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Sample records for symmetric tilt grain

  1. Atomistic simulations on intergranular fracture toughness of copper bicrystals with symmetric tilt grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Cheng Bin; Beom, Hyeon Gyu

    2018-01-01

    The intergranular fracture toughness of Cu bicrystals with symmetric tilt grain boundaries was investigated using atomistic simulations. Mode I fracture of Cu bicrystals with an intergranular crack was considered. The boundary conditions were specified by the near-tip displacement fields obtained based on linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Based on the energy interpretation of the energy release rate, a two-specimen method was adopted to determine the fracture toughness. The simulation results of the fracture toughness matched well with those determined using LEFM. In contrast to the toughness obtained using the Griffith energy criterion, the atomistic simulation results for the same bicrystal were not constants, but dependent on the crack-tip circumstances. This behavior was mainly associated with the different local stress conditions and fracture patterns observed for the different models.

  2. First-Order Interfacial Transformations with a Critical Point: Breaking the Symmetry at a Symmetric Tilt Grain Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Naixie; Zheng, Hui; Ong, Shyue Ping; Luo, Jian

    2018-02-01

    First-order interfacial phaselike transformations that break the mirror symmetry of the symmetric ∑5 (210 ) tilt grain boundary (GB) are discovered by combining a modified genetic algorithm with hybrid Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Density functional theory calculations confirm this prediction. This first-order coupled structural and adsorption transformation, which produces two variants of asymmetric bilayers, vanishes at an interfacial critical point. A GB complexion (phase) diagram is constructed via semigrand canonical ensemble atomistic simulations for the first time.

  3. Molecular dynamics study of the role of symmetric tilt grain boundaries on the helium distribution in nickel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, E.; Pencer, J.

    2018-04-01

    Helium impurities, from either direct implantation or transmutation reactions, have been associated with embrittlement in nickel-based alloys. Helium has very low solubility in nickel, and has been found to aggregate at lattice defects such as vacancies, dislocations, and grain boundaries. The retention and precipitation of helium in nickel-based alloys have deleterious effects on the material mechanical properties. However, the underlying mechanisms that lead to helium effects in the host metal are not fully understood. In the present work, we investigate the role of symmetric tilt grain boundary (STGB) structures on the distribution of helium in nickel using molecular dynamics simulations. We investigate the family of STGBs specific to the 〈 110 〉 tilt axis. The present results indicate that accumulation of helium at the grain boundary may be modulated by details of grain boundary geometry. A plausible correlation between the grain boundary energy and misorientation with the accumulation and mobility of helium is proposed. Small clusters with up to 6 helium atoms show significant interstitial mobility in the nickel bulk, but also become sites for nucleation and grow of more stable helium clusters. High-energy GBs are found mainly populated with small helium clusters. The high mobility of small clusters along the GBs indicates the role of these GBs as fast two-dimensional channels for diffusion. In contrast, the accumulation of helium in large helium clusters at low-energy STGB creates a favorable environment for the formation of large helium bubbles, indicating a potential role for low-energy STGB in promoting helium-induced GB embrittlement.

  4. The evolution of interaction between grain boundary and irradiation-induced point defects: Symmetric tilt GB in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Qin, Yuan; Yang, Yingying; Yao, Man; Wang, Xudong; Xu, Haixuan; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular dynamics method is used and scheme of calculational tests is designed. The atomic evolution view of the interaction between grain boundary (GB) and irradiation-induced point defects is given in six symmetric tilt GB structures of bcc tungsten with the energy of the primary knock-on atom (PKA) EPKA of 3 and 5 keV and the simulated temperature of 300 K. During the collision cascade with GB structure there are synergistic mechanisms to reduce the number of point defects: one is vacancies recombine with interstitials, and another is interstitials diffuse towards the GB with vacancies almost not move. The larger the ratio of the peak defect zone of the cascades overlaps with the GB region, the statistically relative smaller the number of surviving point defects in the grain interior (GI); and when the two almost do not overlap, vacancy-intensive area generally exists nearby GBs, and has a tendency to move toward GB with the increase of EPKA. In contrast, the distribution of interstitials is relatively uniform nearby GBs and is affected by the EPKA far less than the vacancy. The GB has a bias-absorption effect on the interstitials compared with vacancies. It shows that the number of surviving vacancies statistically has increasing trend with the increase of the distance between PKA and GB. While the number of surviving interstitials does not change much, and is less than the number of interstitials in the single crystal at the same conditions. The number of surviving vacancies in the GI is always larger than that of interstitials. The GB local extension after irradiation is observed for which the interstitials absorbed by the GB may be responsible. The designed scheme of calculational tests in the paper is completely applicable to the investigation of the interaction between other types of GBs and irradiation-induced point defects.

  5. Ab initio study of symmetrical tilt grain boundaries in bcc Fe: structural units, magnetic moments, interfacial bonding, local energy and local stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Somesh Kr; Tanaka, Shingo; Kohyama, Masanori; Shiihara, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    We present first-principle calculations on symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in bcc Fe. Using density functional theory (DFT), we studied the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of Σ3(111) and Σ11(332) GBs formed by rotation around the [110] axis. The optimized structures, GB energies and GB excess free volumes are consistent with previous DFT and classical simulation studies. The GB configurations can be interpreted by the structural unit model as given by Nakashima and Takeuchi (2000 ISIJ 86 357). Both the GBs are composed of similar structural units of three- and five-membered rings with different densities at the interface according to the rotation angle. The interface atoms with larger atomic volumes reveal higher magnetic moments than the bulk value, while the interface atoms with shorter bond lengths have reduced magnetic moments in each GB. The charge density and local density of states reveal that the interface bonds with short bond lengths have more covalent nature, where minority-spin electrons play a dominant role as the typical nature of ferromagnetic Fe. In order to understand the structural stability of these GBs, we calculated the local energy and local stress for each atomic region using the scheme of Shiihara et al (2010 Phys. Rev. B 81 075441). In each GB, the interface atoms with larger atomic volumes and enhanced magnetic moments reveal larger local energy increase and tensile stress. The interface atoms constituting more covalent-like bonds with reduced magnetic moments have lower local energy increase, contributing to the stabilization, while compressive stress is generated at these atoms. The relative stability between the two GBs can be understood by the local energies at the structural units. The local energy and local stress analysis is a powerful tool to investigate the structural properties of GBs based on the behavior of valence electrons. (paper)

  6. Hydrogen migration modeling in a symmetric tilt boundary of the Iron-Chromium system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramunni, V. P.

    2018-03-01

    Previous experimental studies of H permeation in 9%Cr-Fe alloys have found a permeation coefficient 10 times lower and a diffusion coefficient 200 times lower than in pure annealed Fe. In an effort to shed some light on the microscopic origin of these findings, we perform an extensive study of Fe, Cr, and H migration in a high-angle symmetric tilt grain boundary in bcc Fe, both via vacancy and interstitial mechanism. This is undertaken in the framework of transition state theory with the relevant energies obtained from classical interatomic potentials, and partially from Density Functional Theory calculations, in order to check the consistency of structures. Trapping sites for H and possible migration paths are explored. We find that the presence of Cr and its migration via vacancy and interstitials creates the conditions in produce stable preferential trapping sites for H in the grain boundary, that delay the H migration, thereby explaining the experimental results.

  7. Phonon thermal transport through tilt grain boundaries in strontium titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Zexi; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Shengfeng; Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Deng, Bowen; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2014-08-21

    In this work, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study phonon scattering at two tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in SrTiO{sub 3}. Mode-wise energy transmission coefficients are obtained based on phonon wave-packet dynamics simulations. The Kapitza conductance is then quantified using a lattice dynamics approach. The obtained results of the Kapitza conductance of both GBs compare well with those obtained by the direct method, except for the temperature dependence. Contrary to common belief, the results of this work show that the optical modes in SrTiO{sub 3} contribute significantly to phonon thermal transport, accounting for over 50% of the Kapitza conductance. To understand the effect of the GB structural disorder on phonon transport, we compare the local phonon density of states of the atoms in the GB region with that in the single crystalline grain region. Our results show that the excess vibrational modes introduced by the structural disorder do not have a significant effect on phonon scattering at the GBs, but the absence of certain modes in the GB region appears to be responsible for phonon reflections at GBs. This work has also demonstrated phonon mode conversion and simultaneous generation of new modes. Some of the new modes have the same frequency as the initial wave packet, while some have the same wave vector but lower frequencies.

  8. Phonon thermal transport through tilt grain boundaries in strontium titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Zexi; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Shengfeng; Xiong, Liming; Chen, Youping; Deng, Bowen; Chernatynskiy, Aleksandr

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we perform nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations to study phonon scattering at two tilt grain boundaries (GBs) in SrTiO 3 . Mode-wise energy transmission coefficients are obtained based on phonon wave-packet dynamics simulations. The Kapitza conductance is then quantified using a lattice dynamics approach. The obtained results of the Kapitza conductance of both GBs compare well with those obtained by the direct method, except for the temperature dependence. Contrary to common belief, the results of this work show that the optical modes in SrTiO 3 contribute significantly to phonon thermal transport, accounting for over 50% of the Kapitza conductance. To understand the effect of the GB structural disorder on phonon transport, we compare the local phonon density of states of the atoms in the GB region with that in the single crystalline grain region. Our results show that the excess vibrational modes introduced by the structural disorder do not have a significant effect on phonon scattering at the GBs, but the absence of certain modes in the GB region appears to be responsible for phonon reflections at GBs. This work has also demonstrated phonon mode conversion and simultaneous generation of new modes. Some of the new modes have the same frequency as the initial wave packet, while some have the same wave vector but lower frequencies

  9. Interaction of slip with grain boundary in the Li2 ordered structure - A Σ = 9 tilt boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, M.H.; King, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    The role of slip/grain boundary interaction in intergranular fracture has been analyzed for a Σ = 9 tilt boundary in Li 2 ordered alloys by use of the anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and fracture. Screw superpartials cross slip easily at the boundary onto the (1 bar 11) and the (001) planes for low and high temperatures, respectively. Transmission of primary slip dislocations onto the conjugate slip system occurs with some difficulty, which is eased by localized disordering. Unless a symmetric double pile-up occurs simultaneously, cleavage fracture is predicted to occur on the (bar 1 11) plane, not intergranular fracture. Absorption (or emission ) of superpartials occurs only when the boundary region is disordered. The inherent weakness of grain boundaries in Ni 3 Al and its improvement by boron segregation are discussed

  10. Characterizing crustal and uppermost mantle anisotropy with a depth-dependent tilted hexagonally symmetric elastic tensor: theory and examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, L.; Xie, J.; Ritzwoller, M. H.

    2017-12-01

    Two major types of surface wave anisotropy are commonly observed by seismologists but are only rarely interpreted jointly: apparent radial anisotropy, which is the difference in propagation speed between horizontally and vertically polarized waves inferred from Love and Rayleigh waves, and apparent azimuthal anisotropy, which is the directional dependence of surface wave speeds (usually Rayleigh waves). We describe a method of inversion that interprets simultaneous observations of radial and azimuthal anisotropy under the assumption of a hexagonally symmetric elastic tensor with a tilted symmetry axis defined by dip and strike angles. With a full-waveform numerical solver based on the spectral element method (SEM), we verify the validity of the forward theory used for the inversion. We also present two examples, in the US and Tibet, in which we have successfully applied the tomographic method to demonstrate that the two types of apparent anisotropy can be interpreted jointly as a tilted hexagonally symmetric medium.

  11. Dislocation Nucleation on Grain Boundaries: Low Angle Twist and Asymmetric Tilt Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Guleryuz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the mechanisms of incipient plasticity at low angle twist and asymmetric tilt boundaries in fcc metals. To observe plasticity of grain boundaries independently of the bulk plasticity, we simulate nanoindentation of bicrystals. On the low angle twist boundaries, the intrinsic grain boundary (GB dislocation network deforms under load until a dislocation segment compatible with glide on a lattice slip plane is created. The half loops are then emitted into the bulk of the crystal. Asymmetric twist boundaries considered here did not produce bulk dislocations under load. Instead, the boundary with a low excess volume nucleated a mobile GB dislocation and additional GB defects. The GB sliding proceeded by motion of the mobile GB dislocation. The boundary with a high excess volume sheared elastically, while bulk-nucleated dislocations produced plastic relaxation.

  12. Effect of irradiation on mechanical properties of symmetrical grain boundaries investigated by atomic simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X. Y.; Gao, N.; Setyawan, W.; Xu, B.; Liu, W.; Wang, Z. G.

    2017-08-01

    Tensile response of irradiated symmetric grain boundaries to externally applied strain has been studied using atomic simulation methods. The absorption of irradiation induced defects by grain boundaries has been confirmed to degrade the mechanical properties of grain boundaries through the change of its under- taken deformation mechanism. Atomic rearrangement, the formations of a stress accumulation region and vacancy-rich zone and the nucleation and movement of dislocations under stress effect have been observed after the displacement cascades in grain boundaries, which are considered as main reasons to induce above degradation. These results suggest the necessity of considering both trap- ping efficiency to defects and the mechanical property change of irradiated grain boundaries for further development of radiation resistant materials.

  13. Slip, twinning, and fracture at a grain boundary in the L1/sub 2/ ordered structure: A. sigma. = 9 tilt boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, M.H.; King, A.H.

    1988-09-01

    The role of interaction between slip dislocations and a ..sigma.. = 9 tilt boundary in localized microplastic deformation, cleavage, or intergranular fracture in the L1/sub 2/ ordered structure has been analyzed by using the anisotropic elasticity theory of dislocations and fracture. Screw superpartials cross slip easily at the boundary onto the (11-bar1) and the (001) planes at low and high temperatures, respectively. Transmission of primary slip dislocations onto the conjugate slip system occurs with a certain degree of difficulty, which is eased by localized disordering. When the transmission is impeded, cleavage fracture on the (1-bar11) plane is predicted to occur, not intergranular fracture, unless a symmetric double pileup occurs simultaneously. Absorption (or emission) of superpartials occurs only when the boundary region is disordered. Slip initiation from pre-existing sources near the boundary can occur under the local stress concentration. Implications of the present result on the inherent brittleness of grain boundaries in Ni/sub 3/ Al and its improvement by boron segregation are discussed.

  14. Parallel reduction to condensed forms for symmetric eigenvalue problems using aggregated fine-grained and memory-aware kernels

    KAUST Repository

    Haidar, Azzam

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel implementation in reducing a symmetric dense matrix to tridiagonal form, which is the preprocessing step toward solving symmetric eigenvalue problems. Based on tile algorithms, the reduction follows a two-stage approach, where the tile matrix is first reduced to symmetric band form prior to the final condensed structure. The challenging trade-off between algorithmic performance and task granularity has been tackled through a grouping technique, which consists of aggregating fine-grained and memory-aware computational tasks during both stages, while sustaining the application\\'s overall high performance. A dynamic runtime environment system then schedules the different tasks in an out-of-order fashion. The performance for the tridiagonal reduction reported in this paper is unprecedented. Our implementation results in up to 50-fold and 12-fold improvement (130 Gflop/s) compared to the equivalent routines from LAPACK V3.2 and Intel MKL V10.3, respectively, on an eight socket hexa-core AMD Opteron multicore shared-memory system with a matrix size of 24000×24000. Copyright 2011 ACM.

  15. Intrinsic stability of ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 thin films on silicon in relation to grain tilt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert P Houwman, Minh D Nguyen, Matthijn Dekkers and Guus Rijnders

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric thin films of PbZr0.45Ti0.55O3 were grown on Si substrates in four different ways, resulting in different crystalline structures, as determined by x-ray analysis. The crystalline structures were different in the spread in tilt angle and the in-plane alignment of the crystal planes between different grains. It is found that the deviations of the ferroelectric polarization loop from that of the ideal rectangular loop (reduction of the remanent polarization with respect to the saturation polarization, dielectric constant of the film, slanting of the loop, coercive field value all scale with the average tilt angle. A model is derived based on the assumption that the tilted grain boundaries between grains affect the film properties locally. This model describes the observed trends. The effective piezoelectric coefficient d33,eff shows also a weak dependence on the average tilt angle for films grown in a single layer, whereas it is strongly reduced for the films deposited in multiple layers. The least affected properties are obtained for the most epitaxial films, i.e. grown on a SrTiO3 epitaxial seed layer, by pulsed laser deposition. These films are intrinsically stable and do not require poling to acquire these stable properties.

  16. Temperature dependence of grain boundary free energy and elastic constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foiles, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the suggestion that the temperature dependence of the grain boundary free energy can be estimated from the temperature dependence of the elastic constants. The temperature-dependent elastic constants and free energy of a symmetric Σ79 tilt boundary are computed for an embedded atom method model of Ni. The grain boundary free energy scales with the product of the shear modulus times the lattice constant for temperatures up to about 0.75 the melting temperature.

  17. Effects of annealing on microstructure and mechanical properties of nano-grained titanium produced by combination of asymmetric and symmetric rolling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zhiming; Fu, Liming; Fu, Bin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Shan, Aidang, E-mail: adshan@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Nano-grained (NG) commercially pure (CP, grade 2) Ti with average grain size of 80 nm was produced by the combination of asymmetric and symmetric rolling at room temperature. The effects of annealing on mechanical properties and microstructure of this NG Ti were investigated systematically. Examination using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the annealed Ti samples possessed ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure in which grain size was below 200 nm even though annealed at 400 Degree-Sign C for 30 min, which suggested considerable thermal stability of the microstructure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the preferred orientations along the (0 0 0 2) and (1 0 1{sup Macron} 3) crystal plane were formed in the NG Ti and both the two preferred orientation were slightly decreased with the increase of annealing temperature. It was found that annealing of this NG Ti with appropriate temperature and time resulted in the abnormal effect that the microhardness, strength and ductility were simultaneously enhanced as compared to the as-processed state. Further increasing of the annealing temperature and time leads to the decrease of microhardness and strength. Strain rate jump tests revealed that the strain-rate sensitivity (SRS) parameter m of the NG Ti was slightly enhanced with the increase of annealing temperature. The mechanisms of variations in mechanical properties were analyzed based on microstructure evolution of the annealed NG Ti.

  18. YBa2Cu3O7-x 45 degree [001] tilt grain boundaries induced by controlled low-energy sputtering of MgO substrates: Transport properties and atomic-scale structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuchic, B.V.; Merkle, K.L.; Funkhouser, J.W.; Bucholz, D.B.; Dean, K.A.; Chang, R.P.H.; Marks, L.D.

    1994-10-01

    Grain boundaries can act as weak links in the high T c materials. If properly controlled, these grain boundaries can be used in various device applications. We have been able to reproducibly form 45 degree [001] tilt grain boundary junctions in YBa 2 Cu 3 0 7-x thin films. The films were grown on MgO substrates using a pre-growth substrate treatment. A low energy broad beam Argon ion source was used to irradiate a select region of (100) MgO substrates. The film on the milled portion of the substrate grows predominantly with a grain orientation rotated 45 degree about the c-axis with respect to the grain on the unmilled portion. Backscattered electron Kikuchi patterns have been used to confirm that the rotation occurs across the entire milled portion of the substrate. Transport properties of these films are discussed and related to high resolution electron microstructural and microchemical analyses of the grain boundaries. This technique has potential use in device applications as a method for controlled grain boundary engineering

  19. Mapping electronic states of triple anti-parallel and symmetric zigzag grain boundaries of graphene on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Li, Xiaying; Yin, Longjing; Wang, Wenxiao; Sun, Qi; Yang, Yu; Zhang, Ping; Nie, Jiacai; Xiong, Changmin; Dou, Ruifen

    2018-01-01

    We studied the structures and electronic spectra of two periodic GBs in graphene on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface by using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy (STM/S). It was found that a GB consisting of triple anti-parallel dislocation arrays of pentagonal-heptagonal (5-7) carbon rings induced an enhanced localized state above the Dirac point, which was attributed to van Hove singularities (VHSs). The localized state was site dependent with the variation between 0.47 and 0.36 eV. Another periodic GB with a symmetric zigzag structure presented VHSs at -0.038 and 0.12 eV near the Fermi level. Moreover, intervalley scattering was observed on GBs. This finding further suggested that defect engineering might tune the electronic structures of graphene and even the performance of graphene-based electronic devices by properly mediating and designing ordered GBs in a graphene layer.

  20. Silicon Σ13(5 0 1) grain boundary interface structure determined by bicrystal Bragg rod X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, P.B.; Rhead, S.; Roy, M.; Nicklin, C.L.; Rawle, J.L.; Norris, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic structure of the silicon Σ13(5 0 1) symmetric tilt grain boundary interface has been determined using Bragg rod X-ray scattering. In contrast to conventional structural studies of grain boundary structure using transmission electron microscopy, this approach allows the non-destructive measurement of macroscopic samples. The interface was found to have a single structure that is fully fourfold coordinated. X-ray diffraction data were measured at Beamline I07 at the Diamond Light Source

  1. Energy of Vacancy Formation and Migration of Two Sigma 5 Tilt Grain Boundaries in Ni3Al Intermetallic:a Monte Carlo Simulation Study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čermák, Jiří

    203-205, - (2002), s. 161-176 ISSN 1012-0386 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC P3.110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2041904 Keywords : grain boundary * monte carlo simulation * ni3al Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2002

  2. Migration of the 45.sup.o./sup. [100], (100)/(011) asymmetrical tilt grain boundary in an Fe-6at%Si alloy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Havlová, V.; Lejček, Pavel

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 482, - (2005), s. 199-202 ISSN 0255-5476 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA202/02/0916 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : grain boundary migration * interfacial crystallography * recrystallization Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.399, year: 2005

  3. Migration mechanisms of a faceted grain boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadian, R.; Grabowski, B.; Finnis, M. W.; Neugebauer, J.

    2018-04-01

    We report molecular dynamics simulations and their analysis for a mixed tilt and twist grain boundary vicinal to the Σ 7 symmetric tilt boundary of the type {1 2 3 } in aluminum. When minimized in energy at 0 K , a grain boundary of this type exhibits nanofacets that contain kinks. We observe that at higher temperatures of migration simulations, given extended annealing times, it is energetically favorable for these nanofacets to coalesce into a large terrace-facet structure. Therefore, we initiate the simulations from such a structure and study as a function of applied driving force and temperature how the boundary migrates. We find the migration of a faceted boundary can be described in terms of the flow of steps. The migration is dominated at lower driving force by the collective motion of the steps incorporated in the facet, and at higher driving forces by the step detachment from the terrace-facet junction and propagation of steps across the terraces. The velocity of steps on terraces is faster than their velocity when incorporated in the facet, and very much faster than the velocity of the facet profile itself, which is almost stationary. A simple kinetic Monte Carlo model matches the broad kinematic features revealed by the molecular dynamics. Since the mechanisms seem likely to be very general on kinked grain-boundary planes, the step-flow description is a promising approach to more quantitative modeling of general grain boundaries.

  4. Resonant behavior of the barrier of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grain boundary Josephson junctions fabricated on bicrystalline substrates with different geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navacerrada, M.A., E-mail: mdelosangeles.navacerrada@upm.es [Grupo de Acustica Arquitectonica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Arquitectura, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avenida Juan de Herrera 4, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Lucia, M.L.; Sanchez-Quesada, F. [Departamento Fisica Aplicada III (Electricidad y Electronica), Facultad de Cc. Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, Avenida Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-12-14

    We have analyzed a resonant behavior in the dielectric constant associated to the barrier of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO) grain boundary Josephson junctions (GBJJs) fabricated on a wide variety of bicrystalline substrates: 12 Degree-Sign [0 0 1] tilt asymmetric, 24 Degree-Sign [0 0 1] tilt asymmetric, 24 Degree-Sign [0 0 1] tilt symmetric, 24 Degree-Sign [1 0 0] tilt asymmetric, 45 Degree-Sign [1 0 0] tilt asymmetric and 24 Degree-Sign [0 0 1] tilt symmetric +45 Degree-Sign [1 0 0] tilt asymmetric bicrystals. The resonance analysis allows us to estimate a more appropriate value of the relative dielectric constant, and so a more adequate value for the length L of the normal N region assuming a SNINS model for the barrier. In this work, the L dependence on the critical current density Jc has been investigated. This analysis makes possible a single representation for all the substrate geometries independently on around which axes the rotation is produced to generate the grain boundary. On the other hand, no clear evidences exist on the origin of the resonance. The resonance frequency is in the order of 10{sup 11} Hz, pointing to a phonon dynamic influence on the resonance mechanism. Besides, its position is affected by the oxygen content of the barrier: a shift at low frequencies is observed when the misorientation angle increases.

  5. Carbon diffusion paths and segregation at high-angle tilt grain boundaries in α-Fe studied by using a kinetic activation-relation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Oscar A.; Mousseau, Normand; Trochet, Mickaël; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa; Bouhali, Othmane; Becquart, Charlotte S.

    2018-02-01

    Carbon diffusion and segregation in iron is fundamental to steel production but is also associated with corrosion. Using the kinetic activation-relaxation technique (k-ART), a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm with an on-the-fly catalog that allows to obtain diffusion properties over large time scales taking into account long-range elastic effects coupled with an EAM force field, we study the motion of a carbon impurity in four Fe systems with high-angle grain boundaries (GB), focusing on the impact of these extended defects on the long-time diffusion of C. Short and long-time stability of the various GBs is first analyzed, which allows us to conclude that the Σ 3 (1 1 1 ) θ =109 .53∘ GB is unstable, with Fe migration barriers of ˜0.1 eV or less, and C acts as a pinning center. Focusing on three stable GBs, in all cases, these extended defects trap C in energy states lower than found in the crystal. Yet, contrary to general understanding, we show, through simulations extending to 0.1 s, that even tough C diffusion takes place predominantly in the GB, it is not necessarily faster than in the bulk and can even be slower by one to two orders of magnitude depending on the GB type. Analysis of the energy landscape provided by k-ART also shows that the free cavity volume around the impurity is not a strong predictor of diffusion barrier height. Overall, results show rather complex diffusion kinetics intimately dependent on the local environment.

  6. Symmetric textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1993-01-01

    The Wolfenstein parametrization is extended to the quark masses in the deep ultraviolet, and an algorithm to derive symmetric textures which are compatible with existing data is developed. It is found that there are only five such textures

  7. Tilt Table Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test may also be appropriate to investigate the cause of fainting if you've fainted only once, but another ... recommend a tilt table test to evaluate the cause of syncope. A tilt table test may also be recommended ...

  8. Orientation dependence of grain-boundary energy in metals in the view of a pseudoheterophase dislocation core model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missol, W.

    1976-01-01

    A new dislocation model for symmetric tilt grain boundaries was developed as a basis for deriving the quantitative dependence of grain-boundary energy upon misorientation angle in the form of an expression similar to that given by Read and Shockley [Phys. Rev. 78: 275(1950)]. The range of applicability of this equation was extended to over 20 degrees. A comparison of theory and experiment was made for Bi, Ag, Cu, and Fe--Si 3 percent in the teen-degree range of misorientation angles and for Au, α-Fe, Mo, and W in the high-angle range

  9. High temperature grain shrinkage under different pre-strains: a phase-field-crystal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shi; Wang, Song; Chen, Zheng; Xi, Wen; Zhang, Ting-Hui

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we use the phase-field-crystal method to study high temperature grain shrinkage. A circular grain embedded in a symmetric tilt planar grain boundary (GB) is constructed as the simulation system. Misorientation angle of the circular GB has influence on the specific evolution process. Difference between low and high misorientation angle systems is explored. In low misorientation angle system, grain shrinkage is first enabled by dislocation migration. Then dislocation rearrangement process in trijunction areas triggers the further shrinkage of inner grain. The free energy density (FED) curve has a rising stage during the overall decline process. For high misorientation angle system, dissociation and recombination reaction of dislocations is the primary way to shrink inner grain. The FED curve monotonically declines. Additionally, we apply pre-strain to simulation system. The influence of pre-strain on grain shrinkage in low and high misorientation angle systems is also investigated. When pre-strain is relatively small, the evolution process has no difference with unstrained situation, but grain shrinkage is impeded. Further increasing pre-strain, dislocations are emitted from circular GB. Grain shrinkage is accelerated and the inner grain eventually disappears prior to the grain disappearance in unstrained system. There exists a critical pre-strain to control the emission of dislocations.

  10. Tilting a Wobbly Chair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    If a small object is placed under the front leg of a chair, the chair tilts backwards. If the object is placed under a rear leg, the chair tilts sideways. The effect is surprising but can be analysed in terms of elementary physics.

  11. Grain Boundary Structures and Collective Dynamics of Inversion Domains in Binary Two-Dimensional Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Doaa; Mkhonta, S. K.; Elder, K. R.; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2017-06-01

    Understanding and controlling the properties and dynamics of topological defects is a lasting challenge in the study of two-dimensional materials, and is crucial to achieve high-quality films required for technological applications. Here grain boundary structures, energies, and dynamics of binary two-dimensional materials are investigated through the development of a phase field crystal model that is parametrized to match the ordering, symmetry, energy, and length scales of hexagonal boron nitride. Our studies reveal some new dislocation core structures for various symmetrically and asymmetrically tilted grain boundaries, in addition to those obtained in previous experiments and first-principles calculations. We also identify a defect-mediated growth dynamics for inversion domains governed by the collective atomic migration and defect core transformation at grain boundaries and junctions, a process that is related to inversion symmetry breaking in binary lattice.

  12. Atomistic simulations of grain boundary transformation under high pressures in MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, T.; Yoshiya, M.

    2018-03-01

    This study focuses on transformation of grain boundary (GB) structures under high pressures up to 60 GPa by using a simulated annealing technique with molecular dynamics and lattice statics calculations for various symmetric tilt GBs (STGBs) of MgO. It is found that except for the Σ 3 (111) / [ 1 1 bar 0 ] that is a rather stable GB, all the STGBs studied transform into a metastable structure more than once at threshold pressures. In addition, the GBs with an open-core structure and small tilt angle are found to be more "flexible" to transform into different structures than the GBs with a dense structure. For polycrystalline MgO, therefore, GBs may also exhibit GB transformation under high pressures and flexible GBs may govern overall transformation and deformation. These findings also suggest that polycrystals sintered at high pressures consist of more pressure-resistant GBs than those at normal pressures.

  13. Rigidity of tilting modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haahr Andersen, Henning; Kaneda, Masaharu

    Let $U_q$ denote the quantum group associated with a finite dimensional semisimple Lie algebra. Assume that $q$ is a complex root of unity of odd order and that $U_q$ is %the quantum group version obtained via Lusztig's $q$-divided powers construction. We prove that all regular projective (tilting...

  14. Symmetrization of Facade Layouts

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-02-26

    We present an automatic approach for symmetrizing urban facade layouts. Our method can generate a symmetric layout through minimally modifying the original input layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our method further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning elements in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can effectively generate symmetric facade layouts.

  15. Facade Layout Symmetrization

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Haiyong

    2016-04-11

    We present an automatic algorithm for symmetrizing facade layouts. Our method symmetrizes a given facade layout while minimally modifying the original layout. Based on the principles of symmetry in urban design, we formulate the problem of facade layout symmetrization as an optimization problem. Our system further enhances the regularity of the final layout by redistributing and aligning boxes in the layout. We demonstrate that the proposed solution can generate symmetric facade layouts efficiently. © 2015 IEEE.

  16. Thermodynamics of coherent interfaces under mechanical stresses. II. Application to atomistic simulation of grain boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, T.; Mishin, Y.

    2012-06-01

    The thermodynamic theory of coherent interfaces developed in Part I of this work is applied to grain boundaries (GBs) subject to nonhydrostatic elastic deformations. We derive expressions for the GB free energy as the reversible work of GB formation under stress. We also present a generalized adsorption equation whose differential coefficients define the GB segregation, GB stress tensor, GB excess volume, and GB excess shear. The generalized adsorption equation generates a set of Maxwell relations describing cross effects between different GB properties. The theory is applied to atomistic simulations of a symmetrical tilt GB in Cu and Cu-Ag alloys. Using a combination of molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo methods, we compute a number of GB excess quantities and their dependencies on the applied stresses, temperature and chemical composition in the grains. We also test several Maxwell relations and obtain excellent agreement between the theory and simulations.

  17. Research on calculation of the IOL tilt and decentration based on surface fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration) and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6-12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL's location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  18. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6–12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL’s location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  19. On Symmetric Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, Ryan; Cho, Ilwoo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study structure theorems of algebras of symmetric functions. Based on a certain relation on elementary symmetric polynomials generating such algebras, we consider perturbation in the algebras. In particular, we understand generators of the algebras as perturbations. From such perturbations, define injective maps on generators, which induce algebra-monomorphisms (or embeddings) on the algebras. They provide inductive structure theorems on algebras of symmetric polynomials. As...

  20. Evaluating Tilt for Wind Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annoni, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scholbrock, Andrew K. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Churchfield, Matthew J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fleming, Paul A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-03

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of tilt in a wind plant. Tilt control, much like other wind plant control strategies, has the potential to improve the performance of a wind plant. Tilt control uses the tilt angle of the turbine to direct the wake above or below the downstream turbines. This paper presents a study of tilt in two- and three-turbine arrays. Specifically, the authors show that the power production of a two-turbine array can be increased by tilting turbines in a specific orientation. When adding more turbines, as is shown with the three-turbine array, the overall percentage of power gain increases. This outcome deviates from some of the results seen in typical wind plant control strategies. Finally, we discuss the impact this type of control strategy has on the aerodynamics in a wind plant. This analysis demonstrates that a good understanding of wake characteristics is necessary to improve the plant's performance. A tilt strategy such as the one presented in this paper may have implications for future control/optimization studies including optimization of hub heights in a wind plant and analysis of deep array effects.

  1. Quantum Bounded Symmetric Domains

    OpenAIRE

    Vaksman, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    This is Leonid Vaksman's monograph "Quantum bounded symmetric domains" (in Russian), preceded with an English translation of the table of contents and (a part) of the introduction. Quantum bounded symmetric domains are interesting from several points of view. In particular, they provide interesting examples for noncommutative complex analysis (i.e., the theory of subalgebras of C^*-algebars) initiated by W. Arveson.

  2. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  3. Source to Accretion Disk Tilt

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source to cause and maintain disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through...

