The role of Rap1 in cell-cell junction formation
Kooistra, M.R.H.
2008-01-01
Both epithelial and endothelial cells form cell-cell junctions at the cell-cell contacts to maintain tissue integrity. Proper regulation of cell-cell junctions is required for the organisation of the tissue and to prevent leakage of blood vessels. In endothelial cells, the cell-cell junctions are
Filtering microfluidic bubble trains at a symmetric junction.
Parthiban, Pravien; Khan, Saif A
2012-02-07
We report how a nominally symmetric microfluidic junction can be used to sort all bubbles of an incoming train exclusively into one of its arms. The existence of this "filter" regime is unexpected, given that the junction is symmetric. We analyze this behavior by quantifying how bubbles modulate the hydrodynamic resistance in microchannels and show how speeding up a bubble train whilst preserving its spatial periodicity can lead to filtering at a nominally symmetric junction. We further show how such an asymmetric traffic of bubble trains can be triggered in symmetric geometries by identifying conditions wherein the resistance to flow decreases with an increase in the number of bubbles in the microchannel and derive an exact criterion to predict the same.
The critical current of point symmetric Josephson tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monaco, Roberto
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We disclose some geometrical properties of the critical current field dependence that apply to a large class of Josephson junctions characterized by a point symmetric shape. • The developed theory is valid for any orientation of the applied magnetic field, therefore it allows the determine the consequences of field misalignment in the experimental setups. • We also address that the threshold curves of Josephson tunnel junctions with complex shapes can be expressed as a linear combination of the threshold curves of junctions with simpler point symmetric shapes. - Abstract: The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations. The shape of the junction determines the specific form of the magnetic-field dependence of its Josephson current. Here we address the magnetic diffraction patterns of specially shaped planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations. We focus on a wide ensemble of junctions whose shape is invariant under point reflection. We analyze the implications of this type of isometry and derive the threshold curves of junctions whose shape is the union or the relative complement of two point symmetric plane figures.
Cell-cell junctions: a target of acoustic overstimulation in the sensory epithelium of the cochlea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng Guiliang
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to intense noise causes the excessive movement of the organ of Corti, stretching the organ and compromising sensory cell functions. We recently revealed changes in the transcriptional expression of multiple adhesion-related genes during the acute phases of cochlear damage, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is an early event in the process of cochlear pathogenesis. However, the functional state of cell junctions in the sensory epithelium is not clear. Here, we employed graded dextran-FITC, a macromolecule tracer that is impermeable to the organ of Corti under physiological conditions, to evaluate the barrier function of cell junctions in normal and noise-traumatized cochlear sensory epithelia. Results Exposure to an impulse noise of 155 dB (peak sound pressure level caused a site-specific disruption in the intercellular junctions within the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. The most vulnerable sites were the junctions among the Hensen cells and between the Hensen and Deiters cells within the outer zone of the sensory epithelium. The junction clefts that formed in the reticular lamina were permeable to 40 and 500 but not 2,000 kDa dextran-FITC macromolecules. Moreover, this study showed that the interruption of junction integrity occurred in the reticular lamina and also in the basilar membrane, a site that had been considered to be resistant to acoustic injury. Finally, our study revealed a general spatial correlation between the site of sensory cell damage and the site of junction disruption. However, the two events lacked a strict one-to-one correlation, suggesting that the disruption of cell-cell junctions is a contributing, but not the sole, factor for initiating acute sensory cell death. Conclusions Impulse noise causes the functional disruption of intercellular junctions in the sensory epithelium of the chinchilla cochlea. This disruption occurs at an early phase of cochlear
The role of apical cell-cell junctions and associated cytoskeleton in mechanotransduction.
Sluysmans, Sophie; Vasileva, Ekaterina; Spadaro, Domenica; Shah, Jimit; Rouaud, Florian; Citi, Sandra
2017-04-01
Tissues of multicellular organisms are characterised by several types of specialised cell-cell junctions. In vertebrate epithelia and endothelia, tight and adherens junctions (AJ) play critical roles in barrier and adhesion functions, and are connected to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. The interaction between junctions and the cytoskeleton is crucial for tissue development and physiology, and is involved in the molecular mechanisms governing cell shape, motility, growth and signalling. The machineries which functionally connect tight and AJ to the cytoskeleton comprise proteins which either bind directly to cytoskeletal filaments, or function as adaptors for regulators of the assembly and function of the cytoskeleton. In the last two decades, specific cytoskeleton-associated junctional molecules have been implicated in mechanotransduction, revealing the existence of multimolecular complexes that can sense mechanical cues and translate them into adaptation to tensile forces and biochemical signals. Here, we summarise the current knowledge about the machineries that link tight and AJ to actin filaments and microtubules, and the molecular basis for mechanotransduction at epithelial and endothelial AJ. © 2017 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A new approach to spherically symmetric junction surfaces and the matching of FLRW regions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirchner, U
2004-01-01
We investigate timelike junctions (with surface layer) between spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein-field equation. In contrast to previous investigations, this is done in a coordinate system in which the junction surface motion is absorbed in the metric, while all coordinates are continuous at the junction surface. The evolution equations for all relevant quantities are derived. We discuss the no-surface layer case (boundary surface) and study the behaviour for small surface energies. It is shown that one should expect cases in which the speed of light is reached within a finite proper time. We carefully discuss necessary and sufficient conditions for a possible matching of spherically symmetric sections. For timelike junctions between spherically symmetric spacetime sections we show explicitly that the time component of the Lanczos equation always reduces to an identity (independent of the surface equation of state). The results are applied to the matching of Friedmann-LemaItre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) models. We discuss 'vacuum bubbles' and closed-open junctions in detail. As illustrations several numerical integration results are presented, some of them indicate that (observers comoving with) the junction surface can reach the speed of light within a finite time
Adherens junction distribution mechanisms during cell-cell contact elongation in Drosophila.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabrielle Goldenberg
Full Text Available During Drosophila gastrulation, amnioserosa (AS cells flatten and spread as an epithelial sheet. We used AS morphogenesis as a model to investigate how adherens junctions (AJs distribute along elongating cell-cell contacts in vivo. As the contacts elongated, total AJ protein levels increased along their length. However, genetically blocking this AJ addition indicated that it was not essential for maintaining AJ continuity. Implicating other remodeling mechanisms, AJ photobleaching revealed non-directional lateral mobility of AJs along the elongating contacts, as well as local AJ removal from the membranes. Actin stabilization with jasplakinolide reduced AJ redistribution, and live imaging of myosin II along elongating contacts revealed fragmented, expanding and contracting actomyosin networks, suggesting a mechanism for lateral AJ mobility. Actin stabilization also increased total AJ levels, suggesting an inhibition of AJ removal. Implicating AJ removal by endocytosis, clathrin endocytic machinery accumulated at AJs. However, dynamin disruption had no apparent effect on AJs, suggesting the involvement of redundant or dynamin-independent mechanisms. Overall, we propose that new synthesis, lateral diffusion, and endocytosis play overlapping roles to populate elongating cell-cell contacts with evenly distributed AJs in this in vivo system.
Massa, P T; Szuchet, S; Mugnaini, E
1984-12-01
Oligodendrocytes were isolated from lamb brain. Freshly isolated cells and cultured cells, either 1- to 4-day-old unattached or 1- to 5-week-old attached, were examined by thin section and freeze-fracture electron microscopy. Freeze-fracture of freshly isolated oligodendrocytes showed globular and elongated intramembrane particles similar to those previously described in oligodendrocytes in situ. Enrichment of these particles was seen at sites of inter-oligodendrocyte contact. Numerous gap junctions and scattered linear tight junctional arrays were apparent. Gap junctions were connected to blebs of astrocytic plasma membrane sheared off during isolation, whereas tight junctions were facing extracellular space or blebs of oligodendrocytic plasma membrane. Thin sections of cultured, unattached oligodendrocytes showed rounded cell bodies touching one another at points without forming specialized cell junctions. Cells plated on polylysine-coated aclar dishes attached, emanated numerous, pleomorphic processes, and expressed galactocerebroside and myelin basic protein, characteristic markers for oligodendrocytes. Thin sections showed typical oligodendrocyte ultrastructure but also intermediate filaments not present in unattached cultures. Freeze-fracture showed intramembrane particles similar to but more numerous, and with a different fracture face repartition, than those seen in oligodendrocytes, freshly isolated or in situ. Gap junctions were small and rare. Apposed oligodendrocyte plasma membrane formed linear tight junctions which became more numerous with time in culture. Thus, cultured oligodendrocytes isolated from ovine brains develop and maintain features characteristic of mature oligodendrocytes in situ and can be used to explore formation and maintenance of tight junctions and possibly other classes of cell-cell interactions important in the process of myelination.
Merwin, J R; Anderson, J M; Kocher, O; Van Itallie, C M; Madri, J A
1990-01-01
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is angiogenic in vivo. In two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems microvascular endothelial cell proliferation is inhibited up to 80% by TGF-beta 1; however, in three-dimensional (3-D) collagen gels TGF-beta 1 is found to have no effect on proliferation while eliciting the formation of calcium and magnesium dependent tube-like structures mimicking angiogenesis. DNA analyses performed on 3-D cell cultures reveal no significant difference in the amount of DNA or cell number in control versus TGF-beta 1 treated cultures. In 2-D cultures TGF-beta 1 is known to increase cellular fibronectin accumulation; however, in 3-D cultures no difference is seen between control and TGF-beta 1 treated cells as established by ELISA testing for type IV collagen, fibronectin, and laminin. In 3-D cultures there is increased synthesis and secretion of type V collagen in both control and TGF-beta 1 treated cultures over 2-D cultures. Even though an equal amount of type V collagen is seen in both 3-D conditions, there is a reorganization of the protein with concentration along an organizing basal lamina in TGF-beta 1 treated cultures. EM morphological analyses on 3-D cultures illustrate quiescent, control cells lacking cell contacts. In contrast, TGF-beta 1 treated cells show increased pseudopod formation, cell-cell contact, and organized basal lamina-like material closely apposed to the "abluminal" plasma membranes. TGF-beta 1 treated cells also appear to form junctional complexes between adjoining cells. Immunofluorescence using specific antibodies to the tight junction protein ZO-1 results in staining at apparent cell-cell junctions in the 3-D cultures. Northern blots of freshly isolated microvascular endothelium, 2-D and 3-D cultures, using cDNA and cRNA probes specific for the ZO-1 tight junction protein, reveal the presence of the 7.8 kb mRNA. Western blots of rat epididymal fat pad endothelial cells (RFC) monolayer lysates probed with
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Virgilio G Ponferrada
Full Text Available In multicellular organisms, morphogenesis is a highly coordinated process that requires dynamically regulated adhesion between cells. An excellent example of cellular morphogenesis is the formation of the neural tube from the flattened epithelium of the neural plate. Cysteine-rich motor neuron protein 1 (CRIM1 is a single-pass (type 1 transmembrane protein that is expressed in neural structures beginning at the neural plate stage. In the frog Xenopus laevis, loss of function studies using CRIM1 antisense morpholino oligonucleotides resulted in a failure of neural development. The CRIM1 knockdown phenotype was, in some cases, mild and resulted in perturbed neural fold morphogenesis. In severely affected embryos there was a dramatic failure of cell adhesion in the neural plate and complete absence of neural structures subsequently. Investigation of the mechanism of CRIM1 function revealed that it can form complexes with ß-catenin and cadherins, albeit indirectly, via the cytosolic domain. Consistent with this, CRIM1 knockdown resulted in diminished levels of cadherins and ß-catenin in junctional complexes in the neural plate. We conclude that CRIM1 is critical for cell-cell adhesion during neural development because it is required for the function of cadherin-dependent junctions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillaume Golovkine
2016-01-01
Full Text Available To achieve systemic infection, bacterial pathogens must overcome the critical and challenging step of transmigration across epithelial barriers. This is particularly true for opportunistic pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an agent which causes nosocomial infections. Despite extensive study, details on the mechanisms used by this bacterium to transmigrate across epithelial tissues, as well as the entry sites it uses, remain speculative. Here, using real-time microscopy and a model epithelial barrier, we show that P. aeruginosa employs a paracellular transmigration route, taking advantage of altered cell-cell junctions at sites of cell division or when senescent cells are expelled from the cell layer. Once a bacterium transmigrates, it is followed by a cohort of bacteria using the same entry point. The basal compartment is then invaded radially from the initial penetration site. Effective transmigration and propagation require type 4 pili, the type 3 secretion system (T3SS and a flagellum, although flagellum-deficient bacteria can occasionally invade the basal compartment from wounded areas. In the basal compartment, the bacteria inject the T3SS toxins into host cells, disrupting the cytoskeleton and focal contacts to allow their progression under the cells. Thus, P. aeruginosa exploits intrinsic host cell processes to breach the epithelium and invade the subcellular compartment.
Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik
2013-01-01
Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031
Useinov, Arthur; Lin, Hsiu-Hau; Lai, Chih-Huang
2017-08-21
The problem of the ballistic electron tunneling is considered in magnetic tunnel junction with embedded non-magnetic nanoparticles (NP-MTJ), which creates additional conducting middle layer. The strong temperature impact was found in the system with averaged NP diameter d av tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) voltage behaviors. The low temperature approach also predicts step-like TMR and quantized in-plane spin transfer torque (STT) effects. The robust asymmetric STT respond is found due to voltage sign inversion in NP-MTJs with barrier asymmetry. Furthermore, it is shown how size distribution of NPs as well as quantization rules modify the spin-current filtering properties of the nanoparticles in ballistic regime. Different quantization rules for the transverse component of the wave vector are considered to overpass the dimensional threshold (d av ≈ 1.8 nm) between quantum well and bulk-assisted states of the middle layer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramond, P.
1993-01-01
The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures
Secret handshakes: cell-cell interactions and cellular mimics.
Cohen, Daniel J; Nelson, W James
2018-02-01
Cell-cell junctions, acting as 'secret handshakes', mediate cell-cell interactions and make multicellularity possible. Work over the previous century illuminated key players comprising these junctions including the cadherin superfamily, nectins, CAMs, connexins, notch/delta, lectins, and eph/Ephrins. Recent work has focused on elucidating how interactions between these complex and often contradictory cues can ultimately give rise to large-scale organization in tissues. This effort, in turn, has enabled bioengineering advances such as cell-mimetic interfaces that allow us to better probe junction biology and to develop new biomaterials. This review details exciting, recent developments in these areas as well as providing both historical context and a discussion of some topical challenges and opportunities for the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dynamics of Josephson junction arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadley, P.
1989-01-01
The dynamics of Josephson junction arrays is a topic that lies at the intersection of the fields of nonlinear dynamics and Josephson junction technology. The series arrays considered here consist of several rapidly oscillating Josephson junctions where each junction is coupled equally to every other junction. The purpose of this study is to understand phaselocking and other cooperative dynamics of this system. Previously, little was known about high dimensional nonlinear systems of this sort. Numerical simulations are used to study the dynamics of these arrays. Three distinct types of periodic solutions to the array equations were observed as well as period doubled and chaotic solutions. One of the periodic solutions is the symmetric, in-phase solution where all of the junctions oscillate identically. The other two periodic solutions are symmetry-broken solutions where all of the junction do not oscillate identically. The symmetry-broken solutions are highly degenerate. As many as (N - 1) stable solutions can coexist for an array of N junctions. Understanding the stability of these several solutions and the transitions among them is vital to the design of useful devices
Conformally symmetric traversable wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boehmer, Christian G.; Harko, Tiberiu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.
2007-01-01
Exact solutions of traversable wormholes are found under the assumption of spherical symmetry and the existence of a nonstatic conformal symmetry, which presents a more systematic approach in searching for exact wormhole solutions. In this work, a wide variety of solutions are deduced by considering choices for the form function, a specific linear equation of state relating the energy density and the pressure anisotropy, and various phantom wormhole geometries are explored. A large class of solutions impose that the spatial distribution of the exotic matter is restricted to the throat neighborhood, with a cutoff of the stress-energy tensor at a finite junction interface, although asymptotically flat exact solutions are also found. Using the 'volume integral quantifier', it is found that the conformally symmetric phantom wormhole geometries may, in principle, be constructed by infinitesimally small amounts of averaged null energy condition violating matter. Considering the tidal acceleration traversability conditions for the phantom wormhole geometry, specific wormhole dimensions and the traversal velocity are also deduced
Olafsson, Gestur; Helgason, Sigurdur
1996-01-01
This book is intended to introduce researchers and graduate students to the concepts of causal symmetric spaces. To date, results of recent studies considered standard by specialists have not been widely published. This book seeks to bring this information to students and researchers in geometry and analysis on causal symmetric spaces.Includes the newest results in harmonic analysis including Spherical functions on ordered symmetric space and the holmorphic discrete series and Hardy spaces on compactly casual symmetric spacesDeals with the infinitesimal situation, coverings of symmetric spaces, classification of causal symmetric pairs and invariant cone fieldsPresents basic geometric properties of semi-simple symmetric spacesIncludes appendices on Lie algebras and Lie groups, Bounded symmetric domains (Cayley transforms), Antiholomorphic Involutions on Bounded Domains and Para-Hermitian Symmetric Spaces
Gap junction protein connexin-43 interacts directly with microtubules
Giepmans, B N; Verlaan, I; Hengeveld, T; Janssen, H; Calafat, J; Falk, M M; Moolenaar, W H
2001-01-01
Gap junctions are specialized cell-cell junctions that mediate intercellular communication. They are composed of connexin proteins, which form transmembrane channels for small molecules [1, 2]. The C-terminal tail of connexin-43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed connexin member, has been implicated
Epithelial cell-cell junctions and plasma membrane domains
Giepmans, Ben N. G.; van Ijzendoorn, Sven C. D.
Epithelial cells form a barrier against the environment, but are also required for the regulated exchange of molecules between an organism and its surroundings. Epithelial cells are characterised by a remarkable polarization of their plasma membrane, evidenced by the appearance of structurally,
Jiang, Haiyong
2016-04-11
We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.
Symmetrization of Facade Layouts
Jiang, Haiyong; Yan, Dong-Ming; Dong, Weiming; Wu, Fuzhang; Nan, Liangliang; Zhang, Xiaopeng
2016-01-01
We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.
Jiang, Haiyong; Dong, Weiming; Yan, Dongming; Zhang, Xiaopeng
2016-01-01
We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.
Symmetrization of Facade Layouts
Jiang, Haiyong
2016-02-26
We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.
Cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell adhesion are linked by syndecan-4
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pakideeri Karat, Sandeep Gopal; Multhaupt, Hinke A B; Pocock, Roger
2017-01-01
Cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell junctions that employ microfilaments are sites of tension. They are important for tissue repair, morphogenetic movements and can be emblematic of matrix contraction in fibrotic disease and the stroma of solid tumors. One cell surface receptor, syndecan...... calcium. While it is known that cell-ECM and cell-cell junctions may be linked, possible roles for syndecans in this process are not understood. Here we show that wild type primary fibroblasts and those lacking syndecan-4 utilize different cadherins in their adherens junctions and that tension is a major...... factor in this differential response. This corresponds to the reduced ability of fibroblasts lacking syndecan-4 to exert tension on the ECM and we now show that this may extend to reduced tension in cell-cell adhesion....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alpha S. Yap
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Advances in cell and developmental biology have often been closely linked to advances in our ability to visualize structure and function at many length and time scales. In this review, we discuss how new imaging technologies and new reagents have provided novel insights into the biology of cadherin-based cell-cell junctions. We focus on three developments: the application of super-resolution optical technologies to characterize the nanoscale organization of cadherins at cell-cell contacts, new approaches to interrogate the mechanical forces that act upon junctions, and advances in electron microscopy which have the potential to transform our understanding of cell-cell junctions.
The anatomical locus of T-junction processing.
Schirillo, James A
2009-07-01
Inhomogeneous surrounds can produce either asymmetrical or symmetrical increment/decrement induction by orienting T-junctions to selectively group a test patch with surrounding regions [Melfi, T., & Schirillo, J. (2000). T-junctions in inhomogeneous surrounds. Vision Research, 40, 3735-3741]. The current experiments aimed to determine where T-junctions are processed by presenting each eye with a different image so that T-junctions exist only in the fused percept. Only minor differences were found between retinal and cortical versus cortical-only conditions, indicating that T-junctions are processed cortically.
Shot noise in YBCO bicrystal Josephson junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.
2003-01-01
We measured spectral noise density in YBCO symmetric bicrystal Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates at bias voltages up to 100 mV and T 4.2 K. Normal state resistance of the Josephson junctions, R-N = 20-90 Omega and ICRN up to 2.2 mV have been observed in the experimental samples. Noise...... may explain the experimentally measured linewidth broadening of Josephson oscillations at mm and submm wave frequencies in high-Tc superconducting junctions. Experimental results are discussed in terms of bound states existing at surfaces of d-wave superconducting electrodes....
Golden, Ryan; Cho, Ilwoo
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study structure theorems of algebras of symmetric functions. Based on a certain relation on elementary symmetric polynomials generating such algebras, we consider perturbation in the algebras. In particular, we understand generators of the algebras as perturbations. From such perturbations, define injective maps on generators, which induce algebra-monomorphisms (or embeddings) on the algebras. They provide inductive structure theorems on algebras of symmetric polynomials. As...
Symmetric cryptographic protocols
Ramkumar, Mahalingam
2014-01-01
This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees. • Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols • Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks • Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases
Centrioles in Symmetric Spaces
Quast, Peter
2011-01-01
We describe all centrioles in irreducible simply connected pointed symmetric spaces of compact type in terms of the root system of the ambient space, and we study some geometric properties of centrioles.
A symmetrical rail accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igenbergs, E.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuki, Takayuki
1976-01-01
Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)
Regulation of connexin43 gap junctional communication by phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate
van Zeijl, Leonie; Ponsioen, Bas; Giepmans, Ben N G; Ariaens, Aafke; Postma, Friso R; Várnai, Péter; Balla, Tamas; Divecha, Nullin; Jalink, Kees; Moolenaar, Wouter H
2007-01-01
Cell-cell communication through connexin43 (Cx43)-based gap junction channels is rapidly inhibited upon activation of various G protein coupled receptors; however, the mechanism is unknown. We show that Cx43-based cell-cell communication is inhibited by depletion of phosphatidylinositol
Multiparty symmetric sum types
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei
2010-01-01
This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...
Counting with symmetric functions
Mendes, Anthony
2015-01-01
This monograph provides a self-contained introduction to symmetric functions and their use in enumerative combinatorics. It is the first book to explore many of the methods and results that the authors present. Numerous exercises are included throughout, along with full solutions, to illustrate concepts and also highlight many interesting mathematical ideas. The text begins by introducing fundamental combinatorial objects such as permutations and integer partitions, as well as generating functions. Symmetric functions are considered in the next chapter, with a unique emphasis on the combinatorics of the transition matrices between bases of symmetric functions. Chapter 3 uses this introductory material to describe how to find an assortment of generating functions for permutation statistics, and then these techniques are extended to find generating functions for a variety of objects in Chapter 4. The next two chapters present the Robinson-Schensted-Knuth algorithm and a method for proving Pólya’s enu...
Symmetric Tensor Decomposition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard
2010-01-01
We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables...... of polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation...... of the decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....
Distributed Searchable Symmetric Encryption
Bösch, C.T.; Peter, Andreas; Leenders, Bram; Lim, Hoon Wei; Tang, Qiang; Wang, Huaxiong; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem
Searchable Symmetric Encryption (SSE) allows a client to store encrypted data on a storage provider in such a way, that the client is able to search and retrieve the data selectively without the storage provider learning the contents of the data or the words being searched for. Practical SSE schemes
Chen, Yan; Feng, Huijuan; Ma, Jiayao; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong
2016-06-01
The traditional waterbomb origami, produced from a pattern consisting of a series of vertices where six creases meet, is one of the most widely used origami patterns. From a rigid origami viewpoint, it generally has multiple degrees of freedom, but when the pattern is folded symmetrically, the mobility reduces to one. This paper presents a thorough kinematic investigation on symmetric folding of the waterbomb pattern. It has been found that the pattern can have two folding paths under certain circumstance. Moreover, the pattern can be used to fold thick panels. Not only do the additional constraints imposed to fold the thick panels lead to single degree of freedom folding, but the folding process is also kinematically equivalent to the origami of zero-thickness sheets. The findings pave the way for the pattern being readily used to fold deployable structures ranging from flat roofs to large solar panels.
Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.
1984-01-01
A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.
Symmetric vectors and algebraic classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leibowitz, E.
1980-01-01
The concept of symmetric vector field in Riemannian manifolds, which arises in the study of relativistic cosmological models, is analyzed. Symmetric vectors are tied up with the algebraic properties of the manifold curvature. A procedure for generating a congruence of symmetric fields out of a given pair is outlined. The case of a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature (''isotropic universe'') is studied in detail, with all its symmetric vector fields being explicitly constructed
Representations of locally symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1995-09-01
Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs
Joint diseases: from connexins to gap junctions.
Donahue, Henry J; Qu, Roy W; Genetos, Damian C
2017-12-19
Connexons form the basis of hemichannels and gap junctions. They are composed of six tetraspan proteins called connexins. Connexons can function as individual hemichannels, releasing cytosolic factors (such as ATP) into the pericellular environment. Alternatively, two hemichannel connexons from neighbouring cells can come together to form gap junctions, membrane-spanning channels that facilitate cell-cell communication by enabling signalling molecules of approximately 1 kDa to pass from one cell to an adjacent cell. Connexins are expressed in joint tissues including bone, cartilage, skeletal muscle and the synovium. Indicative of their importance as gap junction components, connexins are also known as gap junction proteins, but individual connexin proteins are gaining recognition for their channel-independent roles, which include scaffolding and signalling functions. Considerable evidence indicates that connexons contribute to the function of bone and muscle, but less is known about the function of connexons in other joint tissues. However, the implication that connexins and gap junctional channels might be involved in joint disease, including age-related bone loss, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, emphasizes the need for further research into these areas and highlights the therapeutic potential of connexins.
Giepmans, B N; Moolenaar, W H
1998-01-01
Gap junctions mediate cell-cell communication in almost all tissues and are composed of channel-forming integral membrane proteins, termed connexins [1-3]. Connexin43 (Cx43) is the most widely expressed and the most well-studied member of this family. Cx43-based cell-cell communication is regulated
Rac1 acts in conjunction with Nedd4 and dishevelled-1 to promote maturation of cell-cell contacts
M. Nethe (Micha); B.J. de Kreuk (Bart-Jan); D.V.F. Tauriello (Daniele); E.C. Anthony (Eloise); B. Snoek (Barbara); T. Stumpel (Thomas); M. Salinas; K. Maurice (Karelle); D. Geerts (Dirk); A.M. Deelder (André); P. Hensbergen (Paul); P.L. Hordijk (Peter )
2012-01-01
textabstractThe Rho-GTPase Rac1 promotes actin polymerization and membrane protrusion that mediate initial contact and subsequent maturation of cell-cell junctions. Here we report that Rac1 associates with the ubiquitin-protein ligase neural precursor cell expressed developmentally down-regulated 4
Molecular electronic junction transport
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark
2012-01-01
Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...
Holographic Spherically Symmetric Metrics
Petri, Michael
The holographic principle (HP) conjectures, that the maximum number of degrees of freedom of any realistic physical system is proportional to the system's boundary area. The HP has its roots in the study of black holes. It has recently been applied to cosmological solutions. In this article we apply the HP to spherically symmetric static space-times. We find that any regular spherically symmetric object saturating the HP is subject to tight constraints on the (interior) metric, energy-density, temperature and entropy-density. Whenever gravity can be described by a metric theory, gravity is macroscopically scale invariant and the laws of thermodynamics hold locally and globally, the (interior) metric of a regular holographic object is uniquely determined up to a constant factor and the interior matter-state must follow well defined scaling relations. When the metric theory of gravity is general relativity, the interior matter has an overall string equation of state (EOS) and a unique total energy-density. Thus the holographic metric derived in this article can serve as simple interior 4D realization of Mathur's string fuzzball proposal. Some properties of the holographic metric and its possible experimental verification are discussed. The geodesics of the holographic metric describe an isotropically expanding (or contracting) universe with a nearly homogeneous matter-distribution within the local Hubble volume. Due to the overall string EOS the active gravitational mass-density is zero, resulting in a coasting expansion with Ht = 1, which is compatible with the recent GRB-data.
Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weides, M.P.
2006-01-01
Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or π coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, π) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-π Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-π junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 . Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T → 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)
Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weides, M.P.
2006-07-01
Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)
Symmetric extendibility of quantum states
Nowakowski, Marcin L.
2015-01-01
Studies on symmetric extendibility of quantum states become especially important in a context of analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, distilabillity and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyse composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part with a particular attention devoted to one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of quantum state. We underpin those results with geome...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burtraw, Dallas; Palmer, Karen; Kahn, Danny
2010-01-01
How to set policy in the presence of uncertainty has been central in debates over climate policy. Concern about costs has motivated the proposal for a cap-and-trade program for carbon dioxide, with a 'safety valve' that would mitigate against spikes in the cost of emission reductions by introducing additional emission allowances into the market when marginal costs rise above the specified allowance price level. We find two significant problems, both stemming from the asymmetry of an instrument that mitigates only against a price increase. One is that most important examples of price volatility in cap-and-trade programs have occurred not when prices spiked, but instead when allowance prices collapsed. Second, a single-sided safety valve may have unintended consequences for investment. We illustrate that a symmetric safety valve provides environmental and welfare improvements relative to the conventional one-sided approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giuseppe Dattoli
1996-05-01
Full Text Available q analog of bessel functions, symmetric under the interchange of q and q^ −1 are introduced. The definition is based on the generating function realized as product of symmetric q-exponential functions with appropriate arguments. Symmetric q-Bessel function are shown to satisfy various identities as well as second-order q-differential equations, which in the limit q → 1 reproduce those obeyed by the usual cylindrical Bessel functions. A brief discussion on the possible algebraic setting for symmetric q-Bessel functions is also provided.
Junction and circuit fabrication
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackel, L.D.
1980-01-01
Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)
Chlorpromazine reduces the intercellular communication via gap junctions in mammalian cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orellana, Juan A.; Palacios-Prado, Nicolas; Saez, Juan C.
2006-01-01
In the work presented herein, we evaluated the effect of chlorpromazine (CPZ) on gap junctions expressed by two mammalian cell types; Gn-11 cells (cell line derived from mouse LHRH neurons) and rat cortical astrocytes maintained in culture. We also attempted to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of CPZ effects on gap junctions. CPZ, in concentrations comparable with doses used to treat human diseases, was found to reduce the intercellular communication via gap junctions as evaluated with measurements of dye coupling (Lucifer yellow). In both cell types, maximal inhibition of functional gap junctions was reached within about 1 h of treatment with CPZ, an recovery was almost complete at about 5 h after CPZ wash out. In both cell types, CPZ treatment increased the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein subunit. Moreover, CPZ reduced the reactivity of Cx43 (immunofluorescence) at cell interfaces and concomitantly increased its reactivity in intracellular vesicles, suggesting an increased retrieval from and/or reduced insertion into the plasma membrane. CPZ also caused cellular retraction reducing cell-cell contacts in a reversible manner. The reduction in contact area might destabilize existing gap junctions and abrogate formation of new ones. Moreover, the CPZ-induced reduction in gap junctional communication may depend on the connexins (Cxs) forming the junctions. If Cx43 were the only connexin expressed, MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of this connexin would induce closure of gap junction channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.
1985-01-01
In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)
Equivalent Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyadzhiev, T.L.; ); Semerdzhieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Dushanbe
2008-01-01
The magnetic field dependences of critical current are numerically constructed for a long Josephson junction with a shunt- or resistor-type microscopic inhomogeneities and compared to the critical curve of a junction with exponentially varying width. The numerical results show that it is possible to replace the distributed inhomogeneity of a long Josephson junction by an inhomogeneity localized at one of its ends, which has certain technological advantages. It is also shown that the critical curves of junctions with exponentially varying width and inhomogeneities localized at the ends are unaffected by the mixed fluxon-antifluxon distributions of the magnetic flux [ru
Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
1982-01-01
A detailed numerical study of a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson tunnel junction is compared with experimental measurements on junctions with different L / λJ ratios. The soliton picture is found to apply well on both relatively long (L / λJ=6) and intermediate (L / λJ=2) junctions. We find good...... agreement for the current-voltage characteristics, power output, and for the shape and height of the zero-field steps (ZFS). Two distinct modes of soliton oscillations are observed: (i) a bunched or congealed mode giving rise to the fundamental frequency f1 on all ZFS's and (ii) a "symmetric" mode which...... on the Nth ZFS yields the frequency Nf1 Coexistence of two adjacent frequencies is found on the third ZFS of the longer junction (L / λJ=6) in a narrow range of bias current as also found in the experiments. Small asymmetries in the experimental environment, a weak magnetic field, e.g., is introduced via...
Droplet Traffic Control at a simple T junction
Panizza, Pascal; Engl, Wilfried; Colin, Annie; Ajdari, Armand
2006-03-01
A basic yet essential element of every traffic flow control is the effect of a junction where the flow is separated into several streams. How do pedestrians, vehicles or blood cells divide when they reach a junction? How does the outcome depend on their density? Similar fundamental questions hold for much simpler systems: in this paper, we have studied the behaviour of periodic trains of water droplets flowing in oil through a channel as they reach a simple, locally symmetric, T junction. Depending on their dilution, we observe that the droplets are either alternately partitioned between both outlets or sorted exclusively into the shortest one. We show that this surprising behaviour results from the hydrodynamic feed-back of drops in the two outlets on the selection process occurring at the junction. Our results offer a first guide for the design and modelling of droplet traffic in complex branched networks, a necessary step towards parallelized droplet-based ``lab-on-chip'' devices.
Supramolecular tunneling junctions
Wimbush, K.S.
2012-01-01
In this study a variety of supramolecular tunneling junctions were created. The basis of these junctions was a self-assembled monolayer of heptathioether functionalized ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) formed on an ultra-flat Au surface, i.e., the bottom electrode. This gave a well-defined hexagonally packed
Mesotherapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis.
Hasegawa, Toshio; Matsukura, Tomoyuki; Ikeda, Shigaku
2010-04-01
Benign symmetric lipomatosis, also known as Madelung disease, is a rare disorder characterized by fat distribution around the shoulders, arms, and neck in the context of chronic alcoholism. Complete excision of nonencapsulated lipomas is difficult. However, reports describing conservative therapeutic measures for lipomatosis are rare. The authors present the case of a 42-year-old man with a diagnosis of benign symmetric lipomatosis who had multiple, large, symmetrical masses in his neck. Multiple phosphatidylcholine injections in the neck were administered 4 weeks apart, a total of seven times to achieve lipolysis. The patient's lipomatosis improved in response to the injections, and he achieved good cosmetic results. Intralesional injection, termed mesotherapy, using phosphatidylcholine is a potentially effective therapy for benign symmetric lipomatosis that should be reconsidered as a therapeutic option for this disease.
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano
2010-01-01
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell e...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Du, Dan; Pedersen, Esben; Wang, Zhipeng
2008-01-01
Cell-cell contacts are crucial for the integrity of all tissues. Contrasting reports have been published about the role of Cdc42 in epithelial cell-cell contacts in vitro. In keratinocytes, it was suggested that Rac1 and not Cdc42 is crucial for the formation of mature epithelial junctions, based...... on dominant negative inhibition experiments. Deletion of the Cdc42 gene in keratinocytes in vivo slowly impaired the maintenance of cell-cell contacts by an increased degradation of beta-catenin. Whether Cdc42 is required for the formation of mature junctions was not tested. We show now that Cdc42-deficient...... immortalized and primary keratinocytes form only punctate primordial cell contacts in vitro, which cannot mature into belt-like junctions. This defect was independent of enhanced degradation of beta-catenin, but correlated to an impaired activation and localization of aPKCzeta in the Cdc42-null keratinocytes...
Harmonic analysis on symmetric spaces
Terras, Audrey
This text explores the geometry and analysis of higher rank analogues of the symmetric spaces introduced in volume one. To illuminate both the parallels and differences of the higher rank theory, the space of positive matrices is treated in a manner mirroring that of the upper-half space in volume one. This concrete example furnishes motivation for the general theory of noncompact symmetric spaces, which is outlined in the final chapter. The book emphasizes motivation and comprehensibility, concrete examples and explicit computations (by pen and paper, and by computer), history, and, above all, applications in mathematics, statistics, physics, and engineering. The second edition includes new sections on Donald St. P. Richards’s central limit theorem for O(n)-invariant random variables on the symmetric space of GL(n, R), on random matrix theory, and on advances in the theory of automorphic forms on arithmetic groups.
Primary Tunnel Junction Thermometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias
2008-01-01
We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future
Tang, Jiang
2012-09-12
Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano
2010-01-01
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.
Symmetric normalisation for intuitionistic logic
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guenot, Nicolas; Straßburger, Lutz
2014-01-01
We present two proof systems for implication-only intuitionistic logic in the calculus of structures. The first is a direct adaptation of the standard sequent calculus to the deep inference setting, and we describe a procedure for cut elimination, similar to the one from the sequent calculus......, but using a non-local rewriting. The second system is the symmetric completion of the first, as normally given in deep inference for logics with a DeMorgan duality: all inference rules have duals, as cut is dual to the identity axiom. We prove a generalisation of cut elimination, that we call symmetric...
Diagrams for symmetric product orbifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pakman, Ari; Rastelli, Leonardo; Razamat, Shlomo S.
2009-01-01
We develop a diagrammatic language for symmetric product orbifolds of two-dimensional conformal field theories. Correlation functions of twist operators are written as sums of diagrams: each diagram corresponds to a branched covering map from a surface where the fields are single-valued to the base sphere where twist operators are inserted. This diagrammatic language facilitates the study of the large N limit and makes more transparent the analogy between symmetric product orbifolds and free non-abelian gauge theories. We give a general algorithm to calculate the leading large N contribution to four-point correlators of twist fields.
Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas [Group of Applied Physics, University of Geneva, 20 rue de l' Ecole-de Medecine, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Pironio, Stefano, E-mail: jean-daniel.bancal@unige.c [Laboratoire d' Information Quantique, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium)
2010-09-24
Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.
Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution
Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.
2004-08-01
We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.
Symmetric relations of finite negativity
Kaltenbaeck, M.; Winkler, H.; Woracek, H.; Forster, KH; Jonas, P; Langer, H
2006-01-01
We construct and investigate a space which is related to a symmetric linear relation S of finite negativity on an almost Pontryagin space. This space is the indefinite generalization of the completion of dom S with respect to (S.,.) for a strictly positive S on a Hilbert space.
Tilting-connected symmetric algebras
Aihara, Takuma
2010-01-01
The notion of silting mutation was introduced by Iyama and the author. In this paper we mainly study silting mutation for self-injective algebras and prove that any representation-finite symmetric algebra is tilting-connected. Moreover we give some sufficient conditions for a Bongartz-type Lemma to hold for silting objects.
Symmetric group representations and Z
Adve, Anshul; Yong, Alexander
2017-01-01
We discuss implications of the following statement about the representation theory of symmetric groups: every integer appears infinitely often as an irreducible character evaluation, and every nonnegative integer appears infinitely often as a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient and as a Kronecker coefficient.
Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited
Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.
2004-01-01
Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area
Quantum systems and symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Olshanetsky, M.A.; Perelomov, A.M.
1978-01-01
Certain class of quantum systems with Hamiltonians related to invariant operators on symmetric spaces has been investigated. A number of physical facts have been derived as a consequence. In the classical limit completely integrable systems related to root systems are obtained
The symmetric longest queue system
van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Adan, Ivo; van der Wal, Jan
1997-01-01
We derive the performance of the exponential symmetric longest queue system from two variants: a longest queue system with Threshold Rejection of jobs and one with Threshold Addition of jobs. It is shown that these two systems provide lower and upper bounds for the performance of the longest queue
Symmetric imaging findings in neuroradiology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zlatareva, D.
