J.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Geitenbeek, B.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of reduced light exposure times on Vickers hardness (VH) of class II composite resin restorations. METHODS: Class II restorations were made in vitro in three 2mm thick increments in a human molar. Two composite resins (Clearfil AP-X; Esthet-X) were polymerized

  8. Wet meadow restoration in Western Europe : A quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of several techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klimkowska, Agata; Diggelen, Rudy Van; Bakker, Jan P.; Grootjans, Ab P.

    2007-01-01

    Techniques such as rewetting, topsoil removal, diaspore transfer or combinations of these are increasingly applied in fen meadow and flood meadow restoration in Western Europe. In this paper, we present a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of the commonly used meadow restoration methods.

  9. Effect of mangrove restoration on crab burrow density in Luoyangjiang Estuary, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Mangrove restoration seeks to restore or rebuild degraded mangrove systems. The methods of mangrove restoration include ecological projects and restoration-oriented technologies, the latter of which are designed to restore the structure, processes as well as related physical, chemical and biological characteristics of wetlands and to ensure the provision of ecosystem services. As important components of mangrove ecosystem, benthic organisms and crabs play a key role in nutrient cycling. In addition, mangrove restoration, such as vegetation restoration measures, can lead to changes in the benthic faunal communities. This study investigates whether the presence of different mangrove species, age and canopy cover of mangrove communities affect the density of crab burrows. Methods The Luoyangjiang Estuary, in the southeast of Fujian Province, was selected as our research area. A survey, covering 14 sites, was conducted to investigate the impacts of mangrove restoration on the density of crab burrows in four rehabilitated forests with different stand ages and canopy. Results It was found that differences in vegetation types had a large impact on crab density and that the density of crab burrows was lower on exposed beaches (non-mangrove than under mature Kandelia candel, Aegiceras corniculatum and Avicennia marina communities. In general, the amount of leaf litter and debris on mangrove mudflats was greater than on the beaches as food sources for crabs. Two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA shows that changes in mangrove species and age since restoration had different effects on crab burrow density. The effect of canopy cover was highly significant on crab burrow density. Conclusions The results suggest that in the process of mangrove restoration the combined effects of mangrove stand age, canopy cover and other factors should be taken into account. This study further supports the findings of the future scientific research and practice on

  10. The use of phytometers for evaluating restoration effects on riparian soil fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Anna L; Lind, Lovisa; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland

    2014-11-01

    The ecological restoration of streams in Sweden has become increasingly important to counteract effects of past timber floating. In this study, we focused on the effect on riparian soil properties after returning coarse sediment (cobbles and boulders) to the channel and reconnecting riparian with in-stream habitats. Restoration increases habitat availability for riparian plants, but its effects on soil quality are unknown. We also analyzed whether the restoration effect differs with variation in climate and stream size. We used standardized plant species to measure the performance of a grass ( L.) and a forb ( L.) in soils sampled in the riparian zones of channelized and restored streams and rivers. Furthermore, we analyzed the mass fractions of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) along with the proportions of the stable isotopes C and N in the soil, as well as its grain size composition. We found a positive effect of restoration on biomass of phytometers grown in riparian soils from small streams, indicating that restoration enhanced the soil properties favoring plant performance. We suggest that changed flooding with more frequent but less severe floods and slower flows, enhancing retention, could explain the observed patterns. This positive effect suggests that it may be advantageous to initiate restoration efforts in small streams, which make up the highest proportion of the stream network in a catchment. Restoration responses in headwater streams may then be transmitted downstream to facilitate recovery of restored larger rivers. If the larger rivers were restored first, a slower reaction would be expected. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. Entanglement and symmetry effects in the transition to the Schroedinger cat regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale, F. de [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma La Sapienza (Italy); CNR-INFM Center for Statistical Mechanics and Complexity, Roma (Italy); Giorgi, G.L. [Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems, IFISC (CSIC-UIB), Campus Universitat Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Zannetti, M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita di Salerno (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    We study two-spin entanglement and order parameter fluctuations as a function of the system size in the XY model in a transverse field and in the isotropic XXX model. Both models are characterized by the occurrence of ground state degeneracy also when systems of finite size are considered. This is always true for the XXX model, but only at the factorizing field for the XY model. We study the size dependence of symmetric states, which, in the presence of degeneracy, can be expanded as a linear combination of broken symmetry states. We show that, while the XY model looses its quantum superposition content exponentially with the size N, a decrease of the order of 1/N is observed when the XXX model is considered. The emergence of two qualitatively different regimes is directly related to the difference in the symmetry of the models. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  12. Effects of mirror symmetry on the transmission fingerprints of quasiperiodic photonic multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, I.P.; Vasconcelos, M.S.; Bezerra, C.G.

    2010-01-01

    We address the transmission properties of light waves through symmetric Fibonacci, Thue-Morse and double-period photonic multilayers, i.e., a binary one-dimensional quasiperiodic structure made up of two different dielectric materials (more specifically SiO 2 and TiO 2 ), in quarter wavelength condition, presenting mirror symmetry. The optical spectra are calculated by using a theoretical model based on the transfer matrix approach in normal incidence geometry. In our results we present the self-similar features of the spectra and we also present the optical fingerprints through a return map of the transmission coefficients. We discuss these optical fingerprints and compare them with results of previous works, on similar quasiperiodic systems, in the absence of mirror symmetry.

  13. Effects of body-weight supported treadmill training on kinetic symmetry in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Stephanie A; Dugan, Eric L; Ozimek, Elicia N; Curtis, Amy B

    2012-11-01

    The purpose was to examine changes in kinetic symmetry in persons with chronic stroke immediately and 6-months after body-weight supported treadmill training. Fifteen participants at least six-months post stroke and able to ambulate between 0.4 and 0.8m/s and 20 participants without neurological conditions completed all phases of the study and were included in the analysis. The non-disabled group served as a comparison for describing changes in kinetic symmetry. The stroke group completed 24 sessions of body-weight supported treadmill training over 8-weeks with 20 minutes of total walking per session. Bilateral 3-dimensional motion analysis and gait speed were assessed 1-week before training (pre-test), 1-week after training (post-test) and 6-months after training (retention) in a repeated measures design. Relative propulsion of the paretic leg and relative positive work of the hip, knee and ankle joints of both legs were calculated to evaluate symmetry of kinetic forces. Statistically significant differences in relative propulsion and positive joint work within the paretic and non-paretic legs were not found over time. The stroke group significantly improved gait speed from pre- to post-test (p=.001) and pre-test to retention (p=.008). In comparison to the non-disabled group, forces produced by the stroke group were asymmetrical demonstrating compensatory adaptation. Although the participants with chronic stroke walked faster after body-weight supported treadmill training, the relative percentages of propulsion and positive work remained unchanged. These findings suggest that the increase in speed was likely due to strengthening existing compensatory strategies rather than through recovery of normal kinetic symmetry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pore-fluid effects on seismic waves in vertically fractured earth with orthotropic symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berryman, J.G.

    2010-05-15

    For elastically noninteracting vertical-fracture sets at arbitrary orientation angles to each other, a detailed model is presented in which the resulting anisotropic fractured medium generally has orthorhombic symmetry overall. Some of the analysis methods and ideas of Schoenberg are emphasized, together with their connections to other similarly motivated and conceptually related methods by Sayers and Kachanov, among others. Examples show how parallel vertical-fracture sets having HTI (horizontal transversely isotropic) symmetry transform into orthotropic fractured media if some subsets of the vertical fractures are misaligned with the others, and then the fractured system can have VTI (vertical transversely isotropic) symmetry if all of the fractures are aligned randomly or half parallel and half perpendicular to a given vertical plane. An orthotropic example having vertical fractures in an otherwise VTI earth system (studied previously by Schoenberg and Helbig) is compared with the other examples treated and it is finally shown how fluids in the fractures affect the orthotropic poroelastic system response to seismic waves. The key result is that fracture-influence parameters are multiplied by a factor of (1-B), where 0 {le} B < 1 is Skempton's second coefficient for poroelastic media. Skempton's B coefficient is itself a measurable characteristic of fluid-saturated porous rocks, depending on porosity, solid moduli, and the pore-fluid bulk modulus. For heterogeneous porous media, connections between the present work and earlier related results of Brown and Korringa are also established.

  15. Morphodynamic effects of riparian vegetation growth after stream restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas-Luna, Andrés; Crosato, Alessandra; Anders, Niels; Hoitink, Antonius J.F.; Keesstra, Saskia D.; Uijttewaal, Wim S.J.

    2018-01-01

    The prediction of the morphological evolution of renaturalized streams is important for the success of restoration projects. Riparian vegetation is a key component of the riverine landscape and is therefore essential for the natural rehabilitation of rivers. This complicates the design of

  16. Collective states and crossing symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiss, W.D.

    1977-01-01

    Collective states are usually described in simple terms but with the use of effective interactions which are supposed to contain more or less complicated contributions. The significance of crossing symmetry is discussed in this connection. Formal problems encountered in the attempts to implement crossing symmetry are pointed out

  17. Introduction to Chiral Symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    These lectures are an attempt to a pedagogical introduction into the elementary concepts of chiral symmetry in nuclear physics. We will also discuss some effective chiral models such as the linear and nonlinear sigma model as well as the essential ideas of chiral perturbation theory. We will present some applications to the physics of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisionsd.

  18. Sorting Out Effects of Active Stream Restoration: Channel Morphology, Channel Change Processes and Potential Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, P. F.

    2017-12-01

    In many active restoration projects, instream structures or modifications are designed to produce specific change in channel form, such as reduced W:D or increased pool depth, yet there is little monitoring to evaluate effectiveness. Active restoration often takes place within a context of other land management changes that can have an effect on channel form. Thus, the effects of active restoration are difficult to separate from the effects of other management actions. We measured morphologic response to restoration designs on sections of the Middle Fork John Day River, a gravel-cobble bed river under a cattle grazing regime in the Blue Mountain of Oregon. Since 2000, restoration actions have included elimination of cattle grazing in the riparian zone (passive restoration), riparian planting of woody vegetation, instream log structures for fish habitat and pool maintenance, and elimination of a major flow diversion. We listed the hypothetical effects of each of these management changes, showing overlap among effects of active and passive restoration. Repeat cross-section and longitudinal profile surveys over eight years, and repeat aerial imagery, documented changes in channel width, depth and bed morphology, and processes of change (bank erosion or aggradation, point bar erosion or aggradation, bed incision or aggradation), in two restored reaches and two adjacent control (unrestored) reaches. Morphologic changes were modest. Bankfull cross-section area, width, and W:D all decreased slightly in both restored reaches. Control reaches were unchanged or increased slightly. Processes of change were markedly different among the four reaches, with different reaches dominated by different processes. One restored reach was dominated by slight bed aggradation, increased pool depth and deep pools/km, while the other restored reach was dominated by bank erosion, bar aggradation and slight bed incision, along with increased deep pools/km. The longitudinal profile showed

  19. Cumulative effects of successive restorative procedures on anterior crown flexure: intact versus veneered incisors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, P; Douglas, W H

    2000-01-01

    When successive restorative procedures (e.g., porcelain veneers, interdental resin composite restorations, and endodontic treatment) are carried out on the same tooth, significant effects on crown flexure can be expected. Dentin-bonded porcelain veneers (experimental group) were assessed in vitro using functional and cyclic thermal loads. They were compared to natural teeth (control group) with respect to 2 parameters: coronal flexure (investigated using experimental strain gauges) and morphology of the tooth-restoration interface (scanning electron microscopic evaluation). For both veneered and natural teeth, crown deformation was recorded at 5 sequential experimental steps: intact tooth (baseline), Class III cavities, Class III resin composite restorations, endodontic treatment, and endodontic restoration (without posts). No significant differences in crown flexure were found between natural and veneered incisors when compared across experimental steps. The main effect for experimental steps was highly significant. When averaged across all specimens (natural and veneered teeth), the endodontic treatment step resulted in the highest crown flexure (1.55x the baseline value). The unrestored Class III cavities and the endodontic restoration were next highest (1.30x and 1.28x the baseline value, respectively). The lowest crown flexures were found after restoration of the Class III cavities (1.13x the baseline value). No measurable microleakage or gaps were detected at the ceramic-resin, resin-enamel, or resin-dentin interfaces (Optibond FL, Kerr). Each subsequent reduction in tooth structure resulted in a substantial increase in crown flexibility, even after restoration. Endodontic procedures were responsible for most of the loss in crown stiffness. Extensive proximal cutting and restorations seemed to minimally affect crown flexure. Porcelain veneers showed perfect biomimetic behavior, because cumulated restoration procedures had the same effect on natural and

  20. Effect of composite/amalgam thickness on fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth, restored with combined amalgam-composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firouzmandi, Maryam; Doozandeh, Maryam; Jowkar, Zahra; Abbasi, Sanaz

    2016-07-01

    Combined amalgam-composite restorations have been used through many years to benefit from the advantages of both dental amalgam and composite resin. Two variations have been mentioned for this technique, this study investigated the fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth with extended mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities, restored with the two variations of combined amalgam-composite restorations. Sixty intact extracted premolar teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (G1-G6) of 10 teeth. G1; consisted of intact teeth and G2; consisted of teeth with MOD preparations were assigned as the positive and negative control groups respectively. Other experimental groups after MOD preparations were as follows: G3, amalgam restoration; G4, composite restoration; G5 combined amalgam-composite restoration with amalgam placement only on 1mm of the gingival floor of the proximal boxes; G6, combined amalgam-composite restoration with amalgam placement to the height of contact area of the proximal surface of the tooth. Fracture strength of the specimens was measured and the data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of significance was Pamalgam-composite restoration was similar to that achieved with composite restoration alone and more than that of amalgam restoration alone. It can be concluded that the thickness of amalgam in combined amalgam-composite restorations did not affect fracture resistance of the teeth. Amalgam, composite, fracture resistance, restoration.

  1. Symmetry-improved 2PI approach to the Goldstone-boson IR problem of the SM effective potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Pilaftsis

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The effective potential of the Standard Model (SM, from three loop order and higher, suffers from infrared (IR divergences arising from quantum effects due to massless would-be Goldstone bosons associated with the longitudinal polarizations of the W± and Z bosons. Such IR pathologies also hinder accurate evaluation of the two-loop threshold corrections to electroweak quantities, such as the vacuum expectation value of the Higgs field. However, these divergences are an artifact of perturbation theory, and therefore need to be consistently resummed in order to obtain an IR-safe effective potential. The so-called Two-Particle-Irreducible (2PI effective action provides a rigorous framework to consistently perform such resummations, without the need to resort to ad hoc subtractions or running into the risk of over-counting contributions. By considering the recently proposed symmetry-improved 2PI formalism, we address the problem of the Goldstone-boson IR divergences of the SM effective potential in the gaugeless limit of the theory. In the same limit, we evaluate the IR-safe symmetry-improved 2PI effective potential, after taking into account quantum loops of chiral fermions, as well as the renormalization of spurious custodially breaking effects triggered by fermionic Yukawa interactions. Finally, we compare our results with those obtained with other methods presented in the literature.

  2. Effects of elevated temperatures on different restorative materials: An aid to forensic identification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pol, Chetan A; Ghige, Suvarna K; Gosavi, Suchitra R; Hazarey, Vinay K

    2015-01-01

    Heat-induced alterations to dental and restorative materials can be of great interest to forensic dentistry. Knowing the specific optical behavior of dental materials can be of high importance as recognition of changes induced by high temperatures can lead to the determination of material which was used in a dental restoration, facilitating identification of burned human remains. To observe the effects of predetermined temperatures (200°C-400°C-600°C-800°C-1000°C) on unrestored teeth and different restorative materials macroscopically and then examine them under a stereomicroscope for the purpose of identification. The study was conducted on 375 extracted teeth which were divided into five groups of 75 teeth each as follows: group 1- unrestored teeth, group 2- teeth restored with all-ceramic crowns, Group 3- with class I silver amalgam filling, group 4- with class I composite restoration, and group 5- with class I glass ionomer cement restoration. Unrestored and restored teeth display a series of specific macroscopic & stereomicroscopic structural changes for each range of temperature. Dental tissues and restorative materials undergo a series of changes which correlate well with the various temperatures to which they were exposed. These changes are a consequence of the nature of the materials and their physicochemical characteristics.

  3. Effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical Marginal-gaps on the survival of proximal atraumatic restorative treatment approach restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M Kemoli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Atraumatic restorative treatment (ART approach has been in existence for a while, the reasons for the poor performance of multisurface ART restorations are not very clear. Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of oral hygiene, residual caries and cervical marginal-gaps on survival of proximal ART restorations. Settings: Two rural divisions in Kenya were selected for the study. Design: A randomized clinical trial. Material and Methods: The 804 children in the study had their baseline- and 2-year dental plaque levels documented. Each child received one proximal restoration in a primary molar using ART approach, together with trained and pre-tested operators/assistants, three glass ionomer cements (GIC-brands and two tooth-isolation methods. The restorations were clinically evaluated soon after placement and after 2 years. Post-restorative bite-wing radiographs taken soon after restoration were also evaluated. Statistical analysis: Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 14 computer programme was used and results tested using Pearson′s correlation, Cox Proportional Hazards regression analysis and Multiple Logistic regression models tests. Results: At baseline and after 2 years, the mean cumulative survival and plaque index changed from 94.4% to 30.8% and 2.34 (Standard Deviation, or SD of 0.46 to 1.92 (SD 2.1 respectively, with higher plaque indices associated with higher restoration failures. Of the 507 radiographs evaluated, 48 (9.5%, 63 (12.4% and 9 (1.8% restorations had residual caries (RC, cervical marginal-gaps (CMG and both RC/CMG respectively. Survival of the restorations with RC/CMG was significantly lower (p = 0.003 compared to those with RC or without RC. Conclusion: Low survival of proximal restorations in the study was associated with the presence of cervical marginal-gaps.

  4. Symmetry of nonexploding cylindrical liner converging to the axis under magnetic field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Grinevich, B.E.; Buzin, V.N.; Pogorelov, V.P.; Shertsov, V.A.; Petrukhin, A.A.; Demidov, V.A.; Zharinov, E.I.

    1990-01-01

    Liner acceleration, affected by magnetic pressure, is broadly used to yield megagauss magnetic fields and plasma compression. The progress of test conduction depends much on the state of liner subjected to Taylor instability while being accelerated. There is a number of methods permitting to reduce liner shape distortions, developing during its acceleration. The most simple method consists in that the aspect ratio (the ratio of liner placing radius to its thickness) is taken less than 10. To impart sufficient velocity to the liner of large thickness its density should be small. Therefore, liner is either a gas layer or explosion products of thin metal foil which passed to a vaporous state in early stage of acceleration. Acceleration of nonexploding liners may serve as the other method of asymmetry reduction. Strength and viscosity of liner will be used as stabilizing factors with respect to the development of Taylor instability. This will allow the aspect ratio increase, that is sometimes useful. Test results on acceleration of nonexploding aluminum liners 1 mm thick have been described. Aspect ratio amounted to 30-60 and the ratio of liner acceleration distance to its thickness (parameter, being of great importance when studying the development of Taylor instability) made up 20-40. Satisfactory azimuthal symmetry of liner convergence to the center was recorded. For more detailed investigation of Taylor instability influence on the symmetry of nonexploding liner, the experiments, when the ratio of liner acceleration length to its thickness would be increased up to 90-100 simultaneously with determination of azimuthal and axial symmetry of liner, are of interest. In this paper presents the results of experiments on acceleration of copper cylindrical liner 1.37 mm thick

  5. Management Effectiveness of a Secondary Coniferous Forest for Landscape Appreciation and Psychological Restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Norimasa; Fujiwara, Akio; Saito, Haruo; Horiuchi, Masahiro

    2017-07-18

    We investigated the influence of forest management on landscape appreciation and psychological restoration in on-site settings by exposing respondents to an unmanaged, dense coniferous (crowding) forest and a managed (thinned) coniferous forest; we set the two experimental settings in the forests of the Fuji Iyashinomoroi Woodland Study Center. The respondents were individually exposed to both settings while sitting for 15 min and were required to answer three questionnaires to analyze the psychological restorative effects before and after the experiment (feeling (the Profile of Mood States), affect (the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule), and subjective restorativeness (the Restorative Outcome Scale). To compare landscape appreciation, they were required to answer another two questionnaires only after the experiment, for scene appreciation (the semantic differential scale) and for the restorative properties of each environment (the Perceived Restorativeness Scale). Finally, we obtained these findings: (1) the respondents evaluated each forest environment highly differently and evaluated the thinned forest setting more positively; (2) the respondents' impressions of the two physical environments did not appear to be accurately reflected in their evaluations; (3) forest environments have potential restorative effects whether or not they are managed, but these effects can be partially enhanced by managing the forests.

  6. Effects of Sublattice Symmetry and Frustration on Ionic Transport in Garnet Solid Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozinsky, Boris; Akhade, Sneha A.; Hirel, Pierre; Hashibon, Adham; Elsässer, Christian; Mehta, Prateek; Logeat, Alan; Eisele, Ulrich

    2016-02-01

    We use rigorous group-theoretic techniques and molecular dynamics to investigate the connection between structural symmetry and ionic conductivity in the garnet family of solid Li-ion electrolytes. We identify new ordered phases and order-disorder phase transitions that are relevant for conductivity optimization. Ionic transport in this materials family is controlled by the frustration of the Li sublattice caused by incommensurability with the host structure at noninteger Li concentrations, while ordered phases explain regions of sharply lower conductivity. Disorder is therefore predicted to be optimal for ionic transport in this and other conductor families with strong Li interaction.

  7. Polymerisation efficiency and shrinkage effects in resin based dental restoratives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hindi, Abdusalam M.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the polymerisation efficiency and shrinkage effects in resin based dental restorative materials. The study highlights factors affecting the polymerisation efficiency, but the efficiency of the light curing units was first measured. The output light intensity and the temperature rise produced by two units were measured using a radiometer with a flat-response characteristic. The units were the Elipar Highlight (Espe Dental AG) and XL3000 (3M Co). The former unit has a dual-intensity mode of operation: 10 slow plus 30 s high (termed "soft-start") and a Ml-intensity mode: 40 s high. Its "high" intensity was significantly greater than the XL3000 Unit, and produced correspondingly greater temperature rises. One of the hypotheses to be tested was whether any useful network-conversion (polymerisation) was attained by application of the 10 slow-intensity phase of the "soft-start" mode. To address this question, the polymerisation efficiency of three representative resin-based restorative materials was studied by measuring depth-of-cure, exotherm, surface hardness and degree of conversion. The Elipar Unit was used principally m these studies, with four modes of radiation: "full" and "soft- start", as above, and either 10 s or 40 s of low intensity light. Most measurements were performed at 23°C, but some specimen groups were also pre-conditioned at 37°C. Depth-of-cure values obtained by "soft-start" were as great as with "full" radiation. Low- intensity irradiation alone gave significantly reduced, but non-zero cure-depths. The exotherm of the specimens cured by "soft-start" was lower than those cured by "full" light-intensity. This pattern was also apparent when the lower-intensity (XL3000) Unit was deployed. Surface hardness was measured on upper and lower surfaces of specimens radiated by different modes. The hardness was greater at upper, relative to lower surfaces with "full" intensity. The lower-surface hardness with low

  8. Effects of Soundscape on the Environmental Restoration in Urban Natural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Kang, Jian; Kang, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Context: According to the attention restoration theory, directed attention is a limited physiological resource and is susceptible to fatigue by overuse. Natural environments are a healthy resource, which allows and promotes the restoration of individuals within it from their state of directed attention fatigue. This process is called the environmental restoration on individuals, and it is affected both positively and negatively by environmental factors. Aims: By considering the relationship among the three components of soundscape, that is, people, sound and the environment, this study aims to explore the effects of soundscape on the environmental restoration in urban natural environments. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted with 70 participants (four groups) in an urban natural environment (Shenyang, China). Directed attention was first depleted with a 50-min ‘consumption’ phase, followed by a baseline measurement of attention level. Three groups then engaged in 40 min of restoration in the respective environments with similar visual surroundings but with different sounds present, after which attention levels were re-tested. The fourth group did not undergo restoration and was immediately re-tested. The difference between the two test scores, corrected for the practice effect, represents the attention restoration of individuals exposed to the respective environments. Statistical Analysis Used: An analysis of variance was performed, demonstrating that the differences between the mean values for each group were statistically significant [sig. = 0.027 (natural sounds group’ (8.4), ‘traffic sounds group’ (2.4) and ‘machine sounds group’ (−1.8). Conclusion: It can be concluded that (1) urban natural environments, with natural sounds, have a positive effect on the restoration of an individuals’ attention and (2) the presence of different types of sounds has significantly divergent effects on the environmental restoration. PMID

  9. Effects of Soundscape on the Environmental Restoration in Urban Natural Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Kang, Jian; Kang, Joe

    2017-01-01

    According to the attention restoration theory, directed attention is a limited physiological resource and is susceptible to fatigue by overuse. Natural environments are a healthy resource, which allows and promotes the restoration of individuals within it from their state of directed attention fatigue. This process is called the environmental restoration on individuals, and it is affected both positively and negatively by environmental factors. By considering the relationship among the three components of soundscape, that is, people, sound and the environment, this study aims to explore the effects of soundscape on the environmental restoration in urban natural environments. A field experiment was conducted with 70 participants (four groups) in an urban natural environment (Shenyang, China). Directed attention was first depleted with a 50-min 'consumption' phase, followed by a baseline measurement of attention level. Three groups then engaged in 40 min of restoration in the respective environments with similar visual surroundings but with different sounds present, after which attention levels were re-tested. The fourth group did not undergo restoration and was immediately re-tested. The difference between the two test scores, corrected for the practice effect, represents the attention restoration of individuals exposed to the respective environments. An analysis of variance was performed, demonstrating that the differences between the mean values for each group were statistically significant [sig. = 0.027 (<0.050)]. The results showed that the mean values (confidence interval of 95%) of each group are as follows: 'natural sounds group' (8.4), 'traffic sounds group' (2.4) and 'machine sounds group' (-1.8). It can be concluded that (1) urban natural environments, with natural sounds, have a positive effect on the restoration of an individuals' attention and (2) the presence of different types of sounds has significantly divergent effects on the environmental

  10. Modeling the Effects of Ecosystem Fragmentation and Restoration: Management Models for Mobile Animals. Volume 2. Appendices 3-7

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sisk, Thomas; Battin, James B; Brand, Arriana; Ries, Leslie; Noon, Barry R

    2003-01-01

    .... Restoration treatments produce a novel type of habitat edge the edge between treated and untreated forest patches which has the potential to have profound effects on animal abundance in the post-restoration landscape...

  11. Applications of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarski, R.D.

    1995-03-01

    The author discusses several topics in the applications of chiral symmetry at nonzero temperature. First, where does the rho go? The answer: up. The restoration of chiral symmetry at a temperature T χ implies that the ρ and a 1 vector mesons are degenerate in mass. In a gauged linear sigma model the ρ mass increases with temperature, m ρ (T χ ) > m ρ (0). The author conjectures that at T χ the thermal ρ - a 1 , peak is relatively high, at about ∼1 GeV, with a width approximately that at zero temperature (up to standard kinematic factors). The ω meson also increases in mass, nearly degenerate with the ρ, but its width grows dramatically with temperature, increasing to at least ∼100 MeV by T χ . The author also stresses how utterly remarkable the principle of vector meson dominance is, when viewed from the modern perspective of the renormalization group. Secondly, he discusses the possible appearance of disoriented chiral condensates from open-quotes quenchedclose quotes heavy ion collisions. It appears difficult to obtain large domains of disoriented chiral condensates in the standard two flavor model. This leads to the last topic, which is the phase diagram for QCD with three flavors, and its proximity to the chiral critical point. QCD may be very near this chiral critical point, and one might thereby generated large domains of disoriented chiral condensates

  12. Effects of river restoration on riparian biodiversity in secondary channels of the Pite River, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfield, James M; Engström, Johanna; Michel, James T; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland

    2012-01-01

    Between 1850 and 1970, rivers throughout Sweden were channelized to facilitate timber floating. Floatway structures were installed to streamline banks and disconnect flow to secondary channels, resulting in simplified channel morphologies and more homogenous flow regimes. In recent years, local authorities have begun to restore channelized rivers. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration on riparian plant communities at previously disconnected secondary channels of the Pite River. We detected no increase in riparian diversity at restored sites relative to unrestored (i.e., disconnected) sites, but we did observe significant differences in species composition of both vascular plant and bryophyte communities. Disconnected sites featured greater zonation, with mesic-hydric floodplain species represented in plots closest to the stream and mesic-xeric upland species represented in plots farthest from the stream. In contrast, restored sites were most strongly represented by upland species at all distances relative to the stream. These patterns likely result from the increased water levels in reconnected channels where, prior to restoration, upland plants had expanded toward the stream. Nonetheless, the restored fluvial regime has not brought about the development of characteristic flood-adapted plant communities, probably due to the short time interval (ca. 5 years) since restoration. Previous studies have demonstrated relatively quick responses to similar restoration in single-channel tributaries, but secondary channels may respond differently due to the more buffered hydrologic regimes typically seen in anabranching systems. These findings illustrate how restoration outcomes can vary according to hydrologic, climatic and ecological factors, reinforcing the need for site-specific restoration strategies.

  13. Effects of Mg and Si ions on the symmetry of δ-AlOOH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, K.; Sano-Furukawa, A.; Kagi, H.

    2011-10-01

    We conducted powder neutron diffraction for δ-AlOOH samples with and without Mg and Si ions under ambient conditions in order to investigate the long-standing problem of the symmetry of this phase. The observed reflection conditions clearly show that the space group of pure δ-AlOOH is P21 nm with ordered hydrogen bonds, whereas that of δ-(Al0.86Mg0.07Si0.07)OOH is Pnnm or Pnn2 with disordered hydrogen bonds. It is more likely that the space group of δ-(Al0.86Mg0.07Si0.07)OOH is Pnnm, because cation or hydrogen ordering that breaks the mirror plane perpendicular to c axis in the Pnnm structure would not occur. The previously reported inconsistency for the space group of this phase was caused by the substitution of Mg and Si ions to Al site, i.e., the disordered cations with different valences may fluctuate hydrogen positions, and the disordered hydrogen causes the symmetry change.

  14. Localization and the effects of symmetries in the thermalization properties of one-dimensional quantum systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Lea F; Rigol, Marcos

    2010-09-01

    We study how the proximity to an integrable point or to localization as one approaches the atomic limit, as well as the mixing of symmetries in the chaotic domain, may affect the onset of thermalization in finite one-dimensional systems. We consider systems of hard-core bosons at half-filling with nearest-neighbor hopping and interaction, and next-nearest-neighbor interaction. The latter breaks integrability and induces a ground-state superfluid to insulator transition. By full exact diagonalization, we study chaos indicators and few-body observables. We show that when different symmetry sectors are mixed, chaos indicators associated with the eigenvectors, contrary to those related to the eigenvalues, capture the onset of chaos. The results for the complexity of the eigenvectors and for the expectation values of few-body observables confirm the validity of the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis in the chaotic regime, and therefore the occurrence of thermalization. We also study the properties of the off-diagonal matrix elements of few-body observables in relation to the transition from integrability to chaos and from chaos to localization.

  15. Effects of ridge cracking and interface sliding on morphological symmetry breaking in straight-sided blisters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-Chen; Yu, Sen-Jiang; He, Linghui; Ni, Yong

    2018-03-01

    Complex surface patterns generated by nonlinear buckling originate from various symmetry-breaking instabilities. Identifying possible key factors that regulate the instability modes is critical to reveal the mechanism of the surface pattern selection. In this paper, how another two factors (ridge cracking and interface sliding) including Poisson's ratio influence the morphological symmetry breaking in straight-sided blisters are systematically studied. Morphology diagrams from stability analysis show that ridge cracking and low Poisson's ratio promote symmetric instability mode and favor bubble-like blisters while interface sliding and high Poisson's ratio facilitate antisymmetric instability mode and result in telephone cord buckles. The analytical predictions are evidenced by experimental observations on annealed silicon nitride films on glass substrates and confirmed by nonlinear numerical simulations. This study explains how and why the rarely observed bubble-like blisters in accompany with ridge crack can appear in brittle thin films in comparison with the ubiquitously observed telephone cord buckles that usually form as the development of an antisymmetric instability mode when straight-sided blisters undergo the super-critical isotropic compression.

  16. Restoration of rivers used for timber floating: effects on riparian plant diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfield, James M; Capon, Samantha J; Nilsson, Christer; Jansson, Roland; Palm, Daniel

    2007-04-01

    Fluvial processes such as flooding and sediment deposition play a crucial role in structuring riparian plant communities. In rivers throughout the world, these processes have been altered by channelization and other anthropogenic stresses. Yet despite increasing awareness of the need to restore natural flow regimes for the preservation of riparian biodiversity, few studies have examined the effects of river restoration on riparian ecosystems. In this study, we examined the effects of restoration in the Ume River system, northern Sweden, where tributaries were channelized to facilitate timber floating in the 19th and early 20th centuries. Restoration at these sites involved the use of heavy machinery to replace instream boulders and remove floatway structures that had previously lined stream banks and cut off secondary channels. We compared riparian plant communities along channelized stream reaches with those along reaches that had been restored 3-10 years prior to observation. Species richness and evenness were significantly increased at restored sites, as were floodplain inundation frequencies. These findings demonstrate how river restoration and associated changes in fluvial disturbance regimes can enhance riparian biodiversity. Given that riparian ecosystems tend to support a disproportionate share of regional species pools, these findings have potentially broad implications for biodiversity conservation at regional or landscape scales.

  17. A new symmetry-based scoring method for posture assessment: evaluation of the effect of insoles with mineral derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masse, M; Gaillardetz, C; Cron, C; Abribat, T

    2000-01-01

    There is a need for a validated rapid procedure for the evaluation of posture, defined as lateral balance/imbalance at the pelvic, shoulder, and neck levels. This would enable clinicians to determine the importance of symmetry in the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal disorders and to assess the efficacy of devices and treatments claiming to normalize or improve posture. In this investigation, the efficacy of such a device, a set of insoles with a hypothesized proprioceptive-like action, was evaluated through use of the described procedure. To develop a new scoring system to evaluate body posture on the basis of symmetry and to use this scoring system to investigate the efficacy of insoles containing a combination of mineral derivatives designed to balance posture through a neurophysiological effect. The posture score was based on the evaluation of 4 postural parameters: pelvic and shoulder lateral balance/imbalance, static shoulder rotation, and amplitude of head rotation. In the placebo-controlled study, 32 patients were tested in a double-blind fashion, either with placebo insoles or with insoles containing mineral derivatives. The same study was repeated in unblind conditions in 137 patients selected from 2 chiropractic clinics in an open-label protocol. A crossover placebo-controlled, double-blind study and a multicenter, large-scale, open-label study in patients selected from chiropractic clinics. A basal postural evaluation in 137 patients revealed that no patient had a perfect symmetry-ie, a perfectly or nearly perfectly balanced posture. The insoles with mineral derivatives induced a highly significant and similar improvement in the postural score in both the crossover double-blind study (32 patients; 56.7% improvement) and the open-label study (137 patients; 60.7% improvement, P postural imbalances according to the newly developed scoring method, and this method was successful in assessing the efficacy of insoles exerting a profound and immediate postural

  18. Symmetry and electromagnetism. Simetria y electromagnetismo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuentes Cobas, L.E.; Font Hernandez, R.

    1993-01-01

    An analytical treatment of electrostatic and magnetostatic field symmetry, as a function of charge and current distribution symmetry, is proposed. The Newmann Principle, related to the cause-effect symmetry relation, is presented and applied to the characterization of simple configurations. (Author) 5 refs.

  19. Effect of composite/amalgam thickness on fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth, restored with combined amalgam-composite restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Firouzmandi, Maryam; Doozandeh, Maryam; Jowkar, Zahra; Abbasi, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Background Combined amalgam-composite restorations have been used through many years to benefit from the advantages of both dental amalgam and composite resin. Two variations have been mentioned for this technique, this study investigated the fracture resistance of maxillary premolar teeth with extended mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities, restored with the two variations of combined amalgam-composite restorations. Material and Methods Sixty intact extracted premolar teeth were randomly divid...

  20. The effect of clinical performance on the survival estimates of direct restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyou-Li Kim

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives In most retrospective studies, the clinical performance of restorations had not been considered in survival analysis. This study investigated the effect of including the clinically unacceptable cases according to modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS criteria into the failed data on the survival analysis of direct restorations as to the longevity and prognostic variables. Materials and Methods Nine hundred and sixty-seven direct restorations were evaluated. The data of 204 retreated restorations were collected from the records, and clinical performance of 763 restorations in function was evaluated according to modified USPHS criteria by two observers. The longevity and prognostic variables of the restorations were compared with a factor of involving clinically unacceptable cases into the failures using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model. Results The median survival times of amalgam, composite resin and glass ionomer were 11.8, 11.0 and 6.8 years, respectively. Glass ionomer showed significantly lower longevity than composite resin and amalgam. When clinically unacceptable restorations were included into the failure, the median survival times of them decreased to 8.9, 9.7 and 6.4 years, respectively. Conclusions After considering the clinical performance, composite resin was the only material that showed a difference in the longevity (p < 0.05 and the significantly higher relative risk of student group than professor group disappeared in operator groups. Even in the design of retrospective study, clinical evaluation needs to be included.

  1. Cost-effectiveness of repairing versus replacing composite or amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzow, Philipp; Wiegand, Annette; Schwendicke, Falk

    2016-11-01

    Repairing instead of replacing partially defective composite or amalgam restorations might reduce the initial treatment risks and costs, but could be less advantageous long-term due to repeated re-interventions being required. This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of repairing versus replacing composite or amalgam restorations. A mixed public-private-payer perspective from the German healthcare setting was adopted. A permanent molar with a three-surfaced partially defective composite or amalgam restoration in need of repair or replacement was modelled. Risks of complications after repair or complete replacement were derived by a rapid systematic literature review. The health outcome measure was tooth retention years. Costs were estimated from the German public and private fee catalogues. Monte-Carlo microsimulations were performed and incremental-cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were used to express cost differences per gain or loss of effectiveness. Compared with complete composite replacement, composite repairs were marginally more costly and more effective (€326 versus €321; 24.7 versus 24.0 years; ICER: €7.14). Amalgam repairs were more costly and more effective than complete replacement (€467 versus €326; 24.3 versus 23.7 years; ICER: €235). If composite repair costs were €166, composite repair was always cost-effective. This was not the case for amalgam repair. The size of the restoration, the reason for repair/replacement, and patients' age were found to influence the cost-effectiveness. Repair was found to be more effective, but not necessarily less costly than complete replacement of restorations. Repairing instead of replacing partially defective restorations is likely to retain teeth for longer compared with complete replacement. When considering cost-effectiveness, repairing composite can be recommended more strongly than repairing amalgam restorations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behbahani, Siavosh R.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Boston U.; Dymarsky, Anatoly; /Princeton, Inst. Advanced Study; Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; /New York U., CCPP /New York U.; Senatore, Leonardo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2012-06-06

    We apply the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to study the case where the continuous shift symmetry of the Goldstone boson {pi} is softly broken to a discrete subgroup. This case includes and generalizes recently proposed String Theory inspired models of Inflation based on Axion Monodromy. The models we study have the property that the 2-point function oscillates as a function of the wavenumber, leading to oscillations in the CMB power spectrum. The non-linear realization of time diffeomorphisms induces some self-interactions for the Goldstone boson that lead to a peculiar non-Gaussianity whose shape oscillates as a function of the wavenumber. We find that in the regime of validity of the effective theory, the oscillatory signal contained in the n-point correlation functions, with n > 2, is smaller than the one contained in the 2-point function, implying that the signature of oscillations, if ever detected, will be easier to find first in the 2-point function, and only then in the higher order correlation functions. Still the signal contained in higher-order correlation functions, that we study here in generality, could be detected at a subleading level, providing a very compelling consistency check for an approximate discrete shift symmetry being realized during inflation.