  4. Motion sickness on tilting trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard; Dai, Mingjia; Ogorodnikov, Dmitri; Laurens, Jean; Raphan, Theodore; Müller, Philippe; Athanasios, Alexiou; Edmaier, Jürgen; Grossenbacher, Thomas; Stadtmüller, Klaus; Brugger, Ueli; Hauser, Gerald; Straumann, Dominik

    2011-11-01

    Trains that tilt on curves can go faster, but passengers complain of motion sickness. We studied the control signals and tilts to determine why this occurs and how to maintain speed while eliminating motion sickness. Accelerometers and gyros monitored train and passenger yaw and roll, and a survey evaluated motion sickness. The experimental train had 3 control configurations: an untilted mode, a reactive mode that detected curves from sensors on the front wheel set, and a predictive mode that determined curves from the train's position on the tracks. No motion sickness was induced in the untilted mode, but the train ran 21% slower than when it tilted 8° in either the reactive or predictive modes (113 vs. 137 km/h). Roll velocities rose and fell faster in the predictive than the reactive mode when entering and leaving turns (0.4 vs. 0.8 s for a 4°/s roll tilt, P<0.001). Concurrently, motion sickness was greater (P<0.001) in the reactive mode. We conclude that the slower rise in roll velocity during yaw rotations on entering and leaving curves had induced the motion sickness. Adequate synchronization of roll tilt with yaw velocity on curves will reduce motion sickness and improve passenger comfort on tilting trains.

  5. Spinodal decomposition in fine grained materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ηηi has a value of unity inside the ith grain, decreases smoothly through the grain boundary region to zero out- side the grain. For a symmetric alloy of composition, c = 0⋅⋅5, our results show that microstructural evolution depends largely on the difference in the grain boundary energies, γγgb, of A-rich (αα) and B-rich (ββ) ...

  6. A symmetrical rail accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igenbergs, E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the symmetrical rail accelerator that has four rails, which are arranged symmetrically around the bore. The opposite rails have the same polarity and the adjacent rails the opposite polarity. In this configuration the radial force acting upon the individual rails is significantly smaller than in a conventional 2-rail configuration and a plasma armature is focussed towards the axis of the barrel. Experimental results indicate a higher efficiency compared to a conventional rail accelerator

  7. Symmetric eikonal expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuki, Takayuki

    1976-01-01

    Symmetric eikonal expansion for the scattering amplitude is formulated for nonrelativistic and relativistic potential scatterings and also for the quantum field theory. The first approximations coincide with those of Levy and Sucher. The obtained scattering amplitudes are time reversal invariant for all cases and are crossing symmetric for the quantum field theory in each order of approximation. The improved eikonal phase introduced by Levy and Sucher is also derived from the different approximation scheme from the above. (auth.)

  8. HREM of general and twist grain boundaries.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, K. L.; Thompson, L. J.

    1999-03-10

    The observation of atomic-scale structures of grain boundaries (GBs) via axial illumination HREM has been largely restricted to tilt GBs, due to the requirement that the electron beam be parallel to a low-index zone axis on both sides of the interface. This condition can be fulfilled for all tilt GBs with disorientation about a low-index direction. The information obtained through HREM studies in many materials has brought important insights concerning the atomic-scale structure of such boundaries. However, it is well known that tilt GBs occupy only an infinitesimally small fraction of the 5-dimensional phase space which describes the macroscopic geometry of all GBs. Therefore, although tilt GBs are very important due to their low energy, it would be useful to also study twist GBs and general GBs that contain twist and tilt components.

  9. Impact of Mismatch Angle on Electronic Transport Across Grain Boundaries and Interfaces in 2D Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majee, Arnab K; Foss, Cameron J; Aksamija, Zlatan

    2017-11-29

    We study the impact of grain boundaries (GB) and misorientation angles between grains on electronic transport in 2-dimensional materials. Here we have developed a numerical model based on the first-principles electronic bandstructure calculations in conjunction with a method which computes electron transmission coefficients from simultaneous conservation of energy and momentum at the interface to essentially evaluate GB/interface resistance in a Landauer formalism. We find that the resistance across graphene GBs vary over a wide range depending on misorientation angles and type of GBs, starting from 53 Ω μm for low-mismatch angles in twin (symmetric) GBs to about 10 20  Ω μm for 21° mismatch in tilt (asymmetric) GBs. On the other hand, misorientation angles have weak influence on the resistance across MoS 2 GBs, ranging from about 130 Ω μm for low mismatch angles to about 6000 Ω μm for 21°. The interface resistance across graphene-MoS 2 heterojunctions also exhibits a strong dependence on misorientation angles with resistance values ranging from about 100 Ω μm for low-mismatch angles in Class-I (symmetric) interfaces to 10 15  Ω μm for 14° mismatch in Class-II (asymmetric) interfaces. Overall, symmetric homo/heterojunctions exhibit a weak dependence on misorientation angles, while in MoS 2 both symmetric and asymmetric GBs show a gradual dependence on mismatch angles.

  10. Energetics of Hydrogen Segregation to α-Fe Grain Boundaries for Modeling Stress Corrosion Cracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, M.; Adlakha, I.; Tschopp, M. A.; Solanki, K. N.

    2017-08-01

    The physics of embrittlement is dictated by the various interactions between the impurities/defects and the local structure in polycrystalline material systems. In this study, a physically motivated model that describes the degree of interaction of hydrogen (H) defects on the segregation behavior to α-Fe grain boundaries (GBs) is developed. Molecular statics simulations were performed to quantify the segregation behavior of 1-2 H atoms at various interstitial sites around the , , , and symmetric tilt GBs. The results provide insights into the concentration profile of hydrogen defects along different GBs. Furthermore, the model accurately links the intrinsic GB character by quantifying the segregation length scale for the individual GBs based on the segregation behavior of defects. Finally, the metrics provided in this work are essential to comprehensively understanding the effect of hydrogen on the macroscopic behavior of α-Fe.

  11. Tilting Saturn without Tilting Jupiter: Constraints on Giant Planet Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, R.; Lee, Man Hoi

    2015-11-01

    The migration and encounter histories of the giant planets in our solar system can be constrained by the obliquities of Jupiter and Saturn. We have performed secular simulations with imposed migration and N-body simulations with planetesimals to study the expected obliquity distribution of migrating planets with initial conditions resembling those of the smooth migration model, the resonant Nice model and two models with five giant planets initially in resonance (one compact and one loose configuration). For smooth migration, the secular spin-orbit resonance mechanism can tilt Saturn’s spin axis to the current obliquity if the product of the migration timescale and the orbital inclinations is sufficiently large (exceeding 30 Myr deg). For the resonant Nice model with imposed migration, it is difficult to reproduce today’s obliquity values, because the compactness of the initial system raises the frequency that tilts Saturn above the spin precession frequency of Jupiter, causing a Jupiter spin-orbit resonance crossing. Migration timescales sufficiently long to tilt Saturn generally suffice to tilt Jupiter more than is observed. The full N-body simulations tell a somewhat different story, with Jupiter generally being tilted as often as Saturn, but on average having a higher obliquity. The main obstacle is the final orbital spacing of the giant planets, coupled with the tail of Neptune’s migration. The resonant Nice case is barely able to simultaneously reproduce the orbital and spin properties of the giant planets, with a probability ˜ 0.15%. The loose five planet model is unable to match all our constraints (probability <0.08%). The compact five planet model has the highest chance of matching the orbital and obliquity constraints simultaneously (probability ˜0.3%).

  12. Symmetric Tensor Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brachat, Jerome; Comon, Pierre; Mourrain, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    We present an algorithm for decomposing a symmetric tensor, of dimension n and order d, as a sum of rank-1 symmetric tensors, extending the algorithm of Sylvester devised in 1886 for binary forms. We recall the correspondence between the decomposition of a homogeneous polynomial in n variables...... of polynomial equations of small degree in non-generic cases. We propose a new algorithm for symmetric tensor decomposition, based on this characterization and on linear algebra computations with Hankel matrices. The impact of this contribution is two-fold. First it permits an efficient computation...... of the decomposition of any tensor of sub-generic rank, as opposed to widely used iterative algorithms with unproved global convergence (e.g. Alternate Least Squares or gradient descents). Second, it gives tools for understanding uniqueness conditions and for detecting the rank....

  13. Multiparty symmetric sum types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse; Yoshida, Nobuko; Honda, Kohei

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a new theory of multiparty session types based on symmetric sum types, by which we can type non-deterministic orchestration choice behaviours. While the original branching type in session types can represent a choice made by a single participant and accepted by others...... determining how the session proceeds, the symmetric sum type represents a choice made by agreement among all the participants of a session. Such behaviour can be found in many practical systems, including collaborative workflow in healthcare systems for clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Processes...... with the symmetric sums can be embedded into the original branching types using conductor processes. We show that this type-driven embedding preserves typability, satisfies semantic soundness and completeness, and meets the encodability criteria adapted to the typed setting. The theory leads to an efficient...

  14. Height and Tilt Geometric Texture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vedrana; Desbrun, Mathieu; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    2009-01-01

    compromise between functionality and simplicity: it can efficiently handle and process geometric texture too complex to be represented as a height field, without having recourse to full blown mesh editing algorithms. The height-and-tilt representation proposed here is fully intrinsic to the mesh, making...

  15. Analysis of the conoscopic measurement for uniaxial liquid-crystal tilt angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, B L; Winter, H H

    2001-05-01

    Conoscopy as an optical method for accurate measurement of crystal tilt angles from interference figures is analyzed for the special case of uniaxial crystals. The displacement of interference figures is related to the crystal tilt angle in an explicit, noniterative manner that is accurate to within ~2%. The analysis applies to uniaxial nematic liquid-crystal monodomains and homogeneous crystals when a symmetrical center of the conoscopic interference figure is visible. The equations developed are also used to derive other previously reported expressions that are approximations with a limited range of applicability.

  16. PT-symmetric strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amore, Paolo; Fernández, Francisco M.; Garcia, Javier; Gutierrez, German

    2014-01-01

    We study both analytically and numerically the spectrum of inhomogeneous strings with PT-symmetric density. We discuss an exactly solvable model of PT-symmetric string which is isospectral to the uniform string; for more general strings, we calculate exactly the sum rules Z(p)≡∑ n=1 ∞ 1/E n p , with p=1,2,… and find explicit expressions which can be used to obtain bounds on the lowest eigenvalue. A detailed numerical calculation is carried out for two non-solvable models depending on a parameter, obtaining precise estimates of the critical values where pair of real eigenvalues become complex. -- Highlights: •PT-symmetric Hamiltonians exhibit real eigenvalues when PT symmetry is unbroken. •We study PT-symmetric strings with complex density. •They exhibit regions of unbroken PT symmetry. •We calculate the critical parameters at the boundaries of those regions. •There are exact real sum rules for some particular complex densities

  17. Homogenous finitary symmetric groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto‎. ‎H‎. Kegel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We characterize strictly diagonal type of embeddings of finitary symmetric groups in terms of cardinality and the characteristic. Namely, we prove the following. Let kappa be an infinite cardinal. If G=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupG i , where G i =FSym(kappan i , (H=underseti=1stackrelinftybigcupH i , where H i =Alt(kappan i , is a group of strictly diagonal type and xi=(p 1 ,p 2 ,ldots is an infinite sequence of primes, then G is isomorphic to the homogenous finitary symmetric group FSym(kappa(xi (H is isomorphic to the homogenous alternating group Alt(kappa(xi , where n 0 =1,n i =p 1 p 2 ldotsp i .

  18. Symmetric waterbomb origami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Feng, Huijuan; Ma, Jiayao; Peng, Rui; You, Zhong

    2016-06-01

    The traditional waterbomb origami, produced from a pattern consisting of a series of vertices where six creases meet, is one of the most widely used origami patterns. From a rigid origami viewpoint, it generally has multiple degrees of freedom, but when the pattern is folded symmetrically, the mobility reduces to one. This paper presents a thorough kinematic investigation on symmetric folding of the waterbomb pattern. It has been found that the pattern can have two folding paths under certain circumstance. Moreover, the pattern can be used to fold thick panels. Not only do the additional constraints imposed to fold the thick panels lead to single degree of freedom folding, but the folding process is also kinematically equivalent to the origami of zero-thickness sheets. The findings pave the way for the pattern being readily used to fold deployable structures ranging from flat roofs to large solar panels.

  19. Symmetric vectors and algebraic classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibowitz, E.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of symmetric vector field in Riemannian manifolds, which arises in the study of relativistic cosmological models, is analyzed. Symmetric vectors are tied up with the algebraic properties of the manifold curvature. A procedure for generating a congruence of symmetric fields out of a given pair is outlined. The case of a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature (''isotropic universe'') is studied in detail, with all its symmetric vector fields being explicitly constructed

  20. Giant grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch-Devlin, M.A.; Millar, T.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Infrared observations of the Orion nebula have been interpreted by Rowan-Robinson (1975) to imply the existence of 'giant' grains, radius approximately 10 -2 cm, throughout a volume about a parsec in diameter. Although Rowan-Robinson's model of the nebula has been criticized and the presence of such grains in Orion is disputed, the proposition is accepted, that they exist, and in this paper situations in which giant grains could arise are examined. It is found that, while a giant-grain component to the interstellar grain density may exist, it is difficult to understand how giant grains arise to the extent apparently required by the Orion nebula model. (Auth.)

  1. Representations of locally symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1995-09-01

    Locally symmetric spaces in reference to globally and Hermitian symmetric Riemannian spaces are studied. Some relations between locally and globally symmetric spaces are exhibited. A lucid account of results on relevant spaces, motivated by fundamental problems, are formulated as theorems and propositions. (author). 10 refs

  2. Molecular tilt on monolayer-protected nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Giomi, L.

    2012-02-01

    The structure of the tilted phase of monolayer-protected nanoparticles is investigated by means of a simple Ginzburg-Landau model. The theory contains two dimensionless parameters representing the preferential tilt angle and the ratio ε between the energy cost due to spatial variations in the tilt of the coating molecules and that of the van der Waals interactions which favors the preferential tilt. We analyze the model for both spherical and octahedral particles. On spherical particles, we find a transition from a tilted phase, at small ε, to a phase where the molecules spontaneously align along the surface normal and tilt disappears. Octahedral particles have an additional phase at small ε characterized by the presence of six topological defects. These defective configurations provide preferred sites for the chemical functionalization of monolayer-protected nanoparticles via place-exchange reactions and their consequent linking to form molecules and bulk materials. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  3. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    , DK-5000 Odense C, Denmark ABSTRACT (1795 anslag) Background: Excessive anterior pelvic tilt has been linked to pain and dysfunction of the hip and pelvic region. Conservative treatment (e.g. manual therapy and physical training) is suggested in correcting the tilt and eventually related symptoms....... However, the effectiveness in reducing excessive anterior pelvic tilt in adults is unknown. Purpose: To systematically review studies investigating the effectiveness of conservative treatment in reducing anterior pelvic tilt in adults and evaluate the quality of evidence. Materials and methods: MEDLINE...

  4. Capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer based tilt sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Guo, Bin; Haridas, Kuruveettil; Lin, Tsu-Hui; Hao Cheong, Jia; Lin Tsai, Ming; Boon Yee, Tack

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, a tilt sensing mechanism based on the capacitive micromachined ultrasound transducers (CMUTs) is presented. By measuring the difference in the time of flight of various pulse-echo signals from different CMUT transmitting elements to one common receiving element in the oil bath, the tilt angle of the oil surface can be determined. With the proposed device, the maximum tilt angles of 20° and 28° have been measured in the clockwise and counterclockwise directions, respectively, and the difference between the measured and the theoretical values of the tilt angle was found to be within 0.05° during the whole test.

  5. Local and bulk melting of Cu at grain boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Shengnian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Han, Li - Bo [USTC; An, Qi [USTC/CALTECH; Fu, Rong - Shan [USTC; Zheng, Lianqing [FSU

    2008-01-01

    We investigate gain boundary (GB) melting using molecular dynamics simulations on face-centered-cubic Cu bicrystals with symmetric {l_angle}110{r_angle} tilt grain boundaries. Two representative types of GBs are explored: {Sigma} = 11/(113)/50.48{sup o} (low GB energy) and {Sigma} = 27/(552)/148.41{sup o} (high GB energy). The temperature and temporal evolutions of the Cu bicrystals under stepped heating are characterized in terms of order parameters and diffusion coefficients, as ell as the nucleation and growth of melt. Within the GB region, continuous local melting precedes discontinuous bulk melting, while continuous solid state disordering may precede local melting. Premelting may occur for local melting but not for bulk melting. For {Sigma} = 11/(113)/50.48{sup o}, premelting of the GB region is negligible, and local melting occurs near the thermodynamic melting temperature. The GB region as a whole is superheated by about 13% before its bulk melting. In the case of {Sigma} = 27/(552)/148.41, considerable premelting is observed for local melting, while the bulk melting occurs with negligible superheating. The exact melting behavior of a general GB depends on the GB energy, but is likely bracketed within these two cases.

  6. Hydrogen diffusion along grain boundaries in erbium oxide coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Wei; Chikada, Takumi; Suzuki, Akihiro; Terai, Takayuki

    2014-01-01

    Diffusion of interstitial atomic hydrogen in erbium oxide (Er 2 O 3 ) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD) methods. Hydrogen diffusivity in bulk, on (0 0 1) surface, and along Σ13 (4–3–1)/[1 1 1] symmetric tilt grain boundaries (GBs) were evaluated in a temperature range of 673–1073 K, as well as hydrogen diffusion barriers. It was found that H diffusion shows the faster on (0 0 1) surface than along GBs and in bulk. Also, energy barrier of H diffusion in bulk estimated by DFT and MD methods is somewhat higher than that along GBs evaluated in the experiments. This suggests that H diffusion in Er 2 O 3 coatings depends on GBs rather than bulk. In addition, with a correction of GB density, the simulated diffusivity along GBs in MD simulations is in good agreement with the experimental data within one order of magnitude. The discrepancy of H diffusivity between the experiments and the simulations should be reduced by considering H concentration, H diffusion direction, deviations of the initial configuration, vacancy defects, etc

  7. Symmetric instability of monsoon flows

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar, V.; Lau, K.-M.

    2011-01-01

    Using a zonally symmetric multi-level moist linear model, we have examined the possibility of symmetric instability in the monsoon region. Stability analyses with a zonally symmetric model using monthly ECMWF (Jan – Dec) zonal basic flows revealed both unstable as well as neutral modes. In the absence of cumulus heating, the linear stability of the monsoon flow changes dramatically with the emergence of many unstable modes in the month of May and lasting through August; whereas with the inclu...

  8. Symmetric q-Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dattoli

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available q analog of bessel functions, symmetric under the interchange of q and q^ −1 are introduced. The definition is based on the generating function realized as product of symmetric q-exponential functions with appropriate arguments. Symmetric q-Bessel function are shown to satisfy various identities as well as second-order q-differential equations, which in the limit q → 1 reproduce those obeyed by the usual cylindrical Bessel functions. A brief discussion on the possible algebraic setting for symmetric q-Bessel functions is also provided.

  9. The structure of strongly tilted current sheets in the Earth magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Y. Vasko

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate strongly tilted (in the y–z GSM plane current sheets (CSs in the Earth magnetotail using data from the Cluster mission. We analyze 29 CS crossings observed in 2001–2004. The characteristic current density, magnetic field at the CS boundary and the CS thickness of strongly tilted CSs are similar to those reported previously for horizontal (not tilted CSs. We confirm that strongly tilted CSs are generally characterized by a rather large northward component of the magnetic field. The field-aligned current in strongly tilted CSs is on average two times larger than the transverse current. The proton adiabaticity parameter, κp, is larger than 0.5 in 85% of strongly tilted CSs due to the large northward magnetic field. Thus, the proton dynamics is stochastic for 18 current sheets with 0.5 p p > 3, whereas electrons are magnetized for all observed current sheets. Strongly tilted CSs provide a unique opportunity to measure the electric field component perpendicular to the CS plane. We find that most of the electric field perpendicular to the CS plane is due to the decoupling of electron and ion motions (plasma polarization. For 27 CSs we determine profiles of the electrostatic potential, which is due to the plasma polarization. Drops in the potential between the neutral plane and the CS boundary are within the range of 200 V to 12 kV, while maximal values of the electric field are within the range of 0.2 mV m−1 to 8 mV m−1. For 16 CSs the observed potentials are in accordance with Ohm's law, if the electron current density is assumed to be comparable to the total current density. In 15 of these CSs the profile of the polarization potential is approximately symmetric with respect to the neutral plane and has minimum therein.

  10. Optic flow induced self-tilt perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Roll optic flow induces illusory self-tilt in humans. As far as the mechanism underlying this visual-vestibular interaction is understood, larger angles of self-tilt are predicted than observed. It is hypothesized that the discrepancy can be explained by idiotropic (i.e., referring to a personal

  11. Lake-tilting investigations in southern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paasse, T.

    1996-04-01

    The main aim of lake-tilting investigations is to determine the course of the glacio-isostatic uplift, i.e. to find a formula for the uplift. Besides the lake-tilting graphs, knowledge of the recent relative uplift and the gradient of some marine shorelines are used for solving this problem. This paper summarizes four investigations. 23 refs, 10 figs

  12. Lake-tilting investigations in southern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1996-04-01

    The main aim of lake-tilting investigations is to determine the course of the glacio-isostatic uplift, i.e. to find a formula for the uplift. Besides the lake-tilting graphs, knowledge of the recent relative uplift and the gradient of some marine shorelines are used for solving this problem. This paper summarizes four investigations. 23 refs, 10 figs.

  13. Large optics inspection, tilting, and washing stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Marion Jay [Brentwood, CA; Ayers, Shannon Lee [Brentwood, CA

    2010-08-24

    A large optics stand provides a risk free means of safely tilting large optics with ease and a method of safely tilting large optics with ease. The optics are supported in the horizontal position by pads. In the vertical plane the optics are supported by saddles that evenly distribute the optics weight over a large area.

  14. Asymmetric soliton mobility in competing linear-nonlinear parity-time-symmetric lattices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Torner, Lluis

    2016-09-15

    We address the transverse mobility of spatial solitons in competing parity-time-symmetric linear and nonlinear lattices. The competition between out-of-phase linear and nonlinear lattices results in a drastic mobility enhancement within a range of soliton energies. We show that within such a range, the addition of even a small imaginary part in the linear potential makes soliton mobility strongly asymmetric. For a given initial phase tilt, the velocity of soliton motion grows with an increase of the balanced gain/losses. In this regime of enhanced mobility, tilted solitons can efficiently drag other solitons that were initially at rest to form moving soliton pairs.

  15. Evaluating Tilt for Wind Farms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annoni, Jennifer; Scholbrock, Andrew; Churchfield, Matthew; Fleming, Paul

    2017-06-29

    The objective of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of tilt in a wind plant. Tilt control, much like other wind plant control strategies, has the potential to improve the performance of a wind plant. Tilt control uses the tilt angle of the turbine to direct the wake above or below the downstream turbines. This paper presents a study of tilt in two- and threeturbine arrays. Specifically, the authors show that the power production of a two-turbine array can be increased by tilting turbines in a specific orientation. When adding more turbines, as is shown with the three-turbine array, the overall percentage of power gain increases. This outcome deviates from some of the results seen in typical wind plant control strategies. Finally, we discuss the impact this type of control strategy has on the aerodynamics in a wind plant. This analysis demonstrates that a good understanding of wake characteristics is necessary to improve the plant's performance. A tilt strategy such as the one presented in this paper may have implications for future control/optimization studies including optimization of hub heights in a wind plant and analysis of deep array effects.

  16. Unilateral otolith centrifugation by head tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Stephanie M; Bos, Jelte E; Klis, Sjaak F L

    2014-01-01

    To test for otolith asymmetries, several studies described horizontal translation of the body and head en bloc during fast vertical axis rotation. This stimulus causes one otolithic organ to rotate on-axis, and the other to experience centripetal acceleration. To test a new, more simple method of unilateral stimulation with head tilt and the body remaining on axis. During stationary and during 360 deg/s rotation, 12 healthy blindfolded subjects had their heads tilted 30 degrees sideways, positioning one otolithic organ on the axis of rotation after the other. The haptic subjective vertical (SV) was recorded several times by means of a manually adjustable rod. It was found that during stationary the SV tilted about 4 degrees on average in the direction of the head. During rotation, the SV tilted about 9 degrees on average. We therefore estimate the effect of eccentric otolith rotation to be 5 degrees on average. Tilt of the subjective vertical induced by head tilt during on-axis body rotation can provide a relatively uncomplicated alternative to test unilateral otolithic function as compared to body and head translation during rotation. Moreover, unlike eccentric rotation of the entire body, somatosensory cues are minimized by keeping the body fixed on axis and by subtracting the effect of head tilt per se.

  17. Experimental studies of octahedral tilting in perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.J.; Kennedy, B.J.; Chakoumakos, B.C.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Structures of the perovskite family, ABX 3 , have interested crystallographers over many years, and continue to attract attention on account of their fascinating electrical and magnetic properties, and their significance in the earth sciences. The ideal perovskite (cubic) is a particularly simple structure, but also a demanding one, since aside from the lattice parameter there are no variable parameters in the structure. Consequently, the majority of perovskite structures show departures from the ideal, the most common distortion being the comer-linked tilting of the practically rigid BX 6 octahedral units. Following a group theoretical study in 1997, a number of experimental investigations of octahedral tilting have been undertaken in 1998, and these are reported in this presentation. The studies are of the perovskites, SrZrO 3 , SrHfO 3 , CaTiO 3 , NaTaO 3 and LaGaO 3 . In each case, the crystal structures have been followed at high temperatures, with particular attention being paid to temperature regimes in which only the simplest octahedral tilt (only one tilt axis) pertains. Neutron powder diffraction patterns have been recorded on the medium/high resolution diffractometer installed at beam port HB4 at the High Flux Isotope Reactor, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Crystal structures have been refined by the Rietveld method, and angles of tilt of the oxygen octahedra derived from the atomic position parameters. Each of the first four perovskites listed above transforms from tetragonal (with a single tilt axis) to cubic, and in each case, as far as can be determined from our measurements, the tilt angle in the tetragonal phase decreases continuously towards zero. There are interesting differences, however, in the functional form of this variation. The LaGaO 3 transforms at modest temperature to a rhombohedral phase, also characterised by a single tilt axis, but though the tilt angle decreases slowly with increasing temperature, the sample

  18. Sensor fusion for structural tilt estimation using an acceleration-based tilt sensor and a gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng; Park, Jong-Woong; Spencer, B. F., Jr.; Moon, Do-Soo; Fan, Jiansheng

    2017-10-01

    A tilt sensor can provide useful information regarding the health of structural systems. Most existing tilt sensors are gravity/acceleration based and can provide accurate measurements of static responses. However, for dynamic tilt, acceleration can dramatically affect the measured responses due to crosstalk. Thus, dynamic tilt measurement is still a challenging problem. One option is to integrate the output of a gyroscope sensor, which measures the angular velocity, to obtain the tilt; however, problems arise because the low-frequency sensitivity of the gyroscope is poor. This paper proposes a new approach to dynamic tilt measurements, fusing together information from a MEMS-based gyroscope and an acceleration-based tilt sensor. The gyroscope provides good estimates of the tilt at higher frequencies, whereas the acceleration measurements are used to estimate the tilt at lower frequencies. The Tikhonov regularization approach is employed to fuse these measurements together and overcome the ill-posed nature of the problem. The solution is carried out in the frequency domain and then implemented in the time domain using FIR filters to ensure stability. The proposed method is validated numerically and experimentally to show that it performs well in estimating both the pseudo-static and dynamic tilt measurements.

  19. CT patellar cortex tilt angle: A radiological method to measure patellar tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza Toluei, F.; Afshar, A.; Salarilak, S.; Sina, A.

    2005-01-01

    Background/Objectives: the role of patellar tilt in the anterior knee pain is indisputable. Traditionally. the lateral patello-femoral angle of Laurin has been defined in both the axial view and CT images for measuring the tilt of patella. We present a new angle. which is independent of the morphology of patella and directly relates to clinical assessment of the tilt. which is appreciated from palpation of the edges of the patella. Patients and Methods: 38 patients with anterior knee pain and forty normal control subjects were examined using CT scan of patello-femoral joint in 15 degrees of knee flexion. The amount of lateral patellar tilt was quantitatively assessed using the lateral patello-femoral angle, as described by Laurin et al, and the newly defined patellar cortex tilt angle. This angle is subtended by the line drawn along the posterior femoral condyles and the one parallel to the subchondral bone of patellar cortex. The fifteen-degree tilt was taken as normal cut-off point for patellar cortex tilt angle in the control group. Results: in patients, the average tilt of patella. using the patellar cortex tilt angle was 15.26 versus 7.05 in the control group. Using Student's t test, the difference between the two means was significant (P<0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of patellar cortex tilt angle were 40 and 90 percent, respectively There was a moderate agreement between our presented test and the lateral tilt angle test (kappa=0.40. P<0.001). Conclusion: our results indicate that patellar tilt can also be detected using patellar cortex tilt angle. We need more specific studies ta determine the validity of the test

  20. Symmetric Decomposition of Asymmetric Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuyls, Karl; Pérolat, Julien; Lanctot, Marc; Ostrovski, Georg; Savani, Rahul; Leibo, Joel Z; Ord, Toby; Graepel, Thore; Legg, Shane

    2018-01-17

    We introduce new theoretical insights into two-population asymmetric games allowing for an elegant symmetric decomposition into two single population symmetric games. Specifically, we show how an asymmetric bimatrix game (A,B) can be decomposed into its symmetric counterparts by envisioning and investigating the payoff tables (A and B) that constitute the asymmetric game, as two independent, single population, symmetric games. We reveal several surprising formal relationships between an asymmetric two-population game and its symmetric single population counterparts, which facilitate a convenient analysis of the original asymmetric game due to the dimensionality reduction of the decomposition. The main finding reveals that if (x,y) is a Nash equilibrium of an asymmetric game (A,B), this implies that y is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table A, and x is a Nash equilibrium of the symmetric counterpart game determined by payoff table B. Also the reverse holds and combinations of Nash equilibria of the counterpart games form Nash equilibria of the asymmetric game. We illustrate how these formal relationships aid in identifying and analysing the Nash structure of asymmetric games, by examining the evolutionary dynamics of the simpler counterpart games in several canonical examples.

  1. Symmetric $q$-deformed KP hierarch

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Kelei; He, Jingsong; Su, Yucai

    2014-01-01

    Based on the analytic property of the symmetric $q$-exponent $e_q(x)$, a new symmetric $q$-deformed Kadomtsev-Petviashvili ($q$-KP) hierarchy associated with the symmetric $q$-derivative operator $\\partial_q$ is constructed. Furthermore, the symmetric $q$-CKP hierarchy and symmetric $q$-BKP hierarchy are defined. Here we also investigate the additional symmetries of the symmetric $q$-KP hierarchy.

  2. Non-symmetric membership function for Fuzzy-based visual servoing onboard a UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Campoy Cervera, Pascual; Martínez Luna, Carol Viviana; Mondragon Bernal, Ivan Fernando

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the definition of non-symmetric membership function for Fuzzy controllers applied to a pan & tilt vision platform onboard an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. This improvement allows the controllers to have a more adaptive behavior to the non-linearities presented in an UAV. This implementation allows the UAV to follow objects in the environment by using Lucas-Kanade visual tracker, in spite of the aircraft vibrations, the movements of the objects and the aircraft, update has been ...

  3. Conservative treatment of excessive anterior pelvic tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brekke, Anders Falk

    quality by two reviewers using Cochrane Collaboration’s tool for assessing risk of bias in RCT’s and the ROBINS-I tool (Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of interventions). Data was synthesized qualitatively. The GRADE approach was used to determine the overall quality of the evidence. PROSPERO...... treatment may reduce anterior pelvis tilt and reduce symptoms in relation to faulty posture. Keywords: pelvis, anterior tilt, anteversion, posture...

  4. Deformation bands in ⟨120⟩ grains in coarse-grained aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    1986-01-01

    ](111) and (a/2)[011](111), allowing for glide only, are tilt boundaries with a normal [001] and a rotation axis along [110] and twist boundaries with a normal [100] and a rotation axis along [100]. A consideration of the boundary energies indicates that the twist boundary has a lower energy than the tilt...... to [001], the boundaries between the bands were parallel to [010] and the neighbouring bands were rotated around [100] with respect to one another. Two slip systems in a critical relationship are equally stressed with a Schmid factor of 0.49 in grains with a [120] orientation, namely (a/2...

  5. Lifting to cluster-tilting objects in higher cluster categories

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Pin

    2008-01-01

    In this note, we consider the $d$-cluster-tilted algebras, the endomorphism algebras of $d$-cluster-tilting objects in $d$-cluster categories. We show that a tilting module over such an algebra lifts to a $d$-cluster-tilting object in this $d$-cluster category.

  6. Barrier versus tilt exchange gate operations in spin-based quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Yun-Pil; Tahan, Charles

    2018-04-01

    We present a theory for understanding the exchange interaction between electron spins in neighboring quantum dots, either by changing the detuning of the two quantum dots or independently tuning the tunneling barrier between quantum dots. The Hubbard model and a more realistic confining-potential model are used to investigate how the tilting and barrier control affect the effective exchange coupling and thus the gate fidelity in both the detuning and symmetric regimes. We show that the exchange coupling is less sensitive to the charge noise through tunnel barrier control (while allowing for exchange coupling operations on a sweet spot where the exchange interaction has zero derivative with respect to the detuning). Both GaAs and Si quantum dots are considered, and we compare our results with experimental data showing qualitative agreements. Our results answer the open question of why barrier gates are preferable to tilt gates for exchange-based gate operations.

  7. Direct cone beam SPECT reconstruction with camera tilt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianying Li; Jaszczak, R.J.; Greer, K.L.; Coleman, R.E.; Zongjian Cao; Tsui, B.M.W.

    1993-01-01

    A filtered backprojection (FBP) algorithm is derived to perform cone beam (CB) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) reconstruction with camera tilt using circular orbits. This algorithm reconstructs the tilted angle CB projection data directly by incorporating the tilt angle into it. When the tilt angle becomes zero, this algorithm reduces to that of Feldkamp. Experimentally acquired phantom studies using both a two-point source and the three-dimensional Hoffman brain phantom have been performed. The transaxial tilted cone beam brain images and profiles obtained using the new algorithm are compared with those without camera tilt. For those slices which have approximately the same distance from the detector in both tilt and non-tilt set-ups, the two transaxial reconstructions have similar profiles. The two-point source images reconstructed from this new algorithm and the tilted cone beam brain images are also compared with those reconstructed from the existing tilted cone beam algorithm. (author)

  8. Study on sampled waveguide grating with anti-symmetric periodic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lijun; Shi, Yuechun; Xiao, Rulei; Qian, Yajuan; Chen, Xiangfei

    2015-06-15

    An anti-symmetrically sampled Bragg grating (ASBG) with single mode waveguide is proposed and investigated for the first time. Based on anti-symmetric periodic structure, the coupling coefficient between the forward and backward guided modes becomes zero, thus nearly no light is reflected. Besides, the equivalent tilted grating effect with radiation mode coupling is found. If another anti-symmetrically sampling structure is imposed to form a sampled grating, the 0th sub-grating can be avoided, while the ± 1st sub-gratings are adjusted as uniform gratings with normal performances. This will be very benefit for some special applications such as distributed feedback (DFB) lasers based on Reconstruction-equivalent-chirp (REC) technique where 0th order resonance can be avoided. In addition, error analysis for the proposed structure is also performed for practical applications.