2015-01-01
Full text: Learning objectives: to make a list of diseases and syndromes which manifest as bilateral symmetric findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; to discuss the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis for these diseases; to explain which of these conditions necessitates urgent therapy and when additional studies and laboratory can precise diagnosis. There is symmetry in human body and quite often we compare the affected side to the normal one but in neuroradiology we might have bilateral findings which affected pair structures or corresponding anatomic areas. It is very rare when clinical data prompt diagnosis. Usually clinicians suspect such an involvement but Ct and MRI can reveal symmetric changes and are one of the leading diagnostic tool. The most common location of bilateral findings is basal ganglia and thalamus. There are a number of diseases affecting these structures symmetrically: metabolic and systemic diseases, intoxication, neurodegeneration and vascular conditions, toxoplasmosis, tumors and some infections. Malformations of cortical development and especially bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria requires not only exact report on the most affected parts but in some cases genetic tests or combination with other clinical symptoms. In the case of herpes simplex encephalitis bilateral temporal involvement is common and this finding very often prompt therapy even before laboratory results. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PReS) and some forms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to symmetric changes. In these acute conditions MR plays a crucial role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring of the therapeutic effect. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 can demonstrate bilateral optic glioma combined with spinal neurofibroma and bilateral acoustic schwanoma respectively. Mirror-image aneurysm affecting both internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries is an example of symmetry in
Intracellular trafficking pathways of Cx43 gap junction channels.
Epifantseva, Irina; Shaw, Robin M
2018-01-01
Gap Junction (GJ) channels, including the most common Connexin 43 (Cx43), have fundamental roles in excitable tissues by facilitating rapid transmission of action potentials between adjacent cells. For instance, synchronization during each heartbeat is regulated by these ion channels at the cardiomyocyte cell-cell border. Cx43 protein has a short half-life, and rapid synthesis and timely delivery of those proteins to particular subdomains are crucial for the cellular organization of gap junctions and maintenance of intracellular coupling. Impairment in gap junction trafficking contributes to dangerous complications in diseased hearts such as the arrhythmias of sudden cardiac death. Of recent interest are the protein-protein interactions with the Cx43 carboxy-terminus. These interactions have significant impact on the full length Cx43 lifecycle and also contribute to trafficking of Cx43 as well as possibly other functions. We are learning that many of the known non-canonical roles of Cx43 can be attributed to the recently identified six endogenous Cx43 truncated isoforms which are produced by internal translation. In general, alternative translation is a new leading edge for proteome expansion and therapeutic drug development. This review highlights recent mechanisms identified in the trafficking of gap junction channels, involvement of other proteins contributing to the delivery of channels to the cell-cell border, and understanding of possible roles of the newly discovered alternatively translated isoforms in Cx43 biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Gap Junction Proteins edited by Jean Claude Herve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moreno, Vanessa; Gonzalo, Pilar; Gómez-Escudero, Jesús; Pollán, Ángela; Acín-Pérez, Rebeca; Breckenridge, Mark; Yáñez-Mó, María; Barreiro, Olga; Orsenigo, Fabrizio; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Chen, Christopher S; Enríquez, José A; Dejana, Elisabetta; Sánchez-Madrid, Francisco; Arroyo, Alicia G
2014-09-01
Cell-cell adhesions are important sites through which cells experience and resist forces. In endothelial cells, these forces regulate junction dynamics and determine endothelial barrier strength. We identify the Ig superfamily member EMMPRIN (also known as basigin) as a coordinator of forces at endothelial junctions. EMMPRIN localization at junctions correlates with endothelial junction strength in different mouse vascular beds. Accordingly, EMMPRIN-deficient mice show altered junctions and increased junction permeability. Lack of EMMPRIN alters the localization and function of VE-cadherin (also known as cadherin-5) by decreasing both actomyosin contractility and tugging forces at endothelial cell junctions. EMMPRIN ensures proper actomyosin-driven maturation of competent endothelial junctions by forming a molecular complex with γ-catenin (also known as junction plakoglobin) and Nm23 (also known as NME1), a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, thereby locally providing ATP to fuel the actomyosin machinery. These results provide a novel mechanism for the regulation of actomyosin contractility at endothelial junctions and might have broader implications in biological contexts such as angiogenesis, collective migration and tissue morphogenesis by coupling compartmentalized energy production to junction assembly. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brasen, Jens Christian; Jacobsen, Jens Christian Brings; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik
2012-01-01
Micro-anatomical structures in tissues have potential physiological effects. In arteries and arterioles smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells are separated by the internal elastic lamina, but the two cell layers often make contact through micro protrusions called myoendothelial junctions. Cross...... types and the myoendothelial junction. The model is implemented as a 2D axi-symmetrical model and solved using the finite element method. We have simulated diffusion of Ca(2+) and IP(3) between the two cell types and we show that the micro-anatomical structure of the myoendothelial junction in itself...
Elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junctions in an external magnetic field: the statics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monaco, Roberto; Granata, Carmine; Vettoliere, Antonio
2015-01-01
We have investigated the static properties of one-dimensional planar Josephson tunnel junctions (JTJs) in the most general case of elliptic annuli. We have analyzed the dependence of the critical current in the presence of an external magnetic field applied either in the junction plane...... symmetric electrodes a transverse magnetic field is equivalent to an in-plane field applied in the direction of the current flow. Varying the ellipse eccentricity we reproduce all known results for linear and ring-shaped JTJs. Experimental data on high-quality Nb/Al-AlOx/Nb elliptic annular junctions...
Four-junction superconducting circuit
Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.
2016-01-01
We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619
Tunable Nitride Josephson Junctions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Rupert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfley, Steven L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolak, Matthaeus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-12-01
We have developed an ambient temperature, SiO_{2}/Si wafer - scale process for Josephson junctions based on Nb electrodes and Ta x N barriers with tunable electronic properties. The films are fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The electronic properties of the Ta_{x}N barriers are controlled by adjusting the nitrogen flow during sputtering. This technology offers a scalable alternative to the more traditional junctions based on AlO_{x} barriers for low - power, high - performance computing.
Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics
Zhao, Han
2018-01-17
The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.
Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.
1998-08-01
In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)
Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.
Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing
2017-09-29
Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.
Hatakeyama, S; Yaegashi, T; Oikawa, Y; Fujiwara, H; Mikami, T; Takeda, Y; Satoh, M
2006-08-01
The gingival epithelium is the physiologically important interface between the bacterially colonized gingival sulcus and periodontal soft and mineralized connective tissues, requiring protection from exposure to bacteria and their products. However, of the three epithelia comprising the gingival epithelium, the junctional epithelium has much wider intercellular spaces than the sulcular epithelium and oral gingival epithelium. Hence, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cell adhesion structure in the junctional epithelium compared with the other two epithelia. Gingival epithelia excised at therapeutic flap surgery from patients with periodontitis were examined for expression of adhesion molecules by immunofluorescence. In the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but not in the junctional epithelium, desmoglein 1 and 2 in cell-cell contact sites were more abundant in the upper than the suprabasal layers. E-cadherin, the main transmembranous molecule of adherens junctions, was present in spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium, but was scarce in the junctional epithelium. In contrast, desmoglein 3 and P-cadherin were present in all layers of the junctional epithelium as well as the oral gingival epithelium and sulcular epithelium. Connexin 43 was clearly localized to spinous layers of the oral gingival epithelium, sulcular epithelium and parts of the junctional epithelium. Claudin-1 and occludin were expressed in the cell membranes of a few superficial layers of the oral gingival epithelium. These findings indicated that the junctional epithelium contains only a few desmosomes, composed of only desmoglein 3; adherens junctions are probably absent because of defective E-cadherin. Thus, the anchoring junctions connecting junctional epithelium cells are lax, causing widened intercellular spaces. In contrast, the oral gingival epithelium, which has a few tight junctions, functions as a barrier.
On symmetric structures of order two
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michel Bousquet
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Let (ω n 0 < n be the sequence known as Integer Sequence A047749 http://www.research.att.com/ njas/sequences/A047749 In this paper, we show that the integer ω n enumerates various kinds of symmetric structures of order two. We first consider ternary trees having a reflexive symmetry and we relate all symmetric combinatorial objects by means of bijection. We then generalize the symmetric structures and correspondences to an infinite family of symmetric objects.
Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H.
2012-01-01
-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising
Molecular mechanisms of cell-cell spread of intracellular bacterial pathogens.
Ireton, Keith
2013-07-17
Several bacterial pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri and Rickettsia spp., have evolved mechanisms to actively spread within human tissues. Spreading is initiated by the pathogen-induced recruitment of host filamentous (F)-actin. F-actin forms a tail behind the microbe, propelling it through the cytoplasm. The motile pathogen then encounters the host plasma membrane, forming a bacterium-containing protrusion that is engulfed by an adjacent cell. Over the past two decades, much progress has been made in elucidating mechanisms of F-actin tail formation. Listeria and Shigella produce tails of branched actin filaments by subverting the host Arp2/3 complex. By contrast, Rickettsia forms tails with linear actin filaments through a bacterial mimic of eukaryotic formins. Compared with F-actin tail formation, mechanisms controlling bacterial protrusions are less well understood. However, recent findings have highlighted the importance of pathogen manipulation of host cell-cell junctions in spread. Listeria produces a soluble protein that enhances bacterial protrusions by perturbing tight junctions. Shigella protrusions are engulfed through a clathrin-mediated pathway at 'tricellular junctions'--specialized membrane regions at the intersection of three epithelial cells. This review summarizes key past findings in pathogen spread, and focuses on recent developments in actin-based motility and the formation and internalization of bacterial protrusions.
Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stecker, F.W.
1978-01-01
It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)
Symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials
Macdonald, I G
1997-01-01
One of the most classical areas of algebra, the theory of symmetric functions and orthogonal polynomials has long been known to be connected to combinatorics, representation theory, and other branches of mathematics. Written by perhaps the most famous author on the topic, this volume explains some of the current developments regarding these connections. It is based on lectures presented by the author at Rutgers University. Specifically, he gives recent results on orthogonal polynomials associated with affine Hecke algebras, surveying the proofs of certain famous combinatorial conjectures.
Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purificação Coelho M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian Pieperhoff
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Current cell biology textbooks mention only two kinds of cell-to-cell adhering junctions coated with the cytoplasmic plaques: the desmosomes (maculae adhaerentes, anchoring intermediate-sized filaments (IFs, and the actin microfilament-anchoring adherens junctions (AJs, including both punctate (puncta adhaerentia and elongate (fasciae adhaerentes structures. In addition, however, a series of other junction types has been identified and characterized which contain desmosomal molecules but do not fit the definition of desmosomes. Of these special cell-cell junctions containing desmosomal glycoproteins or proteins we review the composite junctions (areae compositae connecting the cardiomyocytes of mature mammalian hearts and their importance in relation to human arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathies. We also emphasize the various plakophilin-2-positive plaques in AJs (coniunctiones adhaerentes connecting proliferatively active mesenchymally-derived cells, including interstitial cells of the heart and several soft tissue tumor cell types. Moreover, desmoplakin has also been recognized as a constituent of the plaques of the complexus adhaerentes connecting certain lymphatic endothelial cells. Finally, we emphasize the occurrence of the desmosomal transmembrane glycoprotein, desmoglein Dsg2, out of the context of any junction as dispersed cell surface molecules in certain types of melanoma cells and melanocytes. This broadening of our knowledge on the diversity of AJ structures indicates that it may still be too premature to close the textbook chapters on cell-cell junctions.
Josephson junctions array resonators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gargiulo, Oscar; Muppalla, Phani; Mirzaei, Iman; Kirchmair, Gerhard [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Innsbruck (Austria)
2016-07-01
We present an experimental analysis of the self- and cross-Kerr effect of extended plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains. The chain consists of 1600 individual junctions and we can measure quality factors in excess of 10000. The Kerr effect manifests itself as a frequency shift that depends linearly on the number of photons in a resonant mode. By changing the input power we are able to measure this frequency shift on a single mode (self-kerr). By changing the input power on another mode while measuring the same one, we are able to evaluate the cross-kerr effect. We can measure the cross-Kerr effect by probing the resonance frequency of one mode while exciting another mode of the array with a microwave drive.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrowolski, Tomasz
2012-01-01
The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.
Involvement of JAK2 upstream of the PI 3-kinase in cell-cell adhesion regulation by gastrin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrand, Audrey; Kowalski-Chauvel, Aline; Bertrand, Claudine; Pradayrol, Lucien; Fourmy, Daniel; Dufresne, Marlene; Seva, Catherine
2004-01-01
The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway has been implicated in cell transformation and proliferation. Besides aberrant cell proliferation, loss of cell-cell adhesion during epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important event which occurs during development of epithelial cancers. However, the role of JAK-dependent pathways in this process is not known. We analyzed the involvement of these pathways in the regulation of E-cadherin-dependent cell-cell adhesion by gastrin, a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We identified JAK2/STAT3 as a new pathway in gastrin signaling. We demonstrated that JAK2 functions as an upstream mediator of the phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI 3)-kinase activity in gastrin signaling. Indeed, we observed a coprecipitation of both kinases and an inhibition of gastrin-induced PI 3-kinase activation when JAK2 activity is blocked. We also demonstrated that loss of cell-cell adhesion and the increase in cell motility induced by gastrin required the activation of JAK2 and the PI 3-kinase. Indeed, the modifications in localization of adherens junctions proteins and the migration, observed in gastrin-stimulated cells, were reversed by inhibition of both kinases. These results described the involvement of JAK2 in the modulation of cell-cell adhesion in epithelial cells. They support a possible role of JAK2 in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition which occurs during malignant development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
York, Roger L.; Nacionales, David; Slowinski, Krzysztof
2005-01-01
The tunneling resistances of monolayers and bilayers of n-alkanethiols in macroscopic Hg-Hg junctions with an electrochemical gate are reported. The resistances near zero bias calculated per 1 hydrocarbon chain vary from (5 ± 4) x 10 12 Ω for n-nonanethiol to (4 ± 2) x 10 16 Ω for n-octadecanethiol. These values indicate that monolayers of hydrocarbons in Hg-Hg junctions are substantially more resistive as compared to measurements employing microscopic tunnel junctions. The tunneling resistances of monolayer junctions are approximately 1 order of magnitude larger than those of bilayer junctions containing the same number of atoms indicating inefficient electronic coupling across the non-bonded -CH 3 |Hg interface. The symmetric current-voltage curves observed for the asymmetric junctions of Hg-S-(CH 2 ) n -CH 3 |Hg type suggest that these junctions do not behave as molecular diodes. Additional experimental evidence for the nature of the -CH 3 |Hg interface in the Hg-S-(CH 2 ) n -CH 3 |Hg junction is also presented
Cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens for high concentration photovoltaic
Hung, Yu-Ting; Su, Guo-Dung
2009-08-01
High concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) utilizes point-focus cost-effective plastic Fresnel lens. And a millimeter-sized Ill-V compound multi-junction solar cell is placed underneath focusing optics which can achieve cell efficiency potential of up to 40.7 %. The advantage of HCPV makes less solar cell area and higher efficiency; however, the acceptance angle of HCPV is about +/-1°, which is very small and the mechanical tracking of the sun is necessary. In order to reduce the power consumption and the angle tracking error of tracking systems, a light collector model with larger acceptance angle is designed with ZEMAXÂ®. In this model, the original radially symmetric Fresnel lens of HCPV is replaced by cylindrically symmetric Fresnel lens and a parabolic reflective surface. Light is collected in two dimensions separately. And a couple of lenses and a light pipe are added before the solar cell chip in order to collect more light when sun light deviates from incident angle of 00. An acceptance angle of +/-10° is achieved with GCR 400.
Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.
2010-01-01
We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.
Ouabain Increases Gap Junctional Communication in Epithelial Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arturo Ponce
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Background/Aims: The finding that endogenous ouabain acts as a hormone prompted efforts to elucidate its physiological function. In previous studies, we have shown that 10 nM ouabain (i.e., a concentration within the physiological range modulates cell-cell contacts such as tight junctions and apical/basolateral polarity. In this study, we examined whether 10 nM ouabain affects another important cell-cell feature: gap junction communication (GJC. Methods: We employed two different approaches: 1 analysis of the cell-to-cell diffusion of neurobiotin injected into a particular MDCK cell (epithelial cells from dog kidneys in a confluent monolayer by counting the number of neighboring cells reached by the probe and 2 measurement of the electrical capacitance. Results: We found that 10 nM ouabain increase GJC by 475% within 1 hour. The Na+-K+-ATPase acts as a receptor of ouabain. In previous works we have shown that ouabain activates c-Src and ERK1/2 in 1 hour; in the present study we show that the inhibition of these proteins block the effect of ouabain on GJC. This increase in GJC does not require synthesis of new protein components, because the inhibitors cycloheximide and actinomycin D did not affect this phenomenon. Using silencing assays we also demonstrate that this ouabain-induced enhancement of GJC involves connexins 32 and 43. Conclusion: Ouabain 10 nM increases GJC in MDCK cells.
Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)
2012-09-15
We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.
Nonlinear PT-symmetric plaquettes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Günther, Uwe
2012-01-01
We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D PT-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its PTsymmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain–loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)
Relativistic fluids in spherically symmetric space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dipankar, R.
1977-12-01
Some of McVittie and Wiltshire's (1977) solutions of Walker's (1935) isotropy conditions for relativistic perfect fluid spheres are generalized. Solutions are spherically symmetric and conformally flat
The human myotendinous junction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail
2015-01-01
The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...
Tight junctions and human diseases.
Sawada, Norimasa; Murata, Masaki; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Chiba, Hideki
2003-09-01
Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical end of the lateral membrane surface. They have two functions, the barrier (or gate) function and the fence function. The barrier function of tight junctions regulates the passage of ions, water, and various macromolecules, even of cancer cells, through paracellular spaces. The barrier function is thus relevant to edema, jaundice, diarrhea, and blood-borne metastasis. On the other hand, the fence function maintains cell polarity. In other words, tight junctions work as a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell biology, in terms of loss of cell polarity. Of the proteins comprising tight junctions, integral membrane proteins occludin, claudins, and JAMs have been recently discovered. Of these molecules, claudins are exclusively responsible for the formation of tight-junction strands and are connected with the actin cytoskeleton mediated by ZO-1. Thus, both functions of tight junctions are dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton as well as ATP. Mutations in the claudin14 and the claudin16 genes result in hereditary deafness and hereditary hypomagnesemia, respectively. Some pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight-junction function, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases is summarized.
Gap junctions and motor behavior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.
2002-01-01
The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....
Coburn, Luke; Lopez, Hender; Schouwenaar, Irin-Maya; Yap, Alpha S.; Lobaskin, Vladimir; Gomez, Guillermo A.
2018-03-01
Epithelial tissues form physically integrated barriers against the external environment protecting organs from infection and invasion. Within each tissue, epithelial cells respond to different challenges that can potentially compromise tissue integrity. In particular, cells collectively respond to injuries by reorganizing their cell-cell junctions and migrating directionally towards the sites of damage. Notwithstanding, the mechanisms that drive collective responses in epithelial aggregates remain poorly understood. In this work, we develop a minimal mechanistic model that is able to capture the essential features of epithelial collective responses to injuries. We show that a model that integrates the mechanics of cells at the cell-cell and cell-substrate interfaces as well as contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL) correctly predicts two key properties of epithelial response to injury as: (1) local relaxation of the tissue and (2) collective reorganization involving the extension of cryptic lamellipodia that extend, on average, up to 3 cell diameters from the site of injury and morphometric changes in the basal regions. Our model also suggests that active responses (like the actomyosin purse string and softening of cell-cell junctions) are needed to drive morphometric changes in the apical region. Therefore, our results highlight the importance of the crosstalk between junctional biomechanics, cell substrate adhesion, and CIL, as well as active responses, in guiding the collective rearrangements that are required to preserve the epithelial barrier in response to injury.
Comprehensive asynchronous symmetric rendezvous algorithm in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Meenu Chawla
2017-11-10
Nov 10, 2017 ... Simulation results affirm that CASR algorithm performs better in terms of average time-to-rendezvous as compared ... process; neighbour discovery; symmetric rendezvous algorithm. 1. .... dezvous in finite time under the symmetric model. The CH ..... CASR algorithm in Matlab 7.11 and performed several.
Symmetric splitting of very light systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.
1985-01-01
Fission reactions that produce fragments close to one half the mass of the composite system are traditionally observed in heavy nuclei. In light systems, symmetric splitting is rarely observed and poorly understood. It would be interesting to verify the existence of the symmetric splitting of compound nuclei with A 12 C + 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be + 40 Ca and 153 MeV 6 Li + 40 Ca. The out-of-plane correlation of symmetric products was also measured for the reaction 186 MeV 12 C + 40 Ca. The coincidence measurements of the 12 C + 40 Ca system demonstrated that essentially all of the inclusive yield of symmetric products around 40 0 results from a binary decay. To characterize the dependence of the symmetric splitting process on the excitation energy of the 12 C + 40 C system, inclusive measurements were made at bombarding energies of 74, 132, 162, and 185 MeV
Cell-cell interactions mediate cytoskeleton organization and collective endothelial cell chemotaxis.
Shamloo, Amir
2014-09-01
This study investigates the role of cell-cell and cell-ligand interactions in cytoskeleton organization of endothelial cells (ECs) and their directional migration within a microfluidic device. The migration of ECs in response to a biochemical factor was studied. Mathematical analysis of the cell migration pathways and cellular cytoskeleton revealed that directional migration, migration persistence length, migration speed, and cytoskeletal stress fiber alignment can be mediated by the level of cell contacts as well as the presence or absence of a biochemical polarizing factor. It was shown that in the presence of a biochemical polarizing factor, higher cell density and more frequent cell contacts has a reinforcing effect on collective cell chemotaxis. In contrast, in the absence of a polarizing factor, high cell density can decrease or suppress the ability of the cells to migrate. Also, the correlation of actin stress fiber organization and alignment with directional migration of ECs was investigated. It was shown that in the presence of a biochemical polarizing factor, stress fibers within the cytoskeleton of ECs can be significantly aligned parallel to the gradient direction when the cells have higher level of contacts. The results also show that the organization and alignment of actin stress fibers is mediated by cell adhesion junctions during collective cell migration and introduce cell-cell interactions as a key factor during collective cell chemotaxis. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Spherically symmetric charged compact stars
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Jaypee Institute of Information Technology University, Department of Mathematics, Noida, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Chowdhury, Sourav Roy [Seth Anandaram Jaipuria College, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)
2015-08-15
In this article we consider the static spherically symmetric metric of embedding class 1. When solving the Einstein-Maxwell field equations we take into account the presence of ordinary baryonic matter together with the electric charge. Specific new charged stellar models are obtained where the solutions are entirely dependent on the electromagnetic field, such that the physical parameters, like density, pressure etc. do vanish for the vanishing charge. We systematically analyze altogether the three sets of Solutions I, II, and III of the stellar models for a suitable functional relation of ν(r). However, it is observed that only the Solution I provides a physically valid and well-behaved situation, whereas the Solutions II and III are not well behaved and hence not included in the study. Thereafter it is exclusively shown that the Solution I can pass through several standard physical tests performed by us. To validate the solution set presented here a comparison has also been made with that of the compact stars, like RX J 1856 - 37, Her X - 1, PSR 1937+21, PSRJ 1614-2230, and PSRJ 0348+0432, and we have shown the feasibility of the models. (orig.)
Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos
Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.
2018-05-01
We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.
Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology
Stecker, F. W.
1978-01-01
Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.
Substring-Searchable Symmetric Encryption
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chase Melissa
2015-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a setting where a client wants to outsource storage of a large amount of private data and then perform substring search queries on the data – given a data string s and a search string p, find all occurrences of p as a substring of s. First, we formalize an encryption paradigm that we call queryable encryption, which generalizes searchable symmetric encryption (SSE and structured encryption. Then, we construct a queryable encryption scheme for substring queries. Our construction uses suffix trees and achieves asymptotic efficiency comparable to that of unencrypted suffix trees. Encryption of a string of length n takes O(λn time and produces a ciphertext of size O(λn, and querying for a substring of length m that occurs k times takes O(λm+k time and three rounds of communication. Our security definition guarantees correctness of query results and privacy of data and queries against a malicious adversary. Following the line of work started by Curtmola et al. (ACM CCS 2006, in order to construct more efficient schemes we allow the query protocol to leak some limited information that is captured precisely in the definition. We prove security of our substring-searchable encryption scheme against malicious adversaries, where the query protocol leaks limited information about memory access patterns through the suffix tree of the encrypted string.
Junction detection and pathway selection
Peck, Alex N.; Lim, Willie Y.; Breul, Harry T.
1992-02-01
The ability to detect junctions and make choices among the possible pathways is important for autonomous navigation. In our script-based navigation approach where a journey is specified as a script of high-level instructions, actions are frequently referenced to junctions, e.g., `turn left at the intersection.' In order for the robot to carry out these kind of instructions, it must be able (1) to detect an intersection (i.e., an intersection of pathways), (2) know that there are several possible pathways it can take, and (3) pick the pathway consistent with the high level instruction. In this paper we describe our implementation of the ability to detect junctions in an indoor environment, such as corners, T-junctions and intersections, using sonar. Our approach uses a combination of partial scan of the local environment and recognition of sonar signatures of certain features of the junctions. In the case where the environment is known, we use additional sensor information (such as compass bearings) to help recognize the specific junction. In general, once a junction is detected and its type known, the number of possible pathways can be deduced and the correct pathway selected. Then the appropriate behavior for negotiating the junction is activated.
Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Wal, S.
1996-01-01
The transport processes that are involved in the mixing of two gases in a T-junction mixer are investigated. The turbulent flow field is calculated for the T-junction with the k- turbulence model by FLOW3D. In the mathematical model the transport of species is described with a mixture fraction
Beig, Robert; Siddiqui, Azad A.
2007-11-01
It is known that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit a foliation by flat hypersurfaces. Such foliations have explicitly been constructed for some spacetimes, using different approaches, but none of them have proved or even discussed the uniqueness of these foliations. The issue of uniqueness becomes more important due to suitability of flat foliations for studying black hole physics. Here, flat spherically symmetric spacelike hypersurfaces are obtained by a direct method. It is found that spherically symmetric static spacetimes admit flat spherically symmetric hypersurfaces, and that these hypersurfaces are unique up to translation under the timelike Killing vector. This result guarantees the uniqueness of flat spherically symmetric foliations for such spacetimes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhu Ping
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acquisition of resistance to "anoikis" facilitates the survival of cells under independent matrix-deficient conditions, such as cells in tumor progression and the production of suspension culture cells for biomedical engineering. There is evidence suggesting that CD147, an adhesion molecule associated with survival of cells in tumor metastasis and cell-cell contacts, plays an important role in resistance to anoikis. However, information regarding the functions of CD147 in mediating cell-cell contacts and anoikis-resistance remains limited and even self-contradictory. Results An anoikis-resistant clone (HEK293ar, derived from anoikis-sensitive parental Human Embryonic Kidney 293 cells, survived anoikis by the formation of cell-cell contacts. The expression of HAb18G/CD147 (a member of the CD147 family was upregulated and the protein was located at cell-cell junctions. Upregulation of HAb18G/CD147 in suspended HEK293ar cells suppressed anoikis by mediating the formation of cell-cell adhesions. Anoikis resistance in HEK293ar cells also required E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell contacts. Knock-down of HAb18G/CD147 and E-cadherin inhibited cell-cell contacts formation and increased anoikis sensitivity respectively. When HAb18G/CD147 was downregulated, E-cadherin expression in HEK293ar cells was significantly suppressed; however, knockdown of E-cadherin by E-cadherin siRNA or blocking of E-cadherin binding activity with a specific antibody and EDTA had no significant effect on HAb18G/CD147 expression. Finally, pretreatment with LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/AKT inhibitor, disrupted cell-cell contacts and decreased cell number, but this was not the case in cells treated with the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK inhibitor PD98059. Conclusions Our results provide new evidence that HAb18G/CD147-mediated cell-cell contact confers anoikis resistance in an E-cadherin-dependent manner; and cell-cell contact mediated
Gap-junction-mediated communication in human periodontal ligament cells.
Kato, R; Ishihara, Y; Kawanabe, N; Sumiyoshi, K; Yoshikawa, Y; Nakamura, M; Imai, Y; Yanagita, T; Fukushima, H; Kamioka, H; Takano-Yamamoto, T; Yamashiro, T
2013-07-01
Periodontal tissue homeostasis depends on a complex cellular network that conveys cell-cell communication. Gap junctions (GJs), one of the intercellular communication systems, are found between adjacent human periodontal ligament (hPDL) cells; however, the functional GJ coupling between hPDL cells has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we investigated functional gap-junction-mediated intercellular communication in isolated primary hPDL cells. SEM images indicated that the cells were in contact with each other via dendritic processes, and also showed high anti-connexin43 (Cx43) immunoreactivity on these processes. Gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) among hPDL cells was assessed by fluorescence recovery after a photobleaching (FRAP) analysis, which exhibited dye coupling between hPDL cells, and was remarkably down-regulated when the cells were treated with a GJ blocker. Additionally, we examined GJs under hypoxic stress. The fluorescence recovery and expression levels of Cx43 decreased time-dependently under the hypoxic condition. Exposure to GJ inhibitor or hypoxia increased RANKL expression, and decreased OPG expression. This study shows that GJIC is responsible for hPDL cells and that its activity is reduced under hypoxia. This is consistent with the possible role of hPDL cells in regulating the biochemical reactions in response to changes in the hypoxic environment.
The symmetric extendibility of quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowakowski, Marcin L
2016-01-01
Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)
Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.
2007-01-01
The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis
Desrochers, Jane; Duncan, Neil A
2014-01-01
Cells in the intervertebral disc, as in other connective tissues including tendon, ligament and bone, form interconnected cellular networks that are linked via functional gap junctions. These cellular networks may be necessary to affect a coordinated response to mechanical and environmental stimuli. Using confocal microscopy with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching methods, we explored the in situ strain environment of the outer annulus of an intact bovine disc and the effect of high-level flexion on gap junction signalling. The in situ strain environment in the extracellular matrix of the outer annulus under high flexion load was observed to be non-uniform with the extensive cellular processes remaining crimped sometimes at flexion angles greater than 25°. A significant transient disruption of intercellular communication via functional gap junctions was measured after 10 and 20 min under high flexion load. This study illustrates that in healthy annulus fibrosus tissue, high mechanical loads can impede the functioning of the gap junctions. Future studies will explore more complex loading conditions to determine whether losses in intercellular communication can be permanent and whether gap junctions in aged and degenerated tissues become more susceptible to load. The current research suggests that cellular structures such as gap junctions and intercellular networks, as well as other cell-cell and cell-matrix interconnections, need to be considered in computational models in order to fully understand how macroscale mechanical signals are transmitted across scales to the microscale and ultimately into a cellular biosynthetic response in collagenous tissues.
Linac design algorithm with symmetric segments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.; Nath, S.; Billen, J.H.; Stovall, J.E.
1996-01-01
The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells and individual cells symmetric in both the CCDTL AND CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. We have implemented a design algorithm in the PARMILA code in which cells and multi-cavity segments are made symmetric, significantly reducing the number of unique components. Using the symmetric algorithm, a sample linac design was generated and its performance compared with a similar one of conventional design
Dallai, R; Lupetti, P; Lane, N J
1996-10-01
Cultures of the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis were examined with regard to their interepithelial junctions after infiltration with the extracellular tracer lanthanum, freeze-fracturing or quick-freeze deep-etching. The lateral borders between ciliated cells have an unusual apical adhering junction. This apical part of their intercellular cleft looks desmosome-like, but it is characterized by unusual intramembranous E-face clusters of particles. Deep-etching reveals that these are packed together in short rows which lie parallel to one another in orderly arrays. The true membrane surface in these areas features filaments in the form of short ribbons; these are produced by projections, possibly part of the glycocalyx, emerging from the membranes, between which the electron-dense tracer lanthanum permeates. These projections appear to overlap with each other in the centre of the intercellular cleft; this would provide a particularly flexible adaptation to maintain cell-cell contact and coordination as a consequence. The filamentous ribbons may be held in position by the intramembranous particle arrays since both have a similar size and distribution. These contacts are quite different from desmosomes and appear to represent a distinct new category of adhesive cell-cell junction. Beneath these novel structures, conventional pleated septate junctions are found, exhibiting the undulating intercellular ribbons typical of this junctional type, as well as the usual parallel alignments of intramembranous rows of EF grooves and PF particles. Below these are found gap junctions as close-packed plaques of intramembranous particles on either the P-face or E-face. After freeze-fracturing, the complementary fracture face to the particles shows pits, usually on the P-face, arrayed with a very precise hexagonal pattern.
Symmetric nuclear matter with Skyrme interaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manisa, K.; Bicer, A.; Atav, U.
2010-01-01
The equation of state (EOS) and some properties of symmetric nuclear matter, such as the saturation density, saturation energy and incompressibility, are obtained by using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction.
Performance limitations of translationally symmetric nonimaging devices
Bortz, John C.; Shatz, Narkis E.; Winston, Roland
2001-11-01
The component of the optical direction vector along the symmetry axis is conserved for all rays propagated through a translationally symmetric optical device. This quality, referred to herein as the translational skew invariant, is analogous to the conventional skew invariant, which is conserved in rotationally symmetric optical systems. The invariance of both of these quantities is a consequence of Noether's theorem. We show how performance limits for translationally symmetric nonimaging optical devices can be derived from the distributions of the translational skew invariant for the optical source and for the target to which flux is to be transferred. Examples of computed performance limits are provided. In addition, we show that a numerically optimized non-tracking solar concentrator utilizing symmetry-breaking surface microstructure can overcome the performance limits associated with translational symmetry. The optimized design provides a 47.4% increase in efficiency and concentration relative to an ideal translationally symmetric concentrator.
Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector
2004-01-01
It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated
Introduction to left-right symmetric models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimus, W.
1993-01-01
We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)
A cosmological problem for maximally symmetric supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
German, G.; Ross, G.G.
1986-01-01
Under very general considerations it is shown that inflationary models of the universe based on maximally symmetric supergravity with flat potentials are unable to resolve the cosmological energy density (Polonyi) problem. (orig.)
Theorem on axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Papadopoulos, A; Le Denmat, G [Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France). Inst. Henri Poincare
1977-01-24
A theorem is proved which asserts the non-existence of axially symmetric gravitational vacuum configurations with non-stationary rotation only. The eventual consequences in black-hole physics are suggested.
Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids
2017-11-29
Charts N/A Unclassified Unclassified Unclassified SAR 14 Kamran Ghiassi N/A 1 Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic Liquids Kevin T. Greeson...NUMBER (Include area code) 29 November 2017 Briefing Charts 01 November 2017 - 30 November 2017 Symmetric Imidazolium-Based Paramagnetic Ionic ... Liquids K. Greeson, K. Ghiassi, J. Alston, N. Redeker, J. Marcischak, L. Gilmore, A. Guenthner Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRP 9 Antares
The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harbo, Anders La-Cour
2003-01-01
A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, and symmetric transform given as the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generatin...... large sets of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....
The Symmetric Rudin-Shapiro Transform
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Harbo, Anders La-Cour
2003-01-01
A method for constructing spread spectrum sequences is presented. The method is based on a linear, orthogonal, symmetric transform, the Rudin-Shapiro transform (RST), which is in many respects quite similar to the Haar wavelet packet transform. The RST provides the means for generating large sets...... of spread spectrum signals. This presentation provides a simple definition of the symmetric RST that leads to a fast N log(N) and numerically stable implementation of the transform....
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L.M.
1987-09-01
Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)xSU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction. (author). 20 refs
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
Kabir, K.; Saha, S.; Nath, L. M.
1988-01-01
Using a model which is based essentially on the chiral SU(2)×SU(2) symmetry of the pion-nucleon interaction, we examine the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nucleon matter. We find that the pion condensation is not likely to occur in symmetric nuclear matter for any finite value of the nuclear density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenom is expected to be seen in the pion-nucleus interaction.
Thermal analysis of two-level wind power converter under symmetrical grid fault
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede
2013-01-01
In this paper, the case of symmetrical grid fault when using the multi-MW wind turbine of partial-scale and full-scale two-level power converter are designed and investigated. Firstly, the different operation behaviors of the relevant power converters under the voltage dip will be described......) condition as well as the junction temperature. For the full-scale wind turbine system, the most thermal stressed power device in the grid-side converter will appear at the grid voltage below 0.5 pu, and for the partial-scale wind turbine system, the most thermal stressed power device in the rotor...
Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.
1978-01-01
Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Smith, Charles
1997-01-01
An experimental study of the effects of spatially-limited (i.e. localized) surface suction on unsteady laminar and turbulent junction flows was performed using hydrogen bubble flow visualization and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV...
Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wild, Georg Hermann
2012-01-01
We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO x /Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 /Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to π-coupling is observed for a thickness d F =6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd 0.82 Ni 0.18 has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.
Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wild, Georg Hermann
2012-03-04
We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO{sub x}/Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18}/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to {pi}-coupling is observed for a thickness d{sub F}=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.
Unexpected trapping of particles at a T junction.
Vigolo, Daniele; Radl, Stefan; Stone, Howard A
2014-04-01
A common element in physiological flow networks, as well as most domestic and industrial piping systems, is a T junction that splits the flow into two nearly symmetric streams. It is reasonable to assume that any particles suspended in a fluid that enters the bifurcation will leave it with the fluid. Here we report experimental evidence and a theoretical description of a trapping mechanism for low-density particles in steady and pulsatile flows through T-shaped junctions. This mechanism induces accumulation of particles, which can form stable chains, or give rise to significant growth of bubbles due to coalescence. In particular, low-density material dispersed in the continuous phase fluid interacts with a vortical flow that develops at the T junction. As a result suspended particles can enter the vortices and, for a wide range of common flow conditions, the particles do not leave the bifurcation. Via 3D numerical simulations and a model of the two-phase flow we predict the location of particle accumulation, which is in excellent agreement with experimental data. We identify experimentally, as well as confirm by numerical simulations and a simple force balance, that there is a wide parameter space in which this phenomenon occurs. The trapping effect is expected to be important for the design of particle separation and fractionation devices, as well as used for better understanding of system failures in piping networks relevant to industry and physiology.
Pulse-voltammetric glucose detection at gold junction electrodes.
Rassaei, Liza; Marken, Frank
2010-09-01
A novel glucose sensing concept based on the localized change or "modulation" in pH within a symmetric gold-gold junction electrode is proposed. A paired gold-gold junction electrode (average gap size ca. 500 nm) is prepared by simultaneous bipotentiostatic electrodeposition of gold onto two closely spaced platinum disk electrodes. For glucose detection in neutral aqueous solution, the potential of the "pH-modulator" electrode is set to -1.5 V vs saturated calomel reference electrode (SCE) to locally increase the pH, and simultaneously, either cyclic voltammetry or square wave voltammetry experiments are conducted at the sensor electrode. A considerable improvement in the sensor electrode response is observed when a normal pulse voltammetry sequence is applied to the modulator electrode (to generate "hydroxide pulses") and the glucose sensor electrode is operated with fixed bias at +0.5 V vs SCE (to eliminate capacitive charging currents). Preliminary data suggest good linearity for the glucose response in the medically relevant 1-10 mM concentration range (corresponding to 0.18-1.8 g L(-1)). Future electroanalytical applications of multidimensional pulse voltammetry in junction electrodes are discussed.
Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction
Maksymovych, Petro
2016-03-15
A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.