  3. Partial dynamical symmetry and the suppression of chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, N.; Alhassid, Y.; Leviatan, A.

    1993-01-01

    Partial dynamical symmetry is a situation in which the Hamiltonian does not have a certain symmetry yet a subset of its eigenstates does. It is shown that partial dynamical symmetry may cause suppression of chaos even in cases where the fraction of states which has the symmetry vanishes in the classical limit. The average entropy associated with the symmetry is a sensitive quantum measure of the partial symmetry and its effect on the chaotic dynamics

  4. Partial dynamical symmetry and the suppression of chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whelan, N.; Alhassid, Y. (Center for Theoretical Physics, Sloane Physics Laboratory, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)); Leviatan, A. (Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel))

    1993-10-04

    Partial dynamical symmetry is a situation in which the Hamiltonian does not have a certain symmetry yet a subset of its eigenstates does. It is shown that partial dynamical symmetry may cause suppression of chaos even in cases where the fraction of states which has the symmetry vanishes in the classical limit. The average entropy associated with the symmetry is a sensitive quantum measure of the partial symmetry and its effect on the chaotic dynamics.

  5. A randomized clinical trial of cusp-replacing resin composite restorations: efficiency and short-term effectiveness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijs, R.H.; Fennis, W.M.M.; Kreulen, C.M.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Burgersdijk, R.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the efficacy and short-term effectiveness of the morphology and function of direct and indirect cusp-replacing resin composite restorations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 94 patients, 106 cusp-replacing restorations for maxillary premolars were fabricated to restore

  6. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  7. Restorative Care's Effect on Activities of Daily Living Dependency in Long-stay Nursing Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Kristine M C; Wyman, Jean F; Savik, Kay; Kane, Robert L; Mueller, Christine; Zhao, Hong

    2015-06-01

    (a) Identify the prevalence of nursing homes providing Medicare supported restorative care programs and of long stay participants, (b) compare characteristics between restorative care participants and nonparticipants, and (c) assess restorative care's effect on change in activities of daily living (ADL) dependency. Longitudinal analysis of Minimum Data Set assessments linked to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey using a sample of 7,735 residents, age ≥ 65 years living in 1,097 nursing homes for at least 6 months. Receipt of any restorative care was used as a time varying predictor to estimate change in ADL dependency over 18 months using linear mixed models. The sample was 75% female, 89% non-Hispanic White, with a mean age of 85±8, and average length of stay of 3.2±3.4 years. Most nursing homes had restorative care programs (67%), but less than one-third of long-stay residents participated. After controlling for resident and nursing home characteristics, the predicted mean ADL dependency score (range 0-28) at baseline was 18 for restorative care participants and 14 for nonparticipants. Over 18 months, ADL dependency increased 1 point for both participants and nonparticipants (p = .12). A minority of long-stay residents participated in Medicare supported restorative care programs despite their availability and potential benefits. Even though participants had greater vulnerability for deterioration in physical, mental, and functional health than nonparticipants, both groups had similar rates of ADL decline. Future research is needed to determine if providing restorative care to less dependent long-stay residents is effective. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Symmetry in chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jaffé, Hans H

    1977-01-01

    This book, devoted exclusively to symmetry in chemistry and developed in an essentially nonmathematical way, is a must for students and researchers. Topics include symmetry elements and operations, multiple symmetry operations, multiplication tables and point groups, group theory applications, and crystal symmetry. Extensive appendices provide useful tables.

  9. Paying Attention to Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kootstra, Gert; Nederveen, Arco; de Boer, Bart

    2008-01-01

    Humans are very sensitive to symmetry in visual patterns. Symmetry is detected and recognized very rapidly. While viewing symmetrical patterns eye fixations are concentrated along the axis of symmetry or the symmetrical center of the patterns. This suggests that symmetry is a highly salient feature. Existing computational models of saliency, however, have mainly focused on contrast as a measure of saliency. These models do not take symmetry into account. In this paper, we discuss local symmet...

  10. Effect of Restorative Protocol on Cuspal Strain and Residual Stress in Endodontically Treated Molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ras; Bicalho, A A; Franco, S D; Tantbirojn, D; Versluis, A; Soares, C J

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the restorative protocol on cuspal strain, fracture resistance, residual stress, and mechanical properties of restorative materials in endodontically treated molars. Forty-five molars received mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) Class II preparations and endodontic treatment followed by direct restorations using three restorative protocols: composite resin (CR) only (Filtek Supreme, 3M-ESPE), resin modified glass ionomer cement in combination with CR (Vitremer, 3M-ESPE in pulp chamber and Filtek Supreme in MOD cavity), conventional glass ionomer cement in combination with composite resin (CGI-CR) (Ketac Fil, 3M-ESPE in pulp chamber and Filtek Supreme in MOD cavity). Cuspal strain was measured using strain gauges, and fracture resistance was tested with an occlusal load. Elastic modulus (EM) and Vickers hardness (VH) of the restorative materials were determined at different depths using dynamic microhardness indentation. Curing shrinkage was measured using the strain gauge technique. The restorative protocols were also simulated in finite element analysis (FEA). The shrinkage strain, cuspal strain, EM, VH, and fracture resistance data were statistically analyzed using split-plot analysis of variance and Tukey test (p=0.05). Residual shrinkage stresses were expressed in modified von Mises equivalent stresses. Shrinkage strain values (in volume %) were Ketac Fil (0.08±0.01) restorative protocol significantly affected the biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated molars. Using glass ionomer to fill the pulp chamber is recommended when endodontically treated molars receive direct composite restorations because it reduces cuspal strain and increases fracture resistance.

  11. Effect of provisional restorations on the final bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aykent, F; Usumez, A; Ozturk, A N; Yucel, M T

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the different provisional restorations cementation techniques on the final bond strengths of porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs). Thirty-six extracted human central incisors were sectioned 2 mm below the cemento-enamel junction, and crown parts were embedded into self-cure acrylic resin. Standardized PLV preparations were carried out on labial surfaces of the teeth. Then the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 12 each. In group 1, provisional restorations were cemented with eugenol-free cement. In group 2, prepared teeth surfaces were first coated with a desensitizing agent then provisional restorations were cemented with resin cement. In group 3, provisional restorations were not fabricated to serve as control. After specimens were stored in distilled water for 2 weeks, provisional restorations were removed and final IPS Empress 2 ceramic veneers were bonded with a dual-curing resin. Two microtensile samples from each tooth measuring 1.2 x 1.2 x 5 mm were prepared. These sections were subjected to microtensile testing and failure values were recorded. The data were analysed by one-way anova and Tukey HSD tests. The PLVs, placed on the tooth surface that had received a dentine desensitizer and provisional restorations luted with resin cement (group 2), showed the lowest bond strength in all test groups. But no statistically significant differences were found between the bond strength of PLVs in control group (no provisional restorations) and group 1 (provisional restorations cemented with eugenol-free cement before final cementations). Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of this study also showed that the bonding to enamel surface was better in control group and group 1 than group 2.

  12. Effect of various temperatures on restored and unrestored teeth: A forensic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagdey, Shubhangi P; Moharil, Rohit Balwant; Dive, Alka M; Thakur, Samantha; Bodhade, Ashish; Dhobley, Akshay A

    2014-01-01

    In large scale disasters associated with fire the damage caused by heat can make medico legal identification of human remains difficult. Teeth, restorations, and prostheses all of which are resistant to quite high temperatures and can be used as aids in identification process. Aim of the study was to investigate the macroscopic and microscopic changes of teeth and several dental filling materials exposed to a range of high temperature (200-800°C). Dental restorations include filling materials, crown, and bridges. Restored and unrestored teeth were placed in a furnace and heated at a rate of 30°C/min and the effects of the predetermined temperatures 200, 400, 600, and 800°C were observed. Macroscopic and stereo microscope findings were observed. Our results showed that teeth and restorative materials resist higher temperatures than theoretically predicted and that even when a restoration is lost because of detachment or change of state, its ante-mortem presence can be confirmed and detected by stereo microscopic examination of the residual cavity. We further conclude that a reasonably reliable estimation of the temperature of exposure can be made from an analysis of the teeth and restorative materials.

  13. Cariostatic effect of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels on root dentin

    Science.gov (United States)

    BORGES, Fernanda Tavares; CAMPOS, Wagner Reis da Costa; MUNARI, Lais Sant'ana; MOREIRA, Allyson Nogueira; PAIVA, Saul Martins; MAGALHÃES, Claudia Silami

    2010-01-01

    Secondary caries is still the main cause of restoration replacement, especially on the root surface Objective This in vitro study evaluated the cariostatic effects of fluoride-containing restorative materials associated with fluoride gels, on root dentin. Materials and Methods A randomized complete block design was used to test the effects of the restorative systems, fluoride regimes and the interactions among them at different distances from restoration margins. Standardized cavities were prepared on 240 bovine root specimens and randomly assigned to 15 groups of treatments (n=16). Cavities were filled with the following restorative materials: Ketac-Fil (3M-ESPE); Vitremer (3M-ESPE); Dyract/Prime & Bond NT (Dentsply); Charisma/Gluma One Bond (Heraeus Kulzer) and the control, Z250/Single Bond (3M-ESPE). The specimens were subjected to a pH-cycling model designed to simulate highcaries activity. During the cycles, 1.23% acidulated phosphate fluoride, 2.0% neutral sodium fluoride or deionized/distilled water (control) was applied to the specimens for 4 min. The surface Knoop microhardness test was performed before (KHNi) and after (KHNf) the pH cycles at 100, 200 and 300 mm from the margins. Dentin microhardness loss was represented by the difference in initial and final values (KHNi - KHNf). Data were analyzed by Friedman's and Wilcoxon's tests, ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=5%). Results The interaction of restorative systems and topical treatments was not significant (p=0.102). Dentin microhardness loss was lowest closer to the restoration. Ketac-fil presented the highest cariostatic effect. Vitremer presented a moderate effect, while Dyract and Charisma did not differ from the control, Z250. The effects of neutral and acidulated fluoride gels were similar to each other and higher than the control. Conclusion Conventional and resin-modified glass ionomer cements as well as neutral and acidulated fluoride gels inhibit the progression of artificial caries adjacent to

  14. Color match of machinable lithium disilicate ceramics: effects of foundation restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Eva; Agustin, Marcus; Douglas, R Duane

    2013-12-01

    Metal or white opaque foundation restorations may negatively affect the color of machinable lithium disilicate (MLD) ceramic restorations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ceramic thickness and foundation restoration materials on the color of MLD restorations. Forty-five ceramic slices in 3 thicknesses (1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm; 15 slices in each group) were made from low-translucency (LT) shade A1 IPS e.max CAD blocks. Resin cement (Multilink yellow) of 100-μm cement thickness was bonded to 3 different foundation restoration materials: silver-palladium (Ag-Pd) (Albacast) alloy, Type III gold (Midas), and white opaque foundation resin (Paracore white) to make the cement-foundation blocks. After optically connecting each ceramic specimen to the cement-foundation block, the color of each laminated combination was measured with a portable spectrophotometer (Vita EasyShade Compact). The color differences (ΔE) between the specimen assemblies and a control target block (a 12×14×14-mm crystalized shade A1 LT e.max CAD block) were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and general linear model were used to assess the effects of ceramic thickness, foundation materials, and their interactions to the resultant ΔE (α=.05). Clinical significance was determined by comparing color differences to perceptibility and acceptability thresholds by using the t test (α=.05). Both ceramic thickness and foundation materials significantly affected the mean values of color difference (ΔE) of MLD restorations (P2.6) with the 3 tested foundation materials (PAg-Pd, then white opaque foundation resin. The color differences for Type III gold and a ceramic thickness of 1.5 or 2.0 mm were below the clinically perceptible level (ΔEAg-Pd alloy or white opaque foundation resin, the color differences were above the clinically perceptible level (ΔE>2.6) (PAg-Pd alloy reduced, the values of L* and b* parameters of MLD complexes, whereas the white opaque resin increased them. Based on

  15. On the harmonic-type and linear-type confinement of a relativistic scalar particle yielded by Lorentz symmetry breaking effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakke, K., E-mail: kbakke@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, Caixa Postal 5008, 58051-900, João Pessoa-PB (Brazil); Belich, H., E-mail: belichjr@gmail.com [Departamento de Física e Química, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Goiabeiras, 29060-900, Vitória, ES (Brazil)

    2016-10-15

    Based on the Standard Model Extension, we investigate relativistic quantum effects on a scalar particle in backgrounds of the Lorentz symmetry violation defined by a tensor field. We show that harmonic-type and linear-type confining potentials can stem from Lorentz symmetry breaking effects, and thus, relativistic bound state solutions can be achieved. We first analyse a possible scenario of the violation of the Lorentz symmetry that gives rise to a harmonic-type potential. In the following, we analyse another possible scenario of the breaking of the Lorentz symmetry that induces both harmonic-type and linear-type confining potentials. In this second case, we also show that not all values of the parameter associated with the intensity of the electric field are permitted in the search for polynomial solutions to the radial equation, where the possible values of this parameter are determined by the quantum numbers of the system and the parameters associated with the violation of the Lorentz symmetry.

  16. Effect of Fluoride-containing Restorative Materials on Dentin Adhesion and Demineralization of Hard Tissues Adjacent to Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida Ayres, Ana Paula; Tabchoury, Cínthia Pereira Machado; Bittencourt Berger, Sandrine; Yamauti, Monica; Bovi Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria; Giannini, Marcelo

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated (1) the dentin bond strength of fluoridated restorative systems following aging and (2) the enamel/dentin microhardness around restorations after a pH-cycling regimen. Sixty-four human third molars and four restorative systems were used. A resin-modified glass ionomer (GC Fuji II LC) was used as a fluoride-containing material in the positive control group, while Adper Easy Bond adhesive and Filtek Z350 XT composite resin, which are not fluoridated, were used together in the negative control group. Beautifil II composite resin and FL-Bond II adhesive, both fluoride-containing materials, were compared to Bond Force and Estelite Sigma Quick restorative system, which only contain fluoride in the adhesive. For dentin bond strengths, specimens of each material were fabricated for two test groups (n=8): group 1: tested after 24 h; group 2: tested after 1 year of storage in artificial saliva. Both groups were tested using a microtensile method. For the cross-sectional microhardness test, standardized Class V cavities were prepared and filled with the different restorative systems. After experiencing repeated thermocycling and being subjected to pH-cycling, the teeth were sectioned. The microhardness was measured in enamel and dentin at 50 μm from the cavity wall and at six depths in relation to the surface subjected to pH cycling. None of the restorative systems showed decreased bond strength after storage for one year in artificial saliva. No significant differences in microhardness were observed among the restorative materials on enamel and dentin. All the restorative systems evaluated presented stable bond strength after one year of storage. The pH cycling caused a reduction in the superficial enamel microhardness close to the cavity wall. In dentin, the demineralization affected the superficial and sub-surface areas.

  17. Broken symmetry phase transition in solid p-H 2, o-D 2 and HD: crystal field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, Yu. A.; Hemley, R. J.; Jezowski, A.; Tretyak, S. M.

    1999-04-01

    We report the effect of the crystal field (CF) on the broken symmetry phase transition (BSP) in solid parahydrogen, orthodeuterium, and hydrogen deuteride. The CF was calculated taking into account a distortion from the ideal HCP structure. We find that, in addition to the molecular field generated by the coupling terms in the intermolecular potential, the Hamiltonian of the system contains a crystal-field term, originating from single-molecular terms in the intermolecular potential. Ignoring the CF is the main cause of the systematic underestimation of the transition pressure, characteristic of published theories of the BSP transition. The distortion of the lattice that gives rise to the negative CF in response to the applied pressure is in accord with the general Le Chatelier-Braun principle.

  18. Wave propagation retrieval method for metamaterials: Unambiguous restoration of effective parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    In this brief report we propose a direct method of effective-parameters restoration that is based on the wave propagation phenomenon. It is easy in implementation, has no unambiguity in retrieving effective properties and is applicable to thick metamaterial (MTM) slabs. The method is validated...

  19. The effect of baking soda when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostes, Bhenya Ottoni; Mondelli, Rafael Francisco Lia; Lima-Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira; Rodrigues, Jose Augusto; Costa, Leonardo Cesar

    2013-08-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of 10% baking soda solution and sodium bicarbonate powder (applied with jets) when applied to bleached enamel prior to restorative treatment. The surfaces of 40 bovine incisors were flattened and divided into 5 groups (n = 8): Group B (bleached and restored, negative control), Group W (bleached, stored in distilled water for 7 days, and restored), Group BSJ (bleached, abraded with baking soda jet for 1 min, and restored), Group BSS (bleached, application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min, and restored), and Group R (restored, without bleaching, positive control). The samples were bleached in 1 session with 3 applications of 35% HP-based gel and activated with a LED appliance for 9 min each. Resin composite cylinders (2 mm height and 0.8 mm diameter) were made on the enamel surface after the acid etching and a conventional 1-step single vial adhesive application was performed. After storage in distilled water (37 ± 1°C, 24 hr), the microshear bond test was performed (1 mm/min). ANOVA and Tukey tests were applied to compare the results. The mean results of these tests showed that Groups W, BBS, and R were not statistically different. These groups also indicated a higher bond strength when compared with Groups B and BSJ. The application of 10% baking soda solution for 5 min may be an alternative pre-restorative treatment for bleached enamel, but further studies are needed to consider whether or not this treatment may be effectively used in clinical practice.

  20. Effects of victim presence and coercion in restorative justice: An experimental paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saulnier, Alana; Sivasubramaniam, Diane

    2015-08-01

    There is little experimental work examining the ways in which particular procedural features of restorative justice impact offenders. This research describes a new experimental paradigm designed to advance knowledge about causal relationships in restorative justice settings. Apologizing is a core component of restorative procedures, and can result in beneficial outcomes, but previous research suggests that coercion to apologize and the absence of victims in restorative procedures may negatively impact these outcomes. The experimental procedure elicited confessions and apologies for a transgression from participants (N = 101) in a deceptive paradigm. We manipulated coercion (coerced, not coerced) and victim presence (direct, surrogate, ambiguous) to test their effects on offenders' subjective experiences of offering an apology, as well as their effects on the quality of offenders' apologies. Findings indicated that the victim presence and coercion manipulations significantly impacted some of the subjective perceptions of apologizers, including perceptions of accountability and transgression finality. In addition, independent raters evaluated the degree to which the transgressor's apologies conveyed remorse, acceptance of guilt, and potential for dispute resolution. Victim presence and coercion consistently affected the ability of transgressors to convey high quality apologies. Implications for future research and restorative procedures are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Insights from three flavors for three families based on compositeness and symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yueliang

    2012-01-01

    The concepts of compositeness and symmetry on the microstructure of matter have had a significant influence on the quest for the origin of particles and the universe. The studies on the property and phenomenology of hadrons as composite particles have led many insights and discoveries in particle physics, such as flavor symmetry, chiral symmetry, PCAC, strong interaction, dynamical symmetry breaking, indirect and direct CP violations, quark model from three flavors to three families, chiral dynamical model, quantum chromodynamics, quark confinement. I briefly present some interesting progresses and insights made in our group based on compositeness and symmetry. It can be seen that both the indirect and direct CP symmetry violation in kaon decays as well as the isospin ΔI=1/2 selection rule can simultaneously be explained in the standard model with the Kobayashi-Maskawa CP-violating phase and the chiral dynamic loop effect. We present a brief description on the symmetry-preserving loop regularization (LORE) method which is realized in four dimensional space-time. The LORE method introduces two energy scales and maintains the initial divergence behavior, which overcomes some shortages in other regularization schemes. A chiral dynamical model of QCD can be derived by using the LORE method to understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking via the dynamically generated composite Higgs potential, which can provide a consistent prediction for the mass spectra of both the nonet scalar and pseudoscalar ground state mesons. By extending such a model to a chiral thermodynamic model with the closed-time-path Green function approach, it enables us to characterize the critical behavior of QCD and the restoration of chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  2. Interim restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratton, David G; Aquilino, Steven A

    2004-04-01

    Interim restorations are a critical component of fixed prosthodontic treatment, biologically and biomechanically. Interim restoration serves an important diagnostic role as a functional and esthetic try-in and as a blueprint for the design of the definitive prosthesis. When selecting materials for any interim restoration, clinicians must consider physical properties, handling properties, patient acceptance, and material cost. Although no single material meets all the requirements and material classification alone of a given product is not a predictor of clinical performance, bis-acryl materials are typically best suited to single-unit restorations, and poly(methylmethacrylate) interim materials are generally ideal for multi-unit, complex, long-term, interim fixed prostheses. As with most dental procedures, the technique used for fabrication has a greater effect on the final result than the specific material chosen.

  3. The effect of restorative materials on cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Neslihan; Askın, Seda; Gul, Mehmet Ali; Seven, Nilgun

    2017-12-01

    Composition of the restorative materials may cause inflammatory responses by monocyte activation and changes in the levels of cytokine released from different cells. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are important cytokine for evaluating of the inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the different restorative materials used in class V cavities effect on gingival crevicular fluid inflammatory cytokine levels. 60 individuals having Class V carious cavities participated in the study. Cavities were restored with FiltekZ250, DyractXP, Fuji IX, Cavex avalloy restorative materials. Changes in clinical and biochemical parameters were evaluated before restorations, seven and 21days after restorations. Contralateral tooth intact enamel surface was determined as control side. Periotron8000 device was used for detection of GCF volume. Cytokine level of GCF was evaluated by Human ELISA kits. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test. The correlations between clinical parameters and biochemical parameters were examined by Spearman's rank correlation analysis. After restorative treatments PI and GI scores were decreased compared with baseline evaluations. There was a significant difference in GCF levels between experimental and control sites in all groups. GCF IL-6 levels in all groups except Filtek Z250, GCF IL-8 levels in all groups except Fuji IX, GCF TNF-α level in only Fuji IX showed significant differences between experimental and control sites. The obtained data supported that all of the tested materials caused changes in GCF cytokine levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of potential barrier growth of auto-localized excitons decay on radiation defects in AHC at low lattice symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shunkeev, K.; Sagimbaeva, Sh.; Shunkeev, S.

    2007-01-01

    Effect of auto-localized excitons (ALE) luminescence strengthening is conditioned by two mechanisms: either decrease of potential barrier divided of quasi-free states and auto-localized states or decrease of emission-less channel effectiveness of exciton decay on primary radiation defects. In considered range (80 K) all excitons are only in auto-localized state. Therefore a realization of the first mechanism is improbable, For instant, in KI crystal at 80-100 K luminescence of free exciton is completely putting out, and ALE luminescence has maximal intensity. It is known that in the temperature range when ALE luminescence putting out is beginning an effectiveness of radiation defects is beginning to grow. This effect is related with predominating at that time emission-less exciton decay on radiation defects (F-H pairs). Experimentally by luminescence spectroscopy method activation energy of temperature putting out of ALE in AHC under uniaxial deformation. It is revealed, that increase of activation energy value has observed in a number of crystals: KBr→NaCl→KI→Na Br→CsBr→RbI. It is concluded, that effect of ALE intensity building-up and decrease of effectiveness of radiation defect formation are interpreted by growth of potential barrier of ALE decay into radiation defects under low symmetry of AHC lattice of low-temperature uniaxial deformation

  5. The Immediate Effect of a Textured Insole in Nonparetic Lower Limb Symmetry of Weight Bearing and Gait Parameters in Patients with Chronic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hassan Abadi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion The current study showed that obligatory use of affected limb side could improve symmetry of weight bearing in walking and standing position of patients with chronic stroke by overcoming the phenomenon of learned lack of using and correcting the failure of sending sensory signals to centers of movement controls. The results of this study showed that unilateral use of textured insole with shore A-80 in the unaffected side could immediately improve weight bearing symmetry and step length symmetry in patients with hemiparesis, but it has no effect on their walking speed and step length. Using insole with A-60 hardness did not significantly change any variables of tests. Considering the results of this study, these insoles can be used in balance exercises and walking of hemiparetic patients.

  6. The effect of a mouthrinse containing essential oils on dental restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fraunhofer, J A; Kelley, J I; DePaola, L G; Meiller, T F

    2006-01-01

    Mouthrinses that contain essential oils are effective for controlling plaque and periodontal disease. Recent studies have shown that such mouthrinses are effective at preventing the formation of biofilm in dental unit waterlines. However, there is no information in the literature regarding the effect of such mouthrinses on restorative materials used within the oral cavity. Specimens of three common restorative materials (a glass ionomer, a composite resin, and amalgam) were subjected to continuous exposure to Listerine and distilled water for 10 days; at that time, the strength, fluid sorption, and surface appearance of the specimens were compared. Specimens of the test materials also were placed in intraoral devices; volunteer patients wore these devices for 12 hours per day for a period of 10 days. During that time, the patients were instructed to rinse twice daily for 30 seconds with Listerine Cool Mint or a non-active mouthrinse. After 10 days, the specimens were salvaged from the devices and inspected by visible and SEM examination. This study indicates that routine use of mouthrinses containing essential oils (or even prolonged exposure to such mouthrinses) has no adverse effects on restorative materials that might be expected to react to such mixtures because of their chemical compositions. It was concluded that active mouthrinses do not appear to have any adverse effects on a variety of restorative biomaterials.

  7. Effect of bulk-fill base material on fracture strength of root-filled teeth restored with laminate resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, N A; Maghaireh, G A; Ghannam, A S; Palamara, J E

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of using a bulk-fill flowable base material on fracture strength and fracture patterns of root-filled maxillary premolars with MOD preparations restored with laminate restorations. Fifty extracted maxillary premolars were selected for the study. Standardized MOD cavities with endodontic treatment were prepared for all teeth, except for intact control. The teeth were divided randomly into five groups (n=10); (Group 1) sound teeth, (Group 2) unrestored teeth; (Group 3) MOD cavities with Vitrebond base and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal); (Group 4) MOD cavities with 2mm GIC base (Fuji IX GP) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal) open laminate, (Group 5) MOD cavities were restored with 4mm of bulk-fill flowable base material (SDR) and resin-based composite (Ceram. X One Universal). All teeth were thermocycled and subjected to a 45° ramped oblique load in a universal testing machine. Fracture load and fracture patterns were recorded. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test. Restoration in general increased the fracture strength compared to unrestored teeth. The fracture strength of group 5 (bulk-fill) was significantly higher than the fracture strength of the GIC laminate groups and not significantly different from the intact teeth (355±112N, P=0.118). The type of failure was unfavorable for most of the groups, with the majority being mixed failures. The use of a bulk-fill flowable base material significantly increased the fracture strength of extracted root-filled teeth with MOD cavities; however it did not improve fracture patterns to more favorable ones. Investigating restorative techniques that may improve the longevity of root-filled premolar teeth restored with direct resin restorations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Symmetry and emergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2018-02-01

    In a modern understanding of particle physics, global symmetries are approximate and gauge symmetries may be emergent. This view, which has echoes in condensed-matter physics, is supported by a variety of arguments from experiment and theory.

  9. Stand dynamics of an oak woodland forest and effects of a restoration treatment on forest health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy L. Clark; Callie J. Schweitzer

    2016-01-01

    Woodland restoration has been conducted in many countries, primarily in Mediterranean regions, but has only recently been attempted on publically and privately owned lands in the eastern United States. We reconstructed historical stand dynamics and tested the immediate effects of an oak

  10. Quantifying flooding effects on hardwood seedling survival and growth for bottomland restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    John M. Kabrick; Daniel C. Dey; J.W. Van Sambeek; Mark V. Coggeshall; Douglass F. Jacobs

    2012-01-01

    Growing interest worldwide in bottomland hardwood restoration necessitates improved ecological understanding of flooding effects on forest tree seedlings using methodology that accurately reflects field conditions. We examined hardwood seedling survival and growth in an outdoor laboratory where the timing, depth, duration, and flow rate of flood water can be carefully...

  11. Have wet meadow restoration projects in the Southwestern U.S. been effective in restoring geomorphology, hydrology, soils, and plant species composition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramstead Karissa M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wet meadows occur in numerous locations throughout the American Southwest, but in many cases have become heavily degraded. Among other things they have frequently been overgrazed and have had roads built through them, which have affected the hydrology of these wetland ecosystems. Because of the important hydrologic and ecological functions they are believed to perform, there is currently significant interest in wet meadow restoration. Several restoration projects have been completed recently or are underway in the region, sometimes at considerable expense and with minimal monitoring. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effects of wet meadow restoration projects in the southwestern United States on geomorphology, hydrology, soils and plant species composition. A secondary objective was to determine the effects of wet meadow restoration projects on wildlife. Methods Electronic databases, internet search engines, websites and personal contacts were used to find articles of relevance to this review. Articles were filtered by title, abstract and full text. Summary information for each of the articles remaining after the filtering process was compiled and used to assess the quality of the evidence presented using two different approaches. Results Our searches yielded 48 articles, of which 25 were published in peer-reviewed journals, 14 were monitoring or project reports, and 9 were published in conference proceedings or are unpublished theses or manuscripts. A total of 26 operational-scale restoration projects were identified. A wide range of restoration techniques were employed, ranging from small-scale manipulations of stream channels (e.g., riffle structures to large scale pond-and-plug projects. Other common restoration techniques included fencing to exclude livestock (and sometimes also native ungulates, other forms of grazing management, seeding, and transplanting seedlings. Most of the articles reported that

  12. Using Species Distribution Models to Predict Potential Landscape Restoration Effects on Puma Conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelieri, Cintia Camila Silva; Adams-Hosking, Christine; Ferraz, Katia Maria Paschoaletto Micchi de Barros; de Souza, Marcelo Pereira; McAlpine, Clive Alexander

    2016-01-01

    A mosaic of intact native and human-modified vegetation use can provide important habitat for top predators such as the puma (Puma concolor), avoiding negative effects on other species and ecological processes due to cascade trophic interactions. This study investigates the effects of restoration scenarios on the puma's habitat suitability in the most developed Brazilian region (São Paulo State). Species Distribution Models incorporating restoration scenarios were developed using the species' occurrence information to (1) map habitat suitability of pumas in São Paulo State, Southeast, Brazil; (2) test the relative contribution of environmental variables ecologically relevant to the species habitat suitability and (3) project the predicted habitat suitability to future native vegetation restoration scenarios. The Maximum Entropy algorithm was used (Test AUC of 0.84 ± 0.0228) based on seven environmental non-correlated variables and non-autocorrelated presence-only records (n = 342). The percentage of native vegetation (positive influence), elevation (positive influence) and density of roads (negative influence) were considered the most important environmental variables to the model. Model projections to restoration scenarios reflected the high positive relationship between pumas and native vegetation. These projections identified new high suitability areas for pumas (probability of presence >0.5) in highly deforested regions. High suitability areas were increased from 5.3% to 8.5% of the total State extension when the landscapes were restored for ≥ the minimum native vegetation cover rule (20%) established by the Brazilian Forest Code in private lands. This study highlights the importance of a landscape planning approach to improve the conservation outlook for pumas and other species, including not only the establishment and management of protected areas, but also the habitat restoration on private lands. Importantly, the results may inform environmental

  13. Effect of Mouthwashes on Solubility and Sorption of Restorative Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Leal, Jos? Pereira; da Silva, Jaqueline Damasceno; Leal, Rafaelle Fernanda Mel?o; Oliveira-J?nior, Carlos da Cunha; Prado, Vera L?cia Gomes; Vale, Glauber Campos

    2017-01-01

    Objective Composites sorption and solubility can be precursors of several chemical and physical processes, which lead to deleterious effects on the polymer structure. This study evaluated the effect of mouthwashes on solubility and sorption of composite resins. Materials and Methods Forty-two specimens of each evaluated composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, Opallis Flow, Durafill VS, and Filtek Z350) were prepared and randomized into seven groups for each solution (mouth rinses with and without a...

  14. Origin of family symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilles, Hans Peter

    2012-04-01

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  15. Origin of family symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of floodplain restoration on the North Fork John Day River, Northeast Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, C. F.; Blanton, P.; Long, W.; Walterman, M. T.; McDowell, P. F.; Maus, P.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decade hundreds of river restoration projects intended to maintain, protect, and restore watersheds, rivers, and habitat for native species in the Pacific Northwest have been implemented. By some counts, investment in watershed restoration exceeds hundreds of millions of dollars annually yet the effectiveness of these efforts remains an elusive question (Roni, 2005). Remote sensing and GIS technologies show great promise for large-scale river monitoring, however most natural resource organizations who implement these projects have limited budget and staff and would benefit from simple, low cost monitoring techniques that use readily available imagery. We used 1:24000 digitized orthorectified resource imagery from 1995, and National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) digital orthophotography from 2005 to assess the effectiveness of floodplain restoration on a 16 km reach of the North Fork John Day River. Between 1993 and 1997 this section was restored by mechanically removing, reshaping, and revegetating cobble-boulder tailings piles left from dredge mining. The project was intended to directly improve floodplain function (i.e. inundation, riparian habitat) and indirectly improve instream habitat (pools, spawning) by reconnecting the active river channel with a reconstructed floodplain surface. Project effectiveness was not well documented initially in terms of quantifying floodplain functional area improvement or channel condition and response at the river-reach scale. Our objectives were to field-verify remote sensing measurements of response variables to test the applicability of available remote sensing imagery for project effectiveness monitoring, and to quantify adjustment in river response variables, using a "before-after" case study approach. Bracketing restoration activities with 1995 and 2000 imagery, we developed and tested methods for acquisition and processing of digital imagery and identified a core set of response variables to sample

  17. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    This article elucidates the important role the no- tion of symmetry has played in physics. It dis- cusses the proof of one of the important theorems of quantum mechanics, viz., Wigner's Symmetry. Representation Theorem. It also shows how the representations of various continuous and dis- crete symmetries follow from the ...

  18. Weak C* Hopf Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Rehren, K. -H.

    1996-01-01

    Weak C* Hopf algebras can act as global symmetries in low-dimensional quantum field theories, when braid group statistics prevents group symmetries. Possibilities to construct field algebras with weak C* Hopf symmetry from a given theory of local observables are discussed.

  19. Symmetry, asymmetry and dissymmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.; Zollner, G.

    1987-01-01

    The authors discuss the concept of symmetry and defect of symmetry in radiological imaging and recall the definition of asymmetry (congenital or constitutional) and dissymmetry (acquired). They then describe a rule designed for the cognitive method of automatic evaluation of shape recognition data and propose the use of reversal symmetry [fr

  20. Polynomial Graphs and Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehle, Geoff; Kobayashi, Mitsuo

    2013-01-01

    Most quadratic functions are not even, but every parabola has symmetry with respect to some vertical line. Similarly, every cubic has rotational symmetry with respect to some point, though most cubics are not odd. We show that every polynomial has at most one point of symmetry and give conditions under which the polynomial has rotational or…

  1. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  2. The effect of rebonding and liner type on microleakage of Class V amalgam restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moosavi H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Application of varnish and dentin bonding agents can effectively reduce microleakage under amalgam restorations. Also rebonding may show some effects on microleakage and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of liner/ adhesives on microleakage of Class V amalgam restoration with or without rebonding. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study Class V cavities were prepared on sixty sound human maxillary premolars with the gingival floor 1mm below the CEJ. Cases were divided into six groups of ten teeth each. Specimens in group 1 and 2 were lined with Copalite and Scotchbond Multi-Purpose (SBMP respectively. In the third group (control no liner was applied. The teeth were then restored with spherical amalgam. Specimens in group 4 to 6 received the same treatments but after filling, the interfaces of restorations and teeth were etched with 37% phosphoric acid gel, rinsed and dried. Adhesive resin of SBMP was applied over amalgam and tooth margins and polymerized (rebonding. Specimens were thermocycled, exposed to dye and sectioned. Microleakage was graded (0-3 using a stereomicroscope at X40 magnification. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon pair wise statistical tests. P<0.05 was considered as the limit of significance. Results: The groups lined with SBMP showed the lowest and the groups without liner the highest microleakage (p= 0.001. Significant difference was observed in microleakage mean rank of enamel and dentin margins (p=0.048. Rebonding with resin did not improve the seal (p> 0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, total etch adhesive system had significant effect on microleakage of Class V amalgam restorations especially in cervical margin. Rebonding did not show a significant effect on microleakage.

  3. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganur, Prabhadevi; Satish, V; Prabhakar, A R; Namineni, Srinivas

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study, the effects of a Cola drink, and fresh fruit juice (citrus) on the surface roughness on flowable composite and resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) each was evaluated and compared. Using a brass mold 70 pellets each of flowable composite (Filtek™ Flow) and RMGIC tricure restorative material were prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. Two groups (groups I and II) were formed containing 30 pellets of each material. Remaining 10 pellets of each restorative material did form the control group [water (group III)]. Experimental group pellets were again divided into three subgroups (mild, moderate and severe) containing 10 pellets each and were kept in plastic containers with 30 ml Cola drink (group I) and fresh fruit juice (group II) respectively. Immersion regime was followed according to M aupome G et al. Baseline and final surface roughness (Ra) value for each pellet was evaluated using a profilometer. Statistical analysis was done with Wilcoxon's signed rank test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results showed that the erosive effect of both Cola drink and fresh fruit juice caused significant surface roughness on both flowable composite and RMGIC restorative materials in the mild, moderate and severe immersion regimes. How to cite this article: Maganur P, Satish V, Prabhakar AR, Namineni S. Effect of Soft Drinks and Fresh Fruit Juice on Surface Roughness of Commonly used Restorative Materials. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):1-5.