  9. Differential geometry and symmetric spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Helgason, Sigurdur

    2001-01-01

    Sigurdur Helgason's Differential Geometry and Symmetric Spaces was quickly recognized as a remarkable and important book. For many years, it was the standard text both for Riemannian geometry and for the analysis and geometry of symmetric spaces. Several generations of mathematicians relied on it for its clarity and careful attention to detail. Although much has happened in the field since the publication of this book, as demonstrated by Helgason's own three-volume expansion of the original work, this single volume is still an excellent overview of the subjects. For instance, even though there

  10. Looking for symmetric Bell inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bancal, Jean-Daniel; Gisin, Nicolas; Pironio, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Finding all Bell inequalities for a given number of parties, measurement settings and measurement outcomes is in general a computationally hard task. We show that all Bell inequalities which are symmetric under the exchange of parties can be found by examining a symmetrized polytope which is simpler than the full Bell polytope. As an illustration of our method, we generate 238 885 new Bell inequalities and 1085 new Svetlichny inequalities. We find, in particular, facet inequalities for Bell experiments involving two parties and two measurement settings that are not of the Collins-Gisin-Linden-Massar-Popescu type.

  11. Symmetric autocompensating quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Zachary D.; Sergienko, Alexander V.; Levitin, Lev B.; Saleh, Bahaa E. A.; Teich, Malvin C.

    2004-08-01

    We present quantum key distribution schemes which are autocompensating (require no alignment) and symmetric (Alice and Bob receive photons from a central source) for both polarization and time-bin qubits. The primary benefit of the symmetric configuration is that both Alice and Bob may have passive setups (neither Alice nor Bob is required to make active changes for each run of the protocol). We show that both the polarization and the time-bin schemes may be implemented with existing technology. The new schemes are related to previously described schemes by the concept of advanced waves.

  12. Jahn-Teller distortions, cation ordering and octahedral tilting in perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lufaso, M.W.; Woodward, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    In transition metal oxides, preferential occupation of specific d orbitals on the transition metal ion can lead to the development of a long-range ordered pattern of occupied orbitals. This phenomenon, referred to as orbital ordering, is usually observed indirectly from the cooperative Jahn-Teller distortions (CJTDs) that result as a consequence of the orbital ordering. This paper examines the interplay between orbital ordering, octahedral tilting and cation ordering in perovskites. Both ternary AMX 3 perovskites containing an active Jahn-Teller (J-T) ion on the octahedral site and quaternary A 2 MM'X 6 perovskites containing a J-T ion on one-half of the octahedral sites have been examined. In AMX 3 perovskites, the tendency is for the occupied 3d 3x 2 -r 2 and 3d 3z 2 -r 2 orbitals to order in the ac plane, as exemplified by the crystal structures of LaMnO 3 and KCuF 3 . This arrangement maintains a favorable coordination environment for the anion sites. In AMX 3 perovskites, octahedral tilting tends to enhance the magnitude of the J-T distortions. In A 2 MM'X 6 perovskites, the tendency is for the occupied 3d 3z 2 -r 2 orbitals to align parallel to the c axis. This pattern maintains a favorable coordination environment about the symmetric M'-cation site. The orbital ordering found in rock-salt ordered A 2 MM'X 6 perovskites is compatible with octahedral rotations about the c axis (Glazer tilt system a 0 a 0 c - ) but appears to be incompatible with GdFeO 3 -type octahedral tilting (tilt system - b + a - ). (orig.)

  13. Symmetric Key Authentication Services Revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crispo, B.; Popescu, B.C.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    Most of the symmetric key authentication schemes deployed today are based on principles introduced by Needham and Schroeder [15] more than twenty years ago. However, since then, the computing environment has evolved from a LAN-based client-server world to include new paradigms, including wide area

  14. A charged spherically symmetric solution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A charged spherically symmetric solution. K MOODLEY, S D MAHARAJ and K S GOVINDER. School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences, University of Natal, Durban 4041, South Africa. Email: maharaj@nu.ac.za. MS received 8 April 2002; revised 7 April 2003; accepted 23 June 2003. Abstract. We find a solution of the ...

  15. The symmetric longest queue system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houtum, Geert-Jan; Adan, Ivo; van der Wal, Jan

    1997-01-01

    We derive the performance of the exponential symmetric longest queue system from two variants: a longest queue system with Threshold Rejection of jobs and one with Threshold Addition of jobs. It is shown that these two systems provide lower and upper bounds for the performance of the longest queue

  16. Symmetric group representations and Z

    OpenAIRE

    Adve, Anshul; Yong, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    We discuss implications of the following statement about the representation theory of symmetric groups: every integer appears infinitely often as an irreducible character evaluation, and every nonnegative integer appears infinitely often as a Littlewood-Richardson coefficient and as a Kronecker coefficient.

  17. A characterization of symmetric domains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Engliš, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 1 (2006), s. 123-146 ISSN 0023-608X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA1019304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : Kaehler manifold * symmetric space * Berezin transform Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.270, year: 2006

  18. Vassiliev Invariants from Symmetric Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Indranil; Gammelgaard, Niels Leth

    We construct a natural framed weight system on chord diagrams from the curvature tensor of any pseudo-Riemannian symmetric space. These weight systems are of Lie algebra type and realized by the action of the holonomy Lie algebra on a tangent space. Among the Lie algebra weight systems, they are ...

  19. Symmetric imaging findings in neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zlatareva, D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: Learning objectives: to make a list of diseases and syndromes which manifest as bilateral symmetric findings on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging; to discuss the clinical and radiological differential diagnosis for these diseases; to explain which of these conditions necessitates urgent therapy and when additional studies and laboratory can precise diagnosis. There is symmetry in human body and quite often we compare the affected side to the normal one but in neuroradiology we might have bilateral findings which affected pair structures or corresponding anatomic areas. It is very rare when clinical data prompt diagnosis. Usually clinicians suspect such an involvement but Ct and MRI can reveal symmetric changes and are one of the leading diagnostic tool. The most common location of bilateral findings is basal ganglia and thalamus. There are a number of diseases affecting these structures symmetrically: metabolic and systemic diseases, intoxication, neurodegeneration and vascular conditions, toxoplasmosis, tumors and some infections. Malformations of cortical development and especially bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria requires not only exact report on the most affected parts but in some cases genetic tests or combination with other clinical symptoms. In the case of herpes simplex encephalitis bilateral temporal involvement is common and this finding very often prompt therapy even before laboratory results. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PReS) and some forms of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy can lead to symmetric changes. In these acute conditions MR plays a crucial role not only in diagnosis but also in monitoring of the therapeutic effect. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 or type 2 can demonstrate bilateral optic glioma combined with spinal neurofibroma and bilateral acoustic schwanoma respectively. Mirror-image aneurysm affecting both internal carotid or middle cerebral arteries is an example of symmetry in

  20. Understanding symmetrical components for power system modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Das, J C

    2017-01-01

    This book utilizes symmetrical components for analyzing unbalanced three-phase electrical systems, by applying single-phase analysis tools. The author covers two approaches for studying symmetrical components; the physical approach, avoiding many mathematical matrix algebra equations, and a mathematical approach, using matrix theory. Divided into seven sections, topics include: symmetrical components using matrix methods, fundamental concepts of symmetrical components, symmetrical components –transmission lines and cables, sequence components of rotating equipment and static load, three-phase models of transformers and conductors, unsymmetrical fault calculations, and some limitations of symmetrical components.

  1. Spatial coherence profilometry on tilted surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavlíček, Pavel; Halouzka, M.; Duan, Z.; Takeda, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 34 (2009), H40-H47 ISSN 0003-6935 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : tilted surface * spatial coherence profilometry * spatial coherence * measurement error * shape measurement Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.410, year: 2009

  2. "Happiness and Education": Tilting at Windmills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This essay explores the question: Is Nel Noddings a visionary who sees past the constraints of contemporary education or is she, like Don Quixote, madly tilting at windmills in her description and defense of happiness as an educational aim? Viewing the educational aim of happiness as an ideal raises substantial challenges for the practicality of…

  3. Grain boundaries in bcc-Fe: a density-functional theory and tight-binding study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingliang; Madsen, Georg K. H.; Drautz, Ralf

    2018-02-01

    Grain boundaries (GBs) have a significant influence on material properties. In the present paper, we calculate the energies of eleven low-Σ ({{Σ }}≤slant 13) symmetrical tilt GBs and two twist GBs in ferromagnetic bcc iron using first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results demonstrate the importance of a sufficient sampling of initial rigid body translations in all three directions. We show that the relative GB energies can be explained by the miscoordination of atoms at the GB region. While the main features of the studied GB structures were captured by previous empirical interatomic potential calculations, it is shown that the absolute values of GB energies calculated were substantially underestimated. Based on DFT-calculated GB structures and energies, we construct a new d-band orthogonal tight-binding (TB) model for bcc iron. The TB model is validated by its predictive power on all the studied GBs. We apply the TB model to block boundaries in lath martensite and demonstrate that the experimentally observed GB character distribution can be explained from the viewpoint of interface energy.

  4. Influence of point defects on grain boundary mobility in bcc tungsten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikov, Valery; Tang, Xian-Zhu; Perez, Danny; Bai, Xian-Ming; Uberuaga, Blas P; Voter, Arthur F

    2013-01-23

    Atomistic computer simulations were performed to study the influence of radiation-induced damage on grain boundary (GB) sliding processes in bcc tungsten (W), the divertor material in the ITER tokamak and the leading candidate for the first wall material in future fusion reactors. In particular, we calculated the average sliding-friction force as a function of the number of point defects introduced into the GB for a number of symmetric tilt GBs. In all cases the average sliding-friction force at fixed shear strain rate depends on the number of point defects introduced into the GB, and in many cases introduction of these defects reduces the average sliding-friction force by roughly an order of magnitude. We have also observed that as the number of interstitials in the GB is varied, the direction of the coupled GB motion sometimes reverses, causing the GB to migrate in the opposite direction under the same applied shear stress. This could be important in the microstructural evolution of polycrystalline W under the harsh radiation environment in a fusion reactor, in which high internal stresses are present and frequent collision cascades generate interstitials and vacancies.

  5. Homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, A.; Ziad, M.; Sharif, M.

    1998-08-01

    In this note we consider the homotheties of cylindrically symmetric static spacetimes. We find that we can provide a complete list of all metrics that admit non-trivial homothetic motions and are cylindrically symmetric static. (author)

  6. On convergence completeness in symmetric spaces | Moshokoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    convergence complete symmetric space. As applications of convergence completeness, we present some fixed point results for self-maps defined on a symmetric space. Keywords: completeness; convergence completeness; fixed points; metric ...

  7. [Symmetrical lividity of the fingers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsard, E; Kossard, S

    1988-07-01

    Symmetric lividity of the soles of the feet was first reported in two children in 1925 by Pernet. The characteristic manifestation of this dermatosis consisted in hyperkeratosis and hyperhidrosis with livid discoloration of the pressure areas of the soles. Later the same name was applied to a similar dermatosis in which the hyperkeratotic and hyperhidrotic patches of skin on the soles had a whitish grey discoloration and the livid color, if present at all, was seen only over the marginal areas not affected by the keratosis. Similar livid keratoses affecting the palmar sides of the fingers have been seen only occasionally. The 17-year-old girl presented in this paper had a 11-year history of emotional hyperhidrosis and is a rare illustration of symmetrical lividity in its original form, localized to the fingers only.

  8. Parity-Time Symmetric Photonics

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Han

    2018-01-17

    The establishment of non-Hermitian quantum mechanics (such as parity-time (PT) symmetry) stimulates a paradigmatic shift for studying symmetries of complex potentials. Owing to the convenient manipulation of optical gain and loss in analogy to the complex quantum potentials, photonics provides an ideal platform for visualization of many conceptually striking predictions from the non-Hermitian quantum theory. A rapidly developing field has emerged, namely, PT symmetric photonics, demonstrating intriguing optical phenomena including eigenstate coalescence and spontaneous PT symmetry breaking. The advance of quantum physics, as the feedback, provides photonics with brand-new paradigms to explore the entire complex permittivity plane for novel optical functionalities. Here, we review recent exciting breakthroughs in PT symmetric photonics while systematically presenting their underlying principles guided by non-Hermitian symmetries. The potential device applications for optical communication and computing, bio-chemical sensing, and healthcare are also discussed.

  9. Bilateral Symmetrical Parietal Extradural Hematoma

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of bilateral extradural hematomas (EDH) is an uncommon consequence of craniocerebral trauma, and acute symmetrical bilateral epidural hematomas are extremely rare. We discuss the technique adopted by us for the management of this rare entity. A 55-year-old patient presented with history of fall of branch of tree on her head. She had loss of consciousness since then and had multiple episodes of vomiting. Examination of the scalp was suggestive of diffuse subgaleal hematoma. Her ...

  10. Symmetric two-coordinate photodiode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrovolskiy Yu. G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The two-coordinate photodiode is developed and explored on the longitudinal photoeffect, which allows to get the coordinate descriptions symmetric on the steepness and longitudinal resistance great exactness. It was shown, that the best type of the coordinate description is observed in the case of scanning by the optical probe on the central part of the photosensitive element. The ways of improvement of steepness and linear of its coordinate description were analyzed.

  11. Maximally Symmetric Composite Higgs Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csáki, Csaba; Ma, Teng; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-29

    Maximal symmetry is a novel tool for composite pseudo Goldstone boson Higgs models: it is a remnant of an enhanced global symmetry of the composite fermion sector involving a twisting with the Higgs field. Maximal symmetry has far-reaching consequences: it ensures that the Higgs potential is finite and fully calculable, and also minimizes the tuning. We present a detailed analysis of the maximally symmetric SO(5)/SO(4) model and comment on its observational consequences.

  12. Development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... This paper reports the study on development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 nm radiation, obtained from the second harmonic generation (SHG) of copper vapour laser (CVL). The transmission and reflection spectra of the tilted fibre Bragg gratings (TFBG) were studied for the tilt ...

  13. Measuring the elastic strain of individual grains in polycrystalline materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    AllB, which fits centre-of-mass grain positions, orientations and strain tensors from the experimental far-field 3DXRD data, was developed. The program builds on peaksearch, ImageD11 and GrainSpotter and will eventually be implemented in the Fable GUI. By the use of simulated data the presentation will focus...... a careful calibration of the global parameters relating to the experiment (sample-to-detector distance, tilts of detector and sample and beam centre on detector) must be performed. For this purpose the option of fitting the global parameters simultaneously for any number of indexed grains is included in Fit...

  14. Design and Development of Tilting Rotary Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varun, V.; Tejesh, P.; Prashanth, B. N.

    2018-02-01

    Casting is the best and effective technique used for manufacturing products. The important accessory for casting is furnace. Furnace is used to melt the metal. A perfect furnace is one that reduces the wastage of material, reduces the cost of manufacturing and there by reduces the cost of production. Of all the present day furnaces there may be wastage of material, and the chances of increasing the time of manufacturing as the is continuous need of tilting of the furnace for every mould and then changing the moulds. Considering these aspects, a simple and least expensive tilting rotary furnace is designed and developed. The Tilting and Rotary Furnace consists of mainly melting chamber and the base. The metal enters the melting chamber through the input door that is provided on the top of the melting chamber. Inside the melting chamber there is a graphite furnace. The metal is melted in the graphite crucible. An insulation of ceramic fibre cloth is provided inside the furnace. The metal is melted using Propane gas. The propane gas is easily available and economic. The gas is burned using a pilot burner. The pilot burner is more efficient that other burners. The pilot burner is lit with a push button igniter. The pilot burner is located at the bottom of the combustion chamber. This enables the uniform heating of the metal inside the crucible. The temperature inside the melting chamber is noted using a temperature sensor. The gas input is cut-off if the temperature is exceeding a specific temperature. After the melting of the metal is done the furnace is tilted and after the mould is filled it is rotated. The external gears are used to controlling the tilting. The results of studies carried out for the design & development of low cost, simple furnace that can be mounted anywhere on the shop floor and this can be very much useful for the education purposes and small scale manufacturing. The furnace can be rotated in 360 degrees and can help in reducing the time taken

  15. Growth of large size lithium niobate single crystals of high quality by tilting-mirror-type floating zone method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarker, Abdur Razzaque, E-mail: razzaque_ru2000@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Rajshahi (Bangladesh)

    2016-05-15

    Large size high quality LiNbO{sub 3} single crystals were grown successfully by tilting-mirror-type floating zone (TMFZ) technique. The grown crystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, etch pits density measurement, Impedance analysis, Vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and UV-Visible spectrometry. The effect of mirror tilting during growth on the structural, electrical, optical properties and defect density of the LiNbO{sub 3} crystals were investigated. It was found that the defect density in the crystals reduced for tilting the mirror in the TMFZ method. The chemical analysis revealed that the grown crystals were of high quality with uniform composition. The single crystals grown by TMFZ method contains no low-angle grain boundaries, indicating that they can be used for high efficiency optoelectronic devices. (author)

  16. Grain boundaries in Ni3Al. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.; Sass, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the dislocation structure of small angle tilt and twist boundaries in ordered Ni 3 Al, with and without boron, investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Dislocation with Burgers vectors that correspond to anti-phase boundary (APB)-coupled superpartials were found in small angle twist boundaries in both boron-free and boron-doped Ni 3 Al, and a small angle tilt boundary in boron-doped Ni 3 Al. The boundary structures are in agreement with theoretical models proposed by Marcinkowski and co-workers. The APB energy determined from the dissociation of the grain boundary dislocations was lower than values reported for isolated APBs in Ni 3 Al. For small angle twist boundaries the presence of boron reduced the APB energy at the interface until it approached zero. This is consistent with the structure of these boundaries containing small regions of increased compositional disorder in the first atomic plane next to the interface

  17. Determinants of Motion Sickness in Tilting Trains: Coriolis/Cross-Coupling Stimuli and Tilt Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, Giovanni; Durmaz, Meek Angela; Ferrari, Kim; Küffer, Alexander; Lambert, Charlotte; Straumann, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Faster trains require tilting of the cars to counterbalance the centrifugal forces during curves. Motion sensitive passengers, however, complain of discomfort and overt motion sickness. A recent study comparing different control systems in a tilting train, suggested that the delay of car tilts relative to the curve of the track contributes to motion sickness. Other aspects of the motion stimuli, like the lateral accelerations and the car jitters, differed between the tested conditions and prevented a final conclusion on the role of tilt delay. Nineteen subjects were tested on a motorized 3D turntable that simulated the roll tilts during yaw rotations experienced on a tilting train, isolating them from other motion components. Each session was composed of two consecutive series of 12 ideal curves that were defined on the bases of recordings during an actual train ride. The simulated car tilts started either at the beginning of the curve acceleration phase (no-delay condition) or with 3 s of delay (delay condition). Motion sickness was self-assessed by each subject at the end of each series using an analog motion sickness scale. All subjects were tested in both conditions. Significant increases of motion sickness occurred after the first sequence of 12 curves in the delay condition, but not in the no-delay condition. This increase correlated with the sensitivity of motion sickness, which was self-assessed by each subject before the experiment. The second sequence of curve did not lead to a significant further increase of motion sickness in any condition. Our results demonstrate that, even if the speed and amplitude are as low as those experienced on tilting trains, a series of roll tilts with a delay relative to the horizontal rotations, isolated from other motion stimuli occurring during a travel, generate Coriolis/cross-coupling stimulations sufficient to rapidly induce motion sickness in sensitive individuals. The strength and the rapid onset of the motion

  18. Determinants of Motion Sickness in Tilting Trains: Coriolis/Cross-Coupling Stimuli and Tilt Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bertolini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Faster trains require tilting of the cars to counterbalance the centrifugal forces during curves. Motion sensitive passengers, however, complain of discomfort and overt motion sickness. A recent study comparing different control systems in a tilting train, suggested that the delay of car tilts relative to the curve of the track contributes to motion sickness. Other aspects of the motion stimuli, like the lateral accelerations and the car jitters, differed between the tested conditions and prevented a final conclusion on the role of tilt delay. Nineteen subjects were tested on a motorized 3D turntable that simulated the roll tilts during yaw rotations experienced on a tilting train, isolating them from other motion components. Each session was composed of two consecutive series of 12 ideal curves that were defined on the bases of recordings during an actual train ride. The simulated car tilts started either at the beginning of the curve acceleration phase (no-delay condition or with 3 s of delay (delay condition. Motion sickness was self-assessed by each subject at the end of each series using an analog motion sickness scale. All subjects were tested in both conditions. Significant increases of motion sickness occurred after the first sequence of 12 curves in the delay condition, but not in the no-delay condition. This increase correlated with the sensitivity of motion sickness, which was self-assessed by each subject before the experiment. The second sequence of curve did not lead to a significant further increase of motion sickness in any condition. Our results demonstrate that, even if the speed and amplitude are as low as those experienced on tilting trains, a series of roll tilts with a delay relative to the horizontal rotations, isolated from other motion stimuli occurring during a travel, generate Coriolis/cross-coupling stimulations sufficient to rapidly induce motion sickness in sensitive individuals. The strength and the rapid onset

  19. Listening talkers produce great spectral tilt contrasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich; Heegård, Jan; Henrichsen, Peter Juel

    It is well known that the envelope of the long-term average speech spectrum flattens with vocal effort. A recent study [1] showed that content words had a flatter spectral envelope than content words at the same overall level for a specific Danish speech material. The present paper investigates...... of colored geometrical shapes taken from DanPASS [2]. The spectral tilt was gauged by calculating the band-level difference in dB between two frequency bands with pass-bands 150 to 803 Hz and 803 to 1358 Hz respectively in 5 ms intervals. This was done separately for intervals containing content words...... and function words and grouped by talker. The spectral tilt difference was then calculated as the average band-level difference for function words minus the average band-level difference for content words. This calculation was grouped per talker. For the monologues these differences ranged between 5 and 8 d...

  20. A tilted transversely isotropic slowness surface approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2012-05-09

    The relation between vertical and horizontal slownesses, better known as the dispersion relation, for transversely isotropic media with a tilted symmetry axis (TTI) requires solving a quartic polynomial equation, which does not admit a practical explicit solution to be used, for example, in downward continuation. Using a combination of the perturbation theory with respect to the anelliptic parameter and Shanks transform to improve the accuracy of the expansion, we develop an explicit formula for the vertical slowness that is highly accurate for all practical purposes. It also reveals some insights into the anisotropy parameter dependency of the dispersion relation including the low impact that the anelliptic parameter has on the vertical placement of reflectors for a small tilt in the symmetry angle. © 2012 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  1. Inverse solutions for tilting orthogonal double prisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anhu; Ding, Ye; Bian, Yongming; Liu, Liren

    2014-06-10

    An analytical reverse solution and actual examples are given to show how to direct a laser beam from a pair of orthogonal prisms to given targets in free space. Considering the influences of double-prism structural parameters, a lookup table method to seek the numerical reverse solution of each prism's tilting angle is also proposed for steering the double-prism orientation to track a target position located in the near field. Some case studies, as well as a specified elliptical target trajectory scanned by the cam-based driving double prisms, exhibit the significant application values of the theoretical derivation. The analytic reverse and numerical solutions can be generalized to investigate the synthesis of scanning patterns and the controlling strategy of double-prism tilting motion, the potentials of which can be explored to perform the orientation and position tracking functions in applications of precision engineering fields.

  2. GAS MOVEMENT IN ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of gas movement and heat and mass transfer processes in the rotary tilting furnace (RTF at the heat treatment of disperse materials. The study was performed through computer modeling using software packages ANSYS CFX and Solid Works Flow Simulation. The results were used to design RTF with different capacity and application and helped to improve their technical and economic characteristics.

  3. Temperature characteristics of tilted wave lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, Mikhail V.; Gordeev, Nikita Yu.; Shernyakov, Yuri M.; Payusov, Alexey S.; Kalyuzhnyy, Nikolay A.; Mintairov, Sergey A.; Kulagina, Marina M.; Zhukov, Alexey E.; Shchukin, Vitaly A.; Ledentsov, Nikolai N.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the temperature characteristics of edge-emitting tilted wave lasers (TWL) composed of a thin active waveguide (0.7 μm) optically coupled to a thick passive waveguide (26 μm). The active region is based on four 1040-nm InGaAs/GaAs quantum wells. The 2-mm-long and 50-μm-wide broad area lasers show characteristic temperature of 115 K and lasing up to 120°C in the continuous-wave mode. The maximal pulsed output power as high as 40 W was achieved being limited by the available current source. Vertical far-fields of the TWLs consist of two tilted narrow lobs (2.4 deg full width at half maximum each), which contain >70% of the total output power. The tilt angle of the lobes slightly increases with the temperature (by 1 deg/40°C) due to the transverse mode hopping caused by the temperature-induced changes of the waveguide refractive indices.

  4. A COMMON SOURCE OF ACCRETION DISK TILT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.; Martin, E. L.

    2010-01-01

    Many different system types retrogradely precess, and retrograde precession could be from a tidal torque by the secondary on a misaligned accretion disk. However, a source that causes and maintains disk tilt is unknown. In this work, we show that accretion disks can tilt due to a force called lift. Lift results from differing gas stream supersonic speeds over and under an accretion disk. Because lift acts at the disk's center of pressure, a torque is applied around a rotation axis passing through the disk's center of mass. The disk responds to lift by pitching around the disk's line of nodes. If the gas stream flow ebbs, then lift also ebbs and the disk attempts to return to its original orientation. To first approximation, lift does not depend on magnetic fields or radiation sources but does depend on the mass and the surface area of the disk. Also, for disk tilt to be initiated, a minimum mass transfer rate must be exceeded. For example, a 10 -11 M sun disk around a 0.8 M sun compact central object requires a mass transfer rate greater than ∼ 8 x 10 -11 M sun yr -1 , a value well below the known mass transfer rates in cataclysmic variable dwarf novae systems that retrogradely precess and exhibit negative superhumps in their light curves and a value well below mass transfer rates in protostellar-forming systems.

  5. Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Coelho M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.

  6. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    It is stated that the framework of baryon symmetric big bang (BSBB) cosmology offers our greatest potential for deducting the evolution of the Universe because its physical laws and processes have the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions about initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the Universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed. BSBB cosmology also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic γ-ray background radiation. (author)

  7. Thermal annealing of tilted fiber Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vila, Á.; Rodríguez-Cobo, L.; Mégret, P.; Caucheteur, C.; López-Higuera, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    We report a practical study of the thermal decay of cladding mode resonances in tilted fiber Bragg gratings, establishing an analogy with the "power law" evolution previously observed on uniform gratings. We examine how this process contributes to a great thermal stability, even improving it by means of a second cycle slightly increasing the annealing temperature. In addition, we show an improvement of the grating spectrum after annealing, with respect to the one just after inscription, which suggests the application of this method to be employed to improve saturation issues during the photo-inscription process.

  8. Probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Bergou, J.; Delgado, A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the probabilistic cloning of three symmetric states. These states are defined by a single complex quantity, the inner product among them. We show that three different probabilistic cloning machines are necessary to optimally clone all possible families of three symmetric states. We also show that the optimal cloning probability of generating M copies out of one original can be cast as the quotient between the success probability of unambiguously discriminating one and M copies of symmetric states.

  9. An efficient eikonal solver for tilted transversely isotropic and tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2014-01-01

    Computing first-arrival traveltimes in the presence of anisotropy is important for high-end near surface modeling, microseismic source localization, and fractured reservoir characterization. Anisotropy deviating from elliptical anisotropy introduces higher-order nonlinearity into the eikonal equation, which makes solving the equation a challenging task. We address this challenge by iteratively solving a sequence of simpler tilted elliptically anisotropic eikonal equations. At each iteration, the source function is updated to capture the effects due to the higher order nonlinear terms in the anisotropy. We use Aitken extrapolation to speed up the convergence rate of the iterative algorithm. The result is an efficient algorithm for firstarrival traveltime computations in tilted anisotropic media. We demonstrate the proposed method for the tilted transversely isotropic media and the tilted orthorhombic media. Numerical tests show that the proposed method is feasible and produces results that are comparable to wavefield extrapolation, even for strongly anisotropic and complex structures. Therefore, for the cases where one or two-point ray tracing fails, our method may be a potential substitute for computing traveltimes.

  10. Nonlinear PT-symmetric plaquettes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kai; Kevrekidis, P G; Malomed, Boris A; Günther, Uwe

    2012-01-01

    We introduce four basic two-dimensional (2D) plaquette configurations with onsite cubic nonlinearities, which may be used as building blocks for 2D PT-symmetric lattices. For each configuration, we develop a dynamical model and examine its PTsymmetry. The corresponding nonlinear modes are analyzed starting from the Hamiltonian limit, with zero value of the gain–loss coefficient, γ. Once the relevant waveforms have been identified (chiefly, in an analytical form), their stability is examined by means of linearization in the vicinity of stationary points. This reveals diverse and, occasionally, fairly complex bifurcations. The evolution of unstable modes is explored by means of direct simulations. In particular, stable localized modes are found in these systems, although the majority of identified solutions are unstable. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’. (paper)

  11. Classification of symmetric toroidal orbifolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Maximilian; Ratz, Michael; Torrado, Jesus [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    We provide a complete classification of six-dimensional symmetric toroidal orbifolds which yield N{>=}1 supersymmetry in 4D for the heterotic string. Our strategy is based on a classification of crystallographic space groups in six dimensions. We find in total 520 inequivalent toroidal orbifolds, 162 of them with Abelian point groups such as Z{sub 3}, Z{sub 4}, Z{sub 6}-I etc. and 358 with non-Abelian point groups such as S{sub 3}, D{sub 4}, A{sub 4} etc. We also briefly explore the properties of some orbifolds with Abelian point groups and N=1, i.e. specify the Hodge numbers and comment on the possible mechanisms (local or non-local) of gauge symmetry breaking.

  12. Spherically symmetric elasticity in relativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carot, J [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Cra Valldemossa pk 7.5, E-07122 Palma (Spain); Brito, I; Vaz, E G L R, E-mail: jcarot@uib.ca, E-mail: ireneb@mct.uminho.p, E-mail: evaz@mct.uminho.p

    2010-05-01

    The relativistic theory of elasticity is reviewed within the spherically symmetric context with a view towards the modelling of star interiors possessing elastic properties such as the ones expected in neutron stars. Emphasis is placed on generality in the main sections of the paper, and the results are then applied to specific examples. Along the way, a few general results for spacetimes admitting isometries are deduced, and their consequences are fully exploited in the case of spherical symmetry relating them next to the the case in which the material content of the spacetime is some elastic material. This paper extends and generalizes the pioneering work by Magli and Kijowski [1], Magli [2] and [3], and complements, in a sense, that by Karlovini and Samuelsson in their interesting series of papers [4], [5] and [6].

  13. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    OpenAIRE

    Luo Jun; Wang Zhiqian; Shen Chengwu; Wen Zhuoman; Liu Shaojin; Cai Sheng; Li Jianrong

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendic...

  14. Effect of tilting on oxygenation in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoresen, M; Cowan, F; Whitelaw, A

    1988-01-01

    Transcutaneous (tc) PO2 in newborn infants increased on head up tilting (median increase 0.5 kPa at term, 1.0 kPa preterm). Head down tilting was associated with an equivalent fall in tcPO2. There was no change in tcPCO2. Tilting of infants mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome or surgery produced no consistent change in PO2. PMID:3128187

  15. Numerical modelling of the tilt casting processes of titanium alumindes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This research has investigated the modelling and optimisation of the tilt casting process of Titanium Aluminides (TiAl). This study is carried out in parallel with the experimental research undertaken in IRC at the University of Birmingham. They propose to use tilt casting inside a vacuum chamber and attempt to combine this tilt casting process with Induction Skull Melting (ISM). A totally novel process is developing for investment casting, which is suitable for casting gamma TiAl.\\ud \\ud As ...

  16. INVESTIGATIONS ON OPERATION OF ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace (RTF is a new type of fuel furnaces, that provide the most efficient heating and recycling of polydisperse materials. The paper describes results of the investigations on thermal processes in the RTF, movement of materials and non-isothermal gas flow during kiln rotary process. The investigations have been carried out while using physical and computer simulations and under actual operating conditions applying the pilot plant. Results of the research have served as a basis for development of recommendations on the RTF calculations and designing and they have been also used for constructional design of a rotary tilting furnace for heating and melting of cast iron chips, reduction smelting of steel mill scale, melting of aluminum scrap, melting of lead from battery scrap. These furnaces have a high thermal efficiency (~50 %, technological flexibility, high productivity and profitability. Proven technical solutions for recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals develop the use of RTF in the foundry and metallurgical industry as the main technological unit for creation of cost-effective small-tonnage recycling of metal waste generated at the plants. The research results open prospects for organization of its own production for high-quality charging material in Belarus in lieu of imported primary metal. The proposed technology makes it possible to solve environmental challenge pertaining to liquidation of multi-tonnage heaps of metal-containing wastes.

  17. Fast and scalable prediction of local energy at grain boundaries: machine-learning based modeling of first-principles calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Tomoyuki; Karasuyama, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Shiihara, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    2017-10-01

    We propose a new scheme based on machine learning for the efficient screening in grain-boundary (GB) engineering. A set of results obtained from first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) for a small number of GB systems is used as a training data set. In our scheme, by partitioning the total energy into atomic energies using a local-energy analysis scheme, we can increase the training data set significantly. We use atomic radial distribution functions and additional structural features as atom descriptors to predict atomic energies and GB energies simultaneously using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, which is a recent standard regression technique in statistical machine learning. In the test study with fcc-Al [110] symmetric tilt GBs, we could achieve enough predictive accuracy to understand energy changes at and near GBs at a glance, even if we collected training data from only 10 GB systems. The present scheme can emulate time-consuming DFT calculations for large GB systems with negligible computational costs, and thus enable the fast screening of possible alternative GB systems.

  18. Mapping of moveout in tilted transversely isotropic media

    KAUST Repository

    Stovas, A.