Peltier cooling in molecular junctions
Cui, Longji; Miao, Ruijiao; Wang, Kun; Thompson, Dakotah; Zotti, Linda Angela; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod
2018-02-01
The study of thermoelectricity in molecular junctions is of fundamental interest for the development of various technologies including cooling (refrigeration) and heat-to-electricity conversion1-4. Recent experimental progress in probing the thermopower (Seebeck effect) of molecular junctions5-9 has enabled studies of the relationship between thermoelectricity and molecular structure10,11. However, observations of Peltier cooling in molecular junctions—a critical step for establishing molecular-based refrigeration—have remained inaccessible. Here, we report direct experimental observations of Peltier cooling in molecular junctions. By integrating conducting-probe atomic force microscopy12,13 with custom-fabricated picowatt-resolution calorimetric microdevices, we created an experimental platform that enables the unified characterization of electrical, thermoelectric and energy dissipation characteristics of molecular junctions. Using this platform, we studied gold junctions with prototypical molecules (Au-biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol-Au, Au-terphenyl-4,4''-dithiol-Au and Au-4,4'-bipyridine-Au) and revealed the relationship between heating or cooling and charge transmission characteristics. Our experimental conclusions are supported by self-energy-corrected density functional theory calculations. We expect these advances to stimulate studies of both thermal and thermoelectric transport in molecular junctions where the possibility of extraordinarily efficient energy conversion has been theoretically predicted2-4,14.
Budnar, Srikanth; Yap, Alpha S.
2017-01-01
Mechanical coherence of cell layers is essential for epithelia to function as tissue barriers and to control active tissue dynamics during morphogenesis. RhoA signaling at adherens junctions plays a key role in this process by coupling cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion together with actomyosin contractility. Here we propose and analyze a mathematical model representing core interactions involved in the spatial localization of junctional RhoA signaling. We demonstrate how the interplay between biochemical signaling through positive feedback, combined with diffusion on the cell membrane and mechanical forces generated in the cortex, can determine the spatial distribution of RhoA signaling at cell-cell junctions. This dynamical mechanism relies on the balance between a propagating bistable signal that is opposed by an advective flow generated by an actomyosin stress gradient. Experimental observations on the behavior of the system when contractility is inhibited are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the model. PMID:28273072
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashmi Priya
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Mechanical coherence of cell layers is essential for epithelia to function as tissue barriers and to control active tissue dynamics during morphogenesis. RhoA signaling at adherens junctions plays a key role in this process by coupling cadherin-based cell-cell adhesion together with actomyosin contractility. Here we propose and analyze a mathematical model representing core interactions involved in the spatial localization of junctional RhoA signaling. We demonstrate how the interplay between biochemical signaling through positive feedback, combined with diffusion on the cell membrane and mechanical forces generated in the cortex, can determine the spatial distribution of RhoA signaling at cell-cell junctions. This dynamical mechanism relies on the balance between a propagating bistable signal that is opposed by an advective flow generated by an actomyosin stress gradient. Experimental observations on the behavior of the system when contractility is inhibited are in qualitative agreement with the predictions of the model.
Konishi, Tatsuya; Kiguchi, Manabu; Takase, Mai; Nagasawa, Fumika; Nabika, Hideki; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Uosaki, Kohei; Ueno, Kosei; Misawa, Hiroaki; Murakoshi, Kei
2013-01-23
The in situ observation of geometrical and electronic structural dynamics of a single molecule junction is critically important in order to further progress in molecular electronics. Observations of single molecular junctions are difficult, however, because of sensitivity limits. Here, we report surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of a single 4,4'-bipyridine molecule under conditions of in situ current flow in a nanogap, by using nano-fabricated, mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) electrodes. When adsorbed at room temperature on metal nanoelectrodes in solution to form a single molecule junction, statistical analysis showed that nontotally symmetric b(1) and b(2) modes of 4,4'-bipyridine were strongly enhanced relative to observations of the same modes in solid or aqueous solutions. Significant changes in SERS intensity, energy (wavenumber), and selectivity of Raman vibrational bands that are coincident with current fluctuations provide information on distinct states of electronic and geometrical structure of the single molecule junction, even under large thermal fluctuations occurring at room temperature. We observed the dynamics of 4,4'-bipyridine motion between vertical and tilting configurations in the Au nanogap via b(1) and b(2) mode switching. A slight increase in the tilting angle of the molecule was also observed by noting the increase in the energies of Raman modes and the decrease in conductance of the molecular junction.
Van Itallie, Christina M; Tietgens, Amber Jean; Aponte, Angel; Gucek, Marjan; Cartagena-Rivera, Alexander X; Chadwick, Richard S; Anderson, James M
2018-02-02
Treatment of epithelial cells with interferon-γ and TNF-α (IFN/TNF) results in increased paracellular permeability. To identify relevant proteins mediating barrier disruption, we performed proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) of occludin and found that tagging of MARCKS-related protein (MRP; also known as MARCKSL1) increased ∼20-fold following IFN/TNF administration. GFP-MRP was focused at the lateral cell membrane and its overexpression potentiated the physiological response of the tight junction barrier to cytokines. However, deletion of MRP did not abrogate the cytokine responses, suggesting that MRP is not required in the occludin-dependent IFN/TNF response. Instead, our results reveal a key role for MRP in epithelial cells in control of multiple actin-based structures, likely by regulation of integrin signaling. Changes in focal adhesion organization and basal actin stress fibers in MRP-knockout (KO) cells were reminiscent of those seen in FAK-KO cells. In addition, we found alterations in cell-cell interactions in MRP-KO cells associated with increased junctional tension, suggesting that MRP may play a role in focal adhesion-adherens junction cross talk. Together, our results are consistent with a key role for MRP in cytoskeletal organization of cell contacts in epithelial cells. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Droplet Breakup in Asymmetric T-Junctions at Intermediate to Large Capillary Numbers
Sadr, Reza; Cheng, Way Lee
2017-11-01
Splitting of a parent droplet into multiple daughter droplets of desired sizes is usually desired to enhance production and investigational efficiency in microfluidic devices. This can be done in an active or passive mode depending on whether an external power sources is used or not. In this study, three-dimensional simulations were done using the Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) method to analyze droplet splitting in asymmetric T-junctions with different outlet lengths. The parent droplet is divided into two uneven portions the volumetric ratio of the daughter droplets, in theory, depends on the length ratios of the outlet branches. The study identified various breakup modes such as primary, transition, bubble and non-breakup under various flow conditions and the configuration of the T-junctions. In addition, an analysis with the primary breakup regimes were conducted to study the breakup mechanisms. The results show that the way the droplet splits in an asymmetric T-junction is different than the process in a symmetric T-junction. A model for the asymmetric breakup criteria at intermediate or large Capillary number is presented. The proposed model is an expanded version to a theoretically derived model for the symmetric droplet breakup under similar flow conditions.
Spin-transfer torque in tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic layer of finite thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilczynski, M.
2011-01-01
Two components of the spin torque exerted on a free ferromagnetic layer of finite thickness and a half-infinite ferromagnetic electrode in single tunnel junctions have been calculated in the spin-polarized free-electron-like one-band model. It has been found that the torque oscillates with the thickness of ferromagnetic layer and can be enhanced in the junction with the special layer thickness. The bias dependence of torque components also significantly changes with layer thickness. It is non-symmetric for the normal torque, in contrast to the symmetric junctions with two identical half-infinite ferromagnetic electrodes. The asymmetry of the bias dependence of the normal component of the torque can be also observed in the junctions with different spin splitting of the electron bands in the ferromagnetic electrodes. - Research highlights: → The torque oscillates with the thickness of ferromagnetic layer. → Bias dependence of the torque changes with the layer thickness. → Bias dependence of the normal torque can be asymmetric.
Lysophosphatidic Acid Disrupts Junctional Integrity and Epithelial Cohesion in Ovarian Cancer Cells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yueying Liu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Ovarian cancer metastasizes via exfoliation of free-floating cells and multicellular aggregates from the primary tumor to the peritoneal cavity. A key event in EOC metastasis is disruption of cell-cell contacts via modulation of intercellular junctional components including cadherins. Ascites is rich in lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, a bioactive lipid that may promote early events in ovarian cancer dissemination. The objective of this paper was to assess the effect of LPA on E-cadherin junctional integrity. We report a loss of junctional E-cadherin in OVCAR3, OVCA429, and OVCA433 cells exposed to LPA. LPA-induced loss of E-cadherin was concentration and time dependent. LPA increased MMP-9 expression and promoted MMP-9-catalyzed E-cadherin ectodomain shedding. Blocking LPA receptor signaling inhibited MMP-9 expression and restored junctional E-cadherin staining. LPA-treated cells demonstrated a significant decrease in epithelial cohesion. Together these data support a model wherein LPA induces MMP-9 expression and MMP-9-catalyzed E-cadherin ectodomain shedding, resulting in loss of E-cadherin junctional integrity and epithelial cohesion, facilitating metastatic dissemination of ovarian cancer cells.
Crossing-symmetric solutions to low equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.
1985-01-01
Crossing symmetric models of the pion-nucleon interaction in which crossing symmetry is kept to lowest order in msub(π)/msub(N) are investigated. Two iterative techniques are developed to solve the crossing-symmetric Low equation. The techniques are used to solve the original Chew-Low equations and their generalizations to include the coupling to the pion-production channels. Small changes are found in comparison with earlier results which used an iterative technique proposed by Chew and Low and which did not produce crossing-symmetric results. The iterative technique of Chew and Low is shown to fail because of its inability to produce zeroes in the amplitude at complex energies while physical solutions to the model require such zeroes. We also prove that, within the class of solutions such that phase shifts approach zero for infinite energy, the solution to the Low equation is unique. (orig.)
Revisiting the Optical PT-Symmetric Dimer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
José Delfino Huerta Morales
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Optics has proved a fertile ground for the experimental simulation of quantum mechanics. Most recently, optical realizations of PT -symmetric quantum mechanics have been shown, both theoretically and experimentally, opening the door to international efforts aiming at the design of practical optical devices exploiting this symmetry. Here, we focus on the optical PT -symmetric dimer, a two-waveguide coupler where the materials show symmetric effective gain and loss, and provide a review of the linear and nonlinear optical realizations from a symmetry-based point of view. We go beyond a simple review of the literature and show that the dimer is just the smallest of a class of planar N-waveguide couplers that are the optical realization of the Lorentz group in 2 + 1 dimensions. Furthermore, we provide a formulation to describe light propagation through waveguide couplers described by non-Hermitian mode coupling matrices based on a non-Hermitian generalization of the Ehrenfest theorem.
PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuce, C.
2014-01-01
PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity. - Highlights: • We show that PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model may have real spectrum. • We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder. • We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum for PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model. • We discuss that phase transition from extended to localized states exists
PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuce, C., E-mail: cyuce@anadolu.edu.tr
2014-06-13
PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model describes an array of N coupled optical waveguides with position-dependent gain and loss. We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of quasi-periodicity for small number of lattice sites. We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum and discuss the existence of the phase transition from extended to localized states. We show that rapidly changing periodical gain/loss materials almost conserve the total intensity. - Highlights: • We show that PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model may have real spectrum. • We show that the reality of the spectrum depends sensitively on the degree of disorder. • We obtain the Hofstadter butterfly spectrum for PT symmetric Aubry–Andre model. • We discuss that phase transition from extended to localized states exists.
Vespa, Alisa; Darmon, Alison J; Turner, Christopher E; D'Souza, Sudhir J A; Dagnino, Lina
2003-03-28
Integrin complexes are necessary for proper proliferation and differentiation of epidermal keratinocytes. Differentiation of these cells is accompanied by down-regulation of integrins and focal adhesions as well as formation of intercellular adherens junctions through E-cadherin homodimerization. A central component of integrin adhesion complexes is integrin-linked kinase (ILK), which can induce loss of E-cadherin expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transformation when ectopically expressed in intestinal and mammary epithelia. In cultured primary mouse keratinocytes, we find that ILK protein levels are independent of integrin expression and signaling, since they remain constant during Ca(2+)-induced differentiation. In contrast, keratinocyte differentiation is accompanied by marked reduction in kinase activity in ILK immunoprecipitates and altered ILK subcellular distribution. Specifically, ILK distributes in close apposition to actin fibers along intercellular junctions in differentiated but not in undifferentiated keratinocytes. ILK localization to cell-cell borders occurs independently of integrin signaling and requires Ca(2+) as well as an intact actin cytoskeleton. Further, and in contrast to what is observed in other epithelial cells, ILK overexpression in differentiated keratinocytes does not promote E-cadherin down-regulation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, novel tissue-specific mechanisms control the formation of ILK complexes associated with cell-cell junctions in differentiating murine epidermal keratinocytes.
All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate
Chattopadhyay, Tanay
2010-09-01
Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.
Symmetry theorems via the continuous steiner symmetrization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Ragoub
2000-06-01
Full Text Available Using a new approach due to F. Brock called the Steiner symmetrization, we show first that if $u$ is a solution of an overdetermined problem in the divergence form satisfying the Neumann and non-constant Dirichlet boundary conditions, then $Omega$ is an N-ball. In addition, we show that we can relax the condition on the value of the Dirichlet boundary condition in the case of superharmonicity. Finally, we give an application to positive solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems in symmetric domains for the divergence case.
The Axially Symmetric One-Monopole
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.-M.; Teh, Rosy
2009-01-01
We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this solution with θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solutions of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a non-BPS solution.
Symmetric splitting of very light systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grotowski, K.; Majka, Z.; Planeta, R.
1984-01-01
Inclusive and coincidence measurements have been performed to study symmetric products from the reactions 74--186 MeV 12 C+ 40 Ca, 141 MeV 9 Be+ 40 Ca, and 153 MeV 6 Li+ 40 Ca. The binary decay of the composite system has been verified. Energy spectra, angular distributions, and fragment correlations are presented. The total kinetic energies for the symmetric products from these very light composite systems are compared to liquid drop model calculations and fission systematics
Transport properties of molecular junctions
Zimbovskaya, Natalya A
2013-01-01
A comprehensive overview of the physical mechanisms that control electron transport and the characteristics of metal-molecule-metal (MMM) junctions is presented. As far as possible, methods and formalisms presented elsewhere to analyze electron transport through molecules are avoided. This title introduces basic concepts—a description of the electron transport through molecular junctions—and briefly describes relevant experimental methods. Theoretical methods commonly used to analyze the electron transport through molecules are presented. Various effects that manifest in the electron transport through MMMs, as well as the basics of density-functional theory and its applications to electronic structure calculations in molecules are presented. Nanoelectronic applications of molecular junctions and similar systems are discussed as well. Molecular electronics is a diverse and rapidly growing field. Transport Properties of Molecular Junctions presents an up-to-date survey of the field suitable for researchers ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villegier, J.C.; Vieux-Rochaz, L.; Goniche, M.; Renard, P.; Vabre, M.
1984-09-01
All-niobium nitride Josephon junctions have been prepared successfully using a new processing called SNOP: Selective Niobium (nitride) Overlap Process. Such a process involves the ''trilayer'' deposition on the whole wafer before selective patterning of the electrodes by optically controlled dry reactive ion etching. Only two photomask levels are need to define an ''overlap'' or a ''cross-type'' junction with a good accuracy. The properties of the niobium nitride films deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering and the surface oxide growth are analysed. The most critical point to obtain high quality and high gap value junctions resides in the early stage of the NbN counterelectrode growth. Some possibilities to overcome such a handicap exist even if the fabrication needs substrate temperatures below 250 0 C
Fujikake, Kazuma; Sawada, Masato; Hikita, Takao; Seto, Yayoi; Kaneko, Naoko; Herranz-Pérez, Vicente; Dohi, Natsuki; Homma, Natsumi; Osaga, Satoshi; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Akaike, Toshihiro; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Hattori, Mitsuharu; Sobue, Kazuya; Sawamoto, Kazunobu
2018-05-09
In the rodent olfactory system, neuroblasts produced in the ventricular-subventricular zone of the postnatal brain migrate tangentially in chain-like cell aggregates toward the olfactory bulb (OB) through the rostral migratory stream (RMS). After reaching the OB, the chains are dissociated and the neuroblasts migrate individually and radially toward their final destination. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling cell-cell adhesion during this detachment remain unclear. Here we report that Fyn, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, regulates the detachment of neuroblasts from chains in the male and female mouse OB. By performing chemical screening and in vivo loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments, we found that Fyn promotes somal disengagement from the chains and is involved in neuronal migration from the RMS into the granule cell layer of the OB. Fyn knockdown or Dab1 (disabled-1) deficiency caused p120-catenin to accumulate and adherens junction-like structures to be sustained at the contact sites between neuroblasts. Moreover, a Fyn and N-cadherin double-knockdown experiment indicated that Fyn regulates the N-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion between neuroblasts. These results suggest that the Fyn-mediated control of cell-cell adhesion is critical for the detachment of chain-forming neuroblasts in the postnatal OB. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In the postnatal brain, newly born neurons (neuroblasts) migrate in chain-like cell aggregates toward their destination, where they are dissociated into individual cells and mature. The cellular and molecular mechanisms controlling the detachment of neuroblasts from chains are not understood. Here we show that Fyn, a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, promotes the somal detachment of neuroblasts from chains, and that this regulation is critical for the efficient migration of neuroblasts to their destination. We further show that Fyn and Dab1 (disabled-1) decrease the cell-cell adhesion between chain-forming neuroblasts
Gravitation at the Josephson Junction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Victor Atanasov
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A geometric potential from the kinetic term of a constrained to a curved hyperplane of space-time quantum superconducting condensate is derived. An energy conservation relation involving the geometric field at every material point in the superconductor is demonstrated. At a Josephson junction the energy conservation relation implies the possibility of transforming electric energy into geometric field energy, that is, curvature of space-time. Experimental procedures to verify that the Josephson junction can act as a voltage-to-curvature converter are discussed.
Small diameter symmetric networks from linear groups
Campbell, Lowell; Carlsson, Gunnar E.; Dinneen, Michael J.; Faber, Vance; Fellows, Michael R.; Langston, Michael A.; Moore, James W.; Multihaupt, Andrew P.; Sexton, Harlan B.
1992-01-01
In this note is reported a collection of constructions of symmetric networks that provide the largest known values for the number of nodes that can be placed in a network of a given degree and diameter. Some of the constructions are in the range of current potential engineering significance. The constructions are Cayley graphs of linear groups obtained by experimental computation.
Sobolev spaces on bounded symmetric domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Engliš, Miroslav
Roč. 60, č. 12 ( 2015 ), s. 1712-1726 ISSN 1747-6933 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : bounded symmetric domain * Sobolev space * Bergman space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.466, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17476933. 2015 .1043910
Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik
2012-01-01
We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...
Exact solutions of the spherically symmetric multidimensional ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The complete orthonormalised energy eigenfunctions and the energy eigenvalues of the spherically symmetric isotropic harmonic oscillator in N dimensions, are obtained through the methods of separation of variables. Also, the degeneracy of the energy levels are examined. KEY WORDS: - Schrödinger Equation, Isotropic ...
Super-symmetric informationally complete measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Huangjun, E-mail: hzhu@pitp.ca
2015-11-15
Symmetric informationally complete measurements (SICs in short) are highly symmetric structures in the Hilbert space. They possess many nice properties which render them an ideal candidate for fiducial measurements. The symmetry of SICs is intimately connected with the geometry of the quantum state space and also has profound implications for foundational studies. Here we explore those SICs that are most symmetric according to a natural criterion and show that all of them are covariant with respect to the Heisenberg–Weyl groups, which are characterized by the discrete analog of the canonical commutation relation. Moreover, their symmetry groups are subgroups of the Clifford groups. In particular, we prove that the SIC in dimension 2, the Hesse SIC in dimension 3, and the set of Hoggar lines in dimension 8 are the only three SICs up to unitary equivalence whose symmetry groups act transitively on pairs of SIC projectors. Our work not only provides valuable insight about SICs, Heisenberg–Weyl groups, and Clifford groups, but also offers a new approach and perspective for studying many other discrete symmetric structures behind finite state quantum mechanics, such as mutually unbiased bases and discrete Wigner functions.
Harmonic maps of the bounded symmetric domains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xin, Y.L.
1994-06-01
A shrinking property of harmonic maps into R IV (2) is proved which is used to classify complete spacelike surfaces of the parallel mean curvature in R 4 2 with a reasonable condition on the Gauss image. Liouville-type theorems of harmonic maps from the higher dimensional bounded symmetric domains are also established. (author). 25 refs
On isotropic cylindrically symmetric stellar models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nolan, Brien C; Nolan, Louise V
2004-01-01
We attempt to match the most general cylindrically symmetric vacuum spacetime with a Robertson-Walker interior. The matching conditions show that the interior must be dust filled and that the boundary must be comoving. Further, we show that the vacuum region must be polarized. Imposing the condition that there are no trapped cylinders on an initial time slice, we can apply a result of Thorne's and show that trapped cylinders never evolve. This results in a simplified line element which we prove to be incompatible with the dust interior. This result demonstrates the impossibility of the existence of an isotropic cylindrically symmetric star (or even a star which has a cylindrically symmetric portion). We investigate the problem from a different perspective by looking at the expansion scalars of invariant null geodesic congruences and, applying to the cylindrical case, the result that the product of the signs of the expansion scalars must be continuous across the boundary. The result may also be understood in relation to recent results about the impossibility of the static axially symmetric analogue of the Einstein-Straus model
The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Mathematics of Symmetrical Factorial Designs. Mausumi Bose (nee Sen) obtained her MSc degree in. Statistics from the Calcutta. University and PhD degree from the Indian Statistical. Institute. She is on the faculty of the Indian. Statistical Institute. Her main field of research interest is design and analysis of experiments.
Symmetric intersections of Rauzy fractals | Sellami | Quaestiones ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this article we study symmetric subsets of Rauzy fractals of unimodular irreducible Pisot substitutions. The symmetry considered is re ection through the origin. Given an unimodular irreducible Pisot substitution, we consider the intersection of its Rauzy fractal with the Rauzy fractal of the reverse substitution. This set is ...
Fourier inversion on a reductive symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den
1999-01-01
Let X be a semisimple symmetric space. In previous papers, [8] and [9], we have dened an explicit Fourier transform for X and shown that this transform is injective on the space C 1 c (X) ofcompactly supported smooth functions on X. In the present paper, which is a continuation of these papers, we
A viewpoint on nearly conformally symmetric manifold
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1990-06-01
Some observations, with definition, on Nearly Conformally Symmetric (NCS) manifold are made. A number of theorems concerning conformal change of metric and parallel tensors on NCS manifolds are presented. It is illustrated that a manifold M = R n-1 x R + 1 , endowed with a special metric, is NCS but not of harmonic curvature. (author). 8 refs
Harmonic analysis on reductive symmetric spaces
Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.
2000-01-01
We give a relatively non-technical survey of some recent advances in the Fourier theory for semisimple symmetric spaces. There are three major results: An inversion formula for the Fourier transform, a Palley-Wiener theorem, which describes the Fourier image of the space of completely supported
Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.
1994-01-01
Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation
Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den; Carmona, J.; Delorme, P.
1997-01-01
Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation
Electronic noise of superconducting tunnel junction detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jochum, J.; Kraus, H.; Gutsche, M.; Kemmather, B.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Moessbauer, R.L.
1994-01-01
The optimal signal to noise ratio for detectors based on superconducting tunnel junctions is calculated and compared for the cases of a detector consisting of one single tunnel junction, as well as of series and of parallel connections of such tunnel junctions. The influence of 1 / f noise and its dependence on the dynamical resistance of tunnel junctions is discussed quantitatively. A single tunnel junction yields the minimum equivalent noise charge. Such a tunnel junction exhibits the best signal to noise ratio if the signal charge is independent of detector size. In case, signal charge increases with detector size, a parallel or a series connection of tunnel junctions would provide the optimum signal to noise ratio. The equivalent noise charge and the respective signal to noise ratio are deduced as functions of tunnel junction parameters such as tunneling time, quasiparticle lifetime, etc. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Fang [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Lv, Zhong-ming; Shi, Wei-qin [Jiangsu Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Nanjing (China); Zhang, Lu-yong, E-mail: lyzhang@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Key Laboratory of Drug Quality Control and Pharmacovigilance, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing (China); State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Yan, Ming, E-mail: brookming@cpu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Drug Screening, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)
2016-11-01
Triptolide (TP), derived from the medicinal plant Triterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (TWHF), is a diterpene triepoxide with variety biological and pharmacological activities. However, TP has been restricted in clinical application due to its narrow therapeutic window especially in reproductive system. During spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell cytoskeleton plays an essential role in facilitating germ cell movement and cell-cell actin-based adherens junctions (AJ). At Sertoli cell-spermatid interface, the anchoring device is a kind of AJ, known as ectoplasmic specializations (ES). In this study, we demonstrate that β-actin, an important component of cytoskeleton, has been significantly down-regulated after TP treatment. TP can inhibit the expression of Rho GTPase such as, RhoA, RhoB, Cdc42 and Rac1. Downstream of Rho GTPase, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCKs) gene expressions were also suppressed by TP. F-actin immunofluorescence proved that TP disrupts Sertoli cells cytoskeleton network. As a result of β-actin down-regulation, TP treatment increased expression of testin, which indicating ES has been disassembled. In summary, this report illustrates that TP induces cytoskeleton dysfunction and disrupts cell-cell adherens junctions via inhibition of Rho GTPases. - Highlights: • Triptolide induced the disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adherens junction. • Rho GTPases expression and actin dynamics have been suppressed by triptolide. • Actin-based adherens junction is a potential antifertility target of triptolide. • Rho-Rock is involved in the regulation of actin dynamics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xiang; Zhao, Fang; Lv, Zhong-ming; Shi, Wei-qin; Zhang, Lu-yong; Yan, Ming
2016-01-01
Triptolide (TP), derived from the medicinal plant Triterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (TWHF), is a diterpene triepoxide with variety biological and pharmacological activities. However, TP has been restricted in clinical application due to its narrow therapeutic window especially in reproductive system. During spermatogenesis, Sertoli cell cytoskeleton plays an essential role in facilitating germ cell movement and cell-cell actin-based adherens junctions (AJ). At Sertoli cell-spermatid interface, the anchoring device is a kind of AJ, known as ectoplasmic specializations (ES). In this study, we demonstrate that β-actin, an important component of cytoskeleton, has been significantly down-regulated after TP treatment. TP can inhibit the expression of Rho GTPase such as, RhoA, RhoB, Cdc42 and Rac1. Downstream of Rho GTPase, Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCKs) gene expressions were also suppressed by TP. F-actin immunofluorescence proved that TP disrupts Sertoli cells cytoskeleton network. As a result of β-actin down-regulation, TP treatment increased expression of testin, which indicating ES has been disassembled. In summary, this report illustrates that TP induces cytoskeleton dysfunction and disrupts cell-cell adherens junctions via inhibition of Rho GTPases. - Highlights: • Triptolide induced the disruption of Sertoli-germ cell adherens junction. • Rho GTPases expression and actin dynamics have been suppressed by triptolide. • Actin-based adherens junction is a potential antifertility target of triptolide. • Rho-Rock is involved in the regulation of actin dynamics.
Current noise in tunnel junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)
2017-06-15
We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Stability of large-area molecular junctions
Akkerman, Hylke B.; Kronemeijer, Auke J.; Harkema, Jan; van Hal, Paul A.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Blom, Paul W. M.
The stability of molecular junctions is crucial for any application of molecular electronics. Degradation of molecular junctions when exposed to ambient conditions is regularly observed. In this report the stability of large-area molecular junctions under ambient conditions for more than two years
Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.
2002-01-01
The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current depe...
Ochratoxim A alters cell adhesion and gap junction intercellular communication in MDCK cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mally, Angela; Decker, Martina; Bekteshi, Michaela; Dekant, Wolfgang
2006-01-01
Ochratoxin A (OTA) is one of the most potent renal carcinogens studied to date, but the mechanism of tumor formation by ochratoxin A remains largely unknown. Cell adhesion and cell-cell communication participate in the regulation of signaling pathways involved in cell proliferation and growth control and it is therefore not surprising that modulation of cell-cell signaling has been implicated in cancer development. Several nephrotoxicants and renal carcinogens have been shown to alter cell-cell signaling by interference with gap junction intercell communication (GJIC) and/or cell adhesion, and the aim of this study was to determine if disruption of cell-cell interactions occurs in kidney epithelial cells in response to OTA treatment. MDCK cells were treated with OTA (0-50 μM) for up to 24 h and gap junction function was analyzed using the scrape-load/dye transfer assay. In addition, expression and intracellular localization of Cx43, E-cadherin and β-catenin were determined by immunoblot and immunofluorescence analysis. A clear decrease in the distance of dye transfer was evident following treatment with OTA at concentrations/incubation times which did not affect cell viability. Consistent with the functional inhibition of GJIC, treatment with OTA resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in Cx43 expression. In contrast to Cx43, OTA did not alter total amount of the adherens junction proteins E-cadherin and β-catenin. Moreover, Western blot analysis of Triton X-100 soluble and insoluble protein fractions did not indicate translocation of cell adhesion molecules from the membrane to the cytoplasm. However, a ∼78 kDa fragment of β-catenin was detected in the detergent soluble fraction, indicating proteolytic cleavage of β-catenin. Immunofluorescence analysis also revealed changes in the pattern of both β-catenin and E-cadherin labeling, suggesting that OTA may alter cell-adhesion. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that disruption of cell-cell
Weakly Interacting Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric States in the Bilayer Systems
Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Tomaka, G.; Ploch, D.
We have studied the parallel magneto-transport in DQW-structures of two different potential shapes: quasi-rectangular and quasi-triangular. The quantum beats effect was observed in Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations for both types of the DQW structures in perpendicular magnetic filed arrangement. We developed a special scheme for the Landau levels energies calculation by means of which we carried out the necessary simulations of beating effect. In order to obtain the agreement between our experimental data and the results of simulations, we introduced two different quasi-Fermi levels which characterize symmetric and anti-symmetric states in DQWs. The existence of two different quasi Fermi-Levels simply means, that one can treat two sub-systems (charge carriers characterized by symmetric and anti-symmetric wave functions) as weakly interacting and having their own rate of establishing the equilibrium state.
Structural basis of cell-cell adhesion by NCAM
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kasper, C; Rasmussen, H; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm Jensen
2000-01-01
The neural cell adhesion molecule NCAM, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, mediates cell-cell recognition and adhesion via a homophilic interaction. NCAM plays a key role during development and regeneration of the nervous system and is involved in synaptic plasticity associated with memory...
Llgl1 Connects Cell Polarity with Cell-Cell Adhesion in Embryonic Neural Stem Cells.
Jossin, Yves; Lee, Minhui; Klezovitch, Olga; Kon, Elif; Cossard, Alexia; Lien, Wen-Hui; Fernandez, Tania E; Cooper, Jonathan A; Vasioukhin, Valera
2017-06-05
Malformations of the cerebral cortex (MCCs) are devastating developmental disorders. We report here that mice with embryonic neural stem-cell-specific deletion of Llgl1 (Nestin-Cre/Llgl1 fl/fl ), a mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila cell polarity gene lgl, exhibit MCCs resembling severe periventricular heterotopia (PH). Immunohistochemical analyses and live cortical imaging of PH formation revealed that disruption of apical junctional complexes (AJCs) was responsible for PH in Nestin-Cre/Llgl1 fl/fl brains. While it is well known that cell polarity proteins govern the formation of AJCs, the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We show that LLGL1 directly binds to and promotes internalization of N-cadherin, and N-cadherin/LLGL1 interaction is inhibited by atypical protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of LLGL1, restricting the accumulation of AJCs to the basolateral-apical boundary. Disruption of the N-cadherin-LLGL1 interaction during cortical development in vivo is sufficient for PH. These findings reveal a mechanism responsible for the physical and functional connection between cell polarity and cell-cell adhesion machineries in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Domenico Giuliano
2016-08-01
Full Text Available We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.
From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale; Tagliacozzo, Arturo; Trombettoni, Andrea
2016-01-01
We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair) channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.
From four- to two-channel Kondo effect in junctions of XY spin chains
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giuliano, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.giuliano@fis.unical.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università della Calabria, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); Sodano, Pasquale, E-mail: pasquale.sodano02@gmail.com [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59078-400 Natal, RN (Brazil); Departemento de Física Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Tagliacozzo, Arturo, E-mail: arturo.tagliacozzo@na.infn.it [INFN, Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Arcavacata di Rende I-87036, Cosenza (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Monte S. Angelo-Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Monte S. Angelo-Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Trombettoni, Andrea, E-mail: andreatr@sissa.it [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS Simulation Center, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); SISSA and INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)
2016-08-15
We consider the Kondo effect in Y-junctions of anisotropic XY models in an applied magnetic field along the critical lines characterized by a gapless excitation spectrum. We find that, while the boundary interaction Hamiltonian describing the junction can be recasted in the form of a four-channel, spin-1/2 antiferromagnetic Kondo Hamiltonian, the number of channels effectively participating in the Kondo effect depends on the chain parameters, as well as on the boundary couplings at the junction. The system evolves from an effective four-channel topological Kondo effect for a junction of XX-chains with symmetric boundary couplings into a two-channel one at a junction of three quantum critical Ising chains. The effective number of Kondo channels depends on the properties of the boundary and of the bulk. The XX-line is a “critical” line, where a four-channel topological Kondo effect can be recovered by fine-tuning the boundary parameter, while along the line in parameter space connecting the XX-line and the critical Ising point the junction is effectively equivalent to a two-channel topological Kondo Hamiltonian. Using a renormalization group approach, we determine the flow of the boundary couplings, which allows us to define and estimate the critical couplings and Kondo temperatures of the different Kondo (pair) channels. Finally, we study the local transverse magnetization in the center of the Y-junction, eventually arguing that it provides an effective tool to monitor the onset of the two-channel Kondo effect.
Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory
Niedzielski, Bethany M.; Gingrich, Eric C.; Khasawneh, Mazin A.; Loloee, Reza; Pratt, William P., Jr.; Birge, Norman O.
2015-03-01
Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials are of interest for both scientific and technological purposes. In principle, either the amplitude of the critical current or superconducting phase shift across the junction can be controlled by the relative magnetization directions of the ferromagnetic layers in the junction. Our approach concentrates on phase control utilizing two junctions in a SQUID geometry. We will report on efforts to control the phase of junctions carrying either spin-singlet or spin-triplet supercurrent for cryogenic memory applications. Supported by Northorp Grumman Corporation and by IARPA under SPAWAR Contract N66001-12-C-2017.
Method of manufacturing Josephson junction integrated circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jillie, D.W. Jr.; Smith, L.N.
1985-01-01
Josephson junction integrated circuits of the current injection type and magnetically controlled type utilize a superconductive layer that forms both Josephson junction electrode for the Josephson junction devices on the integrated circuit as well as a ground plane for the integrated circuit. Large area Josephson junctions are utilized for effecting contact to lower superconductive layers and islands are formed in superconductive layers to provide isolation between the groudplane function and the Josephson junction electrode function as well as to effect crossovers. A superconductor-barrier-superconductor trilayer patterned by local anodization is also utilized with additional layers formed thereover. Methods of manufacturing the embodiments of the invention are disclosed
Molecular series-tunneling junctions.
Liao, Kung-Ching; Hsu, Liang-Yan; Bowers, Carleen M; Rabitz, Herschel; Whitesides, George M
2015-05-13
Charge transport through junctions consisting of insulating molecular units is a quantum phenomenon that cannot be described adequately by classical circuit laws. This paper explores tunneling current densities in self-assembled monolayer (SAM)-based junctions with the structure Ag(TS)/O2C-R1-R2-H//Ga2O3/EGaIn, where Ag(TS) is template-stripped silver and EGaIn is the eutectic alloy of gallium and indium; R1 and R2 refer to two classes of insulating molecular units-(CH2)n and (C6H4)m-that are connected in series and have different tunneling decay constants in the Simmons equation. These junctions can be analyzed as a form of series-tunneling junctions based on the observation that permuting the order of R1 and R2 in the junction does not alter the overall rate of charge transport. By using the Ag/O2C interface, this system decouples the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO, which is localized on the carboxylate group) from strong interactions with the R1 and R2 units. The differences in rates of tunneling are thus determined by the electronic structure of the groups R1 and R2; these differences are not influenced by the order of R1 and R2 in the SAM. In an electrical potential model that rationalizes this observation, R1 and R2 contribute independently to the height of the barrier. This model explicitly assumes that contributions to rates of tunneling from the Ag(TS)/O2C and H//Ga2O3 interfaces are constant across the series examined. The current density of these series-tunneling junctions can be described by J(V) = J0(V) exp(-β1d1 - β2d2), where J(V) is the current density (A/cm(2)) at applied voltage V and βi and di are the parameters describing the attenuation of the tunneling current through a rectangular tunneling barrier, with width d and a height related to the attenuation factor β.
Representations of the infinite symmetric group
Borodin, Alexei
2016-01-01
Representation theory of big groups is an important and quickly developing part of modern mathematics, giving rise to a variety of important applications in probability and mathematical physics. This book provides the first concise and self-contained introduction to the theory on the simplest yet very nontrivial example of the infinite symmetric group, focusing on its deep connections to probability, mathematical physics, and algebraic combinatorics. Following a discussion of the classical Thoma's theorem which describes the characters of the infinite symmetric group, the authors describe explicit constructions of an important class of representations, including both the irreducible and generalized ones. Complete with detailed proofs, as well as numerous examples and exercises which help to summarize recent developments in the field, this book will enable graduates to enhance their understanding of the topic, while also aiding lecturers and researchers in related areas.
Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Søndergaard, Peter Lempel
2006-01-01
In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....
Symmetric configurations highlighted by collective quantum coherence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Obster, Dennis [Radboud University, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Sasakura, Naoki [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan)
2017-11-15
Recent developments in quantum gravity have shown the Lorentzian treatment to be a fruitful approach towards the emergence of macroscopic space-times. In this paper, we discuss another related aspect of the Lorentzian treatment: we argue that collective quantum coherence may provide a simple mechanism for highlighting symmetric configurations over generic non-symmetric ones. After presenting the general framework of the mechanism, we show the phenomenon in some concrete simple examples in the randomly connected tensor network, which is tightly related to a certain model of quantum gravity, i.e., the canonical tensor model. We find large peaks at configurations invariant under Lie-group symmetries as well as a preference for charge quantization, even in the Abelian case. In future study, this simple mechanism may provide a way to analyze the emergence of macroscopic space-times with global symmetries as well as various other symmetries existing in nature, which are usually postulated. (orig.)
Overlap-free symmetric D 0 Lwords
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Frid
2001-12-01
Full Text Available A D0L word on an alphabet Σ={0,1,…,q-1} is called symmetric if it is a fixed point w=φ(w of a morphism φ:Σ * → Σ * defined by φ(i= t 1 + i t 2 + i … t m + i for some word t 1 t 2 … t m (equal to φ(0 and every i ∈ Σ; here a means a mod q. We prove a result conjectured by J. Shallit: if all the symbols in φ(0 are distinct (i.e., if t i ≠ t j for i ≠ j, then the symmetric D0L word w is overlap-free, i.e., contains no factor of the form axaxa for any x ∈ Σ * and a ∈ Σ.
Young—Capelli symmetrizers in superalgebras†
Brini, Andrea; Teolis, Antonio G. B.
1989-01-01
Let Supern[U [unk] V] be the nth homogeneous subspace of the supersymmetric algebra of U [unk] V, where U and V are Z2-graded vector spaces over a field K of characteristic zero. The actions of the general linear Lie superalgebras pl(U) and pl(V) span two finite-dimensional K-subalgebras B and [unk] of EndK(Supern[U [unk] V]) that are the centralizers of each other. Young—Capelli symmetrizers and Young—Capelli *-symmetrizers give rise to K-linear bases of B and [unk] containing orthogonal systems of idempotents; thus they yield complete decompositions of B and [unk] into minimal left and right ideals, respectively. PMID:16594014
Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements
Ceylan, Duygu
2012-05-01
We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.