  4. Effectiveness of Plants and Vegetation in Erosion Control and Restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandercock, P.; Hooke, J.; De Baets, S.; Poesen, J.; Meerkerk, A.; van Wesemael, B.; Cammeraat, L.H.; Hooke, J.; Sandercock, P.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter the approaches and methods used to measure plant effectiveness in reducing runoff and erosion are explained and results presented for each of the major land units, hillslopes and channels. Evaluations of the properties of plants required are made to inform plant selection for

  5. The effect of topsoil removal in restored heathland on soil fauna, topsoil microstructure, and cellulose decomposition: implications for ecosystem restoration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouz, Jan; van Diggelen, R.; Pižl, Václav; Starý, Josef; Háněl, Ladislav; Tajovský, Karel; Kalčík, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 14 (2009), s. 3963-3978 ISSN 0960-3115 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60660521 Keywords : restoration * soil formation * oribatid mites Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.066, year: 2009

  6. The effect of topsoil removal in restored heathland on soil fauna, topsoil microstructure, and cellulose decomposition : implications for ecosystem restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frouz, Jan; Van Diggelen, Rudy; Pizl, Vaclav; Stary, Josef; Hanel, Ladislav; Tajovsky, Karel; Kalcik, Jiri

    2009-01-01

    Communities of soil macrofauna, oribatid mites, and nematodes as well as vegetation and soil chemistry were studied on twelve plots representing three replicates of the following treatments: agricultural meadow, heathland, and heathland restored either by partial or complete topsoil removal 15 years

  7. Ecosystem service delivery in restoration projects: the effect of ecological succession on the benefits of tidal marsh restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Boerema

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Long-term assessment of ecosystem restoration projects is complex because of ecological processes such as succession, particularly in highly dynamic ecosystems such as estuaries. Restoration of intertidal flats and marshes on formerly embanked land, often called managed coastal realignment (MR, became popular in estuarine management. In our study, biophysical and monetary data were collected to calculate the value of 15 (subecosystem services (ES delivered by a large tidal marsh restoration project in the Schelde estuary in Belgium and the Netherlands. We hypothesized that ES delivery changes over time due to ecological succession and hence the long-term benefits are subject to this phenomenon and need to be taken into consideration. A marsh sediment accretion model (MARSED was used to simulate potential marsh succession scenarios. In this way, the temporal evolution of ES delivery caused by ecological succession could be evaluated. Our study shows that benefits during successional marsh stages could actually be higher than for marshes in equilibrium. This finding does not suggest that ecosystems in transition always have a higher value than systems in equilibrium, but emphasizes the need to consider long-term ecological dynamics, such as succession, in a benefit assessment for restoration projects.

  8. Effect of immediate dentine sealing on the fracture strength of lithium disilicate and multiphase resin composite inlay restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Breemer, Carline R G; Özcan, Mutlu; Cune, Marco S; van der Giezen, Rianne; Kerdijk, Wouter; Gresnigt, Marco M M

    Purpose: Limited information is available on the effect of Immediate Dentin Sealing (IDS) on the fracture strength of indirect partial posterior restorations. This study evaluated the effect of IDS on the fracture strength and failure types of two indirect restorative materials. Materials and

  9. The effect of fiber placement or flowable resin lining on microleakage in Class II adhesive restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belli, Sema; Orucoglu, Hasan; Yildirim, Cihan; Eskitascioglu, Gürcan

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two fibers (polyethylene or glass) and a flowable resin liner on microleakage in Class II adhesive restorations. Class II adhesive cavities were prepared on mesial and distal surfaces of 40 extracted sound human molars. The cavity margins were below or above the CEJ. The teeth were randomly divided into four groups according to the restoration technique: group 1: restored with a resin composite (AP-X, Kuraray) in bulk after SE Bond (Kuraray) treatment; group 2: flowable resin liner (Protect Liner F, Kuraray) was used before composite restoration; in group 3, a polyethylene fiber (Ribbond) and in group 4, a glass fiber (everStick NET, StickTech) was placed into the bed of flowable resin before composite restoration. Samples were finished, stored in distilled water for 7 days at room temperature, and then thermocycled for 300 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C. After sealing the apices, the teeth were varnished within 1 mm of the margins and placed in 0.5% basic fuchsin dye for 24 h at 37 degrees C. After rinsing, the teeth were sectioned longitudinally through the restorations and microleakage was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Marginal penetration was scored on a 0 to 4 scale, and the data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U-test. Flowable resin, everStick NET, and Ribbond THM used in combination with flowable resin significantly reduced leakage at occlusal margins in cavities with enamel margins (p 0.05). Use of flowable composite alone or in combination with polyethylene or glass fibers reduces occlusal leakage in Class II adhesive cavities with enamel margins.

  10. The effects of a commercial aluminum airpolishing powder on dental restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William W; Barnes, Caren M; Covey, David A; Walker, Mary P; Ross, Judith A

    2004-09-01

    JET-Fresh (Dentsply International, York, PA), a new airpolishing powder that contains aluminum trihydroxide as the abrasive agent, has been introduced for use with Prophy-Jet trade mark (Dentsply International). The aim of this study was to investigate the surface effects of aluminum trihydroxide airpolishing powder on a series of restorative materials. A total of 6 Class V preparations with enamel margins were created on the buccal surface of extracted human molars. The preparations were restored with Type III gold, a high copper spherical alloy amalgam, porcelain, a light-activated hybrid composite material, a light-activated microfilled composite material, and a light-activated, resin-modified glass ionomer material. The distal half of each restoration was covered with fiberglass tape and the mesial half subjected to treatment with the aluminum trihydroxide powder via the Prophy-Jet for 5 seconds. After removal of the protective tape, the buccal surface of each treated tooth was replicated with impression material. Replicas were generated using epoxy resin and prepared for evaluation with scanning electron microscopy. The aluminum trihydroxide produced surface alterations that were apparent visually and when viewed by a scanning microscope of the hybrid and microfilled composites and the glass ionomer restorations. The surfaces of the amalgam and gold restorations were altered, but not to the extent that the resin-based materials were. No disruption of the surface characterization of the porcelain was detected; however, with gold and porcelain materials, the aluminum trihydroxide removed notable amounts of the luting cements (the results are consistent with the data gathered with sodium bicarbonate powder). Aluminum trihydroxide as the abrasive agent in an airpolishing system should be avoided on resin composites, resin-modified composites, and around the margins of cemented restorations.

  11. Effect of Mouthwashes on Solubility and Sorption of Restorative Composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, José Pereira; da Silva, Jaqueline Damasceno; Leal, Rafaelle Fernanda Melão; Oliveira-Júnior, Carlos da Cunha; Prado, Vera Lúcia Gomes; Vale, Glauber Campos

    2017-01-01

    Composites s orption and solubility can be precursors of several chemical and physical processes, which lead to deleterious effects on the polymer structure. This study evaluated the effect of mouthwashes on solubility and sorption of composite resins. Forty-two specimens of each evaluated composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, Opallis Flow, Durafill VS, and Filtek Z350) were prepared and randomized into seven groups for each solution (mouth rinses with and without alcohol and distilled water) and stored for seven days. Solubility and sorption tests were performed according to ISO4049. Data were analyzed using 2-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey's test for means comparison ( α = 0.05). In addition, paired t -test was performed to analyze the alcohol effect on the studied composite resin properties. Listerine Cool Mint (containing alcohol in its composition) caused the greatest degree of sorption for all composites tested in comparison to other rinses, while for solubility this behavior was observed for Opallis Flow and Durafill VS composite resins ( p < 0.05). Regarding the composites, Opallis Flow showed the highest sorption and solubility values in general ( p < 0.05). Overall, the sorption and solubility of composites were higher in mouthwashes containing alcohol in its composition, with Opallis Flow being the most affected composite resin.

  12. Effect of Mouthwashes on Solubility and Sorption of Restorative Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Pereira Leal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Composites sorption and solubility can be precursors of several chemical and physical processes, which lead to deleterious effects on the polymer structure. This study evaluated the effect of mouthwashes on solubility and sorption of composite resins. Materials and Methods. Forty-two specimens of each evaluated composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Flow, Opallis Flow, Durafill VS, and Filtek Z350 were prepared and randomized into seven groups for each solution (mouth rinses with and without alcohol and distilled water and stored for seven days. Solubility and sorption tests were performed according to ISO4049. Data were analyzed using 2-way-ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test for means comparison (α=0.05. In addition, paired t-test was performed to analyze the alcohol effect on the studied composite resin properties. Results. Listerine Cool Mint (containing alcohol in its composition caused the greatest degree of sorption for all composites tested in comparison to other rinses, while for solubility this behavior was observed for Opallis Flow and Durafill VS composite resins (p<0.05. Regarding the composites, Opallis Flow showed the highest sorption and solubility values in general (p<0.05. Conclusion. Overall, the sorption and solubility of composites were higher in mouthwashes containing alcohol in its composition, with Opallis Flow being the most affected composite resin.

  13. Electronic transport in single-helical protein molecules: Effects of multiple charge conduction pathways and helical symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundu, Sourav, E-mail: sourav.kunduphy@gmail.com; Karmakar, S.N.

    2016-07-15

    We propose a tight-binding model to investigate electronic transport properties of single helical protein molecules incorporating both the helical symmetry and the possibility of multiple charge transfer pathways. Our study reveals that due to existence of both the multiple charge transfer pathways and helical symmetry, the transport properties are quite rigid under influence of environmental fluctuations which indicates that these biomolecules can serve as better alternatives in nanoelectronic devices than its other biological counterparts e.g., single-stranded DNA.

  14. Parastatistics and gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govorkov, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    A possible formulation of gauge symmetries in the Green parafield theory is analysed and the SO(3) gauge symmetry is shown to be on a distinct status. The Greenberg paraquark hypothesis turns out to be not equivalent to the hypothesis of quark colour SU(3)sub(c) symmetry. Specific features of the gauge SO(3) symmetry are discussed, and a possible scheme where it is an exact subgroup of the broken SU(3)sub(c) symmetry is proposed. The direct formulation of the gauge principle for the parafield represented by quaternions is also discussed

  15. Negative differential resistance and rectification effects in zigzag graphene nanoribbon heterojunctions: Induced by edge oxidation and symmetry concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazirfakhr, Maryam; Shahhoseini, Ali

    2018-03-01

    By applying non-equilibrium Green's functions (NEGF) in combination with tight-binding (TB) model, we investigate and compare the electronic transport properties of H-terminated zigzag graphene nanoribbon (H/ZGNR) and O-terminated ZGNR/H-terminated ZGNR (O/ZGNR-H/ZGNR) heterostructure under finite bias. Moreover, the effect of width and symmetry on the electronic transport properties of both models is also considered. The results reveal that asymmetric H/ZGNRs have linear I-V characteristics in whole bias range, but symmetric H-ZGNRs show negative differential resistance (NDR) behavior which is inversely proportional to the width of the H/ZGNR. It is also shown that the I-V characteristic of O/ZGNR-H/ZGNR heterostructure shows a rectification effect, whether the geometrical structure is symmetric or asymmetric. The fewer the number of zigzag chains, the bigger the rectification ratio. It should be mentioned that, the rectification ratios of symmetric heterostructures are much bigger than asymmetric one. Transmission spectrum, density of states (DOS), molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian (MPSH) and molecular eigenstates are analyzed subsequently to understand the electronic transport properties of these ZGNR devices. Our findings could be used in developing nanoscale rectifiers and NDR devices.

  16. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-tin; Wen, Congkao

    2015-12-01

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the α' expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R 4 with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R 4 that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R 4.

  17. Soft theorems from anomalous symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yu-tin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, National Taiwan University,Taipei 10617, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wen, Congkao [I.N.F.N. Sezione di Roma “Tor Vergata”,Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2015-12-22

    We discuss constraints imposed by soft limits for effective field theories arising from symmetry breaking. In particular, we consider those associated with anomalous conformal symmetry as well as duality symmetries in supergravity. We verify these soft theorems for the dilaton effective action relevant for the a-theorem, as well as the one-loop effective action for N=4 supergravity. Using the universality of leading transcendental coefficients in the α{sup ′} expansion of string theory amplitudes, we study the matrix elements of operator R{sup 4} with half maximal supersymmetry. We construct the non-linear completion of R{sup 4} that satisfies both single and double soft theorems up to seven points. This supports the existence of duality invariant completion of R{sup 4}.

  18. A density functional reactivity theory (DFRT) based approach to understand the effect of symmetry of fullerenes on the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of carbon NanoBuds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarmah, Amrit; Roy, Ram Kinkar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of the interaction between fullerene (C 32 ) and SWCNT using CDASE scheme. • Role of symmetry of fullerenes as well as the site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT in the structural stability of the NanoBud structure. • Increase in the fullerene symmetry improves the relative stability of hybrid NanoBud structure. - Abstract: In the present study, we have rationalized the effect of variation in the symmetry of relatively smaller fullerene (C 32 ) on the mode of its interaction with semi-conducting Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) in the process of formation of stable hybrid carbon NanoBuds. Thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, along with the charge transfer values associated with the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs, have been evaluated using an un-conventional and computationally cost–effective method based on density functional reactivity theory (DFRT). In addition to this, conventional DFT based studies are also performed to substantiate the growth of NanoBud structures formed by the interaction between fullerene and SWCNTs. The findings of the present study suggest that the kinetic, thermodynamic and structural aspects of hybrid carbon NanoBuds are significantly influenced by both the symmetry of C 32 fullerene and its site of covalent attachment to the SWCNT.

  19. Effect of Smokeless Tobacco on Surface Roughness of Dental Restorations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    N­nitrosamines in tobacco by super critical fluid extraction.  Journal  of   Agricultural  and  Food  Chemistry 43, 916–922.     24 Brunnemann KD, Hoffmann D, Qi J...Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements  For the degree of Master of  Science  in the   Department of Oral Biology in the...Graduate School of   The Uniformed Services University of the Health  Sciences               FORT BRAGG, NORTH CAROLINA  2016      1      Effect of

  20. Symmetries of nonlinear ordinary differential equations: The ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-10-21

    Oct 21, 2015 ... Lie point symmetries; -symmetries; Noether symmetries; contact symmetries; adjoint symmetries; nonlocal symmetries; hidden symmetries; ... 620 024, India; Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur 613 401, India ...

  1. Adverse effects of salivary contamination for adhesives in restorative dentistry. A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Pooja; Hickel, Reinhard; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2017-06-01

    To review and critically analyze the literature concerning the influence of salivary contamination on the bond quality of adhesives used in restorative materials by comparing and contrasting the different adhesive materials. A detailed search on PUBMED, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and Web of Science was carried out to identify publications on salivary contamination and dental adhesive materials, from 1990-2017 (March) which resulted in a total of 6,202 web-identified publications. After screening titles/abstracts and de-duplicating, 54 publications were selected that matched the requirements for this review. The condition for selection was English literature concerning the effect of salivary contamination on the adhesives used in restorative dentistry. The obtained articles were systematically evaluated. Salivary contamination of adhesives during restorative procedures statistically (64.6%) showed an adverse effect on adhesives, occurring either at one or many stages of restoration. Methodological dissimilarities impeded the direct comparison of the selected studies. Nevertheless, the 2-step etch and rinse adhesives were relatively less vulnerable to salivary contamination than the others. 65% of the evaluated studies for decontamination achieved improved bonding when the contaminated surface was subjected to some kind of decontamination procedure. However, the duration and other specificities were not standard in all the evaluations and need further research to assess the course of action. It is necessary to do long term studies to evaluate the effectiveness of contaminated adhesive over time. Salivary contamination is a potential cause for poor bond quality of adhesive systems during restorative procedures and to provide a successful treatment, proper care must be taken to ensure the operating area is free from contamination. Understanding the properties of the materials and its constituents as well as considering measures to manage the potential

  2. Symmetries and Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2016-03-01

    In this talk, I will describe global and gauge symmetries and the interplay between them. The meaning of global symmetries is clear: they act on physical observables. Gauge symmetries are more elusive as they typically do not act on physical observables. Gauge symmetries are redundancies in the mathematical description of a physical system rather than properties of the system itself. The existence of nonperturbative dualities makes it clear that this distinction is unavoidable. Yet in our best understanding the gauge symmetries are deeper. The lepton number symmetries that are probed by the wonderful experimental results that will be reported in this session give an excellent illustration. They are regarded in the Standard Model as indirect consequences of gauge symmetries and they are expected to be only approximate. This expectation is supported by the observation of neutrino oscillations.

  3. Generalized global symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Seiberg, Nathan; Willett, Brian

    2015-01-01

    A q-form global symmetry is a global symmetry for which the charged operators are of space-time dimension q; e.g. Wilson lines, surface defects, etc., and the charged excitations have q spatial dimensions; e.g. strings, membranes, etc. Many of the properties of ordinary global symmetries (q=0) apply here. They lead to Ward identities and hence to selection rules on amplitudes. Such global symmetries can be coupled to classical background fields and they can be gauged by summing over these classical fields. These generalized global symmetries can be spontaneously broken (either completely or to a subgroup). They can also have ’t Hooft anomalies, which prevent us from gauging them, but lead to ’t Hooft anomaly matching conditions. Such anomalies can also lead to anomaly inflow on various defects and exotic Symmetry Protected Topological phases. Our analysis of these symmetries gives a new unified perspective of many known phenomena and uncovers new results.

  4. The effect of a fiber reinforced cavity configuration on load bearing capacity and failure mode of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM resin composite overlay restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocca, G T; Saratti, C M; Cattani-Lorente, M; Feilzer, A J; Scherrer, S; Krejci, I

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the fracture strength and the mode of failure of endodontically treated molars restored with CAD/CAM overlays with fiber reinforced composite build-up of the pulp chamber. 40 Devitalized molars were cut over the CEJ and divided into five groups (n=8). The pulp chamber area was filled with: group 0 (control), no resin build-up; group 1, hybrid composite build-up (G-aenial posterior, GC); group 2, as in group 1 but covered with 3 nets of bi-directional E-glass fibers (EverStickNET, Stick Tech Ltd.); group 3, a FRC resin (EverX posterior, GC); group 4, as in group 3 but covered by the bi-directional fibers. The crowns were restored with CAD-CAM composite restorations (Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE). Maximum fracture loads were recorded in Newton and data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test (p0.05). All specimens fractured in a catastrophic way, under the CEJ. The main crack evolved in the corono-apical direction. In groups 2 and 4 secondary fracture paths with apico-coronal direction were detected close to the bi-directional fibers' layer. For the restoration of endodontically treated molars, the incorporation of FRCs did not influence the load-bearing capacity of the tooth-restoration complex. The SEM analysis showed a low ability of the bi-directional fibers net in deviating the fracture but this effect was not sufficient to lead more favorable fracture patterns, over the CEJ. The use of FRCs to reinforce the "core" of devitalized molars against vertical fractures under static loads seems useless when the thickness of the CAD/CAM composite overlay restoration is high. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Precuring Warming on Mechanical Properties of Restorative Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kareem Nada

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of prepolymerization warming on composites' mechanical properties, three composites were evaluated: Clearfil Majesty (CM (Kuraray, Z-100 (3M/ESPE, and Light-Core (LC (Bisco. Specimens were prepared from each composite at room temperature as control and 2 higher temperatures (37∘C and 54∘C to test surface hardness (SH, compressive strength (CS, and diametral tensile strength (DTS. Data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's LSD tests. Results revealed that prewarming CM and Z100 specimens significantly improved their SH mean values (P<0.05. Prewarming also improved mean CS values of Z100 specimens (P<0.05. Furthermore, DTS mean value of CM prepared at 52∘ was significantly higher than that of room temperature specimens (P<0.05. KHN, CS, and DTS mean values varied significantly among the three composites. In conclusion, Prewarming significantly enhanced surface hardness of 2 composites. Prewarming also improved bulk properties of the composites; however, this improvement was significant in only some of the tested materials.

  6. Dynamical effects of exchange symmetry breaking in mixtures of interacting bosons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichy, Malte C.; Sherson, Jacob; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    of two distinguishable species with identical physical properties, that is, which are governed by an isospecific interaction and external potential. In the mean-field limit, the spatial population imbalance of the mixture can be described by the dynamics of a single species in an effective potential...... approximates the full counting statistics well also outside the realm of spin-coherent states. The method is extended to general Bose-Hubbard systems and to their classical mean-field limits, which suggests an effective single-species description of multicomponent Bose gases with weakly an...... with modified properties or, equivalently, with an effective total particle number. The oscillation behavior can be tuned by populating the second species while maintaining the spatial population imbalance and all other parameters constant. In the corresponding many-body approach, the single-species description...

  7. Greenhouse effect in planetary atmospheres caused by molecular symmetry breaking in intermolecular interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigasin, A. A.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2017-03-01

    It is believed that the greenhouse effect is related to the parameters of absorption spectra of polyatomic molecules, usually trace gases, in planetary atmospheres. The main components of all known atmospheres of celestial bodies are symmetrical molecules that do not possess the dipole-allowed purely rotational (and in the case of diatomic molecules, vibrational-rotational) absorption spectrum. Upon increased pressure, a weak absorption appears, induced by intermolecular interaction, which can lead to a greenhouse effect. The contribution of the induced absorption in radiative forcing of a dense atmosphere may amount to a few or even tens of W/m2. In conditions typical for the atmospheres of terrestrial planets (including paleoatmospheres), the collision-induced absorption and associated greenhouse effect may lead to an increase in surface temperature above the freezing point of water. There is a correlation between the temperature of an atmosphere and the intermolecular bonding energy of gases that dominate in planetary atmospheres of the Solar System.

  8. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chomaz, Philippe

    1998-01-01

    In the world of infinitely small, the world of atoms, nuclei and particles, the quantum mechanics enforces its laws. The discovery of Quanta, this unbelievable castration of the Possible in grains of matter and radiation, in discrete energy levels compels us of thinking the Single to comprehend the Universal. Quantum Numbers, magic Numbers and Numbers sign the wave. The matter is vibration. To describe the music of the world one needs keys, measures, notes, rules and partition: one needs quantum mechanics. The particles reduce themselves not in material points as the scholars of the past centuries thought, but they must be conceived throughout the space, in the accomplishment of shapes of volumes. When Einstein asked himself whether God plays dice, there was no doubt among its contemporaries that if He exists He is a geometer. In a Nature reduced to Geometry, the symmetries assume their role in servicing the Harmony. The symmetries allow ordering the energy levels to make them understandable. They impose there geometrical rules to the matter waves, giving them properties which sometimes astonish us. Hidden symmetries, internal symmetries and newly conceived symmetries have to be adopted subsequently to the observation of some order in this world of Quanta. In turn, the symmetries provide new observables which open new spaces of observation

  9. The Effect of Height, Wing Length, and Wing Symmetry on Tabebuia rosea Seed Dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Moussa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the vertical drop height and the horizontal distance traveled (dispersal ratio was investigated for a sample of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds by dropping the seeds from five heights ranging from 1.00 to 2.00 meters. The dispersal ratio was found to be a constant 0.16 m/m for these heights. The effects of total seed length and asymmetry of seed wings on dispersal ratio were also measured using separate samples of fifty Tabebuia rosea seeds. It was found that neither seed length nor asymmetry had a significant effect on the dispersal ratio.

  10. Thermodynamics of lattice QCD with 2 quark flavours : chiral symmetry and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagae, J.-F.

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the restoration of chiral symmetry in lattice QCD at the finite temperature transition from hadronic matter to a quark-gluon plasma. By measuring the screening masses of flavour singlet and non-singlet meson excitations, we have seen evidence that, although flavour chiral symmetry is restored at this transition, flavour singlet (U(1)) axial symmetry is not. We conclude that this indicates that instantons continue to play an important role in the quark-gluon plasma phase

  11. Effect of Two Surface Sealants on Microleakage of Class V Resin Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosa Aboali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: When composite resin polymerizes, shrinkage stresses tend to produce gaps at the tooth/ restoration interfaces. Surface sealants may reduce or avoid problems related to the marginal interface. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different surface sealants (Fortify and Optiguard on the microleakage of class V resin composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Twenty three sound noncarious molars were collected. Totally, 45 Class V cavities with the occlusal margins in enamel and cervical margins in cementum were prepared in both buccal and lingual surfaces. The specimens were randomly assigned in three groups (15 cavities in each group and then restored with a resin composite. After the finishing and polishing procedures, the restorations in each group were covered with a specific surface sealant, except for the control samples, which were not sealed. After placing restorations, the specimens were thermocycled and then immersed in a 50% silver nitrate solution (tracer agent for four hours, sectioned longitudinally and analyzed for leakage using a stereomicroscope in a blind manner. The marginal microleakage was evaluated at the occlusal and cervical interfaces and compared among the three groups using the Kruskall-Wallis and the Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Microleakage was found in all groups at both occlusal and cervical margins. Significantly greater leakage was observed at the cervical margins compared to the enamel margins of the material groups (P=0.005. There was no statistically significant difference among the groups at occlusal margins (P=0.66. In the cervical region, Fortify showed improved results and statistically presented the lowest degree of microleakage (P=0.003. onclusion: The used sealant materials presented different rates of effectiveness and Fortify decreased marginal microleakage significantly.

  12. [Preliminary clinical evaluation of the esthetic effect of deep discolored anterior teeth restored with zirconia veneers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T F; Wang, X Z; Liu, J Y; Sun, Q; Wang, X K

    2016-12-18

    To observe the esthetic effect of deep discolored anterior teeth restored by zirconia veneers. Small defected deep discolored anterior teeth with complete root canal therapy were restored by zirconia veneers (n=15). The same name teeth on the other side of the same dental arch were chosen as control teeth. The color difference values ΔE of the neck 1/3, the middle 1/3 and the incisor 1/3 between the deep discolored tooth and the normal control tooth before and after therapy were measured to evaluate the esthetic effect of zirconia veneer restoration. At the same time, the marginal fit of zirconia veneers was checked by the standard of United States Public Health Service (USPHS). The integrity of the veneers was also examined. On the labial side, fibers color difference values ΔE of the neck 1/3, the middle 1/3 and the incisor 1/3 between deep discolored teeth and normal control teeth were measured by the electronic colorimeter, which were 24.92±3.00,26.64±4.00 and 21.94±3.31 respectively. All the values were above 4.0, which were considered unacceptable in clinic. After restoration by zirconia veneers, the color difference values ΔE of the middle 1/3 and the incisor 1/3 between the restored and control teeth were 1.82±0.17 and 1.84±0.21. Both values were less than 2.0, which indicated both good color matching. The color difference value ΔE of the neck 1/3 was 3.92±0.48, which was less than 4.0 and could be accepted in clinic. The statistical analysis of the colors of the teeth before and after restoration compared with the control teeth was done by Paired t test. The t values in the neck 1/3, the middle 1/3 and the incisor 1/3 were 30.37, 21.56, 23.37 respectively. In the three group, all the Pzirconia veneers were broken or detached in the period of observation. Zirconia veneers can be a good method to restore deep discolored anterior teeth. However, it should be used cautiously when the patient's esthetic expectation was too high.

  13. Description of Weak Halogen Bonding Using Various Levels of Symmetry-Adapted Perturbation Theory Combined with Effective Core Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Matczak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work starts with providing a description of the halogen bonding (XB interaction between the halogen atom of MH3X (where M = C–Pb and X = I, At and the N atom of HCN. This interaction leads to the formation of stable yet very weakly bound MH3X⋯NCH complexes for which the interaction energy (Eint between MH3X and HCN is calculated using various symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT methods combined with the def2-QZVPP basis set and midbond functions. This basis set assigns effective core potentials (ECPs not only to the I or At atom directly participating in the XB interaction with HCN but also to the M atom when substituted with Sn or Pb. Twelve SAPT methods (or levels are taken into consideration. According to the SAPT analysis of Eint, the XB interaction in the complexes shows mixed electrostatic-dispersion nature. Next, the accuracy of SAPT Eint is evaluated by comparing with CCSD(T reference data. This comparison reveals that high-order SAPT2+(3 method and the much less computationally demanding SAPT(DFT method perform very well in describing Eint of the complexes. However, the accuracy of these methods decreases dramatically if they are combined with the so-called Hartree-Fock correction.

  14. Chiral and parity symmetry breaking for planar fermions: Effects of a heat bath and uniform external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Gutierrez, Enif; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel

    2010-01-01

    We study chiral symmetry breaking for relativistic fermions, described by a parity-violating Lagrangian in 2+1-dimensions, in the presence of a heat bath and a uniform external magnetic field. Working within their four-component formalism allows for the inclusion of both parity-even and -odd mass terms. Therefore, we can define two types of fermion antifermion condensates. For a given value of the magnetic field, there exist two different critical temperatures which would render one of these condensates identically zero, while the other would survive. Our analysis is completely general: it requires no particular simplifying hierarchy among the energy scales involved, namely, bare masses, field strength, and temperature. However, we do reproduce some earlier results, obtained or anticipated in literature, corresponding to special kinematical regimes for the parity conserving case. Relating the chiral condensate to the one-loop effective Lagrangian, we also obtain the magnetization and the pair production rate for different fermion species in a uniform electric field through the replacement B→-iE.

  15. Symmetry-Dependent Spin Transport Properties and Spin-Filter Effects in Zigzag-Edged Germanene Nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed the first-principles calculations to investigate the spin-dependent electronic transport properties of zigzag-edged germanium nanoribbons (ZGeNRs. We choose of ZGeNRs with odd and even widths of 5 and 6, and the symmetry-dependent transport properties have been found, although the σ mirror plane is absent in ZGeNRs. Furthermore, even-N and odd-N ZGeNRs have very different current-voltage relationships. We find that the even 6-ZGeNR shows a dual spin-filter effect in antiparallel (AP magnetism configuration, but the odd 5-ZGeNR behaves as conventional conductors with linear current-voltage dependence. It is found that when the two electrodes are in parallel configuration, the 6-ZGeNR system is in a low resistance state, while it can switch to a much higher resistance state when the electrodes are in AP configuration, and the magnetoresistance of 270% can be observed.

  16. Effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the improvement of balance and corporal symmetry in stroke survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Montagna, Jéssica Cristine; Santos, Bárbara C; Battistuzzo, Camila R; Loureiro, Ana Paula C

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the main problems associate with hemiparesis after stroke is the decrease in balance during static and dynamic postures which can highly affect daily life activities. Objective: To assess the effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the balance and quality of life (SS-QoL) of people with pos stroke. Methods: Chronic stroke participants received at total 18 individual sessions of aquatic physiotherapy using the principle of Halliwick (2x of 40 minutes per week). The outcomes me...

  17. Symmetries in nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainzer, K.

    1988-01-01

    Symmetry, disymmetry, chirality etc. are well-known topics in chemistry. But they cannot only be found on the molecular level of matter. Atoms and elementary particles in physics are also characterized by particular symmetry groups. Even living organisms and populations on the macroscopic level have functional properties of symmetry. The whole physical, chemical, and biological evolution seems to be regulated by the emergence of new symmetries and the breaking down of old ones. One is reminded of Heisenberg's famous statement: 'Die letzte Wurzel der Erscheinungen ist also nicht die Materie, sondern das mathematische Gesetz, die Symmetrie, die mathematische Form' (Wandlungen in den Grundlagen der Naturwissenschaften, 1959). Historically the belief in symmetry and simplicity of nature has a long philosophical tradition from the Pythagoreans, Plato and Greek astronomers to Kepler and modern scientists. Today, 'symmetries in nature' is a common topic of mathematics, physics, chemistry, and biology. A lot of Nobel prizes were given in honour of inquiries concerning symmetries in nature. The fascination of symmetries is not only motivated by science, but by art and religion too. Therefore 'symmetris in nature' is an interdisciplinary topic which may help to overcome C.P. Snow's 'Two Cultures' of natural sciences and humanities. (author) 17 refs., 21 figs

  18. Linking habitat suitability and seed dispersal models in order to analyse the effectiveness of hydrological fen restoration strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, A.H. van; Soomers, H.; Schot, P.P.; Bierkens, M.F.P.; Griffioen, J.; Wassen, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of measures targeted at the restoration of populations of endangered species in anthropogenically dominated regions is often limited by a combination of insufficient restoration of habitat quality and dispersal failure. Therefore, the joint prediction of suitable habitat and seed

  19. Effect of Static and Cyclic Loading on Ceramic Laminate Veneers Adhered to Teeth with and Without Aged Composite Restorations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, Marco M. M.; Ozcan, Mutlu; Kalk, Warner; Galhano, Graziela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Existing composite restorations on teeth are often remade prior to the cementation of fixed dental prostheses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of static and cyclic loading on ceramic laminate veneers adhered to aged resin composite restorations. Materials and Methods:

  20. The effect of tooth age on colour adjustment potential of resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A; Nakajima, M; Seki, N; Foxton, R M; Tagami, J

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of tooth age on colour adjustment potential of resin composite restorations in human teeth. Twenty extracted human premolars with an A2 shade, extracted for orthodontic reasons from younger patients (20-28yrs) (younger teeth) and periodontal reasons from older patients (45-69yrs) (older teeth), were used in this study. Cylindrical shaped cavities (3.0mm depth; 2.0mm diameter) were prepared in the centre of the crowns on the buccal surface. One of four resin composites of A2 shade (Kalore, KA; Solare, SO; Clearfil Majesty, MJ; Beautifil II, BF) was placed in the cavity, and the colour was measured at four areas (0.4mm×0.4mm) on the restored teeth (area 1; tooth area 1.0mm away from the border of resin composite restoration: area 2; tooth border area 0.3mm away from margin of resin composite restoration: area 3; resin composite border area 0.3mm away from margin of resin composite restoration: area 4; resin composite area at the centre of resin composite restoration) using a spectrophotometer (Crystaleye). The colour of each area was determined according to the CIELAB colour scale. Colour differences (ΔE*) between the areas of 1 and 2, 2 and 3, 3 and 4 and 1 and 4 were calculated, and also the ratio of ΔE*area2-3 to ΔE*area1-4 (ΔE*area2-3/1-4), ΔE*area3-4 to ΔE*area1-4 (ΔE*area3-4/1-4) and ΔE*area1-2 to ΔE*area1-4 (ΔE*area1-2/1-4) as a parameter of the colour shift in resin composite restoration, were determined. Moreover, the light transmission characteristics of the resin materials and dentine discs from the younger and older teeth were measured using a goniophotometer. The data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA, and Dunnett's T3 and t-test for the post hoc test. ΔE*area2-3 (colour difference between resin composite and tooth at the border) and ΔE*area1-4 (colour difference between resin composite and tooth) of the older teeth groups were significantly larger than those of younger

  1. Nuclear fourth-order symmetry energy and its effects on neutron star properties in the relativistic Hartree-Fock theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi Wei; Qian, Zhuang; Xing, Ruo Yu; Niu, Jia Rui; Sun, Bao Yuan

    2018-02-01

    Adopting the density dependent relativistic mean-field (RMF) and relativistic Hartree-Fock (RHF) approaches, the properties of the nuclear fourth-order symmetry energy S4 are studied within the covariant density functional (CDF) theory. It is found that the fourth-order symmetry energies are suppressed in RHF at both saturation and supranuclear densities, where the extra contribution from the Fock terms is demonstrated, specifically via the isoscalar meson-nucleon coupling channels. The reservation of S4 and higher-order symmetry energies in the nuclear equation of state then affects essentially the prediction of neutron star properties, which is illustrated in quantities such as the proton fraction, the core-crust transition density, as well as the fraction of crustal moment of inertia. Since the Fock terms enhance the density dependence of the thermodynamical potential, the RHF calculations predict systematically smaller values of density, proton fraction, and pressure at the core-crust transition boundary of neutron stars than density dependent RMF ones. In addition, a linear anticorrelation between the core-crust transition density ρt and the density slope of symmetry energy L is found which is then utilized to constrain the core-crust transition density as ρt˜[0.069 ,0.098 ] fm-3 with the recent empirical information on L . The study clarifies the important role of the fourth-order symmetry energy in determining the properties of nuclear matter at extreme isospin or density conditions.

  2. Restorative neuroscience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andres, Robert H; Meyer, Morten; Ducray, Angélique D

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the search for therapeutic options for diseases and injuries of the central nervous system (CNS), for which currently no effective treatment strategies are available. Replacement of damaged cells and restoration of function can be accomplished by transplantation of...

  3. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  4. Effectiveness of an infiltrant on sealing of composite restoration margins with/without artificial caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulunoglu, Ozlem; Tulunoglu, Ibrahim Fevzi; Antonson, Sibel A; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Antonson, Donald; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a resin infiltrant (ICON) on marginal sealing ability of class II resin restorations with/without-caries. Forty-eight noncarious human pre-molar teeth were embedded and MO and DO preparations of standard dimensions were prepared. The left side of dentin margins of the cavities were left nonbonded (UB) while the right side were bonded using total etch-bonding agent and all restored with a Nanohybrid composite. The teeth were thermocycled and half of the specimens in the UB and B groups were subjected to an artificial caries process. ICON was applied to caries and noncaries subgroups following the manufacturer's directions. Impressions were made at each step: after the restorations were completed, thermocycling, artificial caries procedures, and infiltrant application and the silicone tag lengths were measured with a stereomicroscope. The specimens were immersed in 0.5% basic fuchsine at 37° C for 24 hours, sectioned and microleakage was evaluated with a stereomicroscope. Selected samples and their replicas were assessed for marginal quality under a stereomicroscope and SEM. Statistical evaluation of the data were made using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon Sign Rank tests. While bonding application did not create a meaningful difference, the thermocycling and artificial caries significantly increased the gap length and microleakage (p < 0.05). ICON application was decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps which were previously occurred at the same cavities (p < 0.05). A resin infiltrant (ICON) application decreased the microleakage, created gap-free margins and closed the gaps, which previously occurred at the same cavities. Approximal application of resin infiltrant may increase the success of the class II composite restorations also reduced the risk of needing more complex restoration therapy.