    2013-09-09

    The computation of traveltimes in a transverse isotropic medium with a tilted symmetry axis tilted transversely isotropic is very important both for modelling and inversion. We develop a simple analytical procedure to map the traveltime function from a transverse isotropic medium with a vertical symmetry axis (vertical transversely isotropic) to a tilted transversely isotropic medium by applying point-by-point mapping of the traveltime function. This approach can be used for kinematic modelling and inversion in layered tilted transversely isotropic media. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  19. Transient cardio-respiratory responses to visually induced tilt illusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Ramsdell, C. D.; Mullen, T. J.; Oman, C. M.; Harm, D. L.; Paloski, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    Although the orthostatic cardio-respiratory response is primarily mediated by the baroreflex, studies have shown that vestibular cues also contribute in both humans and animals. We have demonstrated a visually mediated response to illusory tilt in some human subjects. Blood pressure, heart and respiration rate, and lung volume were monitored in 16 supine human subjects during two types of visual stimulation, and compared with responses to real passive whole body tilt from supine to head 80 degrees upright. Visual tilt stimuli consisted of either a static scene from an overhead mirror or constant velocity scene motion along different body axes generated by an ultra-wide dome projection system. Visual vertical cues were initially aligned with the longitudinal body axis. Subjective tilt and self-motion were reported verbally. Although significant changes in cardio-respiratory parameters to illusory tilts could not be demonstrated for the entire group, several subjects showed significant transient decreases in mean blood pressure resembling their initial response to passive head-up tilt. Changes in pulse pressure and a slight elevation in heart rate were noted. These transient responses are consistent with the hypothesis that visual-vestibular input contributes to the initial cardiovascular adjustment to a change in posture in humans. On average the static scene elicited perceived tilt without rotation. Dome scene pitch and yaw elicited perceived tilt and rotation, and dome roll motion elicited perceived rotation without tilt. A significant correlation between the magnitude of physiological and subjective reports could not be demonstrated.

  20. Existential-R-Complete Decision Problems about Symmetric Nash Equilibria in Symmetric Multi-Player Games

    OpenAIRE

    Bilò, Vittorio; Mavronicolas, Marios

    2017-01-01

    We study the complexity of decision problems about symmetric Nash equilibria for symmetric multi-player games. These decision problems concern the existence of a symmetric Nash equilibrium with certain natural properties. We show that a handful of such decision problems are Existential-R-complete; that is, they are exactly as hard as deciding the Existential Theory of the Reals.

  1. Specificity of head-up tilt testing in adolescents: effect of various degrees of tilt challenge in normal control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, D A; Zlotocha, J; Henke, L; Dhala, A

    1997-10-01

    This study sought to determine the specificity of commonly used tilt protocols in children. Tilt table testing is commonly utilized in the evaluation of children and adolescents with syncope despite a lack of uniformity in tilt protocols and a lack of studies of specificity in normal control subjects. Sixty-nine normal control volunteers (12 to 18 years old, 38 male, 31 female) with no previous history of syncope, presyncope or arrhythmia underwent tilting to 80 degrees, 70 degrees or 60 degrees for a maximum of 30 min on a motorized table with a footboard support. Autonomic maneuvers, including deep breathing, carotid massage, Valsalva maneuver and diving reflex, were performed before tilt testing to determine whether the response to these maneuvers could identify subjects prone to fainting during tilt testing. Symptoms of presyncope and frank syncope were elicited in 24 of 69 subjects (13 male, 11 female): 6 (60%) of 10 were tilted at 80 degrees, 9 (29%) of 31 at 70 degrees and 9 (32%) of 28 at 60 degrees. Tilt testing at 80 degrees was terminated after the tenth subject by the institutional review board. The mean time to a positive test response was 10.5 min at 80 degrees, 14.2 min at 70 degrees and 13.2 min at 60 degrees. In the 80 degrees tilt, 4 of 10 subjects had a positive response within 10 minutes, whereas only 3 of 31 and 2 of 28 had a positive response within testing were similar with respect to age; gender; PR, QRS and QT intervals; and baseline heart rate and blood pressure. Likewise, responses to other autonomic function tests performed were similar in tilt-positive and tilt-negative patients. The power for detecting a significant difference between patients tilted at 80 degrees versus 60 degrees and 70 degrees was 0.45 and for detecting differences in autonomic tone between tilt-positive (n = 24) and tilt-negative (n = 45) subjects was 0.8. Children appear to be more susceptible to orthostatic stress than adults. Therefore, tilt protocols commonly

  2. A patient treated with tilt training and midodrine after 68 seconds asystole during head-up tilt table testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oz, Fahrettin; Cizgici, Yaşar; Bilge, A Kaya

    2011-08-01

    Neurocardiogenic syncope is a relatively common cause of syncope and is diagnosed by head-up tilt testing. A 21-year-old man was examined for frequent syncope episodes which occurred after episodes of blood drawing and standing in queue. Syncope developed in tilt table testing. After about 68 seconds, sinus rhythm returned. Recent reports have shown that tilt training is a very effective therapy for recurrent neurocardiogenic syncope. In our case, the patient was treated with midodrine 2.5 mg once a day and a tilt training programme. Therapy resulted in improvement and during a follow-up of six months, no major events occurred.

  3. CANONICAL EXTENSIONS OF SYMMETRIC LINEAR RELATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; Davidson, KR; Gaspar, D; Stratila, S; Timotin, D; Vasilescu, FH

    2006-01-01

    The concept of canonical extension of Hermitian operators has been recently introduced by A. Kuzhel. This paper deals with a generalization of this notion to the case of symmetric linear relations. Namely, canonical regular extensions of symmetric linear relations in Hilbert spaces are studied. The

  4. On completeness in symmetric spaces | Moshokoa | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the literature completeness for symmetric spaces is done through the classical Cauchy criterion for metric spaces. However, unlike the situation in metric spaces a convergent sequence in a symmetric space is not necessarily a Cauchy sequence. In the paper we introduce a notion of convergence completeness for ...

  5. Generalized geometry and non-symmetric gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Jurco, Branislav; Khoo, Fech Scen; Schupp, Peter; Vysoky, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Generalized geometry provides the framework for a systematic approach to non-symmetric metric gravity theory and naturally leads to an Einstein-Kalb-Ramond gravity theory with totally anti-symmetric contortion. The approach is related to the study of the low-energy effective closed string gravity actions.

  6. Nonlocal Fordy - Kulish Equations on Symmetric Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gurses, Metin

    2017-01-01

    We present nonlocal integrable reductions of the Fordy-Kulish system of nonlinear Schrodinger equations and the Fordy system of derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equations on Hermitian symmetric spaces. Examples are given on the symmetric space $\\frac{SU(4)}{SU(2) \\times SU(2)}$.

  7. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust collapse in higher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider a collapsing spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust cloud in higher dimensional space-time. ... The existence of strong curvature naked singularities in gravitational collapse of spherically symmetric space-times ... where an over dot denotes partial derivative with respect to t. The functions F(r) and f(r).

  8. Using collisions and resonances to tilting Uranus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogoszinski, Zeeve; Hamilton, Douglas

    2018-01-01

    Uranus’ large obliquity (98°) is widely thought to have occurred from a polar strike with an Earth sized object. Morbidelli et al. (2012) argue that two or more collisions are required in order to explain the prograde motion of Uranus’ satellites. These impactors could have been less massive by about a factor of ten, but multiple polar strikes are still improbable as even larger mass impactors would be needed for more equatorial collisions. Here we explore an alternative non-collisional model inspired by the explanation to Saturn’s significant tilt (27°). Ward and Hamilton (2004) & Hamilton and Ward (2004) argue that a secular resonance currently between Saturn’s spin axis and Neptune’s orbital pole is responsible for Saturn’s large obliquity. Unfortunately, Uranus’ axial precession frequency today is too long to match any of the current planets’ fundamental frequencies. Boué and Laskar (2010) explain that Uranus may have harbored an improbably large moon in the past which could have sped up the planet’s axial precession frequency enough to resonate with the regression of its own orbital pole. We explore another scenario which requires only the interactions between the giant planets.Thommes et al. (1999, 2002, 2003) argue that at least the cores of Uranus and Neptune were formed in between Jupiter and Saturn, as the density of the protoplanetary disk was greater there. If Neptune was scattered outward before Uranus, then a secular spin-orbit resonance between the two planets is possible. However, driving Uranus’ obliquity to near 90° with a resonance capture requires a timescale on the order of 100 Myr. If Neptune migrated out quicker or its orbital inclination was initially larger, then we find that the resulting resonance kick can tilt Uranus more than 40° in a reasonable timespan. This could replace one of the impactors required in the collisional scenario described by Morbidelli et al. (2012), but in most situations the effect of such a

  9. Oral rehabilitation with tilted dental implants: A metaanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Candel-Marti, Eugenia; Peñarrocha-Diago, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the course of patients treated with tilted implants versus those treated conventionally with axial implants, analyzing the success rate and marginal bone loss. Material and Methods: A PubMed search was made using the key words “tilted implants”, “angled implants”, “angulated implants”, “inclined implants” and “maxillary atrophy.” A review was made of the articles published between 1999-2010. The inclusion criteria were the use of tilted implants, clinical series involving at least 10 patients, and a minimum follow-up of 12 months after prosthetic loading. The exclusion criteria were isolated clinical cases, studies with missing data, and publications in languages other than English or Spanish. The metaanalysis finally included 13 articles: 7 retrospective studies and 6 prospective studies. Results: On analyzing the success rate in the retrospective studies, two reported a higher success rate with tilted implants; one a higher success rate with axial implants; and two reported similar success rates with both implants. On analyzing the success rate in the prospective studies, two reported a higher success rate with tilted implants; two a higher success rate with axial implants; and two reported similar success rates with both implants. On examining marginal bone loss, three studies reported greater bone loss with axial implants and one with tilted implants. Conclusions: There was no evidence of differences in success rate between tilted and axial implants in either the prospective or retrospective studies subjected to review. The marginal bone loss observed with the tilted and axial implants likewise proved very similar. It thus can be deduced that tilted implants exhibit the same evolutive behavior as axial implants. Key words:Axial implants, tilted implants, maxillary atrophy, tilted implants. PMID:22322494

  10. Long time scale simulation of a grain boundary in copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, A.; Henkelman, G.; Schiøtz, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    A general, twisted and tilted, grain boundary in copper has been simulated using the adaptive kinetic Monte Carlo method to study the atomistic structure of the non-crystalline region and the mechanism of annealing events that occur at low temperature. The simulated time interval spanned 67 mu s...... was also observed. In the final low-energy configurations, the thickness of the region separating the crystalline grains corresponds to just one atomic layer, in good agreement with reported experimental observations. The simulated system consists of 1307 atoms and atomic interactions were described using...

  11. Chevron defect at the intersection of grain boundaries with free surfaces in Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radetic, T.; Lancon, F.; Dahmen, U.

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a new defect at the intersection between grain boundaries and surfaces in Au using atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy. At the junction line of 90 deg. tilt grain boundaries of (110)-(001) orientation with the free surface, a small segment of the grain boundary, about 1 nm in length, dissociates into a triangular region with a chevronlike stacking disorder and a distorted hcp structure. The structure and stability of these defects are confirmed by atomistic simulations, and we point out the relationship with the one-dimensional incommensurate structure of the grain boundary

  12. Lens decenter and tilt measurement by interferogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Min-Wei; Wu, Wen-Hong; Huang, Kuo-Cheng

    2009-11-01

    For the recent years, the vigorous development of the electro-optic industry, particularly the digital camera and the cellular phone camera, has placed a larger and larger demand for the optical devices. Among the optical lens, the aspherical optical lens plays the key component because the aspherical lens may provide better imaging quality then the spherical lens does. For the manufacturing reason, the aspherical lens is prone to a decenter or tilt issue with respect to the optical axes of its two surfaces. To measure decenter and tile error specifically would help to obviate the deficient lens, but most of the present measuring method can't provide this function. This paper proposed a new method to specifically measure the decenter and tile of lens by observing the interferogram of each surface. And the corresponding measuring instrument, which contains interferometer and motion stages, was introduced as well.

  13. Substring-Searchable Symmetric Encryption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Melissa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider a setting where a client wants to outsource storage of a large amount of private data and then perform substring search queries on the data – given a data string s and a search string p, find all occurrences of p as a substring of s. First, we formalize an encryption paradigm that we call queryable encryption, which generalizes searchable symmetric encryption (SSE and structured encryption. Then, we construct a queryable encryption scheme for substring queries. Our construction uses suffix trees and achieves asymptotic efficiency comparable to that of unencrypted suffix trees. Encryption of a string of length n takes O(λn time and produces a ciphertext of size O(λn, and querying for a substring of length m that occurs k times takes O(λm+k time and three rounds of communication. Our security definition guarantees correctness of query results and privacy of data and queries against a malicious adversary. Following the line of work started by Curtmola et al. (ACM CCS 2006, in order to construct more efficient schemes we allow the query protocol to leak some limited information that is captured precisely in the definition. We prove security of our substring-searchable encryption scheme against malicious adversaries, where the query protocol leaks limited information about memory access patterns through the suffix tree of the encrypted string.

  14. Baryon symmetric big bang cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1978-01-01

    Both the quantum theory and Einsteins theory of special relativity lead to the supposition that matter and antimatter were produced in equal quantities during the big bang. It is noted that local matter/antimatter asymmetries may be reconciled with universal symmetry by assuming (1) a slight imbalance of matter over antimatter in the early universe, annihilation, and a subsequent remainder of matter; (2) localized regions of excess for one or the other type of matter as an initial condition; and (3) an extremely dense, high temperature state with zero net baryon number; i.e., matter/antimatter symmetry. Attention is given to the third assumption, which is the simplest and the most in keeping with current knowledge of the cosmos, especially as pertains the universality of 3 K background radiation. Mechanisms of galaxy formation are discussed, whereby matter and antimatter might have collided and annihilated each other, or have coexisted (and continue to coexist) at vast distances. It is pointed out that baryon symmetric big bang cosmology could probably be proved if an antinucleus could be detected in cosmic radiation.

  15. Charting the Replica Symmetric Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coja-Oghlan, Amin; Efthymiou, Charilaos; Jaafari, Nor; Kang, Mihyun; Kapetanopoulos, Tobias

    2018-02-01

    Diluted mean-field models are spin systems whose geometry of interactions is induced by a sparse random graph or hypergraph. Such models play an eminent role in the statistical mechanics of disordered systems as well as in combinatorics and computer science. In a path-breaking paper based on the non-rigorous `cavity method', physicists predicted not only the existence of a replica symmetry breaking phase transition in such models but also sketched a detailed picture of the evolution of the Gibbs measure within the replica symmetric phase and its impact on important problems in combinatorics, computer science and physics (Krzakala et al. in Proc Natl Acad Sci 104:10318-10323, 2007). In this paper we rigorise this picture completely for a broad class of models, encompassing the Potts antiferromagnet on the random graph, the k-XORSAT model and the diluted k-spin model for even k. We also prove a conjecture about the detection problem in the stochastic block model that has received considerable attention (Decelle et al. in Phys Rev E 84:066106, 2011).

  16. PERIODIC-ORBITS IN K-SYMMETRICAL DYNAMICAL-SYSTEMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRANDS, H; LAMB, JSW; HOVEIJN, [No Value

    1995-01-01

    A map L is called k-symmetric if its kth iterate L(k) possesses more symmetry than L, for some value of k. In k-symmetric systems, there exists a notion of k-symmetric orbits. This paper deals with k-symmetric periodic orbits. We derive a relation between orbits that are k-symmetric with respect to

  17. Tilted-ring modelling of disk galaxies : Anomalous gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jozsa, G. I. G.; Niemczyk, C.; Klein, U.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    We report our ongoing work on kinematical modelling of HI in disk galaxies. We employ our new software TiRiFiC (Tilted-Ring-Fitting-Code) in order to derive tilted-ring models by fitting artificial HI data cubes to observed ones in an automated process. With this technique we derive very reliable

  18. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... The present study deals with the characterization of subsurface coal fires of East Basuria colliery in. Jharia coal field, India using tilt derivative and downward continuation of magnetic data. Magnetic data processing methods such as diurnal correction, noise removal, reduction to pole, tilt derivative and.

  19. Ion kinetic effects on the tilt mode in FRCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzmeier, J.L.; Seyler, C.E.; Barnes, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    Theory and simulations have shown that field reversed configurations (FRG's) should be unstable magnetohydrodynamically to the tilting mode, yet tilting seldom is seen in the experiments. Profile effects (within MHD) and ion finite larmor radius (FLR) effects have been prosed to explain the observed stability of FRC's. The present work seeks to test both of these effects

  20. Angular momentum projection of tilted axis rotating states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oi, M.; Onishi, N.; Tajima, N. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan); Horibata, T.

    1998-03-01

    We applied an exact angular momentum projection to three dimensional cranked HFB (3d-CHFB) states. Tilted axis rotating states (TAR) and principal axis rotating states (PAR) are compared. It is shown that TAR is more adequate than PAR for description of the back bending phenomena driven by tilted rotation or wobbling motion. (author)

  1. Orientation and alignment in beam tilted-foil spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, H.G.

    1976-01-01

    The production of atomic orientation and alignment, by anisotropic excitation is analyzed. The stokes parameters of the light emitted from tilted-foil excited ions provide measurements of orientation and alignment, and some examples are given. The variations of the stokes parameters with foil tilt angle, excited state, ion velocity and foil material are compared with existing theories

  2. A tilting wind tunnel for fire behavior studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    David R. Weise

    1994-01-01

    The combined effects of wind velocity and slope on wildland fire behavior can be studied in the laboratory using a tilting wind tunnel. The tilting wind tunnel requires a commercially available fan to induce wind and can be positioned to simulate heading and backing fires spreading up and down slope. The tunnel is portable and can be disassembled for transport using a...

  3. Development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... coupling of the guided modes shifts to the long wavelength as the tilt angle is increased. [3]. The central wavelength and the reflectivity of a TFBG are dependent on the angle. Due to the presence of tilt angle, the transmission spectra of TFBGs exposed in air con- sisted of multiple resonance peaks occurred ...

  4. Tilting of trucks: a driver education system and warning system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleuskens, R.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    To reduce the risk of tilting, TNO has developed a tilt warning system for commercial vehicles. This system is able to monitor vehicle weight, lateral acceleration and velocity during normal operation. The system CPU is constantly comparing the measured lateral acceleration to a calculated limit

  5. The symmetric extendibility of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowakowski, Marcin L

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the symmetric extendibility of quantum states have become particularly important in the context of the analysis of one-way quantum measures of entanglement, and the distillability and security of quantum protocols. In this paper we analyze composite systems containing a symmetric extendible part, with particular attention devoted to the one-way security of such systems. Further, we introduce a new one-way entanglement monotone based on the best symmetric approximation of a quantum state and the extendible number of a quantum state. We underpin these results with geometric observations about the structures of multi-party settings which posses substantial symmetric extendible components in their subspaces. The impossibility of reducing the maximal symmetric extendibility by means of the one-way local operations and classical communication method is pointed out on multiple copies. Finally, we state a conjecture linking symmetric extendibility with the one-way distillability and security of all quantum states, analyzing the behavior of a private key in the neighborhood of symmetric extendible states. (paper)

  6. Simulations of dislocation pile-ups at assymetric tilt boundaries in aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valone, Steven [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Jian M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoagland, Richard C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Germann, Timothy C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-21

    Materials deformation processes are increasingly approachable through the both conventional and accelerated molecular dynamics. In one deformation process, dislocation pile-up at a grain boundary, a greater understanding is required as to how dislocations transmit through grain boundaries, causing plastic deformation, or reflect and reconstruct the grain boundary, but with no macroscopic deformation. Here dislocation pile-ups in an alwninum bicrystal with an asymmetric tilt grain boundary are simulated atomistically, introducing effects of dislocation interactions beyond linear elastic ones. The observed responses as functions of the number of explicitly modeled dislocations and the magnitude of the applied stress are discussed. Typical conditions for the simulations consist of thermal relaxation room temperature, five active dislocations inserted within a 6.5-million-atom cell, and an additional fourteen dislocations represented within the atomistic simulation by their elastic strain fields. The dislocations are initially distributed according to linear elastic estimates of their positions in a double-ended pile-up from a chosen far-field stress. The whole cell is allowed to relax according to a procedure to be described. In the ensuing simulations, the system is propagated for some substantial period of time (lOs of ps), followed by small increments of strain. After a number of such increments, we observe all of the anticipated events. Usually several of the closest dislocations are absorbed into the grain boundary, resulting in varying amounts of reconstruction. Reflections from the boundary are common and show a strong dependence on sample thickness. Transmission events are seen on both slip systems in the other grain. The particulars of these events will be described as well.

  7. Fractional Josephson vortices at YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-x}$ grain boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Mints, R. G.; Papiashvili, Ilya

    2001-01-01

    We report numerical simulations of magnetic flux patterns in asymmetric 45$^{\\circ}$ [001]-tilt grain boundaries in YBa$_2$Cu$_3$O$_{7-x}$ superconducting films. The grain boundaries are treated as Josephson junctions with the critical current density $j_c(x)$ alternating along the junctions. We demonstrate the existence of Josephson vortices with fractional flux quanta for both periodic and random $j_c(x)$. A method is proposed to extract fractional vortices from experimental flux patterns.

  8. Linac design algorithm with symmetric segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Harunori; Young, L.M.; Nath, S.; Billen, J.H.; Stovall, J.E.

    1996-01-01

    The cell lengths in linacs of traditional design are typically graded as a function of particle velocity. By making groups of cells and individual cells symmetric in both the CCDTL AND CCL, the cavity design as well as mechanical design and fabrication is simplified without compromising the performance. We have implemented a design algorithm in the PARMILA code in which cells and multi-cavity segments are made symmetric, significantly reducing the number of unique components. Using the symmetric algorithm, a sample linac design was generated and its performance compared with a similar one of conventional design

  9. Small-tilt micromirror-device-based multiwavelength three-dimensional 2X2 fiber optic switch structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riza, Nabeel A.; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun

    2000-02-01

    Small-tilt micromirror-based 2 X 2 fiber optic switch array structures are proposed using fixed mirrors and fiber interconnections. A multiwavelength 2 X 2 fiber optic switch based on this small-tilt micromirror is experimentally demonstrated. The key innovation in this architecture is the use of a specially located fixed mirror to form a symmetric 2 X 2 retrorefractive switching structure. These 2 X 2 fiber optic switch structures can also provide a fault-tolerant design using a macropixel approach. A 2D digital micromirror device (2D-DMD) from Texas Instruments (TI) designed to operate in the visible band is used to represent the small-tilt micromirrors in our experimental demonstration. Multiwavelength switch operation is characterized by changing the operating wavelength of the tunable laser. The measured average optical coherent crosstalk is -22 dB with +/- 0.9 dB fluctuation over 40 nm, limited by the on-off ratio of the 2D-DMD. The measured average optical loss is 14.8 dB at a 1.55-micrometers operating wavelength, limited by the visible wavelength design TI 2D- DMD, three-port optical circulators, fiber adapters, and free-space-to-fiber coupling efficiency.

  10. Microbiota of kefir grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Pogačić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kefir grains represent the unique microbial community consisting of bacteria, yeasts, and sometimes filamentous moulds creating complex symbiotic community. The complexity of their physical and microbial structures is the reason that the kefir grains are still not unequivocally elucidated. Microbiota of kefir grains has been studied by many microbiological and molecular approaches. The development of metagenomics, based on the identification without cultivation, is opening new possibilities for identification of previously nonisolated and non-identified microbial species from the kefir grains. Considering recent studies, there are over 50 microbial species associated with kefir grains. The aim of this review is to summarise the microbiota composition of kefir grains. Moreover, because of technological and microbiological significance of the kefir grains, the paper provides an insight into the microbiological and molecular methods applied to study microbial biodiversity of kefir grains.

  11. Spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust collapse in higher ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We consider a collapsing spherically symmetric inhomogeneous dust cloud in higher dimensional space-time. We show that the central singularity of collapse can be a strong curvature or a weak curvature naked singularity depending on the initial density distribution.

  12. symmetric sextic potential in two dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    symmetric sextic potential in two dimensions. FAKIR CHAND1,∗, S C MISHRA1 and RAM MEHAR SINGH2 ... resonance scattering in atomic, molecular, and nuclear physics and to some chemical reactions ...... D R Nelson and N M Snerb, Phys.

  13. Introduction to left-right symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1993-01-01

    We motivate left-right symmetric models by the possibility of spontaneous parity breaking. Then we describe the multiplets and the Lagrangian of such models. Finally we discuss lower bounds on the right-handed scale. (author)

  14. Symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated, cough and dyspnoea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraldo Estrada, Horacio; Escalante, Hector

    2004-01-01

    It is the case a patient to who is diagnosed symmetrical parahiliar infiltrated; initially she is diagnosed lymphoma Hodgkin, treaty with radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but the X rays of the thorax demonstrated parahiliars and paramediastinals infiltrated

  15. Symmetric nuclear matter with Skyrme interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manisa, K.; Bicer, A.; Atav, U.

    2010-01-01

    The equation of state (EOS) and some properties of symmetric nuclear matter, such as the saturation density, saturation energy and incompressibility, are obtained by using Skyrme's density-dependent effective nucleon-nucleon interaction.

  16. Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astashkin, S. V.

    2014-12-01

    We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  17. Martingale Rosenthal inequalities in symmetric spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashkin, S V [Samara State University, Samara (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-31

    We establish inequalities similar to the classical Rosenthal inequalities for sequences of martingale differences in general symmetric spaces; a central role is played here by the predictable quadratic characteristic of a martingale. Bibliography: 26 titles.

  18. Functional Contractive Maps in Triangular Symmetric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Turinici

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Some fixed point results are given for a class of functional contractions acting on (reflexive triangular symmetric spaces. Technical connections with the corresponding theories over (standard metric and partial metric spaces are also being established.

  19. Motion perception during tilt and translation after space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Gilles; Wood, Scott J.

    2013-11-01

    Preliminary results of an ongoing study examining the effects of space flight on astronauts' motion perception induced by independent tilt and translation motions are presented. This experiment used a sled and a variable radius centrifuge that translated the subjects forward-backward or laterally, and simultaneously tilted them in pitch or roll, respectively. Tests were performed on the ground prior to and immediately after landing. The astronauts were asked to report about their perceived motion in response to different combinations of body tilt and translation in darkness. Their ability to manually control their own orientation was also evaluated using a joystick with which they nulled out the perceived tilt while the sled and centrifuge were in motion. Preliminary results confirm that the magnitude of perceived tilt increased during static tilt in roll after space flight. A deterioration in the crewmember to control tilt using non-visual inertial cues was also observed post-flight. However, the use of a tactile prosthesis indicating the direction of down on the subject's trunk improved manual control performance both before and after space flight.

  20. A Horizontal Tilt Correction Method for Ship License Numbers Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Sanyuan; Hong, Zhenjie; Ye, Xiuzi

    2018-02-01

    An automatic ship license numbers (SLNs) recognition system plays a significant role in intelligent waterway transportation systems since it can be used to identify ships by recognizing the characters in SLNs. Tilt occurs frequently in many SLNs because the monitors and the ships usually have great vertical or horizontal angles, which decreases the accuracy and robustness of a SLNs recognition system significantly. In this paper, we present a horizontal tilt correction method for SLNs. For an input tilt SLN image, the proposed method accomplishes the correction task through three main steps. First, a MSER-based characters’ center-points computation algorithm is designed to compute the accurate center-points of the characters contained in the input SLN image. Second, a L 1- L 2 distance-based straight line is fitted to the computed center-points using M-estimator algorithm. The tilt angle is estimated at this stage. Finally, based on the computed tilt angle, an affine transformation rotation is conducted to rotate and to correct the input SLN horizontally. At last, the proposed method is tested on 200 tilt SLN images, the proposed method is proved to be effective with a tilt correction rate of 80.5%.

  1. The Naimark dilated PT-symmetric brachistochrone

    OpenAIRE

    Guenther, Uwe; Samsonov, Boris F.

    2008-01-01

    The quantum mechanical brachistochrone system with PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is Naimark dilated and reinterpreted as subsystem of a Hermitian system in a higher-dimensional Hilbert space. This opens a way to a direct experimental implementation of the recently hypothesized PT-symmetric ultra-fast brachistochrone regime of [C. M. Bender et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 98}, 040403 (2007)] in an entangled two-spin system.

  2. Naimark-Dilated PT-Symmetric Brachistochrone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, Uwe; Samsonov, Boris F.

    2008-12-01

    The quantum mechanical brachistochrone system with a PT-symmetric Hamiltonian is Naimark-dilated and reinterpreted as a subsystem of a Hermitian system in a higher-dimensional Hilbert space. This opens a way to a direct experimental implementation of the recently hypothesized PT-symmetric ultrafast brachistochrone regime of Bender et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 040403 (2007)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.040403] in an entangled two-spin system.

  3. Symmetric states: Their nonlocality and entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zizhu; Markham, Damian [CNRS LTCI, Département Informatique et Réseaux, Telecom ParisTech, 23 avenue d' Italie, CS 51327, 75214 Paris CEDEX 13 (France)

    2014-12-04

    The nonlocality of permutation symmetric states of qubits is shown via an extension of the Hardy paradox and the extension of the associated inequality. This is achieved by using the Majorana representation, which is also a powerful tool in the study of entanglement properties of symmetric states. Through the Majorana representation, different nonlocal properties can be linked to different entanglement properties of a state, which is useful in determining the usefulness of different states in different quantum information processing tasks.

  4. Photovoltaic Modules: Effect of Tilt Angle on Soiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano, Jose

    2011-12-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems are one of the next generation's renewable energy sources for our world energy demand. PV modules are highly reliable. However, in polluted environments, over time, they will collect grime and dust. There are also limited field data studies about soiling losses on PV modules. The study showed how important it is to investigate the effect of tilt angle on soiling. The study includes two sets of mini-modules. Each set has 9 PV modules tilted at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 23, 30, 33 and 40°. The first set called "Cleaned" was cleaned every other day. The second set called "Soiled" was never cleaned after the first day. The short circuit current, a measure of irradiance, and module temperature was monitored and recorded every two minutes over three months (January-March 2011). The data were analyzed to investigate the effect of tilt angle on daily and monthly soiling, and hence transmitted solar insolation and energy production by PV modules. The study shows that during the period of January through March 2011 there was an average loss due to soiling of approximately 2.02% for 0° tilt angle. Modules at tilt angles 23° and 33° also have some insolation losses but do not come close to the module at 0° tilt angle. Tilt angle 23° has approximately 1.05% monthly insolation loss, and 33° tilt angle has an insolation loss of approximately 0.96%. The soiling effect is present at any tilt angle, but the magnitude is evident: the flatter the solar module is placed the more energy it will lose.

  5. Marketing Farm Grain Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenour, Harlan E.

    This vocational agriculture curriculum on grain marketing contains three parts: teacher guide, student manual, and student workbook. All three are coordinated and cross-referenced. The course is designed to give students of grain marketing a thorough background in the subject and provide practical help in developing grain marketing strategies for…

  6. Pulse Front Tilt and Laser Plasma Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelberger, Daniel; Thévenet, Maxence; Nakamura, Kei; Lehe, Remi; Gonsalves, Anthony; Benedetti, Carlo; Leemans, Wim

    2017-10-01

    Pulse front tilt (PFT) is potentially present in any CPA laser system, but its effects may be overlooked because spatiotemporal pulse characterization is considerably more involved than measuring only spatial or temporal profile. PFT is particularly important for laser plasma accelerators (LPA) because it influences electron beam injection and steering. In this work, experimental results from the BELLA Center will be presented that demonstrate the effect of optical grating misalignment and optical compression, resulting in PFT, on accelerator performance. Theoretical models of laser and electron beam steering will be introduced based on particle-in-cell simulations showing distortion of the plasma wake. Theoretical predictions will be compared with experiments and complimentary simulations, and tolerances on PFT and optical compressor alignment will be developed as a function of LPA performance requirements. This work was supported by the Office of High Energy Physics, Office of Science, US Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231 and the National Science Foundation under Grant PHY-1415596.

  7. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 1: Sonic anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg

    2010-01-01

    An analysis of flow tilt angles from a fetch-limited beech forest site with clearings is presented in the context of vertical advection of carbon dioxide. Flow angles and vertical velocities from two sonic anemometers by different manufacturers were analyzed. Instead of using rotations, where zero...... distortion and vertical alignment, it was only possible to a limited extent to relate sonic anemometer flow tilt angles to upwind forest edges, but the results by the lidar indicated that an internal boundary layer affect flow tilt angles at 21m above the forest. This is in accordance with earlier studies...

  8. Ocular tilt reaction due to a cerebellar hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Kozue

    2014-01-01

    A 78-year-old man with essential hypertension abruptly developed complete ocular tilt reaction (OTR) which consisted of concomitant skew deviation with left hypertropia, extorsion of the right eye and intorsion of the left, and rightward head tilt. Cranial computed tomography demonstrated a localized cerebellar hemorrhage involving the left nodulus. The patient became asymptomatic within two weeks. This is a first reported case of complete OTR due to a cerebellar hemorrhage. Concomitant skew deviation is a common symptom of cerebellar lesions. Moreover, unilateral damage to the utricular pathway due to involvement of the left nodulus might cause rightward conjugate ocular torsion and rightward head tilt.

  9. The effects of lateral head tilt on ocular astigmatic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fesharaki

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Any minimal angle of head tilt may cause erroneous measurement of astigmatic axis and should be avoided during refraction. One cannot rely on the compensatory function of ocular counter-torsion during the refraction.

  10. Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model (TRAM): A New Rotorcraft Research Facility

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Young, Larry A

    1998-01-01

    ...". These two test stands are inclusively called the Tilt Rotor Aeroacoustic Model "TRAM". The baseline proprotors and airframe of the TRAM test stands are nominally 1/4-scale representations of the V-22 Osprey aircraft...

  11. A tilting approach to ranking influence

    KAUST Repository

    Genton, Marc G.