Commutative curvature operators over four-dimensional generalized symmetric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Haji-Badali
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Commutative properties of four-dimensional generalized symmetric pseudo-Riemannian manifolds were considered. Specially, in this paper, we studied Skew-Tsankov and Jacobi-Tsankov conditions in 4-dimensional pseudo-Riemannian generalized symmetric manifolds.
Ponferrada, Virgilio G.; Fan, Jieqing; Vallance, Jefferson E.; Hu, Shengyong; Mamedova, Aygun; Rankin, Scott A.; Kofron, Matthew; Zorn, Aaron M.; Hegde, Rashmi S.; Lang, Richard A.
2012-01-01
In multicellular organisms, morphogenesis is a highly coordinated process that requires dynamically regulated adhesion between cells. An excellent example of cellular morphogenesis is the formation of the neural tube from the flattened epithelium of the neural plate. Cysteine-rich motor neuron protein 1 (CRIM1) is a single-pass (type 1) transmembrane protein that is expressed in neural structures beginning at the neural plate stage. In the frog Xenopus laevis, loss of function studies using C...
Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. P. Lampreia
2005-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.
A symmetric Roos bound for linear codes
Duursma, I.M.; Pellikaan, G.R.
2006-01-01
The van Lint–Wilson AB-method yields a short proof of the Roos bound for the minimum distance of a cyclic code. We use the AB-method to obtain a different bound for the weights of a linear code. In contrast to the Roos bound, the role of the codes A and B in our bound is symmetric. We use the bound
Symmetric voltage-controlled variable resistance
Vanelli, J. C.
1978-01-01
Feedback network makes resistance of field-effect transistor (FET) same for current flowing in either direction. It combines control voltage with source and load voltages to give symmetric current/voltage characteristics. Since circuit produces same magnitude output voltage for current flowing in either direction, it introduces no offset in presense of altering polarity signals. It is therefore ideal for sensor and effector circuits in servocontrol systems.
Resistor Networks based on Symmetrical Polytopes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeremy Moody
2015-03-01
Full Text Available This paper shows how a method developed by Van Steenwijk can be generalized to calculate the resistance between any two vertices of a symmetrical polytope all of whose edges are identical resistors. The method is applied to a number of cases that have not been studied earlier such as the Archimedean polyhedra and their duals in three dimensions, the regular polytopes in four dimensions and the hypercube in any number of dimensions.
Symmetric vs. asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery
Engel, Christoph; Goerg, Sebastian J.; Yu, Gaoneng
2012-01-01
In major legal orders such as UK, the U.S., Germany, and France, bribers and recipients face equally severe criminal sanctions. In contrast, countries like China, Russia, and Japan treat the briber more mildly. Given these differences between symmetric and asymmetric punishment regimes for bribery, one may wonder which punishment strategy is more effective in curbing corruption. For this purpose, we designed and ran a lab experiment in Bonn (Germany) and Shanghai (China) with exactly the same...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondal, D.; RoyChaudhuri, C., E-mail: chirosreepram@yahoo.com [Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India); Pal, D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah 711103 (India)
2015-07-28
Oxidized porous silicon (PS) is a common topographical biocompatible substrate that potentially provides a distinct in vitro environment for better understanding of in vivo behavior. But in the reported studies on oxidized PS, cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions have been detected only by fluorescent labeling. This paper is the first attempt to investigate real-time sensing of these interactions on HaCaT cells by label-free impedance spectroscopy on oxidized PS of two pore diameters (50 and 500 nm). One of the major requirements for successful impedance spectroscopy measurement is to restrict the channeling of electric field lines through the pores. To satisfy this criterion, we have designed the pore depths after analyzing the penetration of the medium by using computational fluid dynamics simulation. A distributed electrical model was also developed for estimating the various cellular attributes by considering a pseudorandom distribution of pores. It is observed from the impedance measurements and from the model that the proliferation rate increases for 50 nm pores but decreases for 500 nm pores compared to that for planar substrates. The rate of decrease in cell substrate separation (h) in the initial stage is more than the rate of increase in cell-cell junction resistance (R{sub b}) corresponding to the initial adhesion phase of cells. It is observed that R{sub b} and h are higher for 50 nm pores than those for planar substrates, corresponding to the fact that substrates more conducive toward cell adhesion encourage cell-cell interactions than direct cell-substrate interactions. Thus, the impedance spectroscopy coupled with the proposed theoretical framework for PS substrates can sense and quantify the cellular interactions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mondal, D.; RoyChaudhuri, C.; Pal, D.
2015-01-01
Oxidized porous silicon (PS) is a common topographical biocompatible substrate that potentially provides a distinct in vitro environment for better understanding of in vivo behavior. But in the reported studies on oxidized PS, cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions have been detected only by fluorescent labeling. This paper is the first attempt to investigate real-time sensing of these interactions on HaCaT cells by label-free impedance spectroscopy on oxidized PS of two pore diameters (50 and 500 nm). One of the major requirements for successful impedance spectroscopy measurement is to restrict the channeling of electric field lines through the pores. To satisfy this criterion, we have designed the pore depths after analyzing the penetration of the medium by using computational fluid dynamics simulation. A distributed electrical model was also developed for estimating the various cellular attributes by considering a pseudorandom distribution of pores. It is observed from the impedance measurements and from the model that the proliferation rate increases for 50 nm pores but decreases for 500 nm pores compared to that for planar substrates. The rate of decrease in cell substrate separation (h) in the initial stage is more than the rate of increase in cell-cell junction resistance (R b ) corresponding to the initial adhesion phase of cells. It is observed that R b and h are higher for 50 nm pores than those for planar substrates, corresponding to the fact that substrates more conducive toward cell adhesion encourage cell-cell interactions than direct cell-substrate interactions. Thus, the impedance spectroscopy coupled with the proposed theoretical framework for PS substrates can sense and quantify the cellular interactions
Flexible 2D layered material junctions
Balabai, R.; Solomenko, A.
2018-03-01
Within the framework of the methods of the electron density functional and the ab initio pseudopotential, we have obtained the valence electron density spatial distribution, the densities of electron states, the widths of band gaps, the charges on combined regions, and the Coulomb potentials for graphene-based flexible 2D layered junctions, using author program complex. It is determined that the bending of the 2D layered junctions on the angle α leads to changes in the electronic properties of these junctions. In the graphene/graphane junction, there is clear charge redistribution with different signs in the regions of junctions. The presence in the heterojunctions of charge regions with different signs leads to the formation of potential barriers. The greatest potential jump is in the graphene/fluorographene junction. The greatest value of the band gap width is in the graphene/graphane junction.
House Dust Mite Der p 1 Effects on Sinonasal Epithelial Tight Junctions
Henriquez, Oswaldo A.; Beste, Kyle Den; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K.
2013-01-01
Background Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Methods Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen versus control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of tight junction proteins was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Results Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1 exposed cultured sinonasal cells versus controls. Conclusion Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. PMID:23592402
Symmetric scrolled packings of multilayered carbon nanoribbons
Savin, A. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Lobzenko, I. P.; Baimova, Yu. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.
2016-06-01
Scrolled packings of single-layer and multilayer graphene can be used for the creation of supercapacitors, nanopumps, nanofilters, and other nanodevices. The full atomistic simulation of graphene scrolls is restricted to consideration of relatively small systems in small time intervals. To overcome this difficulty, a two-dimensional chain model making possible an efficient calculation of static and dynamic characteristics of nanoribbon scrolls with allowance for the longitudinal and bending stiffness of nanoribbons is proposed. The model is extended to the case of scrolls of multilayer graphene. Possible equilibrium states of symmetric scrolls of multilayer carbon nanotribbons rolled up so that all nanoribbons in the scroll are equivalent are found. Dependences of the number of coils, the inner and outer radii, lowest vibrational eigenfrequencies of rolled packages on the length L of nanoribbons are obtained. It is shown that the lowest vibrational eigenfrequency of a symmetric scroll decreases with a nanoribbon length proportionally to L -1. It is energetically unfavorable for too short nanoribbons to roll up, and their ground state is a stack of plane nanoribbons. With an increasing number k of layers, the nanoribbon length L necessary for creation of symmetric scrolls increases. For a sufficiently small number of layers k and a sufficiently large nanoribbon length L, the scrolled packing has the lowest energy as compared to that of stack of plane nanoribbons and folded structures. The results can be used for development of nanomaterials and nanodevices on the basis of graphene scrolled packings.
Is the Universe matter-antimatter symmetric
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfven, H.
1976-09-01
According to the symmetric cosmology there should be antimatter regions in space which are equally as large as the matter regions. The regions of different kind are separated by Leidenfrost layers, which may be very thin and not observable from a distance. This view has met resistance which in part is based on the old view that the dilute interstellar and intergalactic medium is more or less homogeneous. However, through space research in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space we know that thin layers, dividing space into regions of different magnetisation, exist and based on this it is concluded that space in general has a cellular structure. This result may break down the psychological resistance to the symmetric theory. The possibility that every second star in our galaxy consists of antimatter is discussed, and it is shown that this view is not in conflict with any observations. As most stars are likely to be surrounded by solar systems of a structure like our own, it is concluded that collisions between comets and antistars (or anticomets and stars) would be rather frequent. Such collisions would result in phenomena of the same type as the observed cosmic γ-ray bursts. Another support for the symmetric cosmology is the continuous X-ray background radiation. Also many of the observed large energy releases in cosmos are likely to be due to annihilation
On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...
Josephson junctions and circle maps
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bak, P; Bohr, T; Jensen, M H; Christiansen, P V
1984-01-01
The return map of a differential equation for the current driven Josephson junction, or the damped driven pendulum, is shown numerically to be a circle map. Phase locking, noise and hysteresis, can thus be understood in a simple and coherent way. The transition to chaos is related to the development of a cubic inflection point. Recent theoretical results on universal behavior at the transition to chaos can readily be checked experimentally by studying I-V characteristics. 17 references, 1 figure.
Squeezed States in Josephson Junctions.
Hu, X.; Nori, F.
1996-03-01
We have studied quantum fluctuation properties of Josephson junctions in the limit of large Josephson coupling energy and small charging energy, when the eigenstates of the system can be treated as being nearly localized. We have considered(X. Hu and F. Nori, preprints.) a Josephson junction in a variety of situations, e.g., coupled to one or several of the following elements: a capacitor, an inductor (in a superconducting ring), and an applied current source. By solving an effective Shrödinger equation, we have obtained squeezed vacuum (coherent) states as the ground states of a ``free-oscillating'' (linearly-driven) Josephson junction, and calculated the uncertainties of its canonical momentum, charge, and coordinate, phase. We have also shown that the excited states of the various systems we consider are similar to the number states of a simple harmonic oscillator but with different fluctuation properties. Furthermore, we have obtained the time-evolution operators for these systems. These operators can make it easier to calculate the time-dependence of the expectation values and fluctuations of various quantities starting from an arbitrary initial state.
Superconducting tunnel-junction refrigerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melton, R.G.; Paterson, J.L.; Kaplan, S.B.
1980-01-01
The dc current through an S 1 -S 2 tunnel junction, with Δ 2 greater than Δ 1 , when biased with eV 1 +Δ 2 , will lower the energy in S 1 . This energy reduction will be shared by the phonons and electrons. This device is shown to be analogous to a thermoelectric refrigerator with an effective Peltier coefficient π* approx. Δ 1 /e. Tunneling calculations yield the cooling power P/sub c/, the electrical power P/sub e/ supplied by the bias supply, and the cooling efficiency eta=P/sub c//P/sub e/. The maximum cooling power is obtained for eV= +- (Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) and t 1 =T 1 /T/sub c/1 approx. 0.9. Estimates are made of the temperature difference T 2 -T 1 achievable in Al-Pb and Sn-Pb junctions with an Al 2 O 3 tunneling barrier. The performance of this device is shown to yield a maximum cooling efficiency eta approx. = Δ 1 /(Δ 2 -Δ 1 ) which can be compared with that available in an ideal Carnot refrigerator of eta=T 1 /(T 2 -T 1 ). The development of a useful tunnel-junction refrigerator requires a tunneling barrier with an effective thermal conductance per unit area several orders of magnitude less than that provided by the A1 2 O 3 barrier in the Al-Pb and Sn-Pb systems
Dual formulation of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric action of kappa-symmetric D3-brane
Vanichchapongjaroen, Pichet
2018-02-01
We study the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation. Essentially, the construction is the PST-covariantisation and nonlinearisation of Zwanziger action. The covariantisation made use of three auxiliary scalar fields. Apart from these, the construction proceed in a similar way to that of the standard formulation. For example, the theories can be extended to include interactions with external fields, and that the theories possess two local PST symmetries. We then explicitly demonstrate the construction of covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric actions in dual formulation of DBI theory, and D3-brane. For each of these theories, the twisted selfduality condition obtained from duality-symmetric actions are explicitly shown to match with the duality relation between field strength and its dual from the one-potential actions. Their on-shell actions between the duality-symmetric and the one-potential versions are also shown to match. We also explicitly prove kappa-symmetry of the covariant nonlinear duality-symmetric D3-brane action in dual formulation.
Eppenberger, H M; Zuppinger, C
1999-01-01
Primary adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC)in culture are shown to be a model system for cardiac cell hypertrophy in vitro. ARC undergo a process of morphological transformation and grow only by increase in cell size, however, without loss of the cardiac phenotype. The isolated cells spread and establish new cell-cell contacts, eventually forming a two-dimensional heart tissue-like synchronously beating cell sheet. The reformation of specific cell contacts (intercalated disks) is shown also between ventricular and atrial cardiomyocytes by using antibodies against the gap junction protein connexin-43 and after microinjection into ARC of N-cadherin cDNA fused to reporter green fluorescent protein (GFP) cDNA. The expressed fusion protein allowed the study of live cell cultures and of the dynamics of the adherens junction protein N-cadherin during the formation of new cell-cell contacts. The possible use of the formed ARC cell-sheet cells under microgravity conditions as a test system for the reformation of the cytoskeleton of heart muscle cells is proposed.
Engineered cell-cell communication via DNA messaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ortiz Monica E
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution has selected for organisms that benefit from genetically encoded cell-cell communication. Engineers have begun to repurpose elements of natural communication systems to realize programmed pattern formation and coordinate other population-level behaviors. However, existing engineered systems rely on system-specific small molecules to send molecular messages among cells. Thus, the information transmission capacity of current engineered biological communication systems is physically limited by specific biomolecules that are capable of sending only a single message, typically “regulate transcription.” Results We have engineered a cell-cell communication platform using bacteriophage M13 gene products to autonomously package and deliver heterologous DNA messages of varying lengths and encoded functions. We demonstrate the decoupling of messages from a common communication channel via the autonomous transmission of various arbitrary genetic messages. Further, we increase the range of engineered DNA messaging across semisolid media by linking message transmission or receipt to active cellular chemotaxis. Conclusions We demonstrate decoupling of a communication channel from message transmission within engineered biological systems via the autonomous targeted transduction of user-specified heterologous DNA messages. We also demonstrate that bacteriophage M13 particle production and message transduction occurs among chemotactic bacteria. We use chemotaxis to improve the range of DNA messaging, increasing both transmission distance and communication bit rates relative to existing small molecule-based communication systems. We postulate that integration of different engineered cell-cell communication platforms will allow for more complex spatial programming of dynamic cellular consortia.
Spherically symmetric self-similar universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dyer, C C [Toronto Univ., Ontario (Canada)
1979-10-01
A spherically symmetric self-similar dust-filled universe is considered as a simple model of a hierarchical universe. Observable differences between the model in parabolic expansion and the corresponding homogeneous Einstein-de Sitter model are considered in detail. It is found that an observer at the centre of the distribution has a maximum observable redshift and can in principle see arbitrarily large blueshifts. It is found to yield an observed density-distance law different from that suggested by the observations of de Vaucouleurs. The use of these solutions as central objects for Swiss-cheese vacuoles is discussed.
Dijet rates with symmetric Et cuts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banfi, Andrea; Dasgupta, Mrinal
2004-01-01
We consider dijet production in the region where symmetric cuts on the transverse energy, E t , are applied to the jets. In this region next-to-leading order calculations are unreliable and an all-order resummation of soft gluon effects is needed, which we carry out. Although, for illustrative purposes, we choose dijets produced in deep inelastic scattering, our general ideas apply additionally to dijets produced in photoproduction or gamma-gamma processes and should be relevant also to the study of prompt di-photon E t spectra in association with a recoiling jet, in hadron-hadron processes. (author)
Covariant, chirally symmetric, confining model of mesons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, F.; Milana, J.
1991-01-01
We introduce a new model of mesons as quark-antiquark bound states. The model is covariant, confining, and chirally symmetric. Our equations give an analytic solution for a zero-mass pseudoscalar bound state in the case of exact chiral symmetry, and also reduce to the familiar, highly successful nonrelativistic linear potential models in the limit of heavy-quark mass and lightly bound systems. In this fashion we are constructing a unified description of all the mesons from the π through the Υ. Numerical solutions for other cases are also presented
Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment
Benschop, N. F.
2001-01-01
Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...
Elastic energy for reflection-symmetric topologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majumdar, A; Robbins, J M; Zyskin, M
2006-01-01
Nematic liquid crystals in a polyhedral domain, a prototype for bistable displays, may be described by a unit-vector field subject to tangent boundary conditions. Here we consider the case of a rectangular prism. For configurations with reflection-symmetric topologies, we derive a new lower bound for the one-constant elastic energy. For certain topologies, called conformal and anticonformal, the lower bound agrees with a previous result. For the remaining topologies, called nonconformal, the new bound is an improvement. For nonconformal topologies we derive an upper bound, which differs from the lower bound by a factor depending only on the aspect ratios of the prism
Nanotribology of Symmetric and Asymmetric Liquid Lubricants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shinji Yamada
2010-03-01
Full Text Available When liquid molecules are confined in a narrow gap between smooth surfaces, their dynamic properties are completely different from those of the bulk. The molecular motions are highly restricted and the system exhibits solid-like responses when sheared slowly. This solidification behavior is very dependent on the molecular geometry (shape of liquids because the solidification is induced by the packing of molecules into ordered structures in confinement. This paper reviews the measurements of confined structures and friction of symmetric and asymmetric liquid lubricants using the surface forces apparatus. The results show subtle and complex friction mechanisms at the molecular scale.
Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Marais, Laurette
2016-07-01
Full Text Available stream_source_info Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 796 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name Marais_2016_ABSTRACT.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 18th... International Workshop on Descriptional Complexity of Formal Systems, 5 - 8 July 2016, Bucharest, Romania Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata Laurette Marais1,2 and Lynette van Zijl1(B) 1 Department of Computer Science, Stellenbosch...
Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, L.; Dimmock, M.R.; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Nolan, P.J.; Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J.; Medina, P.; Santos, C.; Parisel, C.
2007-01-01
The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A 137 Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented
How Symmetrical Assumptions Advance Strategic Management Research
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foss, Nicolai Juul; Hallberg, Hallberg
2014-01-01
We develop the case for symmetrical assumptions in strategic management theory. Assumptional symmetry obtains when assumptions made about certain actors and their interactions in one of the application domains of a theory are also made about this set of actors and their interactions in other...... application domains of the theory. We argue that assumptional symmetry leads to theoretical advancement by promoting the development of theory with greater falsifiability and stronger ontological grounding. Thus, strategic management theory may be advanced by systematically searching for asymmetrical...
Characterisation of an AGATA symmetric prototype detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, L. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ln@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Dimmock, M.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: mrd@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, A.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: ajb@ns.ph.liv.ac.uk; Boston, H.C. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Cresswell, J.R. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Nolan, P.J. [Oliver Lodge Laboratory, University of Liverpool, Oxford Street, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Simpson, J. [CCLRC Daresbury Laboratory, Daresbury, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Medina, P. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Santos, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France); Parisel, C. [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg BP28 67037 (France)
2007-04-01
The Advanced GAmma Tracking Array (AGATA) symmetric prototype detector has been tested at University of Liverpool. A {sup 137}Ce source, collimated to a 2 mm diameter, was scanned across the front face of the detector and data were acquired utilising digital electronics. Pulse shapes from a selection of well-defined photon interaction positions have been analysed to investigate the position sensitivity of the detector. Furthermore, the application of the electric field simulation software, Multi Geometry Simulation (MGS) to generate theoretical pulse shapes for AGATA detectors has been presented.
Soft theorems for shift-symmetric cosmologies
Finelli, Bernardo; Goon, Garrett; Pajer, Enrico; Santoni, Luca
2018-03-01
We derive soft theorems for single-clock cosmologies that enjoy a shift symmetry. These so-called consistency conditions arise from a combination of a large diffeomorphism and the internal shift symmetry and fix the squeezed limit of all correlators with a soft scalar mode. As an application, we show that our results reproduce the squeezed bispectrum for ultra-slow-roll inflation, a particular shift-symmetric, nonattractor model which is known to violate Maldacena's consistency relation. Similar results have been previously obtained by Mooij and Palma using background-wave methods. Our results shed new light on the infrared structure of single-clock cosmological spacetimes.
Pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamsunnahar, T.; Saha, S.; Kabir, K.; Nath, L.M.
1991-01-01
We have investigated the possibility of pion condensation in symmetric nuclear matter using a model of pion-nucleon interaction based essentially on chiral SU(2) x SU(2) symmetry. We have found that pion condensation is not possible for any finite value of the density. Consequently, no critical opalescence phenomenon is likely to be seen in pion-nucleus scattering nor is it likely to be possible to explain the EMC effect in terms of an increased number of pions in the nucleus. (author)
Baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stecker, F.W.
1978-04-01
The framework of baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology offers the greatest potential for deducing the evolution of the universe as a consequence of physical laws and processes with the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions as to initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed, and also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic gamma ray background radiation.
Baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stecker, F.W.
1978-04-01
The framework of baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology offers the greatest potential for deducing the evolution of the universe as a consequence of physical laws and processes with the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions as to initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed, and also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic gamma ray background radiation
Geometrodynamics of spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunstatter, Gabor; Taves, Tim; Maeda, Hideki
2012-01-01
We derive the Hamiltonian for spherically symmetric Lovelock gravity using the geometrodynamics approach pioneered by Kuchar (1994 Phys. Rev. D 50 3961) in the context of four-dimensional general relativity. When written in terms of the areal radius, the generalized Misner-Sharp mass and their conjugate momenta, the generic Lovelock action and Hamiltonian take on precisely the same simple forms as in general relativity. This result supports the interpretation of Lovelock gravity as the natural higher dimensional extension of general relativity. It also provides an important first step towards the study of the quantum mechanics, Hamiltonian thermodynamics and formation of generic Lovelock black holes. (fast track communication)
The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D
2014-01-01
as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known......) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions....
Geodynamical simulation of the RRF triple junction
Wang, Z.; Wei, D.; Liu, M.; Shi, Y.; Wang, S.
2017-12-01
Triple junction is the point at which three plate boundaries meet. Three plates at the triple junction form a complex geological tectonics, which is a natural laboratory to study the interactions of plates. This work studies a special triple junction, the oceanic transform fault intersects the collinear ridges with different-spreading rates, which is free of influence of ridge-transform faults and nearby hotspots. First, we build 3-D numerical model of this triple junction used to calculate the stead-state velocity and temperature fields resulting from advective and conductive heat transfer. We discuss in detail the influence of the velocity and temperature fields of the triple junction from viscosity, spreading rate of the ridge. The two sides of the oceanic transform fault are different sensitivities to the two factors. And, the influence of the velocity mainly occurs within 200km of the triple junction. Then, we modify the model by adding a ridge-transform fault to above model and directly use the velocity structure of the Macquarie triple junction. The simulation results show that the temperature at both sides of the oceanic transform fault decreases gradually from the triple junction, but the temperature difference between the two sides is a constant about 200°. And, there is little effect of upwelling velocity away from the triple junction 100km. The model results are compared with observational data. The heat flux and thermal topography along the oceanic transform fault of this model are consistent with the observed data of the Macquarie triple junction. The earthquakes are strike slip distributed along the oceanic transform fault. Their depths are also consistent with the zone of maximum shear stress. This work can help us to understand the interactions of plates of triple junctions and help us with the foundation for the future study of triple junctions.
Hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Refai, T.F.; Shehata, L.N.
1988-09-01
The resistively and capacitive shunted junction model is used to investigate hysteresis development in superconducting Josephson junctions. Two empirical formulas that relate the hysteresis width and the quasi-particle diffusion length in terms of the junctions electrical parameters, temperature and frequency are obtained. The obtained formulas provide a simple tool to investigate the full potentials of the hysteresis phenomena. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs
MRI gel dosimetry for verification of mono-isocentric junction doses in head and neck radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Back, S.A.J.; Jayasekera, P.M.; Lepage, M.; Baldock, C.; Menzies, N.; Back, P.
2000-01-01
Full text: The use of independent collimators in the abutment of two adjacent treatment volumes, as in head and neck radiation treatments, consists typically of positioning the collimator rotation axis (CRA) at the junction of the volumes, and offsetting each field by its half-field width. This has the effect of positioning one of the collimator jaws at the CRA for each field. However, misalignment of the jaws can lead to variations in dose uniformity in the junction region. We have used gel dosimetry to measure junction doses in three dimensions. PAG gel MRI was used to investigate junction dosimetry for a mono-isocentriic treatment of two orthogonal pairs of opposed (ant/post and lateral) 6 MV x-ray beams. PAG gels in an 11cm diameter cylindrical gel phantom were imaged using a Siemens Vision 1.5 T MRI. The exposures were made using a Philips SL 20 linear accelerator with independent jaws that were known to overlap at the isocentre for sequential abutting offset (within manufacturer's specifications for symmetric fields). X-Omat V films were exposed in mono-directional beams, and optically scanned for comparison. Measurements of off-axis ratios and of relative depth profiles using gel MRI and perpendicular film were in excellent agreement with each other. Measurements through the multi-directional junction at the isocentre are illustrated in the graph, for orthogonal planes centred at the isocentre of the neck phantom. They demonstrate a minimum dose of 75 % of that of the adjacent 'treatment' regions, which agrees closely with the results measured (72%) in the mono-directional case with film. We conclude that this measurement confirms that junction dosimetry at the isocentre measured with perpendicular film for a single direction is a good approximation to the situation in multiple directions. Copyright (2000) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine
Distributions of chain ends and junction points in ordered block copolymers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayes, A.M.; Johnson, R.D.; Russell, T.P.; Smith, S.D.; Satija, S.K.; Majkrzak, C.F.
1993-01-01
Chain configurations in ordered symmetric poly(styrene-b-methyl methacrylate) diblock copolymers were examined by neutron reflectively. In a thin-film geometry the copolymers organize into lamellar microdomains oriented parallel to the substrate surface. The copolymers organize into lamellar microdomains oriented parallel to the substrate surface. The copolymers were synthesized with small fractions of deuterated segments at either the chain ends or centers. This selective labeling permitted characterization of the spatial distribution of chain ends and junction points normal to the plane of the film. From the reflectivity analysis, the junction points are found to be confined to the PS/PMMA interfacial regions. The chain ends, however, are well distributed through their respective domains, exhibiting only a weak maximum in concentration at the center of the domains
Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.
1993-01-01
A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...
Loss models for long Josephson junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1984-01-01
A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement.......A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement....
Harmonic synchronization in resistively coupled Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blackburn, J.A.; Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Smith, H.J.T.
1994-01-01
The oscillations of two resistively coupled Josephson junctions biased only by a single dc current source are shown to lock harmonically in a 1:2 mode over a significant range of bias current, even when the junctions are identical. The dependence of this locking on both junction and coupling parameters is examined, and it is found that, for this particular two-junction configuration, 1:1 locking can never occur, and also that a minimum coupling coefficient is needed to support harmonic locking. Some issues related to subharmonic locking are also discussed
Superconducting flux qubits with π-junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shcherbakova, Anastasia
2014-01-01
In this thesis, we present a fabrication technology of Al/AlO x /Al Josephson junctions on Nb pads. The described technology gives the possibility of combining a variety of Nb-based superconducting circuits, like pi-junction phase-shifters with sub-micron Al/AlO x /Al junctions. Using this approach, we fabricated hybrid Nb/Al flux qubits with and without the SFS-junctions and studied dispersive magnetic field response of these qubits as well as their spectroscopy characteristics.
Influences of triple junctions on stress-assisted grain boundary motion in nanocrystalline materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aramfard, Mohammad; Deng, Chuang
2014-01-01
Stress-assisted grain boundary motion is among the most studied modes of microstructural evolution in crystalline materials. In this study, molecular dynamics simulations were used to systematically investigate the influences of triple junctions on the stress-assisted motion of symmetric tilt grain boundaries in Cu by considering a honeycomb nanocrystalline model. It was found that the grain boundary motion in nanocrystalline models was highly sensitive to the loading mode, and a strong coupling effect which was prevalent in bicrystal models was only observed when simple shear was applied. In addition, the coupling factor extracted from the honeycomb model was found to be larger and more sensitive to temperature change than that from bicrystal models for the same type of grain boundary under the same loading conditions. Furthermore, the triple junctions seemed to exhibit unusual asymmetric pinning effects to the migrating grain boundary and the constraints by the triple junctions and neighboring grains led to remarkable non-linear grain boundary motion in directions both parallel and normal to the applied shear, which was in stark contrast to that observed in bicrystal models. In addition, dislocation nucleation and propagation, which were absent in the bicrystal model, were found to play an important role on shear-induced grain boundary motion when triple junctions were present. In the end, a generalized model for shear-assisted grain boundary motion was proposed based on the findings from this research. (paper)
The electronic structure of radial p-n junction silicon nanowires
Chiou, Shan-Haw; Grossman, Jeffrey
2007-03-01
Silicon nanowires with radial p-n junctions have recently been suggested for photovoltaic applications because incident light can be absorbed along the entire length of the wire, while photogenerated carriers only need to diffuse a maximum of one radius to reach the p-n junction. If the differential of the potential is larger than the binding energy of the electron-hole pair and has a range larger than the Bohr radius of electron-hole pair, then the charge separation mechanism will be similar to traditional silicon solar cells. However, in the small-diameter limit, where quantum confinement effects are prominent, both the exciton binding energy and the potential drop will increase, and the p-n junction itself may have a dramatically different character. We present ab initio calculations based on the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) of silicon nanowires with 2-3 nm diameter in the [111] growth direction. A radial p-n junction was formed by symmetrically doping boron and phosphorous at the same vertical level along the axis of the nanowire. The competition between the slope and character of the radial electronic potential and the exciton binding energy will presented in the context of a charge separation mechanism.
Rectified tunneling current response of bio-functionalized metal-bridge-metal junctions.
Liu, Yaqing; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Mayer, Dirk
2010-01-15
Biomolecular bridged nanostructures allow direct electrical addressing of electroactive biomolecules, which is of interest for the development of bioelectronic and biosensing hybrid junctions. In the present paper, the electroactive biomolecule microperoxidase-11 (MP-11) was integrated into metal-bridge-metal (MBM) junctions assembled from a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) setup. Before immobilization of MP-11, the Au working electrode was first modified by a self-assembled monolayer of 1-undecanethiol (UDT). A symmetric and potential independent response of current-bias voltage (I(t)/V(b)) was observed for the Au (substrate)/UDT/Au (tip) junction. However, the I(t)/V(b) characteristics became potential dependent and asymmetrical after binding of MP-11 between the electrodes of the junction. The rectification ratio of the asymmetric current response varies with gate electrode modulation. A resonant tunneling process between metal electrode and MP-11 enhances the tunneling current and is responsible for the observed rectification. Our investigations demonstrated that functional building blocks of proteins can be reassembled into new conceptual devices with operation modes deviating from their native function, which could prove highly useful in the design of future biosensors and bioelectronic devices. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Low voltage excess noise and shot noise in YBCO bicrystal junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.
2002-01-01
The spectral density of background noise emitted by symmetric bicrystal YBaCuO Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates have been measured by a low noise cooled HEMT amplifier for bias voltages up to V approximate to 50 mV. At relatively low voltages V noise rise has been...... registered. At large bias voltages V > 30 mV a clear dependence of noise power. exactly coinciding to the asymptote of the Schottky shot noise function, has been observed for the first time. Experimental results are discussed in terms of multiple Andreev reflections which may take place in d...
Electroweak Baryogenesis in R-symmetric Supersymmetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Tsai, Yuhsin
2013-03-01
We demonstrate that electroweak baryogenesis can occur in a supersymmetric model with an exact R-symmetry. The minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric model contains chiral superfields in the adjoint representation, giving Dirac gaugino masses, and an additional set of "R-partner" Higgs superfields, giving R-symmetric \\mu-terms. New superpotential couplings between the adjoints and the Higgs fields can simultaneously increase the strength of the electroweak phase transition and provide additional tree-level contributions to the lightest Higgs mass. Notably, no light stop is present in this framework, and in fact, we require both stops to be above a few TeV to provide sufficient radiative corrections to the lightest Higgs mass to bring it up to 125 GeV. Large CP-violating phases in the gaugino/higgsino sector allow us to match the baryon asymmetry of the Universe with no constraints from electric dipole moments due to R-symmetry. We briefly discuss some of the more interesting phenomenology, particularly of the of the lightest CP-odd scalar.
Linford, Andrea; Yoshimura, Shin-ichiro; Nunes Bastos, Ricardo; Langemeyer, Lars; Gerondopoulos, Andreas; Rigden, Daniel J; Barr, Francis A
2012-05-15
Rab GTPases define the vesicle trafficking pathways underpinning cell polarization and migration. Here, we find that Rab4, Rab11, and Rab14 and the candidate Rab GDP-GTP exchange factors (GEFs) FAM116A and AVL9 are required for cell migration. Rab14 and its GEF FAM116A localize to and act on an intermediate compartment of the transferrin-recycling pathway prior to Rab11 and after Rab5 and Rab4. This Rab14 intermediate recycling compartment has specific functions in migrating cells discrete from early and recycling endosomes. Rab14-depleted cells show increased N-cadherin levels at junctional complexes and cannot resolve cell-cell junctions. This is due to decreased shedding of cell-surface N-cadherin by the ADAM family protease ADAM10/Kuzbanian. In FAM116A- and Rab14-depleted cells, ADAM10 accumulates in a transferrin-positive endocytic compartment, and the cell-surface level of ADAM10 is correspondingly reduced. FAM116 and Rab14 therefore define an endocytic recycling pathway needed for ADAM protease trafficking and regulation of cell-cell junctions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moog, E.R.; Hawley, M.E.; Gray, K.E.; Liu, J.Z.; Hinks, D.G.; Capone, D.W. II; Downey, J.
1988-06-01
The effects of junction resistance and counterelectrode material on the results of point-contact tunneling studies into single- and polycrystalline YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7-y/ are illustrated. Although reasonably symmetric I(V) curves predominantly indicate energy gap values /Delta/ /approx/ 20 meV, large asymmetries are often found for high-resistance junctions. Very low-resistance junctions show the expected behavior of pure metallic bridge and indicate /Delta/ /approx/ 25-30 meV.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mati Goldberg
Full Text Available A new paradigm has recently emerged in brain science whereby communications between glial cells and neuron-glia interactions should be considered together with neurons and their networks to understand higher brain functions. In particular, astrocytes, the main type of glial cells in the cortex, have been shown to communicate with neurons and with each other. They are thought to form a gap-junction-coupled syncytium supporting cell-cell communication via propagating Ca(2+ waves. An identified mode of propagation is based on cytoplasm-to-cytoplasm transport of inositol trisphosphate (IP(3 through gap junctions that locally trigger Ca(2+ pulses via IP(3-dependent Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release. It is, however, currently unknown whether this intracellular route is able to support the propagation of long-distance regenerative Ca(2+ waves or is restricted to short-distance signaling. Furthermore, the influence of the intracellular signaling dynamics on intercellular propagation remains to be understood. In this work, we propose a model of the gap-junctional route for intercellular Ca(2+ wave propagation in astrocytes. Our model yields two major predictions. First, we show that long-distance regenerative signaling requires nonlinear coupling in the gap junctions. Second, we show that even with nonlinear gap junctions, long-distance regenerative signaling is favored when the internal Ca(2+ dynamics implements frequency modulation-encoding oscillations with pulsating dynamics, while amplitude modulation-encoding dynamics tends to restrict the propagation range. As a result, spatially heterogeneous molecular properties and/or weak couplings are shown to give rise to rich spatiotemporal dynamics that support complex propagation behaviors. These results shed new light on the mechanisms implicated in the propagation of Ca(2+ waves across astrocytes and the precise conditions under which glial cells may participate in information processing in the brain.
Hertig, C M; Butz, S; Koch, S; Eppenberger-Eberhardt, M; Kemler, R; Eppenberger, H M
1996-01-01
The spatio-temporal appearance and distribution of proteins forming the intercalated disc were investigated in adult rat cardiomyocytes (ARC). The 'redifferentiation model' of ARC involves extensive remodelling of the plasma membrane and of the myofibrillar apparatus. It represents a valuable system to elucidate the formation of cell-cell contact between cardiomyocytes and to assess the mechanisms by which different proteins involved in the cell-cell adhesion process are sorted in a precise manner to the sites of function. Appearance of N-cadherin, the catenins and connexin43 within newly formed adherens and gap junctions was studied. Here first evidence is provided for a formation of two distinct and separable N-cadherin/catenin complexes in cardiomyocytes. Both complexes are composed of N-cadherin and alpha-catenin which bind to either beta-catenin or plakoglobin in a mutually exclusive manner. The two N-cadherin/catenin complexes are assumed to be functionally involved in the formation of cell-cell contacts in ARC; however, the differential appearance and localization of the two types of complexes may also point to a specific role during ARC differentiation. The newly synthesized beta-catenin containing complex is more abundant during the first stages in culture after ARC isolation, while the newly synthesized plakoglobin containing complex progressively accumulates during the morphological changes of ARC. ARC formed a tissue-like pattern in culture whereby the new cell-cell contacts could be dissolved through Ca2+ depletion. Presence of cAMP and replenishment of Ca2+ content in the culture medium not only allowed reformation of cell-cell contacts but also affected the relative protein ratio between the two N-cadherin/catenin complexes, increasing the relative amount of newly synthesized beta-catenin over plakoglobin at a particular stage of ARC differentiation. The clustered N-cadherin/catenin complexes at the plasma membrane appear to be a prerequisite for the
Hepatitis C virus cell-cell transmission and resistance to direct-acting antiviral agents
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xiao, Fei; Fofana, Isabel; Heydmann, Laura
2014-01-01
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is transmitted between hepatocytes via classical cell entry but also uses direct cell-cell transfer to infect neighboring hepatocytes. Viral cell-cell transmission has been shown to play an important role in viral persistence allowing evasion from neutralizing antibodies....... In contrast, the role of HCV cell-cell transmission for antiviral resistance is unknown. Aiming to address this question we investigated the phenotype of HCV strains exhibiting resistance to direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) in state-of-the-art model systems for cell-cell transmission and spread. Using HCV...... genotype 2 as a model virus, we show that cell-cell transmission is the main route of viral spread of DAA-resistant HCV. Cell-cell transmission of DAA-resistant viruses results in viral persistence and thus hampers viral eradication. We also show that blocking cell-cell transmission using host...