  5. The effects of floodplain forest restoration and logjams on flood risk and flood hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Simon; Sear, David A.; Sykes, Tim; Odoni, Nicholas

    2015-04-01

    Flooding is the most common natural catastrophe, accounting for around half of all natural disaster related deaths and causing economic losses in Europe estimated at over € 2bn per year. In addition flooding is expected to increase in magnitude and frequency with climate change, effectively shortening the return period for a given magnitude flood. Increasing the height and extent of hard engineered defences in response to increased risk is both unsustainable and undesirable. Thus alternative approaches to flood mitigation are needed such as harnessing vegetation processes to slow the passage of flood waves and increase local flood storage. However, our understanding of these effects at the catchment scale is limited. In this presentation we demonstrate the effects of two river restoration approaches upon catchment scale flood hydrology. The addition of large wood to river channels during river restoration projects is a popular method of attempting to improve physical and biological conditions in degraded river systems. Projects utilising large wood can involve the installation of engineered logjams (ELJs), the planting and enhancement of riparian forests, or a combination of both. Altering the wood loading of a channel through installation of ELJs and increasing floodplain surface complexity through encouraging mature woodland could be expected to increase the local hydraulic resistance, increasing the timing and duration of overbank events locally and therefore increasing the travel time of a flood wave through a reach. This reach-scale effect has been documented in models and the field; however the impacts of these local changes at a catchment scale remains to be illustrated. Furthermore there is limited knowledge of how changing successional stages of a restored riparian forest through time may affect its influence on hydromorphic processes. We present results of a novel paired numerical modelling study. We model changes in flood hydrology based on a 98km

  6. The effect that side dominance has on barbell power symmetry during the hang power clean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Jason P; Lauder, Mike A; Smith, Neal A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether ground reaction force (GRF) side differences were transmitted and related to bar end power output asymmetries during hang power clean (HPC) performance and whether progressive loading would intensify this effect. Differences between the dominant (D) and nondominant (ND) side average GRFs (AGRFs) of both feet and average bar end power outputs were recorded simultaneously from 15 recreationally trained male volunteers at 30, 60, and 90% 1RM using 2 force platforms and 3 high-speed digital cameras, quantifying side dominance from perceived handedness (left- or right-side dominance [LRSD]), GRF side dominance (force side dominance [FSD]), and bar end power output side dominance (barbell side dominance [BSD]). With the exception of the LRSD condition, differences between the D and ND side AGRFs were significant (FSD: 1.8-4.3%; BSD: 5.1-6.4%, p the 30% equivalents. Average GRF side differences were not related to bar end power output side differences. Because of the consistent side difference of 4-6% investigators and strength and conditioning practitioners should exercise caution when interpreting changes in bar end power output.

  7. Effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the improvement of balance and corporal symmetry in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagna, Jéssica Cristine; Santos, Bárbara C; Battistuzzo, Camila R; Loureiro, Ana Paula C

    2014-01-01

    One of the main problems associate with hemiparesis after stroke is the decrease in balance during static and dynamic postures which can highly affect daily life activities. To assess the effects of aquatic physiotherapy on the balance and quality of life (SS-QoL) of people with pos stroke. Chronic stroke participants received at total 18 individual sessions of aquatic physiotherapy using the principle of Halliwick (2x of 40 minutes per week). The outcomes measured were: Berg Balance scale, Timed up & go test (TUG), Stroke Specific Quality of Life Scale (SS-QoL) and baropodometric analysis. These assessment were performed before and one week after intervention. Fifteen participants were included in this study. The mean age was 58.5 and 54% was male. After intervention, participants had a significant improvement on their static balance measured by Berg Balance scale and TUG. Dynamic balance had a significant trend of improvement in mediolateral domain with eyes closed and during sit-to-stand. The mobility domain of the SS-QoL questionnaire was significant higher after intervention. Our results suggest that aquatic physiotherapy using the method of Halliwick can be a useful tool during stroke rehabilitation to improve balance. However, this improvement may not have significant impact of their quality of life.

  8. Translational Symmetry and Microscopic Constraints on Symmetry-Enriched Topological Phases: A View from the Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lieb-Schultz-Mattis theorem and its higher-dimensional generalizations by Oshikawa and Hastings require that translationally invariant 2D spin systems with a half-integer spin per unit cell must either have a continuum of low energy excitations, spontaneously break some symmetries, or exhibit topological order with anyonic excitations. We establish a connection between these constraints and a remarkably similar set of constraints at the surface of a 3D interacting topological insulator. This, combined with recent work on symmetry-enriched topological phases with on-site unitary symmetries, enables us to develop a framework for understanding the structure of symmetry-enriched topological phases with both translational and on-site unitary symmetries, including the effective theory of symmetry defects. This framework places stringent constraints on the possible types of symmetry fractionalization that can occur in 2D systems whose unit cell contains fractional spin, fractional charge, or a projective representation of the symmetry group. As a concrete application, we determine when a topological phase must possess a “spinon” excitation, even in cases when spin rotational invariance is broken down to a discrete subgroup by the crystal structure. We also describe the phenomena of “anyonic spin-orbit coupling,” which may arise from the interplay of translational and on-site symmetries. These include the possibility of on-site symmetry defect branch lines carrying topological charge per unit length and lattice dislocations inducing degeneracies protected by on-site symmetry.

  9. Clinical teaching in restorative dentistry and the variation between students' and supervisors' perceptions of its effectiveness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Polyzois, I

    2010-05-01

    To investigate if there was an agreement between the students and supervisors on the quality of clinical teaching in Restorative Dentistry in the Dublin Dental School and Hospital and to identify differences on how effective clinical teaching is perceived between three academic years. In addition it aimed to identify the existence of any similarities between students\\' and supervisors\\' perceptions of specific teaching behaviours that are most and least helpful in learning.

  10. Effects of precipitation on grassland ecosystem restoration under grazing exclusion in Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu Hao; Ge Sun; Yongqiang Liu; Zhiqiu Gao; Junjie He; Tingting Shi; Bingjuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    China launched the ‘‘Returning Grazing Lands to Grasslands’’ project about a decade ago to restore severely degraded grasslands. Grassland grazing exclusion was one of the experimental approaches for achieving the grand goal. Here, we evaluate the long-term regional ecological effects of grassland grazing exclusion in the Xilingol region of Inner Mongolia, China. The...

  11. Proposed best modeling practices for assessing the effects of ecosystem restoration on fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Kenneth A; Sable, Shaye; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Yurek, Simeon; Trexler, Joel C.; Graf, William L.; Reed, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale aquatic ecosystem restoration is increasing and is often controversial because of the economic costs involved, with the focus of the controversies gravitating to the modeling of fish responses. We present a scheme for best practices in selecting, implementing, interpreting, and reporting of fish modeling designed to assess the effects of restoration actions on fish populations and aquatic food webs. Previous best practice schemes that tended to be more general are summarized, and they form the foundation for our scheme that is specifically tailored for fish and restoration. We then present a 31-step scheme, with supporting text and narrative for each step, which goes from understanding how the results will be used through post-auditing to ensure the approach is used effectively in subsequent applications. We also describe 13 concepts that need to be considered in parallel to these best practice steps. Examples of these concepts include: life cycles and strategies; variability and uncertainty; nonequilibrium theory; biological, temporal, and spatial scaling; explicit versus implicit representation of processes; and model validation. These concepts are often not considered or not explicitly stated and casual treatment of them leads to mis-communication and mis-understandings, which in turn, often underlie the resulting controversies. We illustrate a subset of these steps, and their associated concepts, using the three case studies of Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River, the wetlands of coastal Louisiana, and the Everglades. Use of our proposed scheme will require investment of additional time and effort (and dollars) to be done effectively. We argue that such an investment is well worth it and will more than pay back in the long run in effective and efficient restoration actions and likely avoided controversies and legal proceedings.

  12. The Broken Symmetry of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, Ruth E.

    2011-11-01

    This paper seeks to clarify features of time asymmetry in terms of symmetry breaking. It is observed that, in general, a contingent situation or event requires the breaking of an underlying symmetry. The distinction between the universal anisotropy of temporal processes and the irreversibility of certain physical processes is clarified. It is also proposed that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum mechanics offers an effective way to explain general thermodynamic asymmetry in terms of the time asymmetry of radiation, where prior such efforts have fallen short.

  13. The Broken Symmetry of Time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, Ruth E.

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to clarify features of time asymmetry in terms of symmetry breaking. It is observed that, in general, a contingent situation or event requires the breaking of an underlying symmetry. The distinction between the universal anisotropy of temporal processes and the irreversibility of certain physical processes is clarified. It is also proposed that the Transactional Interpretation of quantum mechanics offers an effective way to explain general thermodynamic asymmetry in terms of the time asymmetry of radiation, where prior such efforts have fallen short.

  14. Restorative effect of Eclipta alba in CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thirumalai

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To elucidate the restorative effect of the aqueous leaf extract (85% of the traditional medicinal plant Eclipta alba (E. alba against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats. Methods: Restorative activity was assessed using CCl4-induced hepatic injury in rats by monitoring biochemical parameters. Biochemical markers of hepatic damage such as aspartate transaminase (AST, alanine transaminase (ALT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were assessed in serum. The oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the levels of thiobarbutric acid reactive substance (TBARS, hydroperoxides, activity levels of enzymes viz. superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GPX and glutathione-s-transferase (GST in hepatic tissue. Results: CCl 4 and olive oil mixture (1:1 dosage of 1 mL/kg b.w. induced oxidative stress was indicated by elevated levels of TBARS and hydroperoxides, and augmented levels of serum AST, ALT and ALP. The depleted activity levels of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT, GPX and GST were found in CCl 4 induced animals. The aqueous leaf extract of E. alba (250 mg/kg b.w. ameliorated the effects of CCl 4 and returned the alter levels of the biochemical markers near to the normal levels. Conclusions: The study indicates that aqueous leaf extract of E. alba has potential restorative effect on CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in male albino rats.

  15. Partial dynamical symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhassid, Y.; Leviatan, A.

    1993-01-01

    A novel symmetry structure, partial dynamical symmetry is introduced. The Hamiltonian is not invariant under the transformations of a group G and irreps of G are mixed in its eigenstates. it possesses, however, a partial set of eigenstates which do have good symmetry and can be labeled by irreps of G. A general algorithm to construct such Hamiltonians for a semi-simple group G is presented. (Author) 6 refs

  16. Broken color symmetry and weak currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stech, B.

    1976-01-01

    Broken colour symmetry predicts a very rich spectrum of new particles. If broken colour is relevant at all, charged psi-particles should be found in particular at the 4 GeV region. For the weak hadronic currents no completely satisfactory suggestion exists. Broken colour symmetry describes qualitatively several of the new effects observed recently. (BJ) [de

  17. Scalar symmetry of the massless Dirac equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerk, G.J.; McKellar, B.H.J.

    1992-01-01

    The existence of a symmetry of the Dirac equation for a massless particle in a scalar field is demonstrated, and its effect on the band structure of certain arrays of scalar δ-function potentials is investigated. The implications of the symmetry for more general scalar potentials are also discussed. 10 refs

  18. [Effects and influential factors of rapid prototyping technology in dental restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qiao-Ling; Yuan, Jia-Kan

    2017-06-01

    To explore the effects and influential factors of rapid prototyping technology in dental restorations. From May 2013 to November 2014 in our hospital, 120 patients were divided into experimental group and conventional group. Patients in the experimental group were treated by rapid prototyping technology, while patients in the conventional group were treated by routine methods. The effects of the two groups were compared using SPSS 17.0 software package. The effective rate of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the conventional group (Ptechnology can be used in the treatment of patients with dentition defects with satisfactory results and fewer adverse reactions.

  19. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on the titanium used in dental restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio; Santos, Adimir dos; Fernandes, Marco A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on titanium, a material used in dental restorations. Titanium is used to mitigate the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, seen when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-radiation beams from 6 and 10 Mega - Volt (MV) from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. Sample dose measurements were performed employing Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chamber in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a HPGe detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  20. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, Mireia Florencio

    2009-01-01

    This work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on materials used in dental restorations (Titanium, Amalgam, Resin Composite and Glass Ionomer) aiming the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, arising when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-ray beams of 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. The sample were submitted to Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chambers in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a Germanium detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  1. Evaluation of effects of ionizing radiation on the glass ionomer used in dental restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, F.M.; Santos, A.; Fernandes, M.A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this work consisted of quantitative studies of the effects caused by ionizing radiation on glass ionomer, a material used in dental restorations. Glass ionomer is used to mitigate the deleterious effects of radiotherapy when patients with tumors in head and neck, seen when the teeth are restored within in the field of radiation. Samples were submitted to X-radiation beams from 6 MV from a linear accelerator, VARIAN 2100C model. The samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence techniques to compare the chemical composition before and after the irradiation. Sample dose measurements were performed employing Geiger-Mueller detectors and the ionization chamber in order to verify any residual radiation in the samples. The samples were also analyzed by gamma spectrometry by a HPGe detector. These tests were performed to determine small changes in the composition in the samples due to the radiation interaction. The results of this study may encourage the development of new research for alternative materials in dental restorations that can contribute to improve the quality of life of those patients with tumors of the mouth. (author)

  2. Potential side effects of dental amalgam restorations. (I). An oral and medical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratel, J; Haraldson, T; Meding, B; Yontchev, E; Ohman, S C; Ottosson, J O

    1997-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore a possible association between health status and self-reported adverse effects related to dental amalgam restorations. A group of 50 consecutive patients (index group), referred for complaints self-related to dental amalgam restorations, was compared with a control group of individuals matched by age, sex and postal zip code. The patients underwent an oral, stomatognathic, medical and clinical chemistry examination. Mercury levels were examined in blood, urine and hair. The results revealed that somatic diseases were more common in the index group (38% versus 6%). Symptoms related to cranio-mandibular dysfunction were reported by 74% of the patients in the index group versus 24% in the control group, and were diagnosed in 62% and 36%, respectively. The oral health status and the number of amalgam surfaces were similar in the 2 groups. No positive skin patch test to mercury was found in any of the groups. The estimated mercury intake from fish consumption, occupational exposure, and mercury levels in blood and urine were also similar and far below levels, where negative health effects would be expected. The correlation between the number of amalgam surfaces and mercury levels in plasma and urine (r=0.43) indicated a release of mercury from dental amalgam restorations in both groups. Since the mercury levels were similar among index patients and controls, mercury was not a likely cause of the impaired health reported by the patients.

  3. Effect of Different Prophylaxis Methods on Microleakage of Microfilled Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Kimyai

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of different prophylaxis methods on microleakage of microfilled composite restorations. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, class V cavities were prepared on buccal surfaces of 84 bovine teeth. The teeth were restored with Tetric N-Bond adhesive and Heliomolar composite resin. Subsequent to a thermocycling procedure and three months of storage in distilled water, the teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n=21: (1 prophylaxis with a rubber cup and pumice; (2 prophylaxis with a brush and pumice; (3 prophylaxis with air/powder polishing device; and (4 no prophylaxis (the control group. Then the teeth were immersed in 2% basic fuchsin for 24 hours and sectioned for microleakage evaluation under a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Statistical significance was defined at p<0.05. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in occlusal and gingival microleakage between the groups (p=0.996 and p=0.860, respectively. In all the groups gingival margins exhibited significantly higher microleakage values compared to occlusal margins (p<0.0005. Conclusion. Prophylaxis methods had no adverse effect on marginal leakage of microfilled composite resin restorations.

  4. Regional effects of vegetation restoration on water yield across the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Feng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The general relationships between vegetation and water yield under different climatic regimes are well established at a small watershed scale in the past century. However, applications of these basic theories to evaluate the regional effects of land cover change on water resources remain challenging due to the complex interactions of vegetation and climatic variability and hydrologic processes at the large scale. The objective of this study was to explore ways to examine the spatial and temporal effects of a large ecological restoration project on water yield across the Loess Plateau region in northern China. We estimated annual water yield as the difference between precipitation input and modelled actual evapotranspiration (ET output. We constructed a monthly ET model using published ET data derived from eddy flux measurements and watershed streamflow data. We validated the ET models at a watershed and regional levels. The model was then applied to examine regional water yield under land cover change and climatic variability during the implementation of the Grain-for-Green (GFG project during 1999–2007. We found that water yield in 38% of the Loess Plateau area might have decreased (1–48 mm per year as a result of land cover change alone. However, combined with climatic variability, 37% of the study area might have seen a decrease in water yield with a range of 1–54 mm per year, and 35% of the study area might have seen an increase with a range of 1–10 mm per year. Across the study region, climate variability masked or strengthened the water yield response to vegetation restoration. The absolute annual water yield change due to vegetation restoration varied with precipitation regimes with the highest in wet years, but the relative water yield changes were most pronounced in dry years. We concluded that the effects of land cover change associated with ecological restoration varied greatly over time and space and were strongly influenced

  5. The effect of surface treatment and position of the dental restoration on amalgam corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortazavi, V. [Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fathi, M.H. [Isfahan Univ. of Technology, Materials Engineering Dept., Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of surface treatment, clinical operations and the condition and position of the dental restoration on amalgam corrosion behavior. Commercial amalgam alloy namely Oralloy was selected. Twenty-one amalgam samples were prepared. After triturating and condensation, the samples were divided into three groups and each group was finished by using one of three surface clinical procedures; carving, carving-burnishing, carving-burnishing-polishing. A special cylindrical mold was used in order to simulation of the interproximal areas and proximal surfaces of the dental restorations. Stainless steel matrix band was laid on the internal mold surfaces and amalgam paste was compacted in the mold. Electrochemical potentiodynamic tests were performed at a temperature of 37{+-}1 {sup o}C in physiological solution in order to determine and compare the corrosion behavior of dental amalgam samples, as an indication of biocompatibility. The results showed statistically significant differences between the mean corrosion current density values of three different groups of dental amalgam (P<0.05). The polished group possesses the lowest and the carved group shows the highest corrosion current density. The carved group shows more corrosion resistance in compare with the sample near the matrix band as an index of the proximal surfaces of restorations. It was concluded that even a simple clinical operation could effect on dental amalgam corrosion resistance. The proximal surfaces of the class II restorations are not only susceptible to concentration cell corrosion but also possess less corrosion resistance because dentist could perform no clinical surface treatment. (author)

  6. The effect of urban growth on landscape-scale restoration for a fire-dependent songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Bradley A; Marcus, Jeffrey F; Carpenter, John P; Anderson, Scott; Taillie, Paul J; Collazo, Jaime A

    2017-04-15

    A landscape-scale perspective on restoration ecology has been advocated, but few studies have informed restoration with landscape metrics or addressed broad-scale threats. Threats such as urban growth may affect restoration effectiveness in a landscape context. Here, we studied longleaf pine savanna in the rapidly urbanizing southeastern United States where a habitat-specialist bird, Bachman's sparrow (Peucaea aestivalis), is closely associated with savanna vegetation structure and frequent fire. Our objectives were to construct a species distribution model for Bachman's sparrow, determine the relationship between fire and urbanization, quantify the urban growth effect (2010-2090), identify potential restoration areas, and determine the interaction between restoration potential and urban growth by 2050. Number of patches, patch size, and isolation metrics were used to evaluate scenarios. The species distribution model was 88% accurate and emphasized multiscale canopy cover characteristics, fire, and percent habitat. Fires were less common urban areas, and this fire suppression effect exacerbated urban growth effects. For restoration scenarios, canopy cover reduction by 30% resulted in nearly double the amount of habitat compared to the prescribed fire scenario; canopy cover reduction resulted in larger patch sizes and less patch isolation compared to current conditions. The effect of urban growth on restoration scenarios was unequal. Seventy-four percent of restoration areas from the prescribed fire scenario overlapped with projected urban growth, whereas the canopy cover reduction scenario only overlapped by 9%. We emphasize the benefits of simultaneously considering the effects of urban growth and landscape-scale restoration potential to promote a landscape with greater patch sizes and less isolation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Observable to explore high density behaviour of symmetry energy

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Aman D.

    2011-01-01

    We aim to see the sensitivity of collective transverse in-plane flow to symmetry energy at low as well as high densities and also to see the effect of different density dependencies of symmetry energy on the same.

  8. Poster - Thur Eve - 41: Effect of beam symmetry on enhanced dynamic wedge quality assurance and tolerance levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, T; Hudson, A

    2012-07-01

    Wedged fields are common in three dimensional conformal radiation therapy and require appropriate quality assurance (QA). Currently, our centre calculates the angle of enhanced dynamic wedge (EDW) deliveries with the PROFILER at a monthly frequency but Canadian guidelines on the recommended QA of enhanced dynamic wedges are not available yet. TG-142 recommendations include monthly validation of the central axis wedge factors with only annual verification of wedge profiles. Our monthly QA results have demonstrated a sensitivity of the calculated EDW angle to open beam symmetry. The goal of this work is to compare wedge angle and direct profile comparison as QA measures of EDW delivery and determine appropriate parameter tolerances. The impact of open field symmetry variations on EDW profiles was determined by varying beam symmetry with a test potentiometer and measuring the resulting EDW beam profile with the PROFILER. A calculated wedge angle and direct profile comparison were used to describe the deviations in EDW deliveries. The impact of the deviations on typical plans incorporating wedged fields was evaluated by constructing 'equivalent wedges' to the profile deviations using mixed 60 degree and open field beams and performing plan comparisons in Eclipse. Beam symmetry was observed to have a significant impact on wedge angle for small angle wedges, with a 1% symmetry tolerance allowing a 3.4 degree range of wedge angles for a nominal 10 degree wedge. Direct profile comparison allows a more consistent definition of a dose based tolerance range to be applied without angle dependent tolerances. © 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  9. Assessing Restoration Effects on River Hydromorphology Using the Process-based Morphological Quality Index in Eight European River Reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belletti, B.; Nardi, L.; Rinaldi, M.; Poppe, M.; Brabec, K.; Bussettini, M.; Comiti, F.; Gielczewski, M.; Golfieri, B.; Hellsten, S.; Kail, J.; Marchese, E.; Marcinkowski, P.; Okruszko, T.; Paillex, A.; Schirmer, M.; Stelmaszczyk, M.; Surian, N.

    2018-01-01

    The Morphological Quality Index (MQI) and the Morphological Quality Index for monitoring (MQIm) have been applied to eight case studies across Europe with the objective of analyzing the hydromorphological response to various restoration measures and of comparing the results of the MQI and MQIm as a morphological assessment applied at the reach scale, with a conventional site scale physical-habitat assessment method. For each restored reach, the two indices were applied to the pre-restoration and post-restoration conditions. The restored reach was also compared to an adjacent, degraded reach. Results show that in all cases the restoration measures improved the morphological quality of the reach, but that the degree of improvement depends on many factors, including the initial morphological conditions, the length of the restored portion in relation to the reach length, and on the type of intervention. The comparison with a conventional site scale physical-habitat assessment method shows that the MQI and MQIm are best suited for the evaluation of restoration effects on river hydromorphology at the geomorphologically-relevant scale of the river reach.

  10. Histological evaluation to study the effects of dental amalgam and composite restoration on human dental pulp: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandwani, Neelam D; Pawar, Mansing G; Tupkari, Jagdish V; Yuwanati, Monal

    2014-01-01

    To study and compare the effects of dental amalgam and composite restorations on human dental pulp. One hundred sound premolars scheduled for orthodontic extraction were divided equally into two groups: group A, teeth restored with silver amalgam, and group B, teeth restored with composite resin. Each group was equally subdivided into two subgroups [extracted after 24 h (A-1 and B-1) or 7 days (A-2 and B-2)], and the histological changes in the pulp related to the two different materials at the two different intervals were studied. It was found that after 24 h, the inflammatory response of the pulp in teeth restored with amalgam and composite was similar (p = 1.00). However, after 7 days, the severity of the inflammatory response of the pulp in teeth restored with amalgam was less compared to that in teeth restored with composite (p = 0.045). This study confirmed that amalgam continues to be the mechanically as well as biologically more competent restorative material. Composite could be a promising restorative material to satisfy esthetic needs for a considerable period of time. However, its biological acceptance is still in doubt. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Symmetry and Interculturality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2009-01-01

    Symmetry is one of the fundamental concepts in Geometry. It is a Mathematical concept, which can be very well connected with Art and Ethnography. The aim of the article is to show how to link the geometrical concept symmetry with interculturality. For this mosaics from different countries are used.

  12. Quantum symmetry for pedestrians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Schomerus, V.

    1992-03-01

    Symmetries more general than groups are possible in quantum therory. Quantum symmetries in the narrow sense are compatible with braid statistics. They are theoretically consistent much as supersymmetry is, and they could lead to degenerate multiplets of excitations with fractional spin in thin films. (orig.)

  13. Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1987-01-01

    It is argued that the existence of symmetries may simplify, as in classical mechanics, the solution of optimal control problems. A procedure for obtaining symmetries for the optimal Hamiltonian resulting from the Maximum Principle is given; this avoids the actual calculation of the optimal

  14. Symmetry Festival 2016

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Symmetry Festival is a science and art program series, the most important periodic event (see its history) to bring together scientists, artists, educators and practitioners interested in symmetry (its roots, what is behind, applications, etc.), or in the consequences of its absence.

  15. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metric tensor field and generate constants of the motion along null geodesics for massless particles. Conformal symmetries arise in various physical applications. The existence of conformal symmetries in relativistic cosmological models, with restrictions on the matter content and fluid four-velocity, have been extensively ...

  16. A biomathematical model of the restoring effects of caffeine on cognitive performance during sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Sridhar; Rajaraman, Srinivasan; Laxminarayan, Srinivas; Wesensten, Nancy J; Kamimori, Gary H; Balkin, Thomas J; Reifman, Jaques

    2013-02-21

    While caffeine is widely used as a countermeasure to sleep loss, mathematical models are lacking. Develop a biomathematical model for the performance-restoring effects of caffeine in sleep-deprived subjects. We hypothesized that caffeine has a multiplicative effect on performance during sleep loss. Accordingly, we first used a phenomenological two-process model of sleep regulation to estimate performance in the absence of caffeine, and then multiplied a caffeine-effect factor, which relates the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic effects through the Hill equation, to estimate the performance-restoring effects of caffeine. We validated the model on psychomotor vigilance test data from two studies involving 12 subjects each: (1) single caffeine dose of 600mg after 64.5h of wakefulness and (2) repeated doses of 200mg after 20, 22, and 24h of wakefulness. Individualized caffeine models produced overall errors that were 19% and 42% lower than their population-average counterparts for the two studies. Had we not accounted for the effects of caffeine, the individualized model errors would have been 117% and 201% larger, respectively. The presented model captured the performance-enhancing effects of caffeine for most subjects in the single- and repeated-dose studies, suggesting that the proposed multiplicative factor is a feasible solution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of rebonding on microleakage of class V aesthetic restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhardt, Maria Carolina Guilherme; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2002-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effect of rebonding on microleakage of a resin composite, a condensable resin and two polyacid-modified resin composite restorations. Standardized cylindrical Class V dentin cavities were prepared on the buccal root surfaces of 240 extracted bovine incisive teeth. The prepared teeth were randomly assigned to four groups of 60 teeth and restored with the following restorative systems: I--(ZS) Z100/Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus; II--(SS) Solitaire/Solid Bond; III--(FS) Freedom/Stae; IV--(FSB) F200/Single Bond. Thirty teeth of each group were rebonded with a low-viscosity resin (Fortify/BISCO), according to the manufacturer's instructions. The remaining teeth received no treatment. All teeth were thermocycled for 5,000 cycles and brushed by hand three times a day for 10 days using a toothbrush and a slurry of dentifrice and water. Specimens were stained in a 2% methylene blue solution and longitudinally sectioned with diamond disks. Microleakage was scored on a scale of 0 to 3. The Kruskal-Wallis test showed statistically significant differences among the groups (h=156.54; alpha<0.05). Pairwise comparison by means of the least significant difference showed that (SS) and (FS) with or without rebonding were not statistically different from each other. These groups showed the highest microleakage differences from (ZS) and (FSB) with or without rebonding. (ZS) with rebonding showed the lowest microleakage that was not statistically different from (ZS) without rebonding and (FSB) with rebonding.

  18. Effects of gamma rays on a restored painting from the XVIIth century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, M.M. E-mail: mrizzo@osite.com.br; Machado, L.D.B.; Borrely, S.I.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Farah, J.P.S.; Schumacher, R.I

    2002-03-01

    The subject of this study is a Peruvian painting from the 17th century, which has been recently restored and then contaminated by mould. It received different unsuccessful treatments. Therefore, radiation process was suggested as an alternative once it is an effective technology for decontamination and conservation purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of irradiation process on the original painting and on the products used in the restoration process. These products were irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays applying doses in the range of 6-25 kGy. The polymeric materials were characterized by thermal analysis techniques before and after irradiation. The colour of the pigments irradiated and non-irradiated were compared by spectrophotometric analysis. Small samples removed of the original painting were also irradiated and investigated. The results obtained until now allowed concluding that the irradiation with the appropriated dose of 6.0 kGy, according to the literature, will not damage the restored painting.

  19. Effects of gamma rays on a restored painting from the XVIIth century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, M. M.; Machado, L. D. B.; Borrely, S. I.; Sampa, M. H. O.; Rela, P. R.; Farah, J. P. S.; Schumacher, R. I.

    2002-03-01

    The subject of this study is a Peruvian painting from the 17th century, which has been recently restored and then contaminated by mould. It received different unsuccessful treatments. Therefore, radiation process was suggested as an alternative once it is an effective technology for decontamination and conservation purposes. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of irradiation process on the original painting and on the products used in the restoration process. These products were irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying doses in the range of 6-25 kGy. The polymeric materials were characterized by thermal analysis techniques before and after irradiation. The colour of the pigments irradiated and non-irradiated were compared by spectrophotometric analysis. Small samples removed of the original painting were also irradiated and investigated. The results obtained until now allowed concluding that the irradiation with the appropriated dose of 6.0 kGy, according to the literature, will not damage the restored painting.

  20. Effect of fluorides from various restorative materials on remineralization of adjacent tooth: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliga M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the extent of surface zone remineralization and the effect of fluoride at the inter-proximal adjacent tooth surface, using restorative materials FusionAlloy, Ketac-Fil and Heliomolar. Ninety extracted molar teeth were used of which 45 were placed in artificial caries for 10 weeks. The remaining 45 teeth were filled with the respective restorative materials, mounted with the artificial carious teeth in proximal contact with plaster and placed in artificial saliva for a period of 28 days. Finally, sectioning of artificially carious teeth was done mesio-distally and observed under the optical microscope and scanning electron microscope. Comparison among the groups was done by one-way analysis of variance [ANOVA] and Fischer′s F test. Intercomparison between the groups was done by using Dunnett′s t-test. Results obtained from transmitted electron microscopic and scanning electron microscopic observations were almost similar with the Ketac-Fil and Heliomolar showing better results in surface zone remineralization compared to FusionAlloy. Also, Ketac-Fil is a good material in releasing fluoride to remineralize enamel when compared to Heliomolar and FusionAlloy. Thus, it can be used mainly in class II cavity restorations of primary and permanent dentitions due to the potential ability of fluoride containing glass ionomer cements and composite resins to remineralize incipient carious lesions on adjacent teeth.

  1. Lessons Learned from an Industry, Government and University Collaboration to Restore Stream Habitats and Mitigate Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicholas E.; Scrimgeour, Garry J.; Tonn, William M.

    2017-01-01

    Restoration ecologists conduct both basic and applied research using a diversity of funding and collaborative models. Over the last 17 years we have assessed the effectiveness of a stream compensation project in Canada's north, where an independent university-based research program was a condition of the regulatory approval process. This resulted in a non-traditional university-government-industry partnership. Here we share seven lessons that we learned from our collective experiences with the research partnership and use the Ekati diamond mine as a case study to illustrate and support lessons learned. Our advice includes opinions on the importance of: engaging collaborators early, defining roles and responsibilities, data sharing and standardization, the use of natural streams to set restoration targets, expect setbacks and surprises, treating restoration as an opportunity to experiment, and how to define success. Many of the lessons learned are broadly applicable to those whom embark on research collaborations among industry, universities, and consulting companies within a regulatory framework and may be of particular value to collaborators in early stages of their career.

  2. More on ghost condensation in Yang-Mills theory: BCS versus Overhauser effect and the breakdown of the Nakanishi-Ojima annex SL(2,R) symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudal, David; Verschelde, Henri; Lemes, Vitor E.R.; Sarandy, Marcelo S.; Sorella, Silvio P.; Picariello, Marco; Vicini, Alessandro; Gracey, John A.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the ghost condensates abc c b c c >, abc c-bar b c-bar c > and abc c-barbc c > in Yang-Mills theory in the Curci-Ferrari gauge. By combining the local composite operator formalism with the algebraic renormalization technique, we are able to give a simultaneous discussion of abc c b c c >, abc c-bar b c-bar c > and abc c-bar b c c >, which can be seen as playing the role of the BCS, respectively Overhauser effect in ordinary superconductivity. The Curci-Ferrari gauge exhibits a global continuous symmetry generated by the Nakanishi-Ojima (NO) algebra. This algebra includes, next to the {(anti-)BRST} transformation, a SL(2,R) subalgebra. We discuss the dynamical symmetry breaking of the NO algebra through these ghost condensates. Particular attention is paid to the Landau gauge, a special case of the Curci-Ferrari gauge. (author)

  3. In vitro comparative evaluation of the effect of two different fiber reinforcements on the fracture toughness of provisional restorative resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav D Kamble

    2012-01-01

    Clinical Implications: On the basis of this in--vitro study, the use of Glass and Polyethylene fibers tested may be an effective way to reinforce resins used to fabricate fixed provisional restorations.

  4. Evidence summary: which dental liners under amalgam restorations are more effective in reducing postoperative sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Mona

    2011-06-10

    Since August 2009, members of the Primary Care Dentistry Research Forum (www.dentistryresearch.org) have taken part in an online vote to identify questions in day-to-day practice that they felt most needed to be answered with conclusive research. The question that receives the most votes each month forms the subject of a critical appraisal of the relevant literature. Each month a new round of voting takes place to decide which further questions will be reviewed. Dental practitioners and dental care professionals are encouraged to take part in the voting and submit their own questions to be included in the vote by joining the website. The paper below details a summary of the findings of the ninth critical appraisal. In order to address the question raised by dentistry research forum, first a search was conducted for systematic reviews on the topic. There was one systematic review retrieved comparing bonded amalgam restorations versus non-bonded amalgam restorations. However, there was no other systematic review identified assessing the effectiveness of dental liners under amalgam restorations in general. Therefore, a search was conducted for any randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing use of a lining under amalgam restorations versus no lining or RCTs comparing differing lining materials under amalgam against each other. There were eight relevant RCTs identified. Due to the low quality, small sample sizes or lack of adequate reporting of the outcome data, the evidence is inadequate to claim or refute a difference in postoperative sensitivity between different dental liners. Further well-conducted RCTs are needed to answer this question. These RCTs would be preferably included and synthesised in a systematic review.

  5. Restoration of Tidal Flow to Impounded Salt Marsh Exerts Mixed Effect on Leaf Litter Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, B. A.; Schade, J. D.; Foreman, K.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marsh impoundments (e.g. roads, levees) disconnect marshes from ocean tides, which impairs ecosystem services and often promotes invasive species. Numerous restoration projects now focus on removing impoundments. Leaf litter decomposition is a central process in salt marsh carbon and nutrient cycles, and this study investigated the extent to which marsh restoration alters litter decomposition rates. We considered three environmental factors that can potentially change during restoration: salinity, tidal regime, and dominant plant species. A one-month field experiment (Cape Cod, MA) measured decay of litter bags in impounded, restored, and natural marshes under ambient conditions. A two-week lab experiment measured litter decay in controlled incubations under experimental treatments for salinity (1ppt and 30 ppt), tidal regime (inundated and 12 hr wet-dry cycles), and plant species (native Spartina alterniflora and invasive Phragmites australis). S. alterniflora decomposed faster in situ than P. australis (14±1.0% mass loss versus 0.74±0.69%). Corroborating this difference in decomposition, S. alterniflora supported greater microbial respiration during lab incubation, measured as CO2 flux from leaf litter and biological oxygen demand of water containing leached organic matter (OM). However, nutrient analysis of plant tissue and leached OM show P. australis released more nitrogen than S. alterniflora. Low salinity treatments in both lab and field experiments decayed more rapidly than high salinity treatments, suggesting that salinity inhibited microbial activity. Manipulation of inundation regime did not affect decomposition. These findings suggest the reintroduction of tidal flow to an impounded salt marsh can have mixed effects; recolonization by the native cordgrass could supply labile OM to sediment and slow carbon sequestration, while an increase in salinity might inhibit decomposition and accelerate sequestration.

  6. Effect of radiofrequency radiation from Wi-Fi devices on mercury release from amalgam restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paknahad, Maryam; Mortazavi, S M J; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Mortazavi, Ghazal; Haghani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Dental amalgam is composed of approximately 50% elemental mercury. Despite concerns over the toxicity of mercury, amalgam is still the most widely used restorative material. Wi-Fi is a rapidly using local area wireless computer networking technology. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that evaluates the effect of exposure to Wi-Fi signals on mercury release from amalgam restorations. Standard class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces of 20 non-carious extracted human premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 10). The control group was stored in non-environment. The specimens in the experimental groups were exposed to a radiofrequency radiation emitted from standard Wi Fi devices at 2.4 GHz for 20 min. The distance between the Wi-Fi router and samples was 30 cm and the router was exchanging data with a laptop computer that was placed 20 m away from the router. The concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva in the groups was evaluated by using a cold-vapor atomic absorption Mercury Analyzer System. The independent t test was used to evaluate any significant differences in mercury release between the two groups. The mean (±SD) concentration of mercury in the artificial saliva of the Wi-Fi exposed teeth samples was 0.056 ± .025 mg/L, while it was only 0.026 ± .008 mg/L in the non-exposed control samples. This difference was statistically significant (P =0.009). Exposure of patients with amalgam restorations to radiofrequency radiation emitted from conventional Wi-Fi devices can increase mercury release from amalgam restorations.

  7. The effect of two different polishing techniques on microleakage of new composites in Class V restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçin, Filiz; Korkmaz, Yonca; Başeren, Meserret

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of polishing systems on the microleakage of a nanofill, a nanohybrid, and a microhybrid composite in Class V cavities. Preparations were made at the cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) of 36 extracted human premolars. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups and restored with new resin composites according to the manufacturers' instructions as follows: Group 1, Filtek Supreme & Single Bond; Group 2, Grandio & Solobond; and Group 3, Artemis & Excite. The restorations were finished with diamond finishing burs. The restored/finished teeth were randomly divided into two groups and polished using the following systems: Super-Snap (Al2O2 coated, abrasive disc system, fine grit, and extra fine grit) and Astropol/Astrobrush (silicon-based abrasive polisher point and polisher brush). All specimens were thermocycled 1000 times with a 10 second dwell time. They were immersed in 0.5% aqueous basic fuchsin dye for 24 hours and then sectioned buccal-lingual-longitudinally through the center of both restorations of each tooth and evaluated under a stereomicroscope at 30X magnification. The degree of dye penetration was quantified. No significant difference in leakage scores was observed in enamel margins (p=0.456, Kruskall Wallis test), but dentin margins were significantly affected by the different polishing systems (p=0.037, Kruskall Wallis test). The lower leakage scores were recorded for Astropol/Astrobrush polishing systems. The nanofill composite showed the least leakage among the test groups in this study. The most leakage was observed in nanohybrid composite resin (pGrandio >Artemis > Filtek Supreme.