    2014-12-01

    We suggest a new approach, which is applicable for general statistics computed from random samples of univariate or vector-valued or functional data, to assessing the influence that individual data have on the value of a statistic, and to ranking the data in terms of that influence. Our method is based on, first, perturbing the value of the statistic by ‘tilting’, or reweighting, each data value, where the total amount of tilt is constrained to be the least possible, subject to achieving a given small perturbation of the statistic, and, then, taking the ranking of the influence of data values to be that which corresponds to ranking the changes in data weights. It is shown, both theoretically and numerically, that this ranking does not depend on the size of the perturbation, provided that the perturbation is sufficiently small. That simple result leads directly to an elegant geometric interpretation of the ranks; they are the ranks of the lengths of projections of the weights onto a ‘line’ determined by the first empirical principal component function in a generalized measure of covariance. To illustrate the generality of the method we introduce and explore it in the case of functional data, where (for example) it leads to generalized boxplots. The method has the advantage of providing an interpretable ranking that depends on the statistic under consideration. For example, the ranking of data, in terms of their influence on the value of a statistic, is different for a measure of location and for a measure of scale. This is as it should be; a ranking of data in terms of their influence should depend on the manner in which the data are used. Additionally, the ranking recognizes, rather than ignores, sign, and in particular can identify left- and right-hand ‘tails’ of the distribution of a random function or vector.

  12. WORLD GRAIN TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Mary Bălan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Grain is part of agricultural commodities and is of utmost importance for world agriculture,since it is the essential element of food and animal feed. Against this background, grain trade among countries of the world is dynamic and represents about 10% of global trade in food products.This article examines global grain trade both in terms of quantitative and qualitative developments, and highlights the most important competitor countries in this sector. It also details the patterns of grain trade for the world's main exporters and importers of such commodities.Two distinct sections of the research relate to the evolution of the primary grain quotations(wheat, corn, barley, rice and sorghum at the most representative international agricultural commodities markets (Chicago Board of Trade, based on a comprehensive statistical analysis, and the short-term forecasts for global grain trade, respectively.

  13. Magnetic configurations of the tilted current sheets in magnetotail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Shen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the geometrical structures of tilted current sheet and tail flapping waves have been analysed based on multiple spacecraft measurements and some features of the tilted current sheets have been made clear for the first time. The geometrical features of the tilted current sheet revealed in this investigation are as follows: (1 The magnetic field lines (MFLs in the tilted current sheet are generally plane curves and the osculating planes in which the MFLs lie are about vertical to the equatorial plane, while the normal of the tilted current sheet leans severely to the dawn or dusk side. (2 The tilted current sheet may become very thin, the half thickness of its neutral sheet is generally much less than the minimum radius of the curvature of the MFLs. (3 In the neutral sheet, the field-aligned current density becomes very large and has a maximum value at the center of the current sheet. (4 In some cases, the current density is a bifurcated one, and the two humps of the current density often superpose two peaks in the gradient of magnetic strength, indicating that the magnetic gradient drift current is possibly responsible for the formation of the two humps of the current density in some tilted current sheets. Tilted current sheets often appear along with tail current sheet flapping waves. It is found that, in the tail flapping current sheets, the minimum curvature radius of the MFLs in the current sheet is rather large with values around 1 RE, while the neutral sheet may be very thin, with its half thickness being several tenths of RE. During the flapping waves, the current sheet is tilted substantially, and the maximum tilt angle is generally larger than 45°. The phase velocities of these flapping waves are several tens km/s, while their periods and wavelengths are several tens of minutes, and several earth radii, respectively. These tail flapping events generally last several hours and occur during quiet periods or periods of

  14. G-Strands on symmetric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    We study the G-strand equations that are extensions of the classical chiral model of particle physics in the particular setting of broken symmetries described by symmetric spaces. These equations are simple field theory models whose configuration space is a Lie group, or in this case a symmetric space. In this class of systems, we derive several models that are completely integrable on finite dimensional Lie group G, and we treat in more detail examples with symmetric space SU(2)/S1 and SO(4)/SO(3). The latter model simplifies to an apparently new integrable nine-dimensional system. We also study the G-strands on the infinite dimensional group of diffeomorphisms, which gives, together with the Sobolev norm, systems of 1+2 Camassa–Holm equations. The solutions of these equations on the complementary space related to the Witt algebra decomposition are the odd function solutions. PMID:28413343

  15. Tilt Table Test: State of The Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Barón-Esquivias

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The loss of consciousness has been a subject of wonder and uncertainty in humans, and for this reason it has been the object of medical investigation since the beginning of time. Even actually, it is certainly an unresolved clinical problem. Many centuries ago, complicated exorcisms and remedies were used on these unfortunate patients, who upon regaining consciousness would find themselves soaked in miraculous liquids, ingesting curative potions, and often on the way to be burned accused of being possessed. In the seventeen century, physicians began to relate loss of consciousness and haemodinamic changes. William Harvey was perhaps the first to describe a circulatory response (vasovagal reaction during a phlebotomy in the year 1628: “...Yet it fear or any other cause, or something do intervene through passion of the mind, so that the heart do beat more faintly, the blood will be no means pass through but drop after drop…”1. During the nineteenth century, loss of consciousness was the object of studies and research, and the vagally mediated cardioinhibition, as a primary cause, was noted by Foster who proposed that profound bradycardia diminished cerebral perfusion to a level inadequate to maintain consciousness2. At this time, it was reported the first use of the tilt-table test3. Commonly referred to as fainting or loss of consciousness, from last century the preferred medical term is syncope, which itself is derived from the Greek term “syncoptein” meaning “to cut short”. Syncope is defined as the sudden loss of consciousness and postural tone with spontaneous recovery. In 1907, Gowers was the first person to use the term vasovagal syncope4. In 1918 was published the work in which Cotton and Lewis described for the first time the clinical characteristics that are still used today to recognize the syncopal reaction5. However, it was not till 1932 when Lewis described this reaction as being characterized by a combination of bradycardia

  16. All-optical symmetric ternary logic gate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanay

    2010-09-01

    Symmetric ternary number (radix=3) has three logical states (1¯, 0, 1). It is very much useful in carry free arithmetical operation. Beside this, the logical operation using this type of number system is also effective in high speed computation and communication in multi-valued logic. In this literature all-optical circuits for three basic symmetrical ternary logical operations (inversion, MIN and MAX) are proposed and described. Numerical simulation verifies the theoretical model. In this present scheme the different ternary logical states are represented by different polarized state of light. Terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer (TOAD) based interferometric switch has been used categorically in this manuscript.

  17. A Relativistic Symmetrical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Michael B.

    This poster describes a relativistic symmetrical interpretation (RSI) which postulates: quantum mechanics is intrinsically time-symmetric, with no arrow of time; the fundamental objects of quantum mechanics are transitions; a transition is fully described by a complex transition amplitude density with specified initial and final boundary conditions, and; transition amplitude densities never collapse. This RSI is compared to the Copenhagen Interpretation (CI) for the analysis of Einstein's bubble experiment using both the Dirac and Klein-Gordon equations. The RSI has no zitterbewegung in the particle's rest frame, resolves some inconsistencies of the CI, and gives intuitive explanations of some previously mysterious quantum effects.

  18. Symmetry theorems via the continuous steiner symmetrization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ragoub

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a new approach due to F. Brock called the Steiner symmetrization, we show first that if $u$ is a solution of an overdetermined problem in the divergence form satisfying the Neumann and non-constant Dirichlet boundary conditions, then $Omega$ is an N-ball. In addition, we show that we can relax the condition on the value of the Dirichlet boundary condition in the case of superharmonicity. Finally, we give an application to positive solutions of some semilinear elliptic problems in symmetric domains for the divergence case.

  19. Influence of Vibrotactile Feedback on Controlling Tilt Motion After Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Rupert, A. H.; Vanya, R. D.; Esteves, J. T.; Clement, G.

    2011-01-01

    We hypothesize that adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the vestibular system are integrated with other sensory information leads to perceptual disturbances and impaired manual control following transitions between gravity environments. The primary goals of this ongoing post-flight investigation are to quantify decrements in manual control of tilt motion following short-duration spaceflight and to evaluate vibrotactile feedback of tilt as a sensorimotor countermeasure. METHODS. Data is currently being collected on 9 astronaut subjects during 3 preflight sessions and during the first 8 days after Shuttle landings. Variable radius centrifugation (216 deg/s, body axis, thereby eliciting canal reflexes without concordant otolith or visual cues. A simple 4 tactor system was implemented to provide feedback when tilt position exceeded predetermined levels in either device. Closed-loop nulling tasks are performed during random tilt steps or sum-of-sines (TTS only) with and without vibrotactile feedback of chair position. RESULTS. On landing day the manual control performance without vibrotactile feedback was reduced by >30% based on the gain or the amount of tilt disturbance successfully nulled. Manual control performance tended to return to baseline levels within 1-2 days following landing. Root-mean-square position error and tilt velocity were significantly reduced with vibrotactile feedback. CONCLUSIONS. These preliminary results are consistent with our hypothesis that adaptive changes in vestibular processing corresponds to reduced manual control performance following G-transitions. A simple vibrotactile prosthesis improves the ability to null out tilt motion within a limited range of motion disturbances.

  20. Group theoretical analysis of octahedral tilting in perovskites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, C.J.; Stokes, H.T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Structures of the perovskite family, ABX 3 , have interested crystallographers over many years, and continue to attract attention on account of their fascinating electrical and magnetic properties, for example the giant magnetoresistive effects exhibited by certain perovskite materials. The ideal perovskite (cubic, space group Pm -/3 m) is a particularly simple structure, but also a demanding one, since aside from the lattice parameter there are no variable parameters in the structure. Consequently, the majority of perovskite structures are distorted perovskites (hettotypes), the most common distortion being the corner-linked tilting of the practically rigid BX 6 octahedral units. In this work, group theoretical methods have been applied to the study of octahedral tilting in perovskites. The only irreducible representations of the parent group (Pm -/3 m) which produce octahedral tilting subject to corner-linking constraints are M + / 3 and R 4 ' + . A six-dimensional order parameter in the reducible representation space of M + / 3 + R + / 4 describes the different possible tilting patterns. The space groups for the different perovskites are then simply the isotropy subgroups, comprising those operations which leave the order parameter invariant. The isotropy subgroups are obtained from a computer program or tabulations. The analysis yields a list of fifteen possible space groups for perovskites derived through octahedral tilting. A connection is made to the (twenty-three) tilt systems given previously by Glazer. The group-subgroup relationships have been derived and displayed. It is interesting to note that all known perovskites based on octahedral tilting conform with the fifteen space groups on our list, with the exception of one perovskite at high temperature, the structure of which seems poorly determined

  1. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Protrusion Associated with Tilted Optic Discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jaclyn; Yapp, Michael; Ly, Angelica; Hennessy, Michael P; Kalloniatis, Michael; Zangerl, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    This study resulted in the identification of an optic nerve head (ONH) feature associated with tilted optic discs, which might potentially contribute to ONH pathologies. Knowledge of such findings will enhance clinical insights and drive future opportunities to understand disease processes related to tilted optic discs. The aim of this study was to identify novel retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) anomalies by evaluating tilted optic discs using optical coherence tomography. An observed retinal nerve fiber protrusion was further investigated for association with other morphological or functional parameters. A retrospective review of 400 randomly selected adult patients with ONH examinations was conducted in a referral-only, diagnostic imaging center. After excluding other ONH pathologies, 215 patients were enrolled and evaluated for optic disc tilt and/or torsion. Gross anatomical ONH features, including size and rim or parapapillary region elevation, were assessed with stereoscopic fundus photography. Optical coherence tomography provided detailed morphological information of individual retinal layers. Statistical analysis was applied to identify significant changes between individual patient cohorts. A dome-shaped hyperreflective RNFL bulge, protruding into the neurosensory retina at the optic disc margins, was identified in 17 eyes with tilted optic discs. Available follow-up data were inconclusive regarding natural changes with this ONH feature. This RNFL herniation was significantly correlated with smaller than average optic disc size (P = .005), congenital disc tilt (P optic discs, which has not previously been assessed as an independent ONH structure. The feature is predominantly related to congenital crowded, small optic discs and variable between patients. This study is an important first step to elucidate diagnostic capabilities of tilted disc morphological changes and understanding associated functional deficits.

  2. Chirality and grain boundary effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuping; Lv, Jiajiang; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-20

    We investigate chirality and grain boundary (GB) effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil using molecular dynamics simulations. The models of graphene with different chirality angles, different numbers of layers and tilt GBs were established. It was found that the chirality angle of few-layer graphene had a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of graphene/nickel systems, and this turns out to be more significant when the number of layers is greater than one. The enhancement to the contact stiffness, elastic capacity and the load bearing capacity of graphene with tilt GBs was lower than that of pristine graphene.

  3. Chirality and grain boundary effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuping; Lv, Jiajiang; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    We investigate chirality and grain boundary (GB) effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil using molecular dynamics simulations. The models of graphene with different chirality angles, different numbers of layers and tilt GBs were established. It was found that the chirality angle of few-layer graphene had a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of graphene/nickel systems, and this turns out to be more significant when the number of layers is greater than one. The enhancement to the contact stiffness, elastic capacity and the load bearing capacity of graphene with tilt GBs was lower than that of pristine graphene.

  4. Grain boundary structure and solute segregation in titanium-doped sapphire bicrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Seth Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Solute segregation to ceramic grain boundaries governs material processing and microstructure evolution, and can strongly influence material properties critical to engineering performance. Understanding the evolution and implications of grain boundary chemistry is a vital component in the greater effort to engineer ceramics with controlled microstructures. This study examines solute segregation to engineered grain boundaries in titanium-doped sapphire (Al2O3) bicrystals, and explores relationships between grain boundary structure and chemistry at the nanometer scale using spectroscopic and imaging techniques in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results demonstrate dramatic changes in solute segregation stemming from small fluctuations in grain boundary plane and structure. Titanium and silicon solute species exhibit strong tendencies to segregate to non-basal and basal grain boundary planes, respectively. Evidence suggests that grain boundary faceting occurs in low-angle twis t boundaries to accommodate nonequilibrium solute segregation related to slow specimen cooling rates, while faceting of tilt grain boundaries often occurs to expose special planes of the coincidence site lattice (CSL). Moreover, quantitative analysis of grain boundary chemistry indicates preferential segregation of charged defects to grain boundary dislocations. These results offer direct proof that static dislocations in ionic materials can assume a net charge, and emphasize the importance of interactions between charged point, line, and planar defects in ionic materials. Efforts to understand grain boundary chemistry in terms of space charge theory, elastic misfit and nonequilibrium segregation are discussed for the Al2O3 system.

  5. Grain boundary structure and solute segregation in titanium-doped sapphire bicrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Seth T.

    2002-01-01

    Solute segregation to ceramic grain boundaries governs material processing and microstructure evolution, and can strongly influence material properties critical to engineering performance. Understanding the evolution and implications of grain boundary chemistry is a vital component in the greater effort to engineer ceramics with controlled microstructures. This study examines solute segregation to engineered grain boundaries in titanium-doped sapphire (Al2O3) bicrystals, and explores relationships between grain boundary structure and chemistry at the nanometer scale using spectroscopic and imaging techniques in the transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results demonstrate dramatic changes in solute segregation stemming from small fluctuations in grain boundary plane and structure. Titanium and silicon solute species exhibit strong tendencies to segregate to non-basal and basal grain boundary planes, respectively. Evidence suggests that grain boundary faceting occurs in low-angle twis t boundaries to accommodate nonequilibrium solute segregation related to slow specimen cooling rates, while faceting of tilt grain boundaries often occurs to expose special planes of the coincidence site lattice (CSL). Moreover, quantitative analysis of grain boundary chemistry indicates preferential segregation of charged defects to grain boundary dislocations. These results offer direct proof that static dislocations in ionic materials can assume a net charge, and emphasize the importance of interactions between charged point, line, and planar defects in ionic materials. Efforts to understand grain boundary chemistry in terms of space charge theory, elastic misfit and nonequilibrium segregation are discussed for the Al2O3 system

  6. Josephson spectroscopy of terahertz losses in [100]-tilt YBa2Cu3O7-x bicrystal junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divin, Y; Lyatti, M

    2008-01-01

    Terahertz losses in the [100]-tilt YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x grain-boundary junctions were studied using admittance Josephson spectroscopy. The I-Vcurves of the [100]-tilt YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x junctions, when annealed in atomic oxygen, were described by the resistively shunted junction model (RSJ) with an accuracy of better than 0.5% at the temperature range, where the characteristic voltage I c R n n -1 . At low temperatures, where I c R n >> kT/2e, the absorption of Josephson radiation by optical phonon modes in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x was found to be reflected in the I-V curve of the [100]-tilt junctions. The most prominent structure is situated at the voltages V ∼ 9.5 mV, which gives the corresponding Josephson frequency of 4.6 THz in good agreement with the frequency of the strongest IR active optical phonon mode in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . Assignment of additional lines in the derived losses is discussed according to available data on lattice dynamic calculations and experimental data for a dynamic conduction Reσ 1 (f) of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x . Josephson spectroscopy might be useful for study of low-energy excitations in high-T c materials

  7. Presolar Grains in Indarch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X.; Nittler, L. R.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

    1995-09-01

    We report results for the EH(4) Indarch. Earlier work [1] found 20 micrometers clumps of sub-micron SiC whose presolar nature was inferred from step-wise combustion, noble gas [2], and ion probe isotopic measurements. Our results indicate that the clumps were an artifact of sample preparation. Our sample was first cleaned using 6N HCl, and water and isopropanol rinses, then powdered and reacted with HCl-HF/HCl, KOH, and H3BO3-HCl/HCl giving a C-rich residue 1.14 wt.% of the original. X-ray mapping showed SiC grains and 5x as many Si3N4 grains, but no fine-grained clumps. Large (6 micrometers to 20 micrometers) C-rich spheroids were also present. The sample was further treated with KOH/HNO3 and NH3H2O; attempts to do density-separates were unsuccessful. An aliquot was treated with perchloric acid and separated into 1 micrometer fractions. SEM-EDS measurements of 73 (1 micrometer) grains with the addition of 2 spinel and one Al2O3 grains. The whole rock concentration of SiC was 5.8 ppm, higher than previous determinations [1,3,9]. Confirming earlier suggestions [1,2], we find that SiC in Indarch is much finer-grained than in Murchison; about 2/3 of the mass is in grains size-sorting in the nebula or selective destruction of fine-grained material. Ion probe measurements of 22 (1-3 micrometers) grains gave isotopic results in the range previously measured for Murchison SiCs [4]. Several normal Si3N4 grains (>1 micron) were measured; probably exsolution products similar to those in Qingzhen [7]. Ion mapping was used to search for presolar oxide grains using previously developed techniques [5]. Seven candidate grains out of ~1000 were found. Multiple imaging confirmed an ^(16)O/^(18)O anomaly in one spinel grain - the first presolar oxide found in an E chondrite. Although the proportion of oxide grains relative to SiC is smaller, the fraction of anomalous oxide grains is not strikingly different in Indarch than in Murchison (1/1000) or Tieschitz (1/300). Prior ion probe

  8. Recording Tilt with Broadband Seismic Sensors at Erupting Volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, B. E.; Lees, J. M.; Lyons, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    The horizontal components of broadband seismometers are known to be susceptible to gravitational acceleration due to slow tilting, and this has been successfully exploited to assess ground deformation at many volcanoes, including Anatahan (Mariana Islands), Meakan-dake (Japan), Santiaguito (Guatemala) and Stromboli (Italy). Tilt can be estimated from seismic velocity by differentiating, scaling to remove gravity, and applying an instrument correction. The fundamental assumption in estimating tilt from broadband data is that the signal recorded is the result of tilt and not translation, thus analysis of tilt require filtering below corner frequencies of seismic instruments, where the response to tilt should be flat. However, processing techniques for deriving tilt are not uniform among researchers. Filter type and passband allowance for the processing of data sets differs from case to case, and the dominant periods of tilt signals may vary from tens to hundreds of seconds. For instance, data from Santiaguito was filtered in the 600-30s passband, while at Anatahan filters spanned 13 hours to 8 minutes. In our study, we investigate tilt from seismic data sets at Karymsky (Kamchatka, Russia), Fuego (Guatemala), Yasur (Vanuatu), and Tungurahua (Ecuador) to understand implementation and limitations of this tool. We examine the importance of filter-type distortion related to filtering on the seismic signal. For example, a comparison of time domain versus frequency domain implementation is explored using a variety of lowpass and bandpass filters. We also investigate the advantages and drawbacks of causal versus acausal filters. In a few cases tiltmeters have been co-located with broadband seismic sensors for direct comparison. Signals at Mt. St. Helens, Stromboli, Sakurajima, and Semeru show a correlation of tilt and seismic records, although records at Karymsky volcano suggest that no tilt is recorded on either instrument. We speculate that strong vent explosions exhibit

  9. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Shen, Chengwu; Wen, Zhuoman; Liu, Shaojin; Cai, Sheng; Li, Jianrong

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  10. Rotating Shaft Tilt Angle Measurement Using an Inclinometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jun

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel measurement method to accurately measure the rotating shaft tilt angle of rotating machine for alignment or compensation using a dual-axis inclinometer. A model of the rotating shaft tilt angle measurement is established using a dual-axis inclinometer based on the designed mechanical structure, and the calculation equation between the rotating shaft tilt angle and the inclinometer axes outputs is derived under the condition that the inclinometer axes are perpendicular to the rotating shaft. The reversal measurement method is applied to decrease the effect of inclinometer drifts caused by temperature, to eliminate inclinometer and rotating shaft mechanical error and inclinometer systematic error to attain high measurement accuracy. The uncertainty estimation shows that the accuracy of rotating shaft tilt angle measurement depends mainly on the inclinometer uncertainty and its uncertainty is almost the same as the inclinometer uncertainty in the simulation. The experimental results indicate that measurement time is 4 seconds; the range of rotating shaft tilt angle is 0.002° and its standard deviation is 0.0006° using NS-5/P2 inclinometer, whose precision and resolution are ±0.01° and 0.0005°, respectively.

  11. PT -symmetric model of immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Carl M.; Ghatak, Ananya; Gianfreda, Mariagiovanna

    2017-01-01

    The study of PT -symmetric physical systems began in 1998 as a complex generalization of conventional quantum mechanics, but beginning in 2007 experiments began to be published in which the predicted PT phase transition was clearly observed in classical rather than in quantum-mechanical systems. This paper examines the classical PT phase transition in dynamical-system models that are moderately accurate representations of antigen-antibody systems. A surprising conclusion that can be drawn from these models is that it might be possible treat a serious disease in which the antigen concentration grows out of bounds (and the host dies) by injecting a small dose of a second (different) antigen. In this case a PT -symmetric analysis shows there are two possible favorable outcomes. In the unbroken-PT -symmetric phase the disease becomes chronic and is no longer lethal, while in the appropriate broken-PT -symmetric phase the concentration of lethal antigen goes to zero and the disease is completely cured.

  12. Progressive symmetric exfoliative ichthyosis | Al Aboud | Sudanese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report an 11–year-old girl with well defined ichthyosiform patches on extremities. There is a history of similar condition in her cousin. We believe that this case represent a new autosomal recessive disorder of cornification that may be better refer to it as ''progressive symmetric exfoliative ichthyosis''. Sudanese Journal of ...

  13. Symmetric intersections of Rauzy fractals | Sellami | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article we study symmetric subsets of Rauzy fractals of unimodular irreducible Pisot substitutions. The symmetry considered is re ection through the origin. Given an unimodular irreducible Pisot substitution, we consider the intersection of its Rauzy fractal with the Rauzy fractal of the reverse substitution. This set is ...

  14. A viewpoint on nearly conformally symmetric manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.S.

    1990-06-01

    Some observations, with definition, on Nearly Conformally Symmetric (NCS) manifold are made. A number of theorems concerning conformal change of metric and parallel tensors on NCS manifolds are presented. It is illustrated that a manifold M = R n-1 x R + 1 , endowed with a special metric, is NCS but not of harmonic curvature. (author). 8 refs

  15. Biomechanical benefits of symmetrical strengthening of hip ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is abundant literature encouraging athletes to engage in concurrent strength training. However, little emphasis is placed on the value of biomechanics with regard to symmetrical strengthening of force-couple relationships. A review of literature reveals 565 biomechanical papers versus 2085 physiological papers ...

  16. Cuspidal discrete series for semisimple symmetric spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Byrial; Flensted-Jensen, Mogens; Schlichtkrull, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    We propose a notion of cusp forms on semisimple symmetric spaces. We then study the real hyperbolic spaces in detail, and show that there exists both cuspidal and non-cuspidal discrete series. In particular, we show that all the spherical discrete series are non-cuspidal. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All...

  17. Bilateral Symmetrical Parietal Extradural Hematoma | Agrawal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    is an uncommon consequence of craniocerebral trauma, and acute symmetrical bilateral epidural hematomas are extremely rare. We discuss the technique ... A 55-year-old patient presented with history of fall of branch of tree on her head. She had loss of ... Initially, left parietal trephine craniotomy was performed and ...

  18. Efficient and convenient synthesis of symmetrical carboxylic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient and convenient procedure for the synthesis of symmetrical carboxylic anhydrides from carboxylic acids with sulfated zirconia by PEG-1000 phase transfer catalysis has been developed. The reactions proceeded under mild and solvent-free conditions to provide the carboxylic anhydrides in good to excellent ...

  19. Unary self-verifying symmetric difference automata

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Marais, Laurette

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We investigate self-verifying nondeterministic finite automata, in the case of unary symmetric difference nondeterministic finite automata (SV-XNFA). We show that there is a family of languages Ln=2 which can always be represented non...

  20. Exact solutions of the spherically symmetric multidimensional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complete orthonormalised energy eigenfunctions and the energy eigenvalues of the spherically symmetric isotropic harmonic oscillator in N dimensions, are obtained through the methods of separation of variables. Also, the degeneracy of the energy levels are examined. KEY WORDS: - Schrödinger Equation, Isotropic ...

  1. Prevalence and incidence of symmetrical symptomatic peripheral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Symptomatic symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (SSPN) is common in patients with HIV infection. It is also a common adverse event associated with both tuberculosis (TB) treatment and antiretroviral therapy (ART), particularly stavudine. While tenofovir is the one of recommended first-line nucleotide reverse ...

  2. Symmetric corticobasal degeneration (S-CBD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Anhar; Whitwell, Jennifer L; Boeve, Bradley F; Jack, Clifford R; Parisi, Joseph E; Dickson, Dennis W; Josephs, Keith A

    2010-03-01

    Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized pathologically by neuronal loss, gliosis and tau deposition in neocortex, basal ganglia and brainstem. Typical clinical presentation is known as corticobasal syndrome (CBS) and involves the core features of progressive asymmetric rigidity and apraxia, accompanied by other signs of cortical and extrapyramidal dysfunction. Asymmetry is also emphasized on neuroimaging. To describe a series of cases of CBD with symmetric clinical features and to compare clinical and imaging features of these symmetric CBD cases (S-CBD) to typical cases of CBS with CBD pathology. All cases of pathologically confirmed CBD from the Mayo Clinic Rochester database were identified. Clinical records were reviewed and quantitative volumetric analysis of symmetric atrophy on head MRI using atlas based parcellation was performed. Subjects were classified as S-CBD if no differences had been observed between right- and left-sided cortical or extrapyramidal signs or symptoms. S-CBD cases were compared to 10 randomly selected typical CBS cases. Five cases (2 female) met criteria for S-CBD. None had limb dystonia, myoclonus, apraxia or alien limb phenomena. S-CBD cases had significantly less asymmetric atrophy when compared with CBS cases (p=0.009); they were also younger at onset (median 61 versus 66 years, pCBD cases. CBD can have a symmetric presentation, clinically and radiologically, in which typical features of CBS, such as limb apraxia, myoclonus, dystonia and alien limb phenomenon, may be absent. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. efficient and convenient synthesis of symmetrical carboxylic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    strong acidity and high activity in light alkane conversions at relatively mild temperatures [36,. 37]. In this paper, we wish to report an efficient and convenient method for the preparation of symmetrical carboxylic anhydrides from the corresponding carboxylic acids with sulfated zirconia by phase transfer catalysis without any ...

  4. Picosecond optical nonlinearities in symmetrical and unsymmetrical ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present our experimental results on the picosecond nonlinear optical. (NLO) studies of symmetrical and unsymmetrical phthalocyanines, examined using the. Z-scan technique. Both the open-aperture ... Z-scan measurements were performed using the amplified Ti:sapphire laser system. (LEGEND, Coherent) delivering ...

  5. Spectrum generating algebra of the symmetric top

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bijker, R. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Ciencias Nucleares; Leviatan, A. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)

    1998-03-02

    We consider an algebraic treatment of a three-body system. We develop the formalism for a system of three identical objects and show that it provides a simultaneous description of the vibrational and rotational excitations of an oblate symmetric top. (orig.) 8 refs.

  6. Spectrum generating algebra of the symmetric top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijker, R.

    1998-01-01

    We consider an algebraic treatment of a three-body system. We develop the formalism for a system of three identical objects and show that it provides a simultaneous description of the vibrational and rotational excitations of an oblate symmetric top. (orig.)

  7. The symmetric Mellin transform in quantum calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Kamel Brahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we define the q-analogue of Mellin Transform symmetric under interchange of q and 1/q, and present some of its main properties and explore the possibility of using the integral transform to solve a class of differential equations q-differences.

  8. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Schlichtkrull, H.

    1994-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  9. Fourier transforms on a semisimple symmetric space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, E.P. van den; Carmona, J.; Delorme, P.

    1997-01-01

    Let G=H be a semisimple symmetric space, that is, G is a connected semisimple real Lie group with an involution ?, and H is an open subgroup of the group of xed points for ? in G. The main purpose of this paper is to study an explicit Fourier transform on G=H. In terms of general representation

  10. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Every time you choose to eat a starchy food, make it count! Leave the processed white flour-based products, especially the ones with added ... wheat grain is ground up. "Refined" flours like white and enriched wheat flour include only ... whole grain foods can be a challenge. Some foods only contain ...

  11. New tilted-poles Wien filter with enhanced performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Quiros, E.; Prelas, M. A.

    1989-03-01

    The Wien filter is an E×B deflecting analyzer with the electrostatic field perpendicular to the magnetostatic field. The twofold functions of the Wien filter are as an energy analyzer as well as a mass analyzer. It has very high resolution for paraxial charged-particle beams with V=E/B, the Wien velocity. Two Wien filters, a tilted-poles Wien filter, and a classical parallel-rectangular-poles Wien filter were built and tested for electrons up to 3.5 keV and protons beams of 200 eV. (The tilted-poles Wien filter is a new diagnostic developed by the authors.) The performance of the two is compared, and the tilted-poles Wien filter has superior resolution to the classical Wien filter. Both Wien filters appear to have features useful for high-temperature plasma diagnostics, including simultaneous measurement of energy and mass spectra, and high resolution.

  12. New tilted-poles Wien filter with enhanced performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leal-Quiros, E.; Prelas, M.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Wien filter is an E x B deflecting analyzer with the electrostatic field perpendicular to the magnetostatic field. The twofold functions of the Wien filter are as an energy analyzer as well as a mass analyzer. It has very high resolution for paraxial charged-particle beams with V = E/B, the Wien velocity. Two Wien filters, a tilted-poles Wien filter, and a classical parallel-rectangular-poles Wien filter were built and tested for electrons up to 3.5 keV and protons beams of 200 eV. (The tilted-poles Wien filter is a new diagnostic developed by the authors.) The performance of the two is compared, and the tilted-poles Wien filter has superior resolution to the classical Wien filter. Both Wien filters appear to have features useful for high-temperature plasma diagnostics, including simultaneous measurement of energy and mass spectra, and high resolution.

  13. Quantum well electronic states in a tilted magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trallero-Giner, C; Padilha, J X; Lopez-Richard, V; Marques, G E; Castelano, L K

    2017-08-16

    We report the energy spectrum and the eigenstates of conduction and uncoupled valence bands of a quantum well under the influence of a tilted magnetic field. In the framework of the envelope approximation, we implement two analytical approaches to obtain the nontrivial solutions of the tilted magnetic field: (a) the Bubnov-Galerkin spectral method and b) the perturbation theory. We discuss the validity of each method for a broad range of magnetic field intensity and orientation as well as quantum well thickness. By estimating the accuracy of the perturbation method, we provide explicit analytical solutions for quantum wells in a tilted magnetic field configuration that can be employed to study several quantitative phenomena.

  14. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  15. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    A novel way of estimating near-surface mean flow tilt angles from ground based Doppler lidar measurements is presented. The results are compared with traditional mast based in-situ sonic anemometry. The tilt angle assessed with the lidar is based on 10 or 30 min mean values of the velocity field......) a fetch-limited beech forest site taken at 48–175 m a.g.l. (above ground level), (2) a reference site in flat agricultural terrain and (3) a second reference site in complex terrain are presented. The method to derive flow tilt angles and mean vertical velocities from lidar has several advantages compared...... alignment error at a multitude of heights. Disadvantages with estimating vertical velocities from a lidar compared to mast-based measurements are potentially slightly increased levels of statistical errors due to limited sampling time, because the sampling is disjunct, and a requirement for homogeneous flow...

  16. Ground tilt monitoring at Phlegraean Fields (Italy: a methodological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Del Gaudio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Among geodetic methods used for monitoring ground deformation in volcanic areas, tiltmetry represents the most rapid technique and therefore it is used by almost all the volcanological observatories in the world. The deformation of volcanic building is not only the result of endogenous causes (i.e. dykes injection or magma rising, but also non-tectonic environmental factors. Such troubles cannot be removed completely but they can be reduce. This article outlines the main source of errors affecting the signals recorded by Phlegraean tilt, network, such as the dependence of the tilt response on temperature and to the thermoelastic effect on ground deformation. The analytical procedure used to evaluate about such errors and their reduction is explained. An application to data acquired from the tilt network during two distinct phases of ground uplift and subsidence of the Phlegraean Fields is reported.

  17. Coulomb interaction effect in tilted Weyl fermion in two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Hiroki; Nagaosa, Naoto

    Weyl fermions with tilted linear dispersions characterized by several different velocities appear in some systems including the quasi-two-dimensional organic semiconductor α-(BEDT-TTF)2I3 and three-dimensional WTe2. The Coulomb interaction between electrons modifies the velocities in an essential way in the low energy limit, where the logarithmic corrections dominate. Taking into account the coupling to both the transverse and longitudinal electromagnetic fields, we derive the renormalization group equations for the velocities of the tilted Weyl fermions in two dimensions, and found that they increase as the energy decreases and eventually hit the velocity of light c to result in the Cherenkov radiation. Especially, the system restores the isotropic Weyl cone even when the bare Weyl cone is strongly tilted and the velocity of electrons becomes negative in certain directions.

  18. Absolute Measurement of Tilts via Fourier Analysis of Interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toland, Ronald W.