Elgueta, Raul; Tobar, Jaime A; Shoji, Kenji F; De Calisto, Jaime; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bono, Maria R; Rosemblatt, Mario; Sáez, Juan C
2009-07-01
The acquired immune response begins with Ag presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) to naive T cells in a heterocellular cell-cell contact-dependent process. Although both DCs and T cells are known to express connexin43, a gap junction protein subunit, the role of connexin43 on the initiation of T cell responses remains to be elucidated. In the present work, we report the formation of gap junctions between DCs and T cells and their role on T cell activation during Ag presentation by DCs. In cocultures of DCs and T cells, Lucifer yellow microinjected into DCs is transferred to adjacent transgenic CD4(+) T cells, only if the specific antigenic peptide was present at least during the first 24 h of cocultures. This dye transfer was sensitive to gap junction blockers, such as oleamide, and small peptides containing the extracellular loop sequences of conexin. Furthermore, in this system, gap junction blockers drastically reduced T cell activation as reflected by lower proliferation, CD69 expression, and IL-2 secretion. This lower T cell activation produced by gap junction blockers was not due to a lower expression of CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC-II on DCs. Furthermore, gap junction blocker did not affect polyclonal activation of T cell induced with anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 Abs in the absence of DCs. These results strongly suggest that functional gap junctions assemble at the interface between DCs and T cells during Ag presentation and that they play an essential role in T cell activation.
Seo, Tadahiko; Sakon, Taketo; Nakazawa, Shiori; Nishioka, Asuka; Watanabe, Kohei; Matsumoto, Kaori; Akasaka, Mari; Shioi, Narumi; Sawada, Hitoshi; Araki, Satohiko
2017-06-01
Snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) are members of the a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) family of proteins, as they possess similar domains. SVMPs are known to elicit snake venom-induced haemorrhage; however, the target proteins and cleavage sites are not known. In this work, we identified a target protein of vascular apoptosis-inducing protein 1 (VAP1), an SVMP, relevant to its ability to induce haemorrhage. VAP1 disrupted cell-cell adhesions by relocating VE-cadherin and γ-catenin from the cell-cell junction to the cytosol, without inducing proteolysis of VE-cadherin. The Wnt receptors low-density lipoprotein receptor-related proteins 5 and 6 (LRP5/6) are known to promote catenin relocation, and are rendered constitutively active in Wnt signalling by truncation. Thus, we examined whether VAP1 cleaves LRP5/6 to induce catenin relocation. Indeed, we found that VAP1 cleaved the extracellular region of LRP6 and LRP5. This cleavage removes four inhibitory β-propeller structures, resulting in activation of LRP5/6. Recombinant human ADAM8 and ADAM12 also cleaved LRP6 at the same site. An antibody against a peptide including the LRP6-cleavage site inhibited VAP1-induced VE-cadherin relocation and disruption of cell-cell adhesions in cultured cells, and blocked haemorrhage in mice in vivo. Intriguingly, animals resistant to the effects of haemorrhagic snake venom express variants of LRP5/6 that lack the VAP1-cleavage site, or low-density lipoprotein receptor domain class A domains involved in formation of the constitutively active form. The results validate LRP5/6 as physiological targets of ADAMs. Furthermore, they indicate that SVMP-induced cleavage of LRP5/6 causes disruption of cell-cell adhesion and haemorrhage, potentially opening new avenues for the treatment of snake bites. © 2017 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Linker-dependent Junction Formation Probability in Single-Molecule Junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoo, Pil Sun; Kim, Taekyeong [HankukUniversity of Foreign Studies, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
We compare the junction formation probabilities of single-molecule junctions with different linker molecules by using a scanning tunneling microscope-based break-junction technique. We found that the junction formation probability varies as SH > SMe > NH2 for the benzene backbone molecule with different types of anchoring groups, through quantitative statistical analysis. These results are attributed to different bonding forces according to the linker groups formed with Au atoms in the electrodes, which is consistent with previous works. Our work allows a better understanding of the contact chemistry in the metal.molecule junction for future molecular electronic devices.
Cavity syncronisation of underdamped Josephson junction arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barbara, P.; Filatrella, G.; Lobb, C.
2003-01-01
the junctions in the array and an electromagnetic cavity. Here we show that a model of a one-dimensional array of Josephson junctions coupled to a resonator can produce many features of the coherent be havior above threshold, including coherent radiation of power and the shape of the array current...
Functional anatomy of the human ureterovesical junction
Roshani, H.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.
1996-01-01
BACKGROUND: The valve function of the ureterovesical-junction (UVJ) is responsible for protection of the low pressure upper urinary tract from the refluxing of urine from the bladder. Controversy about the microanatomy of the human ureterovesical-junction persists. METHODS: Ten (3 male and 7 female)
Spin, Vibrations and Radiation in Superconducting Junctions
Padurariu, C.
2013-01-01
This thesis presents the theoretical study of superconducting transport in several devices based on superconducting junctions. The important feature of these devices is that the transport properties of the junction are modified by the interaction with another physical system integrated in the
Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins
Giepmans, Ben N G
2004-01-01
Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the
Multiplication in Silicon p-n Junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moll, John L.
1965-01-01
Multiplication values were measured in the collector junctions of silicon p-n-p and n-p-n transistors before and after bombardment by 1016 neutrons/cm2. Within experimental error there was no change either in junction fields, as deduced from capacitance measurements, or in multiplication values i...
impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Navya
2017-03-24
Mar 24, 2017 ... experiment showed a lower dye diffusion distance of Cx46 V44M cells, ... Studies of connexins show that channel gating and permeability .... have found that connexin assembled into gap junction plaques is not soluble in 1% ..... high glucose reduces gap junction activity in microvascular endothelial cells.
impairs gap junction function causing congenital cataract
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
LIJUAN CHEN
2017-12-20
Dec 20, 2017 ... showed a lower dye diffusion distance of Cx46 V44M cells, which indicates that the gap junction intercellular ... permeability could be affected by alterations of charged residues of .... bled into gap junction plaques is not soluble in 1% Triton ..... regulation of connexin 43 expression by high glucose reduces.
Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dain, Sergio
2012-01-01
A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)
A symmetric bipolar nebula around MWC 922.
Tuthill, P G; Lloyd, J P
2007-04-13
We report regular and symmetric structure around dust-enshrouded Be star MWC 922 obtained with infrared imaging. Biconical lobes that appear nearly square in aspect, forming this "Red Square" nebula, are crossed by a series of rungs that terminate in bright knots or "vortices," and an equatorial dark band crossing the core delimits twin hyperbolic arcs. The intricate yet cleanly constructed forms that comprise the skeleton of the object argue for minimal perturbation from global turbulent or chaotic effects. We also report the presence of a linear comb structure, which may arise from optically projected shadows of a periodic feature in the inner regions, such as corrugations in the rim of a circumstellar disk. The sequence of nested polar rings draws comparison with the triple-ring system seen around the only naked-eye supernova in recent history: SN1987A.
Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.
Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa
2015-09-18
We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.
Design and Analysis of Symmetric Primitives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauridsen, Martin Mehl
. In the second part, we delve into the matter of the various aspects of designing a symmetric cryptographic primitive. We start by considering generalizations of the widely acclaimed Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) block cipher. In particular, our focus is on a component operation in the cipher which permutes...... analyze and implement modes recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as well as authenticated encryption modes from the CAESAR competition, when instantiated with the AES. The data processed in our benchmarking has sizes representative to that of typical Internet traffic...... linear cryptanalysis. We apply this model to the standardized block cipher PRESENT. Finally, we present very generic attacks on two authenticated encryption schemes, AVALANCHE and RBS, by pointing out severe design flaws that can be leveraged to fully recover the secret key with very low complexity...
Quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garabedian, P.; Ku, L.
1999-01-01
Compact hybrid configurations with two field periods have been studied recently as candidates for a proof of principle experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. This project has led us to the discovery of a family of quasiaxially symmetric stellarators with three field periods that have significant advantages, although their aspect ratios are a little larger. They have reversed shear and perform better in a local analysis of ballooning modes. Nonlinear equilibrium and stability calculations predict that the average beta limit will be at least as high as 4% if the bootstrap current turns out to be as big as that expected in comparable tokamaks. The concept relies on a combination of helical fields and bootstrap current to achieve adequate rotational transform at low aspect ratio. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation
Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.
1985-12-01
We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.
Lovelock black holes with maximally symmetric horizons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maeda, Hideki; Willison, Steven; Ray, Sourya, E-mail: hideki@cecs.cl, E-mail: willison@cecs.cl, E-mail: ray@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios CientIficos (CECs), Casilla 1469, Valdivia (Chile)
2011-08-21
We investigate some properties of n( {>=} 4)-dimensional spacetimes having symmetries corresponding to the isometries of an (n - 2)-dimensional maximally symmetric space in Lovelock gravity under the null or dominant energy condition. The well-posedness of the generalized Misner-Sharp quasi-local mass proposed in the past study is shown. Using this quasi-local mass, we clarify the basic properties of the dynamical black holes defined by a future outer trapping horizon under certain assumptions on the Lovelock coupling constants. The C{sup 2} vacuum solutions are classified into four types: (i) Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution; (ii) Nariai-type solution; (iii) special degenerate vacuum solution; and (iv) exceptional vacuum solution. The conditions for the realization of the last two solutions are clarified. The Schwarzschild-Tangherlini-type solution is studied in detail. We prove the first law of black-hole thermodynamics and present the expressions for the heat capacity and the free energy.
Polyhomogeneous expansions from time symmetric initial data
Gasperín, E.; Valiente Kroon, J. A.
2017-10-01
We make use of Friedrich’s construction of the cylinder at spatial infinity to relate the logarithmic terms appearing in asymptotic expansions of components of the Weyl tensor to the freely specifiable parts of time symmetric initial data sets for the Einstein field equations. Our analysis is based on the assumption that a particular type of formal expansions near the cylinder at spatial infinity corresponds to the leading terms of actual solutions to the Einstein field equations. In particular, we show that if the Bach tensor of the initial conformal metric does not vanish at the point at infinity then the most singular component of the Weyl tensor decays near null infinity as O(\\tilde{r}-3\\ln \\tilde{r}) so that spacetime will not peel. We also provide necessary conditions on the initial data which should lead to a peeling spacetime. Finally, we show how to construct global spacetimes which are candidates for non-peeling (polyhomogeneous) asymptotics.
From Symmetric Glycerol Derivatives to Dissymmetric Chlorohydrins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gemma Villorbina
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The anticipated worldwide increase in biodiesel production will result in an accumulation of glycerol for which there are insufficient conventional uses. The surplus of this by-product has increased rapidly during the last decade, prompting a search for new glycerol applications. We describe here the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters from symmetric 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl esters obtained from glycerol. We studied the influence of two solvents: 1,4-dioxane and 1-butanol and two bases: sodium carbonate and 1-butylimidazole, on the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters. In addition, we studied the influence of other bases (potassium and lithium carbonates in the reaction using 1,4-dioxane as the solvent. The highest yield was obtained using 1,4-dioxane and sodium carbonate.
Bidding behavior in a symmetric Chinese auction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Benegas
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper purposes a symmetric all-pay auction where the bidders compete neither for an object nor the object itself but for a lottery on receive. That lottery is determined endogenously through the bids. This auction is known as chance auction or more popularly as Chinese auction. The model considers the possibility that for some bidders the optimal strategy is to bid zero and to rely on luck. It showed that bidders become less aggressive when the lottery satisfies a variational condition. It was also shown that luck factor is decisive to determine if the expected payoff in Chinese auction is bigger or smaller than expected payoff in standard all-pay auction.
Canonical quantization of static spherically symmetric geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christodoulakis, T; Dimakis, N; Terzis, P A; Doulis, G; Grammenos, Th; Melas, E; Spanou, A
2013-01-01
The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein–Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''
Cryptanalysis of Some Lightweight Symmetric Ciphers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abdelraheem, Mohamed Ahmed Awadelkareem Mohamed Ahmed
In recent years, the need for lightweight encryption systems has been increasing as many applications use RFID and sensor networks which have a very low computational power and thus incapable of performing standard cryptographic operations. In response to this problem, the cryptographic community...... on a variant of PRESENT with identical round keys. We propose a new attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack that was specifically mounted against the lightweight block cipher PRINTcipher. Furthermore, we mount several attacks on a recently proposed stream cipher called A2U2....... of the international standards in lightweight cryptography. This thesis aims at analyzing and evaluating the security of some the recently proposed lightweight symmetric ciphers with a focus on PRESENT-like ciphers, namely, the block cipher PRESENT and the block cipher PRINTcipher. We provide an approach to estimate...
Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology
Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.
1982-01-01
The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.
Symmetric Topological Phases and Tensor Network States
Jiang, Shenghan
Classification and simulation of quantum phases are one of main themes in condensed matter physics. Quantum phases can be distinguished by their symmetrical and topological properties. The interplay between symmetry and topology in condensed matter physics often leads to exotic quantum phases and rich phase diagrams. Famous examples include quantum Hall phases, spin liquids and topological insulators. In this thesis, I present our works toward a more systematically understanding of symmetric topological quantum phases in bosonic systems. In the absence of global symmetries, gapped quantum phases are characterized by topological orders. Topological orders in 2+1D are well studied, while a systematically understanding of topological orders in 3+1D is still lacking. By studying a family of exact solvable models, we find at least some topological orders in 3+1D can be distinguished by braiding phases of loop excitations. In the presence of both global symmetries and topological orders, the interplay between them leads to new phases termed as symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. We develop a framework to classify a large class of SET phases using tensor networks. For each tensor class, we can write down generic variational wavefunctions. We apply our method to study gapped spin liquids on the kagome lattice, which can be viewed as SET phases of on-site symmetries as well as lattice symmetries. In the absence of topological order, symmetry could protect different topological phases, which are often referred to as symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. We present systematic constructions of tensor network wavefunctions for bosonic symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases respecting both onsite and spatial symmetries.
The radiation chemistry of symmetric aliphatic polyesters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Babanalbandi, A.; Hill, D.J.T.; Pomery, P.J.; Whittaker, A.K.
1996-01-01
Full text: Naturally occurring, symmetric polyesters, including polyglycolic acid, polylactic acid and polyhydroxybutyrate, have found biomedical applications in areas as diverse as the controlled release of pharmaceuticals and the manufacture of surgical sutures. As biomedical products, the materials require sterilization by high energy radiation. This has provided the motivation for the present work. D'Alelio et al. have reported that linear, asymmetric polyesters undergo scission on irradiation, but that branched polyesters containing a methyl group in the diol segments undergo crosslinking. However, for the symmetric polyhydroxybutyrate, Carswell-Pomerantz et al. have reported that only scission occurs on radiolysis, with the evolution of CO and CO 2 as a result of the loss of ester linkages. These workers also found that G(CO + CO 2 ) was approximately equal to G(S) for this polyester. By contrast, Collett et al. have reported that G(S) = 1.26 and G(X) = 0.53 for polylactic acid, which indicates that the polymer undergoes nett crosslinking on radiolysis to form a gel. They have also reported that poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) should form a gel on radiolysis, since G(S) = 1.66 and G(X) = 0.65 for a 1:1 copolymer composition. In the present work the radiolysis of polylactic acid and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) have been reinvestigated in order to resolve the differences between the work of Collett et al. and that of Carswell-Pomerantz et al. In these studies, ESR has been used to study the radicals formed, GPC has been used to investigate scission and crosslinking, GC has been used to study the small molecule volatile products and NMR spectroscopy has been used to identify and measure the new chemical structures formed in the polymers
FFLP problem with symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Daneshrad
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The most popular approach for solving fully fuzzy linear programming (FFLP problems is to convert them into the corresponding deterministic linear programs. Khan et al. (2013 [Khan, I. U., Ahmad, T., & Maan, N. (2013. A simplified novel technique for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 159(2, 536-546.] claimed that there had been no method in the literature to find the fuzzy optimal solution of a FFLP problem without converting it into crisp linear programming problem, and proposed a technique for the same. Others showed that the fuzzy arithmetic operation used by Khan et al. (2013 had some problems in subtraction and division operations, which could lead to misleading results. Recently, Ezzati et al. (2014 [Ezzati, R., Khorram, E., & Enayati, R. (2014. A particular simplex algorithm to solve fuzzy lexicographic multi-objective linear programming problems and their sensitivity analysis on the priority of the fuzzy objective functions. Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 26(5, 2333-2358.] defined a new operation on symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and proposed a new algorithm to find directly a lexicographic/preemptive fuzzy optimal solution of a fuzzy lexicographic multi-objective linear programming problem by using new fuzzy arithmetic operations, but their model was not fully fuzzy optimization. In this paper, a new method, by using Ezzati et al. (2014’s fuzzy arithmetic operation and a fuzzy version of simplex algorithm, is proposed for solving FFLP problem whose parameters are represented by symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy number without converting the given problem into crisp equivalent problem. By using the proposed method, the fuzzy optimal solution of FFLP problem can be easily obtained. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method.
Axially symmetric Lorentzian wormholes in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schein, F.
1997-11-01
The field equations of Einstein's theory of general relativity, being local, do not fix the global structure of space-time. They admit topologically non-trivial solutions, including spatially closed universes and the amazing possibility of shortcuts for travel between distant regions in space and time - so-called Lorentzian wormholes. The aim of this thesis is to (mathematically) construct space-times which contain traversal wormholes connecting arbitrary distant regions of an asymptotically flat or asymptotically de Sitter universe. Since the wormhole mouths appear as two separate masses in the exterior space, space-time can at best be axially symmetric. We eliminate the non-staticity caused by the gravitational attraction of the mouths by anchoring them by strings held at infinity or, alternatively, by electric repulsion. The space-times are obtained by surgically grafting together well-known solutions of Einstein's equations along timelike hypersurfaces. This surgery naturally concentrates a non-zero stress-energy tensor on the boundary between the two space-times which can be investigated by using the standard thin shell formalism. It turns out that, when using charged black holes, the provided constructions are possible without violation of any of the energy conditions. In general, observers living in the axially symmetric, asymptotically flat (respectively asymptotically de Sitter) region axe able to send causal signals through the topologically non-trivial region. However, the wormhole space-times contain closed timelike curves. Because of this explicit violation of global hyperbolicity these models do not serve as counterexamples to known topological censorship theorems. (author)
Fabrication of Josephson Junction without shadow evaporation
Wu, Xian; Ku, Hsiangsheng; Long, Junling; Pappas, David
We developed a new method of fabricating Josephson Junction (Al/AlOX/Al) without shadow evaporation. Statistics from room temperature junction resistance and measurement of qubits are presented. Unlike the traditional ``Dolan Bridge'' technique, this method requires two individual lithographies and straight evaporations of Al. Argon RF plasma is used to remove native AlOX after the first evaporation, followed by oxidation and second Al evaporation. Junction resistance measured at room temperature shows linear dependence on Pox (oxidation pressure), √{tox} (oxidation time), and inverse proportional to junction area. We have seen 100% yield of qubits made with this method. This method is promising because it eliminates angle dependence during Junction fabrication, facilitates large scale qubits fabrication.
Overlap junctions for high coherence superconducting qubits
Wu, X.; Long, J. L.; Ku, H. S.; Lake, R. E.; Bal, M.; Pappas, D. P.
2017-07-01
Fabrication of sub-micron Josephson junctions is demonstrated using standard processing techniques for high-coherence, superconducting qubits. These junctions are made in two separate lithography steps with normal-angle evaporation. Most significantly, this work demonstrates that it is possible to achieve high coherence with junctions formed on aluminum surfaces cleaned in situ by Ar plasma before junction oxidation. This method eliminates the angle-dependent shadow masks typically used for small junctions. Therefore, this is conducive to the implementation of typical methods for improving margins and yield using conventional CMOS processing. The current method uses electron-beam lithography and an additive process to define the top and bottom electrodes. Extension of this work to optical lithography and subtractive processes is discussed.
Quantum synchronization effects in intrinsic Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Machida, M.; Kano, T.; Yamada, S.; Okumura, M.; Imamura, T.; Koyama, T.
2008-01-01
We investigate quantum dynamics of the superconducting phase in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-T c superconductors motivated by a recent experimental observation for the switching rate enhancement in the low temperature quantum regime. We pay attention to only the capacitive coupling between neighboring junctions and perform large-scale simulations for the Schroedinger equation derived from the Hamiltonian considering the capacitive coupling alone. The simulation focuses on an issue whether the switching of a junction induces those of the other junctions or not. The results reveal that the superconducting phase dynamics show synchronous behavior with increasing the quantum character, e.g., decreasing the junction plane area and effectively the temperature. This is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result
House dust mite allergen Der p 1 effects on sinonasal epithelial tight junctions.
Henriquez, Oswaldo A; Den Beste, Kyle; Hoddeson, Elizabeth K; Parkos, Charles A; Nusrat, Asma; Wise, Sarah K
2013-08-01
Epithelial permeability is highly dependent upon the integrity of tight junctions, which are cell-cell adhesion complexes located at the apical aspect of the lateral membrane of polarized epithelial cells. We hypothesize that sinonasal epithelial exposure to Der p 1 house dust mite antigen decreases expression of tight junction proteins (TJPs), representing a potential mechanism for increased permeability and presentation of antigens across the sinonasal epithelial layer. Confluent cultured primary human sinonasal epithelial cells were exposed to recombinant Der p 1 antigen vs control, and transepithelial resistance measurements were performed over 24 hours. Antibody staining for a panel of TJPs was examined with immunofluorescence/confocal microscopy and Western blotting. Tissue for these experiments was obtained from 4 patients total. Der p 1 exposed sinonasal cells showed a marked decrease in transepithelial resistance when compared to control cells. In addition, results of Western immunoblot and immunofluorescent labeling demonstrated decreased expression of TJPs claudin-1 and junction adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) in Der p 1-exposed cultured sinonasal cells vs controls. Der p 1 antigen exposure decreases sinonasal epithelium TJP expression, most notably seen in JAM-A and claudin-1 in these preliminary experiments. This decreased TJP expression likely contributes to increased epithelial permeability and represents a potential mechanism for transepithelial antigen exposure in allergic rhinitis. © 2013 ARS-AAOA, LLC.
SENP3 grants tight junction integrity and cytoskeleton architecture in mouse Sertoli cells.
Wu, Di; Huang, Chun-Jie; Khan, Faheem Ahmed; Jiao, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Xiao-Ming; Pandupuspitasari, Nuruliarizki Shinta; Brohi, Rahim Dad; Huo, Li-Jun
2017-08-29
Germ cells develop in a sophisticated immune privileged microenvironment provided by specialized junctions contiguous the basement membrane of the adjacent Sertoli cells that constituted the blood-testis barrier (BTB) in seminiferous epithelium of testis in mammals. Deciphering the molecular regulatory machinery of BTB activity is central to improve male fertility and the role of post-translational modification including SUMOylation pathway is one of the key factors. Herein, we unveiled the mystery of the SUMO-2/3 specific protease SENP3 (Sentrin-specific protease 3) in BTB dynamics regulation. SENP3 is predominantly expressed in the nucleus of Sertoli and spermatocyte cells in adult mouse testis, and knockdown of SENP3 compromises tight junction in Sertoli cells by destructing the permeability function with a concomitant decline in trans-epithelial electrical resistance in primary Sertoli cells, which could attribute to the conspicuous dysfunction of tight junction (TJ) proteins (e.g., ZO-1, occludin) at the cell-cell interface due to the inactivation of STAT3. Moreover, SENP3 knockdown disrupts F-actin architecture in Sertoli cells through intervening Rac1/CDC42-N-WASP-Arp2/3 signaling pathway and Profilin-1 abundance. Our study pinpoints SENP3 might be a novel determinant of multiple pathways governing BTB dynamics in testis to support germ cells development in mammals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cleland, A.N.
1991-04-01
Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement
Resonance Transport of Graphene Nanoribbon T-Shaped Junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao-Lan, Kong; Yong-Jian, Xiong
2010-01-01
We investigate the transport properties of T-shaped junctions composed of armchair graphene nanoribbons of different widths. Three types of junction geometries are considered. The junction conductance strongly depends on the atomic features of the junction geometry. When the shoulders of the junction have zigzag type edges, sharp conductance resonances usually appear in the low energy region around the Dirac point, and a conductance gap emerges. When the shoulders of the junction have armchair type edges, the conductance resonance behavior is weakened significantly, and the metal-metal-metal junction structures show semimetallic behaviors. The contact resistance also changes notably due to the various interface geometries of the junction
Magnetospectroscopy of symmetric and anti-symmetric states in double quantum wells
Marchewka, M.; Sheregii, E. M.; Tralle, I.; Ploch, D.; Tomaka, G.; Furdak, M.; Kolek, A.; Stadler, A.; Mleczko, K.; Zak, D.; Strupinski, W.; Jasik, A.; Jakiela, R.
2008-02-01
The experimental results obtained for magnetotransport in the InGaAs/InAlAs double quantum well (DQW) structures of two different shapes of wells are reported. A beating effect occurring in the Shubnikov-de Haas (SdH) oscillations was observed for both types of structures at low temperatures in the parallel transport when the magnetic field was perpendicular to the layers. An approach for the calculation of the Landau level energies for DQW structures was developed and then applied to the analysis and interpretation of the experimental data related to the beating effect. We also argue that in order to account for the observed magnetotransport phenomena (SdH and integer quantum Hall effect), one should introduce two different quasi-Fermi levels characterizing two electron subsystems regarding the symmetry properties of their states, symmetric and anti-symmetric ones, which are not mixed by electron-electron interaction.
Kihara, Takanori; Kashitani, Kosuke; Miyake, Jun
2017-07-14
Cell proliferation is a key characteristic of eukaryotic cells. During cell proliferation, cells interact with each other. In this study, we developed a cellular automata model to estimate cell-cell interactions using experimentally obtained images of cultured cells. We used four types of cells; HeLa cells, human osteosarcoma (HOS) cells, rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and rat smooth muscle A7r5 cells. These cells were cultured and stained daily. The obtained cell images were binarized and clipped into squares containing about 10 4 cells. These cells showed characteristic cell proliferation patterns. The growth curves of these cells were generated from the cell proliferation images and we determined the doubling time of these cells from the growth curves. We developed a simple cellular automata system with an easily accessible graphical user interface. This system has five variable parameters, namely, initial cell number, doubling time, motility, cell-cell adhesion, and cell-cell contact inhibition (of proliferation). Within these parameters, we obtained initial cell numbers and doubling times experimentally. We set the motility at a constant value because the effect of the parameter for our simulation was restricted. Therefore, we simulated cell proliferation behavior with cell-cell adhesion and cell-cell contact inhibition as variables. By comparing growth curves and proliferation cell images, we succeeded in determining the cell-cell interaction properties of each cell. Simulated HeLa and HOS cells exhibited low cell-cell adhesion and weak cell-cell contact inhibition. Simulated MSCs exhibited high cell-cell adhesion and positive cell-cell contact inhibition. Simulated A7r5 cells exhibited low cell-cell adhesion and strong cell-cell contact inhibition. These simulated results correlated with the experimental growth curves and proliferation images. Our simulation approach is an easy method for evaluating the cell-cell interaction properties of cells.
Freeman, Alasdair D J; Liu, Yijin; Déclais, Anne-Cécile; Gartner, Anton; Lilley, David M J
2014-12-12
Processing of Holliday junctions is essential in recombination. We have identified the gene for the junction-resolving enzyme GEN1 from the thermophilic fungus Chaetomium thermophilum and expressed the N-terminal 487-amino-acid section. The protein is a nuclease that is highly selective for four-way DNA junctions, cleaving 1nt 3' to the point of strand exchange on two strands symmetrically disposed about a diagonal axis. CtGEN1 binds to DNA junctions as a discrete homodimer with nanomolar affinity. Analysis of the kinetics of cruciform cleavage shows that cleavage of the second strand occurs an order of magnitude faster than the first cleavage so as to generate a productive resolution event. All these properties are closely similar to those described for bacterial, phage and mitochondrial junction-resolving enzymes. CtGEN1 is also similar in properties to the human enzyme but lacks the problems with aggregation that currently prevent detailed analysis of the latter protein. CtGEN1 is thus an excellent enzyme with which to engage in biophysical and structural analysis of eukaryotic GEN1. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Aboutalebi, Mohammad; Bijarchi, Mohamad Ali; Shafii, Mohammad Behshad; Kazemzadeh Hannani, Siamak
2018-02-01
The studies surrounding the concept of microdroplets have seen a dramatic increase in recent years. Microdroplets have applications in different fields such as chemical synthesis, biology, separation processes and micro-pumps. This study numerically investigates the effect of different parameters such as Capillary number, Length of droplets, and Magnetic Bond number on the splitting process of ferrofluid microdroplets in symmetric T-junctions using an asymmetric magnetic field. The use of said field that is applied asymmetrically to the T-junction center helps us control the splitting of ferrofluid microdroplets. During the process of numerical simulation, a magnetic field with various strengths from a dipole located at a constant distance from the center of the T-junction was applied. The main advantage of this design is its control over the splitting ratio of daughter droplets and reaching various microdroplet sizes in a T-junction by adjusting the magnetic field strength. The results showed that by increasing the strength of the magnetic field, the possibility of asymmetric splitting of microdroplets increases in a way that for high values of field strength, high splitting ratios can be reached. Also, by using the obtained results at various Magnetic Bond numbers and performing curve fitting, a correlation is derived that can be used to accurately predict the borderline between splitting and non-splitting zones of microdroplets flow in micro T-junctions.
Electron optics with ballistic graphene junctions
Chen, Shaowen
Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. A pn junction theoretically provides the equivalent of a negative index medium, enabling novel electron optics such as negative refraction and perfect (Veselago) lensing. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap bandstructure admit highly transparent pn junctions by simple electrostatic gating, which cannot be achieved in conventional semiconductors. Robust demonstration of these effects, however, has not been forthcoming. Here we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe propagation across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find perfect agreement with the predicted Snell's law for electrons, including observation of both positive and negative refraction. Resonant transmission across the pn junction provides a direct measurement of the angle dependent transmission coefficient, and we demonstrate good agreement with theory. Comparing experimental data with simulation reveals the crucial role played by the effective junction width, providing guidance for future device design. Efforts toward sharper pn junction and possibility of zero field Veselago lensing will also be discussed. This work is supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporations NRI Center for Institute for Nanoelectronics Discovery and Exploration (INDEX).
Valley dependent transport in graphene L junction
Chan, K. S.
2018-05-01
We studied the valley dependent transport in graphene L junctions connecting an armchair lead and a zigzag lead. The junction can be used in valleytronic devices and circuits. Electrons injected from the armchair lead into the junction is not valley polarized, but they can become valley polarized in the zigzag lead. There are Fermi energies, where the current in the zigzag lead is highly valley polarized and the junction is an efficient generator of valley polarized current. The features of the valley polarized current depend sensitively on the widths of the two leads, as well as the number of dimers in the armchair lead, because this number has a sensitive effect on the band structure of the armchair lead. When an external potential is applied to the junction, the energy range with high valley polarization is enlarged enhancing its function as a generator of highly valley polarized current. The scaling behavior found in other graphene devices is also found in L junctions, which means that the results presented here can be extended to junctions with larger dimensions after appropriate scaling of the energy.
Entangling capabilities of symmetric two-qubit gates
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Com- putational investigation of entanglement of such ensembles is therefore impractical for ... the computational complexity. Pairs of spin-1 ... tensor operators which can also provide different symmetric logic gates for quantum pro- ... that five of the eight, two-qubit symmetric quantum gates expressed in terms of our newly.
SUSY formalism for the symmetric double well potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
symmetric double well potential barrier we have obtained a class of exactly solvable potentials subject to moving boundary condition. The eigenstates are also obtained by the same technique. Keywords. SUSY; moving boundary condition; exactly solvable; symmetric double well; NH3 molecule. PACS Nos 02.30.Ik; 03.50.
A New Formulation for Symmetric Implicit Runge-Kutta-Nystrom ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we derive symmetric stable Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method for the Integration of General Second Order ODEs by using the collocation approach.The block hybrid method obtained by the evaluation of the continuous interpolant at different nodes of the polynomial is symmetric and suitable for stiff intial ...
Crossing symmetric solution of the Chew-Low equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLeod, R.J.; Ernst, D.J.
1982-01-01
An N/D dispersion theory is developed which solves crossing symmetric Low equations. The method is used to generate crossing symmetric solutions to the Chew-Low model. We show why the technique originally proposed by Chew and Low was incapable of producing solutions. (orig.)
Sparse symmetric preconditioners for dense linear systems in electromagnetism
Carpentieri, Bruno; Duff, Iain S.; Giraud, Luc; Monga Made, M. Magolu
2004-01-01
We consider symmetric preconditioning strategies for the iterative solution of dense complex symmetric non-Hermitian systems arising in computational electromagnetics. In particular, we report on the numerical behaviour of the classical incomplete Cholesky factorization as well as some of its recent
Stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells and wormholes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishak, Mustapha; Lake, Kayll
2002-01-01
The stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells (and wormholes) to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium is examined. This work generalizes and systematizes previous studies and explores the consequences of including the cosmological constant. The approach shows how the existence (or not) of a domain wall dominates the landscape of possible equilibrium configurations
Coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The dilaton black hole solutions have attracted considerable attention for the ... theory and study the corresponding cylindrically symmetric spacetime, where .... where Йm and Йe are integration constants to be interpreted later as the ..... feature is apparent for the cylindrically symmetric spacetime in the presence of the dila-.
Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces: support theorems
Kuit, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313872589
2011-01-01
In this thesis we introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and study some of their properties. In particular we obtain a generalization of Helgason's support theorem for the horospherical transform on a Riemannian symmetric space.
New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, we present a method to solve fully fuzzy linear systems with symmetric coefﬁcient matrix. The symmetric coefﬁcient matrix is decomposed into two systems of equations by using Cholesky method and then a solution can be obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our method.
Synthesis & Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Full Title: Synthesis and Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl, Terepthaloyl, Chiral Diimido-di-L-alanine Diesters and Chiral Phthaloyl-L-alanine Ester of Tripropoxy p-tert-Butyl Calix[4]arene and Study of Their Hosting Ability for Alanine and Na+. Bis-symmetrical tripropoxy p-tert-butyl calix[4]arene esters were ...
FACES WITH LARGE DIAMETER ON THE SYMMETRICAL TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE
SIERKSMA, G; TIJSSEN, GA
This paper deals with the symmetric traveling salesman polytope and contains three main theorems. The first one gives a new characterization of (non)adjacency. Based on this characterization a new upper bound for the diameter of the symmetric traveling salesman polytope (conjectured to be 2 by M.
Lee, Dong-Hoon; Lee, Do-Wan; Han, Bong-Soo
2016-04-01
The purpose of this study is to elucidate the symmetrical characteristics of corticospinal tract (CST) related with hand movement in bilateral hemispheres using probabilistic fiber tracking method. Seventeen subjects were participated in this study. Fiber tracking was performed with 2 regions of interest, hand activated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) results and pontomedullary junction in each cerebral hemisphere. Each subject's extracted fiber tract was normalized with a brain template. To measure the symmetrical distributions of the CST related with hand movement, the laterality and anteriority indices were defined in upper corona radiata (CR), lower CR, and posterior limb of internal capsule. The measured laterality and anteriority indices between the hemispheres in each different brain location showed no significant differences with P the measured indices among 3 different brain locations in each cerebral hemisphere with P the hand CST had symmetric structures in bilateral hemispheres. The probabilistic fiber tracking with fMRI approach demonstrated that the hand CST can be successfully extracted regardless of crossing fiber problem. Our analytical approaches and results seem to be helpful for providing the database of CST somatotopy to neurologists and clinical researches.
Cell-cell communication in the kidney microcirculation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik
2012-01-01
the postglomerular vasculature. Cxs form gap junctions between neighboring cells, and as in other organ systems, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be mediation of intercellular communication. Cxs may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of signaling molecules like ATP, and thereby...... mediate paracrine signaling. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerlar apparatus calcium signaling, and enable ECs and VSMCs to communicate. Thus, current research suggests multiple roles for Cxs in important regulatory mechanisms within the kidney, including the renin-angiotensin system...
delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monaco, R.; Mygind, Jesper; Koshelet, V.
2010-01-01
Abstract: The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect...... the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements...
Parametric frequency conversion in long Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irie, F.; Ashihara, S.; Yoshida, K.
1976-01-01
Current steps at voltages corresponding to the parametric coupling between an applied r.f. field and junction resonant modes have been observed in long Josephson tunnel junctions in the flux-flow state. The observed periodic variations of the step height due to the applied magnetic field are explained quantitatively by a perturbational analysis using Josephson phase equations. The present study demonstrates that the moving vortex array can serve as a coherent pump wave for signal waves propagating in the barrier region, which indicates, as a result, the possibility of traveling-wave parametric devices with long Josephson tunnel junctions. (author)
Symmetric metamaterials based on flower-shaped structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tuong, P.V.; Park, J.W.; Rhee, J.Y.; Kim, K.W.; Cheong, H.; Jang, W.H.; Lee, Y.P.
2013-01-01
We proposed new models of metamaterials (MMs) based on a flower-shaped structure (FSS), whose “meta-atoms” consist of two flower-shaped metallic parts separated by a dielectric layer. Like the non-symmetric MMs based on cut-wire-pairs or electric ring resonators, the symmetrical FSS demonstrates the negative permeability at GHz frequencies. Employing the results, we designed a symmetric negative-refractive-index MM [a symmetric combined structure (SCS)], which is composed of FSSs and cross continuous wires. The MM properties of the FSS and the SCS are presented numerically and experimentally. - Highlights: • A new designed of sub-wavelength metamaterial, flower-shaped structure was proposed. • Flower-shaped meta-atom illustrated effective negative permeability. • Based on the meta-atom, negative refractive index was conventionally gained. • Negative refractive index was demonstrated with symmetric properties for electromagnetic wave. • Dimensional parameters were studied under normal electromagnetic wave
Symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption schemes
Wang, Yuqi; She, Kun; Luo, Qingbin; Yang, Fan; Zhao, Chao
2016-03-01
Based on a ternary quantum logic circuit, four symmetric weak ternary quantum homomorphic encryption (QHE) schemes were proposed. First, for a one-qutrit rotation gate, a QHE scheme was constructed. Second, in view of the synthesis of a general 3 × 3 unitary transformation, another one-qutrit QHE scheme was proposed. Third, according to the one-qutrit scheme, the two-qutrit QHE scheme about generalized controlled X (GCX(m,n)) gate was constructed and further generalized to the n-qutrit unitary matrix case. Finally, the security of these schemes was analyzed in two respects. It can be concluded that the attacker can correctly guess the encryption key with a maximum probability pk = 1/33n, thus it can better protect the privacy of users’ data. Moreover, these schemes can be well integrated into the future quantum remote server architecture, and thus the computational security of the users’ private quantum information can be well protected in a distributed computing environment.
Skyrmions and vector mesons: a symmetric approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caldi, D.G.
1984-01-01
We propose an extension of the effective, low-energy chiral Lagrangian known as the Skyrme model, to one formulated by a non-linear sigma model generalized to include vector mesons in a symmetric way. The model is based on chiral SU(6) x SU(6) symmetry spontaneously broken to static SU(6). The rho and other vector mesons are dormant Goldstone bosons since they are in the same SU(6) multiplet as the pion and other pseudoscalars. Hence the manifold of our generalized non-linear sigma model is the coset space (SU(6) x SU(6))/Su(6). Relativistic effects, via a spin-dependent mass term, break the static SU(6) and give the vectors a mass. The model can then be fully relativistic and covariant. The lowest-lying Skyrmion in this model is the whole baryonic 56-plet, which splits into the octet and decuplet in the presence of relativistic SU(6)-breaking. Due to the built-in SU(6) and the presence of vector mesons, the model is expected to have better phenomenological results, as well as providing a conceptually more unified picture of mesons and baryons. 29 references
Randomized Symmetric Crypto Spatial Fusion Steganographic System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viswanathan Perumal
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The image fusion steganographic system embeds encrypted messages in decomposed multimedia carriers using a pseudorandom generator but it fails to evaluate the contents of the cover image. This results in the secret data being embedded in smooth regions, which leads to visible distortion that affects the imperceptibility and confidentiality. To solve this issue, as well as to improve the quality and robustness of the system, the Randomized Symmetric Crypto Spatial Fusion Steganography System is proposed in this study. It comprises three-subsystem bitwise encryption, spatial fusion, and bitwise embedding. First, bitwise encryption encrypts the message using bitwise operation to improve the confidentiality. Then, spatial fusion decomposes and evaluates the region of embedding on the basis of sharp intensity and capacity. This restricts the visibility of distortion and provides a high embedding capacity. Finally, the bitwise embedding system embeds the encrypted message through differencing the pixels in the region by 1, checking even or odd options and not equal to zero constraints. This reduces the modification rate to avoid distortion. The proposed heuristic algorithm is implemented in the blue channel, to which the human visual system is less sensitive. It was tested using standard IST natural images with steganalysis algorithms and resulted in better quality, imperceptibility, embedding capacity and invulnerability to various attacks compared to other steganographic systems.