  8. Effect of using different base materials on microleakage of class V restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Yıkılgan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare the effect of using different base materials on microleakage of class V restorations. Materials and Method: In this study 60 extracted non-cavitated human molar teeth were used. Class V cavities were prepared on the buccal surfaces in 4 mm mesio-distal, 3 mm gingivo-occlusal width and 3 mm depth. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: Group 1: resin-modified calcium silicate material (TheraCal LC, Group 2: self-adhesive flowable composite resin (Fusio Liquid Dentin, Group 3: flowable composite resin liner (Tetric N Flow, Group 4: resin-modified glass ionomer liner (Ketac N100, Group 5: control group. Materials in the experimental groups were placed in 1 mm thickness as liner. Then, a nanohybrid composite resin (Grandio was placed and restorations were completed. In the control group, no base material was applied. After finishing and polishing procedures, thermocycling was performed 5000 times between 5-55 °C. Microleakage of restorations was evaluated by using dye penetration method (basic fuchsin. Results were analyzed by Kruskal Wallis with Bonferroni correction and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Regarding occlusal microleakage, no statistically significant difference was found between the groups (p=0.267; however significant difference was found between the gingival microleakage scores (p=0.004. Compared to Fusio Liquid Dentin and control groups, significantly less dye penetration was found in Theracal LC, Tetric N-Flow and Ketac N-100 groups (p0.01. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, the conclusion was that the use of a liner (except Fusio Liquid Dentin under composite resin in a class V cavity reduced the microleakage of the restoration.

  9. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neslihan Tekçe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Materials and Methods Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each. Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE* were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik after 24 hr of storage (baseline and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control (n = 7. In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. Results The color difference (ΔE* of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61 and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73 showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25 and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40 in black tea (p < 0.05. Conclusions The compomers displayed unacceptable color changes at the end of 30 day in all beverages. Among resin composites, the silorane based composite exhibited relatively good color stability than the others. Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages.

  10. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Y Takekawa

    Full Text Available Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus, and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri. Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction

  11. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Brand, Arriana; Graham, Tanya R.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Herzog, Mark; Topping, Brent R.; Shellenbarger, Gregory; Kuwabara, James S.; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L.; Athearn, Nicole D.

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  12. Unintended consequences of management actions in salt pond restoration: cascading effects in trophic interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takekawa, John Y; Ackerman, Joshua T; Brand, L Arriana; Graham, Tanya R; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Herzog, Mark P; Topping, Brent R; Shellenbarger, Gregory G; Kuwabara, James S; Mruz, Eric; Piotter, Sara L; Athearn, Nicole D

    2015-01-01

    Salt evaporation ponds have played an important role as habitat for migratory waterbirds across the world, however, efforts to restore and manage these habitats to maximize their conservation value has proven to be challenging. For example, salinity reduction has been a goal for restoring and managing former salt evaporation ponds to support waterbirds in the South Bay Salt Pond Restoration Project in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Here, we describe a case study of unexpected consequences of a low-dissolved oxygen (DO) event on trophic interactions in a salt pond system following management actions to reduce salinity concentrations. We document the ramifications of an anoxic event in water quality including salinity, DO, and temperature, and in the response of the biota including prey fish biomass, numerical response by California Gulls (Larus californicus), and chick survival of Forster's Tern (Sterna forsteri). Management actions intended to protect receiving waters resulted in decreased DO concentrations that collapsed to zero for ≥ 4 consecutive days, resulting in an extensive fish kill. DO depletion likely resulted from an algal bloom that arose following transition of the pond system from high to low salinity as respiration and decomposition outpaced photosynthetic production. We measured a ≥ 6-fold increase in biomass of fish dropped on the levee by foraging avian predators compared with weeks prior to and following the low-DO event. California Gulls rapidly responded to the availability of aerobically-stressed and vulnerable fish and increased in abundance by two orders of magnitude. Mark-recapture analysis of 254 Forster's Tern chicks indicated that their survival declined substantially following the increase in gull abundance. Thus, management actions to reduce salinity concentrations resulted in cascading effects in trophic interactions that serves as a cautionary tale illustrating the importance of understanding the interaction of water quality

  13. Cannabidiol exerts antiepileptic effects by restoring hippocampal interneuron functions in a temporal lobe epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Archie A; Shekh-Ahmad, Tawfeeq; Khalil, Ayatakin; Walker, Matthew C; Ali, Afia B

    2018-03-25

    A non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promising results as an effective potential antiepileptic drug in some forms of refractory epilepsy. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which CBD exerts its anti-seizure effects, we investigated the effects of CBD at synaptic connections, and the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and two major inhibitory interneurons: fast spiking, parvalbumin -expressing (PV) and adapting, cholecystokinin-expressing (CCK) interneurons. We also investigated whether in vivo treatment with CBD altered the fate of CCK and PV interneurons using immunohistochemistry. Electrophysiological intracellular whole-cell recordings combined with neuroanatomy were performed in acute brain slices of rat temporal lobe epilepsy (in vivo kainic acid-induced) and in vitro (Mg 2+ -free-induced) epileptic seizure models. For immunohistochemistry experiments, CBD was administered in vivo (100 mg kg -1 ) at zero time and 90 minutes post status epilepticus (SE) induced with kainic acid. Bath-application of CBD (10 μM), dampened excitability at unitary synapses between pyramidal cells, but enhanced inhibitory synaptic potentials elicited by fast spiking and adapting interneurons at postsynaptic pyramidal cells. Furthermore, CBD restored impaired membrane excitability of PV, CCK, and pyramidal cells in a cell type-specific manner. These neuroprotective effects of CBD were corroborated by immunohistochemistry experiments that revealed a significant reduction of atrophy and death of PV- and CCK-expressing interneurons after CBD treatment. In conclusion, our data suggest CBD restores excitability and morphological impairment in epileptic models to pre-epilepsy control levels through multiple mechanisms to restore normal network function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Relativistic effect of pseudospin symmetry and tensor coupling on the Mie-type potential via Laplace transformation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshghi, M.; Ikhdair, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    A relativistic Mie-type potential for spin-1/2 particles is studied. The Dirac Hamiltonian contains a scalar S(r) and a vector V(r) Mie-type potential in the radial coordinates, as well as a tensor potential U(r) in the form of Coulomb potential. In the pseudospin (p-spin) symmetry setting Σ = C ps and Δ = V(r), an analytical solution for exact bound states of the corresponding Dirac equation is found. The eigenenergies and normalized wave functions are presented and particular cases are discussed with any arbitrary spin—orbit coupling number κ. Special attention is devoted to the case Σ = 0 for which p-spin symmetry is exact. The Laplace transform approach (LTA) is used in our calculations. Some numerical results are obtained and compared with those of other methods. (general)

  15. Braided quantum field theories and their symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasai, Yuya; Sasakura, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    Braided quantum field theories, proposed by Oeckl, can provide a framework for quantum field theories that possess Hopf algebra symmetries. In quantum field theories, symmetries lead to non-perturbative relations among correlation functions. We study Hopf algebra symmetries and such relations in the context of braided quantum field theories. We give the four algebraic conditions among Hopf algebra symmetries and braided quantum field theories that are required for the relations to hold. As concrete examples, we apply our analysis to the Poincare symmetries of two examples of noncommutative field theories. One is the effective quantum field theory of three-dimensional quantum gravity coupled to spinless particles formulated by Freidel and Livine, and the other is noncommutative field theory on the Moyal plane. We also comment on quantum field theory in κ-Minkowski spacetime. (author)

  16. Symmetry quantification and mapping using convergent beam electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyou-Hyun; Zuo, Jian-Min

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new algorithm to quantify symmetry recorded in convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED) patterns and use it for symmetry mapping in materials applications. We evaluate the effectiveness of the profile R-factor (R(p)) and the normalized cross-correlation coefficient (γ) for quantifying the amount of symmetry in a CBED pattern. The symmetry quantification procedures are automated and the algorithm is implemented as a DM (Digital Micrograph(©)) script. Experimental and simulated CBED patterns recorded from a Si single crystal are used to calibrate the proposed algorithm for the symmetry quantification. The proposed algorithm is then applied to a Si sample with defects to test the sensitivity of symmetry quantification to defects. Using the mirror symmetry as an example, we demonstrate that the normalized cross-correlation coefficient provides an effective and robust measurement of the symmetry recorded in experimental CBED patterns. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of the nuclear symmetry energy on gravitational waves from the axial W-modes of isolated neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Dehua; Li, Baoan; Krastev, P.G.

    2010-01-01

    The frequencies and damping times of the axial w-mode oscillations of neutron stars are investigated using a nuclear equation of state (EOS) partially constrained by the available terrestrial laboratory data. It is found that the nuclear symmetry energy E sym (ρ), especially its high density behavior, plays an important role in determining both the eigen-frequencies and the damping times of these oscillations. (author)

  18. Second-quantized mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Strominger, A; Vafa, C

    1995-01-01

    We propose and give strong evidence for a duality relating Type II theories on Calabi-Yau spaces and heterotic strings on K3 \\times T^2, both of which have N=2 spacetime supersymmetry. Entries in the dictionary relating the dual theories are derived from an analysis of the soliton string worldsheet in the context of N=2 orbifolds of dual N=4 compactifications of Type II and heterotic strings. In particular we construct a pairing between Type II string theory on a self-mirror Calabi-Yau space X with h^{11}= h^{21}= 11 and a (4, 0) background of heterotic string theory on K3\\times T^2. Under the duality transformation the usual first-quantized mirror symmetry of X becomes a second-quantized mirror symmetry which determines nonperturbative quantum effects. This enables us to compute the exact quantum moduli space. Mirror symmetry of X implies that the low-energy N=2 gauge theory is finite, even at enhanced symmetry points. This prediction is verified by direct computation on the heterotic side. Other branches of...

  19. Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Li

    1990-01-01

    In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU 3 of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU 3 fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU 3 symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting γ-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Dark Energy and Spacetime Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Dymnikova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Petrov classification of stress-energy tensors provides a model-independent definition of a vacuum by the algebraic structure of its stress-energy tensor and implies the existence of vacua whose symmetry is reduced as compared with the maximally symmetric de Sitter vacuum associated with the Einstein cosmological term. This allows to describe a vacuum in general setting by dynamical vacuum dark fluid, presented by a variable cosmological term with the reduced symmetry which makes vacuum fluid essentially anisotropic and allows it to be evolving and clustering. The relevant solutions to the Einstein equations describe regular cosmological models with time-evolving and spatially inhomogeneous vacuum dark energy, and compact vacuum objects generically related to a dark energy: regular black holes, their remnants and self-gravitating vacuum solitons with de Sitter vacuum interiors—which can be responsible for observational effects typically related to a dark matter. The mass of objects with de Sitter interior is generically related to vacuum dark energy and to breaking of space-time symmetry. In the cosmological context spacetime symmetry provides a mechanism for relaxing cosmological constant to a needed non-zero value.

  1. Effect of bleaching on the microhardness of tooth-colored restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrahim Davari

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Bleaching agents not only affect the tooth structure, but also may alter the properties of restorative materials. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bleaching regimens on the microhardness of four tooth-colored restorative materials.   Materials and Methods: Eighty specimens of four restorative materials (Microhybrid resin composite (Z250 (3M, ESPE, nanohybrid composite Z350 (3M, ESPE, packable composite P60 (3M, ESPE, and resin modified glass ionomer Vitremer (3M, ESPE were fabricated and were polished after 24 h with Soflex discs (3M,ESPE. Then the specimens were divided into two groups: In office bleach group, 40 specimens (10 of each restorative material were bleached with hydrogen peroxide 37.5% for 30 min in two sessions with 7 days interval. In home bleaching group, 40 specimens were bleached with carbamid peroxide 22%, 6 h a day for 14 days. Vickers microhardness test were done before and after bleaching (baseline. Finally data were evaluated using analysis of Variance.   Results: Two bleaching regimens were significantly decreased the microhardness values. In Z250 resin composite, the microhardness values before and after bleaching were 95.30 and 92.67 kg/mm2, respectively. for office bleaching (P=0.011 and 95.38 and 92.39 kg/mm2 for home bleaching (P<0.001. In Z350 resin composite, the microhardness values before and after bleaching were 98.29 and 92.41 kg/mm2, for office bleaching (P<0.001 and 97.35 and 93.44 kg/mm2 for home bleaching (P<0.001 respectively. In P60 resin composite, the microhardness values before and after bleaching were 103.10 and 96.16 kg/mm2, respectively. for office bleaching (P=0.045 and 102.61 and 98.16 kg/mm2 for home bleaching (P=0.001. In resin modified glass ionomer (Vitremer, the microhardness values before and after bleaching were 56.79 and 49.41 kg/mm2, respectively. for office bleaching (P=0.004 and 54.17 and 46.50 kg/mm2 for home bleaching (P

  2. Program effectiveness of a Restorative Whole-school Approach for tackling school bullying in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dennis S W; Cheng, Christopher H K; Ngan, Raymond M H; Ma, Stephen K

    2011-09-01

    With bullying in schools high on policy makers' agendas, researchers are looking for effective strategies to tackle its disruptive effects. The present study sets out to address this issue. First, the prevalence of bullying is examined in Hong Kong High Schools, and second, the effectiveness of a Restorative Whole-school Approach (RWsA) in reducing bullying is examined in a quasi-experimental design. The RWsA emphasizes the setting up of restorative goals, clear instructions, team building, and good relationships among students, parents, and teachers. Over the course of 2 years, and across four schools, the effectiveness of this program was observed by comparing an intervention group with a partial intervention group (which did not receive the full treatment) and a control group (which received no treatment whatsoever). The group that received the RWsA treatment exhibited a significant reduction of bullying, higher empathic attitudes, and higher self-esteem in comparison to the partial intervention and the control group.

  3. Is grazing exclusion effective in restoring vegetation in degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Overgrazing is considered one of the key disturbance factors that results in alpine grassland degradation in Tibet. Grazing exclusion by fencing has been widely used as an approach to restore degraded grasslands in Tibet since 2004. Is the grazing exclusion management strategy effective for the vegetation restoration of degraded alpine grasslands? Three alpine grassland types were selected in Tibet to investigate the effect of grazing exclusion on plant community structure and biomass. Our results showed that species biodiversity indicators, including the Pielou evenness index, the Shannon–Wiener diversity index, and the Simpson dominance index, did not significantly change under grazing exclusion conditions. In contrast, the total vegetation cover, the mean vegetation height of the community, and the aboveground biomass were significantly higher in the grazing exclusion grasslands than in the free grazed grasslands. These results indicated that grazing exclusion is an effective measure for maintaining community stability and improving aboveground vegetation growth in alpine grasslands. However, the statistical analysis showed that the growing season precipitation (GSP plays a more important role than grazing exclusion in which influence on vegetation in alpine grasslands. In addition, because the results of the present study come from short term (6–8 years grazing exclusion, it is still uncertain whether these improvements will be continuable if grazing exclusion is continuously implemented. Therefore, the assessments of the ecological effects of the grazing exclusion management strategy on degraded alpine grasslands in Tibet still need long term continued research.

  4. Effects of pulp capping materials on fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations

    OpenAIRE

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Yasa, Bilal; Akcay, Merve; Savas, Selcuk; Kavrik, Fevzi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cavity design and the type of pulp capping materials on the fracture resistance of Class II composite restorations. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted, sound molar teeth were selected for the study. A dovetail cavity on the mesio-occlusal and a slot cavity on disto-occlusal surfaces of each tooth were prepared, and the teeth were divided 4 groups which one of them as a control group. The pulp capping materials (Ther...

  5. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry.   It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations.

  6. Symmetry Adapted Basis Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, John Scales; Rettrup, Sten; Avery, James Emil

    In theoretical physics, theoretical chemistry and engineering, one often wishes to solve partial differential equations subject to a set of boundary conditions. This gives rise to eigenvalue problems of which some solutions may be very difficult to find. For example, the problem of finding...... in such problems can be much reduced by making use of symmetry-adapted basis functions. The conventional method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets is through the application of group theory, but this can be difficult. This book describes an easier method for generating symmetry-adapted basis sets...

  7. The effect of surface sealant application and accelerated aging on posterior restorative surfaces: An SEM and AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Pala, Kanşad; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa

    2017-03-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface sealant application and 10,000 thermocycles on the surface roughness and microhardness of different resin composite systems. A micro-hybrid (G Aenial Posterior), a nano-hybrid (Clearfil Majesty Posterior), a nano-fill (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Enamel Shade), and a bulk-fill resin composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative) were used for the study. Specimens were evaluated at 24 h, after application of the surface sealant Fortify Plus, and after thermocycling. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a posthoc Bonferroni test (pRestorative increased significantly after surface sealant application. However, neither surface sealant application nor thermocycling had a significant effect on composite microhardness values except Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (p>0.05).

  8. Microscopic Symmetry Imposed by Rotational Symmetry Boundary Conditions in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amitava; Post, Carol Beth

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viral capsids, as well as other macromolecular assemblies, have icosahedral structure or structures with other rotational symmetries. This symmetry can be exploited during molecular dynamics (MD) to model in effect the full viral capsid using only a subset of primary atoms plus copies of image atoms generated from rotational symmetry boundary conditions (RSBC). A pure rotational symmetry operation results in both primary and image atoms at short range, and within nonbonded interaction distance of each other, so that nonbonded interactions can not be specified by the minimum image convention and explicit treatment of image atoms is required. As such an unavoidable consequence of RSBC is that the enumeration of nonbonded interactions in regions surrounding certain rotational axes must include both a primary atom and its copied image atom, thereby imposing microscopic symmetry for some forces. We examined the possibility of artifacts arising from this imposed microscopic symmetry of RSBC using two simulation systems: a water shell and human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14) capsid with explicit water. The primary unit was a pentamer of the icosahedron, which has the advantage of direct comparison of icosahedrally equivalent spatial regions, for example regions near a 2-fold symmetry axis with imposed symmetry and a 2-fold axis without imposed symmetry. Analysis of structural and dynamic properties of water molecules and protein atoms found similar behavior near symmetry axes with imposed symmetry and where the minimum image convention fails compared with that in other regions in the simulation system, even though an excluded volume effect was detected for water molecules near the axes with imposed symmetry. These results validate the use of RSBC for icosahedral viral capsids or other rotationally symmetric systems. PMID:22096451

  9. Effect of Dental Restorative Material Type and Shade on Characteristics of Two-Layer Dental Composite Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefeh Karimzadeh

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of shade and material type and shape in dental polymer composites on the hardness and shrinkage stress of bulk and two-layered restoration systems. For this purpose, some bulk and layered specimens from three different shades of dental materials were prepared and light-cured. The experiments were carried out on three types of materials: conventional restorative composite, nanohybrid composite and nanocomposite. Micro-indentation experiment was performed on the bulk and also on each layer of layered restoration specimens using a Vicker's indenter. The interface between the two layers was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results revealed significant differences between the values of hardness for different shades in the conventional composite and also in the nanohybrid composite. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between the hardness values for different shades in the nanocomposite samples. The layered restoration specimens of different restorative materials exhibited lower hardness values with respect to their bulk specimens. The reduction in the hardness value of the layered conventional composite samples was higher than those of the nanocomposite and nanohybrid composite specimens indicating more shrinkage stresses generated in the conventional composite restorations. According to the SEM images, a gap was observed between the two layers in the layered restorations.

  10. Effects of ecosystem development on benthic secondary production in restored and created mangrove habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetland creation, enhancement, and restoration activities are commonly implemented to compensate for wetland loss or degradation. However, functional equivalence in restored and created wetland habitats is often poorly understood. In estuarine habitats, changes in habitat qualit...

  11. Comparing Effect of Four Different Restorative Techniques with Composite on Gingival Seal Located on the Dentin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Davari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In spite of improvements in composite function, marginal microleakage in deep composite restoration is still considered as a challenge due to unstable bond between composite and dentin. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate effect of applying different materials on marginal microleakage in posterior composite restoration. Methods: A standard distal box was prepared on 80 human premolar. The gingival floors were 1 millimeter under CEJ. The specimens were divided to four groups. In the first group, 1 millimeter amalgam was used as the first increment in proximal box on gingival floor, in the second group flow able composite, and in the third group, RMGI were used. Other cavities were filled by condensable composite. In the fourth group (control, all the cavities were filled only by condensable composite. The specimens, after 6 months of storage, were placed under cyclic load (10000 cycle- 80 N- 1 Hz, and then were immersed in 2% methylene blue for 6 hours. Afterwards, the specimens were sectioned in the middle of restoration. Extension of dye penetration at the cervical margin was examined under a stereo microscope at 25x magnification and the leakage was evaluated by Fuks degree. The study data were statistically analyzed using the Mann- Whitney U-test (p<0.05. Results: Microleakage was observed in all the groups. The third group demonstrated the most leakage and the least was for the first group. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups. p-value =0.689 Conclusion: In cavities with gingival floor under CEJ, different filling methods have no effect on marginal sealing.

  12. Effectiveness and sustainability of remedial actions for land restoration in Abeokuta urban communities, Ogun State, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal-Adebowale, Okanlade

    2016-04-01

    Land as a major collective human property faces a great deal of threats and eventual degradation from both natural and human causal factors across the globe. But for the central role of land in human's sustenance and quality living, man cannot afford to lose its natural asset and as such takes mitigating or remedial actions to save and restore his land for sustainable use. In view of this, the study assessed the causal factors of land degradation in urban areas of Abeokuta and effectiveness and sustainability of the taken remedial actions to stem the tide of land degradation in the study area. The selected communities were purposively selected based on the observed prevalence of degraded lands in the areas. A qualitative research approach which encompasses observational techniques - participant/field observation, interactive discussion and photographic capturing, was used for collection of data on land degradation in the study area. A combination of phenomenological, inductive thematic analysis and conversation/discourse analysis was employed for data analysis. The results showed land gradients/slopes, rainfall, run-offs/erosion, land-entrenched foot impacts, sand scraping/mining, poor/absence of drainage system and land covers as causal factors of land degradation in the study area. The employed remedial actions for restoration of degraded land included filling of drenches with sand bags, wood logs, bricks and stones, and sand filling. The study though observed that filling of drenches caused by erosion with rubles/stones and construction of drainage were effective remedial actions, good drainage system was presumed to be the most appropriate and sustainable remedial action for land restoration in the study area.

  13. Potential surface alteration effects of laser-assisted periodontal surgery on existing dental restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Evren; Rothrock, James; Migliorati, Erica; Drukteinis, Saulius; Roshkind, David M; Bradley, Paul

    2012-05-01

    Laser-assisted gingivectomies are performed in proximity to teeth, existing restorations, and implants. In case of accidental exposures, a detrimental surface defect may cause failure. Surface interactions should be evaluated for safety margin determination of certain laser-material combinations. The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the microscopic and visible effects of CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode laser irradiations on various dental materials and tooth tissue. Study samples were fabricated (10 x 7.5 mm irradiation surface area, 1 mm thickness) from eight material groups (amalgam, base metal, gold, palladium-silver, composite, ceramic, titanium, and extracted tooth slices). Laser irradiations were performed with CO2, Nd:YAG, and 810-nm diode lasers using the manufacturer's recommended settings for gingivectomy at a 45-degree angle for 30 seconds. Irradiated surfaces were evaluated under SEM at 200x and 1,000x magnifications. Standardized photographs were obtained using a camera mount system (10x high-definition macro lens). The SEM images and photographs were correlated to determine surface interactions. Nd:YAG detrimentally affected all metallic materials and tooth structures. CO2 altered amalgam, gold, and palladium-silver slightly, whereas composite, ceramic, and tooth surfaces were detrimentally altered. The 810-nm diode altered amalgam, gold, titanium, palladium-silver, and composite but only gold and palladium-silver surfaces were barely traceable. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, surface effects were all instant; therefore, even a short accidental exposure may be destructive in some laser-material combinations. During gingivectomies, CO2 near tooth-colored restorations and Nd:YAG near metallic restorations and implants should be used carefully. The 810-nm diode was found to be safer due to its reversible alterations in only some materials. Further in vivo studies are necessary to clinically apply the outcomes of this study.

  14. Restoration Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  15. Symmetry conserving configuration mixing method with cranked states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Borrajo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the first calculations of a symmetry conserving configuration mixing method (SCCM using time-reversal symmetry breaking Hartree–Fock–Bogoliubov (HFB states with the Gogny D1S interaction. The method includes particle number and tridimensional angular momentum symmetry restorations as well as configuration mixing within the generator coordinate method (GCM framework. The nucleus 32Mg is chosen to show the performance and reliability of the calculations. Additionally, 01+, 21+ and 41+ states are computed for the magnesium isotopic chain, where a noticeable compression of the spectrum is obtained by including cranked states, leading to a very good agreement with the known experimental data.

  16. GENERAL: A Maple Package to Compute Lie Symmetry Groups and Symmetry Reductions of (1+1)-Dimensional Nonlinear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ruo-Xia; Lou, Sen-Yue

    2008-06-01

    Armed with the computer algebra system Maple, using a direct algebraic substitution method, we obtain Lie point symmetries, Lie symmetry groups and the corresponding symmetry reductions of one component nonlinear integrable and nonintegrable equations only by clicking the 'Enter' key. Abundant (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear mathematical physical systems are analysed effectively by using a Maple package LieSYMGRP proposed by us.

  17. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 10. Wigner's Symmetry Representation Theorem: At the Heart of Quantum Field Theory! Aritra Kr Mukhopadhyay. General Article Volume 19 Issue 10 October 2014 pp 900-916 ...

  18. Frameworks with crystallographic symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcea, Ciprian S; Streinu, Ileana

    2014-02-13

    Periodic frameworks with crystallographic symmetry are investigated from the perspective of a general deformation theory of periodic bar-and-joint structures in Euclidean spaces of arbitrary dimension. It is shown that natural parametrizations provide affine section descriptions for families of frameworks with a specified graph and symmetry. A simple geometrical setting for displacive phase transitions is obtained. Upper bounds are derived for the number of realizations of minimally rigid periodic graphs.

  19. Interactions between constituent single symmetries in multiple symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treder, M.S.; Vloed, G. van der; Helm, P.A. van der

    2011-01-01

    As a rule, the discriminability of multiple symmetries from random patterns increases with the number of symmetry axes, but this number does not seem to be the only determinant. In particular, multiple symmetries with orthogonal axes seem better discriminable than multiple symmetries with

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Green Tea on Dental Caries and Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala Ibrahim Awadalla

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background :An increasing number of people all around the world are turning to the nature by using the natural herbal products in both prophylaxis and treatment of different diseases. Green tea with active chemical ingredients posses diverse pharmacological properties that include anti-inflammatory, anticariogenic, antioxidant and antibacterial effects. Subjects & Methods: The researchers used the following measurments: Streptococcus Mutans count in saliva, Streptococcus Mutans count in plaque samples from margins of composite restorations and Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI. The above mentioned measurements were applied to a sample consists of 60 subjects divided equally into control and study groups where in control group they use the regular oral hygiene measurements only while in study group they applicate 2% green tea 3 times daily for 7 days (long term study. This experimental intervention study was carried in Azhar university clinic. Objective: to assess the possible protective properties of green tea on oral health. Results: The results of present study showed that there was a statistically significant difference among cases and controls concerning streptococcus mutans count in saliva, streptococcus mutans count in plaque samples from composite restoration margins and GBI. Conclusion : This study supports the effectiveness of local application of green tea as antibacterial and anticariogenic material. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 269-274

  1. [Effects of vertebral height restoration of vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebra compression fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Peng; Sun, Tian-Sheng; Li, Fang; Guan, Kai; Zhao, Guang-Min; Shan, Jian-Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Cheng

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of vertebral height restoration of vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebra compression fractures (VCFs). From October 2004 to June 2007, a total of 37 patients with 40 VCFs were treated by vertebroplasty. There were 12 males and 25 females with a mean age of (72.4 +/- 12.7) years (ranged, 48 to 87). Pain easement state was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) before and after operation, as well as in followed-up. Preoperative and postoperative vertebral height, kyphosis angle at fractured levels were measured on X-rays. All of patients were followed-up for 12 to 47 months (averaged, 35.8 +/- 9.6). The VAS score was 8.4 +/- 1.6 before operative, 2.1 +/- 1.2 at the 2nd day after operative, there were significant difference between pre-and postoperative (P osteoporotic VCFs, it can relieve the pain effectively. Failure to restore vertebaral height does not seem to interfere with the excellent pain management.

  2. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D 4 , the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D 14 . In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V ud - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  3. Dihedral flavor symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Alexander Simon

    2009-06-10

    This thesis deals with the possibility of describing the flavor sector of the Standard Model of Particle Physics (with neutrino masses), that is the fermion masses and mixing matrices, with a discrete, non-abelian flavor symmetry. In particular, mass independent textures are considered, where one or several of the mixing angles are determined by group theory alone and are independent of the fermion masses. To this end a systematic analysis of a large class of discrete symmetries, the dihedral groups, is analyzed. Mass independent textures originating from such symmetries are described and it is shown that such structures arise naturally from the minimization of scalar potentials, where the scalars are gauge singlet flavons transforming non-trivially only under the flavor group. Two models are constructed from this input, one describing leptons, based on the group D{sub 4}, the other describing quarks and employing the symmetry D{sub 14}. In the latter model it is the quark mixing matrix element V{sub ud} - basically the Cabibbo angle - which is at leading order predicted from group theory. Finally, discrete flavor groups are discussed as subgroups of a continuous gauge symmetry and it is shown that this implies that the original gauge symmetry is broken by fairly large representations. (orig.)

  4. Effect of Er:YAG laser on enamel demineralization around restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colucci, Vivian; de Souza Gabriel, Aline Evangelista; Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Serra, Mônica Campos; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluates in situ the effect of erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser parameters on the development of caries-like lesions adjacent to dental restorations. One hundred fifty bovine enamel slabs were randomly allocated among 15 volunteers. The specimens were subdivided into ten groups: nine experimental groups prepared with Er:YAG laser (300 mJ output, frequency of 2, 4 or 6 Hz, water flow rate of 2.0, 5.0, or 8.0 mL/min) and one control group (high-speed handpiece). The prepared cavity was restored with a composite resin, and the slabs were mounted on palatal appliance to be installed in the volunteers to the cariogenic challenge. After this, the specimens were sectioned to the longitudinal microhardness measurements. Data were submitted to Friedman and Wilcoxon paired tests. All groups prepared with Er:YAG laser demonstrated microhardness values higher than those prepared with high-speed handpiece, which showed the lowest microhardness values (24.86). The group prepared with Er:YAG laser (2 Hz-2.0 mL/min) showed the highest microhardness values (152.43), followed by those prepared with Er:YAG laser (2 Hz-5.0 mL/min) (133.08) and Er:YAG laser (2 Hz-8.0 mL/min) (91.61), respectively. The groups Er:YAG laser with 4 and 6 Hz of frequency and water flow rates of 2.0, 5.0, and 8.0 mL/min showed microhardness values lower than the groups cited above and showed statistical similarity among them. The Er:YAG laser parameters employed to cavity preparation influenced the acid resistance of the irradiated substrate, and the Er:YAG laser was capable to control the development of caries-like lesions around composite resin restorations.

  5. Effects of the Nd:YAG laser on amalgam dental restorative material: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernavin, Igor; Hogan, Sean P.

    1996-09-01

    The Nd:YAG laser has been marketed as an instrument for use on both hard and soft dental tissues. Its potential for use on hard tissues is limited but it may be the instrument of choice for use in certain soft tissue procedures. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the Nd:YAG laser on amalgam restorations which frequently occur on tooth surfaces adjacent to areas of soft tissue which may be subjected to the laser. The amalgam used was Tytin. The laser firing was controlled by a computer and a constant repetition rate of 40 Hz was used. Energy per pulse was altered as follows, 30 mJ, 40 mJ, 60 mJ, 80 mJ, 120 mJ and 140 mJ. Exposure times of 0.05 sec, 0.125 sec, 0.25 sec, 0.5 sec, 1 sec, 2 sec, 3 sec, 4 sec, and 5 sec were used. The width of defect was measured using a Nikon measurescope with 10x magnification and it was established that the damage threshold lies between 0.125 sec and 0.25 sec for 30 mJ per pulse. The data was analyzed using a one way ANOVA statistical test. There was a significant correlation between the width of the defect and energy per pulse setting as well as exposure time. The findings indicate that amalgam restorations are prone to damage from inadvertent laser exposure and clinicians must take measures to protect such restorations during lasing of soft tissues.

  6. The restorative effects of smoking upon self-control resources: a negative reinforcement pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Bryan W; Ditre, Joseph W; Brandon, Thomas H

    2012-02-01

    Based on a model in which self-control (SC) is considered to be a limited resource, research suggests that diminished SC resources may increase the likelihood of tobacco smoking. Yet, the inverse--how smoking may influence SC resources--has not been tested. The authors of this study utilized a randomized, 2 × 2 crossed-factorial (SC Depletion Manipulation × Smoking Manipulation), between-subjects design to test the hypothesis that smoking restores depleted SC resources. To manipulate SC depletion, experimenters instructed half of 132 nicotine dependent smokers to suppress their emotional reaction to a brief video depicting environmental damage (i.e., depletion), whereas the other half were instructed to "act natural" (i.e., no depletion) during viewing. Half of the participants in each condition then smoked a cigarette, whereas the other half sat patiently without smoking (i.e., smoke vs. no smoke). All participants then completed behavioral measures of SC. As hypothesized, an interaction occurred between the depletion and smoking manipulations for duration of time spent on a frustrating mirror-tracing task. That is, depletion reduced persistence on the task, unless depletion was followed by smoking. This effect was mediated by positive affect (PA). Thus, smoking appeared to restore depleted SC resources via modulation of PA, but independent of negative affect or smoking urges. These findings suggest that restoration of SC resources may represent another means by which smoking is negatively reinforced. The application of the self-control strength model to the study of nicotine dependence may inform the development of novel treatment modalities. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Effect of ferrule preparation on fatigue resistance of teeth restored with quartz-fiber posts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasermostofi Sh.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: A key factor in restoring the endodontically treated teeth is ferrule preparation. When the ferrule is absent, occlusal loads may cause the post or root to fracture. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of ferrule preparation on fatigue resistance of teeth restored with quartz-fiber posts. "nMaterials and Methods: Twenty single-rooted lower premolars having similar dimentions were randomly devided into two groups of 10. In control group the teeth were prepared with 3-mm of remaining coronal tooth structure and in test group teeth were prepared with 1-mm of remaining coronal tooth structure. The teeth were endodontically treated. 9-mm long Post holes were prepared, and D.T. light quartz-fiber(RTD,France posts were cemented with Panavia F2(Kuraray,Japan.Then the core build up was done with Bisco core build up composite(Bisco,USA and full metal crowns were cemented with Zinc phosphate(Harvard cement, Germany. All specimens were mounted in acrylic resin blocks and intermittently loaded (180 N at an angulation of 45- degree to the long axis of the teeth at a frequency of 4 loads per second, until failure occurred. "nResults: There was significant difference between the loads cycles of two groups studied. (p<0.0001. "nConclusion: The results of this study showed that an increased amount of coronal dentin significantly increases the fracture resistance of teeth restored with quartz-fiber posts.

  8. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Serim, Merve Efe; Baydemir, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Materials and Methods Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH) were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each). Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE*) were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik) after 24 hr of storage (baseline) and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control) (n = 7). In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE) were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. Results The color difference (ΔE*) of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61) and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73) showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25) and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40) in black tea (p storative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages. PMID:26587410

  9. Geomorphic Effects of Engineered Log Jams in River Restoration, Middle Fork John Day River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffin, J.; McDowell, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Middle Fork of the John Day River (MFJD) Intensively Monitored Watershed in eastern Oregon is a multi-phase restoration implementation and monitoring project. MFJD is a tributary to the Colombia and is part of one of the longest free flowing rivers systems in the continental United States. It is a gravel and cobble bed river with a drainage area of 2,100 km2. The river has endured extensive channel and floodplain degradation from years of channel alteration and straightening due to human influences including dredge mining, ranching, and farming. As part of the river restoration project on the MFJD, engineered log jams have been constructed to address many of the restoration goals including creating scour pools, inhibiting bank erosion, creating and maintaining a sinuous river planform, and increasing complexity of fish habitat. There is a need for more detailed understanding on ELJ channel morphologic effects and how site-specific characteristics and differences in log jam infrastructure interact to create the in-channel features over timescales longer than a few years. This study uses detailed channel bed topographic surveys collected either with a total station or RTK-GPS technology. Geomorphic change detection techniques are utilized to monitor topographic change under and around the 26 log structures in two different river reaches over a six to seven year period The log structures are often associated with deepening of pools as desired, but also some structures show sedimentation under the structure. Differences in the patterns will be assessed based on the design, location, and specific characteristics of the log structures; variables include number and placement of logs, volume of structure, location on meander bend, and sediment sizes.

  10. The cascade construction of artificial ponds as a tool for urban stream restoration - The use of benthic diatoms to assess the effects of restoration practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Żelazna-Wieczorek, Joanna; Nowicka-Krawczyk, Paulina

    2015-12-15

    A series of cascade artificial ponds were constructed to improve the ecological status of the stream. To evaluate the effects of restoration practices, a bioassessment, based on phytobenthic algae - the diatoms, was made. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of diatom assemblages allowed for evaluating the influence of a series of cascade artificial ponds on stream integrity. To reveal which environmental factors had the greatest influence on shaping diatom assemblages, the BIO-ENV procedure was used, and in order to examine whether these factors had equal influence on diatoms along the stream, Redundancy Analysis (RDA) was used. The analysis of diatom assemblages allowed for the calculation of the diatom indices in order to assess the water quality and the ecological status of the stream. Artificial ponds constructed on the stream had significant effects on the integrity of the stream ecosystem. Diatom assemblages characteristic of stream habitats were disrupted by the species from ponds. HCA and PCA revealed that the stream was clearly divided into three sections: ponds, stream parts under the influence of ponds, and stream parts isolated from ponds. The ponds thus altered stream environmental conditions. Benthic diatom assemblages were affected by a combination of four environmental factors: the concentration of ammonium ions, dissolved oxygen, conductivity, and the amount of total suspended material in the water. These factors, together with water pH, had a diverse influence on diatom assemblages alongside the stream, which was caused by a series of cascade ponds. In theory, this restoration practice should restore the stream close to its natural state, but bioassessment of the stream ecosystem based on diatoms revealed that there was no improvement of the ecological status alongside the stream. The construction of artificial ponds disrupted stream continuity and altered the character of the stream ecosystem. Copyright

  11. Pseudo Jahn–Teller effect in distortion and restoration of planar configurations of tetra-heterocyclic 1,2-diazetes C{sub 2}N{sub 2}E{sub 4}, E = H, F, Cl, Br

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilkhani, Ali R. [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Yazd Branch, Islamic Azad University, Yazd (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gorinchoy, Natalia N. [Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Bersuker, Isaac B., E-mail: bersuker@cm.utexas.edu [Institute for Theoretical Chemistry, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Institute of Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-10-16

    Highlights: • The pseudo Jahn–Teller mechanism of puckering of tetracyclic 1,2-diazetes is revealed. • Vibronic constants are extracted from ab initio calculations versus PJTE equations. • Methods of restoring the planar configuration by external perturbations are suggested. - Abstract: The pseudo Jahn–Teller effect (PJTE) is employed to explain the origin of the puckered structures of tetra-heterocyclic 1,2-diazetes, C{sub 2}N{sub 2}E{sub 4}, E = H, F, Cl, Br, and to reveal the conditions of restoration of their planar configuration. The high-symmetry C{sub 2v} planar configuration of all these compounds is unstable with respect to puckering, a{sub 2}-type distortions produced by the PJT coupling between their ground {sup 1}A{sub 1} and excited {sup 1}A{sub 2} electronic states. The PJTE coupling constants are estimated by fitting ab initio calculated energy profiles to the formulas of the vibronic coupling problem (A{sub 1} + A{sub 2}) ⊗ a{sub 2}. The conditions for the restoration of the planar configurations of the C{sub 2}N{sub 2}E{sub 4} cycles were revealed: the PJTE can be quenched by removing the outer two electrons, e.g. by producing a “triple-decker sandwich” structure with two electron acceptors on both sides of the neutral cycle.