    2004-01-01

    The Fourier method of interferogram analysis requires the introduction of a constant tilt into the interferogram to serve as a carrier signal for information on the figure of the surface under test. This tilt is usually removed in the first steps of analysis and ignored thereafter. However, in the problem of aligning optical components and systems, knowledge of part orientation is crucial to proper instrument performance. This paper outlines an algorithm which uses the normally ignored carrier signal in Fourier analysis to compute an absolute tilt (orientation) of the test surface. We also provide a brief outline of how this technique, incorporated in a rotating Twyman-Green interferometer, can be used in alignment and metrology of optical systems.

  19. The semiology of tilt-induced psychogenic pseudosyncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannemaat, Martijn R; van Niekerk, Julius; Reijntjes, Robert H; Thijs, Roland D; Sutton, Richard; van Dijk, J Gert

    2013-08-20

    To provide a detailed semiology to aid the clinical recognition of psychogenic pseudosyncope (PPS), which concerns episodes of apparent transient loss of consciousness (TLOC) that mimic syncope. We analyzed all consecutive tilt-table tests from 2006 to 2012 showing proven PPS, i.e., apparent TLOC had occurred without EEG changes or a decrease in heart rate (HR) or blood pressure (BP). We analyzed baseline characteristics, video data, EEG, ECG, and continuous BP measurements on a 1-second time scale. Data were compared with those of 69 cases of tilt-induced vasovagal syncope (VVS). Of 800 tilt-table tests, 43 (5.4%) resulted in PPS. The majority (74%) were women. The median duration of apparent TLOC was longer in PPS (44 seconds) than in VVS (20 seconds, p semiology of PPS as a clinical entity is vital to ensure accurate diagnosis.

  20. Tilt Precursors before Earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M J; Mortensen, C E

    1974-12-13

    An array of 14 biaxial shallow-borehole tiltmeters (at 1O(-7) radian sensitivity) has been installed along 85 kilometers of the San Andreas fault during the past year. Earthquake-related changes in tilt have been simultaneously observed on up to four independent instruments. At earthquake distances greater than 10 earthquake source dimensions, there are few clear indications of tilt change. For the four instruments with the longest records (> 10 months), 26 earthquakes have occurred since July 1973 with at least one instrument closer than 10 source dimensions and 8 earthquakes with more than one instrument within that distance. Precursors in tilt direction have been observed before more than 10 earthquakes or groups of earthquakes, and no similar effect has yet been seen without the occurrence of an earthquake.

  1. Robust tilt and lock mechanism for hopping actuator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salton, Jonathan R.; Buerger, Stephen; Dullea, Kevin J.; Marron, Lisa C.; Salisbury, Curt Michael; Spletzer, Barry Louis

    2017-02-07

    A tilt and lock apparatus that includes a tilt servomechanism, a spiral torsion spring, a lock wheel, and a lock hook is described herein. The spiral torsion spring is mechanically coupled to the tilt servomechanism and the lock wheel (which includes an opening). When a shaft is positioned through the opening, rotation of the lock wheel is in unison with rotation of the shaft. An external surface of the lock wheel includes one or more grooves. The lock hook includes a head that engages and disengages the grooves. The lock wheel is stationary when the head engages one of the grooves and is rotatable when the head disengages the grooves. The head and the grooves are geometrically aligned when engaged to prevent creation of a force that acts to disengage the head responsive to an applied force acting on the shaft.

  2. Reverse time migration in tilted transversely isotropic media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Linbing; Rector III, James W.; Hoversten, G. Michael

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a reverse time migration (RTM) method for the migration of shot records in tilted transversely isotropic (TTI) media. It is based on the tilted TI acoustic wave equation that was derived from the dispersion relation. The RTM is a full depth migration allowing for velocity to vary laterally as well as vertically and has no dip limitations. The wave equation is solved by a tenth-order finite difference scheme. Using 2D numerical models, we demonstrate that ignoring the tilt angle will introduce both lateral and vertical shifts in imaging. The shifts can be larger than 0.5 wavelength in the vertical direction and 1.5 wavelength in the lateral direction.

  3. All About the Grains Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Grains All about the Grains Group Print Share What foods are in the Grains Group? Any food made ... Whole Grains Food Gallery Take the Grains Quiz What Is MyPlate? Food Guide History MyPlate, MyWins Fruits All About the ...

  4. Tilted dipole model for bias-dependent photoluminescence pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Masuda, Taishi

    2014-12-01

    In a guest-host system containing elongated dyes and a nematic liquid crystal, both molecules are aligned to each other. An external bias tilts these molecules and the radiation pattern of the system is altered. A model is proposed to describe this bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns. It divides the liquid crystal/dye layer into sub-layers that contain electric dipoles with specific tilt angles. Each sub-layer emits linearly polarized light. Its radiation pattern is toroidal and is determined by the tilt angle. Its intensity is assumed to be proportional to the power of excitation light absorbed by the sub-layer. This is calculated by the Lambert-Beer's Law. The absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the cross-section of the tilted dipole moment, in analogy to the ellipsoid of refractive index, to evaluate the cross-section for each polarized component of the excitation light. Contributions from all the sub-layers are added to give a final expression for the radiation pattern. Self-absorption is neglected. The model is simplified by reducing the number of sub-layers. Analytical expressions are derived for a simple case that consists of a single layer with tilted dipoles sandwiched by two layers with horizontally-aligned dipoles. All the parameters except for the tilt angle can be determined by measuring transmittance of the excitation light. The model roughly reproduces the bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns of a cell containing 0.5 wt. % coumarin 6. It breaks down at large emission angles. Measured spectral changes suggest that the discrepancy is due to self-absorption and re-emission.

  5. Tilted dipole model for bias-dependent photoluminescence pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Masuda, Taishi

    2014-01-01

    In a guest-host system containing elongated dyes and a nematic liquid crystal, both molecules are aligned to each other. An external bias tilts these molecules and the radiation pattern of the system is altered. A model is proposed to describe this bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns. It divides the liquid crystal/dye layer into sub-layers that contain electric dipoles with specific tilt angles. Each sub-layer emits linearly polarized light. Its radiation pattern is toroidal and is determined by the tilt angle. Its intensity is assumed to be proportional to the power of excitation light absorbed by the sub-layer. This is calculated by the Lambert-Beer's Law. The absorption coefficient is assumed to be proportional to the cross-section of the tilted dipole moment, in analogy to the ellipsoid of refractive index, to evaluate the cross-section for each polarized component of the excitation light. Contributions from all the sub-layers are added to give a final expression for the radiation pattern. Self-absorption is neglected. The model is simplified by reducing the number of sub-layers. Analytical expressions are derived for a simple case that consists of a single layer with tilted dipoles sandwiched by two layers with horizontally-aligned dipoles. All the parameters except for the tilt angle can be determined by measuring transmittance of the excitation light. The model roughly reproduces the bias-dependent photoluminescence patterns of a cell containing 0.5 wt. % coumarin 6. It breaks down at large emission angles. Measured spectral changes suggest that the discrepancy is due to self-absorption and re-emission

  6. Stability of multi orifice active tilting-pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Asger M.; Santos, Ilmar

    2010-01-01

    The stability properties of actively lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings are investigated theoretically. The bearing preload factor and control system gains are varied, and stable and unstable regions are identified. It is seen, that the control system influences bearing stability, and that t......The stability properties of actively lubricated tilting-pad journal bearings are investigated theoretically. The bearing preload factor and control system gains are varied, and stable and unstable regions are identified. It is seen, that the control system influences bearing stability...

  7. Tilt table standing for reducing spasticity after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W

    1993-10-01

    A patient with a T12 spinal cord injury and intractable extensor spasms of the lower extremities participated in tilt table standing trial on 5 nonconsecutive days to determine if the intervention would affect his spasticity and spasms. Each day's standing trial was followed by an immediate reduction in lower extremity spasticity (measured using the modified Ashworth scale and pendulum testing). Standing was also accompanied by a reduction in spasms that lasted until the following morning. The reduction of spasms was particularly advantageous to the performance of car transfers. Tilt table standing merits further examination as a physical treatment of spasms that accompany central nervous system lesions.

  8. Sedimentary basins reconnaissance using the magnetic Tilt-Depth method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, A.; Williams, S.; Samson, E.; Fairhead, D.; Ravat, D.; Blakely, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    We compute the depth to the top of magnetic basement using the Tilt-Depth method from the best available magnetic anomaly grids covering the continental USA and Australia. For the USA, the Tilt-Depth estimates were compared with sediment thicknesses based on drilling data and show a correlation of 0.86 between the datasets. If random data were used then the correlation value goes to virtually zero. There is little to no lateral offset of the depth of basinal features although there is a tendency for the Tilt-Depth results to be slightly shallower than the drill depths. We also applied the Tilt-Depth method to a local-scale, relatively high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State. The Tilt-Depth method successfully identified a variety of important tectonic elements known from geological mapping. Of particular interest, the Tilt-Depth method illuminated deep (3km) contacts within the non-magnetic sedimentary core of the Olympic Mountains, where magnetic anomalies are subdued and low in amplitude. For Australia, the Tilt-Depth estimates also give a good correlation with known areas of shallow basement and sedimentary basins. Our estimates of basement depth are not restricted to regional analysis but work equally well at the micro scale (basin scale) with depth estimates agreeing well with drill hole and seismic data. We focus on the eastern Officer Basin as an example of basin scale studies and find a good level of agreement between previously-derived basin models. However, our study potentially reveals depocentres not previously mapped due to the sparse distribution of well data. This example thus shows the potential additional advantage of the method in geological interpretation. The success of this study suggests that the Tilt-Depth method is useful in estimating the depth to crystalline basement when appropriate quality aeromagnetic anomaly data are used (i.e. line spacing on the order of or less than the expected depth to

  9. Interstellar grain chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buch, V.

    1990-01-01

    This chapter discusses the chemical evolution and composition of dust in dense interstellar clouds. Studies use observations in the infrared, visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. These grains are thought to be made largely of highly disordered and/or composite materials. Recently acquired data on Halley's comet and on the structure, composition and spectral properties of interplanetary dust particles (IDP) are used to study grain chemistry. These substances are though to be similar to dense cloud dust. Dense clouds are thought to contain minerals, poorly crystallized carbonaceous/organic polymers, coating mineral grains and dirty ice mantles and the chemistry of these substances is considered. (UK)

  10. Kansas Agents Study Grain Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeff, Robert W.

    1973-01-01

    Author is an extension specialist in feed and grain marketing for Kansas State University. He describes a tour set up to educate members of the Kansas Grain and Feed Dealers' Association in the area of grain marketing and exporting. (GB)

  11. Atomic-scale analysis of liquid-gallium embrittlement of aluminum grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopalan, M.; Bhatia, M.A.; Tschopp, M.A.; Srolovitz, D.J.; Solanki, K.N.

    2014-01-01

    Material strengthening and embrittlement are controlled by intrinsic interactions between defects, such as grain boundaries (GBs), and impurity atoms that alter the observed deformation and failure mechanisms in metals. In this work, we explore the role of atomistic-scale energetics on liquid-metal embrittlement of aluminum (Al) due to gallium (Ga). Ab initio and molecular mechanics were employed to probe the formation/binding energies of vacancies and segregation energies of Ga for 〈1 0 0〉, 〈1 1 0〉 and 〈1 1 1〉 symmetric tilt grain boundaries (STGBs) in Al. We found that the GB local arrangements and resulting structural units have a significant influence on the magnitude of the vacancy binding energies. For example, the mean vacancy binding energies for 〈1 0 0〉, 〈1 1 0〉 and 〈1 1 1〉 STGBs in the 1st layer was found to be −0.63, −0.26 and −0.60 eV, respectively. However, some GBs exhibited vacancy binding energies closer to bulk values, indicating interfaces with zero sink strength, i.e. these GBs may not provide effective pathways for vacancy diffusion. The results from the present work showed that the GB structure and the associated free volume also play significant roles in Ga segregation and the subsequent embrittlement of Al. The Ga mean segregation energies for 〈1 0 0〉, 〈1 1 0〉 and 〈1 1 1〉 STGBs in the 1st layer were found to be −0.21, −0.09 and −0.21 eV, respectively, suggesting a stronger correlation between the GB structural unit, its free volume and the segregation behavior. Furthermore, as the GB free volume increased, the difference in segregation energies between the 1st layer and the 0th layer increased. Thus, the GB character and free volume provide an important key to understanding the degree of anisotropy in various systems. The overall characteristic Ga absorption length scale was found to be about ∼10, 8 and 12 layers for 〈1 0 0〉, 〈1 1 0〉 and 〈1 1 1〉 STGBs, respectively. In addition, a

  12. Symmetrical lividity of the palms and soles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietschel, R L; Carr, J F; Lewis, C W

    1978-11-01

    Symmetrical lividity (SL) was the term coined by Pernet in 1925 for symmetrical, bluish-red plaques on the soles of the feet, accompanied by hyperhidrosis and not corresponding to areas of pressure or patterns of innervation. We report two patients with a persistent eruption of the palms analogous to that described by Pernet on the feet. Unlike most reported cases of SL, our patients did not respond to topical drying treatments, but one patient partially responded to tretinoin. There appear to be two forms of SL: transient, which responds to drying; and persistent which does not respond to drying. The hyperhidrosis studied in one of our two patients was significantly greater within the plaques of SL than the normal palm. While we could suppress the hyperhidrosis with topical therapy, this failed to clear his hyperkeratosis or eliminate the livid color.

  13. Phenomenology of quark-lepton symmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.; Lew, H.; Volkas

    1991-01-01

    Quark-lepton symmetric models are a new class of gauge theories which unify the quarks and leptons. In these models the gauge group of the standard model is extended to include a color group for the leptons, and consequently the quarks and leptons can then be related by a Z 2 discrete quark-lepton symmetry. Phenomenological implications of these theories are explored. Two varieties are analysed: one being the simplest quark-lepton symmetric model, and the other containing conventional left-right symmetry. Each theory has a Z' boson, whose masses are constrained at 90% C.L. to be greater than 700 GeV and 650 GeV respectively. Phenomenological constraints from rare decays and the implications of the extended fermion spectrum are also examined. 37 refs., 2 tabs

  14. Symmetric, discrete fractional splines and Gabor systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Peter Lempel

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing the continu......In this paper we consider fractional splines as windows for Gabor frames. We introduce two new types of symmetric, fractional splines in addition to one found by Unser and Blu. For the finite, discrete case we present two families of splines: One is created by sampling and periodizing...... the continuous splines, and one is a truly finite, discrete construction. We discuss the properties of these splines and their usefulness as windows for Gabor frames and Wilson bases....

  15. Symmetric configurations highlighted by collective quantum coherence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obster, Dennis [Radboud University, Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan); Sasakura, Naoki [Kyoto University, Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2017-11-15

    Recent developments in quantum gravity have shown the Lorentzian treatment to be a fruitful approach towards the emergence of macroscopic space-times. In this paper, we discuss another related aspect of the Lorentzian treatment: we argue that collective quantum coherence may provide a simple mechanism for highlighting symmetric configurations over generic non-symmetric ones. After presenting the general framework of the mechanism, we show the phenomenon in some concrete simple examples in the randomly connected tensor network, which is tightly related to a certain model of quantum gravity, i.e., the canonical tensor model. We find large peaks at configurations invariant under Lie-group symmetries as well as a preference for charge quantization, even in the Abelian case. In future study, this simple mechanism may provide a way to analyze the emergence of macroscopic space-times with global symmetries as well as various other symmetries existing in nature, which are usually postulated. (orig.)

  16. Representations of the infinite symmetric group

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Alexei

    2016-01-01

    Representation theory of big groups is an important and quickly developing part of modern mathematics, giving rise to a variety of important applications in probability and mathematical physics. This book provides the first concise and self-contained introduction to the theory on the simplest yet very nontrivial example of the infinite symmetric group, focusing on its deep connections to probability, mathematical physics, and algebraic combinatorics. Following a discussion of the classical Thoma's theorem which describes the characters of the infinite symmetric group, the authors describe explicit constructions of an important class of representations, including both the irreducible and generalized ones. Complete with detailed proofs, as well as numerous examples and exercises which help to summarize recent developments in the field, this book will enable graduates to enhance their understanding of the topic, while also aiding lecturers and researchers in related areas.

  17. Factored Facade Acquisition using Symmetric Line Arrangements

    KAUST Repository

    Ceylan, Duygu

    2012-05-01

    We introduce a novel framework for image-based 3D reconstruction of urban buildings based on symmetry priors. Starting from image-level edges, we generate a sparse and approximate set of consistent 3D lines. These lines are then used to simultaneously detect symmetric line arrangements while refining the estimated 3D model. Operating both on 2D image data and intermediate 3D feature representations, we perform iterative feature consolidation and effective outlier pruning, thus eliminating reconstruction artifacts arising from ambiguous or wrong stereo matches. We exploit non-local coherence of symmetric elements to generate precise model reconstructions, even in the presence of a significant amount of outlier image-edges arising from reflections, shadows, outlier objects, etc. We evaluate our algorithm on several challenging test scenarios, both synthetic and real. Beyond reconstruction, the extracted symmetry patterns are useful towards interactive and intuitive model manipulations.

  18. Whole Grains and Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of many nutrients: B vitamins (thiamin (Vitamin B1), riboflavin (Vitamin B2), niacin (Vitamin B3) and folate (Vitamin ... be the first ingredient listed. Choose whole grain foods that contain one of the following ingredients first ...

  19. Fine Grain Aluminum Superplasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    Continua on ravaraa sida H nacaaaary and identify by block numbar) Superplastic aluminum, Superplasticity, Superplastic forming. High strength aluminum...size. The presence of precipitate particles also acts to impede grain boundary migration during recrystallization, further aiding in maintaining a

  20. Resistor Networks based on Symmetrical Polytopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Moody

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how a method developed by Van Steenwijk can be generalized to calculate the resistance between any two vertices of a symmetrical polytope all of whose edges are identical resistors. The method is applied to a number of cases that have not been studied earlier such as the Archimedean polyhedra and their duals in three dimensions, the regular polytopes in four dimensions and the hypercube in any number of dimensions.

  1. Irreducible complexity of iterated symmetric bimodal maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lampreia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a tree structure for the iterates of symmetric bimodal maps and identify a subset which we prove to be isomorphic to the family of unimodal maps. This subset is used as a second factor for a ∗-product that we define in the space of bimodal kneading sequences. Finally, we give some properties for this product and study the ∗-product induced on the associated Markov shifts.

  2. Quantum unharmonic symmetrical oscillators using elliptic functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.M.; Bejarano, J.d.

    1986-04-21

    The authors study in the JWKB approximation the energy levels of the symmetric anharmonic oscillators V(x) Ax/sup 2/ + Bx/sup 4/ for different signs and values of A and B. Comparisons are made with published results for specific cases and with numerical calculations. An additional example is given of exact value, to add to the very rare catalogue of known examples.

  3. M-curves and symmetric products

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indranil Biswas

    2017-08-03

    Aug 3, 2017 ... Since M-curves play a special role in the topology of real algebraic varieties, it is useful to have a criterion for M-curves. It was proved earlier that a curve defined over R is an. M-curve if and only if its Jacobian is an M-variety [5]. We use this result of [5] and the. Picard bundle to prove that the n-th symmetric ...

  4. Symmetric Wilson Loops beyond leading order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyi Chen-Lin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We study the circular Wilson loop in the symmetric representation of U(N in $\\mathcal{N} = 4$ super-Yang-Mills (SYM. In the large N limit, we computed the exponentially-suppressed corrections for strong coupling, which suggests non-perturbative physics in the dual holographic theory. We also computed the next-to-leading order term in 1/N, and the result matches with the exact result from the k-fundamental representation.

  5. Equivariant embeddings of Hermitian symmetric spaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is natural to expect these to be preserved. The embedding of the symmetric space for. SU(p, 1), Xp,1, into XP ,Q where P = (p k. ) , Q = ( p k−1. ) [8] gives a very graphic example. Another strong motivation for the theorem is given by Mok's rigidity results. Assume for simplicity that H is irreducible over Q and rk(H) > 1 (this is ...

  6. Dirichlet forms and symmetric Markov processes

    CERN Document Server

    Oshima, Yoichi; Fukushima, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition in 1994, this book has attracted constant interests from readers and is by now regarded as a standard reference for the theory of Dirichlet forms. For the present second edition, the authors not only revised the existing text, but also added some new sections as well as several exercises with solutions. The book addresses to researchers and graduate students who wish to comprehend the area of Dirichlet forms and symmetric Markov processes.

  7. Grain Boundary Complexions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    complexion transitions occur often in doped titanates, such as BaTiO3 and SrTiO3, and have been utilized to tailor microstructural develop- ment [275,276...Cantwell et al. / Acta Materialia 62 (2014) 1–48 Despite decades of research, efforts to identify grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals via...evidence suggesting grain boundary complexion transitions in pure metals has existed for decades. For example, researchers have reported anomalies and

  8. Is the Universe matter-antimatter symmetric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1976-09-01

    According to the symmetric cosmology there should be antimatter regions in space which are equally as large as the matter regions. The regions of different kind are separated by Leidenfrost layers, which may be very thin and not observable from a distance. This view has met resistance which in part is based on the old view that the dilute interstellar and intergalactic medium is more or less homogeneous. However, through space research in the magnetosphere and interplanetary space we know that thin layers, dividing space into regions of different magnetisation, exist and based on this it is concluded that space in general has a cellular structure. This result may break down the psychological resistance to the symmetric theory. The possibility that every second star in our galaxy consists of antimatter is discussed, and it is shown that this view is not in conflict with any observations. As most stars are likely to be surrounded by solar systems of a structure like our own, it is concluded that collisions between comets and antistars (or anticomets and stars) would be rather frequent. Such collisions would result in phenomena of the same type as the observed cosmic γ-ray bursts. Another support for the symmetric cosmology is the continuous X-ray background radiation. Also many of the observed large energy releases in cosmos are likely to be due to annihilation

  9. On the harmonic starlike functions with respect to symmetric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present paper, we introduce the notions of functions harmonic starlike with respect to symmetric, conjugate and symmetric conjugate points. Such results as coefficient inequalities and structural formulae for these function classes are proved. Keywords: Harmonic functions, harmonic starlike functions, symmetric points, ...

  10. In situ TEM analysis of a symmetric solid oxide cell in oxygen and vacuum–cation diffusion observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gualandris, Fabrizio; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2017-01-01

    In order to establish the use of solid oxide fuel/electrolysis cells (SOFC/SOEC) in the energy market, a deeper understanding of degradation effects during operation is necessary. This study apply in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of a symmetric model cell composed by two oxygen...... between LSC and STN. Strontium depletion is observed in both electrodes. Finally, a faster grain growth occurs in LSC for the cell exposed to oxygen in comparison with the cell in vacuum....

  11. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 126; Issue 4. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for delineation of concealed coal fire in East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coal field, India. S K Pal Jitendra Vaish Sahadev Kumar Piyush Priyam Abhay Kumar Bharti Rajwardhan Kumar. Volume ...

  12. Downward continuation and tilt derivative of magnetic data for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Pal

    2017-06-12

    Jun 12, 2017 ... are corroborated with multi-seam occurrences, mine working levels and surface manifestation which are also correlated well with 3D model of downward continued anomaly distribution. Keywords. Downward continuation; tilt derivative; magnetic data; coal fire mapping; Jharia coal field;. India. 1.

  13. Development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: oprakash@rrcat.gov.in. DOI: 10.1007/s12043-013-0672-7; ePublication: 6 February 2014. Abstract. This paper reports the study on development of tilted fibre Bragg gratings using highly coherent 255 nm radiation, obtained from the second harmonic generation (SHG) of copper vapour laser (CVL). The transmission ...

  14. Modelling and Simulations of a Narrow Track Tilting Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JJ Chong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Narrow track tilting vehicle is a new category of vehicle that combines the dynamical abilities of a passenger car with a motorcycle. In the presence of overturning moments during cornering, an accurate assessment of the lateral dynamics plays an important role to improve their stability and handling. In order to stabilise or control the narrow tilting vehicle, the demand tilt angle can be calculated from the vehicle’s lateral acceleration and controlled by either steering input of the vehicle or using additional titling actuator to reach this desired angle. The aim of this article is to present a new approach for developing the lateral dynamics model of a narrow track tilting vehicle. First, this approach utilises the well-known geometry ‘bicycle model’ and parameter estimation methods. Second, by using a tuning method, the unknown and uncertainties are taken into account and regulated through an optimisation procedure to minimise the model biases in order to improve the modelling accuracy. Therefore, the optimised model can be used as a platform to develop the vehicle control strategy. Numerical simulations have been performed in a comparison with the experimental data to validate the model accuracy.

  15. Analysis of a ferrofluid core differential transformer tilt measurement sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvegy, T.; Molnár, Á.; Molnár, G.; Gugolya, Z.

    2017-04-15

    In our work, we developed a ferrofluid core differential transformer sensor, which can be used to measure tilt and acceleration. The proposed sensor consisted of three coils, from which the primary was excited with an alternating current. In the space surrounded by the coils was a cell half-filled with ferrofluid, therefore in the horizontal state of the sensor the fluid distributes equally in the three sections of the cell surrounded by the three coils. Nevertheless when the cell is being tilted or accelerated (in the direction of the axis of the coils), there is a different amount of ferrofluid in the three sections. The voltage induced in the secondary coils strongly depends on the amount of ferrofluid found in the core surrounded by them, so the tilt or the acceleration of the cell becomes measurable. We constructed the sensor in several layouts. The linearly coiled sensor had an excellent resolution. Another version with a toroidal cell had almost perfect linearity and a virtually infinite measuring range. - Highlights: • A ferrofluid core differential transformer can be used to measure tilt. • The theoretical description of two different type of the sensor is introduced. • The measuring range, and the sensitivity depends on the dimensions of the sensor.

  16. Tilt Train Technology : A State of the Art Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This report presents an overview of the state-of-the-art in tilt-train technology. It is intended to give the reader a better understanding of the unique features of this approach to train design and the variations that exist. Briefly described is th...

  17. Manipulation of enhanced absorption with tilted hexagonal boron nitride slabs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohu; Fu, Ceji

    2018-04-01

    The wavevector of electromagnetic wave propagation in a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) slab can be controlled by tilting its optical axis. This property can be used to manipulate the absorption in a hBN slab. By carefully analyzing the dependence of the absorptivity of a thin hBN slab on the tilted angle of its optical axis, we propose a structure that can realize great absorptivity enhancement in a band by stacking hBN slabs of different tilted angles. Our numerical results show that the absorptivity of a structure made of 91 stacked hBN slabs can be achieved higher than 0.94 in the wavenumber range from 1367 to 1580 cm-1 when the tilted angles of the slabs are properly arranged. The strong absorption is attributed to the combination of impedance matching at the slab interfaces and enlarged wavevectors in the slabs. This work reveals a novel way to realize strong absorption with anisotropic materials for applications in areas such as thermal radiative energy harvesting and conversion.

  18. Dynamic tilt illusion induced by continuous contextual orientation alternations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiangyong; Zhang, Xilei; Jiang, Yi

    2017-11-01

    In the classic tilt illusion, the perceived orientation of a center patch is shifted away from its oriented context. Additionally, a stronger illusion effect is yielded when the center patch is simultaneously rather than asynchronously presented with a constant context for a shorter duration. However, little is known about the temporal characteristic of the tilt illusion in a reverse situation in which a constant center patch is presented throughout while the contexts change. Therefore, we continuously alternated two opposite-oriented contexts and manipulated alternate speeds to examine how the tilt illusion would build up as a function of dynamic contextual alternation. Our results revealed that dynamic alternations between leftward- and rightward-oriented contexts caused a static vertical grating at the center to apparently sway from side to side. More importantly, the apparent sway illusion was modulated by the alternate speed of the oriented contexts (up to 8-10 Hz); the quicker the alternation is, the faster and weaker the apparent sway is. Intriguingly, the temporal characteristic of the "dynamic tilt illusion" suggests that, under a varying environment, the suppressions from temporally adjacent surrounds would be chunked into discrete epochs before affecting our percept.

  19. Tilted hexagonal post arrays: DNA electrophoresis in anisotropic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhen; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Using Brownian dynamics simulations, we show that DNA electrophoresis in a hexagonal array of micron-sized posts changes qualitatively when the applied electric field vector is not coincident with the lattice vectors of the array. DNA electrophoresis in such “tilted” post arrays is superior to the standard “un-tilted” approach; while the time required to achieve a resolution of unity in a tilted post array is similar to an un-tilted array at a low electric field strengths, this time (i) decreases exponentially with electric field strength in a tilted array and (ii) increases exponentially with electric field strength in an un-tilted array. Although the DNA dynamics in a post array are complicated, the electrophoretic mobility results indicate that the “free path”, i.e., the average distance of ballistic trajectories of point sized particles launched from random positions in the unit cell until they intersect the next post, is a useful proxy for the detailed DNA trajectories. The analysis of the free path reveals a fundamental connection between anisotropy of the medium and DNA transport therein that goes beyond simply improving the separation device. PMID:23868490

  20. Modelling of LEG tilting pad journal bearings with active lubrication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; García, Asier Bengoechea; Santos, Ilmar

    2017-01-01

    This work constitutes the first step in a research effort aimed at studying the feasibility of introducing an active lubrication concept in tilting pad journal bearings (TPJBs) that feature the leading edge groove (LEG) lubrication system. The modification of the oil flow into each pad supply gro...

  1. Cellular structures using U_q-tilting modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina; Tubbenhauer, Daniel

    We use the theory of Uq-tilting modules to construct cellular bases for centralizer algebras. Our methods are quite general and work for any quantum group Uq attached to a Cartan matrix and include the non semi-simple cases for q being a root of unity and ground fields of positive characteristic...

  2. Simulations of Micropumps Based on Tilted Flexible Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Matthew; Elabbasi, Nagi; Demirel, Melik

    2015-11-01

    Pumping liquids at low Reynolds numbers is challenging because of the principle of reversibility. We report here a class of microfluidic pump designs based on tilted flexible structures that combines the concepts of cilia (flexible elastic elements) and rectifiers (e.g., Tesla valves, check valves). We demonstrate proof-of-concept with 2D and 3D fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations in COMSOL Multiphysics®of micropumps consisting of a source for oscillatory fluidic motion, e.g. a piston, and a channel lined with tilted flexible rods or sheets to provide rectification. When flow is against the rod tilt direction, the rods bend backward, narrowing the channel and increasing flow resistance; when flow is in the direction of rod tilt, the rods bend forward, widening the channel and decreasing flow resistance. The 2D and 3D simulations involve moving meshes whose quality is maintained by prescribing the mesh displacement on guide surfaces positioned on either side of each flexible structure. The prescribed displacement depends on structure bending and maintains mesh quality even for large deformations. Simulations demonstrate effective pumping even at Reynolds numbers as low as 0.001. Because rod rigidity may be specified independently of Reynolds number, in principle, rod rigidity may be reduced to enable pumping at arbitrarily low Reynolds numbers.

  3. Abnormal Tilt Perception During Centrifugation in Patients with Vestibular Migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Joanne; Lewis, Richard F

    2016-06-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM), defined as vestibular symptoms caused by migraine mechanisms, is very common but poorly understood. Because dizziness is often provoked in VM patients when the semicircular canals and otolith organs are stimulated concurrently (e.g., tilting the head relative to gravity), we measured tilt perception and eye movements in patients with VM and in migraine and normal control subjects during fixed-radius centrifugation, a paradigm that simultaneously modulates afferent signals from the semicircular canals and otoliths organs. Twenty-four patients (8 in each category) were tested with a motion paradigm that generated an inter-aural centrifugal force of 0.36 G, resulting in a 20° tilt of the gravito-inertial force in the roll plane. We found that percepts of roll tilt developed slower in VM patients than in the two control groups, but that eye movement responses, including the shift in the eye's rotational axis, were equivalent in all three groups. These results demonstrate a change in vestibular perception in VM that is unaccompanied by changes in vestibular-mediated eye movements and suggest that either the brain's integration of canal and otolith signals or the dynamics of otolith responses are aberrant in patients with VM.

  4. The impact of gravity during head-up tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette; Smith, Brittany

    The impact of gravity during head-up tilt, a test often used in the clinic to diagnose patients who suffer from dizziness or frequent episodes of syncope, is not well described. This study uses mathematical modeling to analyze experimental blood pressure data measured at the level of the aorta...

  5. Impaired perception of surface tilt in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian L Dale

    Full Text Available Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP is characterized by early postural instability and backward falls. The mechanisms underlying backward postural instability in PSP are not understood. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that postural instability in PSP is a result of dysfunction in the perception of postural verticality.We gathered posturography data on 12 subjects with PSP to compare with 12 subjects with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease (PD and 12 healthy subjects. Objective tests of postural impairment included: dynamic sensory perception tests of gravity and of surface oscillations, postural responses to surface perturbations, the sensory organization test of postural sway under altered sensory conditions and limits of stability in stance.Perception of toes up (but not toes down surface tilt was reduced in subjects with PSP compared to both control subjects (p≤0.001 standing, p≤0.007 seated and subjects with PD (p≤0.03 standing, p≤0.04 seated. Subjects with PSP, PD and normal controls accurately perceived the direction of gravity when standing on a tilting surface. Unlike PD and control subjects, subjects with PSP exerted less postural corrective torque in response to toes up surface tilts.Difficulty perceiving backward tilt of the surface or body may account for backward falls and postural impairments in patients with PSP. These observations suggest that abnormal central integration of sensory inputs for perception of body and surface orientation contributes to the pathophysiology of postural instability in PSP.

  6. determination of determination of optimal tilt angle for maximum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    The analysis showed that the best tilt angle for PV energy production is 60 if the module is fixed module ... suitable solar technology at an efficiency of 1%. Also, ... it. Thus, achieving the maximum possible performance is critical in PV power generation [14]. Installing PV modules on either a single or dual-axis trackers is one.