Triple symmetric key cryptosystem for data security
Fuzail, C. Md; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.
2017-11-01
As the technology is getting spreads in the macro seconds of speed and in which the trend changing era from human to robotics the security issue is also getting increased. By means of using machine attacks it is very easy to break the cryptosystems in very less amount of time. Cryptosystem is a process which provides the security in all sorts of processes, communications and transactions to be done securely with the help of electronical mechanisms. Data is one such thing with the expanded implication and possible scraps over the collection of data to secure predominance and achievement, Information Security is the process where the information is protected from invalid and unverified accessibilities and data from mishandling. So the idea of Information Security has risen. Symmetric key which is also known as private key.Whereas the private key is mostly used to attain the confidentiality of data. It is a dynamic topic which can be implemented over different applications like android, wireless censor networks, etc. In this paper, a new mathematical manipulation algorithm along with Tea cryptosystem has been implemented and it can be used for the purpose of cryptography. The algorithm which we proposed is straightforward and more powerful and it will authenticate in harder way and also it will be very difficult to break by someone without knowing in depth about its internal mechanisms.
Experimental pseudo-symmetric trap EPSILON
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Skovoroda, A.A.; Arsenin, V.V.; Dlougach, E.D.; Kulygin, V.M.; Kuyanov, A.Yu.; Timofeev, A.V.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Zvonkov, A.V.
2001-01-01
Within the framework of the conceptual project 'Adaptive Plasma EXperiment' a trap with the closed magnetic field lines 'Experimental Pseudo-Symmetric trap' is examined. The project APEX is directed at the theoretical and experimental development of physical foundations for stationary thermonuclear reactor on the basis of an alternative magnetic trap with tokamak-level confinement of high β plasma. The fundamental principle of magnetic field pseudosymmetry that should be satisfied for plasma to have tokamak-like confinement is discussed. The calculated in paraxial approximation examples of pseudosymmetric curvilinear elements with poloidal direction of B isolines are adduced. The EPSILON trap consisting of two straight axisymmetric mirrors linked by two curvilinear pseudosymmetric elements is considered. The plasma currents are short-circuited within the curvilinear element what increases the equilibrium β. The untraditional scheme of MHD stabilization of a trap with the closed field lines by the use of divertor inserted into axisymmetric mirror is analyzed. The experimental installation EPSILON-OME that is under construction for experimental check of divertor stabilization is discussed. The possibility of ECR plasma production in EPSILON-OME under conditions of high density and small magnetic field is examined. (author)
Left-right symmetric superstring supergravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burova, M.V.; Ter-Martirosyan, K.E.
1988-01-01
A left-right (L-R) symmetric model of four-dimensional supergravitation with a SO(10) gauge group obtained as the low-energy limit is superstring theory is considered. The spectrum of the gauge fields and their interactions are in agreement with the Weinberg-Salam theory. In addition, the model includes heavy W R ± and Z μ ' bosons. Beside the N g =3 generations of the 16-plets the SO(10) model includes the fragments of such generations which play the role of Higgs particles and also scalar chiral filds, the number of which exceeds by one the number of generations. As a result the neutrinos of each generation obtain a stable small Majorana mass. It is shown that the scalar field potential leads to spontaneous violation of the SU(2) R group and L-R symmetry and at low energies the standard Weinberg-Salam theory appears. However, reasonable values of X bosons masses M x and sun 2 Θ W (Θ W is the Weinberg angle) can be obtained in the model only in the case of high mass scale M R ∼10 10 -10 12 GeV of the right group SU(2) R violation
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shibata, Takemasa; Ogura, Koichi
1995-03-01
Symmetric charge transfer cross section of uranium was calculated under consideration of reaction paths. In the charge transfer reaction a d 3/2 electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ( 4 I 9/2 ) ion. The J value of the U atom produced after the reaction is 6, 5, 4 or 3, at impact energy below several tens eV, only resonant charge transfer in which the product atom is ground state (J=6) takes place. Therefore, the cross section is very small (4-5 x 10 -15 cm 2 ) compared with that considered so far. In the energy range of 100-1000eV the cross section increases with the impact energy because near resonant charge transfer in which an s-electron in the U atom transfers into the d-electron site of U + ion. Charge transfer cross section between U + in the first excited state (289 cm -1 ) and U in the ground state was also obtained. (author)
Tunnel junctions with multiferroic barriers
Gajek, Martin; Bibes, Manuel; Fusil, Stéphane; Bouzehouane, Karim; Fontcuberta, Josep; Barthélémy, Agnès; Fert, Albert
2007-04-01
Multiferroics are singular materials that can exhibit simultaneously electric and magnetic orders. Some are ferroelectric and ferromagnetic and provide the opportunity to encode information in electric polarization and magnetization to obtain four logic states. However, such materials are rare and schemes allowing a simple electrical readout of these states have not been demonstrated in the same device. Here, we show that films of La0.1Bi0.9MnO3 (LBMO) are ferromagnetic and ferroelectric, and retain both ferroic properties down to a thickness of 2nm. We have integrated such ultrathin multiferroic films as barriers in spin-filter-type tunnel junctions that exploit the magnetic and ferroelectric degrees of freedom of LBMO. Whereas ferromagnetism permits read operations reminiscent of magnetic random access memories (MRAM), the electrical switching evokes a ferroelectric RAM write operation. Significantly, our device does not require the destructive ferroelectric readout, and therefore represents an advance over the original four-state memory concept based on multiferroics.
Chirality effect in disordered graphene ribbon junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long Wen
2012-01-01
We investigate the influence of edge chirality on the electronic transport in clean or disordered graphene ribbon junctions. By using the tight-binding model and the Landauer-Büttiker formalism, the junction conductance is obtained. In the clean sample, the zero-magnetic-field junction conductance is strongly chirality-dependent in both unipolar and bipolar ribbons, whereas the high-magnetic-field conductance is either chirality-independent in the unipolar or chirality-dependent in the bipolar ribbon. Furthermore, we study the disordered sample in the presence of magnetic field and find that the junction conductance is always chirality-insensitive for both unipolar and bipolar ribbons with adequate disorders. In addition, the disorder-induced conductance plateaus can exist in all chiral bipolar ribbons provided the disorder strength is moderate. These results suggest that we can neglect the effect of edge chirality in fabricating electronic devices based on the magnetotransport in a disordered graphene ribbon. (paper)
Josephson tunnel junctions in niobium films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiik, Tapio.
1976-12-01
A method of fabricating stable Josephson tunnel junctions with reproducible characteristics is described. The junctions have a sandwich structure consisting of a vacuum evaporated niobium film, a niobium oxide layer produced by the glow discharge method and a lead film deposited by vacuum evaporation. Difficulties in producing thin-film Josephson junctions are discussed. Experimental results suggest that the lower critical field of the niobium film is the most essential parameter when evaluating the quality of these junctions. The dependence of the lower critical field on the film thickness and on the Ginzburg-Landau parameter of the film is studied analytically. Comparison with the properties of the evaporated films and with the previous calculations for bulk specimens shows that the presented model is applicable for most of the prepared samples. (author)
Transparency of atom-sized superconducting junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van-der-Post, N.; Peters, E.T.; Van Ruitenbeek, J.M.; Yanson, I.K.
1995-01-01
We discuss the transparency of atom-size superconducting tunnel junctions by comparing experimental values of the normal resistance and Subgap Structure with the theoretical predictions for these phenomena by Landauer's formula and Multiple Andreev Reflection, respectively
Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lobb, C.J.
1992-01-01
Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)
Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beach, Robert [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Prahl, Duncan [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lange, Rich [IBACOS Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
2013-12-01
IBACOS explored the relationships between pressure and physical configurations of flexible duct junction boxes by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to predict individual box parameters and total system pressure, thereby ensuring improved HVAC performance. Current Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) guidance (Group 11, Appendix 3, ACCA Manual D, Rutkowski 2009) allows for unconstrained variation in the number of takeoffs, box sizes, and takeoff locations. The only variables currently used in selecting an equivalent length (EL) are velocity of air in the duct and friction rate, given the first takeoff is located at least twice its diameter away from the inlet. This condition does not account for other factors impacting pressure loss across these types of fittings. For each simulation, the IBACOS team converted pressure loss within a box to an EL to compare variation in ACCA Manual D guidance to the simulated variation. IBACOS chose cases to represent flows reasonably correlating to flows typically encountered in the field and analyzed differences in total pressure due to increases in number and location of takeoffs, box dimensions, and velocity of air, and whether an entrance fitting is included. The team also calculated additional balancing losses for all cases due to discrepancies between intended outlet flows and natural flow splits created by the fitting. In certain asymmetrical cases, the balancing losses were significantly higher than symmetrical cases where the natural splits were close to the targets. Thus, IBACOS has shown additional design constraints that can ensure better system performance.
Neutron induced permanent damage in Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, G.P.; Rosen, M.
1982-01-01
14 MeV neutron induced permanent changes in the critical current density of Josephson junctions due to displacement damage in the junction barrier are estimated using a worst case model and the binary collision simulation code MARLOWE. No likelihood of single event hard upsets is found in this model. It is estimated that a fluence of 10 18 -10 19 neutrons/cm 2 are required to change the critical current density by 5%
Exotic hadron and string junction model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imachi, Masahiro
1978-01-01
Hadron structure is investigated adopting string junction model as a realization of confinement. Besides exotic hadrons (M 4 , B 5 etc.), unconventional hadrons appear. A mass formula for these hadrons is proposed. New selection rule is introduced which requires the covalence of constituent line at hadron vertex. New duality appears due to the freedom of junction, especially in anti BB→anti BB reaction. A possible assignment of exotic and unconventional hadrons to recently observed narrow meson states is presented. (auth.)
Construction of tunable peptide nucleic acid junctions.
Duan, Tanghui; He, Liu; Tokura, Yu; Liu, Xin; Wu, Yuzhou; Shi, Zhengshuang
2018-03-15
We report here the construction of 3-way and 4-way peptide nucleic acid (PNA) junctions as basic structural units for PNA nanostructuring. The incorporation of amino acid residues into PNA chains makes PNA nanostructures with more structural complexity and architectural flexibility possible, as exemplified by building 3-way PNA junctions with tunable nanopores. Given that PNA nanostructures have good thermal and enzymatic stabilities, they are expected to have broad potential applications in biosensing, drug delivery and bioengineering.
Molecular Diffusion through Cyanobacterial Septal Junctions.
Nieves-Morión, Mercedes; Mullineaux, Conrad W; Flores, Enrique
2017-01-03
Heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which intercellular molecular exchange takes place. During the differentiation of N 2 -fixing heterocysts, regulators are transferred between cells. In the diazotrophic filament, vegetative cells that fix CO 2 through oxygenic photosynthesis provide the heterocysts with reduced carbon and heterocysts provide the vegetative cells with fixed nitrogen. Intercellular molecular transfer has been traced with fluorescent markers, including calcein, 5-carboxyfluorescein, and the sucrose analogue esculin, which are observed to move down their concentration gradient. In this work, we used fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) assays in the model heterocyst-forming cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain PCC 7120 to measure the temperature dependence of intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers. We find that the transfer rate constants are directly proportional to the absolute temperature. This indicates that the "septal junctions" (formerly known as "microplasmodesmata") linking the cells in the filament allow molecular exchange by simple diffusion, without any activated intermediate state. This constitutes a novel mechanism for molecular transfer across the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane, in addition to previously characterized mechanisms for active transport and facilitated diffusion. Cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to the gap junctions of metazoans. Although bacteria are frequently considered just as unicellular organisms, there are bacteria that behave as true multicellular organisms. The heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria grow as filaments in which cells communicate. Intercellular molecular exchange is thought to be mediated by septal junctions. Here, we show that intercellular transfer of fluorescent markers in the cyanobacterial filament has the physical properties of simple diffusion. Thus, cyanobacterial septal junctions are functionally analogous to metazoan gap junctions
Spinal Gap Junction Channels in Neuropathic Pain
Jeon, Young Hoon; Youn, Dong Ho
2015-01-01
Damage to peripheral nerves or the spinal cord is often accompanied by neuropathic pain, which is a complex, chronic pain state. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in the expression and activity of gap junction channels in the spinal cord are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Thus, this review briefly summarizes evidence that regulation of the expression, coupling, and activity of spinal gap junction channels modulates pain signals in neuropathic pain states induced...
Temperature-Dependent Asymmetry of Anisotropic Magnetoresistance in Silicon p-n Junctions.
Yang, D Z; Wang, T; Sui, W B; Si, M S; Guo, D W; Shi, Z; Wang, F C; Xue, D S
2015-09-01
We report a large but asymmetric magnetoresistance in silicon p-n junctions, which contrasts with the fact of magnetoresistance being symmetric in magnetic metals and semiconductors. With temperature decreasing from 293 K to 100 K, the magnetoresistance sharply increases from 50% to 150% under a magnetic field of 2 T. At the same time, an asymmetric magnetoresistance, which manifests itself as a magnetoresistance voltage offset with respect to the sign of magnetic field, occurs and linearly increases with magnetoresistance. More interestingly, in contrast with other materials, the lineshape of anisotropic magnetoresistance in silicon p-n junctions significantly depends on temperature. As temperature decreases from 293 K to 100 K, the width of peak shrinks from 90° to 70°. We ascribe these novel magnetoresistance to the asymmetric geometry of the space charge region in p-n junction induced by the magnetic field. In the vicinity of the space charge region the current paths are deflected, contributing the Hall field to the asymmetric magnetoresistance. Therefore, the observed temperature-dependent asymmetry of magnetoresistance is proved to be a direct consequence of the spatial configuration evolution of space charge region with temperature.
Ballistic Josephson junctions based on CVD graphene
Li, Tianyi; Gallop, John; Hao, Ling; Romans, Edward
2018-04-01
Josephson junctions with graphene as the weak link between superconductors have been intensely studied in recent years, with respect to both fundamental physics and potential applications. However, most of the previous work was based on mechanically exfoliated graphene, which is not compatible with wafer-scale production. To overcome this limitation, we have used graphene grown by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) as the weak link of Josephson junctions. We demonstrate that very short, wide CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions with Nb electrodes can work without any undesirable hysteresis in their electrical characteristics from 1.5 K down to a base temperature of 320 mK, and their gate-tuneable critical current shows an ideal Fraunhofer-like interference pattern in a perpendicular magnetic field. Furthermore, for our shortest junctions (50 nm in length), we find that the normal state resistance oscillates with the gate voltage, consistent with the junctions being in the ballistic regime, a feature not previously observed in CVD-graphene-based Josephson junctions.
Junction depth measurement using carrier illumination
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borden, Peter
2001-01-01
Carrier Illumination [trade mark] (CI) is a new method recently developed to meet the need for a non-destructive, high throughput junction depth measurement on patterned wafers. A laser beam creates a quasi-static excess carrier profile in the semiconductor underlying the activated junction. The excess carrier profile is fairly constant below the junction, and drops rapidly in the junction, creating a steep index of refraction gradient at the junction edge. Interference with light reflected from this index gradient provides a signal that is analyzed to determine the junction depth. The paper summarizes evaluation of performance in full NMOS and PMOS process flows, on both bare and patterned wafers. The aims have been to validate (1) performance in the presence of underlying layers typically found at the source/drain (S/D) process steps and (2) measurement on patterned wafers. Correlation of CI measurements to SIMS and transistor drive current are shown. The data were obtained from NMOS structures using As S/D and LDD implants. Correlations to SRP, SIMS and sheet resistance are shown for PMOS structures using B 11 LDD implants. Gage capability measurements are also presented
Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices.
Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N
2014-09-15
We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size.
Survival and transmission of symmetrical chromosomal aberrations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savage, J.R.K.
1979-01-01
The interaction between the lesions to produce chromosomal structural changes may be either asymmetrical (A) or symmetrical (S). In A, one or more acentric fragments are always produced, and there may also be the mechanical separation problems resulting from bridges at anaphase, while S-changes never produce fragment, and pose no mechanical problem in cell division. If A and S events occur with equal frequency, it might be an indication that they are truly the alternative modes of lesion interaction. Unstimulated lymphocytes were irradiated with 2.68 Gy 250 kV X-ray, and metaphases were sampled at 50 h after the stimulation. Preparations were complete diploid cells, and any obvious second division cells were rejected. So far as dermal repair and fibroblast functions are concerned, aberration burden seems to have little consequence from the view-point of the long-term survival in vivo. Large numbers of aberrations (mainly S translocation and terminal deletion) were found in the samples taken up to 60 years after therapy. Skin biopsies were removed 1 day and 6 months after irradiation and cultured. In irradiated cells, reciprocal translocations dominated, followed by terminal deletions, then inversions, while no chromosome-type aberration was seen in the control cells. a) The relative occurrence of A : S changes, b) long-term survival in vivo, c) the possibility of in vivo repair, and d) some unusual features of translocation found in Syrian hamsters are reviewed. The relevance or importance of major S events is clearly dependent upon the cells, the tissues or the organisms in which they occur. (Yamashita, S.)
Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces:Support theorems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kuit, Job Jacob
2013-01-01
We introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and derive support theorems for these transforms. A reductive symmetric space is a homogeneous space G/H for a reductive Lie group G of the Harish-Chandra class, where H is an open sub...... is based on the relation between the Radon transform and the Fourier transform on G/H, and a Paley–Wiener-shift type argument. Our results generalize the support theorem of Helgason for the Radon transform on a Riemannian symmetric space....
Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, Heiko; De Graaf, Willem A.; Ruggeri, Daniele; Trigiante, Mario
2017-01-01
In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL 2 (R)) 4 acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL 2 (R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Color symmetrical superconductivity in a schematic nuclear quark model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, C.; da Providencia, J.
2010-01-01
In this letter, a novel BCS-type formalism is constructed in the framework of a schematic QCD inspired quark model, having in mind the description of color symmetrical superconducting states. In the usual approach to color superconductivity, the pairing correlations affect only the quasi-particle...... states of two colors, the single-particle states of the third color remaining unaffected by the pairing correlations. In the theory of color symmetrical superconductivity here proposed, the pairing correlations affect symmetrically the quasi-particle states of the three colors and vanishing net color...
Highly-dispersive electromagnetic induced transparency in planar symmetric metamaterials.
Lu, Xiqun; Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Guan, Chunying
2012-07-30
We propose, design and experimentally demonstrate highly-dispersive electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar symmetric metamaterials actively switched and controlled by angles of incidence. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show EIT phenomena, trapped-mode excitations and the associated local field enhancement of two symmetric metamaterials consisting of symmetrically split rings (SSR) and a fishscale (FS) metamaterial pattern, respectively, strongly depend on angles of incidence. The FS metamaterial shows much broader spectral splitting than the SSR metamaterial due to the surface current distribution variation.
Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong
2009-01-01
The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.
Loss, Leandro A.; Bebis, George; Parvin, Bahram
2012-01-01
In this paper, a novel approach is proposed for perceptual grouping and localization of ill-defined curvilinear structures. Our approach builds upon the tensor voting and the iterative voting frameworks. Its efficacy lies on iterative refinements of curvilinear structures by gradually shifting from an exploratory to an exploitative mode. Such a mode shifting is achieved by reducing the aperture of the tensor voting fields, which is shown to improve curve grouping and inference by enhancing the concentration of the votes over promising, salient structures. The proposed technique is applied to delineation of adherens junctions imaged through fluorescence microscopy. This class of membrane-bound macromolecules maintains tissue structural integrity and cell-cell interactions. Visually, it exhibits fibrous patterns that may be diffused, punctate and frequently perceptual. Besides the application to real data, the proposed method is compared to prior methods on synthetic and annotated real data, showing high precision rates. PMID:21421432
You Shall Not Pass – Tight junctions of the Blood Brain Barrier.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hans-Christian eBauer
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Tissue barriers restricting the free diffusion of substances between the central nervous system and the systemic circulation are of great medical interest. Excessive leakage of blood-borne molecules into the parenchyma and the concomitant fluctuations in the microenvironment following a transient breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB during ischemic/hypoxic conditions or due to an autoimmune disease are detrimental to the physiology of nervous tissue.On the other hand, the treatment of neurological disorders is often hampered as only minimal amounts of therapeutic agents are able to penetrate a functional BBB or blood cerebrospinal fluid barrier. At the basis of the BBB are, next to an elaborate transporting machinery, intimate cell-cell contacts (tight junctions creating not only a paracellular diffusion constraint but also enabling the vectorial transport across cell monolayers.More recent findings indicate that functional barriers are already established during development, protecting the fetal brain. As an understanding of the biogenesis of TJs might reveal the underlying mechanisms of barrier formation during ontogenic development numerous in vitro systems have been developed to study the assembly and disassembly of TJs. In addition, monitoring the stage-specific expression of TJ proteins during development has brought much insight into the developmental tightening of tissue barriers. Further, over the last two decades a detailed molecular map of tight junctions has emerged.TJs not only represent a cell-cell adhesion structure, but integrate various signaling pathways, thereby directly or indirectly impacting upon processes such as cell proliferation, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and transcriptional control.This review will provide a brief overview on the establishment of the BBB during embryonic development in mammals and a detailed description of the ultrastructure, biogenesis, and molecular composition of epithelial and endothelial
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lynsey Vaughan
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The E3 ubiquitin ligase HUWE1, deregulated in carcinoma, has been implicated in tumor formation. Here, we uncover a role for HUWE1 in cell migration and invasion through degrading the RAC activator TIAM1, implying an additional function in malignant progression. In MDCKII cells in response to HGF, HUWE1 catalyzes TIAM1 ubiquitylation and degradation predominantly at cell-cell adhesions, facilitating junction disassembly, migration, and invasion. Depleting HUWE1 or mutating the TIAM1 ubiquitylation site prevents TIAM1 degradation, antagonizing scattering, and invasion. Moreover, simultaneous depletion of TIAM1 restores migration and invasion in HUWE1-depleted cells. Significantly, we show that HUWE1 stimulates human lung cancer cell invasion through regulating TIAM1 stability. Finally, we demonstrate that HUWE1 and TIAM1 protein levels are inversely correlated in human lung carcinomas. Thus, we elucidate a critical role for HUWE1 in regulating epithelial cell-cell adhesion and provide additional evidence that ubiquitylation contributes to spatiotemporal control of RAC.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hinitt, C.A.M.; Wood, J.; Lee, S.S.; Williams, A.C.; Howarth, J.L.; Glover, C.P.; Uney, J.B.; Hague, A.
2010-01-01
Cell motility is important in maintaining tissue homeostasis, facilitating epithelial wound repair and in tumour formation and progression. The aim of this study was to determine whether BAG-1 isoforms regulate epidermal cell migration in in vitro models of wound healing. In the human epidermal cell line HaCaT, endogenous BAG-1 is primarily nuclear and increases with confluence. Both transient and stable p36-Bag-1 overexpression resulted in increased cellular cohesion. Stable transfection of either of the three human BAG-1 isoforms p36-Bag-1 (BAG-1S), p46-Bag-1 (BAG-1M) and p50-Bag-1 (BAG-1L) inhibited growth and wound closure in serum-containing medium. However, in response to hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in serum-free medium, BAG-1S/M reduced communal motility and colony scattering, but BAG-1L did not. In the presence of HGF, p36-Bag-1 transfectants retained proliferative response to HGF with no change in ERK1/2 activation. However, the cells retained E-cadherin localisation at cell-cell junctions and exhibited pronounced cortical actin. Point mutations in the BAG domain showed that BAG-1 inhibition of motility is independent of its function as a chaperone regulator. These findings are the first to suggest that BAG-1 plays a role in regulating cell-cell adhesion and suggest an important function in epidermal cohesion.
Josephson junctions of multiple superconducting wires
Deb, Oindrila; Sengupta, K.; Sen, Diptiman
2018-05-01
We study the spectrum of Andreev bound states and Josephson currents across a junction of N superconducting wires which may have s - or p -wave pairing symmetries and develop a scattering matrix based formalism which allows us to address transport across such junctions. For N ≥3 , it is well known that Berry curvature terms contribute to the Josephson currents; we chart out situations where such terms can have relatively large effects. For a system of three s -wave or three p -wave superconductors, we provide analytic expressions for the Andreev bound-state energies and study the Josephson currents in response to a constant voltage applied across one of the wires; we find that the integrated transconductance at zero temperature is quantized to integer multiples of 4 e2/h , where e is the electron charge and h =2 π ℏ is Planck's constant. For a sinusoidal current with frequency ω applied across one of the wires in the junction, we find that Shapiro plateaus appear in the time-averaged voltage across that wire for any rational fractional multiple (in contrast to only integer multiples in junctions of two wires) of 2 e /(ℏ ω ) . We also use our formalism to study junctions of two p -wave and one s -wave wires. We find that the corresponding Andreev bound-state energies depend on the spin of the Bogoliubov quasiparticles; this produces a net magnetic moment in such junctions. The time variation of these magnetic moments may be controlled by an external voltage applied across the junction. We discuss experiments which may test our theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cleland, A.N.
1991-01-01
Experiments investigated the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very-small-capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson-phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters. The experiments on small-capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the large-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wave function has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias
Path integral representation of the symmetric Rosen-Morse potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duru, I.H.
1983-09-01
An integral formula for the Green's function of symmetric Rosen-Morse potential is obtained by solving path integrals. The correctly normalized wave functions and bound state energy spectrum are derived. (author)
The geometrical theory of diffraction for axially symmetric reflectors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rusch, W.; Sørensen, O.
1975-01-01
The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) (cf. [1], for example) may be applied advantageously to many axially symmetric reflector antenna geometries. The material in this communication presents analytical, computational, and experimental results for commonly encountered reflector geometries...
Symmetric Pin Diversion Detection using a Partial Defect Detector (PDET)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sitaraman, S.; Ham, Y.S.
2009-01-01
Since the signature from the Partial Defect Detector (PDET) is principally dependent on the geometric layout of the guide tube locations, the capability of the technique in detecting symmetric diversion of pins needs to be determined. The Monte Carlo simulation study consisted of cases where pins were removed in a symmetric manner and the resulting signatures were examined. In addition to the normalized gamma-to-neutron ratios, the neutron and gamma signatures normalized to their maximum values, were also examined. Examination of the shape of the three curves as well as of the peak-to-valley differences in excess of the maximum expected in intact assemblies, indicated pin diversion. A set of simulations with various symmetric patterns of diversion were examined. The results from these studies indicated that symmetric diversions as low as twelve percent could be detected by this methodology
Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices
Glaister, P.
2008-01-01
The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.
A Paley-Wiener theorem for reductive symmetric spaces
Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.
2006-01-01
Let X = G/H be a reductive symmetric space and K a maximal compact subgroup of G. The image under the Fourier transform of the space of K-finite compactly supported smooth functions on X is characterized.
Report on the Dynamical Evolution of an Axially Symmetric Quasar ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
retical arguments together with some numerical evidence. The evolution of the orbits is studied, as mass is transported from the disk to the nucleus. ... galaxies and non-axially symmetric quasar models (see Papadopoulos & Caranicolas.
first principles derivation of a stress function for axially symmetric
African Journals Online (AJOL)
HOD
governing partial differential equations of linear isotropic elasticity were reduced to the solution of the biharmonic ... The stress function was then applied to solve the axially symmetric ..... [1] Borg S.K.: Fundamentals of Engineering Elasticity,.
Symmetrization of mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander M. Blokhin
2002-11-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors is considered. The model is a quasilinear system of differential equations. A problem of finding an additional entropy conservation law and system symmetrization are solved.
An algebraic approach to the non-symmetric Macdonald polynomial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishino, Akinori; Ujino, Hideaki; Wadati, Miki
1999-01-01
In terms of the raising and lowering operators, we algebraically construct the non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials which are simultaneous eigenfunctions of the commuting Cherednik operators. We also calculate Cherednik's scalar product of them
Hardware Realization of Chaos Based Symmetric Image Encryption
Barakat, Mohamed L.
2012-01-01
This thesis presents a novel work on hardware realization of symmetric image encryption utilizing chaos based continuous systems as pseudo random number generators. Digital implementation of chaotic systems results in serious degradations
Experimental technique of calibration of symmetrical air pollution ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Based on the inherent property of symmetry of air pollution models, a Symmetrical Air Pollution. Model ... process is in compliance with air pollution regula- ..... Ground simulation is achieved through MATLAB package which is based on least-.
Hardware Realization of Chaos-based Symmetric Video Encryption
Ibrahim, Mohamad A.
2013-01-01
This thesis reports original work on hardware realization of symmetric video encryption using chaos-based continuous systems as pseudo-random number generators. The thesis also presents some of the serious degradations caused by digitally
Ballistic Graphene Josephson Junctions from the Short to the Long Junction Regimes.
Borzenets, I V; Amet, F; Ke, C T; Draelos, A W; Wei, M T; Seredinski, A; Watanabe, K; Taniguchi, T; Bomze, Y; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S; Finkelstein, G
2016-12-02
We investigate the critical current I_{C} of ballistic Josephson junctions made of encapsulated graphene-boron-nitride heterostructures. We observe a crossover from the short to the long junction regimes as the length of the device increases. In long ballistic junctions, I_{C} is found to scale as ∝exp(-k_{B}T/δE). The extracted energies δE are independent of the carrier density and proportional to the level spacing of the ballistic cavity. As T→0 the critical current of a long (or short) junction saturates at a level determined by the product of δE (or Δ) and the number of the junction's transversal modes.
Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin
2007-01-01
Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes....... In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing...... the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs...
Invariant subspaces in some function spaces on symmetric spaces. II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Platonov, S S
1998-01-01
Let G be a semisimple connected Lie group with finite centre, K a maximal compact subgroup of G, and M=G/K a Riemannian symmetric space of non-compact type. We study the problem of describing the structure of closed linear subspaces in various function spaces on M that are invariant under the quasiregular representation of the group G. We consider the case when M is a symplectic symmetric space of rank 1
Symmetric coupling of four spin-1/2 systems
Suzuki, Jun; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2012-06-01
We address the non-binary coupling of identical angular momenta based upon the representation theory for the symmetric group. A correspondence is pointed out between the complete set of commuting operators and the reference-frame-free subsystems. We provide a detailed analysis of the coupling of three and four spin-1/2 systems and discuss a symmetric coupling of four spin-1/2 systems.
Multiple symmetrical lipomatosis (Madelung's disease) - a case report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vieira, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Abreu, Marcelo de; Furtado, Claudia Dietz; Silveira, Marcio Fleck da; Furtado, Alvaro Porto Alegre; Genro, Carlos Horacio; Grazziotin, Rossano Ughini
2001-01-01
Multiple symmetrical lipomatosis (Madelung's disease) is a rare disorder characterized by deep accumulation of fat tissue, involving mainly the neck, shoulders and chest. This disease is associated with heavy alcohol intake and it is more common in men of Mediterranean origin. This disease can cause severe aesthetic deformities and progressive respiratory dysfunction. We report a case of a patient with multiple symmetrical lipomatosis and describe the clinical and radiological features of this disorder. (author)
Symmetrized neutron transport equation and the fast Fourier transform method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sinh, N.Q.; Kisynski, J.; Mika, J.
1978-01-01
The differential equation obtained from the neutron transport equation by the application of the source iteration method in two-dimensional rectangular geometry is transformed into a symmetrized form with respect to one of the angular variables. The discretization of the symmetrized equation leads to finite difference equations based on the five-point scheme and solved by use of the fast Fourier transform method. Possible advantages of the approach are shown on test calculations
Tight junctions: a barrier to the initiation and progression of breast cancer?
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Brennan, Kieran
2010-01-01
Breast cancer is a complex and heterogeneous disease that arises from epithelial cells lining the breast ducts and lobules. Correct adhesion between adjacent epithelial cells is important in determining the normal structure and function of epithelial tissues, and there is accumulating evidence that dysregulated cell-cell adhesion is associated with many cancers. This review will focus on one cell-cell adhesion complex, the tight junction (TJ), and summarize recent evidence that TJs may participate in breast cancer development or progression. We will first outline the protein composition of TJs and discuss the functions of the TJ complex. Secondly we will examine how alterations in these functions might facilitate breast cancer initiation or progression; by focussing on the regulatory influence of TJs on cell polarity, cell fate and cell migration. Finally we will outline how pharmacological targeting of TJ proteins may be useful in limiting breast cancer progression. Overall we hope to illustrate that the relationship between TJ alterations and breast cancer is a complex one; but that this area offers promise in uncovering fundamental mechanisms linked to breast cancer progression.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hadley, Austin; Ding, George X.
2014-01-01
Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) requires abutting fields at the cervical spine. Junction shifts are conventionally used to prevent setup error–induced overdosage/underdosage from occurring at the same location. This study compared the dosimetric differences at the cranial-spinal junction between a single-gradient junction technique and conventional multiple-junction shifts and evaluated the effect of setup errors on the dose distributions between both techniques for a treatment course and single fraction. Conventionally, 2 lateral brain fields and a posterior spine field(s) are used for CSI with weekly 1-cm junction shifts. We retrospectively replanned 4 CSI patients using a single-gradient junction between the lateral brain fields and the posterior spine field. The fields were extended to allow a minimum 3-cm field overlap. The dose gradient at the junction was achieved using dose painting and intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning. The effect of positioning setup errors on the dose distributions for both techniques was simulated by applying shifts of ± 3 and 5 mm. The resulting cervical spine doses across the field junction for both techniques were calculated and compared. Dose profiles were obtained for both a single fraction and entire treatment course to include the effects of the conventional weekly junction shifts. Compared with the conventional technique, the gradient-dose technique resulted in higher dose uniformity and conformity to the target volumes, lower organ at risk (OAR) mean and maximum doses, and diminished hot spots from systematic positioning errors over the course of treatment. Single-fraction hot and cold spots were improved for the gradient-dose technique. The single-gradient junction technique provides improved conformity, dose uniformity, diminished hot spots, lower OAR mean and maximum dose, and one plan for the entire treatment course, which reduces the potential human error associated with conventional 4-shifted plans
Epithelial self-healing is recapitulated by a 3D biomimetic E-cadherin junction.
Cohen, Daniel J; Gloerich, Martijn; Nelson, W James
2016-12-20
Epithelial monolayers undergo self-healing when wounded. During healing, cells collectively migrate into the wound site, and the converging tissue fronts collide and form a stable interface. To heal, migrating tissues must form cell-cell adhesions and reorganize from the front-rear polarity characteristic of cell migration to the apical-basal polarity of an epithelium. However, identifying the "stop signal" that induces colliding tissues to cease migrating and heal remains an open question. Epithelial cells form integrin-based adhesions to the basal extracellular matrix (ECM) and E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesions on the orthogonal, lateral surfaces between cells. Current biological tools have been unable to probe this multicellular 3D interface to determine the stop signal. We addressed this problem by developing a unique biointerface that mimicked the 3D organization of epithelial cell adhesions. This "minimal tissue mimic" (MTM) comprised a basal ECM substrate and a vertical surface coated with purified extracellular domain of E-cadherin, and was designed for collision with the healing edge of an epithelial monolayer. Three-dimensional imaging showed that adhesions formed between cells, and the E-cadherin-coated MTM resembled the morphology and dynamics of native epithelial cell-cell junctions and induced the same polarity transition that occurs during epithelial self-healing. These results indicate that E-cadherin presented in the proper 3D context constitutes a minimum essential stop signal to induce self-healing. That the Ecad:Fc MTM stably integrated into an epithelial tissue and reduced migration at the interface suggests that this biointerface is a complimentary approach to existing tissue-material interfaces.
Particle detection with superconducting tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jany, P.
1990-08-01
At the Institute of Experimental Nuclear Physics of the University of Karlsruhe (TH) and at the Institute for Nuclear Physics of the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe we started to produce superconducting tunnel junctions and to investigate them for their suitability as particle detectors. The required facilities for the production of tunnel junctions and the experimental equipments to carry out experiments with them were erected. Experiments are presented in which radiations of different kinds of particles could successfully be measured with the tunnel junctions produced. At first we succeeded in detectioning light pulses of a laser. In experiments with alpha-particles of an energy of 4,6 MeV the alpha-particles were detected with an energy resolution of 1,1%, and it was shown in specific experiments that the phonons originating from the deposition of energy by an alpha-particle in the substrate can be detected with superconducting tunnel junctions at the surface. On that occasion it turned out that the signals could be separated with respect to their point of origin (tunnel junction, contact leads, substrate). Finally X-rays with an energy of 6 keV were detected with an energy resolution of 8% in a test arrangement that makes use of the so-called trapping effect to read out a larger absorber volume. (orig.) [de
Terahertz Responses of Intrinsic Josephson Junctions in High TC Superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, H. B.; Wu, P. H.; Yamashita, T.
2001-01-01
High frequency responses of intrinsic Josephson junctions up to 2.5THz, including the observation of Shapiro steps under various conditions, are reported and discussed in this Letter. The sample was an array of intrinsic Josephson junctions singled out from inside a high T C superconducting Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8+x single crystal, with a bow-tie antenna integrated to it. The number of junctions in the array was controllable, the junctions were homogeneous, the distribution of applied irradiation among the junctions was even, and the junctions could synchronously respond to high frequency irradiation
Phase-dependent noise in Josephson junctions
Sheldon, Forrest; Peotta, Sebastiano; Di Ventra, Massimiliano
2018-03-01
In addition to the usual superconducting current, Josephson junctions (JJs) support a phase-dependent conductance related to the retardation effect of tunneling quasi-particles. This introduces a dissipative current with a memory-resistive (memristive) character that should also affect the current noise. By means of the microscopic theory of tunnel junctions we compute the complete current autocorrelation function of a Josephson tunnel junction and show that this memristive component gives rise to both a previously noted phase-dependent thermal noise, and an undescribed non-stationary, phase-dependent dynamic noise. As experiments are approaching ranges in which these effects may be observed, we examine the form and magnitude of these processes. Their phase dependence can be realized experimentally as a hysteresis effect and may be used to probe defects present in JJ based qubits and in other superconducting electronics applications.
Phonon spectroscopy with superconducting tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimshaw, J.M.
1984-02-01
Superconducting tunnel junctions can be used as generators and detectors of monochromatic phonons of frequency larger than 80 GHz, as was first devised by Eisenmenger and Dayem (1967) and Kinder (1972a, 1973). In this report, we intend to give a general outline of this type of spectroscopy and to present the results obtained so far. The basic physics underlying phonon generation and detection are described in chapter I, a wider approach being given in the references therein. In chapter II, the different types of junctions are considered with respect to their use. Chapter III deals with the evaporation technique for the superconducting junctions. The last part of this report is devoted to the results that we have obtained on γ-irradiated LiF, pure Si and Phosphorous implanted Si. In these chapters, the limitations of the spectrometer are brought out and suggestions for further work are given [fr
Silicon fiber with p-n junction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B.
2014-01-01
In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.
Tunnel magnetoresistance in double spin filter junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saffarzadeh, Alireza
2003-01-01
We consider a new type of magnetic tunnel junction, which consists of two ferromagnetic tunnel barriers acting as spin filters (SFs), separated by a nonmagnetic metal (NM) layer. Using the transfer matrix method and the free-electron approximation, the dependence of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) on the thickness of the central NM layer, bias voltage and temperature in the double SF junction are studied theoretically. It is shown that the TMR and electron-spin polarization in this structure can reach very large values under suitable conditions. The highest value of the TMR can reach 99%. By an appropriate choice of the thickness of the central NM layer, the degree of spin polarization in this structure will be higher than that of the single SF junctions. These results may be useful in designing future spin-polarized tunnelling devices
Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Himmel, Nico
2015-07-23
Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO{sub x} vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially
Electrical analog of a Josephson junction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, A.M.