  12. Restorative Care’s Effect on Activities of Daily Living Dependency in Long-stay Nursing Home Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Kristine M. C.; Wyman, Jean F.; Savik, Kay; Kane, Robert L.; Mueller, Christine; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: (a) Identify the prevalence of nursing homes providing Medicare supported restorative care programs and of long stay participants, (b) compare characteristics between restorative care participants and nonparticipants, and (c) assess restorative care’s effect on change in activities of daily living (ADL) dependency. Design and Methods: Longitudinal analysis of Minimum Data Set assessments linked to the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey using a sample of 7,735 residents, age ≥ 65 years living in 1,097 nursing homes for at least 6 months. Receipt of any restorative care was used as a time varying predictor to estimate change in ADL dependency over 18 months using linear mixed models. Results: The sample was 75% female, 89% non-Hispanic White, with a mean age of 85±8, and average length of stay of 3.2±3.4 years. Most nursing homes had restorative care programs (67%), but less than one-third of long-stay residents participated. After controlling for resident and nursing home characteristics, the predicted mean ADL dependency score (range 0–28) at baseline was 18 for restorative care participants and 14 for nonparticipants. Over 18 months, ADL dependency increased 1 point for both participants and nonparticipants (p = .12). Implications: A minority of long-stay residents participated in Medicare supported restorative care programs despite their availability and potential benefits. Even though participants had greater vulnerability for deterioration in physical, mental, and functional health than nonparticipants, both groups had similar rates of ADL decline. Future research is needed to determine if providing restorative care to less dependent long-stay residents is effective. PMID:26055785

  13. Survival of Dicor glass-ceramic dental restorations over 16 years. Part III: effect of luting agent and tooth or tooth-substitute core structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, K A; Socransky, S S

    2001-11-01

    The influence of different types of restorative design features on the long-term survival of Dicor glass-ceramic restorations is only partially understood. This study examined the effect of different types of luting agents and preparation core structures on the survival of Dicor glass-ceramic restorations functioning in vivo. A total of 1444 Dicor glass-ceramic restorations were placed on the teeth of 417 adults. Failure was defined as a restoration that required remake because of material fracture. The survival of restorations of different types, with different luting agents and preparation core structures, was described with Kaplan-Meier survival functions. The significance of differences in survival between different tooth or tooth-substitute preparation core structures and different luting agents was determined with the log-rank test. The probability of survival of a typical acid-etched Dicor restoration luted to gold preparation core structures was 91% at 16 years compared with 75% for dentin preparation core structures (P<.01). The survival of acid-etched Dicor restorations luted to dentin preparations was significantly better than nonacid-etched restorations luted to dentin. Acid-etched Dicor restorations luted with resin composite exhibited a more favorable survival function than those luted with glass ionomer (P<.01) and zinc phosphate (P<.05). Differences between restorations luted with glass ionomer or zinc phosphate agents were not significant. Acid-etched Dicor restorations luted to gold preparation core structures exhibited significantly better intraoral survival than restorations luted to dentin. Acid-etched Dicor restorations survived better than nonacid-etched restorations when luted to dentin preparations. Acid-etched Dicor restorations luted with resin composite exhibited more favorable survivor functions than restorations luted with glass ionomer or zinc phosphate agents.

  14. Effective actions and topological strings. Off-shell mirror symmetry and mock modularity of multiple M5-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecht, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This thesis addresses two different topics within the field of string theory. In the first part it is shown how Hodge-theoretic methods in conjunction with open string mirror symmetry can be used to compute non-perturbative effective superpotential couplings for type II/F-theory compactifications with D-branes and fluxes on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds. This is achieved by studying the at structure of operators which derives from the open/closed Β-model geometry. We analyze the variation of mixed Hodge structure of the relative cohomology induced by a family of divisors, which is wrapped by a D7-brane. This leads to a Picard-Fuchs system of differential operators, which can be used to compute the moduli dependence of the superpotential couplings as well as the mirror maps at various points in the open/closed deformation space. These techniques are used to obtain predictions for genuine A-model Ooguri-Vafa invariants of special Lagrangian submanifolds in compact Calabi-Yau geometries and real enumerative invariants of on-shell domain wall tensions. By an open/closed duality the system of differential equations can also be obtained from a gauged linear σ-model, which describes a non-compact Calabi-Yau four-fold compactification without branes. This is used in the examples of multi-parameter models to study the various phases of the combined open/closed deformation space. It is furthermore shown how the brane geometry can be related to a F-theory compactification on a compact Calabi-Yau four-fold, where the Hodge-theoretic techniques can be used to compute the G-flux induced Gukov-Vafa-Witten potential. The dual F-theory picture also allows to conjecture the form of the Kaehler potential on the full open/closed deformation space. In the second part we analyze the background dependence of theories which derive from multiple wrapped M5-branes. Using the Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula and the theory of mock modular forms we derive a holomorphic anomaly

  15. Effective actions and topological strings. Off-shell mirror symmetry and mock modularity of multiple M5-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hecht, Michael

    2011-10-20

    This thesis addresses two different topics within the field of string theory. In the first part it is shown how Hodge-theoretic methods in conjunction with open string mirror symmetry can be used to compute non-perturbative effective superpotential couplings for type II/F-theory compactifications with D-branes and fluxes on compact Calabi-Yau manifolds. This is achieved by studying the at structure of operators which derives from the open/closed {beta}-model geometry. We analyze the variation of mixed Hodge structure of the relative cohomology induced by a family of divisors, which is wrapped by a D7-brane. This leads to a Picard-Fuchs system of differential operators, which can be used to compute the moduli dependence of the superpotential couplings as well as the mirror maps at various points in the open/closed deformation space. These techniques are used to obtain predictions for genuine A-model Ooguri-Vafa invariants of special Lagrangian submanifolds in compact Calabi-Yau geometries and real enumerative invariants of on-shell domain wall tensions. By an open/closed duality the system of differential equations can also be obtained from a gauged linear {sigma}-model, which describes a non-compact Calabi-Yau four-fold compactification without branes. This is used in the examples of multi-parameter models to study the various phases of the combined open/closed deformation space. It is furthermore shown how the brane geometry can be related to a F-theory compactification on a compact Calabi-Yau four-fold, where the Hodge-theoretic techniques can be used to compute the G-flux induced Gukov-Vafa-Witten potential. The dual F-theory picture also allows to conjecture the form of the Kaehler potential on the full open/closed deformation space. In the second part we analyze the background dependence of theories which derive from multiple wrapped M5-branes. Using the Kontsevich-Soibelman wall-crossing formula and the theory of mock modular forms we derive a holomorphic

  16. A Rotational Gyroscope with a Water-Film Bearing Based on Magnetic Self-Restoring Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianzhong; Liu, Xiaowei; Li, Hai; Li, Ling; Rong, Wanting; Zhang, Zhongzhao

    2018-01-01

    Stable rotor levitation is a challenge for rotational gyroscopes (magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSG) and electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (ESG)) with a ring- or disk-shaped rotor, which restricts further improvement of gyroscope performance. In addition, complicated pick-up circuits and feedback control electronics propose high requirement on fabrication technology. In the proposed gyroscope, a ball-disk shaped rotor is supported by a water-film bearing, formed by centrifugal force to deionized water at the cavity of the lower supporting pillar. Water-film bearing provides stable mechanical support, without the need for complicated electronics and control system for rotor suspension. To decrease sliding friction between the rotor ball and the water-film bearing, a supherhydrophobic surface (SHS) with nano-structures is fabricated on the rotor ball, resulting in a rated spinning speed increase of 12.4% (under the same driving current). Rotor is actuated by the driving scheme of brushless direct current motor (BLDCM). Interaction between the magnetized rotor and the magnetic-conducted stator produces a sinusoidal rotor restoring torque, amplitude of which is proportional to the rotor deflection angle inherently. Utilization of this magnetic restoring effect avoids adding of a high amplitude voltage for electrostatic feedback, which may cause air breakdown. Two differential capacitance pairs are utilized to measure input angular speeds at perpendicular directions of the rotor plane. The bias stability of the fabricated gyroscope is as low as 0.5°/h. PMID:29385105

  17. Effect of the cavity configuration factor on the marginal microleakage of esthetic restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Eduardo Batista; Gonzaga Lopes, Lawrence; Lia Mondelli, Rafael Francisco; da Silva e Souza, Mário Honorato; Pereira Lauris, José Roberto

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of the cavity configuration factor (CF) on the marginal microleakage of cervical restorations with four aesthetic restorative materials. Conventional cavities, 2.9 mm in diameter and 1.5 mm deep, with CF=2.7 and "saucer"-shaped ones with CF=2 were created in 60 extracted premolars. The following groups were established: G1: Z100/Single Bond, G2: Freedom/Stae, G3: Vitremer/Primer and G4: Durafill/Durafill Bond, following each manufacturer's directions. Thermocycling of the specimens was performed in an aqueous solution of 2% buffered methylene blue, with the temperature varying between 5 to 55 degrees C, for a total of cycles of 60 minutes per day, for 7 days. The specimens were then sectioned and evaluated by two observers using photographs acquired from a stereomicroscope. The values were subjected to Kruskal-Wallis analysis and the Dunn and Wilcoxon test. The averages of the microleakage scores observed in the conventional and "saucer"-shaped cavities were respectively: G1: 0.66/0.46; G2: 0.92/0.69; G3: 1.8/1.86; G4: 3.54/2.3.

  18. A Rotational Gyroscope with a Water-Film Bearing Based on Magnetic Self-Restoring Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dianzhong Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stable rotor levitation is a challenge for rotational gyroscopes (magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSG and electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (ESG with a ring- or disk-shaped rotor, which restricts further improvement of gyroscope performance. In addition, complicated pick-up circuits and feedback control electronics propose high requirement on fabrication technology. In the proposed gyroscope, a ball-disk shaped rotor is supported by a water-film bearing, formed by centrifugal force to deionized water at the cavity of the lower supporting pillar. Water-film bearing provides stable mechanical support, without the need for complicated electronics and control system for rotor suspension. To decrease sliding friction between the rotor ball and the water-film bearing, a supherhydrophobic surface (SHS with nano-structures is fabricated on the rotor ball, resulting in a rated spinning speed increase of 12.4% (under the same driving current. Rotor is actuated by the driving scheme of brushless direct current motor (BLDCM. Interaction between the magnetized rotor and the magnetic-conducted stator produces a sinusoidal rotor restoring torque, amplitude of which is proportional to the rotor deflection angle inherently. Utilization of this magnetic restoring effect avoids adding of a high amplitude voltage for electrostatic feedback, which may cause air breakdown. Two differential capacitance pairs are utilized to measure input angular speeds at perpendicular directions of the rotor plane. The bias stability of the fabricated gyroscope is as low as 0.5°/h.

  19. On the effect of drag forces in mooring system restoring forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah Zahid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mooring line is a major source of stability and plays a key role in the global response of offshore floating wind turbine. In the current state of the research, a formulation based on the analytical catenary equation is most commonly used for the analysis of mooring lines. However, due to the inability of catenary equations to consider the ocean current drag forces on mooring lines, the effect of drag forces on fairlead restoring forces has not been investigated yet. In this study, we have investigated the influence of drag forces on fairlead forces using discrete catenary formulation for modeling mooring line. The discrete catenary formulation has the ability to incorporate ocean current drag forces. Three types of elements; fully suspended, touchdown and seabed element are formulated to model the suspended, touchdown and seabed portion of a slack mooring line, respectively. The influence of viscous drag on the fairlead restoring forces is demonstrated through the analysis of OC3-Hywind mooring system subjected to ocean currents. It was found that the viscous drag significantly influences the fairlead forces.

  20. A Rotational Gyroscope with a Water-Film Bearing Based on Magnetic Self-Restoring Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dianzhong; Liu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Hai; Weng, Rui; Li, Ling; Rong, Wanting; Zhang, Zhongzhao

    2018-01-31

    Stable rotor levitation is a challenge for rotational gyroscopes (magnetically suspended gyroscopes (MSG) and electrostatically suspended gyroscopes (ESG)) with a ring- or disk-shaped rotor, which restricts further improvement of gyroscope performance. In addition, complicated pick-up circuits and feedback control electronics propose high requirement on fabrication technology. In the proposed gyroscope, a ball-disk shaped rotor is supported by a water-film bearing, formed by centrifugal force to deionized water at the cavity of the lower supporting pillar. Water-film bearing provides stable mechanical support, without the need for complicated electronics and control system for rotor suspension. To decrease sliding friction between the rotor ball and the water-film bearing, a supherhydrophobic surface (SHS) with nano-structures is fabricated on the rotor ball, resulting in a rated spinning speed increase of 12.4% (under the same driving current). Rotor is actuated by the driving scheme of brushless direct current motor (BLDCM). Interaction between the magnetized rotor and the magnetic-conducted stator produces a sinusoidal rotor restoring torque, amplitude of which is proportional to the rotor deflection angle inherently. Utilization of this magnetic restoring effect avoids adding of a high amplitude voltage for electrostatic feedback, which may cause air breakdown. Two differential capacitance pairs are utilized to measure input angular speeds at perpendicular directions of the rotor plane. The bias stability of the fabricated gyroscope is as low as 0.5°/h.

  1. Effect of a Simulation Exercise on Restorative Identification Skills of First Year Dental Hygiene Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaster, Margaret; Flores, Joyce M; Blacketer, Margaret S

    2016-02-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of simulated mouth models to improve identification and recording of dental restorations when compared to using traditional didactic instruction combined with 2-dimensional images. Simulation has been adopted into medical and dental education curriculum to improve both student learning and patient safety outcomes. A 2-sample, independent t-test analysis of data was conducted to compare graded dental recordings of dental hygiene students using simulated mouth models and dental hygiene students using 2-dimensional photographs. Evaluations from graded dental charts were analyzed and compared between groups of students using the simulated mouth models containing random placement of custom preventive and restorative materials and traditional 2-dimensional representations of didactically described conditions. Results demonstrated a statistically significant (p≤0.0001) difference: for experimental group, students using the simulated mouth models to identify and record dental conditions had a mean of 86.73 and variance of 33.84. The control group students using traditional 2-dimensional images mean graded dental chart scores were 74.43 and variance was 14.25. Using modified simulation technology for dental charting identification may increase level of dental charting skill competency in first year dental hygiene students. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  2. Effect of broken axial symmetry on the electric dipole strength and the collective enhancement of level densities in heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, E.; Junghans, A. R.; Wilson, J. N.

    2017-11-01

    The basic parameters for calculations of radiative neutron capture, photon strength functions and nuclear level densities near the neutron separation energy are determined based on experimental data without an ad hoc assumption about axial symmetry—at variance to previous analysis. Surprisingly few global fit parameters are needed in addition to information on nuclear deformation, taken from Hartree Fock Bogolyubov calculations with the Gogny force, and the generator coordinator method assures properly defined angular momentum. For a large number of nuclei the GDR shapes and the photon strength are described by the sum of three Lorentzians, extrapolated to low energies and normalised in accordance to the dipole sum rule. Level densities are influenced strongly by the significant collective enhancement based on the breaking of shape symmetry. The replacement of axial symmetry by the less stringent requirement of invariance against rotation by 180° leads to a novel prediction for radiative neutron capture. It compares well to recent compilations of average radiative widths and Maxwellian average cross sections for neutron capture by even target nuclei. An extension to higher spin promises a reliable prediction for various compound nuclear reactions also outside the valley of stability. Such predictions are of high importance for future nuclear energy systems and waste transmutation as well as for the understanding of the cosmic synthesis of heavy elements.

  3. Examining the effectiveness of a restorative justice program for various types of juvenile offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergseth, Kathleen J; Bouffard, Jeffrey A

    2013-09-01

    Restorative justice (RJ) programs have become widespread in the United States and in other countries. These programs are often seen as a viable alternative to traditional retributive processing, especially for minor, and sometimes more serious, forms of delinquency and adult criminality. The programs hold promise for achieving several goals, including increased community and victim involvement, greater satisfaction with the case outcomes, improved offender compliance, increased perceptions of fairness, and even recidivism reduction. Meta-analyses have demonstrated varying degrees of program success in recidivism reduction, which may in part reflect differential effectiveness of the RJ approach for various kinds of offenders. This study examined whether an RJ program for juvenile offenders had differential impacts on recidivism across various offender characteristics (including age, gender, racial group, offending history, and current offense). Results generally support the effectiveness of the program for many types of offenders. Implications for future research and potential improvements to the RJ model are discussed.

  4. Gravitation and Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, J

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this book (I quote verbatim from the back cover) is to 'shed light upon the intrinsic structure of gravity and the principle of gauge invariance, which may lead to a consistent unified field theory', a very laudable aim. The content divides fairly clearly into four sections (and origins). After a brief introduction, chapters 2-6 review the 'Structure of gravity as a theory based on spacetime gauge symmetries'. This is fairly straightforward material, apparently based on a one-semester graduate course taught at the University of Belgrade for about two decades, and, by implication, this is a reasonably accurate description of its level and assumed knowledge. There follow two chapters of new material entitled 'Gravity in flat spacetime' and 'Nonlinear effects in gravity'. The final three chapters, entitled 'Supersymmetry and supergravity', 'Kaluza-Klein theory' and 'String theory' have been used for the basis of a one-semester graduate course on the unification of fundamental interactions. The boo...

  5. Quark diquark symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.M. de

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt

  6. Automatic Affective Evaluation of Visual Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Makin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available It is possible that the neural mechanisms that detect symmetry are linked to those that produce positive affect. We conducted a set of behavioural and electrophysiological studies designed to investigate the nature of this putative connection. First, we used the Implicit Association Test (IAT to measure implicit preference for visual regularity. On some trials, participants saw symmetrical or random dot patterns. On interleaved trials, they saw positive or negative words. When the same button was used to report symmetrical patterns and positive words, response times were faster than when the same button was used to report symmetrical patterns and negative words. This classic IAT effect demonstrated an implicit preference for symmetry. In further experiments, the same procedure was used to record implicit preference for reflection over other types of regularity, such as translation or rotational symmetry. Second, we simultaneously recorded EEG and EMG from the same participants while they observed reflection or random dot patterns. Contrary to previous findings, we found that early visual components (P1 and N1 were modulated by symmetry. Moreover, there was increased activity in the Zygomaticus Major (the muscle responsible for smiling when participants viewed reflectional symmetry, indicating a positive affective response. Rotational symmetry produced different ERPs, and no affective response. Together, our data suggest that, once the patterns are attended, most participants spontaneously form a preference for reflectional symmetry, even in the absence of any explicit instruction to engage in aesthetic evaluation.

  7. Survival of Dicor glass-ceramic dental restorations over 20 years: Part IV. The effects of combinations of variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, Kenneth A; Socransky, Sigmund S

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have shown the relationship of individual clinical variables to the survival of Dicor (Corning Glass Works) restorations. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the effect of combinations of these variables on the intraoral survival of Dicor restorations. Dicor glass-ceramic restorations (n=1,444) were placed in 417 adult patients. Failure was defined as a restoration that required remake because of material fracture. The survival of restorations with different combinations of variables that were each individually associated with survival was described using Kaplan-Meier survivor functions. The statistical significance of differences in survival between different combinations of specific predictor variables was examined using the proportional hazards model. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that significantly worse survival rates were found for restorations that included combinations of molar teeth, a dentin core, and a glass-ionomer luting agent; molar teeth, a dentin core, and a resin luting agent; and single-rooted teeth, a dentin core, and a glass-ionomer luting agent than for any other combinations tested. The Cox proportional hazards model described a hazard ratio of 3.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.23 to 5.08) for molar teeth (versus single-rooted teeth), 2.65 (95% CI: 1.44 to 4.87) for dentin core (versus gold core), 2.35 (95% CI: 1.58 to 3.51) for men (versus women), and 1.72 (95% CI: 1.13 to 2.60) for glass-ionomer luting agent (versus resin) after adjusting for the other variables in the model. Factors beyond individual restoration design impact the survival of Dicor glass-ceramic. These include sex, tooth position, and restorations luted to gold core foundation bases.

  8. Ecological restoration and its effects on a regional climate: the source region of the Yellow River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhouyuan; Liu, Xuehua; Niu, Tianlin; Kejia, De; Zhou, Qingping; Ma, Tianxiao; Gao, Yunyang

    2015-05-19

    The source region of the Yellow River, China, experienced degradation during the 1980s and 1990s, but effective ecological restoration projects have restored the alpine grassland ecosystem. The local government has taken action to restore the grassland area since 1996. Remote sensing monitoring results show an initial restoration of this alpine grassland ecosystem with the structural transformation of land cover from 2000 to 2009 as low- and high-coverage grassland recovered. From 2000 to 2009, the low-coverage grassland area expanded by over 25% and the bare soil area decreased by approximately 15%. To examine the relationship between ecological structure and function, surface temperature (Ts) and evapotranspiration (ET) levels were estimated to study the dynamics of the hydro-heat pattern. The results show a turning point in approximately the year 2000 from a declining ET to a rising ET, eventually reaching the 1990 level of approximately 1.5 cm/day. We conclude that grassland coverage expansion has improved the regional hydrologic cycle as a consequence of ecological restoration. Thus, we suggest that long-term restoration and monitoring efforts would help maintain the climatic adjustment functions of this alpine grassland ecosystem.

  9. The Effect of Finishing and Polishing Techniques on the Surface Roughness and the Color of Nanocomposite Resin Restorative Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avsar, Aysun; Yuzbasioglu, Emir; Sarac, Duygu

    2015-01-01

    Rough, poorly polished surfaces contribute to staining, plaque accumulation, gingival irritation and recurrent caries. Finishing and polishing techniques are critical factors contributing to the longevity of the direct composite resin restorations. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of finishing and polishing systems on surface roughness of six nanocomposite restorative resins. Thirty specimens of each restorative material (n=180) were placed in a teflon mould (6 mm in diameter and 3 mm in depth) and cured with a LED curing unit. Six specimens from each of restorative material were randomly assigned to four groups for finishing and polishing (carbide burs, diamond burs, aluminium oxide discs, silicon rubber polisher) techniques. Mylar strip formed specimens were served as control group. After finishing and polishing procedures surface roughness was evaluated by a profilometer. The data was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance and the Tukey HSD test (α=0.05). Significant differences were found between the groups in terms roughness (prestorative materials. Although mylar matrix strip formed surfaces presents lower surface roughness values, recountouring and polishing of resin restorations are often required in clinical situations. Aluminium oxide discs and carbide finishing burs are suitable for finishing and polishing procedures for nanocomposite restorative resins.

  10. Effect of two abrasive systems on resin bonding to laboratory-processed indirect resin composite restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouschlicher, M R; Cobb, D S; Vargas, M A

    1999-01-01

    This study compared two methods of surface roughening or preparation, with or without the use of proprietary surface wetting agents, to evaluate their effect on resin cement adhesion to the following laboratory-processed, indirect restorations: Artglass (AG), belleGlass HP (BG), Concept (C), and Targis (T). Methods of surface roughening or preparation included microetching with aluminum oxide (AO): 50 microns at 34 psi and silanized silica coating, CoJet-Sand (CJ): 30 microns at 34 psi. Artglass and Concept were tested with and without the use of their respective surface wetting agents: Artglass Liquid (AGL) and Special Bond II (SB). One hundred twenty specimens, each consisting of a pair of cylinders (7.0 x 3 mm and 4.3 x 3 mm) were fabricated. The larger cylinder or base was embedded in self-curing resin in a phenolic ring, and bonding surfaces were finished with 320-grit silicon carbide paper. Specimen pairs for each restorative material were randomly assigned to treatment groups (n = 10) and received the following surface treatments prior to cementation: group 1 (AG/AO/+AGL), group 2 (AG/AO/-AGL), group 3 (AG/CJ/+AGL), group 4 (AG/CJ/-AGL), group 5 (BG/AO), group 6 (BG/CJ), group 7 (C/AO/+SB), group 8 (C/AO/-SB), group 9 (C/CJ/+SB), group 10 (C/CJ/-SB), group 11 (T/AO), and group 12 (T/CJ). Specimen pairs were cemented with a dual-cure resin cement (Dual) and a standardized force of 1 MPa. Specimens were light-cured 40 seconds per side (80 s total), then thermocycled 300 times at between 5 degrees and 55 degrees C. Shear bond strengths (MPa) were determined using a Zwick Materials Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm per minute. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's multiple range test (alpha = 0.05) by restoration type indicated no significant differences in shear bond strength between BG group 5 (29.8 +/- 5.8), BG group 6 (28.3 +/- 4.3), T group 11 (29.3 +/- 4.9), and T group 12 (29.0 +/- 4.4). Shear bond strength in AG group 3 (35.9 +/- 3

  11. Flood effects on an Alaskan stream restoration project: the value of long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Roseann V.; Karle, Kenneth F.

    2009-01-01

    On a nationwide basis, few stream restoration projects have long-term programs in place to monitor the effects of floods on channel and floodplain configuration and floodplain vegetation, but long-term and event-based monitoring is required to measure the effects of these stochastic events and to use the knowledge for adaptive management and the design of future projects. This paper describes a long-term monitoring effort (15 years) on a stream restoration project in Glen Creek in Denali National Park and Preserve in Alaska. The stream channel and floodplain of Glen Creek had been severely degraded over a period of 80 years by placer mining for gold, which left many reaches with unstable and incised streambeds without functioning vegetated floodplains. The objectives of the original project, initiated in 1991, were to develop and test methods for the hydraulic design of channel and floodplain morphology and for floodplain stabilization and riparian habitat recovery, and to conduct research and monitoring to provide information for future projects in similar degraded watersheds. Monitoring methods included surveyed stream cross-sections, vegetation plots, and aerial, ground, and satellite photos. In this paper we address the immediate and outlying effects of a 25-year flood on the stream and floodplain geometry and riparian vegetation. The long-term monitoring revealed that significant channel widening occurred following the flood, likely caused by excessive upstream sediment loading and the fairly slow development of floodplain vegetation in this climate. Our results illustrated design flaws, particularly in regard to identification and analysis of sediment sources and the dominant processes of channel adjustment.

  12. Effects of hydrogen peroxide bleaching strip gels on dental restorative materials in vitro: surface microhardness and surface morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duschner, Heinz; Götz, Hermann; White, Donald J; Kozak, Kathleen M; Zoladz, James R

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of peroxide tooth bleaching, including Crest Whitestrips hydrogen peroxide gel treatments, on the surface hardness and morphology of common dental restorative treatments. American Dental Association (ADA) recommended dental restorative materials, including amalgam, dental gold, porcelain, glass ionomer, and composites, were prepared according to manufacturers' instructions. A cycling treatment methodology was employed which alternated ex vivo human salivary exposures with bleaching treatments under conditions of controlled temperature and durations of treatment. Bleaching treatments included commercial Crest Whitestrips bleaching gels, which utilize hydrogen peroxide as the in situ bleaching source, and several commercial carbamide peroxide bleaching gels. Control treatments included placebo gels and an untreated group. Crest Whitestrips bleaching included treatment exposures simulating recommended clinical exposures (14 hours), along with excess bleaching simulating exposure to five times suggested Crest Whitestrips use. At the conclusion of treatments, surface microhardness measures and surface morphological assessments with standard and variable pressure (VP-) SEMs were conducted to assess the effects of bleaching exposure on the surface morphology and structural integrity of the restoratives. Surface microhardness and SEM measures revealed no significant deleterious effects on the restoration surfaces from Whitestrips gels. These results confirm that tooth bleaching from the selected commercial hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide bleaching systems does not produce changes in surface morphology or microhardness of common dental restorative materials. These results support the clinical safety of the selected commercial bleaching systems to the oral environment, matching results obtained from long-term use of these ingredients applied in dental offices and available in commercial formulations.

  13. Voice restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgers, F.J.M.; Balm, A.J.M.; van den Brekel, M.W.M.; Tan, I.B.; Remacle, M.; Eckel, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    Surgical prosthetic voice restoration is the best possible option for patients to regain oral communication after total laryngectomy. It is considered to be the present "gold standard" for voice rehabilitation of laryngectomized individuals. Surgical prosthetic voice restoration, in essence, is

  14. Effects of various finishing procedures on the staining of provisional restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guler, Ahmet Umut; Kurt, Safak; Kulunk, Tolga

    2005-05-01

    The color stability of tooth-colored restorative materials for provisional restorations is of primary importance when provisional prostheses are worn long term. However, the effect of different polishing methods on the color difference of provisional restorative (PR) materials has not been completely clarified. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of different polishing methods on color stability of 2- and 3-component autopolymerized bis-acrylic composites, a light polymerized composite, and a methyl methacrylate-based PR material upon exposure to a staining agent. Material and methods Sixty cylindrical specimens (15 x 2 mm) were prepared for each of bis-acryl composites (Protemp II and Luxatemp), a light-polymerized composite (Revotek LC), and a methyl methacrylate-based (TemDent) PR material by using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 6 groups (n=10), and different polishing procedures were used, including pumice (P), diamond polishing paste (Dpp), polishing discs (Pd), and combinations of these. Unpolished specimens served as the control. The specimens were stored for 48 hours at 37 degrees C in a coffee solution. The color of all specimens was measured with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-300) before and after exposure, and color changes (DeltaE) were calculated. The data were analyzed with a 2-way analysis of variance, and mean values were compared by the Tukey Honestly Significant Difference test (alpha=.05). The provisional materials, surface polishing procedures, and interaction were significant (P provisional materials, the lowest color difference (DeltaE) was observed in Group P-Dpp. The largest color difference for the light-polymerized and autopolymerized composites was observed in Group Pd-Dpp and Group Pd, which were not significantly different from each other. In the methyl methacrylate-based material group, the largest color difference was observed in Group Pd. When comparing the 4 different PR materials, the methyl

  15. Physics from symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Schwichtenberg, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    This is a textbook that derives the fundamental theories of physics from symmetry. It starts by introducing, in a completely self-contained way, all mathematical tools needed to use symmetry ideas in physics. Thereafter, these tools are put into action and by using symmetry constraints, the fundamental equations of Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory, Electromagnetism, and Classical Mechanics are derived. As a result, the reader is able to understand the basic assumptions behind, and the connections between the modern theories of physics. The book concludes with first applications of the previously derived equations. Thanks to the input of readers from around the world, this second edition has been purged of typographical errors and also contains several revised sections with improved explanations. .

  16. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  17. Rigidity and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Asia; Whiteley, Walter

    2014-01-01

    This book contains recent contributions to the fields of rigidity and symmetry with two primary focuses: to present the mathematically rigorous treatment of rigidity of structures, and to explore the interaction of geometry, algebra, and combinatorics. Overall, the book shows how researchers from diverse backgrounds explore connections among the various discrete structures with symmetry as the unifying theme.  Contributions present recent trends and advances in discrete geometry, particularly in the theory of polytopes. The rapid development of abstract polytope theory has resulted in a rich theory featuring an attractive interplay of methods and tools from discrete geometry, group theory, classical geometry, hyperbolic geometry and topology.  The volume will also be a valuable source as an introduction to the ideas of both combinatorial and geometric rigidity theory and its applications, incorporating the surprising impact of symmetry. It will appeal to students at both the advanced undergraduate and gradu...

  18. On the Kählerian symmetries of the two-loop action of the effective string theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ozkurt, S S

    2003-01-01

    Sometimes ago, it has been proposed in a paper by N.Kaloper and K.A.Meissner (\\PR {\\bf D56} (1997) 7940) that if one makes local redefinitions of fields, it does not change the equations of motion (in the redefined fields); however, this comment has not generally been accepted, namely, the redefined fields satisfy different equations of motion. For this reason, in this paper, it is proved that the whole action can be written as a square of the zeroth-order field equations. In this way, we show that any solution of the zeroth-order field equations, which has some K\\"{a}hler symmetry, at the same time, is also a solution of the two-loop equations.

  19. System size and beam energy effects on probing the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy with pion ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Xiao Zhigang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen; Yong Gaochan; Zhu Shengjiang

    2010-01-01

    Based on the isospin-and momentum-dependent hadronic transport model IBUU04, we have investigated the π - /π + ratio in the following three reactions: 48 Ca+ 48 Ca, 124 Sn + 124 Sn and 197 Au + 197 Au with nearly the same isospin asymmetry but different masses, at the bombarding energies from 0.25 to 0.6 AGeV. It is shown that the sensitivity of probing the E sym (ρ) with π - /π + increases with increasing the system size or decreasing the beam energy, showing a correlation to the degree of isospin fractionation. Therefore, with a given isospin asymmetry, heavier system at energies near the pion threshold is preferential to study the behavior of nuclear symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities.

  20. Effect of restoration volume on stresses in a mandibular molar: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Jennifer S; Chande, Ruchi; Porter, H Christian; Janus, Charles

    2014-10-01

    There can be significant disagreement among dentists when planning treatment for a tooth with a failing medium-to-large--sized restoration. The clinician must determine whether the restoration should be replaced or treated with a crown, which covers and protects the remaining weakened tooth structure during function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stresses generated in different sized amalgam restorations via a computational modeling approach and reveal whether a predictable pattern emerges. A computer tomography scan was performed of an extracted mandibular first molar, and the resulting images were imported into a medical imaging software package for tissue segmentation. The software was used to separate the enamel, dentin, and pulp cavity through density thresholding and surface rendering. These tissue structures then were imported into 3-dimensional computer-aided design software in which material properties appropriate to the tissues in the model were assigned. A static finite element analysis was conducted to investigate the stresses that result from normal occlusal forces. Five models were analyzed, 1 with no restoration and 4 with increasingly larger restoration volume proportions: a normal-sized tooth, a small-sized restoration, 2 medium-sized restorations, and 1 large restoration as determined from bitewing radiographs and occlusal surface digital photographs. The resulting von Mises stresses for dentin-enamel of the loaded portion of the tooth grew progressively greater as the size of the restoration increased. The average stress in the normal, unrestored tooth was 4.13 MPa, whereas the smallest restoration size increased this stress to 5.52 MPa. The largest restoration had a dentin-enamel stress of 6.47 MPa. A linear correlation existed between restoration size and dentin-enamel stress, with an R(2) of 0.97. A larger restoration volume proportion resulted in higher dentin-enamel stresses under static loading. A comparison of the von Mises

  1. Measures with symmetry properties

    CERN Document Server

    Schindler, Werner

    2003-01-01

    Symmetries and invariance principles play an important role in various branches of mathematics. This book deals with measures having weak symmetry properties. Even mild conditions ensure that all invariant Borel measures on a second countable locally compact space can be expressed as images of specific product measures under a fixed mapping. The results derived in this book are interesting for their own and, moreover, a number of carefully investigated examples underline and illustrate their usefulness and applicability for integration problems, stochastic simulations and statistical applications.

  2. Symmetry and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P.

    2002-01-01

    We find the group of symmetry transformations under which the Einstein equations for the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe are form invariant. They relate the energy density and the pressure of the fluid to the expansion rate. We show that inflation can be obtained from nonaccelerated scenarios by a symmetry transformation. We derive the transformation rule for the spectrum and spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Finally, the group is extended to investigate inflation in the anisotropic Bianchi type-I spacetime and the brane-world cosmology

  3. Symmetry, structure, and spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Rickles, Dean

    2007-01-01

    In this book Rickles considers several interpretative difficulties raised by gauge-type symmetries (those that correspond to no change in physical state). The ubiquity of such symmetries in modern physics renders them an urgent topic in philosophy of physics. Rickles focuses on spacetime physics, and in particular classical and quantum general relativity. Here the problems posed are at their most pathological, involving the apparent disappearance of spacetime! Rickles argues that both traditional ontological positions should be replaced by a structuralist account according to which relational

  4. Superconformal Symmetry, Supergravity and Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Kallosh, Renata E; Linde, Andrei D; Van Proeyen, A; Kallosh, Renata; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Proeyen, Antoine Van

    2000-01-01

    We introduce the general N=1 gauge theory superconformally coupled to supergravity. The theory has local SU(2,2|1) symmetry and no dimensional parameters. The superconformal origin of the Fayet-Iliopoulos terms is clarified. The phase of this theory with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry gives various formulations of N=1 supergravity interacting with matter, depending on the choice of the R-symmetry fixing. We have found that the locally superconformal theory is useful for describing the physics of the early universe with a conformally flat FRW metric. Few applications of superconformal theory to cosmology include the study of i) particle production after inflation, particularly the non-conformal helicity 1/2 states of gravitino, ii) the super-Higgs effect in cosmology and the derivation of the equations for the gravitino interacting with any number of chiral and vector multiplets in the gravitational background with varying scalar fields, iii) the weak coupling limit of supergravity and gravitino-golds...

  5. Dark matter and global symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Mambrini

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available General considerations in general relativity and quantum mechanics are known to potentially rule out continuous global symmetries in the context of any consistent theory of quantum gravity. Assuming the validity of such considerations, we derive stringent bounds from gamma-ray, X-ray, cosmic-ray, neutrino, and CMB data on models that invoke global symmetries to stabilize the dark matter particle. We compute up-to-date, robust model-independent limits on the dark matter lifetime for a variety of Planck-scale suppressed dimension-five effective operators. We then specialize our analysis and apply our bounds to specific models including the Two-Higgs-Doublet, Left–Right, Singlet Fermionic, Zee–Babu, 3-3-1 and Radiative See-Saw models. Assuming that (i global symmetries are broken at the Planck scale, that (ii the non-renormalizable operators mediating dark matter decay have O(1 couplings, that (iii the dark matter is a singlet field, and that (iv the dark matter density distribution is well described by a NFW profile, we are able to rule out fermionic, vector, and scalar dark matter candidates across a broad mass range (keV–TeV, including the WIMP regime.