  7. Novel tilt-curvature coupling in lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzi, M. Mert; Deserno, Markus

    2017-08-01

    On mesoscopic scales, lipid membranes are well described by continuum theories whose main ingredients are the curvature of a membrane's reference surface and the tilt of its lipid constituents. In particular, Hamm and Kozlov [Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 323 (2000)] have shown how to systematically derive such a tilt-curvature Hamiltonian based on the elementary assumption of a thin fluid elastic sheet experiencing internal lateral pre-stress. Performing a dimensional reduction, they not only derive the basic form of the effective surface Hamiltonian but also express its emergent elastic couplings as trans-membrane moments of lower-level material parameters. In the present paper, we argue, though, that their derivation unfortunately missed a coupling term between curvature and tilt. This term arises because, as one moves along the membrane, the curvature-induced change of transverse distances contributes to the area strain—an effect that was believed to be small but nevertheless ends up contributing at the same (quadratic) order as all other terms in their Hamiltonian. We illustrate the consequences of this amendment by deriving the monolayer and bilayer Euler-Lagrange equations for the tilt, as well as the power spectra of shape, tilt, and director fluctuations. A particularly curious aspect of our new term is that its associated coupling constant is the second moment of the lipid monolayer's lateral stress profile—which within this framework is equal to the monolayer Gaussian curvature modulus, κ¯ m. On the one hand, this implies that many theoretical predictions now contain a parameter that is poorly known (because the Gauss-Bonnet theorem limits access to the integrated Gaussian curvature); on the other hand, the appearance of κ¯ m outside of its Gaussian curvature provenance opens opportunities for measuring it by more conventional means, for instance by monitoring a membrane's undulation spectrum at short scales.

  8. Modeling Flow Past a Tilted Vena Cava Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, M A; Wang, S L

    2009-06-29

    Inferior vena cava filters are medical devices used to prevent pulmonary embolism (PE) from deep vein thrombosis. In particular, retrievable filters are well-suited for patients who are unresponsive to anticoagulation therapy and whose risk of PE decreased with time. The goal of this work is to use computational fluid dynamics to evaluate the flow past an unoccluded and partially occluded Celect inferior vena cava filter. In particular, the hemodynamic response to thrombus volume and filter tilt is examined, and the results are compared with flow conditions that are known to be thrombogenic. A computer model of the filter inside a model vena cava is constructed using high resolution digital photographs and methods of computer aided design. The models are parameterized using the Overture software framework, and a collection of overlapping grids is constructed to discretize the flow domain. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved, and the characteristics of the flow (i.e., velocity contours and wall shear stresses) are computed. The volume of stagnant and recirculating flow increases with thrombus volume. In addition, as the filter increases tilt, the cava wall adjacent to the tilted filter is subjected to low velocity flow that gives rise to regions of low wall shear stress. The results demonstrate the ease of IVC filter modeling with the Overture software framework. Flow conditions caused by the tilted Celect filter may elevate the risk of intrafilter thrombosis and facilitate vascular remodeling. This latter condition also increases the risk of penetration and potential incorporation of the hook of the filter into the vena caval wall, thereby complicating filter retrieval. Consequently, severe tilt at the time of filter deployment may warrant early clinical intervention.

  9. Slant-tilt: the visual encoding of surface orientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, K A

    1983-01-01

    A specific form for the internal representation of local surface orientation is proposed, which is similar to Gibson's (1950) "amount and direction of slant". Slant amount is usually quantified by the angle sigma between the surface normal and the line of sight (0 degrees less than or equal to sigma less than or equal to 90 degrees). Slant direction corresponds to the direction of the gradient of distance from the viewer to the surface, and may be defined by the image direction tau to which the surface normal would project (0 degrees less than or equal to tau less than or equal to 360 degrees). Since the direction of slant is specified by the tilt of the projected surface normal, it is referred to as surface tilt (Stevens, 1979; Marr, 1982). The two degrees of freedom of orientation are therefore quantified by slant, an angle measured perpendicular to the image plane, and tilt, an angle measured in the image plane. The slant-tilt form provides several computational advantages relative to some other proposals and is consistent with various psychological phenomena. Slant might be encoded by various means, e.g. by the cosine of the angle, by the tangent, or linearly by the angle itself. Experimental results are reported that suggest that slant is encoded by an internal parameter that varies linearly with slant angle, with resolution of roughly one part in 100. Thus we propose that surface orientation is encoded in human vision by two quantities, one varying linearly with slant angle, the other varying linearly with tilt angle.

  10. grain-filling, chlorophyll content in relation with grain yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    number of fertile tillers nor number of grains per m². Grain weight is, however, reduced (Hochman,. 1982) due to a shortening of the grain filling period resulting from accelerated senescence. A long duration of grain filling is often an indicator of photosynthetic activity optimum, but a high velocity of filling is indicative of water.

  11. Motion sickness and tilts of the inertial force environment : Active suspension systems vs. active passengers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golding, J. F.; van der Bles, W.; Bos, J. E.; Haynes, T.; Gresty, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Maneuvering in vehicles exposes occupants to low frequency forces (<1 Hz) which can provoke motion sickness. Hypothesis: Aligning with the tilting inertial resultant (gravity + imposed horizontal acceleration: gravito-inertial force (GIF)) may reduce motion sickness when tilting is

  12. Numerical study on flow fields and aerodynamics of tilt rotor aircraft in conversion mode based on embedded grid and actuator model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A method combining rotor actuator disk model and embedded grid technique is presented in this paper, aimed at predicting the flow fields and aerodynamic characteristics of tilt rotor aircraft in conversion mode more efficiently and effectively. In this method, rotor’s influence is considered in terms of the momentum it impacts to the fluid around it; transformation matrixes among different coordinate systems are deduced to extend actuator method’s utility to conversion mode flow fields’ calculation. Meanwhile, an embedded grid system is designed, in which grids generated around fuselage and actuator disk are regarded as background grid and minor grid respectively, and a new method is presented for ‘donor searching’ and ‘hole cutting’ during grid assembling. Based on the above methods, flow fields of tilt rotor aircraft in conversion mode are simulated, with three-dimensional Navier–Stokes equations discretized by a second-order upwind finite-volume scheme and an implicit lower–upper symmetric Gauss–Seidel (LU-SGS time-stepping scheme. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed CFD method is very effective in simulating the conversion mode flow fields of tilt rotor aircraft.

  13. Effect of tilting on cerebral hemodynamics in preterm and term infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pichler, G; van Boetzelar, MC; Muller, W; Urlesberger, B

    2001-01-01

    Tilting is known to cause changes in hemodynamics due to hydrostatic pressure. The present study is an analysis of changes in cerebral hemodynamics measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) following tilting up and down in preterm and term infants. A significantly different effect of tilting up

  14. Role of Baroreflex Sensitivity in Predicting Tilt Training Response in Patients with Neurally Mediated Syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Kwang Jin; Yim, Hye Ran; Park, Jungwae; Park, Seung Jung; Park, Kyoung Min; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo

    2016-03-01

    An association between baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the response to tilt training has not been reported in patients with neurally mediated syncope (NMS). This study sought to investigate the role of BRS in predicting the response to tilt training in patients with NMS. We analyzed 57 patients who underwent tilt training at our hospital. A responder to tilt training was defined as a patient with three consecutive negative responses to the head-up tilt test (HUT) during tilt training. After tilt training, 52 patients (91.2%) achieved three consecutive negative responses to the HUT. In the supine position before upright posture during the first session of tilt training for responders and non-responders, the mean BRS was 18.17 ± 10.09 ms/mm Hg and 7.99 ± 5.84 ms/mm Hg (p=0.008), respectively, and the frequency of BRS ≥ 8.945 ms/mm Hg was 45 (86.5%) and 1 (20.0%; p=0.004), respectively. Age, male gender, frequency of syncopal events before HUT, type of NMS, phase of positive HUT, total number of tilt training sessions, and mean time of tilt training did not differ between the study groups. In the multivariate analysis, BRS training. The BRS value in the supine position could be a predictor for determining the response to tilt training in patients with NMS who are being considered for inpatient tilt training.

  15. Symmetric Euler orientation representations for orientational averaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayerhöfer, Thomas G

    2005-09-01

    A new kind of orientation representation called symmetric Euler orientation representation (SEOR) is presented. It is based on a combination of the conventional Euler orientation representations (Euler angles) and Hamilton's quaternions. The properties of the SEORs concerning orientational averaging are explored and compared to those of averaging schemes that are based on conventional Euler orientation representations. To that aim, the reflectance of a hypothetical polycrystalline material with orthorhombic crystal symmetry was calculated. The calculation was carried out according to the average refractive index theory (ARIT [T.G. Mayerhöfer, Appl. Spectrosc. 56 (2002) 1194]). It is shown that the use of averaging schemes based on conventional Euler orientation representations leads to a dependence of the result from the specific Euler orientation representation that was utilized and from the initial position of the crystal. The latter problem can be overcome partly by the introduction of a weighing factor, but only for two-axes-type Euler orientation representations. In case of a numerical evaluation of the average, a residual difference remains also if a two-axes type Euler orientation representation is used despite of the utilization of a weighing factor. In contrast, this problem does not occur if a symmetric Euler orientation representation is used as a matter of principle, while the result of the averaging for both types of orientation representations converges with increasing number of orientations considered in the numerical evaluation. Additionally, the use of a weighing factor and/or non-equally spaced steps in the numerical evaluation of the average is not necessary. The symmetrical Euler orientation representations are therefore ideally suited for the use in orientational averaging procedures.

  16. Population dynamics with symmetric and asymmetric harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ali

    2009-10-01

    Here $\\lambda, a, b, c$ and $L$ are positive constants with $0symmetric harvesting case and model B to an asymmetric harvesting case. Our objective is to study the existence of positive solutions and also discuss the effects of harvesting. We will develop appropriate quadrature methods via which we will establish our results.

  17. How Symmetrical Assumptions Advance Strategic Management Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Hallberg, Hallberg

    2014-01-01

    We develop the case for symmetrical assumptions in strategic management theory. Assumptional symmetry obtains when assumptions made about certain actors and their interactions in one of the application domains of a theory are also made about this set of actors and their interactions in other...... application domains of the theory. We argue that assumptional symmetry leads to theoretical advancement by promoting the development of theory with greater falsifiability and stronger ontological grounding. Thus, strategic management theory may be advanced by systematically searching for asymmetrical...

  18. Symmetric Logic Synthesis with Phase Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Benschop, N. F.

    2001-01-01

    Decomposition of any Boolean Function BF_n of n binary inputs into an optimal inverter coupled network of Symmetric Boolean functions SF_k (k \\leq n) is described. Each SF component is implemented by Threshold Logic Cells, forming a complete and compact T-Cell Library. Optimal phase assignment of input polarities maximizes local symmetries. The "rank spectrum" is a new BF_n description independent of input ordering, obtained by mapping its minterms onto an othogonal n \\times n grid of (transi...

  19. Entanglement of bosonic modes in symmetric graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoudeh, M.; Karimipour, V.

    2005-01-01

    The ground and thermal states of a quadratic Hamiltonian representing the interaction of bosonic modes or particles are always Gaussian states. We investigate the entanglement properties of these states for the case where the interactions are represented by harmonic forces acting along the edges of symmetric graphs - i.e., one-, two-, and three-dimensional rectangular lattices, mean-field clusters, and platonic solids. We determine the entanglement of formation (EOF) as a function of the interaction strength, calculate the maximum EOF in each case, and compare these values with the bounds found previously for quadratic Hamiltonians

  20. Symmetric Circular Matchings and RNA Folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofacker, Ivo L.; Reidys, Christian; Stadler, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    or the co-folding of two or more identical RNAs. Here, we show that the RNA folding problem with symmetry terms can still be solved with polynomial-time algorithms. Empirically, the fraction of symmetric ground state structures decreases with chain length, so that the error introduced by neglecting......RNA secondary structures can be computed as optimal solutions of certain circular matching problems. An accurate treatment of this energy minimization problem has to account for the small --- but non-negligible --- entropic destabilization of secondary structures with non-trivial automorphisms...

  1. Baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-04-01

    The framework of baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology offers the greatest potential for deducing the evolution of the universe as a consequence of physical laws and processes with the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions as to initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed, and also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic gamma ray background radiation.

  2. Baryon symmetric big-bang cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stecker, F.W.

    1978-04-01

    The framework of baryon-symmetric big-bang cosmology offers the greatest potential for deducing the evolution of the universe as a consequence of physical laws and processes with the minimum number of arbitrary assumptions as to initial conditions in the big-bang. In addition, it offers the possibility of explaining the photon-baryon ratio in the universe and how galaxies and galaxy clusters are formed, and also provides the only acceptable explanation at present for the origin of the cosmic gamma ray background radiation

  3. EWPD Constraints on Flavor Symmetric Vector Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamín; Trott, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Electroweak precision data constraints on flavor symmetric vector fields are determined. The flavor multiplets of spin one that we examine are the complete set of fields that couple to quark bi-linears at tree level while not initially breaking the quark global flavor symmetry group. Flavor safe vector masses proximate to, and in some cases below, the electroweak symmetry breaking scale are found to be allowed. Many of these fields provide a flavor safe mechanism to explain the t tbar forward backward anomaly, and can simultaneously significantly raise the allowed values of the Standard Model Higgs mass consistent with electroweak precision data.

  4. Segregation of sp-impurities at grain boundaries and surfaces: comparison of fcc cobalt and nickel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Všianská, Monika; Vémolová, H.; Šob, Mojmír

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 8 (2017), č. článku 085004. ISSN 0965-0393 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-24711S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : local magnetic-moments * total-energy calculations * augmented-wave method * solute segregation * tilt boundaries * embrittling potency * alloying elements * hcp metals * basis-set * 1st-principles * grain boundary segregation * strengthening/embrittling energy * grain boundary magnetism * ab initio calculations * surface segregation Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.891, year: 2016

  5. Radiation disinfestation of grain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1962-01-01

    A panel was convened by the International Atomic Energy Agency to consider ways of applying radiation to grain handling and insect control, and to make recommendations on the advisability and nature of any future action in this field. Among other subjects, the panel discussed the use of electron accelerators and gamma radiation for grain disinfestation as well as problems of radiation entomology and wholesomeness of irradiated grain. After reviewing the present state of knowledge regarding radiation disinfestation of grain, the experts agreed that pilot plant operations be initiated as soon as practicable in order to evaluate the use of irradiation plants under practical conditions in their entomological, engineering and economic aspects. They recommended that research effort be directed towards solving certain fundamental problems related to the proposed pilot plant projects; such as rapid methods for differentiation between sterile insects and normal ones; study of the metabolism of irradiated immature stages of insects in relation to the heating of treated grain; research into possible induction of radiation resistance; irradiation susceptibility of insects which show resistance to conventional insecticides; and study of methods of sensitizing insects to irradiation damage. It was also pointed out that the distribution of irradiated food for human consumption was controlled in most countries under present legislative procedures, and no country had yet approved radiation treatment of cereals. The experts recommended that countries in a position to submit evidence to their appropriate authorities regarding the wholesomeness of irradiated cereals should be encouraged to do so as soon as possible. Regarding the engineering aspects of irradiation pilot plant projects, the experts noted that the process could be automated and operated safely. Electron accelerators and cobalt sources could be used for all the throughput rates utilized in most conventional grain

  6. Computerized radioautographic grain counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKanna, J.A.; Casagrande, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years, radiolabeling techniques have become fundamental assays in physiology and biochemistry experiments. They also have assumed increasingly important roles in morphologic studies. Characteristically, radioautographic analysis of structure has been qualitative rather than quantitative, however, microcomputers have opened the door to several methods for quantifying grain counts and density. The overall goal of this chapter is to describe grain counting using the Bioquant, an image analysis package based originally on the Apple II+, and now available for several popular microcomputers. The authors discuss their image analysis procedures by applying them to a study of development in the central nervous system

  7. Tilted-axis wobbling in odd-mass nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaca, R.

    2018-02-01

    A triaxial rotor Hamiltonian with a rigidly aligned high-j quasiparticle is treated by a time-dependent variational principle, using angular momentum coherent states. The resulting classical energy function has three unique critical points in a space of generalized conjugate coordinates, which can minimize the energy for specific ordering of the inertial parameters and a fixed angular momentum state. Because of the symmetry of the problem, there are only two unique solutions, corresponding to wobbling motion around a principal axis and, respectively, a tilted axis. The wobbling frequencies are obtained after a quantization procedure and then used to calculate E 2 and M 1 transition probabilities. The analytical results are employed in the study of the wobbling excitations of 135Pr nucleus, which is found to undergo a transition from low angular momentum transverse wobbling around a principal axis toward a tilted-axis wobbling at higher angular momentum.

  8. Profile stabilization of tilt mode in a Field Reversed Configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobb, J.W.; Tajima, T. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Barnes, D.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The possibility of stabilizing the tilt mode in Field Reversed Configurations without resorting to explicit kinetic effects such as large ion orbits is investigated. Various pressure profiles, P({Psi}), are chosen, including ``hollow`` profiles where current is strongly peaked near the separatrix. Numerical equilibria are used as input for an initial value simulation which uses an extended Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model that includes viscous and Hall terms. Tilt stability is found for specific hollow profiles when accompanied by high values of separatrix beta, {beta}{sub sep}. The stable profiles also have moderate to large elongation, racetrack separatrix shape, and lower values of 3, average ratio of Larmor radius to device radius. The stability is unaffected by changes in viscosity, but the neglect of the Hall term does cause stable results to become marginal or unstable. Implications for interpretation of recent experiments are discussed.

  9. On the Design of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Pockets are often machined in the surfaces of tilting-pad thrust bearings to allow for hydrostatic jacking in the start-up phase. Pockets and other recesses in the surfaces of bearing pads influence the pressure distribution and thereby the position of the pivot resulting in the most advantageous...... friction and a small pressure build-up. As in parallel-step bearings the recesses may also have a depth of the same order of magnitude as the oil film thickness. Such recesses are characterized by a strong pressure build-up caused by the reduction of the flow area at the end of the recess. Numerical models...... based on the Reynolds equation are used. They include the effects of variations of viscosity with temperature and the deformation of the bearing pads due to pressure and thermal gradients. The models are validated using measurements. Tilting-pad bearings of standard design are studied and the influences...

  10. Tilting-Pad Guide Bearing in Large Hydro-unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Feng Ma

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A new numerical method is proposed for predicting the nonlinearity of tilting-pad guide bearing oilfilm force in the rotor-bearing system in a large hydro-unit. Nonlinear displacement and velocity of the journal center, as well as nonlinear tilting angles and angular velocities of the pads in non-stationary Reynolds equation are taken into account. This method is also suited for other small rotor-bearing system. As an example, the response due to a momentarily created unbalance is Calculated. The nonlinear motion patterns of the pad and journal whirling orbit are obtained. Finally, the nonlinear orbit is compared to the linear one that could be calculated from linear stiffness and damping coefficients. It is shown that there are important differences between those two orbits and that the nonlinear simulation is more accurate.

  11. TILT-BASED PREDICTIVE TEXT INPUT CONCEPT FOR MOBILE DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Badurowicz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper authors are introducing the concept of usage of physical orientation of a mobile device, calculated using built-in environmental sensors like accelerometer, gyroscope and magnetometer for detection of tilting gesture. This gesture is used as an acceptance factor for the two next probable word solutions suggested to the user during text input. By performing the device tilt, the first or second word is being automatically put into the desired text field and new prediction is performed. The text predictions are calculated and stored directly on the device to maintain privacy protection. The founding concept of the software is being presented, as well as initial considerations and further plans. This solution is recommended especially to smartphone manufacturers like Microsoft, Samsung and Apple to deploy in their latest models.

  12. Tilted Foils Nuclear Spin Polarization at REX-ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, Hans Toshihide

    2013-08-08

    This thesis will explain and summarize my work and involvement in experiments aimed at producing nuclear spin polarization of post-accelerated beams of ions with the tilted-foils technique at the REX-ISOLDE linear accelerator at CERN. Polarizing the nuclear spin of radioactive beams in particular may provide access to observables which may be difficult to obtain otherwise. Currently, the techniques commonly employed for nuclear spin polarization are restricted to specific nuclides and experimental measurement techniques. Tilted foils polarization may provide a new tool to extend the range of nuclides that can be polarized and the types of experiments that can be performed. The experiments rely not only on the production but also on the method to measure the degree of attained polarization. Two methods will be treated, based on particle scattering in Coulomb excitation that may be utilized for stable beams, and the $\\beta$-NMR that requires $\\beta$-decaying nuclei. The experimental setups and measurements will...

  13. Source tilting within the difference formulation for radiation transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luu, T; Brooks, E; Szoke, A

    2006-09-27

    We apply a heuristic technique known as 'source tilting' to a Monte Carlo solution for radiation transport, in the difference formulation, that otherwise employs a piecewise-constant treatment of the material temperature. Source tilting improves the accuracy of the piecewise-constant treatment, reducing the excessive energy flow that occurs in the thick limit. An analysis of the cause of excessive energy flow suggests an interpolation scheme that removes this defect, obtaining the correct diffusion limit flux between zones. The results obtained with our interpolation scheme agree almost identically to those of a self-consistent piecewise-linear treatment of the difference formulation while avoiding its additional costs. The resulting method is capable of providing robust and accurate calculations for problems involving optically thick zones. We comment on the monotonicity issues that arise when employing this transport method.

  14. Complexity Reduction Explains Preference to Symmetric Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Hsuan Wu

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Symmetric patterns are more appealing to human observers than asymmetric ones. Here, we investigated the possible mechanisms underlying such preference. All Stimuli were derived from phase scrambled versions of forty face or nature images. There were four types of test images: symmetry, in which one part of the image was the reflective transform of the other part about an axis; repetition, one part of the image was a copy of the other part; anti-symmetry, similar to symmetry but the contrast of one side was reversed; and interleaved patterns, half of the symmetric pattern was replaced by a scrambled image. The number of axes ranged from 1 to 16 for all image types. The task of our 20 observers was to give a preference rating to each image on a 6-point Lickert Scale. The preference rating increased with the number of axis for all stimulus type. The preference to symmetry was similar to that to repetition and was slightly better than anti-symmetry. The preference to interleaved pattern was much less than other types of stimuli. The preference rating of an image has little correlation with the slope of the power spectrum but of the image but is inversely correlated with its complexity.

  15. Symmetric solutions of evolutionary partial differential equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruell, Gabriele; Ehrnström, Mats; Geyer, Anna; Pei, Long

    2017-10-01

    We show that for a large class of evolutionary nonlinear and nonlocal partial differential equations, symmetry of solutions implies very restrictive properties of the solutions and symmetry axes. These restrictions are formulated in terms of three principles, based on the structure of the equations. The first principle covers equations that allow for steady solutions and shows that any spatially symmetric solution is in fact steady with a speed determined by the motion of the axis of symmetry at the initial time. The second principle includes equations that admit breathers and steady waves, and therefore is less strong: it holds that the axes of symmetry are constant in time. The last principle is a mixed case, when the equation contains terms of the kind from both earlier principles, and there may be different outcomes; for a class of such equations one obtains that a spatially symmetric solution must be constant in both time and space. We list and give examples of more than 30 well-known equations and systems in one and several dimensions satisfying these principles; corresponding results for weak formulations of these equations may be attained using the same techniques. Our investigation is a generalisation of a local and one-dimensional version of the first principle from Ehrnström et al (2009 Int. Math. Res. Not. 2009 4578-96) to nonlocal equations, systems and higher dimensions, as well as a study of the standing and mixed cases.

  16. Electroweak Baryogenesis in R-symmetric Supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fok, R.; Kribs, Graham D.; Martin, Adam; Tsai, Yuhsin

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate that electroweak baryogenesis can occur in a supersymmetric model with an exact R-symmetry. The minimal R-symmetric supersymmetric model contains chiral superfields in the adjoint representation, giving Dirac gaugino masses, and an additional set of "R-partner" Higgs superfields, giving R-symmetric \\mu-terms. New superpotential couplings between the adjoints and the Higgs fields can simultaneously increase the strength of the electroweak phase transition and provide additional tree-level contributions to the lightest Higgs mass. Notably, no light stop is present in this framework, and in fact, we require both stops to be above a few TeV to provide sufficient radiative corrections to the lightest Higgs mass to bring it up to 125 GeV. Large CP-violating phases in the gaugino/higgsino sector allow us to match the baryon asymmetry of the Universe with no constraints from electric dipole moments due to R-symmetry. We briefly discuss some of the more interesting phenomenology, particularly of the of the lightest CP-odd scalar.

  17. Discovery of Ionized Gas Associated with the Tilted Inner Disk of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, L. Matthew; Benjamin, Robert A.; Krishnarao, Dhanesh

    2018-01-01

    The complex distribution and motion of gas within the central few kiloparsecs of our Galaxy does not follow the more regular patterns seen throughout the rest of its gaseous disk. Sensitive observations of the neutral and molecular gas over the past 40 years reveal emission intensities and velocities that are far from symmetric about the Galactic equator and the line at zero longitude. Burton and Liszt (1978-1992) show that much of the anomalous behavior is well explained by an elliptical disk, tilted with respect to the Galactic plane and our line of sight.Using the Wisconsin Hα Mapper (WHAM), we report the discovery of ionized gas near the Galactic center (l = 0° - 14° b = -8° to +4°) with a distribution and velocities also explained by this creative model. Emission from distant regions near the Galactic plane is typically blocked by a thick band of interstellar dust. However, a portion of the tilted disk is behind Baade's Window, a hole in the thick dust near the Galactic center. Combined with the unparalleled sensitivity of the WHAM Sky Survey (IHα ~ 0.1 R; EM ~ 0.2 pc cm-6), we are able to trace the distribution and kinematics of the ionized phase of this structure for the first time. The relationship between this multi-phase inner disk, outflow from the Galactic center, and the Fermi bubbles is not yet clear.In several directions around the disk, WHAM captures emission from Hα, Hβ, and several ions (N, S, and O) to explore the state and source of the ionized gas. [N II]/Hα, [S II]/Hα, and [S II]/[N II] line ratios are much different than classical H II regions and diffuse gas near the plane but are similar to those seen at high-|z| (> 1.5 kpc) in the Perseus arm. We will also compare this emission to multi-phase absorption components revealed in a recent UV absorption-line study through the low halo (z ~ -1 kpc) in this direction (Savage et al. 2017) and to emission seen near nuclear regions of other spiral galaxies, where high low

  18. Simulation of effusion from targets of tilted foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustapha, B.; Nolen, J.A.; Gomes, I.C.

    2004-01-01

    Replacing a target transverse to the beam by a 10 times thinner one tilted at about 6 o from the beam direction reduces the thickness for heat transfer and diffusion by a factor of 10 while keeping the same production thickness. This concept makes the target cool faster and therefore supports higher beam power. Monte-Carlo effusion simulations of targets based on this concept were carried out to find optimum target geometries for both fast and slow diffusion materials

  19. Can pelvic tilting be ignored in total hip arthroplasty?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Yong Shon

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The sagittal position of pelvis is a key factor in impingement and dislocation after total hip arthroplasty. Pelvic tilting affects the position of acetabular component in the sagittal plane of the body as compared with its anatomic position in the pelvis. We suggest a preoperative lateral view of spine-pelvis, in upright and supine position for evaluation of a corrective adaptation of the acetabular cup accordingly with pelvic balance.

  20. Conformally flat tilted Bianchi Type-V cosmological models in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The model starts expanding with a big-bang at М = 0 and the expansion in the model stops at М = ∞ and = -2(Т + 2)¬. The model in general represents shearing, non-rotating and tilted universe. The expansion in the model decreases as time increases. For = 1 Т = 1, we have heat conduction vector Х1 = 0 Х4 = 0. When М ...

  1. Dynamic characteristics of polymer faced tilting pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmons, Gregory F.; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic characteristics of polymer faced tilting pad journal bearings are presented. Investigations are conducted using a single pad, load on pad configuration over a range of shaft speeds and loads. Two polyether ether ketone (PEEK) faced pads, one polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) faced pad and two...... for entirely PEEK pads compared to pads with a PEEK lining and steel backing. Similar effects were observed by using a softer (PTFE) pad liner with a steel backing....

  2. Discontinuity effects in dynamically loaded tilting pad journal bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kim; Klit, Peder; Vølund, Anders

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes two discontinuity effects that can occur when modelling radial tilting pad bearings subjected to high dynamic loads. The first effect to be treated is a pressure build-up discontinuity effect. The second effect is a contact-related discontinuity that disappears when a contact...... force is included in the theoretical model. Methods for avoiding the pressure build-up discontinuity effect are proposed....

  3. Tilt stability of rotating current rings with passive conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibel, E.G.; Pomphrey, N.

    1984-12-01

    We study the combined effects of rotation and resistive passive conductors on the stability of a rigid current in an external magnetic field. We present numerical and approximate analytical solutions to the equations of motion, which show that the ring is always tilt unstable on the resistive decay timescale of the conductors, although rotation and eddy currents may stabilize it over short times. Possible applications of our model include spheromaks which rotate or which are encircled by energetic particle rings

  4. Modeling of Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings with Transfer Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Vázquez

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tilting-pad journal bearings are widely used to promote stability in modern rotating machinery. However, the dynamics associated with pad motion alters this stabilizing capacity depending on the operating speed of the machine and the bearing geometric parameters, particularly the bearing preload. In modeling the dynamics of the entire rotor-bearing system, the rotor is augmented with a model of the bearings. This model may explicitly include the pad degrees of freedom or may implicitly include them by using dynamic matrix reduction methods. The dynamic reduction models may be represented as a set of polynomials in the eigenvalues of the system used to determine stability. All tilting-pad bearings can then be represented by a fixed size matrix with polynomial elements interacting with the rotor. This paper presents a procedure to calculate the coefficients of polynomials for implicit bearing models. The order of the polynomials changes to reflect the number of pads in the bearings. This results in a very compact and computationally efficient method for fully including the dynamics of tilting-pad bearings or other multiple degrees of freedom components that interact with rotors. The fixed size of the dynamic reduction matrices permits the method to be easily incorporated into rotor dynamic stability codes. A recursive algorithm is developed and presented for calculating the coefficients of the polynomials. The method is applied to stability calculations for a model of a typical industrial compressor.

  5. Anomalous DC Hall response in noncentrosymmetric tilted Weyl semimetals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S. P.; Carbotte, J. P.

    2018-03-01

    Weyl nodes come in pairs of opposite chirality. For broken time reversal symmetry (TR) they are displaced in momentum space by {Q} and the anomalous DC Hall conductivity σxy is proportional to {Q} at charge neutrality. For finite doping there are additive corrections to σxy which depend on the chemical potential as well as on the tilt (C ) of the Dirac cones and on their relative orientation. If inversion symmetry (I) is also broken the Weyl nodes are shifted in energy by an amount Q0 . This introduces further changes in σxy and we provide simple analytic formulas for these modifications for both type I (Ctype II (C>1 , overtilted) Weyl. For type I when the Weyl nodes have equal magnitude but oppositely directed tilts, the correction to σxy is proportional to the chemical potential μ and completely independent of the energy shift Q0 . When instead the tilts are parallel, the correction is linear in Q0 and μ drops out. For type II the corrections involve both μ and Q0 , are nonlinear and also involve a momentum cut off. We discuss the implied changes to the Nernst coefficient and to the thermal Hall effect of a finite Q0 .

  6. Simulating grain size estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saxl, Ivan; Sülleiová, K.; Ponížil, P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2001), s. 396-409 ISSN 0023-432X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/99/0269 Keywords : grain size estimation% ASTM standards%Voronoi tessellations Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.343, year: 2001

  7. Interstellar grain surface chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tielens, A.G.G.M.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical calculations, laboratory studies, and observations of interstellar icy grain mantles are reviewed. The emphasis is on recent ground-based observations of the interstellar 2167 cm -1 (4.67μm) band and air-borne studies of the interstellar 1665 and 1460 cm -1 (6.0 and 6.85μm) bands. From a comparison with laboratory studies it is concluded that interstellar icy gain mantles consist mainly of H 2 O, CH 3 OH and CO in an approximate ratio of 100:50:5. Traces of other molecules have also been detected. Evidence for the presence of a separate, more inert, grain mantle component, perhaps consisting mainly of solid CO, will also be presented. Theoretical calculations of the composition of interstellar icy gain mantles are confronted with observational data and the shortcomings of the models are pointed out. Finally, the evolution of icy grain mantles under UV irradiation and their possible interrelationship with an organic grain component observed in the diffuse interstellar medium are discussed

  8. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have stable, not too short crop duration with ... Ndiaye is located in the. Costal Delta region of Senegal. The climate of the Delta is characterized by a wet season from July to October with approximately. 200 mm of ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant height of 16 rice.

  9. Numerical tilting compensation in microscopy based on wavefront sensing using transport of intensity equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junbao; Meng, Xin; Wei, Qi; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Zhilong; Xue, Liang; Liu, Fei; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Shouyu

    2018-03-01

    Wide-field microscopy is commonly used for sample observations in biological research and medical diagnosis. However, the tilting error induced by the oblique location of the image recorder or the sample, as well as the inclination of the optical path often deteriorates the imaging quality. In order to eliminate the tilting in microscopy, a numerical tilting compensation technique based on wavefront sensing using transport of intensity equation method is proposed in this paper. Both the provided numerical simulations and practical experiments prove that the proposed technique not only accurately determines the tilting angle with simple setup and procedures, but also compensates the tilting error for imaging quality improvement even in the large tilting cases. Considering its simple systems and operations, as well as image quality improvement capability, it is believed the proposed method can be applied for tilting compensation in the optical microscopy.

  10. Grain Boundary Segregation in Metals

    CERN Document Server

    Lejcek, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Grain boundaries are important structural components of polycrystalline materials used in the vast majority of technical applications. Because grain boundaries form a continuous network throughout such materials, their properties may limit their practical use. One of the serious phenomena which evoke these limitations is the grain boundary segregation of impurities. It results in the loss of grain boundary cohesion and consequently, in brittle fracture of the materials. The current book deals with fundamentals of grain boundary segregation in metallic materials and its relationship to the grain boundary structure, classification and other materials properties.

  11. Singular symmetric functionals and Banach limits with additional invariance properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, P G; Pagter, B de; Sedaev, A A; Semenov, E M; Sukochev, F A

    2003-01-01

    For symmetric spaces of measurable functions on the real half-line, we study the problem of existence of positive linear functionals monotone with respect to the Hardy-Littlewood semi-ordering, the so-called symmetric functionals. Two new wide classes of symmetric spaces are constructed which are distinct from Marcinkiewicz spaces and for which the set of symmetric functionals is non-empty. We consider a new construction of singular symmetric functionals based on the translation-invariance of Banach limits defined on the space of bounded sequences. We prove the existence of Banach limits invariant under the action of the Hardy operator and all dilation operators. This result is used to establish the stability of the new construction of singular symmetric functionals for an important class of generating sequences

  12. Symmetric Markov Processes, Time Change, and Boundary Theory (LMS-35)

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhen-Qing

    2011-01-01

    This book gives a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the theory of symmetric Markov processes and symmetric quasi-regular Dirichlet forms. In a detailed and accessible manner, Zhen-Qing Chen and Masatoshi Fukushima cover the essential elements and applications of the theory of symmetric Markov processes, including recurrence/transience criteria, probabilistic potential theory, additive functional theory, and time change theory. The authors develop the theory in a general framework of symmetric quasi-regular Dirichlet forms in a unified manner with that of regular Dirichlet forms

  13. On The K-Pseudo Symmetric and Ordinary Differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Łazarow E.; Turowska M.