1979-01-01
It is noted that a mathematical description of the phase-coupling of two oscillators synchronized by a phase-lock-loop under the influence of thermal white noise is analogous to that of the phase coupling of two superconductors in a Josephson junction also under the influence of noise. This analogy may be useful in studying threshold instabilities of the Josephson junction in regimes not restricted to the case of large damping. This is of interest because the behavior of the mean voltage near the threshold current can be characterized by critical exponents which resemble those exhibited by an order parameter of a continuous phase transition. As it is possible to couple a collection of oscillators together in a chain, the oscillator analogy may also be useful in exploring the dynamics and statistical mechanics of coupled junctions
Thermionic refrigeration at CNT-CNT junctions
Li, C.; Pipe, K. P.
2016-10-01
Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to study carrier energy relaxation following thermionic emission at the junction of two van der Waals bonded single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). An energy-dependent transmission probability gives rise to energy filtering at the junction, which is predicted to increase the average electron transport energy by as much as 0.115 eV, leading to an effective Seebeck coefficient of 386 μV/K. MC results predict a long energy relaxation length (˜8 μm) for hot electrons crossing the junction into the barrier SWCNT. For SWCNTs of optimal length, an analytical transport model is used to show that thermionic cooling can outweigh parasitic heat conduction due to high SWCNT thermal conductivity, leading to a significant cooling capacity (2.4 × 106 W/cm2).
Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Himmel, Nico
2015-01-01
Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO x vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni 60 Cu 40 vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially a variation of
A new technical approach to quantify cell-cell adhesion forces by AFM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puech, Pierre-Henri; Poole, Kate; Knebel, Detlef; Muller, Daniel J.
2006-01-01
Cell-cell adhesion is a complex process that is involved in the tethering of cells, cell-cell communication, tissue formation, cell migration and the development and metastasis of tumors. Given the heterogeneous and complex nature of cell surfaces it has previously proved difficult to characterize individual cell-cell adhesion events. Force spectroscopy, using an atomic force microscope, is capable of resolving such individual cell-cell binding events, but has previously been limited in its application due to insufficient effective pulling distances. Extended pulling range is critical in studying cell-cell interactions due to the potential for large cell deformations. Here we describe an approach to such experiments, where the sample stage can be moved 100 μm in the z-direction, by closed loop, linearized piezo elements. Such an approach enables an increase in pulling distance sufficient for the observation of long-distance cell-unbinding events without reducing the imaging capabilities of the atomic force microscope. The atomic force microscope head and the piezo-driven sample stage are installed on an inverted optical microscope fitted with a piezo-driven objective, to allow the monitoring of cell morphology by conventional light microscopy, concomitant with force spectroscopy measurements. We have used the example of the WM115 melanoma cell line binding to human umbilical vein endothelial cells to demonstrate the capabilities of this system and the necessity for such an extended pulling range when quantifying cell-cell adhesion events
Sato, Hiromi; Coburn, Jenifer
2017-07-01
Pathogenic Leptospira transmits from animals to humans, causing the zoonotic life-threatening infection called leptospirosis. This infection is reported worldwide with higher risk in tropical regions. Symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild illness to severe illness such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory distress, meningitis, and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Invasive species of Leptospira rapidly disseminate to multiple tissues where this bacterium damages host endothelial cells, increasing vascular permeability. Despite the burden in humans and animals, the pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira infection remain to be elucidated. The pathogenic leptospires adhere to endothelial cells and permeabilize endothelial barriers in vivo and in vitro. In this study, human endothelial cells were infected with the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc to investigate morphological changes and other distinctive phenotypes of host cell proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Among those analyzed, 17 proteins from five biological classes demonstrated distinctive phenotypes in morphology and/or signal intensity upon infection with Leptospira. The affected biological groups include: 1) extracellular matrix, 2) intercellular adhesion molecules and cell surface receptors, 3) intracellular proteins, 4) cell-cell junction proteins, and 5) a cytoskeletal protein. Infection with the pathogenic strain most profoundly disturbed the biological structures of adherens junctions (VE-cadherin and catenins) and actin filaments. Our data illuminate morphological disruptions and reduced signals of cell-cell junction proteins and filamentous actin in L. interrogans-infected endothelial cells. In addition, Leptospira infection, regardless of pathogenic status, influenced other host proteins belonging to multiple biological classes. Our data suggest that this zoonotic agent may damage endothelial cells via multiple cascades or pathways
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiromi Sato
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Pathogenic Leptospira transmits from animals to humans, causing the zoonotic life-threatening infection called leptospirosis. This infection is reported worldwide with higher risk in tropical regions. Symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild illness to severe illness such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory distress, meningitis, and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Invasive species of Leptospira rapidly disseminate to multiple tissues where this bacterium damages host endothelial cells, increasing vascular permeability. Despite the burden in humans and animals, the pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira infection remain to be elucidated. The pathogenic leptospires adhere to endothelial cells and permeabilize endothelial barriers in vivo and in vitro. In this study, human endothelial cells were infected with the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc to investigate morphological changes and other distinctive phenotypes of host cell proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Among those analyzed, 17 proteins from five biological classes demonstrated distinctive phenotypes in morphology and/or signal intensity upon infection with Leptospira. The affected biological groups include: 1 extracellular matrix, 2 intercellular adhesion molecules and cell surface receptors, 3 intracellular proteins, 4 cell-cell junction proteins, and 5 a cytoskeletal protein. Infection with the pathogenic strain most profoundly disturbed the biological structures of adherens junctions (VE-cadherin and catenins and actin filaments. Our data illuminate morphological disruptions and reduced signals of cell-cell junction proteins and filamentous actin in L. interrogans-infected endothelial cells. In addition, Leptospira infection, regardless of pathogenic status, influenced other host proteins belonging to multiple biological classes. Our data suggest that this zoonotic agent may damage endothelial cells via multiple cascades or
Sato, Hiromi
2017-01-01
Pathogenic Leptospira transmits from animals to humans, causing the zoonotic life-threatening infection called leptospirosis. This infection is reported worldwide with higher risk in tropical regions. Symptoms of leptospirosis range from mild illness to severe illness such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory distress, meningitis, and fatal hemorrhagic disease. Invasive species of Leptospira rapidly disseminate to multiple tissues where this bacterium damages host endothelial cells, increasing vascular permeability. Despite the burden in humans and animals, the pathogenic mechanisms of Leptospira infection remain to be elucidated. The pathogenic leptospires adhere to endothelial cells and permeabilize endothelial barriers in vivo and in vitro. In this study, human endothelial cells were infected with the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni or the saprophyte L. biflexa serovar Patoc to investigate morphological changes and other distinctive phenotypes of host cell proteins by fluorescence microscopy. Among those analyzed, 17 proteins from five biological classes demonstrated distinctive phenotypes in morphology and/or signal intensity upon infection with Leptospira. The affected biological groups include: 1) extracellular matrix, 2) intercellular adhesion molecules and cell surface receptors, 3) intracellular proteins, 4) cell-cell junction proteins, and 5) a cytoskeletal protein. Infection with the pathogenic strain most profoundly disturbed the biological structures of adherens junctions (VE-cadherin and catenins) and actin filaments. Our data illuminate morphological disruptions and reduced signals of cell-cell junction proteins and filamentous actin in L. interrogans-infected endothelial cells. In addition, Leptospira infection, regardless of pathogenic status, influenced other host proteins belonging to multiple biological classes. Our data suggest that this zoonotic agent may damage endothelial cells via multiple cascades or pathways
Mechanically controllable break junctions for molecular electronics.
Xiang, Dong; Jeong, Hyunhak; Lee, Takhee; Mayer, Dirk
2013-09-20
A mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) represents a fundamental technique for the investigation of molecular electronic junctions, especially for the study of the electronic properties of single molecules. With unique advantages, the MCBJ technique has provided substantial insight into charge transport processes in molecules. In this review, the techniques for sample fabrication, operation and the various applications of MCBJs are introduced and the history, challenges and future of MCBJs are discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1992-01-01
We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...
Fluctuation of heat current in Josephson junctions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Virtanen
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We discuss the statistics of heat current between two superconductors at different temperatures connected by a generic weak link. As the electronic heat in superconductors is carried by Bogoliubov quasiparticles, the heat transport fluctuations follow the Levitov–Lesovik relation. We identify the energy-dependent quasiparticle transmission probabilities and discuss the resulting probability density and fluctuation relations of the heat current. We consider multichannel junctions, and find that heat transport in diffusive junctions is unique in that its statistics is independent of the phase difference between the superconductors.
Superconductive junctions for x-ray spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grand, J.B. le; Bruijn, M.P.; Frericks, M.; Korte, P.A.J. de; Houwman, E.P.; Flokstra, J.
1992-01-01
Biasing of SIS-junctions for the purpose of high energy resolution x-ray detection is complicated by the presence of a DC Josephson current and AC Josephson current resonances, so that a large magnetic field is normally used for the suppression of these Josephson features. A transimpedance amplifier is proposed for biasing and signal amplification at low magnetic field. X-ray spectroscopy detectors for astronomy require a high detection efficiency in the 0.5-10 keV energy band and a reasonable (∼1 cm 2 ) detector area. Calculations on absorber-junctions combinations which might meet these requirements are presented. (author) 9 refs.; 10 figs
Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-15
Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.
Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae
2015-01-01
Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm 2 . The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased
Gap junctions-guards of excitability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus
2015-01-01
Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances...... of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyadjiev, T.L.; Semerdjieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.
2007-01-01
We study the vortex structure in three different models of the long Josephson junction: the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the Josephson junctions with the resistor and the shunt inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. For these three models the critical curves 'critical current-magnetic field' are numerically constructed. We develop the idea of the equivalence of the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the rectangular junction with the distributed inhomogeneity and demonstrate that at some parameters of the shunt and the resistor inhomogeneities in the ends of the junction the corresponding critical curves are very close to the exponentially shaped one
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Brook T Chernet
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In addition to the immediate microenvironment, long-range signaling may be an important component of cancer. Molecular-genetic analyses have implicated gap junctions – key mediators of cell-cell communication – in carcinogenesis. We recently showed that the resting voltage potential of distant cell groups is a key determinant of metastatic transformation and tumor induction. Here, we show in the Xenopus laevis model that gap junctional communication (GJC is a modulator of the long-range bioelectric signaling that regulates tumor formation. Genetic disruption of GJC taking place within tumors, within remote host tissues, or between the host and tumors – significantly lowers the incidence of tumors induced by KRAS mutations. The most pronounced suppression of tumor incidence was observed upon GJC disruption taking place farther away from oncogene-expressing cells, revealing a role for GJC in distant cells in the control of tumor growth. In contrast, enhanced GJC communication through the overexpression of wild-type connexin Cx26 increased tumor incidence. Our data confirm a role for GJC in tumorigenesis, and reveal that this effect is non-local. Based on these results and on published data on movement of ions through GJs, we present a quantitative model linking the GJC coupling and bioelectrical state of cells to the ability of oncogenes to initiate tumorigenesis. When integrated with data on endogenous bioelectric signaling during left-right patterning, the model predicts differential tumor incidence outcomes depending on the spatial configurations of gap junction paths relative to tumor location and major anatomical body axes. Testing these predictions, we found that the strongest influence of GJ modulation on tumor suppression by hyperpolarization occurred along the embryonic left-right axis. Together, these data reveal new, long-range aspects of cancer control by the host’s physiological parameters.
Cotangent bundles over all the Hermitian symmetric spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arai, Masato; Baba, Kurando
2016-01-01
We construct the N = 2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models on the cotangent bundles over all the compact and non-compact Hermitian symmetric spaces. In order to construct them we use the projective superspace formalism which is an N = 2 off-shell superfield formulation in four-dimensional space-time. This formalism allows us to obtain the explicit expression of N = 2 supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models on the cotangent bundles over any Hermitian symmetric spaces in terms of the N =1 superfields, once the Kähler potentials of the base manifolds are obtained. Starting with N = 1 supersymmetric Kähler nonlinear sigma models on the Hermitian symmetric spaces, we extend them into the N = 2 supersymmetric models by using the projective superspace formalism and derive the general formula for the cotangent bundles over all the compact and non-compact Hermitian symmetric spaces. We apply to the formula for the non-compact Hermitian symmetric space E 7 /E 6 × U(1) 1 . (paper)
Optomechanically induced absorption in parity-time-symmetric optomechanical systems
Zhang, X. Y.; Guo, Y. Q.; Pei, P.; Yi, X. X.
2017-06-01
We explore the optomechanically induced absorption (OMIA) in a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric optomechanical system (OMS). By numerically calculating the Lyapunov exponents, we find out the stability border of the PT -symmetric OMS. The results show that in the PT -symmetric phase the system can be either stable or unstable depending on the coupling constant and the decay rate. In the PT -symmetric broken phase the system can have a stable state only for small gain rates. By calculating the transmission rate of the probe field, we find that there is an inverted optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) at δ =-ωM and an OMIA at δ =ωM for the PT -symmetric optomechanical system. At each side of δ =-ωM there is an absorption window due to the resonance absorption of the two generated supermodes. Comparing with the case of optomechanics coupled to a passive cavity, we find that the active cavity can enhance the resonance absorption. The absorption rate at δ =ωM increases as the coupling strength between the two cavities increases. Our work provides us with a promising platform for controlling light propagation and light manipulation in terms of PT symmetry, which might have potential applications in quantum information processing and quantum optical devices.
A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage voltage multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, Shahid; Singh, G K; Besar, R; Muhammad, G
2006-01-01
A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (CW-VM) is proposed in this report. It consists of three single-phase symmetrical voltage multipliers, which are connected in series at their smoothing columns like string of batteries and are driven by three-phase ac power source. The smoothing column of each voltage multiplier is charged twice every cycle independently by respective oscillating columns and discharged in series through load. The charging discharging process completes six times a cycle and therefore the output voltage ripple's frequency is of sixth order of the drive signal frequency. Thus the proposed approach eliminates the first five harmonic components of load generated voltage ripples and sixth harmonic is the major ripple component. The proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical voltage multiplier has less than half the voltage ripple, and three times larger output voltage and output power than the conventional single-phase symmetrical CW-VM. Experimental and simulation results of the laboratory prototype are given to show the feasibility of proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical CW-VM
Atomic-scaled characterization of graphene PN junctions
Zhou, Xiaodong; Wang, Dennis; Dadgar, Ali; Agnihotri, Pratik; Lee, Ji Ung; Reuter, Mark C.; Ross, Frances M.; Pasupathy, Abhay N.
Graphene p-n junctions are essential devices for studying relativistic Klein tunneling and the Veselago lensing effect in graphene. We have successfully fabricated graphene p-n junctions using both lithographically pre-patterned substrates and the stacking of vertical heterostructures. We then use our 4-probe STM system to characterize the junctions. The ability to carry out scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in our STM instrument is essential for us to locate and measure the junction interface. We obtain both the topography and dI/dV spectra at the junction area, from which we track the shift of the graphene chemical potential with position across the junction interface. This allows us to directly measure the spatial width and roughness of the junction and its potential barrier height. We will compare the junction properties of devices fabricated by the aforementioned two methods and discuss their effects on the performance as a Veselago lens.
Structure modeling and mutational analysis of gap junction beta 2 ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Yomi
2012-04-03
Apr 3, 2012 ... Three dimensional (3 D) structure is very useful for understanding biological functions. Gap junction beta 2 (GJB2), human gene encoding for gap junction beta 2 protein is involved in ... Research in deafness became real.
Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells
Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Tang, Jiang; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Sargent, Edward H.
2012-01-01
The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum
Li, Nan; Mruk, Dolores D.; Chen, Haiqi; Wong, Chris K. C.; Lee, Will M.; Cheng, C. Yan
2016-07-01
Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) is an environmental toxicant used in developing countries, including China, as a stain repellent for clothing, carpets and draperies, but it has been banned in the U.S. and Canada since the late 2000s. PFOS perturbed the Sertoli cell tight junction (TJ)-permeability barrier, causing disruption of actin microfilaments in cell cytosol, perturbing the localization of cell junction proteins (e.g., occluden-ZO-1, N-cadherin-ß-catenin). These changes destabilized Sertoli cell blood-testis barrier (BTB) integrity. These findings suggest that human exposure to PFOS might induce BTB dysfunction and infertility. Interestingly, PFOS-induced Sertoli cell injury associated with a down-regulation of the gap junction (GJ) protein connexin43 (Cx43). We next investigated if overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells could rescue the PFOS-induced cell injury. Indeed, overexpression of Cx43 in Sertoli cells with an established TJ-barrier blocked the disruption in PFOS-induced GJ-intercellular communication, resulting in the re-organization of actin microfilaments, which rendered them similar to those in control cells. Furthermore, cell adhesion proteins that utilized F-actin for attachment became properly distributed at the cell-cell interface, resealing the disrupted TJ-barrier. In summary, Cx43 is a good target that might be used to manage PFOS-induced reproductive dysfunction.
Macroscopic Refrigeration Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions
Lowell, Peter; O'Neil, Galen; Underwood, Jason; Zhang, Xiaohang; Ullom, Joel
2014-03-01
Sub-kelvin temperatures are often a prerequisite for modern scientific experiments, such as quantum information processing, astrophysical missions looking for dark energy signatures and tabletop time resolved x-ray spectroscopy. Existing methods of reaching these temperatures, such as dilution refrigerators, are bulky and costly. In order to increase the accessibility of sub-Kelvin temperatures, we have developed a new method of refrigeration using normal-metal/insulator/superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. NIS junctions cool the electrons in the normal metal since the hottest electrons selectively tunnel from the normal metal into the superconductor. By extending the normal metal onto a thermally isolated membrane, the cold electrons can cool the phonons through the electron-phonon coupling. When these junctions are combined with a pumped 3He system, they provide a potentially inexpensive method of reaching these temperatures. Using only three devices, each with a junction area of approximately 3,500 μm2, we have cooled a 2 cm3 Cu plate from 290 mK to 256 mK. We will present these experimental results along with recent modeling predictions that strongly suggest that further refinements will allow cooling from 300 mK to 120 mK. This work is supported by the NASA APRA program.
Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer
2015-01-01
We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...
Double-barrier junction based dc SQUID
Bartolomé, M.E.; Brinkman, Alexander; Flokstra, Jakob; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Rogalla, Horst
2000-01-01
dc SQUIDs based on double-barrier Nb/Al/AlOx/Al/AlOx/Al/Nb junctions (DBSQs) have been fabricated and tested for the first time. The current–voltage curves have been measured at temperatures down to 1.4 K. The critical current, Ic, dependence on the temperature T is partially described by the
Anatomy of the human atrioventricular junctions revisited
Anderson, R. H.; Ho, S. Y.; Becker, A. E.
2000-01-01
There have been suggestions made recently that our understanding of the atrioventricular junctions of the heart is less than adequate, with claims for several new findings concerning the arrangement of the ordinary working myocardium and the specialised pathways for atrioventricular conduction. In
CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.
1996-11-01
This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs
Axial p-n-junctions in nanowires.
Fernandes, C; Shik, A; Byrne, K; Lynall, D; Blumin, M; Saveliev, I; Ruda, H E
2015-02-27
The charge distribution and potential profile of p-n-junctions in thin semiconductor nanowires (NWs) were analyzed. The characteristics of screening in one-dimensional systems result in a specific profile with large electric field at the boundary between the n- and p- regions, and long tails with a logarithmic drop in the potential and charge density. As a result of these tails, the junction properties depend sensitively on the geometry of external contacts and its capacity has an anomalously large value and frequency dispersion. In the presence of an external voltage, electrons and holes in the NWs can not be described by constant quasi-Fermi levels, due to small values of the average electric field, mobility, and lifetime of carriers. Thus, instead of the classical Sah-Noice-Shockley theory, the junction current-voltage characteristic was described by an alternative theory suitable for fast generation-recombination and slow diffusion-drift processes. For the non-uniform electric field in the junction, this theory predicts the forward branch of the characteristic to have a non-ideality factor η several times larger than the values 1 < η < 2 from classical theory. Such values of η have been experimentally observed by a number of researchers, as well as in the present work.
Gap junction diseases of the skin.
Steensel, M.A.M. van
2004-01-01
Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by
Fluxon density waves in long Josephson junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, O. H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
1993-01-01
Numerical simulations of the multiple fluxon dynamics stimulated by an external oscillating force applied at a boundary of a long Josephson junction are presented. The calculated IV characteristics agree well with a recent experimental observation of rf-induced satellite flux-flow steps. The volt...... density waves....
Dissipative current in SIFS Josephson junctions
Vasenko, A.; Kawabata, S.; Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, M. Yu; Hekking, F.W.J.
2010-01-01
We investigate superconductor/insulator/ferromagnet/superconductor (SIFS) tunnel Josephson junctions in the dirty limit, using the quasiclassical theory. We consider the case of a strong tunnel barrier such that the left S layer and the right FS bilayer are decoupled. We calculate quantitatively the
CANFLEX fuel bundle junction pressure drop
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chung, H. J.; Chung, C. H.; Jun, J. S.; Hong, S. D.; Chang, S. K.; Kim, B. D.
1996-11-01
This report describes the junction pressure drop test results which are to used to determine the alignment angle between bundles to achieve the most probable fuel string pressure drop for randomly aligned bundles for use in the fuel string total pressure drop test. (author). 4 tabs., 17 figs.
The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction
Thomson, A. S.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.
1994-01-01
To obtain a new insight into the anti-reflux mechanism of the ureterovesical junction by studying the topographical anatomy of the juxta- and intravesical ureter and its relationship to the surrounding bladder musculature. Fresh pig bladders were fixed, frozen and serially sectioned. Enzyme
Critical current of pure SNS junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golub, A.A.; Bezzub, O.P.
1982-01-01
Boundary conditions at the superconductor-normal metal interface are determined, taking into account the differences in the effective masses and the density of states of the metals constituting the transition and assumed to be pure. The potential barrier of the interface is chosen to be zero. The critical current of the junction is calculated [ru
Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer
2011-01-01
Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...
Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions
Su, Jung-Jung; Hsu, Ya-Fen
The Josephson effect is especially appealing because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. Here we study this effect in an excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ϕ0 applied. Such a junction is proposed to take place in the quantum Hall bilayer (QHB) that makes it subtler than in superconductor because of the counterflow of excitonic supercurrent and the interlayer tunneling in QHB. We treat the system theoretically by first mapping it into a pseudospin ferromagnet then describing it by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, the excitonic Josephson junction can possess a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons that resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Interestingly, each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q which is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The resultant current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π are the lowest energy states for small ϕ0. When ϕ0 > π , solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π - 1 take place - the polarity of CPR is then switched.
Constructing carbon nanotube junctions by Ar ion beam irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishaq, Ahmad; Ni Zhichun; Yan Long; Gong Jinlong; Zhu Dezhang
2010-01-01
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) irradiated by Ar ion beams at elevated temperature were studied. The irradiation-induced defects in CNTs are greatly reduced by elevated temperature. Moreover, the two types of CNT junctions, the crossing junction and the parallel junction, were formed. And the CNT networks may be fabricated by the two types of CNT junctions. The formation process and the corresponding mechanism of CNT networks are discussed.
Characterization of double-loop four-Josephson-junction flux qubit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimazu, Y.; Saito, Y.; Wada, Z.
2009-01-01
An advantage of a double-loop four-Josephson-junction (4-JJ) flux qubit is the tunability of the energy gap at a symmetry point, i.e., the point at which the double-well potential of the qubit is symmetric. The energy gap is controlled via the magnetic flux in a DC superconducting quantum interference device (DC-SQUID) loop incorporated in a 4-JJ qubit. We investigate the locus of the symmetry point in the plane of two control fluxes of the qubit, taking into account the asymmetry in the DC-SQUID, which is inevitable in practical cases. The observed positions of the qubit steps are in reasonable agreement with the calculated locus of the symmetry point. We estimate the asymmetry parameter of the DC-SQUID from this analysis.
Xie, Hong-Yi; Vavilov, Maxim G.; Levchenko, Alex
2018-02-01
We consider mesoscopic four-terminal Josephson junctions and study emergent topological properties of the Andreev subgap bands. We use symmetry-constrained analysis for Wigner-Dyson classes of scattering matrices to derive band dispersions. When the scattering matrix of the normal region connecting superconducting leads is energy independent, the determinant formula for Andreev spectrum can be reduced to a palindromic equation that admits a complete analytical solution. Band topology manifests with an appearance of the Weyl nodes which serve as monopoles of finite Berry curvature. The corresponding fluxes are quantified by Chern numbers that translate into a quantized nonlocal conductance that we compute explicitly for the time-reversal-symmetric scattering matrix. The topological regime can also be identified by supercurrents as Josephson current-phase relationships exhibit pronounced nonanalytic behavior and discontinuities near Weyl points that can be controllably accessed in experiments.
Decomposition of a symmetric second-order tensor
Heras, José A.
2018-05-01
In the three-dimensional space there are different definitions for the dot and cross products of a vector with a second-order tensor. In this paper we show how these products can uniquely be defined for the case of symmetric tensors. We then decompose a symmetric second-order tensor into its ‘dot’ part, which involves the dot product, and the ‘cross’ part, which involves the cross product. For some physical applications, this decomposition can be interpreted as one in which the dot part identifies with the ‘parallel’ part of the tensor and the cross part identifies with the ‘perpendicular’ part. This decomposition of a symmetric second-order tensor may be suitable for undergraduate courses of vector calculus, mechanics and electrodynamics.
Solitons in PT-symmetric potential with competing nonlinearity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khare, Avinash; Al-Marzoug, S.M.; Bahlouli, Hocine
2012-01-01
We investigate the effect of competing nonlinearities on beam dynamics in PT-symmetric potentials. In particular, we consider the stationary nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) in one dimension with competing cubic and generalized nonlinearity in the presence of a PT-symmetric potential. Closed form solutions for localized states are obtained. These solitons are shown to be stable over a wide range of potential parameters. The transverse power flow associated with these complex solitons is also examined. -- Highlights: ► Effect of competing nonlinearities on beam dynamics in PT-symmetric potentials. ► Closed form solutions for localized states are. ► The transverse power flow associated with these complex solitons is also examined.
Nilpotent orbits in real symmetric pairs and stationary black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dietrich, Heiko [School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC (Australia); De Graaf, Willem A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Trento, Povo (Italy); Ruggeri, Daniele [Universita di Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Trigiante, Mario [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino (Italy)
2017-02-15
In the study of stationary solutions in extended supergravities with symmetric scalar manifolds, the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair play an important role. In this paper we discuss two approaches to determine the nilpotent orbits of a real symmetric pair. We apply our methods to an explicit example, and thereby classify the nilpotent orbits of (SL{sub 2}(R)){sup 4} acting on the fourth tensor power of the natural 2-dimensional SL{sub 2}(R)-module. This makes it possible to classify all stationary solutions of the so-called STU-supergravity model. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Tourist Demand Reactions: Symmetric or Asymmetric across the Business Cycle?
Bronner, Fred; de Hoog, Robert
2017-09-01
Economizing and spending priorities on different types of vacations are investigated during two periods: an economic downturn and returning prosperity. Two nation-wide samples of vacationers are used: one during a downturn, the other one at the start of the recovery period. Through comparing the results, conclusions can be drawn about symmetric or asymmetric tourist demand across the business cycle. The main summer holiday has an asymmetric profile: being fairly crisis-resistant during a recession and showing considerable growth during an expansion. This does not apply to short vacations and day trips, each having a symmetric profile: during a recession they experience substantial reductions and during expansion comparable growth. So when talking about tourist demand in general , one cannot say that it is symmetric or asymmetric across the business cycle: it depends on the type of vacation. Differences in tourist demand are best explained by the role of Quality-of-Life for vacationers.
Symmetric spaces and the Kashiwara-Vergne method
Rouvière, François
2014-01-01
Gathering and updating results scattered in journal articles over thirty years, this self-contained monograph gives a comprehensive introduction to the subject. Its goal is to: - motivate and explain the method for general Lie groups, reducing the proof of deep results in invariant analysis to the verification of two formal Lie bracket identities related to the Campbell-Hausdorff formula (the "Kashiwara-Vergne conjecture"); - give a detailed proof of the conjecture for quadratic and solvable Lie algebras, which is relatively elementary; - extend the method to symmetric spaces; here an obstruction appears, embodied in a single remarkable object called an "e-function"; - explain the role of this function in invariant analysis on symmetric spaces, its relation to invariant differential operators, mean value operators and spherical functions; - give an explicit e-function for rank one spaces (the hyperbolic spaces); - construct an e-function for general symmetric spaces, in the spirit of Kashiwara and Vergne's or...
Rings with involution whose symmetric elements are central
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Taw Pin Lim
1980-01-01
Full Text Available In a ring R with involution whose symmetric elements S are central, the skew-symmetric elements K form a Lie algebra over the commutative ring S. The classification of such rings which are 2-torsion free is equivalent to the classification of Lie algebras K over S equipped with a bilinear form f that is symmetric, invariant and satisfies [[x,y],z]=f(y,zx−f(z,xy. If S is a field of char ≠2, f≠0 and dimK>1 then K is a semisimple Lie algebra if and only if f is nondegenerate. Moreover, the derived algebra K′ is either the pure quaternions over S or a direct sum of mutually orthogonal abelian Lie ideals of dim≤2.
Kinetic-energy distribution for symmetric fission of 236U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brissot, R.; Bocquet, J.P.; Ristori, C.; Crancon, J.; Guet, C.R.; Nifenecker, H.A.; Montoya, M.
1980-01-01
Fission fragment kinetic-energy distributions have been measured at the Grenoble high-flux reactor with the Lohengrin facility. Spurious events were eliminated in the symmetric region by a coherence test based on a time-of-flight measurement of fragment velocities. A Monte-Carlo calculation is then performed to correct the experimental data for neutron evaporation. The difference between the most probable kinetic energy in symmetric fission and the fission in which the heavy fragment is 'magic' (Zsub(H)=50) is found to be approximately =30 MeV. The results suggest that for the symmetric case the total excitation energy available at scission is shared equally among the fragments. (author)
The discrete dynamics of symmetric competition in the plane.
Jiang, H; Rogers, T D
1987-01-01
We consider the generalized Lotka-Volterra two-species system xn + 1 = xn exp(r1(1 - xn) - s1yn) yn + 1 = yn exp(r2(1 - yn) - s2xn) originally proposed by R. M. May as a model for competitive interaction. In the symmetric case that r1 = r2 and s1 = s2, a region of ultimate confinement is found and the dynamics therein are described in some detail. The bifurcations of periodic points of low period are studied, and a cascade of period-doubling bifurcations is indicated. Within the confinement region, a parameter region is determined for the stable Hopf bifurcation of a pair of symmetrically placed period-two points, which imposes a second component of oscillation near the stable cycles. It is suggested that the symmetric competitive model contains much of the dynamical complexity to be expected in any discrete two-dimensional competitive model.
Bound states for non-symmetric evolution Schroedinger potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Corona, Gulmaro Corona [Area de Analisis Matematico y sus Aplicaciones, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Azcapotalco, Atzcapotzalco, DF (Mexico)). E-mail: ccg@correo.azc.uam.mx
2001-09-14
We consider the spectral problem associated with the evolution Schroedinger equation, (D{sup 2}+ k{sup 2}){phi}=u{phi}, where u is a matrix-square-valued function, with entries in the Schwartz class defined on the real line. The solution {phi}, called the wavefunction, consists of a function of one real variable, matrix-square-valued with entries in the Schwartz class. This problem has been dealt for symmetric potentials u. We found for the present case that the bound states are localized similarly to the scalar and symmetric cases, but by the zeroes of an analytic matrix-valued function. If we add an extra condition to the potential u, we can determine these states by an analytic scalar function. We do this by generalizing the scalar and symmetric cases but without using the fact that the Wronskian of a pair of wavefunction is constant. (author)
Solution of generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sogabe, Tomohiro; Hoshi, Takeo; Zhang, Shao-Liang; Fujiwara, Takeo
2012-01-01
We develop the shifted COCG method [R. Takayama, T. Hoshi, T. Sogabe, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, Linear algebraic calculation of Green’s function for large-scale electronic structure theory, Phys. Rev. B 73 (165108) (2006) 1–9] and the shifted WQMR method [T. Sogabe, T. Hoshi, S.-L. Zhang, T. Fujiwara, On a weighted quasi-residual minimization strategy of the QMR method for solving complex symmetric shifted linear systems, Electron. Trans. Numer. Anal. 31 (2008) 126–140] for solving generalized shifted linear systems with complex symmetric matrices that arise from the electronic structure theory. The complex symmetric Lanczos process with a suitable bilinear form plays an important role in the development of the methods. The numerical examples indicate that the methods are highly attractive when the inner linear systems can efficiently be solved.
Absolute migration and the evolution of the Rodriguez triple junction ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Rodriguez Triple Junction (RTJ) is a junction connecting three mid-ocean ridges in the Indian Ocean: the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR), the Central Indian Ridge (CIR) and the Southeast Indian Ridge (SEIR). The evolution of the RTJ has been studied extensively for the past 10 Ma and the triple junction is believed to ...
Junction depth dependence of breakdown in silicon detector diodes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beck, G.A.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Munday, D.J.; Pritchard, T.W.; Robinson, D.; Wilburn, C.D.; Wyllie, K.
1996-01-01
The high voltage capability of detector diodes fabricated in the planar process is limited by the high field generated at the edge of the junction.We have fabricated diodes with increased junction depth with respect to our standard process and find a significantly higher breakdown voltage,in reasonable agreement with previous studies of junction breakdown. (orig.)
Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.
2007-01-01
A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...... transition, induced by the cavity, to a bunched state....
Phenomenological approach to bistable behavior of Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishi, K.; Nara, S.; Hamanaka, K.
1985-01-01
The interaction of unbiased Josephson junction with external electromagnetic field in the presence of externally applied uniform magnetic field is theoretically examined by means of phenomenological treatment. It is proposed that an irradiated junction with suitably chosen parameters shows a bistable behavior of voltage across the junction as a function of the radiation intensity
Systematic study of shallow junction formation on germanium substrates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hellings, Geert; Rosseel, Erik; Clarysse, Trudo
2011-01-01
Published results on Ge junctions are benchmarked systematically using RS–XJ plots. The electrical activation level required to meet the ITRS targets is calculated. Additionally, new results are presented on shallow furnace-annealed B junctions and shallow laser-annealed As junctions. Co-implanting...
Parallel coupling of symmetric and asymmetric exclusion processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsekouras, K; Kolomeisky, A B
2008-01-01
A system consisting of two parallel coupled channels where particles in one of them follow the rules of totally asymmetric exclusion processes (TASEP) and in another one move as in symmetric simple exclusion processes (SSEP) is investigated theoretically. Particles interact with each other via hard-core exclusion potential, and in the asymmetric channel they can only hop in one direction, while on the symmetric lattice particles jump in both directions with equal probabilities. Inter-channel transitions are also allowed at every site of both lattices. Stationary state properties of the system are solved exactly in the limit of strong couplings between the channels. It is shown that strong symmetric couplings between totally asymmetric and symmetric channels lead to an effective partially asymmetric simple exclusion process (PASEP) and properties of both channels become almost identical. However, strong asymmetric couplings between symmetric and asymmetric channels yield an effective TASEP with nonzero particle flux in the asymmetric channel and zero flux on the symmetric lattice. For intermediate strength of couplings between the lattices a vertical-cluster mean-field method is developed. This approximate approach treats exactly particle dynamics during the vertical transitions between the channels and it neglects the correlations along the channels. Our calculations show that in all cases there are three stationary phases defined by particle dynamics at entrances, at exits or in the bulk of the system, while phase boundaries depend on the strength and symmetry of couplings between the channels. Extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations strongly support our theoretical predictions. Theoretical calculations and computer simulations predict that inter-channel couplings have a strong effect on stationary properties. It is also argued that our results might be relevant for understanding multi-particle dynamics of motor proteins
Symmetric vs. asymmetric stem cell divisions: an adaptation against cancer?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leili Shahriyari
Full Text Available Traditionally, it has been held that a central characteristic of stem cells is their ability to divide asymmetrically. Recent advances in inducible genetic labeling provided ample evidence that symmetric stem cell divisions play an important role in adult mammalian homeostasis. It is well understood that the two types of cell divisions differ in terms of the stem cells' flexibility to expand when needed. On the contrary, the implications of symmetric and asymmetric divisions for mutation accumulation are still poorly understood. In this paper we study a stochastic model of a renewing tissue, and address the optimization problem of tissue architecture in the context of mutant production. Specifically, we study the process of tumor suppressor gene inactivation which usually takes place as a consequence of two "hits", and which is one of the most common patterns in carcinogenesis. We compare and contrast symmetric and asymmetric (and mixed stem cell divisions, and focus on the rate at which double-hit mutants are generated. It turns out that symmetrically-dividing cells generate such mutants at a rate which is significantly lower than that of asymmetrically-dividing cells. This result holds whether single-hit (intermediate mutants are disadvantageous, neutral, or advantageous. It is also independent on whether the carcinogenic double-hit mutants are produced only among the stem cells or also among more specialized cells. We argue that symmetric stem cell divisions in mammals could be an adaptation which helps delay the onset of cancers. We further investigate the question of the optimal fraction of stem cells in the tissue, and quantify the contribution of non-stem cells in mutant production. Our work provides a hypothesis to explain the observation that in mammalian cells, symmetric patterns of stem cell division seem to be very common.
The role of adhesion energy in controlling cell?cell contacts
Ma?tre, Jean-L?on; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
2011-01-01
Recent advances in microscopy techniques and biophysical measurements have provided novel insight into the molecular, cellular and biophysical basis of cell adhesion. However, comparably little is known about a core element of cell?cell adhesion?the energy of adhesion at the cell?cell contact. In this review, we discuss approaches to understand the nature and regulation of adhesion energy, and propose strategies to determine adhesion energy between cells in vitro and in vivo.
Some curvature properties of quarter symmetric metric connections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastogi, S.C.
1986-08-01
A linear connection Γ ji h with torsion tensor T j h P i -T i h P j , where T j h is an arbitrary (1,1) tensor field and P i is a 1-form, has been called a quarter-symmetric connection by Golab. Some properties of such connections have been studied by Rastogi, Mishra and Pandey, and Yano and Imai. In this paper based on the curvature tensor of quarter-symmetric metric connection we define a tensor analogous to conformal curvature tensor and study some properties of such a tensor. (author)
Symmetric bends how to join two lengths of cord
Miles, Roger E
1995-01-01
A bend is a knot securely joining together two lengths of cord (or string or rope), thereby yielding a single longer length. There are many possible different bends, and a natural question that has probably occurred to many is: "Is there a 'best' bend and, if so, what is it?"Most of the well-known bends happen to be symmetric - that is, the two constituent cords within the bend have the same geometric shape and size, and interrelationship with the other. Such 'symmetric bends' have great beauty, especially when the two cords bear different colours. Moreover, they have the practical advantage o
Norm estimates of complex symmetric operators applied to quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prodan, Emil; Garcia, Stephan R; Putinar, Mihai
2006-01-01
This paper communicates recent results in the theory of complex symmetric operators and shows, through two non-trivial examples, their potential usefulness in the study of Schroedinger operators. In particular, we propose a formula for computing the norm of a compact complex symmetric operator. This observation is applied to two concrete problems related to quantum mechanical systems. First, we give sharp estimates on the exponential decay of the resolvent and the single-particle density matrix for Schroedinger operators with spectral gaps. Second, we provide new ways of evaluating the resolvent norm for Schroedinger operators appearing in the complex scaling theory of resonances
Exploring plane-symmetric solutions in f(R) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences, Department of Sciences and Humanities (Pakistan)
2016-02-15
The modified theories of gravity, especially the f(R) gravity, have attracted much attention in the last decade. This paper is devoted to exploring plane-symmetric solutions in the context of metric f(R) gravity. We extend the work on static plane-symmetric vacuum solutions in f(R) gravity already available in the literature [1, 2]. The modified field equations are solved using the assumptions of both constant and nonconstant scalar curvature. Some well-known solutions are recovered with power-law and logarithmic forms of f(R) models.