  6. Vector chirality for effective total momentum Jeff in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator: Effects of strong spin-orbit coupling and broken inversion symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Naoya

    2016-11-01

    I propose the emergence of the spin-orbital-coupled vector chirality in a nonfrustrated Mott insulator with the strong spin-orbit coupling due to a b -plane's inversion-symmetry (IS) breaking. I derive the superexchange interactions for a t2 g-orbital Hubbard model on a square lattice with the strong spin-orbit coupling and the IS-breaking-induced hopping integrals, and explain the microscopic origins of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya (DM) -type and the Kitaev-type interactions. Then, by adopting the mean-field approximation to a minimal model including only the Heisenberg-type and the DM-type nearest-neighbor interactions, I show that the IS breaking causes the spin-orbital-coupled chirality as a result of stabilizing the screw state. I also highlight the limit of the hard-pseudospin approximation in discussing the stability of the screw states in the presence of both the DM-type and the Kitaev-type interactions, and discuss its meaning. I finally discuss the effects of tetragonal crystal field and Jeff=3/2 states, and the application to the iridates near the [001 ] surface of Sr2IrO4 and the interface between Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7 .

  7. The effectiveness of the hair-restorer "Dabao" in males with alopecia androgenetica. A clinical experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, A G; Cardynaals, R L; Borger, R L; Go, M J; Lambers, J C; Knottnerus, J A; Knipschild, P G

    1991-01-01

    In a randomized, double-blind trial the effectiveness of 6 months' use of a Chinese herb extract (Dabao) as a hair-restorer was studied on 396 males with alopecia androgenetica. The effect was evaluated by nonvellus hair counts, participants' opinions and a panel's judgement of a photo-report. Twenty-three participants withdrew prematurely from the study. In both the Dabao and placebo groups an increase in the amount of hair was observed; 133 and 109 hairs on a 5 cm2 marked area, a difference of 24 hairs (p = 0.03, one-sided). Participants as well as the panel reached a similar conclusion. Regarding cosmetic effect, 42% of the participants in the Dabao group and 37% in the placebo group reported positive results. The average panel score for the cosmetic result on a scale of -10 to +10 was 0.46 in the Dabao and 0.21 in the placebo group, a difference of 0.24 (p = 0.04, one-sided). It appears from our study that, although the cosmetic effect over 6 months is modest, Dabao does have a certain effect on the growth of nonvellus hair.

  8. Effect of Refurbishing Amalgam and Resin Composite Restorations After 12 Years: Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estay, J; Martín, J; Vildosola, P; Mjor, I A; Oliveira, O B; Andrade, M F; Moncada, G; Gordan, V V; Fernández, E

    The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate posterior amalgam and resin composite restorations refurbished over a period of 12 years by investigating the influence of refurbishing on the survival of restorations and comparing their behaviors with respect to controls. Thirty-four patients were enrolled, ages 18 to 80 years, with 174 restorations, 48 restorations of resin composite (RC), and 126 restorations of amalgam (AM). Restorations with localized defects in anatomy, roughness, luster, or marginal staining that were clinically judged as suitable for refurbishing according to US Public Health Service (USPHS) Ryge criteria were assigned to group A-refurbishing (n=85; 67 AM, 18 RC)-or group B-control (n=89; 59 AM, 30 RC); the quality of the restorations was evaluated blindly according to the modified USPHS criteria. Two observers conducted evaluations at the initial state (k=0.74) and after one to five, 10, and 12 years (k=0.88). Wilcoxon, Friedman, and Mantel-Cox tests were performed to compare the groups, respectively. After 12 years, both groups experienced a similar decline, except for an evidently better performance in marginal adaptation in RC control (p=0.043) and in anatomy in AM refurbished (p=0.032). After 12 years, no difference was found in the clinical condition and longevity of the refurbished restorations compared to the control group.

  9. Effects of restoration measures on plant communities of wet heathland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, AJM; Fresco, LFM; Grootjans, AP; Jalink, Mark H.; Rapson, G.

    2004-01-01

    Question: Which are the success and failure of restoration measures, particularly sod-cutting and hydrological measures, in small wetlands on mineral soils in The Netherlands. Location: Twente. in the eastern part of The Netherlands. Methods: Success or failure of restoration measures has been

  10. Restoring big sagebrush after controlling encroaching western juniper with fire: aspect and subspecies effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    The need for restoration of shrubs is increasingly recognized around the world. In the western USA, restoration of mountain big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) after controlling encroaching conifers is a priority to improve sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. ...

  11. Survival of Dicor glass-ceramic dental restorations over 14 years: Part I. Survival of Dicor complete coverage restorations and effect of internal surface acid etching, tooth position, gender, and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malament, K A; Socransky, S S

    1999-01-01

    There are no long-term data on Dicor glass-ceramic restoration survival in the human oral cavity and the effect that different technical and clinical variables have on survival. This prospective study examined the relationship of different clinical parameters on the survival of Dicor glass-ceramic restorations in the human oral cavity. A total of 417 subjects (from 17 to 91 years of age) participated. All subjects required single unit fixed prosthodontics in any area of the mouth and/or 3-unit fixed partial dentures or cantilevered anterior restorations. They were offered the option of a gold or conventional metal-ceramic restoration, or a Dicor restoration with potentially improved esthetic results, better wear characteristics, and diminished oral plaque accumulation. Overall survival of the restorations was determined and the effect of various clinical parameters evaluated with Kaplan-Meier survival curves. Log rank tests were used to determine statistically significant differences among parameters. For the 1444 units placed, 188 failures were recorded. Total time at risk for the units was 7319 years providing an estimated risk of 2.45% per year. Probabilities of survival of "typical" acid-etched Dicor and nonacid-etched Dicor restorations were 76% and 50%, respectively, at 14.1 years (P <.001). Probabilities of survival of typical acid-etched and nonacid-etched Dicor complete coverage restorations were virtually identical to those observed in the full data set. There was a 2.2 times greater risk of failure associated with the use of nonacid-etched Dicor complete coverage than acid-etched restorations (P <.01). Complete coverage restoration survival was highest in the incisor region and decreased to the molars in both arches. Second molars showed the highest failure rate. No complete coverage restorations failed on lateral incisors during the entire study. Probability of survival of a typical acid-etched Dicor complete coverage restoration in male subjects was 71

  12. Interactions between constituent single symmetries in multiple symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treder, Matthias Sebastian; van der Vloed, Gert; van der Helm, Peter A

    2011-07-01

    As a rule, the discriminability of multiple symmetries from random patterns increases with the number of symmetry axes, but this number does not seem to be the only determinant. In particular, multiple symmetries with orthogonal axes seem better discriminable than multiple symmetries with nonorthogonal axes. In six experiments on imperfect two-fold symmetry, we investigated whether this is due to extra structure in the form of so-called correlation rectangles, which arise only in the case of orthogonal axes, or to the relative orientation of the axes as such. The results suggest that correlation rectangles are not perceptually relevant and that the percept of a multiple symmetry results from an orientation-dependent interaction between the constituent single symmetries. The results can be accounted for by a model involving the analysis of symmetry at all orientations, smoothing (averaging over neighboring orientations), and extraction of peaks.

  13. Molecular symmetry and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, Philip; Jensen, Per

    2006-01-01

    The first edition, by P.R. Bunker, published in 1979, remains the sole textbook that explains the use of the molecular symmetry group in understanding high resolution molecular spectra. Since 1979 there has been considerable progress in the field and a second edition is required; the original author has been joined in its writing by Per Jensen. The Material of the first edition has been reorganized and much has been added. The molecular symmetry group is now introduced early on, and the explanation of how to determine nuclear spin statistical weights has been consolidated in one chapter, after groups, symmetry groups, character tables and the Hamiltonian have been introduced. A description of the symmetry in the three-dimensional rotation group K(spatial), irreducible spherical tensor operators, and vector coupling coefficients is now included. The chapters on energy levels and selection rules contain a great deal of material that was not in the first edition (much of it was undiscovered in 1979), concerning ...

  14. Groups and Symmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 10. Groups and Symmetry: A Guide to Discovering Mathematics. Geetha Venkataraman. Book Review Volume 4 Issue 10 October 1999 pp 91-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Testing for central symmetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einmahl, John; Gan, Zhuojiong

    Omnibus tests for central symmetry of a bivariate probability distribution are proposed. The test statistics compare empirical measures of opposite regions. Under rather weak conditions, we establish the asymptotic distribution of the test statistics under the null hypothesis; it follows that they

  16. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P.Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also underst...

  17. Charged fluids with symmetries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    conformal Killing vector on the electromagnetic field tensor and the role of Maxwell's equations. 2. Conformal symmetries. Manifolds with structure may admit groups of transformations which preserve this struc- ture. A conformal motion preserves the metric up to a factor and maps null geodesics conformally. A conformal ...

  18. Horror Vacui Symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumpecker, Cheryl

    2003-01-01

    Describes an art lesson used with children in the third grade to help them learn about symmetry, as well as encouraging them to draw larger than usual. Explains that students learn about the belief called "Horror Vacui" of the Northwest American Indian tribes and create their interpretation of this belief. (CMK)

  19. Symmetries in fundamental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sundermeyer, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of the last century it has become clear that both elementary particle physics and relativity theories are based on the notion of symmetries. These symmetries become manifest in that the "laws of nature" are invariant under spacetime transformations and/or gauge transformations. The consequences of these symmetries were analyzed as early as in 1918 by Emmy Noether on the level of action functionals. Her work did not receive due recognition for nearly half a century, but can today be understood as a recurring theme in classical mechanics, electrodynamics and special relativity, Yang-Mills type quantum field theories, and in general relativity. As a matter of fact, as shown in this monograph, many aspects of physics can be derived solely from symmetry considerations. This substantiates the statement of E.P. Wigner "... if we knew all the laws of nature, or the ultimate Law of nature, the invariance properties of these laws would not furnish us new information." Thanks to Wigner we now also unders...

  20. Classical mirror symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Jinzenji, Masao

    2018-01-01

    This book furnishes a brief introduction to classical mirror symmetry, a term that denotes the process of computing Gromov–Witten invariants of a Calabi–Yau threefold by using the Picard–Fuchs differential equation of period integrals of its mirror Calabi–Yau threefold. The book concentrates on the best-known example, the quintic hypersurface in 4-dimensional projective space, and its mirror manifold. First, there is a brief review of the process of discovery of mirror symmetry and the striking result proposed in the celebrated paper by Candelas and his collaborators. Next, some elementary results of complex manifolds and Chern classes needed for study of mirror symmetry are explained. Then the topological sigma models, the A-model and the B-model, are introduced. The classical mirror symmetry hypothesis is explained as the equivalence between the correlation function of the A-model of a quintic hyper-surface and that of the B-model of its mirror manifold. On the B-model side, the process of construct...

  1. SYMMETRY OF COMPOSITE CRYSTALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANSMAALEN, S

    1991-01-01

    Composite crystals are crystals that consist of two or more subsystems, in first approximation each one having its own three-dimensional periodicity. The symmetry of these subsystems is then characterized by an ordinary space group. Due to their mutual interaction the true structure consists of a

  2. Nature versus nurture: functional assessment of restoration effects on wetland services using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshwar, P.V.; Richardson, C.J.; Gleason, R.A.; Pellechia, P.J.; Honomichl, S.

    2009-01-01

    Land-use change has altered the ability of wetlands to provide vital services such as nutrient retention. While compensatory practices attempt to restore degraded wetlands and their functions, it is difficult to evaluate the recovery of soil biogeochemical functions that are critical for restoration of ecosystem services. Using solution 31P Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, we examined the chemical forms of phosphorus (P) in soils from wetlands located across a land-use gradient. We report that soil P diversity, a functional attribute, was lowest in farmland, and greatest in native wetlands. Soil P diversity increased with age of restoration, indicating restoration of biogeochemical function. The trend in soil P diversity was similar to documented trends in soil bacterial taxonomic composition but opposite that of soil bacterial diversity at our study sites. These findings provide insights into links between ecosystem structure and function and provide a tool for evaluating the success of ecosystem restoration efforts. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. The effect of cooling techniques on intrapulpal temperature during direct fabrication of provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulding, M B; Loney, R W

    1991-01-01

    In vitro measurements were made of the heat transferred to the pulp chamber during the direct fabrication of extracoronal provisional restorations. The temperature was monitored for the following four groups: (1) control--the provisional restoration was left on the tooth with no coolant used; (2) removal--the provisional restoration was removed upon initial resin polymerization; (3) in situ--the provisional restoration was left in place and cooled with an air/water spray; and (4) on/off--the provisional restoration was repeatedly removed and replaced upon initial polymerization while using an air/water spray. The intrapulpal temperature rises were as follows: control 7.08 degrees C, removal 2.39 degrees C, in situ 2.36 degrees C, and on/off 3.12 degrees C. The temperature rise for all cooling techniques was significantly lower than that of the control. No significant differences were found between the three cooling techniques.

  4. Effect of Different Surface Treatments on the Bond Strength of Repaired Resin Restorations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engy Fahmy Ismaiel Fekry Abaza

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, growing demands by patients for mercury-free esthetic restorations had markedly increased the use of resin composites in restorative dentistry. However, despite the continuing development of resin composites with improved properties, several factors, such as discoloration, color mismatch, wear; chipping or bulk fracture might present clinical problems (Mjor and Gordan. 2002, Vichi et al. 2004 and Kolbeck et al. 2006). As a result, the clinician should decide whether to replace or simply repair these restorations. Total replacement of the restoration might be regarded as over-treatment since in most cases, large portions of the restorations might be clinically and radio graphically considered free of failure. Moreover, complete removal of the restoration inevitably resulted in weakening of the tooth, unnecessary removal of intact dental tissues, more money and time consuming. For these reasons, the repair of the restoration instead of its removal would be a favorable procedure (Lucena-Martin et al. 2001, Frankenberger et al. 2003 a and Oztas et al. 2003). The key element in the determination of successful repair procedures was the adequate bond strength between the existing resin composite and the new one. Various methods have been suggested to improve the bond strength of the repaired resin restorations (Tezvergil et al. 2003 and Bonstein et al. 2005). Mechanical and/or chemical treatments had been investigated for preparation of the aged resin restorations to be repaired (Tezvergil et al. 2003, Ozcan et al. 2005 and Hannig et al. 2006). These treatments were introduced to counteract the problems of aged resin restorations which were limited amount of residual free radicals available for reaction with the repair material, contaminated surface, and highly cross-linked resin matrix ( Dall Oca et al. 2006 and Papacchini et al. 2007 a) Previous studies emphasized that mechanical treatments are the most important factor in obtaining optimal repair

  5. Scale-dependent effects of river habitat quality on benthic invertebrate communities--Implications for stream restoration practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Stefan; Breyer, Philippa; Tonkin, Jonathan D; Früh, Denise; Haase, Peter

    2016-05-15

    Although most stream restoration projects succeed in improving hydromorphological habitat quality, the ecological quality of the stream communities often remains unaffected. We hypothesize that this is because stream communities are largely determined by environmental properties at a larger-than-local spatial scale. Using benthic invertebrate community data as well as hydromorphological habitat quality data from 1087 stream sites, we investigated the role of local- (i.e. 100 m reach) and regional-scale (i.e. 5 km ring centered on each reach) stream hydromorphological habitat quality (LQ and RQ, respectively) on benthic invertebrate communities. The analyses showed that RQ had a greater individual effect on communities than LQ, but the effects of RQ and LQ interacted. Where RQ was either good or poor, communities were exclusively determined by RQ. Only in areas of intermediate RQ, LQ determined communities. Metacommunity analysis helped to explain these findings. Species pools in poor RQ areas were most depauperated, resulting in insufficient propagule pressure for species establishment even at high LQ (e.g. restored) sites. Conversely, higher alpha diversity and an indication of lower beta dispersion signals at mass effects occurring in high RQ areas. That is, abundant neighboring populations may help to maintain populations even at sites with low LQ. The strongest segregation in species co-occurrence was detected at intermediate RQ levels, suggesting that communities are structured to the highest degree by a habitat/environmental gradient. From these results, we conclude that when restoring riverine habitats at the reach scale, restoration projects situated in intermediate RQ settings will likely be the most successful in enhancing the naturalness of local communities. With a careful choice of sites for reach-scale restoration in settings of intermediate RQ and a strategy that aims to expand areas of high RQ, the success of reach-scale restoration in promoting the

  6. Effect of drought stress on male fertility restoration in A3 CMS-inducing cytoplasm of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin V. Kozhemyakin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Use of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS in hybrid breeding requires effective male fertility-restoring lines. In sorghum, very few restoring lines that can restore fertility in A3 CMS have been reported. To identify the reasons for this deficiency, F1 and F2 hybrids of an A3 CMS line crossed with the line IS1112C, a donor of fertility-restoring (Rf genes for A3 cytoplasm, and testcrosses of fertile plants to A3 CMS lines were grown under contrasting water availability regimes in dryland and irrigated field plots. In the irrigated plots the frequency of fertile plants in testcrosses was twice that in dryland plots (P < 0.05. Fertile plants from the F2 family grown in the irrigated plots showed significantly higher restoration ability than fertile plants from the same family grown in dryland plots. F3 plants from the F2 family grown in irrigated plots yielded on average a sixfold higher frequency of fertile plants in testcrosses than F3 plants derived from dryland plots (P < 0.01. Fertility of testcross hybrids correlated negatively with air vapor pressure deficit (VPD at flowering (r = −0.96; P < 0.01 suggesting that VPD is a trigger for downregulation of Rf genes for A3 cytoplasm.

  7. Chiral Symmetry, Heavy Quark Symmetry and Bound States

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Yuhsuke

    1995-01-01

    I investigate the bound state problems of lowest-lying mesons and heavy mesons. Chiral symmetry is essential when one consider lowest-lying mesons. Heavy quark symmetry plays an central role in considering the semi-leptonic form factors of heavy mesons. Various properties based on the symmetries are revealed using Bethe-Salpeter equations.

  8. Ligand-field symmetry effects in Fe(ii) polypyridyl compounds probed by transient X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hana; Strader, Matthew L.; Hong, Kiryong; Jamula, Lindsey; Gullikson, Eric M.; Kim, Tae Kyu; de Groot, Frank M. F.; McCusker, James K.; Schoenlein, Robert W.; Huse, Nils

    2012-01-01

    Ultrafast excited-state evolution in polypyridyl FeII complexes are of fundamental interest for understanding the origins of the sub-ps spin-state changes that occur upon photoexcitation of this class of compounds as well as for the potential impact such ultrafast dynamics have on incorporation of these compounds in solar energy conversion schemes or switchable optical storage technologies. We have demonstrated that ground-state and, more importantly, ultrafast time-resolved x-ray absorption methods can offer unique insights into the interplay between electronic and geometric structure that underpin the photo-induced dynamics of this class of compounds. The present contribution examines in greater detail how the symmetry of the ligand field surrounding the metal ion can be probed using these x-ray techniques. In particular, we show that steady-state K-edge spectroscopy of the nearest-neighbour nitrogen atoms reveals the characteristic chemical environment of the respective ligands and suggests an interesting target for future charge-transfer femtosecond and attosecond spectroscopy in the x-ray water window.

  9. The effect of human-caused visual impacts on restorative character of an arid wildland recreation setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thore Baird Christensen

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of visible visitor-caused impacts as characterized by user-created campsites on judgments about the perceived restorative character in natural areas. User-created campsites were inventoried using mapping-grade mobile Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology and photography. Photography of user-created campsites...

  10. Floristic Quality Index for woodland ground flora restoration: Utility and effectiveness in a fire-managed landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvin J. Maginel; Benjamin O. Knapp; John M. Kabrick; Rose-Marie. Muzika

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring is a critical component of ecological restoration and requires the use of metrics that are meaningful and interpretable. We analyzed the effectiveness of the Floristic Quality Index (FQI), a vegetative community metric based on species richness and the level of sensitivity to anthropogenic disturbance of individual species present (Coefficient of...

  11. Effects of Vision Restoration Training on Early Visual Cortex in Patients With Cerebral Blindness Investigated With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raemaekers, M.; Bergsma, D.P.; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton; van der Wildt, G.J.; van den Berg, A.V.

    Cerebral blindness is a loss of vision as a result of postchiasmatic damage to the visual pathways. Parts of the lost visual field can be restored through training. However, the neuronal mechanisms through which training effects occur are still unclear. We therefore assessed training-induced changes

  12. Evaluating the effect of salinity on a simulated American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) population with applications to conservation and Everglades restoration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, P.M.; Mooij, W.M.; DeAngelis, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Everglades restoration will alter the hydrology of South Florida, affecting both water depth and salinity levels in the southern fringes of the Everglades, the habitat of the endangered American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). A key question is what the effects of these hydrologic changes will be on

  13. Effects of Different Treatments of Pasture Restoration on Soil Trace Gas Emissions in the Cerrados of Central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planted pastures ( mainly Brachiaria spp) are the most extensive land use in the cerrado (savannas of central Brazil) with an area of approximately 50 x 10(6) ha. The objective of the study was to assess the effects of pasture restoration on the N dynamics ( net N mineralization/...

  14. Effect of core/veneer thickness ratio and veneer translucency on absolute and relative translucency of CAD-On restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mennatallah Mohie el-Din Wahba, (BDS, MSc

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Only veneer translucency had significant effect over contrast ratio values, while on the other hand, absolute translucency values were significantly affected by the core/veneer thickness ratio, veneer translucency and interaction between them. It was clear that absolute translucency measurements showed higher translucency values for the restorations than contrast ratio measurements.

  15. Mechanical behavior of a Y-TZP ceramic for monolithic restorations: effect of grinding and low-temperature aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, G.K.R.; Silvestri, T.; Camargo, R.; Rippe, M.P.; Amaral, M.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Valandro, L.F.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of grinding with diamond burs and low-temperature aging on the mechanical behavior (biaxial flexural strength and structural reliability), surface topography, and phase transformation of a Y-TZP ceramic for monolithic dental restorations. Disc-shaped

  16. On Symmetries in Optimal Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, A.J. van der

    1986-01-01

    We discuss the use of symmetries in solving optimal control problems. In particular a procedure for obtaining symmetries is given which can be performed before the actual calculation of the optimal control and optimal Hamiltonian.

  17. Symmetry and topology in evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukacs, B.; Berczi, S.; Molnar, I.; Paal, G.

    1991-10-01

    This volume contains papers of an interdisciplinary symposium on evolution. The aim of this symposium, held in Budapest, Hungary, 28-29 May 1991, was to clear the role of symmetry and topology at different levels of the evolutionary processes. 21 papers were presented, their topics included evolution of the Universe, symmetry of elementary particles, asymmetry of the Earth, symmetry and asymmetry of biomolecules, symmetry and topology of lining objects, human asymmetry etc. (R.P.)

  18. Applications of Classical Scaling Symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Bludman, Sidney

    2011-01-01

    Any symmetry reduces a second-order differential equation to a first-order equation: variational symmetries of the action (exemplified by central field dynamics) lead to conservation laws, but symmetries of only the equations of motion (exemplified by scale-invariant hydrostatics), yield first-order {\\em non-conservation laws} between invariants. We obtain these conservation laws by extending Noether's Theorem to non-variational symmetries, and present a variational formulation of spherical a...

  19. Quantum symmetries in particle interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkov, D.V.

    1983-01-01

    The concept of a quantum symmetry is introduced as a symmetry in the formulation of which quantum representations and specific quantum notions are used essentially. Three quantum symmetry principles are discussed: the principle of renormalizability (possibly super-renormalizability), the principle of local gauge symmetry, and the principle of supersymmetry. It is shown that these principles play a deterministic role in the development of quantum field theory. Historically their use has led to ever stronger restrictions on the interaction mechanism of quantum fields

  20. Sealants and preventive restorations: review of effectiveness and clinical changes for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigal, R J

    1998-01-01

    Sealants are effective caries-preventive agents to the extent they remain bonded to teeth. Preventive resin restorations (PRR) have a proven record, but are susceptible to failure as the overlying sealant fails. Careful analyses of studies reveal a measurable failure rate of sealants (5-10% per year) that must be addressed. Even under the best of circumstances, sealants fail. Therefore, dentistry (as well as third-party systems) must accept that sealants need vigilant recall and proper preventive maintenance. In addition, it is clear that cost-effective use of sealants will involve selective application on teeth with the greatest caries risk. Caries risk analysis of the patient as well as the tooth is an essential step in the treatment planning process. To improve sealant success, new material advances are suggested. Data from studies using an intermediate layer of dentin bonding agent between etched enamel and sealant show dramatic reduction of failure for sealants, particularly in instances of molars judged difficult to seal due to early stage of eruption.

  1. Effect of EDTA Conditioning on Microleakage of Four Adhesive Systems in Composite Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Shafiei

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluating the effect of dentin conditioning with EDTA on microleakage of composite resin restorations, using two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesives.Materials and Methods: One hundred and sixty extracted molars received class V cavity preparations right under the CEJ and were randomly divided into eight groups of 20, usingfour different adhesive systems. These adhesives included Adper Scotchbond Multi-purpose (SBMP, Adper Single Bond (SB, Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB, and Adper Prompt L-Pop (PLP. In the SBMP and SB experimental groups, EDTA was applied instead of phosphoric acid. In the CSEB and PLP experimental groups, EDTA conditioning was added to the bonding process. After thermocycling, the amount of dye penetration was evaluated using stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests.Results: Two etch and rinse adhesives (SBMP, SB showed a significantly lower micro-leakage than the two self-etch adhesives, CSEB and PLP, (P<0.05. No significant differ-ence was observed among the experimental groups. PLP and CSEB showed significantly less microleakage using EDTA conditioning (P<0.05. There was no significant difference for SBMP and SB when applying either phosphoric acid or EDTA.Conclusion: In the cases of SBMP and SB, EDTA conditioning is as effective as phos-phoric acid in preventing microleakage. In cases of CSEB and PLP, EDTA conditioning can significantly improve the sealing ability.

  2. Effects of Near Soil Surface Characteristics on the Soil Detachment Process in a Chronological Series of Vegetation Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing

    2017-04-01

    The effects of near soil surface characteristics on the soil detachment process might be different at different stages of vegetation restoration. This study was performed to investigate the effects of the near soil surface factors of plant litter, biological soil crusts (BSCs), dead roots and live roots on the soil detachment process by overland flow at different stages of restoration. Soil samples (1 m long, 0.1 m wide, and 0.05 m high) under four treatment conditions were collected from 1-yr-old and 24-yr-old natural grasslands and subjected to flow scouring under five different shear stresses ranging from 5.3 to 14.6 Pa. The results indicated that the effects of near soil surface characteristics on soil detachment were substantial during the process of vegetation restoration. The total reduction in the soil detachment capacity of the 1-yr-old grassland was 98.1%, and of this total, 7.9%, 30.0% and 60.2% was attributed to the litter, BSCs and plant roots, respectively. In the 24-yr-old grassland, the soil detachment capacity decreased by 99.0%, of which 13.2%, 23.5% and 62.3% was caused by the litter, BSCs and plant roots, respectively. Combined with the previously published data of a 7-yr-old grassland, the influence of plant litter on soil detachment was demonstrated to increase with restoration time, but soil detachment was also affected by the litter type and composition. The role of BSCs was greater than that of plant litter in reducing soil detachment during the early stages of vegetation recovery. However, its contribution weakened with time since restoration. The influence of plant roots accounted for at least half or up to two-thirds of the total near soil surface factors, of which more than 72.6% was attributed to the physical binding effects of the roots. The chemical bonding effect of the roots increased with time since restoration and was greater than the effect of the litter on soil detachment in the late stages of vegetation restoration. The

  3. Emergence of Symmetries from Entanglement

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Maximal Entanglement appears to be a key ingredient for the emergence of symmetries. We first illustrate this phenomenon using two examples: the emergence of conformal symmetry in condensed matter systems and  the relation of tensor networks to holography. We further present a Principle of Maximal Entanglement that seems to dictate to a large extend the structure of gauge symmetry.

  4. Group analysis and renormgroup symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalev, V.F.; Pustovalov, V.V.; Shirkov, D.V.

    1996-01-01

    An original regular approach to constructing special type symmetries for boundary-value problems, namely renormgroup symmetries, is presented. Different methods of calculating these symmetries based on modern group analysis are described. An application of the approach to boundary value problems is demonstrated with the help of a simple mathematical model. 35 refs

  5. Broken symmetries in field theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Mark Okker de

    2008-01-01

    The thesis discusses the role of symmetries in Quantum Field Theory. Quantum Field Theory is the mathematical framework to describe the physics of elementary particles. A symmetry here means a transformation under which the model at hand is invariant. Three types of symmetry are distinguished: 1.

  6. Partial symmetries in nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leviatan, A.

    1996-01-01

    The notions of exact, dynamical and partial symmetries are discussed in relation to nuclear spectroscopy. Explicit forms of Hamiltonians with partial SU(3) symmetry are presented in the framework of the interacting boson model of nuclei. An analysis of the resulting spectrum and electromagnetic transitions demonstrates the relevance of such partial symmetry to the spectroscopy of axially deformed nuclei. (Author)

  7. Restoring forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobs, Douglass F.; Oliet, Juan A.; Aronson, James

    2015-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation is occurring at high rates but humankind is experiencing historical momentum that favors forest restoration. Approaches to restoration may follow various paradigms depending on stakeholder objectives, regional climate, or the degree of site degradation. The vast amount...... of land requiring restoration implies the need for spatial prioritization of restoration efforts according to cost-benefit analyses that include ecological risks. To design resistant and resilient ecosystems that can adapt to emerging circumstances, an adaptive management approach is needed. Global change......, in particular, imparts a high degree of uncertainty about the future ecological and societal conditions of forest ecosystems to be restored, as well as their desired goods and services. We must also reconsider the suite of species incorporated into restoration with the aim of moving toward more stress resistant...

  8. Effect of the choice of wave functions on theoretical predictions for symmetry breaking processes: a view from the DKP formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieto, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    When considering an elementary particle matrix element, of necessity one must make an assumption, which often goes unnoticed, as to what formalism should be used for the wave functions. A current or interaction Lagrangian-density matrix-element is of the form V = anti psi/sub out/GAMMA psi/sub in/, where psi/sub in/ and anti psi/sub out/ represent the physical ingoing and outgoing particles, and GAMMA represents the vertex function. A current must have the dimensions of (length) -3 = (mass) 3 in units of h = c = 1. psi/sub in/ and anti psi/sub out/ must be described in terms of the physical on-shell masses or else one has no phase space. It is only the vertex function which can be symmetric in the internal symmetry under consideration. The decision as to how much of the matrix element will be taken to be symmetric and how much of the matrix element will be taken to be associated with on-mass-shell wave functions is a fundamental assumption. Depending on how the assumption is made, different results will be predicted. Normally first-order Dirac wave functions, with dimensions (length) -3 / 2 and second-order Klein--Gordon wave functions with dimensions (length) -1 are considered for spin- 1 / 2 fermions and spin-O bosons, respectively. The types of new results which are obtained if, on the contrary, one chooses to consider bosons in the first-order Duffin--Kemmer--Petiau formalism are discussed. It is argued that the DKP formalism represents a complementary viewpoint to the spectrum generating approach. Both challenge the standard phenomenology: DKP by changing the wave function, spectrum generating by changing the vertex function

  9. A comparative analysis of restoration measures and their effects on hydromorphology and benthic invertebrates in 26 central and southern European rivers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jähnig, S.C.; Brabec, K.; Buffagni, A.; Erba, S.; Lorenz, A.; Ofenböck, T.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Hering, D.

    2010-01-01

    1. Hydromorphological river restoration usually leads to habitat diversification, but the effects on benthic invertebrates, which are frequently used to assess river ecological status, are minor. We compared the effects of river restoration on morphology and benthic invertebrates by investigating 26

  10. Density dependence of nucleon radius and mass in the global color symmetry model of QCD with a sophisticated effective gluon propagator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Guo Hua

    2005-01-01

    Making use of the global color symmetry model (GCM) at finite chemical potential and with a sophisticated effective gluon propagator, the density dependence of the bag constant, the total energy and the radius of a nucleon in nuclear matter is investigated. A maximal nuclear matter density for the existence of the bag with three quarks confined within is given as about 8 times the normal nuclear matter density. The calculated results indicate that, before the maximal density is reached, the bag constant and the total energy of a nucleon decrease, and the radius of a nucleon increases, with the increasing of the nuclear matter density. As the maximal nuclear matter density is reached, the mass and the bag constant of the nucleon vanish and the radius becomes infinite suddenly. It manifests that a phase transition from nucleons to quarks takes place. Meanwhile, shortening the interaction range among quarks can induce the phase transition to happen easier

  11. Symmetry energy, its density slope, and neutron-proton effective mass splitting at normal density extracted from global nucleon optical potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Chang; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2010-01-01

    Based on the Hugenholtz-Van Hove theorem, it is shown that both the symmetry energy E sym (ρ) and its density slope L(ρ) at normal density ρ 0 are completely determined by the nucleon global optical potentials. The latter can be extracted directly from nucleon-nucleus scatterings, (p,n) charge-exchange reactions, and single-particle energy levels of bound states. Averaging all phenomenological isovector nucleon potentials constrained by world data available in the literature since 1969, the best estimates of E sym (ρ 0 )=31.3 MeV and L(ρ 0 )=52.7 MeV are simultaneously obtained. Moreover, the corresponding neutron-proton effective mass splitting in neutron-rich matter of isospin asymmetry δ is estimated to be (m n * -m p * )/m=0.32δ.

  12. A broken symmetry ontology: Quantum mechanics as a broken symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The author proposes a new broken symmetry ontology to be used to analyze the quantum domain. This ontology is motivated and grounded in a critical epistemological analysis, and an analysis of the basic role of symmetry in physics. Concurrently, he is led to consider nonheterogeneous systems, whose logical state space contains equivalence relations not associated with the causal relation. This allows him to find a generalized principle of symmetry and a generalized symmetry-conservation formalisms. In particular, he clarifies the role of Noether's theorem in field theory. He shows how a broken symmetry ontology already operates in a description of the weak interactions. Finally, by showing how a broken symmetry ontology operates in the quantum domain, he accounts for the interpretational problem and the essential incompleteness of quantum mechanics. He proposes that the broken symmetry underlying this ontological domain is broken dilation invariance

  13. Passive restoration is often quite effective: response to Zahawi et al. (2014)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prach, Karel; del Moral, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2015), s. 344-346 ISSN 1061-2971 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : restoration * succession * disturbance Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2015

  14. Mirror Lake genetic stock - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex and...

  15. Mirror Lake Fish catch composition - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex and...

  16. Mirror Lake salmon prey and diets - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex and...

  17. Mirror Lake salmon growth rate - Lower Columbia River Restoration Action Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 1) The purpose of this project is to measure changes in juvenile salmon habitat occurrence and health following restoration activities at the Mirror Lake Complex and...

  18. Randomized Clinical Trial of Composite Restorations in Primary Teeth: Effect of Adhesive System after Three Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donmez, Secil Bektaş; Uysal, Serdar; Ozdemir, Pinar; Tekcicek, Meryem; Zimmerli, Brigitte; Lussi, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical performance of composite restorations placed with different adhesive systems in primary teeth. In 32 patients, 128 composite restorations were placed using a split-mouth design as follows (4 groups/patient): three-step etch-and-rinse (Group 1), two-step etch-and-rinse (Group 2), two-step self-etch (Group 3), and one-step self-etch (Group 4). The restorations were clinically evaluated at baseline and at 6, 18, and 36 months according to the FDI criteria. There was no significant difference between the adhesive systems in retention of the restorations (p > 0.05). Over time, there was a statistically significant decrease in marginal adaptation in all groups, whereas surface and marginal staining significantly increased in Groups 3 and 4 (p self-etch adhesive systems (p self-etch adhesive systems in primary teeth. PMID:27833917

  19. Dark discrete gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batell, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We investigate scenarios in which dark matter is stabilized by an Abelian Z N discrete gauge symmetry. Models are surveyed according to symmetries and matter content. Multicomponent dark matter arises when N is not prime and Z N contains one or more subgroups. The dark sector interacts with the visible sector through the renormalizable kinetic mixing and Higgs portal operators, and we highlight the basic phenomenology in these scenarios. In particular, multiple species of dark matter can lead to an unconventional nuclear recoil spectrum in direct detection experiments, while the presence of new light states in the dark sector can dramatically affect the decays of the Higgs at the Tevatron and LHC, thus providing a window into the gauge origin of the stability of dark matter.

  20. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  1. Leadership, power and symmetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaten, Ole Michael

    2016-01-01

    Research publications concerning managers who coach their own employees are barely visible despite its wide- spread use in enterprises (McCarthy & Milner, 2013; Gregory & Levy, 2011; Crabb, 2011). This article focuses on leadership, power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship...... regarding managers coaching their employees and it is asked; what contributes to coaching of high quality when one reflects on the power aspect as being immanent? Fourteen middle managers coached five of their employees, and all members of each party wrote down cues and experiences immediately after each...... session. Thereafter we executed qualitative interviews with both managers and employees. Subsequently, a Thematic Analysis resulted in several themes, including power and moments of symmetry in the coaching relationship. One main conclusion is that the most fruitful coaching was obtained when the coachee...

  2. Asymmetry, Symmetry and Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbe R. Kopra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Asymmetry and symmetry coexist in natural and human processes.  The vital role of symmetry in art has been well demonstrated. This article highlights the complementary role of asymmetry. Further we show that the interaction of asymmetric action (recursion and symmetric opposition (sinusoidal waves are instrumental in generating creative features (relatively low entropy, temporal complexity, novelty (less recurrence in the data than in randomized copies and complex frequency composition. These features define Bios, a pattern found in musical compositions and in poetry, except for recurrence instead of novelty. Bios is a common pattern in many natural and human processes (quantum processes, the expansion of the universe, gravitational waves, cosmic microwave background radiation, DNA, physiological processes, animal and human populations, and economic time series. The reduction in entropy is significant, as it reveals creativity and contradicts the standard claim of unavoidable decay towards disorder. Artistic creations capture fundamental features of the world.

  3. Precursors and BRST symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Freivogel, Ben; Kabir, Laurens; Lokhande, Sagar F.

    2017-07-01

    In the AdS/CFT correspondence, bulk information appears to be encoded in the CFT in a redundant way. A local bulk field corresponds to many different non-local CFT operators (precursors). We recast this ambiguity in the language of BRST symmetry, and propose that in the large N limit, the difference between two precursors is a BRST exact and ghost-free term. This definition of precursor ambiguities has the advantage that it generalizes to any gauge theory. Using the BRST formalism and working in a simple model with global symmetries, we re-derive a precursor ambiguity appearing in earlier work. Finally, we show within this model that the obtained ambiguity has the right number of parameters to explain the freedom to localize precursors within different spatial regions of the boundary order by order in the large N expansion.

  4. Symmetry breaking and chaos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunakov, V.E.; Ivanov, I.B.

    1999-01-01

    Connections between the symmetries of Hamiltonian systems in classical and quantum mechanics, on one hand, and their regularity or chaoticity, on the other hand, are considered. The quantum-chaoticity criterion that was proposed previously and which was borrowed from the theory of compound-nucleus resonances is used to analyze the quantum diamagnetic Kepler problem - that is, the motion of a spinless charged particle in a Coulomb and a uniform magnetic field

  5. Symmetry in music

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrero, O F

    2010-01-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  6. Symmetry and quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to quantum mechanics for professionals, students, and others in the field of mathematics who have a minimal background in physics with an understanding of linear algebra and group theory. It covers such topics as Lie groups, algebras and their representations, and analysis (Hilbert space, distributions, the spectral Theorem, and the Stone-Von Neumann Theorem). The book emphasizes the role of symmetry and is useful to physicists as it provides a mathematical introduction to the topic.