Characterization of Generalized Young Measures Generated by Symmetric Gradients
De Philippis, Guido; Rindler, Filip
2017-06-01
This work establishes a characterization theorem for (generalized) Young measures generated by symmetric derivatives of functions of bounded deformation (BD) in the spirit of the classical Kinderlehrer-Pedregal theorem. Our result places such Young measures in duality with symmetric-quasiconvex functions with linear growth. The "local" proof strategy combines blow-up arguments with the singular structure theorem in BD (the analogue of Alberti's rank-one theorem in BV), which was recently proved by the authors. As an application of our characterization theorem we show how an atomic part in a BD-Young measure can be split off in generating sequences.
Integrability and symmetric spaces. II- The coset spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferreira, L.A.
1987-01-01
It shown that a sufficient condition for a model describing the motion of a particle on a coset space to possess a fundamental Poisson bracket relation, and consequently charges involution, is that it must be a symmetric space. The conditions a hamiltonian, or any function of the canonical variables, has to satisfy in order to commute with these charges are studied. It is shown that, for the case of non compact symmetric space, these conditions lead to an algebraic structure which plays an important role in the construction of conserved quantities. (author) [pt
Color-symmetric superconductivity in a phenomenological QCD model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, C.; Providencia, J. da
2009-01-01
In this paper, we construct a theory of the NJL type where superconductivity is present, and yet the superconducting state remains, in the average, color symmetric. This shows that the present approach to color superconductivity is consistent with color singletness. Indeed, quarks are free...... in the deconfined phase, but the deconfined phase itself is believed to be a color singlet. The usual description of the color superconducting state violates color singletness. On the other hand, the color superconducting state here proposed is color symmetric in the sense that an arbitrary color rotation leads...
(Anti)symmetric multivariate exponential functions and corresponding Fourier transforms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimyk, A U; Patera, J
2007-01-01
We define and study symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate exponential functions. They are defined as determinants and antideterminants of matrices whose entries are exponential functions of one variable. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the corresponding fundamental domains satisfying certain boundary conditions. To symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential functions there correspond Fourier transforms. There are three types of such Fourier transforms: expansions into the corresponding Fourier series, integral Fourier transforms and multivariate finite Fourier transforms. Eigenfunctions of the integral Fourier transforms are found
Positive projections of symmetric matrices and Jordan algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fuglede, Bent; Jensen, Søren Tolver
2013-01-01
An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model.......An elementary proof is given that the projection from the space of all symmetric p×p matrices onto a linear subspace is positive if and only if the subspace is a Jordan algebra. This solves a problem in a statistical model....
Algorithms for sparse, symmetric, definite quadratic lambda-matrix eigenproblems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scott, D.S.; Ward, R.C.
1981-01-01
Methods are presented for computing eigenpairs of the quadratic lambda-matrix, M lambda 2 + C lambda + K, where M, C, and K are large and sparse, and have special symmetry-type properties. These properties are sufficient to insure that all the eigenvalues are real and that theory analogous to the standard symmetric eigenproblem exists. The methods employ some standard techniques such as partial tri-diagonalization via the Lanczos Method and subsequent eigenpair calculation, shift-and- invert strategy and subspace iteration. The methods also employ some new techniques such as Rayleigh-Ritz quadratic roots and the inertia of symmetric, definite, quadratic lambda-matrices
Determination of symmetrical index for 3H in river waters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jankovic, M.; Todorovic, D.; Jankovic, B.; Nikolic, J.; Sarap, N.
2011-01-01
The paper presents the results of determining the symmetric index, which describes the magnitude of the tritium content changes with time, for samples of Sava and Danube river waters and Mlaka creek water. The results cover the period from 2003 to 2008. It was shown that the value of the symmetric index is the highest for Mlaka samples, which is in accordance with the fact that in these samples the highest concentration of tritium was found in comparison with samples of the Sava and Danube. [sr
Flat synchronizations in spherically symmetric space-times
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrero, Alicia; Morales-Lladosa, Juan Antonio
2010-01-01
It is well known that the Schwarzschild space-time admits a spacelike slicing by flat instants and that the metric is regular at the horizon in the associated adapted coordinates (Painleve-Gullstrand metric form). We consider this type of flat slicings in an arbitrary spherically symmetric space-time. The condition ensuring its existence is analyzed, and then, we prove that, for any spherically symmetric flat slicing, the densities of the Weinberg momenta vanish. Finally, we deduce the Schwarzschild solution in the extended Painleve-Gullstrand-LemaItre metric form by considering the coordinate decomposition of the vacuum Einstein equations with respect to a flat spacelike slicing.
Well-Controlled Cell-Trapping Systems for Investigating Heterogeneous Cell-Cell Interactions.
Kamiya, Koki; Abe, Yuta; Inoue, Kosuke; Osaki, Toshihisa; Kawano, Ryuji; Miki, Norihisa; Takeuchi, Shoji
2018-03-01
Microfluidic systems have been developed for patterning single cells to study cell-cell interactions. However, patterning multiple types of cells to understand heterogeneous cell-cell interactions remains difficult. Here, it is aimed to develop a cell-trapping device to assemble multiple types of cells in the well-controlled order and morphology. This device mainly comprises a parylene sheet for assembling cells and a microcomb for controlling the cell-trapping area. The cell-trapping area is controlled by moving the parylene sheet on an SU-8 microcomb using tweezers. Gentle downward flow is used as a driving force for the cell-trapping. The assembly of cells on a parylene sheet with round and line-shaped apertures is demonstrated. The cell-cell contacts of the trapped cells are then investigated by direct cell-cell transfer of calcein via connexin nanopores. Finally, using the device with a system for controlling the cell-trapping area, three different types of cells in the well-controlled order are assembled. The correct cell order rate obtained using the device is 27.9%, which is higher than that obtained without the sliding parylene system (0.74%). Furthermore, the occurrence of cell-cell contact between the three cell types assembled is verified. This cell-patterning device will be a useful tool for investigating heterogeneous cell-cell interactions. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper
2007-01-01
demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse......Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Giehl Klaudia
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Monomeric GTPases of the Rho family control a variety of cellular functions including actin cytoskeleton organisation, cell migration and cell adhesion. Defects in these regulatory processes are involved in tumour progression and metastasis. The development of metastatic carcinoma is accompanied by deregulation of adherens junctions, which are composed of E-cadherin/β- and α-catenin complexes. Results Here, we show that the activity of the monomeric GTPase Rac1 contributes to inhibition of E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in pancreatic carcinoma cells. Stable expression of constitutively active Rac1(V12 reduced the amount of E-cadherin on protein level in PANC-1 pancreatic carcinoma cells, whereas expression of dominant negative Rac1(N17 resulted in an increased amount of E-cadherin. Extraction of proteins associated with the actin cytoskeleton as well as coimmunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated markedly decreased amounts of E-cadherin/catenin complexes in Rac1(V12-expressing cells, but increased amounts of functional E-cadherin/catenin complexes in cells expressing Rac1(N17. Cell aggregation and migration assays revealed, that cells containing less E-cadherin due to expression of Rac1(V12, exhibited reduced cell-cell adhesion and increased cell motility. The Rac/Cdc42 effector protein IQGAP1 has been implicated in regulating cell-cell adhesion. Coimmunoprecipitation studies showed a decrease in the association between IQGAP1 and β-catenin in Rac1(V12-expressing PANC-1 cells and an association of IQGAP1 with Rac1(V12. Elevated association of IQGAP1 with the E-cadherin adhesion complex via β-catenin correlated with increased intercellular adhesion of PANC-1 cells. Conclusion These results indicate that active Rac1 destabilises E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion in pancreatic carcinoma cells by interacting with IQGAP1 which is associated with a disassembly of E-cadherin-mediated adherens junctions. Inhibition
Cheng, Way Lee; Han, Arum; Sadr, Reza
2016-11-01
Droplet splitting is the breakup of a parent droplet into two or more daughter droplets of desired sizes. It is done to improve production efficiency and investigational capacity in microfluidic devices. Passive splitting is the breakup of droplets into precise volume ratios at predetermined locations without external power sources. In this study, a 3-D simulation was conducted using the Volume-of-Fluid method to analysis the breakup process of a droplet in asymmetric T-junctions with different outlet arm lengths. The arrangement allows a droplet to be split into two smaller droplets of different sizes, where the volumetric ratio of the daughter droplets depends on the length ratios of the outlet arms. The study identified different breakup regimes such as primary, transition, bubble and non-breakup under different flow conditions and channel configurations. Furthermore, a close analysis to the primary breakup regimes were done to determine the breakup mechanisms at various flow conditions. The analysis show that the breakup mechanisms in asymmetric T-junctions is different than a regular split. A pseudo-phenomenological model for the breakup criteria was presented at the end. The model was an expanded version to a theoretically derived model for the symmetric droplet breakup. The Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Founda- tion), under Grant NPRP 5-671-2-278, supported this work.
Dirac relaxation of the Israel junction conditions: Unified Randall-Sundrum brane theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davidson, Aharon; Gurwich, Ilya
2006-01-01
Following Dirac's brane variation prescription, the brane must not be deformed during the variation process, or else the linearity of the variation may be lost. Alternatively, the variation of the brane is done, in a special Dirac frame, by varying the bulk coordinate system itself. Imposing appropriate Dirac-style boundary conditions on the constrained 'sandwiched' gravitational action, we show how Israel junction conditions get relaxed, but remarkably, all solutions of the original Israel equations are still respected. The Israel junction conditions are traded, in the Z 2 -symmetric case, for a generalized Regge-Teitelboim type equation (plus a local conservation law), and in the generic Z 2 -asymmetric case, for a pair of coupled Regge-Teitelboim equations. The Randall-Sundrum model and its derivatives, such as the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati and the Collins-Holdom models, get generalized accordingly. Furthermore, Randall-Sundrum and Regge-Teitelboim brane theories appear now to be two different faces of the one and the same unified brane theory. Within the framework of unified brane cosmology, we examine the dark matter/energy interpretation of the effective energy/momentum deviations from general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, C; Mishchenko, A; Li, Z; Pobelov, I; Wandlowski, Th; Li, X Q; Wuerthner, F; Bagrets, A; Evers, F
2008-01-01
We report a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiment in an electrochemical environment which studies a prototype molecular switch. The target molecules were perylene tetracarboxylic acid bisimides modified with pyridine (P-PBI) and methylthiol (T-PBI) linker groups and with bulky tert-butyl-phenoxy substituents in the bay area. At a fixed bias voltage, we can control the transport current through a symmetric molecular wire Au|P-PBI(T-PBI)|Au by variation of the electrochemical 'gate' potential. The current increases by up to two orders of magnitude. The conductances of the P-PBI junctions are typically a factor 3 larger than those of T-PBI. A theoretical analysis explains this effect as a consequence of shifting the lowest unoccupied perylene level (LUMO) in or out of the bias window when tuning the electrochemical gate potential VG. The difference in on/off ratios reflects the variation of hybridization of the LUMO with the electrode states with the anchor groups. I T -E S(T) curves of asymmetric molecular junctions formed between a bare Au STM tip and a T-PBI (P-PBI) modified Au(111) electrode in an aqueous electrolyte exhibit a pronounced maximum in the tunneling current at -0.740, which is close to the formal potential of the surface-confined molecules. The experimental data were explained by a sequential two-step electron transfer process
Bilaterally symmetric Fourier approximations of the skull outlines of ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Present work illustrates a scheme of quantitative description of the shape of the skull outlines of temnospondyl amphibians using bilaterally symmetric closed Fourier curves. Some special points have been identified on the Fourier fits of the skull outlines, which are the local maxima, or minima of the distances from the ...
PEO nanocomposite polymer electrolyte for solid state symmetric
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Physical and electrochemical properties of polyethylene oxide (PEO)-based nanocomposite solid polymer electrolytes (NPEs) were investigated for symmetric capacitor applications. Nanosize fillers, i.e., Al2O3 and SiO2 incorporated polymer electrolyte exhibited higher ionic conductivity than those with filler-free composites ...
Symmetric approximations of the Navier-Stokes equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobel'kov, G M
2002-01-01
A new method for the symmetric approximation of the non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations by a Cauchy-Kovalevskaya-type system is proposed. Properties of the modified problem are studied. In particular, the convergence as ε→0 of the solutions of the modified problem to the solutions of the original problem on an infinite interval is established
Duality, phase structures, and dilemmas in symmetric quantum games
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichikawa, Tsubasa; Tsutsui, Izumi
2007-01-01
Symmetric quantum games for 2-player, 2-qubit strategies are analyzed in detail by using a scheme in which all pure states in the 2-qubit Hilbert space are utilized for strategies. We consider two different types of symmetric games exemplified by the familiar games, the Battle of the Sexes (BoS) and the Prisoners' Dilemma (PD). These two types of symmetric games are shown to be related by a duality map, which ensures that they share common phase structures with respect to the equilibria of the strategies. We find eight distinct phase structures possible for the symmetric games, which are determined by the classical payoff matrices from which the quantum games are defined. We also discuss the possibility of resolving the dilemmas in the classical BoS, PD, and the Stag Hunt (SH) game based on the phase structures obtained in the quantum games. It is observed that quantization cannot resolve the dilemma fully for the BoS, while it generically can for the PD and SH if appropriate correlations for the strategies of the players are provided
SUSY formalism for the symmetric double well potential
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Using first- and second-order supersymmetric Darboüx formalism and starting with symmetric double well potential barrier we have obtained a class of exactly solvable potentials subject to moving boundary condition. The eigenstates are also obtained by the same technique.
Initial value formulation for the spherically symmetric dust solution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, H.
1990-01-01
An initial value formulation for the dust solution with spherical symmetry is given explicitly in which the initial distributions of dust and its velocity on an initial surface are chosen to be the initial data. As special cases, the Friedmann universe, the Schwarzschild solution in comoving coordinates, and a spherically symmetric and radially inhomogeneous cosmological model are derived
Coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
An exact solution is obtained for coupled dilaton and electromagnetic ﬁeld in a cylindrically symmetric spacetime where an axial magnetic ﬁeld as well as a radial electric ﬁeld both are present. Depending on the choice of the arbitrary constants our solution reduces either to dilatonic gravity with pure electric ﬁeld or to that ...
PT-Symmetric Waveguides and the Lack of Variational Techniques
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krejčiřík, David
2012-01-01
Roč. 73, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-2 ISSN 0378-620X Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : Robin Laplacian * non-self-adjoint boundary conditions * complex symmetric operator * PT-symmetry * waveguides * discrete and essential spectra Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2012
Confining but chirally symmetric dense and cold matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glozman, L. Ya.
2012-01-01
The possibility for existence of cold, dense chirally symmetric matter with confinement is reviewed. The answer to this question crucially depends on the mechanism of mass generation in QCD and interconnection of confinement and chiral symmetry breaking. This question can be clarified from spectroscopy of hadrons and their axial properties. Almost systematical parity doubling of highly excited hadrons suggests that their mass is not related to chiral symmetry breaking in the vacuum and is approximately chirally symmetric. Then there is a possibility for existence of confining but chirally symmetric matter. We clarify a possible mechanism underlying such a phase at low temperatures and large density. Namely, at large density the Pauli blocking prevents the gap equation to generate a solution with broken chiral symmetry. However, the chirally symmetric part of the quark Green function as well as all color non-singlet quantities are still infrared divergent, meaning that the system is with confinement. A possible phase transition to such a matter is most probably of the first order. This is because there are no chiral partners to the lowest lying hadrons.
Technical report: Electric field in not completely symmetric systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vila, F.
1994-08-01
In this paper it is studied theoretically the electric field in the not completely symmetric system earthed metallic sphere-uniformly charged dielectric plan, for sphere surface points situated in the plan that contains sphere's center and vertical symmetry axe of dielectric plan. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig
Symmetrical waveguide devices fabricated by direct UV writing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Færch, Kjartan Ullitz; Svalgaard, Mikael
2002-01-01
Power splitters and directional couplers fabricated by direct UV writing in index matched silica-on-silicon samples can suffer from an asymmetrical device performance, even though the UV writing is carried out in a symmetrical fashion. This effect originates from a reduced photosensitivity...
On the axially symmetric equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1975-01-01
The axially symmetric equilibrium of a magnetically confined plasma is reconsidered, with the special purpose of studying high-beta schemes with a purely poloidal magnetic field. A number of special solutions of the pressure and magnetic flux functions are shown to exist, the obtained results may form starting-points in a further analysis of physically relevant configurations. (Auth.)
Symmetric structures of coherent states in superfluid helium-4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, M.
1981-02-01
Coherent States in superfluid helium-4 are discussed and symmetric structures are assigned to these states. Discrete and continuous series functions are exhibited for such states. Coherent State structure has been assigned to oscillating condensed bosons and their inter-relations and their effects on the superfluid system are analysed. (author)
Spectra of PT -symmetric Hamiltonians on tobogganic contours
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The term PT -symmetric quantum mechanics, although defined to be of a much broader use, was coined in tight connection with C. Bender's analysis of one- ... on the other hand, the other members of the family were strange Hamiltonians with imaginary potentials which do not appear physical at all. The aim of the.
Symmetrical and asymmetrical growth restriction in preterm-born children
Bocca-Tjeertes, Inger; Bos, Arend; Kerstjens, Jorien; de Winter, Andrea; Reijneveld, Sijmen
OBJECTIVE: To determine how symmetric (proportionate; SGR) and asymmetric (disproportionate; AGR) growth restriction influence growth and development in preterms from birth to 4 years. METHODS: This community-based cohort study of 810 children comprised 86 SGR, 61 AGR, and 663 non-growth restricted
Perception of the Symmetrical Patterning of Human Gait by Infants.
Booth, Amy E.; Pinto, Jeannine; Bertenthal, Bennett I.
2002-01-01
Two experiments tested infants' sensitivity to properties of point-light displays of a walker and a runner that were equivalent regarding the phasing of limb movements. Found that 3-, but not 5-month-olds, discriminated these displays. When the symmetrical phase-patterning of the runner display was perturbed by advancing two of its limbs by 25…
Rotationally symmetric numerical solutions to the sine-Gordon equation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
1981-01-01
We examine numerically the properties of solutions to the spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equation given an initial profile which coincides with the one-dimensional breather solution and refer to such solutions as ring waves. Expanding ring waves either exhibit a return effect or expand towards...
Symmetrical Womanhood: The Educational Ideology of Activism at Wellesley.
Palmieri, Patricia Ann
1995-01-01
The ideology of higher education for women at Wellesley College in the late 19th and early 20th centuries is discussed in the context of feminism and the women's suffrage movement. "Symmetrical womanhood," a concept emphasizing balance of traditional roles and intellectual and community involvement, was a goal of Wellesley faculty of…
Normalizations of Eisenstein integrals for reductive symmetric spaces
van den Ban, E.P.; Kuit, Job
2017-01-01
We construct minimal Eisenstein integrals for a reductive symmetric space G/H as matrix coefficients of the minimal principal series of G. The Eisenstein integrals thus obtained include those from the \\sigma-minimal principal series. In addition, we obtain related Eisenstein integrals, but with
Analytic families of eigenfunctions on a reductive symmetric space
Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.
2000-01-01
In harmonic analysis on a reductive symmetric space X an important role is played by families of generalized eigenfunctions for the algebra D (X) of invariant dierential operators. Such families arise for instance as matrix coeÆcients of representations that come in series, such as the (generalized)
Whittaker Vector of Deformed Virasoro Algebra and Macdonald Symmetric Functions
Yanagida, Shintarou
2016-03-01
We give a proof of Awata and Yamada's conjecture for the explicit formula of Whittaker vector of the deformed Virasoro algebra realized in the Fock space. The formula is expressed as a summation over Macdonald symmetric functions with factored coefficients. In the proof, we fully use currents appearing in the Fock representation of Ding-Iohara-Miki quantum algebra.
Plane Symmetric Cosmological Model with Quark and Strange ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. f(R,T) theory of gravity—plane symmetric space-time—quark and strange quark matter—constant deceleration parameter. 1. Introduction. Modern astrophysical observations point out that present expansion of the Universe is an accelerated epoch. The most fascinating evidence for this is found in measurements ...
Separator-Integrated, Reversely Connectable Symmetric Lithium-Ion Battery.
Wang, Yuhang; Zeng, Jiren; Cui, Xiaoqi; Zhang, Lijuan; Zheng, Gengfeng
2016-02-24
A separator-integrated, reversely connectable, symmetric lithium-ion battery is developed based on carbon-coated Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles and polyvinylidene fluoride-treated separators. The Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles are synthesized via a facile solution route followed by calcination in Ar/H2 atmosphere. Sucrose solution is used as the carbon source for uniform carbon coating on the Li3V2(PO4)3 nanoparticles. Both the carbon and the polyvinylidene fluoride treatments substantially improve the cycling life of the symmetric battery by preventing the dissolution and shuttle of the electroactive Li3V2(PO4)3. The obtained symmetric full cell exhibits a reversible capacity of ≈ 87 mA h g(-1), good cycling stability, and capacity retention of ≈ 70% after 70 cycles. In addition, this type of symmetric full cell can be operated in both forward and reverse connection modes, without any influence on the cycling of the battery. Furthermore, a new separator integration approach is demonstrated, which enables the direct deposition of electroactive materials for the battery assembly and does not affect the electrochemical performance. A 10-tandem-cell battery assembled without differentiating the electrode polarity exhibits a low thickness of ≈ 4.8 mm and a high output voltage of 20.8 V. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Strong orientational coordinates and orientational order parameters for symmetric objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haji-Akbari, Amir; Glotzer, Sharon C
2015-01-01
Recent advancements in the synthesis of anisotropic macromolecules and nanoparticles have spurred an immense interest in theoretical and computational studies of self-assembly. The cornerstone of such studies is the role of shape in self-assembly and in inducing complex order. The problem of identifying different types of order that can emerge in such systems can, however, be challenging. Here, we revisit the problem of quantifying orientational order in systems of building blocks with non-trivial rotational symmetries. We first propose a systematic way of constructing orientational coordinates for such symmetric building blocks. We call the arising tensorial coordinates strong orientational coordinates (SOCs) as they fully and exclusively specify the orientation of a symmetric object. We then use SOCs to describe and quantify local and global orientational order, and spatiotemporal orientational correlations in systems of symmetric building blocks. The SOCs and the orientational order parameters developed in this work are not only useful in performing and analyzing computer simulations of symmetric molecules or particles, but can also be utilized for the efficient storage of rotational information in long trajectories of evolving many-body systems. (paper)
Is PT -symmetric quantum theory false as a fundamental theory?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Znojil, Miloslav
2016-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 3 (2016), s. 254-257 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA16-22945S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : quantum mechanics * PT-symmetric representations of observables * masurement outcomes Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics
A New Symmetrical Unit for Breakwater Armour : First Tests
Salauddin, M.; Broere, A.; Van der Meer, J.W.; Verhagen, H.J.; Bijl, E.
2015-01-01
A new and symmetrical single layer armour unit, the crablock, has been designed in the UAE. One breakwater was reconstructed with crablock, but very limited testing had been performed. Just to become more acquainted with this new unit, pre-competitive research at a university has been performed,
Helically symmetric experiment, (HSX) goals, design and status
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, F.S.B.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, D.T.; Matthews, P.G.; Talmadge, J.N.; Shohet, J.L.
1995-01-01
HSX is a quasi-helically symmetric (QHS) stellarator currently under construction at the Torsatron-Stellarator Laboratory of the University of Wisconsin-Madison. This device is unique in its magnetic design in that the magnetic field spectrum possesses only a single dominant (helical) component. This design avoids the large direct orbit losses and the low-collisionality neoclassical losses associated with conventional stellarators. The restoration of symmetry to the confining magnetic field makes the neoclassical confinement in this device analogous to an axisymmetric q=1/3 tokamak. The HSX device has been designed with a clear set of primary physics goals: demonstrate the feasibility of construction of a QHS device, examine single particle confinement of injected ions with regard to magnetic field symmetry breaking, compare density and temperature profiles in this helically symmetric system to those for axisymmetric tokamaks and conventional stellarators, examine electric fields and plasma rotation with edge biasing in relation to L-H transitions in symmetric versus non-symmetric stellarator systems, investigate QHS effects on 1/v regime electron confinement, and examine how greatly-reduced neoclassical electron thermal conductivity compares to the experimental χ e profile. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
On the random geometry of a symmetric matter antimatter universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldrovandi, R.; Goto, M.
1977-05-01
A statistical analysis is made of the randon geometry of an early symmetric matter-antimatter universe model. Such a model is shown to determine the total number of the largest agglomerations in the universe, as well as of some special configurations. Constraints on the time development of the protoagglomerations are also obtained
On Split Lie Algebras with Symmetric Root Systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... and any I j a well described ideal of , satisfying [ I j , I k ] = 0 if j ≠ k . Under certain conditions, the simplicity of is characterized and it is shown that is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected.
On split Lie algebras with symmetric root systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
ideal of L, satisfying [Ij ,Ik] = 0 if j = k. Under certain conditions, the simplicity of L is characterized and it is shown that L is the direct sum of the family of its minimal ideals, each one being a simple split Lie algebra with a symmetric root system and having all its nonzero roots connected. Keywords. Infinite dimensional Lie ...
A summary view of the symmetric cosmological model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aldrovandi, R.
1975-01-01
A brief analysis of cosmological models is done, beginning with the standard model and following with the symmetric model of Omnes. Some attempts have been made for the phase transition in thermal radiation at high temperatures, to the annihilation period and to coalescence. One model with equal amounts of matter and antimatter seems to be reasonable [pt
Compactons in PT-symmetric generalized Korteweg–de Vries ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia · Live Streaming. Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 2. Compactons in P T -symmetric generalized Korteweg–de Vries equations. Carl M Bender Fred Cooper Avinash Khare Bogdan Mihaila Avadh Saxena. Volume 73 Issue 2 August 2009 ...
New algorithms for the symmetric tridiagonal eigenvalue computation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pan, V. [City Univ. of New York, Bronx, NY (United States)]|[International Computer Sciences Institute, Berkeley, CA (United States)
1994-12-31
The author presents new algorithms that accelerate the bisection method for the symmetric eigenvalue problem. The algorithms rely on some new techniques, which include acceleration of Newton`s iteration and can also be further applied to acceleration of some other iterative processes, in particular, of iterative algorithms for approximating polynomial zeros.
Phase diagrams of particles with dissimilar patches: X-junctions and Y-junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tavares, J M; Teixeira, P I C
2012-01-01
We use Wertheim’s first-order perturbation theory to investigate the phase behaviour and the structure of coexisting fluid phases for a model of patchy particles with dissimilar patches (two patches of type A and f B patches of type B). A patch of type α = {A,B} can bond to a patch of type β = {A,B} in a volume v αβ , thereby decreasing the internal energy by ε αβ . We analyse the range of model parameters where AB bonds, or Y-junctions, are energetically disfavoured (ε AB AA /2) but entropically favoured (v AB ≫ v αα ), and BB bonds, or X-junctions, are energetically favoured (ε BB > 0). We show that, for low values of ε BB /ε AA , the phase diagram has three different regions: (i) close to the critical temperature a low-density liquid composed of long chains and rich in Y-junctions coexists with a vapour of chains; (ii) at intermediate temperatures there is coexistence between a vapour of short chains and a liquid of very long chains with X- and Y-junctions; (iii) at low temperatures an ideal gas coexists with a high-density liquid with all possible AA and BB bonds formed. It is also shown that in region (i) the liquid binodal is reentrant (its density decreases with decreasing temperature) for the lower values of ε BB /ε AA . The existence of these three regions is a consequence of the competition between the formation of X- and Y-junctions: X-junctions are energetically favoured and thus dominate at low temperatures, whereas Y-junctions are entropically favoured and dominate at higher temperatures. (paper)
Jiang, Zhuoling; Wang, Hao; Shen, Ziyong; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin
2016-07-28
The atomic structure and electronic transport properties of a single hydrogen molecule connected to both symmetric and asymmetric Cu electrodes are investigated by using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism combined with the density functional theory. Our calculations show that in symmetric Cu-H2-Cu junctions, the low-bias conductance drops rapidly upon stretching, while asymmetric ones present a low-bias conductance spanning the 0.2-0.3 G0 interval for a wide range of electrode separations. This is in good agreement with experiments on Cu atomic contacts in a hydrogen environment. Furthermore, the distribution of the calculated vibrational energies of the two hydrogen atoms in the asymmetric Cu-H2-Cu junction is also consistent with experiments. These findings provide clear evidence for the formation of asymmetric Cu-H2-Cu molecular junctions in breaking Cu atomic contacts in the presence of hydrogen and are also helpful for the design of molecular devices with Cu electrodes.
Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae
2018-05-01
The dispersion properties of surface dust ion-acoustic waves in a self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasma layer with the (r, q) distribution are investigated. The result shows that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode in the plasma layer decreases with an increase in the wave number. It is also shown that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode decreases with an increase in the spectral index r. However, the wave frequency of the anti-symmetric mode increases with an increase in the wave number. It is also found that the anti-symmetric mode wave frequency increases with an increase in the spectral index r. In addition, it is found that the influence of the self-gravitation on the symmetric mode wave frequency decreases with increasing scaled Jeans frequency. Moreover, it is found that the wave frequency of the symmetric mode increases with an increase in the dust charge; however, the anti-symmetric mode shows opposite behavior.
Single-electron tunnel junction array
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Likharev, K.K.; Bakhvalov, N.S.; Kazacha, G.S.; Serdyukova, S.I.
1989-01-01
The authors have carried out an analysis of statics and dynamics of uniform one-dimensional arrays of ultrasmall tunnel junctions. The correlated single-electron tunneling in the junctions of the array results in its behavior qualitatively similar to that of the Josephson transmission line. In particular, external electric fields applied to the array edges can inject single-electron-charged solitons into the array interior. Shape of such soliton and character of its interactions with other solitons and the array edges are very similar to those of the Josephson vortices (sine-Gordon solitons) in the Josephson transmission line. Under certain conditions, a coherent motion of the soliton train along the array is possible, resulting in generation of narrowband SET oscillations with frequency f/sub s/ = /e where is the dc current flowing along the array
Electron transport in doped fullerene molecular junctions
Kaur, Milanpreet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick
The effect of doping on the electron transport of molecular junctions is analyzed in this paper. The doped fullerene molecules are stringed to two semi-infinite gold electrodes and analyzed at equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions of these device configurations. The contemplation is done using nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF)-density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate its density of states (DOS), transmission coefficient, molecular orbitals, electron density, charge transfer, current, and conductance. We conclude from the elucidated results that Au-C16Li4-Au and Au-C16Ne4-Au devices behave as an ordinary p-n junction diode and a Zener diode, respectively. Moreover, these doped fullerene molecules do not lose their metallic nature when sandwiched between the pair of gold electrodes.
Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luchini, A.; Petricoin, E.F.; Geho, D.H.; Liotta, L.A.; Long, D.P.; Vaisman, I.I.
2008-01-01
Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS) is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nano electronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.
Electron and Phonon Transport in Molecular Junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Qian
Molecular electronics provide the possibility to investigate electron and phonon transport at the smallest imaginable scale, where quantum effects can be investigated and exploited directly in the design. In this thesis, we study both electron transport and phonon transport in molecular junctions....... The system we are interested in here are π-stacked molecules connected with two semi-infinite leads. π-stacked aromatic rings, connected via π-π electronic coupling, provides a rather soft mechanical bridge while maintaining high electronic conductivity. We investigate electron transport...... transmission at the Fermi energy. We propose and analyze a way of using π stacking to design molecular junctions to control heat transport. We develop a simple model system to identify optimal parameter regimes and then use density functional theory (DFT) to extract model parameters for a number of specific...
Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bao, Ling [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Taki, Masato [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Yagi, Futoshi [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T{sub N} SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W{sub N} Toda theories.
Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bao, Ling; Mitev, Vladimir
2013-10-01
In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T N SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W N Toda theories.
Fractional flux quanta in Josephson junctions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldobin, E.; Buckenmaier, K.; Gaber, T.; Kemmler, M.; Pfeiffer, J.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R. [Physikalisches Inst. - Experimentalphysik II, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, M.; Kohlstedt, H. [Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology (CNI), Research Centre Juelich (Germany); Siegel, M. [Inst. fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)
2007-07-01
Fractional Josephson vortices may appear in the so-called 0-{kappa} Josephson junctions ({kappa} is an arbitrary number) and carry magnetic flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Their properties are very different from the usual integer fluxons: they are pinned, and often represent the ground state of the system with spontaneous circulating supercurrent. They behave as well controlled macroscopic spins and can be used to construct bits, qubits, tunable photonic crystals and to study the (quantum) physics of spin systems. In this talk we discuss recent advances in 0-{pi} junction technology and present recent experimental results: evidence of the spontaneous flux in the ground state, spectroscopy of the fractional vortex eigenfrequencies and observation of dynamics effects related to the flipping of the fractional vortices. (orig.)
Relaxation oscillation logic in Josephson junction circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fulton, T.A.
1981-01-01
A dc powered, self-resetting Josephson junction logic circuit relying on relaxation oscillations is described. A pair of Josephson junction gates are connected in series, a first shunt is connected in parallel with one of the gates, and a second shunt is connected in parallel with the series combination of gates. The resistance of the shunts and the dc bias current bias the gates so that they are capable of undergoing relaxation oscillations. The first shunt forms an output line whereas the second shunt forms a control loop. The bias current is applied to the gates so that, in the quiescent state, the gate in parallel with the second shunt is at V O, and the other gate is undergoing relaxation oscillations. By controlling the state of the first gate with the current in the output loop of another identical circuit, the invert function is performed
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa(non-herlitz type)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhinder, M. A.; Arshad, M. W.; Shabbir, M. I.; Zahoor, M. Y.; Shehzad, W.; Tariq, M.
2017-01-01
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a recessively inherited skin blistering disease and is caused due to abnormalities in proteins that hold layers of the skin. Herlitz JEB is the severe form and non-Herlitz JEB is the milder form. This report describes a case of congenitally affected male child aged 5 years, with skin blistering. He has mitten-like hands and soft skin blistering on hands, legs and knees. Symptoms almost disappeared at the age of 3 years but reappeared with increased severity after 6 months. Histopathological examination showed epidermal detachment with intact basal cell layer and sparse infiltrate of lymphocytes with few eosinophils in the dermis. There was no blistering on the moist lining of the mouth and digestive tract. Localized symptoms with less lethality and histopathological examination indicated the presence of non-Herlitz type of JEB. This is the first report which confirms the presence of non-Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Pakistan. (author)
Junctional Epidermolysis Bullosa (Non-Herlitz Type).
Bhinder, Munir Ahmad; Arshad, Muhammad Waqar; Zahoor, Muhammad Yasir; Shehzad, Wasim; Tariq, Muhammad; Shabbir, Muhammad Imran
2017-05-01
Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a recessively inherited skin blistering disease and is caused due to abnormalities in proteins that hold layers of the skin. Herlitz JEB is the severe form and non-Herlitz JEB is the milder form. This report describes a case of congenitally affected male child aged 5 years, with skin blistering. He has mitten-like hands and soft skin blistering on hands, legs and knees. Symptoms almost disappeared at the age of 3 years but reappeared with increased severity after 6 months. Histopathological examination showed epidermal detachment with intact basal cell layer and sparse infiltrate of lymphocytes with few eosinophils in the dermis. There was no blistering on the moist lining of the mouth and digestive tract. Localized symptoms with less lethality and histopathological examination indicated the presence of non-Herlitz type of JEB. This is the first report which confirms the presence of non-Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa in Pakistan.
Defect formation in long Josephson junctions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gordeeva, Anna; Pankratov, Andrey
2010-01-01
We study numerically a mechanism of vortex formation in a long Josephson junction within the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon model. This mechanism is switched on below the critical temperature. It is shown that the number of fluxons versus velocity of cooling roughly scales according...... to the power law with the exponent of either 0.25 or 0.5 depending on the temperature variation in the critical current density....
Syringomyelia and Craniocervical Junction Abnormalities in Chihuahuas
Kiviranta, A.‐M.; Rusbridge, C.; Laitinen‐Vapaavuori, O.; Hielm‐Björkman, A.; Lappalainen, A.K.; Knowler, S.P.; Jokinen, T.S.
2017-01-01
Background: Chiari-like malformation (CM) and syringomyelia (SM) are widely reported in Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Griffon Bruxellois dogs. Increasing evidence indicates that CM and SM also occur in other small and toy breed dogs, such as Chihuahuas. Objectives: To describe the presence of SM and craniocervical junction (CCJ) abnormalities in Chihuahuas and to evaluate the possible association of CCJ abnormalities with SM. To describe CM/SM-related clinical signs and neuro...
Nonlinearity in superconductivity and Josephson junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazarides, N.
1995-01-01
Within the framework of the Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffers (BCS) theory, the influence of anisotropy on superconducting states are investigated. Crystal anisotropy exists in un-conventional low temperature superconductors as e.g. U 1-x Th x Be 13 and in high temperature superconductors. Starting from a phenomenological pairing interaction of the electrons or holes, the BCS approach is used to derive a set of coupled nonlinear algebraic equations for the momentum dependent gap parameter. The emphasis is put on bifurcation phenomena between s-, d-wave and mixed s- and d-wave symmetry and the influence on measurable quantities as the electron specific heat, spin susceptibility and Josephson tunnelling. Pitch-fork and perturbed pitch-fork bifurcations have been found separating s- and d-wave superconducting states from mixed s- and d-wave states. The additional superconducting states give rise to jumps in the electron specific heat below the transition temperature. These jumps are rounded in the case of perturbed pitch-fork bifurcations. An experiment to measure the sign of the interlayer interaction using dc SQUIDS is suggested. The Ambegaokar-Baratoff formalism has been used for calculating the quasiparticle current and the two phase coherent tunnelling currents in a Josephson junction made of anisotropic superconductors. It is shown that anisotropy can lead to a reduction in the product of the normal resistance and the critical current. For low voltages across the junction the usual resistively shunted Josephson model can be used. Finally, bunching in long circular Josephson junctions and suppression of chaos in point junctions have been investigated. (au) 113 refs
Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions
Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung
2015-01-01
The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ? 0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numeric...
A semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction microwave laser
Cassidy, Maja; Uilhoorn, Willemijn; Kroll, James; de Jong, Damaz; van Woerkom, David; Nygard, Jesper; Krogstrup, Peter; Kouwenhoven, Leo
We present measurements of microwave lasing from a single Al/InAs/Al nanowire Josephson junction strongly coupled to a high quality factor superconducting cavity. Application of a DC bias voltage to the Josephson junction results in photon emission into the cavity when the bias voltage is equal to a multiple of the cavity frequency. At large voltage biases, the strong non-linearity of the circuit allows for efficient down conversion of high frequency microwave photons down to multiple photons at the fundamental frequency of the cavity. In this regime, the emission linewidth narrows significantly below the bare cavity linewidth to 50%. The junction-cavity coupling and laser emission can be tuned rapidly via an external gate, making it suitable to be integrated into a scalable qubit architecture as a versatile source of coherent microwave radiation. This work has been supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/OCW), Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), European Research Council (ERC), and Microsoft Corporation Station Q.