  7. Symmetry in music

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero, O F, E-mail: o.f.herrero@hotmail.co [Conservatorio Superior de Musica ' Eduardo Martinez Torner' Corrada del Obispo s/n 33003 - Oviedo - Asturias (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    Music and Physics are very close because of the symmetry that appears in music. A periodic wave is what music really is, and there is a field of Physics devoted to waves researching. The different musical scales are the base of all kind of music. This article tries to show how this musical scales are made, how the consonance is the base of many of them and how symmetric they are.

  8. Crocin Restores Hypotensive Effect of Subchronic Administration of Diazinon in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Razavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, the effects of crocin against subchronic toxicity of diazinon (DZN on systolic blood pressure (SBP and heart rate (HR were evaluated in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were equally divided into 7 groups; control (corn oil, DZN (15 mg/kg, crocin (each group received 12.5, 25 or 50 mg/kg crocin plus DZN, vitamin E (200 IU/kg plus DZN and crocin (50 mg/kg treated groups.  Rats were given DZN via gavage once a day for 4 weeks. Vitamin E (three times per week and crocin (once a day were intraperitoneally injected to rats for 4 weeks. Plasma cholinesterase activity (Elman method, malondealdehyde (MDA levels in the aortic tissue (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances or TBARS method; SBP and HR (tail cuff method were evaluated at the end of 4th week. Results: A significant decrease in cholinesterase activity was observed in DZN group (P< 0.001. Crocin did not show any effects on cholinesterase activity. DZN increased MDA levels in aortic tissue (P< 0.001 in comparison with control group. Crocin and vitamin E plus DZN decreased MDA elevation induced by DZN in aortic tissue. DZN significantly reduced SBP (P< 0.01 and increased HR (P< 0.001 in comparison with control. Concurrent administration of crocin and DZN, improved the reduction of SBP and the elevation of HR induced by DZN in rat. Crocin alone did not have any effect on SBP and HR. Conclusion: This study showed that concurrent administration of crocin and DZN could restore the effects of subchronic DZN administration on SBP and HR in rats.

  9. Introduction to symmetry-breaking phenomena in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    The notion of broken symmetries started slowly to emerge in the 19th century. The early studies of Pasteur on the parity asymmetry of life, the studies of Curie on piezoelectricity and on the symmetries of effects versus the symmetry of causes ( which clearly excluded spontaneous symmetry breaking), are important historical landmarks. However the possibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking within the usual principles of statistical mechanics, waited for the work of Peierls and Onsager. The whole theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, as well as the construction of field theoretic models as long distance limit of yet unknown physics, relies nowadays on the concept of criticality associated to spontaneous symmetry breaking. The phenomena of Goldstone bosons, of Meissner-Higgs effects, are central to the theory of condensed matter as well as to particle physics. In cosmology as well, the various inflationary scenarios begin similarly with this same concept. The three lectures will provide a simple ...

  10. Effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration in opencast coal mine dumps located in a loess area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Wang, Hongdan; Cao, Yingui; Bai, Zhongke; Qin, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in improving and restoring fragile ecological environments. In the Antaibao opencast coal mine, located in a loess area, the eco-environment has been substantially disturbed by mining activities, and the relationship between the vegetation and environmental factors is not very clear. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration to improve the fragile ecosystems of damaged land. An investigation of the soil, topography and vegetation in 50 reclamation sample plots in Shanxi Pingshuo Antaibao opencast coal mine dumps was performed. Statistical analyses in this study included one-way ANOVA and significance testing using SPSS 20.0, and multivariate techniques of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) using CANOCO 4.5. The RDA revealed the environmental factors that affected vegetation restoration. Various vegetation and soil variables were significantly correlated. The available K and rock content were good explanatory variables, and they were positively correlated with tree volume. The effects of the soil factors on vegetation restoration were higher than those of the topographic factors. PMID:26916152

  11. Effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration in opencast coal mine dumps located in a loess area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinman; Wang, Hongdan; Cao, Yingui; Bai, Zhongke; Qin, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Vegetation plays an important role in improving and restoring fragile ecological environments. In the Antaibao opencast coal mine, located in a loess area, the eco-environment has been substantially disturbed by mining activities, and the relationship between the vegetation and environmental factors is not very clear. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the effects of soil and topographic factors on vegetation restoration to improve the fragile ecosystems of damaged land. An investigation of the soil, topography and vegetation in 50 reclamation sample plots in Shanxi Pingshuo Antaibao opencast coal mine dumps was performed. Statistical analyses in this study included one-way ANOVA and significance testing using SPSS 20.0, and multivariate techniques of detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) using CANOCO 4.5. The RDA revealed the environmental factors that affected vegetation restoration. Various vegetation and soil variables were significantly correlated. The available K and rock content were good explanatory variables, and they were positively correlated with tree volume. The effects of the soil factors on vegetation restoration were higher than those of the topographic factors.

  12. Model Studies on the Effectiveness of MBBR Reactors for the Restoration of Small Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Agata; Mazur, Robert; Panek, Ewa; Chmist, Joanna

    2018-02-01

    The authors present the Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR) model with a quasi-continuous flow for small water reservoir restoration, characterized by high concentrations of organic pollutants. To determine the efficiency of wastewater treatment the laboratory analysis of physic-chemical parameters were conducted for the model on a semi-technical scale of 1:3. Wastewater treatment process was carried out in 24 h for 1 m3 for raw sewage. The startup period was 2 weeks for all biofilters (biological beds). Approximately 50% reduction in COD and BOD5 was obtained on average for the studied bioreactors. Significant improvements were achieved in theclarity of the treated wastewater, with the reduction of suspension by 60%. The oxygen profile has improved significantly in 7 to 9 hours of the process, and a diametric reduction in the oxidative reduction potential was recorded. A preliminary model of biological treatment effectiveness was determined based on the conducted studies. In final stages, the operation mode was set in real conditions of polluted water reservoirs.

  13. The effects of hydrochloric acid on all-ceramic restorative materials: an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harryparsad, A; Dullabh, H; Sykes, L; Herbst, D

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this in-vitro study was to assess the long-term effects of hydrochloric acid on the surface roughness of three all-ceramic restorative materials CEREC VITABLOC Mark II CAD, IPS Empress CAD and IPS e.max CAD. Six cylindrical specimens (10mm diameter, 3mm height) of each material type were prepared, using the CEREC CAD/CAM machine. The unpolished samples were immersed in 15ml hydrochloric acid (pH 2) at 37 degrees C. Before immersion (baseline) and at periods of 7.5 hours, 45 hours and 91 hours, the specimens were removed from the acid and two randomised areas (10 microm X 10 microm) were selected and tested on each. The atomic force microscope (Bruker Dimension icon) was used to assess surface roughness and surface area at baseline and after each exposure time. The materials were compared over time with respect to surface roughness and surface area (baseline, 1 month, 6 months, 1 year) in a repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Sample groups differed significantly for roughness (p hydrochloric acid.

  14. Effect of preparation convergence on retention of multiple unit restorations - An in vitrostudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dileep Nag Vinnakota

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Convergence angle (CA is one of the major determinant factors in the retention of single as well as multiple units. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine the effect of preparation convergence on the retention of multiple unit restorations. Materials and Methods: Nickel-chromium alloy single crowns as well as three, six and nine multiple unit fixed partial dentures (FPDs were casted for standardized milled dies that simulate canine, premolar and molar teeth machined with two different degrees of convergence, 12 (n = 55 and 20 (n = 55. The dies were threaded on rectangular metal platforms with the help of retainer shaft in the proper position to model either single or multiple preparations. The casted crowns and FPDs were cemented and retention tested by securing the units in an Instron universal testing machine. The tabulated values were analyzed statistically using Mann-Whitney test. Results: Single and multiple units with 12° CA needed greater force to dislodge compared to 20°, but this difference was not statistically significant for single units of premolar (P > 0.05. Irrespective of the angle, there was a simultaneous statistically significant increase in retention as the number of units increased in FPDs, except for the difference between 3 and 6 units in 20° group (P > 0.05. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of emphasizing on CA, during canine and molar preparation for single units as well as preparation of canines for 6 units FPDs.

  15. Bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to self-adhesive resin cement: the effect of surface treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of different surface treatments on the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to self-adhesive resin cement. Two types of CAD/CAM restorative materials (Vita Enamic [VE] and Lava Ultimate [LU]) were used. The specimens were divided into five groups in each test according to the surface treatment performed; Gr 1 (control; no treatment), Gr 2 (sandblasted [SB]), Gr 3 (SB+silane [S]), Gr 4 (hydrofluoric acid [HF]), and Gr 5 (HF+S). A dual-curing self-adhesive resin cement (Bifix SE [BF]) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion after 24 h of storage in distilled water or after 30 days using the μTBS test. Following fracture testing, specimens were examined with a stereomicroscope and SEM. Surface roughness and morphology of the CAD/CAM restorative materials were characterized after treatment. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's test. The surface treatment, type of CAD/CAM restorative material, and water storage periods showed a significant effect on the μTBS (p0.05). On the other hand, for the VE/BF system, surface treatment with HF+S showed higher bond strength values compared with SB and HF surface treatments (pmaterials was modified after treatments. The effect of surface treatments on the bond strength of novel CAD/CAM restorative materials to resin cement is material dependent. The VE/BF CAD/CAM material provided higher bond strength values compared with the LU/BF CAD/CAM material.

  16. Effect of fluoride-free and fluoridated carbamide peroxide gels on the hardness and surface roughness of aesthetic restorative materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoon Alaghehmand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bleaching products may show some side effects on soft and hard tissues and restorative materials in the oral cavity. This study evaluated the effect of carbamide peroxide gel with and without fluoride ions on the microhardness and surface roughness of tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 76 cubic specimens (4 mm 3 × 4 mm 3 × 3 mm 3 were fabricated from 4 aesthetic A3-shade restorative materials. These materials consisted of two composite resins and two glass ionomers. The specimens made from each material were treated with the following surface treatments: 1. Control group: The specimens were not bleached and were stored in normal saline. Group 2. Fluoridated 20% carbamide peroxide gel, treated 3 h a day for 4 weeks. Group 3. Treated 1 h a day with fluoride-less 22% carbamide peroxide for two weeks. From each group, three other specimens were selected to be evaluated in terms of changes in surface roughness, under scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Results: In this study, fluoridated 20% carbamide peroxide gel increased the microhardness of the four aesthetic restorative materials. The fluoride-free carbamide peroxide 22% reduced the microhardness of the four used materials, which this change was significant for Vitremer and Amelogen. SEM analyses showed changes in surface roughness of glass ionomer specimens. Conclusion: The effect of bleaching on the microhardness of restorative materials is material dependent. Before the application of bleaching systems on the glass ionomer materials, the application of a protective barrier should be considered.

  17. Forecasting the effects of coastal protection and restoration projects on wetland morphology in coastal Louisiana under multiple environmental uncertainty scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvillion, Brady R.; Steyer, Gregory D.; Wang, Hongqing; Beck, Holly J.; Rybczyk, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Few landscape scale models have assessed the effects of coastal protection and restoration projects on wetland morphology while taking into account important uncertainties in environmental factors such as sea-level rise (SLR) and subsidence. In support of Louisiana's 2012 Coastal Master Plan, we developed a spatially explicit wetland morphology model and coupled it with other predictive models. The model is capable of predicting effects of protection and restoration projects on wetland area, landscape configuration, surface elevation, and soil organic carbon (SOC) storage under multiple environmental uncertainty scenarios. These uncertainty scenarios included variability in parameters such as eustatic SLR (ESLR), subsidence rate, and Mississippi River discharge. Models were run for a 2010–2060 simulation period. Model results suggest that under a “future-without-action” condition (FWOA), coastal Louisiana is at risk of losing between 2118 and 4677 km2 of land over the next 50 years, but with protection and restoration projects proposed in the Master Plan, between 40% and 75% of that loss could be mitigated. Moreover, model results indicate that under a FWOA condition, SOC storage (to a depth of 1 m) could decrease by between 108 and 250 million metric tons, a loss of 12% to 30% of the total coastwide SOC, but with the Master Plan implemented, between 35% and 74% of the SOC loss could be offset. Long-term maintenance of project effects was best attained in areas of low SLR and subsidence, with a sediment source to support marsh accretion. Our findings suggest that despite the efficacy of restoration projects in mitigating losses in certain areas, net loss of wetlands in coastal Louisiana is likely to continue. Model results suggest certain areas may eventually be lost regardless of proposed restoration investment, and, as such, other techniques and strategies of adaptation may have to be utilized in these areas.

  18. Broken Reflection Symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugari, Steven Louis

    1992-01-01

    We have carried out a search for broken reflection symmetry in the exotic nucleus ^{114 }Xe. Evidence for broken reflection symmetry has been previously observed in the actinide region, most notably Ra-Th nuclei, and more recently in the neutron rich nuclei ^{144}Ba, ^{146}Ce, and ^{146,148}Nd. This evidence has been discussed in terms of two conceptually different theoretical frameworks, namely alpha clustering and octupole deformation. The alpha clustering model makes global predictions of the relative strengths of enhanced electric dipole (E1) transitions characteristic of broken reflection symmetry, and predicts a dependence on isospin divided by nuclear mass (N-Z) ^2/A^2 of the reduced transition probability, B(E1), where A is the nuclear mass number and N and Z are, respectively, the neutron and proton number. The nuclei studied previously have approximately the same value of (N-Z)^2/A ^2 between 0.033 and 0.05. In ^ {114}Xe this parameter is much different, (N-Z)^2/A^2 =.0028, allowing for a test of the prediction. On the other hand, the octupole model description is less straightforward. Two terms contributing to the calculation of reduced transition strengths are based on the collective liquid drop model of nuclei and have a global dependence on A^2 Z^2. A third term, however, depends explicitly on the shell model description of the valence nucleons and can be large enough to remove this global dependence. The nucleus ^{114}Xe was produced in the heavy ion fusion evaporation reaction ^{60}Ni(^ {58}Ni,2p2n)^{114 }Xe in two separate measurements at Daresbury Laboratory and at Yale University. The nucleus was identified by means of a recoil mass spectrometer in the first reaction and by detection of evaporated neutrons in the second. Gamma ray spectra were collected in coincidence with these triggers using similar gamma detector setups. Information on the angular distributions of the gamma rays was collected for at least three separate angles in each

  19. Symmetry-enthalpy correlations in Diels-Alder reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvi-Arad, Inbal; Avnir, David

    2012-08-06

    Woodward-Hoffmann (WH) rules provide strict symmetry selection rules: when they are obeyed, a reaction proceeds; when they are not obeyed, there is no reaction. However, the voluminous experimental literature provides ample evidence that strict compliance to symmetry requirements is not an obstacle for a concerted reaction to proceed, and therefore the idea has developed that it is enough to have a certain degree of the required symmetry to have reactivity. Here we provide quantitative evidence of that link, and show that as one deviates from the desired symmetry, the enthalpy of activation increases, that is, we show that concerted reactions slow down the further they are from the ideal symmetry. Specifically, we study the deviation from mirror symmetry (evaluated with the continuous symmetry measure (CSM)) of the [4+2] carbon skeleton of the transition state of a series of twelve Diels-Alder reactions in seven different solvents (and in the gas phase), in which the dienes are butadiene, cyclopentadiene, cyclohexadiene, and cycloheptadiene; the dienophiles are the 1-, 1,1-, and 1,1,2-cyanoethylene derivatives; the solvents were chosen to sample a range of dielectric constants from heptane to ethanol. These components provide twenty-four symmetry-enthalpy DFT-calculated correlation lines (out of which only one case is a relatively mild exception) that show the general trend of increase in enthalpy as symmetry decreases. The various combinations between the dienophiles, cyanoethylenes, and solvents provide all kinds of sources for symmetry deviations; it is therefore remarkable that although the enthalpy of activation is dictated by various parameters, symmetry emerges as a primary parameter. In our analysis we also bisected this overall picture into solvent effects and geometry variation effects to evaluate under which conditions the electronic effects are more dominant than symmetry effects. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Effect of ferrule placement on the fracture strength of cyclically loaded bovine teeth restored with cemented cast post-cores and crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Amro, Abdul Aziz; Wilson, Peter Robert

    2009-09-01

    This experiment investigated the effect of a ferrule on the strength and fracture resistance of bovine teeth restored with cemented cast post-cores and crowns, compared to crowns alone or to crowns over non-ferrule cores. Thirty restored bovine teeth were subjected to 4 x 1095) cycles from 20 N to 120 N at 10 Hz, followed by fracture testing. Crowns alone were weaker than post restored teeth. There was no difference in fracture strength between ferrule and non ferrule teeth restored with crowns. All of the fractured teeth were subsequently unrestorable. Fracture resistance was not enhanced by 2 mm ferrule height.

  1. A physical framework for evaluating net effects of wet meadow restoration on late summer streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G.; Nash, C.; Selker, J. S.; Lewis, S.; Noël, P.

    2017-12-01

    Restoration of degraded wet meadows that develop on upland valley floors is intended to achieve a range of ecological benefits. A widely cited benefit is the potential for meadow restoration to augment late-season streamflow; however, there has been little field data demonstrating increased summer flows following restoration. Instead, the hydrologic consequences of restoration have typically been explored using coupled groundwater and surface water flow models at instrumented sites. The expected magnitude and direction of change provided by models has, however, been inconclusive. Here, we assess the streamflow benefit that can be obtained by wet meadow restoration using a parsimonious, physically-based approach. We use a one-dimensional linearized Boussinesq equation with a superimposed solution for changes in storage due to groundwater upwelling and and explicitly calculate evapotranspiration using the White Method. The model accurately predicts water table elevations from field data in the Middle Fork John Day watershed in Oregon, USA. The full solution shows that while raising channel beds can increase total water storage via increases in water table elevation in upland valley bottoms, the contributions of both lateral and longitudinal drainage from restored floodplains to late summer streamflow are undetectably small, while losses in streamflow due to greater transpiration, lower hydraulic gradients, and less drainable pore volume are substantial. Although late-summer streamflow increases should not be expected as a direct result of wet meadow restoration, these approaches offer benefits for improving the quality and health of riparian and meadow vegetation that would warrant considering such measures, even at the cost of increased water demand and reduced streamflow.

  2. Gauge symmetries, topology, and quantisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, A.P.

    1994-01-01

    The following two loosely connected sets of topics are reviewed in these lecture notes: (1) Gauge invariance, its treatment in field theories and its implications for internal symmetries and edge states such as those in the quantum Hall effect. (2) Quantisation on multiply connected spaces and a topological proof the spin-statistics theorem which avoids quantum field theory and relativity. Under (1), after explaining the meaning of gauge invariance and the theory of constraints, we discuss boundary conditions on gauge transformations and the definition of internal symmetries in gauge field theories. We then show how the edge states in the quantum Hall effect can be derived from the Chern-Simons action using the preceding ideas. Under (2), after explaining the significance of fibre bundles for quantum physics, we review quantisation on multiply connected spaces in detail, explaining also mathematical ideas such as those of the universal covering space and the fundamental group. These ideas are then used to prove the aforementioned topological spin-statistics theorem

  3. Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José

    2018-01-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.

  4. Effect of reinforced flowable resin restoration on periodontal tissue in patients with severe periodontitis and anterior tooth loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao-Ran Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of traditional flowable resin and reinforced flowable resin restoration on periodontal tissue in patients with severe periodontitis and anterior tooth loss. Methods: A total of 76 patients with severe periodontitis and anterior tooth loss who received treatment in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected and randomly divided into reinforced group and traditional group who received reinforced flowable resin restoration and traditional flowable resin restoration respectively. Inflammation indexes, oxidative stress indexes, bone metabolism indexes and apoptotic indexes in gingival crevicular fluid were compared between two groups. Results: 2 weeks after treatment, NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-18, RANKL, MDA, O2 - , H2O2, Fas, FasL, Bax, Smac, Apaf-1 and Caspase-3 levels as well as caspase-1 vitality in gingival crevicular fluid of reinforced group were significantly lower than those of traditional group while SOD, GSH-Px, OPG, ALP, Runx2, OCN and Col-1 levels were significantly higher than those of traditional group. Conclusion: Reinforced flowable resin restoration can alleviate inflammation and oxidative stress in periodontal tissue, and inhibit alveolar bone resorption and cell apoptosis in patients with severe periodontitis and anterior tooth loss.

  5. Effect of Endocrown Restorations with Different CAD/CAM Materials: 3D Finite Element and Weibull Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laden Gulec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two endocrown designs and computer aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM materials on stress distribution and failure probability of restorations applied to severely damaged endodontically treated maxillary first premolar tooth (MFP. Two types of designs without and with 3 mm intraradicular extensions, endocrown (E and modified endocrown (ME, were modeled on a 3D Finite element (FE model of the MFP. Vitablocks Mark II (VMII, Vita Enamic (VE, and Lava Ultimate (LU CAD/CAM materials were used for each type of design. von Mises and maximum principle values were evaluated and the Weibull function was incorporated with FE analysis to calculate the long term failure probability. Regarding the stresses that occurred in enamel, for each group of material, ME restoration design transmitted less stress than endocrown. During normal occlusal function, the overall failure probability was minimum for ME with VMII. ME restoration design with VE was the best restorative option for premolar teeth with extensive loss of coronal structure under high occlusal loads. Therefore, ME design could be a favorable treatment option for MFPs with missing palatal cusp. Among the CAD/CAM materials tested, VMII and VE were found to be more tooth-friendly than LU.

  6. Effect of two different polishing systems on fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of newly developed restorative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayrak, Gokcen Deniz; Sandalli, Nuket; Selvi-Kuvvetli, Senem; Topcuoglu, Nursen; Kulekci, Guven

    2017-11-12

    To evaluate the effects of two different polishing systems on fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion of five restorative materials MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study groups were comprised of five different restorative materials, Beautifil II (B); GCP Glass Fill (G); Amalgomer CR (A); Dyract XP (D); Fuji IX GP (F) and 21 specimens were prepared from each material. Each group was divided into three subgroups according to the polishing system: Mylar (control) (C), Sof-lex (S), and Enhance-Pogo (EP). The amount of fluoride release was measured using a fluoride ion-selective electrode and surface roughness was investigated with a profilometer. Bacterial adhesion on the materials was evaluated by optical density readouts for S.mutans on a spectrophotometer. The highest amount of fluoride was released from specimens in the S subgroup of group G during all measurement days. Surface roughness values were significantly lower in subgroup C than the other polishing systems in all study groups except group G (P restorative materials especially in glass ionomer-based materials. This article stated that polishing promoted a significant increase of fluoride release on restorative materials especially in glass ionomer-based materials. Further, proper polishing systems must be chosen according to the structure and composition of materials to provide the best clinical benefits in terms of fluoride release, surface roughness and bacterial adhesion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of Endocrown Restorations with Different CAD/CAM Materials: 3D Finite Element and Weibull Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulec, Laden; Ulusoy, Nuran

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two endocrown designs and computer aided design/manufacturing (CAD/CAM) materials on stress distribution and failure probability of restorations applied to severely damaged endodontically treated maxillary first premolar tooth (MFP). Two types of designs without and with 3 mm intraradicular extensions, endocrown (E) and modified endocrown (ME), were modeled on a 3D Finite element (FE) model of the MFP. Vitablocks Mark II (VMII), Vita Enamic (VE), and Lava Ultimate (LU) CAD/CAM materials were used for each type of design. von Mises and maximum principle values were evaluated and the Weibull function was incorporated with FE analysis to calculate the long term failure probability. Regarding the stresses that occurred in enamel, for each group of material, ME restoration design transmitted less stress than endocrown. During normal occlusal function, the overall failure probability was minimum for ME with VMII. ME restoration design with VE was the best restorative option for premolar teeth with extensive loss of coronal structure under high occlusal loads. Therefore, ME design could be a favorable treatment option for MFPs with missing palatal cusp. Among the CAD/CAM materials tested, VMII and VE were found to be more tooth-friendly than LU.

  8. The Effect of Composite Thickness on the Stress Distribution Pattern of Restored Premolar Teeth with Cusp Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panahandeh, Narges; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Ziaee, Nargess; Mahdian, Mina; Tootiaee, Bahman; Ghasemi, Amir

    2017-07-01

    Different thicknesses of restorative material can alter the stress distribution pattern in remaining tooth structure. The assumption is that a thicker composite restoration will induce a higher fracture resistance. Therefore, the present study evaluated the effect of composite thickness on stress distribution in a restored premolar with cusp reduction. A 3D solid model of a maxillary second premolar was prepared and meshed. MOD cavities were designed with different cusp reduction thicknesses (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2.5 mm). Cavities were restored with Valux Plus composite. They were loaded with 200 N force on the occlusal surface in the direction of the long axis. Von Mises stresses were evaluated with Abaqus software. Stress increased from occlusal to gingival and was maximum in the cervical region. The stressed area in the palatal cusp was more than that of the buccal cusp. Increasing the thickness of composite altered the shear stress to compressive stress in the occlusal area of the teeth. The model with 2.5 mm cusp reduction exhibited the most even stress distribution. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  9. Generalizations of teleparallel gravity and local Lorentz symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sotiriou, Thomas P.; Barrow, John D.; Li Baojiu

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the relation between teleparallelism and local Lorentz invariance. We show that generic modifications of the teleparallel equivalent to general relativity will not respect local Lorentz symmetry. We clarify the reasons for this and explain why the situation is different in general relativity. We give a prescription for constructing teleparallel equivalents for known theories. We also explicitly consider a recently proposed class of generalized teleparallel theories, called f(T) theories of gravity, and show why restoring local Lorentz symmetry in such theories cannot lead to sensible dynamics, even if one gives up teleparallelism.

  10. Macroscopic influence on the spontaneous symmetry breaking in quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirzhnitz, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    Major results of investigations concerning macroscopic influence (heating, compression, external field and current) on elementary particle systems with spontaneous symmetry breaking are briefly reviewed. The study of this problem has been stimulated by recent progress in the unified renormalizable theory of elementary particles. Typically it appears that at some values of external parameters a phase transition with symmetry restoration takes place. There exists a profound and far going analogy with phase transition in many-body physics especially with superconductivity phenomenon. Some applications to cosmology are also considered

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking in a semilocalized magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gaoqing

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we explore the pattern of chiral symmetry breaking and restoration in a solvable magnetic field configuration within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. The special semilocalized static magnetic field can roughly mimic the realistic situation in peripheral heavy ion collisions; thus, the study is important for the dynamical evolution of quark matter. We find that the magnetic-field-dependent contribution from discrete spectra usually dominates over the contribution from continuum spectra and chiral symmetry breaking is locally catalyzed by both the magnitude and scale of the magnetic field. The study is finally extended to the case with finite temperature or chemical potential.

  12. Effect of Cements at Different Temperatures on the Clinical Performance and Marginal Adaptation of Inlay-Onlay Restorations In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aygün Emiroğlu, Şeyda; Evren, Buket; Kulak Özkan, Yasemin

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical performance of inlays and onlays luted with two different resin cements, mixed at different temperatures and to evaluate the marginal adaptation of the restorations. One hundred IPS e.max restorations (82 onlays, 18 inlays; 84 molars, 16 premolars) were placed in 50 patients (28 females, 22 males, mean age, 33 years). The restorations were assigned to six groups according to the luting agent temperature (25°C, 37°C, and 54°C) and cement type (Variolink N high viscosity or G-Cem Automix). All restorations were evaluated after 1 week and 1 year by two examiners using modified USPHS criteria. Replicas of 30 selected onlay restorations (5 per group) were assessed for marginal quality under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at 200×. Marginal adaptation was quantitatively evaluated in terms of percentage of gap formation, and marginal gap width was measured. After 1 year, the total survival rates of the Variolink N high viscosity group and G-Cem Automix group were 100% and 93.8%, respectively. Three debondings occurred with the G-Cem Automix group, one from each temperature group. For 1-year clinical service time, no significant difference was noticed in the marginal adaptation of Variolink N high viscosity groups and the 37°C G-Cem Automix group, while 25°C and 54°C G-Cem Automix groups' marginal adaptation scores decreased (p 0.05). Cements at different temperatures did not have significant effects on marginal gap widths of the restorations. The restorations cemented with Variolink N high viscosity cement mixed at the three tested temperatures exhibited better treatment options than the self-adhesive groups. Preheating the self-adhesive cement (G-Cem Automix) to 37°C can be an effective method to have better marginal adaptation than the other self-adhesive groups (25°C, 54°C) tested in this study. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Effects of thermal fatigue on shear punch strength of tooth-colored restoratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melody, Fam Mei Shi; U-Jin, Yap Adrian; Natalie, Tan Wei Min; Elizabeth, Tay Wan Ling; Chien, Jessica Yeo Siu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of thermal fatigue on the shear strength of a range of tooth-colored restorative materials including giomers, zirconia-reinforced glass ionomer cement (GIC), nano-particle resin-modified GIC, highly viscous GICs, and composite resin. Twenty specimens of each material were fabricated in standardized washers (17 mm outer diameter, 9 mm internal diameter, 1 mm thick). The specimens were cured, stored in 100% humidity at 37.5°C for 24 h, and randomly divided into two groups of 10. Group A specimens were nonthermocycled (NT) and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 168 h. Group B specimens were thermocycled (TC) for 10,000 cycles (168 h) with baths X, Y, and Z adjusted to 35°C, 15°C, and 45°C, respectively. Each cycle had dwell times of 28 s in X, and 2s in Y/Z in the order XYXZ. Specimens then underwent shear punch testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min with a 2 kN load cell. Statistical analysis of shear strength was done using t-test and two-way ANOVA/Scheffe's post hoc test at significance level P IX GP Fast), no significant differences in shear strength were generally observed between the NT and TC groups. For both groups, the composite resin (Filtek Z250XT) had the highest shear strength while the zirconia-reinforced (zirconomer) and a highly viscous GIC (Ketac Molar Quick) had the lowest. The effect of thermocycling on shear strength was material dependent. Thermal fatigue, however, did not significantly influence the shear strength of most materials assessed. The "sculptable" composite and giomer were significantly stronger than the other materials evaluated. Shear strength of the "flowable" injectable hybrid giomer was intermediate between the composite and GICs.

  14. Gauging policy-driven large-scale vegetation restoration programmes under a changing environment: Their effectiveness and socio-economic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Lü, Yihe; Fu, Bojie; Comber, Alexis J; Harris, Paul; Wu, Lianhai

    2017-12-31

    Large-scale ecological restoration has been widely accepted globally as an effective strategy for combating environmental crises and to facilitate sustainability. Assessing the effectiveness of ecological restoration is vital for researchers, practitioners, and policy-makers. However, few practical tools are available to perform such tasks, particularly for large-scale restoration programmes in complex socio-ecological systems. By taking a "before and after" design, this paper formulates a composite index (E j ) based on comparing the trends of vegetation cover and vegetation productivity to assess ecological restoration effectiveness. The index reveals the dynamic and spatially heterogenic process of vegetation restoration across different time periods, which can be informative for ecological restoration management at regional scales. Effectiveness together with its relationship to socio-economic factors is explored via structural equation modeling for three time periods. The results indicate that the temporal scale is a crucial factor in representing restoration effectiveness, and that the effects of socio-economic factors can also vary with time providing insight for improving restoration effectiveness. A dual-track strategy, which promotes the development of tertiary industry in absorbing the rural labor force together with improvements in agricultural practices, is proposed as a promising strategy for enhancing restoration effectiveness. In this process, timely and long-term ecological restoration monitoring is advocated, so that the success and sustainability of such programmes is ensured, together with more informative decision making where socio-ecological interactions at differing temporal scales are key concerns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Ecological restoration and effect investigation of a river wetland in a semi-arid region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available River wetlands are heavily impacted by human intervention. The degradation and loss of river wetlands has made the restoration of river ecosystems a top priority. How to rehabilitate rivers and their services has been a research focus. The main goal of it is to restore the river wetland ecosystems with ecological methods. The Gudong River was selected as a study site in Chaoyang city in this study. Based on the analysis of interference factors in the river wetland degradation, a set of restoration techniques were proposed and designed for regional water level control, including submerged dikes, ecological embankments, revegetation and dredging. The restoration engineering has produced good results in water quality, eco-environment, and landscape. Monthly reports of the Daling River show that the water quality of Gudong River was better than Grade III in April 2013 compared with Grade V in May 2012. The economic benefit after restoration construction is 1.71 million RMB per year, about 1.89 times that before. The ratio of economic value, social value and eco-environmental value is 1:4:23.

  16. [Marginal leakage in dental restorations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro Barrio, J; Linaza Peña, J; Triana Triana, R; Barrio Fernández, P

    1989-12-01

    We make a review of the factors contributing to microleakage around dental restorations and the biological effects that this produces. We also make an evaluation of the existing methods for its research. We analize the behaviour of the different restorative materials, in relation to microleakage, and we set the rules to minimize this inevitable event that affects so much the longevity of dental restorations.

  17. Discrete R-symmetries and anomaly universality in heterotic orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizet, Nana G. Cabo [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnológicas y Desarrollo Nuclear,Calle 30, esq.a 5ta Ave, Miramar, 6122 La Habana (Cuba); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Peña, Damián K. Mayorga [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Parameswaran, Susha L. [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Leibniz Universität Hannover,Welfengarten 1, 30167 Hannover (Germany); Schmitz, Matthias [Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics and Physikalisches Institut der Universität Bonn,Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-02-24

    We study discrete R-symmetries, which appear in the 4D low energy effective field theory derived from heterotic orbifold models. We derive the R-symmetries directly from the geometrical symmetries of the orbifolds. In particular, we obtain the corresponding R-charges by requiring that the couplings be invariant under these symmetries. This allows for a more general treatment than the explicit computations of correlation functions made previously by the authors, including models with discrete Wilson lines, and orbifold symmetries beyond plane-by-plane rotational invariance. The R-charges obtained in this manner differ from those derived in earlier explicit computations. We study the anomalies associated with these R-symmetries, and comment on the results.

  18. Formulation of the low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle; Formulation de la theorie effective a basse energie du secteur electrofaible sans particule de Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, J

    2004-07-01

    The low-energy effective theory of electroweak symmetry-breaking without a Higgs particle is constructed using the methods of Chiral Perturbation Theory. Weinberg's power-counting formula demonstrates the consistency of the loop expansion, with the corresponding renormalization. We find that the suppression of effective operators by a mass scale, which was automatic in the case of the Standard Model, no longer holds in the Higgs-less case. Moreover, the incriminated operators appear at leading order in the chiral expansion, at variance with experiments. To account for their suppression, invariance under a larger symmetry is required, corresponding to the composite sector (which produces the three Goldstone modes) being decoupled from the elementary sector (quarks, leptons and Yang-Mills fields). The couplings are introduced via spurions: this reduces the symmetry to SU(2) x U(1). In the simultaneous expansion in powers of momenta and spurions, the aforementioned operators are relegated to higher orders. In addition, the method allows for a systematic treatment of weak isospin breaking. The Weinberg power-counting formula can be recovered, and small neutrino masses accounted for. The three right-handed neutrinos (lighter than the TeV), which are introduced in connection with the custodial symmetry, are quasi-sterile and stable. A constraint on the underlying theory is obtained by studying the anomaly-matching in the composite sector and generalizing the Wess-Zumino construction. The spurion formalism is also applied to open linear moose models, for which generalized Weinberg sum rules are derived. (author)

  19. Detection of paleochannels using hydrogeophysical methods: An approach for more effective channel restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altdorff, D.; Dietrich, P.; Epting, J.; Huggenberger, P.

    2011-12-01

    River restoration and applied restoration measures are of increasing importance for integrated water resources management (IWRM) as well as for ecosystem services including water storage and purification, habitat provision and climate regulation. However, often river restoration is planned and realized by engineering and constructing aspects only and hydrogeological settings and ancient stream dynamics are neglected. As a result desired outcomes of restoration projects are reduced with no significant alteration of stream conditions by simultaneously increasing costs. An opportunity to max out the restoration potential is to investigate ancient stream courses by applying hydrogeophysical methods as basis for targeted restoration measures. In this study, we investigate the paleochannel courses in a floodplain of a heavy modified low-mountain river in Switzerland by different hydrogeophysical methods. We use data from electromagnetic induction (EMI) with four different integral depths (0.75 to 6m) and gamma-spectrometry (GS) to generate a geological structure model (GSM) that allows delineating potential ancient stream courses. Thereby we derive the GSM iteratively by means of various electric conductivity (EC) forward models. We vary the geological input parameters based on the measured data until the synthetic EC maps fit to the real EC values. Then we incorporate the best fitted input data for a final GSM that shows the course of an ancient stream between the 2nd and 3rd layer (Fig 1). A comparison with a historical map shows good agreement with the situation before the river modification and also profiles from Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) could generally confirm the obtained progression of ancient riverbed structures. The demonstrated iterative method is a tool for the characterization of test sites with no subsurface information and with the potential of detecting paleochannels.

  20. Effects of native forest restoration on soil hydraulic properties, Auwahi, Maui, Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kimberlie S.; Nimmo, John R.; Medeiros, Arthur C.

    2012-01-01

    Over historic time Hawai'i's dryland forests have been largely replaced by grasslands for grazing livestock. On-going efforts have been undertaken to restore dryland forests to bring back native species and reduce erosion. The reestablishment of native ecosystems on land severely degraded by long-term alternative use requires reversal of the impacts of erosion, organic-matter loss, and soil structural damage on soil hydraulic properties. This issue is perhaps especially critical in dryland forests where the soil must facilitate native plants' optimal use of limited water. These reforestation efforts depend on restoring soil ecological function, including soil hydraulic properties. We hypothesized that reforestation can measurably change soil hydraulic properties over restoration timescales. At a site on the island of Maui (Hawai'i, USA), we measured infiltration capacity, hydrophobicity, and abundance of preferential flow channels in a deforested grassland and in an adjacent area where active reforestation has been going on for fourteen years. Compared to the nearby deforested rangeland, mean field-saturated hydraulic conductivity in the newly restored forest measured by 55 infiltrometer tests was greater by a factor of 2.0. Hydrophobicity on an 8-point scale increased from average category 6.0 to 6.9. A 4-point empirical categorization of preferentiality in subsurface wetting patterns increased from an average 1.3 in grasslands to 2.6 in the restored forest. All of these changes act to distribute infiltrated water faster and deeper, as appropriate for native plant needs. This study indicates that vegetation restoration can lead to ecohydrologically important changes in soil hydraulic properties over decadal time scales.