    2016-01-01

    In 1972, S. Valenti introduced the definition of k-pseudo symmetric derivative and has shown that the set of all points of a continuous function, at which there exists a finite k-pseudo symmetric derivative but the finite ordinary derivative does not exist, is of Lebesgue measure zero. In 1993, L. Zajícek has shown that for a continuous function f, the set of all points, at which f is symmetrically differentiable but no differentiable, is σ-(1 - ε) symmetrically porous for every ε > 0. The qu...

  14. Polyhomogeneous expansions from time symmetric initial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasperín, E.; Valiente Kroon, J. A.

    2017-10-01

    We make use of Friedrich’s construction of the cylinder at spatial infinity to relate the logarithmic terms appearing in asymptotic expansions of components of the Weyl tensor to the freely specifiable parts of time symmetric initial data sets for the Einstein field equations. Our analysis is based on the assumption that a particular type of formal expansions near the cylinder at spatial infinity corresponds to the leading terms of actual solutions to the Einstein field equations. In particular, we show that if the Bach tensor of the initial conformal metric does not vanish at the point at infinity then the most singular component of the Weyl tensor decays near null infinity as O(\\tilde{r}-3\\ln \\tilde{r}) so that spacetime will not peel. We also provide necessary conditions on the initial data which should lead to a peeling spacetime. Finally, we show how to construct global spacetimes which are candidates for non-peeling (polyhomogeneous) asymptotics.

  15. Symmetric Functional Model for Extensions of Hermitian

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhov, V

    2006-01-01

    This paper offers the functional model of a class of non-selfadjoint extensions of a Hermitian operator with equal deficiency indices. The explicit form of dilation of a dissipative extension is offered and the symmetric form of Sz.Nagy-Foia\\c{s} model as developed by B.~Pavlov is constructed. A variant of functional model for a general non-selfadjoint non-dissipative extension is formulated. We illustrate the theory by two examples: singular perturbations of the Laplace operator in~$L_2(\\Real^3)$ by a finite number of point interactions, and the Schr\\"odinger operator on the half axis~$(0, \\infty)$ in the Weyl limit circle case at infinity.

  16. BFV quantization on hermitian symmetric spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, E.S.; Linetsky, V.Ya.

    1994-12-01

    Gauge-invariant BFV approach to geometric quantization is applied to the case of hermitian symmetric spaces G/H. In particular, gauge invariant quantization on the Lobachevsky plane and sphere is carried out. Due to the presence of symmetry, master equations for the first-class constraints, quantum observables and physical quantum states are exactly solvable. BFV-BRST operator defines a flat G-connection in the Fock bundle over G/H. Physical states are covariantly constant sections with respect to this connection and are shown to coincide with the generalized coherent states for the group G. Vacuum expectation values of the quantum observables commuting with the quantum first-class constraints reduce to the covariant symbols of Berezin. The gauge-invariant approach to quantization on symplectic manifolds synthesizes geometric, deformation and Berezin quantization approaches. (author). 28 refs

  17. From Symmetric Glycerol Derivatives to Dissymmetric Chlorohydrins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Villorbina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The anticipated worldwide increase in biodiesel production will result in an accumulation of glycerol for which there are insufficient conventional uses. The surplus of this by-product has increased rapidly during the last decade, prompting a search for new glycerol applications. We describe here the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters from symmetric 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl esters obtained from glycerol. We studied the influence of two solvents: 1,4-dioxane and 1-butanol and two bases: sodium carbonate and 1-butylimidazole, on the synthesis of dissymmetric chlorohydrin esters. In addition, we studied the influence of other bases (potassium and lithium carbonates in the reaction using 1,4-dioxane as the solvent. The highest yield was obtained using 1,4-dioxane and sodium carbonate.

  18. Left-right symmetric electroweak models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, F.I.

    1989-10-01

    We present a critical analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs sector of the conventional SU(2) L circle-times SU(2) R circle-times U(1) B-L left-right symmetric theory involving bi-doublet and triplet Higgs fields. We examine the phenomenological constraints imposed on the minimization of the Higgs potential arising from experimental observations, and explore the resulting consequences including the problem of ''fine- tuning'' arising from the hierarchy of mass scales involved. We show that it is non-trivial to satisfy all of these constraints. We contrast the benefits of this general class left-right models against the required ''fine-tuning'' necessary to force the phenomenology to conform to experimental fact. 17 refs., 1 fig

  19. Geometric inequalities for axially symmetric black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dain, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    A geometric inequality in general relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse; they are closely related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. Axially symmetric black holes are the natural candidates to study these inequalities because the quasi-local angular momentum is well defined for them. We review recent results in this subject and we also describe the main ideas behind the proofs. Finally, a list of relevant open problems is presented. (topical review)

  20. Minimal Left-Right Symmetric Dark Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeck, Julian; Patra, Sudhanwa

    2015-09-18

    We show that left-right symmetric models can easily accommodate stable TeV-scale dark matter particles without the need for an ad hoc stabilizing symmetry. The stability of a newly introduced multiplet either arises accidentally as in the minimal dark matter framework or comes courtesy of the remaining unbroken Z_{2} subgroup of B-L. Only one new parameter is introduced: the mass of the new multiplet. As minimal examples, we study left-right fermion triplets and quintuplets and show that they can form viable two-component dark matter. This approach is, in particular, valid for SU(2)×SU(2)×U(1) models that explain the recent diboson excess at ATLAS in terms of a new charged gauge boson of mass 2 TeV.

  1. Primordial two-component maximally symmetric inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enqvist, K.; Nanopoulos, D. V.; Quirós, M.; Kounnas, C.

    1985-12-01

    We propose a two-component inflation model, based on maximally symmetric supergravity, where the scales of reheating and the inflation potential at the origin are decoupled. This is possible because of the second-order phase transition from SU(5) to SU(3)×SU(2)×U(1) that takes place when φ≅φcinflation at the global minimum, and leads to a reheating temperature TR≅(1015-1016) GeV. This makes it possible to generate baryon asymmetry in the conventional way without any conflict with experimental data on proton lifetime. The mass of the gravitinos is m3/2≅1012 GeV, thus avoiding the gravitino problem. Monopoles are diluted by residual inflation in the broken phase below the cosmological bounds if φcUSA.

  2. Cosmic ray antimatter and baryon symmetric cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecker, F. W.; Protheroe, R. J.; Kazanas, D.

    1982-01-01

    The relative merits and difficulties of the primary and secondary origin hypotheses for the observed cosmic-ray antiprotons, including the new low-energy measurement of Buffington, et al. We conclude that the cosmic-ray antiproton data may be evidence for antimatter galaxies and baryon symmetric cosmology. The present bar P data are consistent with a primary extragalactic component having /p=/equiv 1+/- 3.2/0.7x10 = to the -4 independent of energy. We propose that the primary extragalactic cosmic ray antiprotons are most likely from active galaxies and that expected disintegration of bar alpha/alpha ban alpha/alpha. We further predict a value for ban alpha/alpha =/equiv 10 to the -5, within range of future cosmic ray detectors.

  3. Design and Analysis of Symmetric Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Martin Mehl

    parts of the input to obtain dependency between the state bits. With this operation in focus, we give a range of theoretical results, reducing the possible choices for the operation in generalized ciphers to a particular set of classes. We then employ a computer-aided optimization technique to determine...... for the ongoing CAESAR competition for authenticated encryption with associated data. We describe the design criteria, the usage modes and give proofs of security. Finally, in the third part, we consider implementation aspects of symmetric cryptography, with focus on high-performance software. In more detail, we...... analyze and implement modes recommended by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), as well as authenticated encryption modes from the CAESAR competition, when instantiated with the AES. The data processed in our benchmarking has sizes representative to that of typical Internet traffic...

  4. FFLP problem with symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Daneshrad

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The most popular approach for solving fully fuzzy linear programming (FFLP problems is to convert them into the corresponding deterministic linear programs. Khan et al. (2013 [Khan, I. U., Ahmad, T., & Maan, N. (2013. A simplified novel technique for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems. Journal of Optimization Theory and Applications, 159(2, 536-546.] claimed that there had been no method in the literature to find the fuzzy optimal solution of a FFLP problem without converting it into crisp linear programming problem, and proposed a technique for the same. Others showed that the fuzzy arithmetic operation used by Khan et al. (2013 had some problems in subtraction and division operations, which could lead to misleading results. Recently, Ezzati et al. (2014 [Ezzati, R., Khorram, E., & Enayati, R. (2014. A particular simplex algorithm to solve fuzzy lexicographic multi-objective linear programming problems and their sensitivity analysis on the priority of the fuzzy objective functions. Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems, 26(5, 2333-2358.] defined a new operation on symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and proposed a new algorithm to find directly a lexicographic/preemptive fuzzy optimal solution of a fuzzy lexicographic multi-objective linear programming problem by using new fuzzy arithmetic operations, but their model was not fully fuzzy optimization. In this paper, a new method, by using Ezzati et al. (2014’s fuzzy arithmetic operation and a fuzzy version of simplex algorithm, is proposed for solving FFLP problem whose parameters are represented by symmetric trapezoidal fuzzy number without converting the given problem into crisp equivalent problem. By using the proposed method, the fuzzy optimal solution of FFLP problem can be easily obtained. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed method.

  5. Symmetric Topological Phases and Tensor Network States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shenghan

    Classification and simulation of quantum phases are one of main themes in condensed matter physics. Quantum phases can be distinguished by their symmetrical and topological properties. The interplay between symmetry and topology in condensed matter physics often leads to exotic quantum phases and rich phase diagrams. Famous examples include quantum Hall phases, spin liquids and topological insulators. In this thesis, I present our works toward a more systematically understanding of symmetric topological quantum phases in bosonic systems. In the absence of global symmetries, gapped quantum phases are characterized by topological orders. Topological orders in 2+1D are well studied, while a systematically understanding of topological orders in 3+1D is still lacking. By studying a family of exact solvable models, we find at least some topological orders in 3+1D can be distinguished by braiding phases of loop excitations. In the presence of both global symmetries and topological orders, the interplay between them leads to new phases termed as symmetry enriched topological (SET) phases. We develop a framework to classify a large class of SET phases using tensor networks. For each tensor class, we can write down generic variational wavefunctions. We apply our method to study gapped spin liquids on the kagome lattice, which can be viewed as SET phases of on-site symmetries as well as lattice symmetries. In the absence of topological order, symmetry could protect different topological phases, which are often referred to as symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases. We present systematic constructions of tensor network wavefunctions for bosonic symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases respecting both onsite and spatial symmetries.

  6. Biaxial magnetic grain alignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staines, M.; Genoud, J.-Y.; Mawdsley, A.; Manojlovic, V.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We describe a dynamic magnetic grain alignment technique which can be used to produce YBCO thick films with a high degree of biaxial texture. The technique is, however, generally applicable to preparing ceramics or composite materials from granular materials with orthorhombic or lower crystal symmetry and is therefore not restricted to superconducting applications. Because magnetic alignment is a bulk effect, textured substrates are not required, unlike epitaxial coated tape processes such as RABiTS. We have used the technique to produce thick films of Y-247 on untextured silver substrates. After processing to Y-123 the films show a clear enhancement of critical current density relative to identically prepared untextured or uniaxially textured samples. We describe procedures for preparing materials using magnetic biaxial grain alignment with the emphasis on alignment in epoxy, which can give extremely high texture. X-ray rocking curves with FWHM of as little as 1-2 degrees have been measured

  7. Offset, tilted dipole models of Uranian smooth high-frequency radio emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweitzer, A.E.; Romig, J.H.; Evans, D.R.; Sawyer, C.B.; Warwick, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    During the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus in January 1986, the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) experiment detected a complex pattern of radio emissions. Two types of emissions were seen: smooth and bursty. The smooth emission has been divided into smooth high-frequency (SHF) and smooth low-frequency (SLF) components which are presumed to come from different sources because of their distinctly different characteristics. The SHF component is considered in this paper. The SHF emission has been modeled by many authors on OTD (offset, tilted dipole (Ness et al., 1986)) L shells ranging from 5 to 40. However, the bursts have been modeled at much higher L shells. The authors complete an OTD investigation of the SHF emission at high L shells within the range of the bursty source locations, and present a viable high L shell model. This model has fundamentally the same longitudinally symmetric net emission pattern in space as the L shell 5 model presented in Romig et al. (1987) and Barbosa (1988). However, they were unable to produce an acceptable model on intermediate L shells without restricting source longitude. They discuss the similarities and distinctions between their two models and the models of other authors. They believe that the high L shell model (and others similar to it) cannot account for the observed smoothness and periodicity of the SHF emissions because it has open field lines containing untrapped particles, which should produce more variable emission than that seen in the SHF data. Therefore, the authors prefer models at L shells less than 18, the boundary for closed field lines (Ness et al., 1986). They then discuss and contrast two models within this boundary: the L = 5 model and an L ∼ 12 model by Kaiser et al. (1987) and Farrell and Calvert (1989b). The main distinction between these two models is the longitudinal extent of the source location

  8. Development of a tilt actuated micromirror for applications in laser interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronast, Wolfgang; Mescheder, Ulrich; Müller, Bernhard; Nimo, Antwi; Braxmaier, Claus; Schuldt, Thilo

    2010-02-01

    A silicon micromirror with 3x3 mm² surface area and a thickness of 100 μm has been designed and realized for the future space mission LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). The mirror is electrostatically actuated. The tilt movement of the mirror is provided by torsional load of the mirror suspension. 3D FEM simulations have been used for optimization of the layout of the mirror device. A torsion angle of +/- 1.9 mrad is achieved at a driving voltage of U=200V. The demanding requirements on the laser interferometer in the mission LISA in respect to mechanical stability, noise performance and especially piston effect, (i.e. the requirement that under rotation of the mirror no significant z-movement of the reflection surface occurs) are fulfilled with a new design and fabrication concept for the micromechanical device. The piston-effect is avoided by a rotational axis of the micromirror which coincides exactly with the surface of the mirror. This is achieved by using a symmetric SOI-wafer (Silicon on Insulator) with handle and device wafer having exactly the same thickness. The mirror plane is formed by the handle wafer. The suspending beams are realized from both, the handle and the device wafer of SOI-wafer. Thus the central axis of the beams coincides with the reflecting plane. In addition, the z-displacement of the mirror under rotation due to the attracting electrostatic force is minimized by optimization of the beams and the counter electrode using FEM simulation. Fabricated devices are characterized by special interferometric optical measurements.

  9. N7 dark field two-bar in 0.33NA EUVL: Mitigation of CD Bossung tilts caused by strong coupling between the feature's primary and 1st self-image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, T.; van Adrichem, P.; de Winter, L.; Hsu, S.; Finders, J.; Wittebrood, F.; van de Kerkhof, M.

    2017-03-01

    We report a study into intensity-driven mask 3D effects for N7 dark field two-bars in EUVL. For these features, traditional pupil optimization "rules" are advising to center a symmetric leaf shape illumination at the pupil plane location σY = (-0.64, 0.64). Experimentally determined critical dimension Bossungs for this exposure condition however yield an extreme best focus separation due to an additional Bossung tilt appearing at defocus values beyond 20 nm for the bottom trench. The Bossung tilts are caused by a strong coupling between the primary image of the two-bar and its first local pitch-induced self-image. The coupling to the self-image can be suppressed and, hence, the overlapping process window can be enhanced by the application of asymmetric sources, or by using standard dipole 90Y or leaf shape illuminations in combination with optimally placed sub-resolution assist features.

  10. Study of a Car Body Tilting System Using a Variable Link Mechanism: Fundamental Characteristics of Pendulum Motion and Strategy for Perfect Tilting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Hidehisa; Nagai, Masao

    This paper analyzes the fundamental dynamic characteristics of a tilting railway vehicle using a variable link mechanism for compensating both the lateral acceleration experienced by passengers and the wheel load imbalance between the inner and outer rails. The geometric relations between the center of rotation, the center of gravity, and the positions of all four links of the tilting system are analyzed. Then, equations of the pendulum motions of the railway vehicle body with a four-link mechanism are derived. A theoretically discussion is given on the geometrical shapes employed in the link mechanism that can simultaneously provide zero lateral acceleration and zero wheel load fluctuation. Then, the perfect tilting condition, which is the control target of the feedforward tilting control, is derived from the linear equation of tilting motion.

  11. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentation demand; the optimizaton of value of agricultural crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Ahydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grain can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural- environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  12. Grain alcohol study: summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The study has concentrated upon a detailed examination of all considerations involved in the production, use, and marketing of ethyl alcohol (Ethanol) as produced from the fermentation of agricultural grains. Each parameter was examined in the light of current energy markets and trends; new sources and technological, and processes for fermentation, the capability of the agricultural industry to support fermentaton demand; the optimization of value of agricultureal crops; and the efficiencies of combining related industries. Anhydrous (200 proof) ethanol makes an excellent blending component for all present automotive fuels and an excellent octane additive for unleaded fuels in proportions up to 35% without requiring modifications to current engines. There is no difference between ethanol produced by fermentation and ethanol produced synthetically from petroleum. The decision to produce ethanol one way or the other is purely economic. The agricultural industry can support a major expansion in the fermentation industry. The residue (distillers grains) from the fermentation of corn for ethanol is an excellent and economical feed for livestock and poultry. A reliable supply of distillers grains can assist in making the large beef feedlot operations more economically viable. The source materials, fuels, products and by-products of an ethanol plant, beef feedlot, gas biodigester plant, municipal waste recovery plant and a steam generated electrical plant are interrelated and mutually beneficial for energy efficiencies and economic gains when co-located. The study concludes that the establishment of such agricultural-environment industrial energy complexes, would provide a broad range of significant benefits to Indiana.

  13. Grain preservation in SSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trisviatski, L.A.

    1973-01-01

    First the importance of cereals collected in the S.S.S.R., the reason why the government had to put in practice a storage chain, composed of large capacity store houses (200 000 metric tonnes, or more) is reminded. When climatic conditions result in wet harvested grains, cereals are dried either in state enterprise dryers (32 to 50 tonnes/hour) or in kolkhozes' dryers (2 to 16 tonnes/hour). A new type of drying with recycling, has been developped, economizing 10 to 15 p. 100. Then the possibilities offered by the technique of partial drying of very wet grains are studied and the preservation processes using fresh ventilation, or hot ventilation with drying effect are described. The question of silage of wet grains destined to animal consumption is then examined as well as preservation by sodium pyrosulfide; the use of propionic acid, little developped in SSSR, is studied now, just as storage with inert gas. The struggle technics against insects, either with chemical agents, or with irradiation are described. Finally the modalities of technicians formation, specialized in preservation, are discussed [fr

  14. Development and testing of a pelvic goniometer designed to measure pelvic tilt and hip flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigle, Stephen; Flinn, Nannette; Wootten, Mary; McCorry, Stephanie

    2003-06-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of a pelvic goniometer designed to measure the pelvic tilt and hip flexion during seated posture. Assessment of the seated posture requires measurement of the pelvis and hip. Determining accurate pelvic tilt and hip flexion angles during sitting is often difficult using standard techniques. A pelvic goniometer has been designed to measure pelvic tilt and hip flexion angle of persons in a seated posture. VALIDATION of the pelvic goniometer was done radiographically. Ten male volunteers sat in three postures--erect, forward or anterior tilt, and posterior tilt. Pelvic tilt and hip angle were recorded using radiographs and the pelvic goniometer. Reliability of pelvic and conventional goniometers was done using seated nondisabled subjects with physical therapists performing measurements. the average differences and correlation between the pelvic goniometer and radiographic measures were as follows--pelvic tilt: -4.9 degrees, 0.93; hip angle 1.2 degrees, 0.81. Reliability: average range of hip angle across three measures was about 3 degrees for both goniometers. The data indicate that the pelvic goniometer has utility in measuring pelvic tilt and hip angle, especially within the seated posture. Because it measures both pelvic tilt and hip angle, the pelvic goniometer has an advantage over conventional goniometers that only measure the latter. A valid and reliable tool that measures pelvic tilt and hip angle of persons in a seated posture is needed for clinical research and practice. Its applications include wheelchair seating evaluations and ergonomic assessments of seated workers.

  15. Storing Peanuts in Grain Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was executed to determine the potential of storing farmers stock peanuts and shelled peanuts for crushing in hermetically sealed grain bags. The objectives of the study were to evaluate equipment for loading and unloading the grain bags, the capacity of the grain bags, and the changes in qu...

  16. Passive cavity laser and tilted wave laser for Bessel-like beam coherently coupled bars and stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledentsov, N. N.; Shchukin, V. A.; Maximov, M. V.; Gordeev, N. Y.; Kaluzhniy, N. A.; Mintairov, S. A.; Payusov, A. S.; Shernyakov, Yu. M.; Vashanova, K. A.; Kulagina, M. M.; Schmidt, N. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Ultralarge output apertures of semiconductor gain chips facilitate novel applications that require efficient feedback of the reflected laser light. Thick (10-30 μm) and ultrabroad (>1000 μm) waveguides are suitable for coherent coupling through both near-field of the neighboring stripes in a laser bar and by applying external cavities. As a result direct laser diodes may become suitable as high-power high-brightness coherent light sources. Passive cavity laser is based on the idea of placing the active media outside of the main waveguide, for example in the cladding layers attached to the waveguide, or, as in the case of the Tilted Wave Laser (TWL) in a thin waveguide coupled to the neighboring thick waveguide wherein most of the field intensity is localized in the broad waveguide. Multimode or a single vertical mode lasing is possible depending on the coupling efficiency. We demonstrate that 1060 nm GaAs/GaAlAs-based Tilted Wave Lasers (TWL) show wall-plug efficiency up to ~55% with the power concentrated in the two symmetric vertical beams having a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 2 degrees each. Bars with pitch sizes in the range of 25-400 μm are studied and coherent operation of the bars is manifested with the lateral far field lobes as narrow as 0.1° FWHM. As the near field of such lasers in the vertical direction represents a strongly modulated highly periodic pattern of intensity maxima such lasers or laser arrays generate Bessel-type beams. These beams are focusable similar to the case of Gaussian beams. However, opposite to the Gaussian beams, such beams are self-healing and quasi non-divergent. Previously Bessel beams were generated using Gaussian beams in combination with an axicon lens or a Fresnel biprism. A new approach does not involve such complexity and a novel generation of laser diodes evolves.

  17. Tilt table testing in patients with suspected epilepsy1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edfors, R.; Erdal, J.; Rogvi-Hansen, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 20-30% of patients with epilepsy are misdiagnosed and syncope often seems to be the mistaken cause. We re-evaluated patients referred to an epilepsy clinic where suspicion of neurally mediated (reflex) syncope were raised using tilt table testing (HUT). METHODS: HUT...... laboratory results and medical records of 120 consecutive patients were reviewed retrospectively over a period of 27 months. RESULTS: HUT was positive in 59 (49%) patients. Seventeen of 38 (45%) patients previously diagnosed with epilepsy and taking antiepileptic drugs were found to be misdiagnosed. Four...

  18. A computer simulation study of tilted smectic mesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Withers, I.M.

    2000-05-01

    Results are presented from a series of simulations undertaken to determine the effect of a novel form of molecular biaxiality upon the phase behaviour of the well established Gay-Berne (GB) liquid crystal model. Firstly, the simulation of a bulk system interacting via the Internally-Rotated Gay Berne (IRGB) potential, which offers a single-site representation of a molecule rigidly constrained into a zig-zag conformation, is presented. The results of simulations performed for systems of IRGB particles with an aspect ratio of 3:1 confirm that the introduction of biaxiality into the model results in the destabilisation of the orientationally ordered phases. For particles with a sufficiently pronounced zig-zag conformation, this results in the complete destabilisation of the smectic A phase and the smectic B phase being replaced by the tilted smectic J phase. Following these observations, the effect upon the phase behaviour of increasing molecular elongation is also considered, with an increase in the aspect ratio from 3:1 to 4:1 resulting in the nematic and smectic J phases being replaced by smectic A and smectic G phases respectively. Secondly, a version of the IRGB potential modified to include a degree of molecular flexibility is considered. Results obtained from bulk systems interacting via the flexible IRGB for 3:1 and 4:1 molecules show that the introduction of flexibility results in the destabilisation of the smectic A phase and the stabilisation of the nematic and tilted hexatic phases. Finally, the effect upon the phase behaviour of the rigid IRGB model of the inclusion of a longitudinal linear quadrupole is examined. These results show that increasing quadrupole moment results in the destabilisation of the tilted hexatic phase, although the biaxial order parameter is increased with increasing quadrupole moment. There is no clear correlation between quadrupole magnitude and the other observed phase transitions, with the nematic and smectic A phases being

  19. The impact of gravity during head-up tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, Johnny T.; Olufsen, Mette; Smith, Brittany

    2011-01-01

    and the carotid sinuses in a healthy volunteer. During head-up tilt the head is lifted above the heart stimulating gravitational pooling of blood in the lower extremities. This shift in volume is followed by an increase in blood pressure in the lower body, while the pressure in the head decreases, while...... a model predicting hydrostatic height between the two locations. Results from this model were compared with measurements. Furthermore, we show, using a differential equations model predicting blood pressure, that it is possible to predict blood pressure measured at the level of the carotid sinuses using...

  20. Performance of a Tilt Current Meter in the Surf Zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Asger Bendix; Carstensen, Stefan; Christensen, Drude Fritzbøger

    2017-01-01

    Tilt Current Meters (TCM’s) are relatively simple and inexpensive instruments for measuring currents in rivers and inthe sea. Their low cost and easy deployment means that a relatively large number of TCM’s can be deployed comparedto more conventional current meters such as Acoustic Doppler...... a number ofimportant challenges to the measurements as the hydrodynamic forcing changes and the oscillations of the TCM cannotnecessarily be averaged out as for a steady current. This study addresses some of these challenges by analyzing theperformance of a TCM in the surf zone where wave orbital motion...

  1. Edge Waves and Localization in Lattices Containing Tilted Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Tallarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the study of waves in a structured geometrically chiral solid. A special attention is given to the analysis of the Bloch-Floquet waves in a doubly periodic high-contrast lattice containing tilted resonators. Dirac-like dispersion of Bloch waves in the structure is identified, studied, and applied to wave-guiding and wave-defect interaction problems. The work is extended to the transmission problems and models of fracture, where localization and edge waves occur. The theoretical derivations are accompanied with numerical simulations and illustrations.

  2. Tilt table testing in patients with suspected epilepsy1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edfors, R.; Erdal, J.; Rogvi-Hansen, B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Approximately 20-30% of patients with epilepsy are misdiagnosed and syncope often seems to be the mistaken cause. We re-evaluated patients referred to an epilepsy clinic where suspicion of neurally mediated (reflex) syncope were raised using tilt table testing (HUT). METHODS: HUT...... of 21 patients with epilepsy (19%) had dual diagnoses of reflex syncope and epilepsy. CONCLUSION: HUT is an informative investigation when suspicions of reflex syncope are raised in patients referred to an epilepsy clinic. Reflex syncope is an important and common differential diagnosis of epilepsy...

  3. FACES WITH LARGE DIAMETER ON THE SYMMETRICAL TRAVELING SALESMAN POLYTOPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIERKSMA, G; TIJSSEN, GA

    This paper deals with the symmetric traveling salesman polytope and contains three main theorems. The first one gives a new characterization of (non)adjacency. Based on this characterization a new upper bound for the diameter of the symmetric traveling salesman polytope (conjectured to be 2 by M.

  4. SUSY formalism for the symmetric double well potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    symmetric double well potential barrier we have obtained a class of exactly solvable potentials subject to moving boundary condition. The eigenstates are also obtained by the same technique. Keywords. SUSY; moving boundary condition; exactly solvable; symmetric double well; NH3 molecule. PACS Nos 02.30.Ik; 03.50.

  5. Stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells and wormholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, Mustapha; Lake, Kayll

    2002-01-01

    The stability of transparent spherically symmetric thin shells (and wormholes) to linearized spherically symmetric perturbations about static equilibrium is examined. This work generalizes and systematizes previous studies and explores the consequences of including the cosmological constant. The approach shows how the existence (or not) of a domain wall dominates the landscape of possible equilibrium configurations

  6. Coupled dilaton and electromagnetic field in cylindrically symmetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nature of circular geodesics is also studied in the presence of dilaton field in the cylindrically symmetric spacetime. Keywords. Dilaton field; general relativity; cylindrically symmetric spacetime. PACS Nos 04.50+h; .... For economy of space we skip all details of the intermediate steps and give the final expressions of the ...

  7. Synthesis & Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full Title: Synthesis and Characterization of New bis-Symmetrical Adipoyl, Terepthaloyl, Chiral Diimido-di-L-alanine Diesters and Chiral Phthaloyl-L-alanine Ester of Tripropoxy p-tert-Butyl Calix[4]arene and Study of Their Hosting Ability for Alanine and Na+. Bis-symmetrical tripropoxy p-tert-butyl calix[4]arene esters were ...

  8. Sparse symmetric preconditioners for dense linear systems in electromagnetism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carpentieri, Bruno; Duff, Iain S.; Giraud, Luc; Monga Made, M. Magolu

    2004-01-01

    We consider symmetric preconditioning strategies for the iterative solution of dense complex symmetric non-Hermitian systems arising in computational electromagnetics. In particular, we report on the numerical behaviour of the classical incomplete Cholesky factorization as well as some of its recent

  9. A nine-level hybrid symmetric cascaded multilevel converter for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indrajit Sarkar

    Abstract. A nine-level hybrid symmetric cascaded multilevel converter (MLC) fed induction motor drive is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter is capable of producing nine output voltage levels by using the same number of power cells as that of conventional five-level symmetric cascaded H-bridge converter.

  10. Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces: support theorems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuit, J.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/313872589

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and study some of their properties. In particular we obtain a generalization of Helgason's support theorem for the horospherical transform on a Riemannian symmetric space.

  11. A New Formulation for Symmetric Implicit Runge-Kutta-Nystrom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we derive symmetric stable Implicit Runge-Kutta –Nystrom Method for the Integration of General Second Order ODEs by using the collocation approach.The block hybrid method obtained by the evaluation of the continuous interpolant at different nodes of the polynomial is symmetric and suitable for stiff intial ...

  12. New approach to solve symmetric fully fuzzy linear systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present a method to solve fully fuzzy linear systems with symmetric coefficient matrix. The symmetric coefficient matrix is decomposed into two systems of equations by using Cholesky method and then a solution can be obtained. Numerical examples are given to illustrate our method.

  13. A nine-level hybrid symmetric cascaded multilevel converter for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A nine-level hybrid symmetric cascaded multilevel converter (MLC) fed induction motor drive is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter is capable of producing nine output voltage levels by using the same number of power cells as that of conventional five-level symmetric cascaded H-bridge converter. Eachphase in ...

  14. Matix hamiltonians with a chance of being complex symmetric

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Znojil, Miloslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 1 (2012), s. 5-6 ISSN 0378-620X Grant - others:European Science Foundation(CH) EW09-104 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : PT-symmetric quantum mechanics * N-sited quantum chains * complex symmetric observables Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 0.713, year: 2012

  15. Classification of third-order symmetric Lorentzian manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Galaev, Anton S.

    2014-01-01

    Third-order symmetric Lorentzian manifolds, i.e. Lorentzian manifold with zero third derivative of the curvature tensor, are classified. These manifolds are exhausted by a special type of pp-waves, they generalize Cahen-Wallach spaces and second-order symmetric Lorentzian spaces.

  16. On The K-Pseudo Symmetric and Ordinary Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łazarow E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In 1972, S. Valenti introduced the definition of k-pseudo symmetric derivative and has shown that the set of all points of a continuous function, at which there exists a finite k-pseudo symmetric derivative but the finite ordinary derivative does not exist, is of Lebesgue measure zero. In 1993, L. Zajícek has shown that for a continuous function f, the set of all points, at which f is symmetrically differentiable but no differentiable, is σ-(1 - ε symmetrically porous for every ε > 0. The question arises: can we transferred the Zajícek’s result to the case of the k-pseudo symmetric derivative?

  17. Alternative grains in nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevcsák Sz.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people suffer from gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance. They have to avoid or limit their gluten intake. Sorghum and millet are gluten-free cereals, wherefore persons with gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance could consume them. Moreover, they have a lot of positive effects due to their phenolic compounds as phenol acid or flavonoid. Antioxidant activity in sorghum is especially high in comparison with other cereals. Our aim was to compare literature data about the chemical compositions of sorghum and millet with other grains.

  18. Tilted seat position for non-ambulant individuals with neurological and neuromuscular impairment: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Michael, SM; Porter, D; Pountney, TE

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of tilt-in-space seating on outcomes for people with neurological or neuromuscular impairment who cannot walk. Data sources: Search through electronic databases (MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, AMED). Discussions with researchers who are active in field. Review methods: Selection criteria included interventional studies that investigated the effects of seat tilt on outcome or observational studies that identified outcomes for those who had used tilt-in-space seati...

  19. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentrati...

  20. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min [Guro Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-10-15

    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting.

  1. Spontaneous tilting after placement of the gunther-tulip inferior vena caval filter: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Tae Seok; Cha, In Ho; Seol, Hae Young; Park, Cheol Min

    2006-01-01

    Tilting of a deployed filter in the inferior vena cava (IVC) is a particular kind of periprocedural complication and this can reduce the filter's clot-trapping ability and increase the occlusion of the IVC at a later period. The authors report here on a case of spontaneous tilting of an inferior vena caval filter that was associated with thrombosis in the IVC within 2 weeks of the initially successful placement of the filter without tilting

  2. Tidal tilts observations in the Gran Sasso underground laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iafolla, V.; Nozzoli, S.; Milyukov, V.

    2001-01-01

    A new tilt meter, based on the technology for building a space-borne high-sensitivity accelerometer and manufactured at IFSI/CNR, has a been operating during several years in the INFN Gran Sasso underground laboratory. The results of the analysis of a three-year data set, processed with the program package ETERNA, to estimate earth tidal parameters are reported. For the best series of data (1998) tide measurement accuracies are: 0.5-1% for the M 2 (lunar principal) amplitude and 3-4% for the O 1 (lunar declination) amplitude. The tilt meter installed at a depth of 1400 m shows no clear evidence of meteorological effects. Observed tidal parameters are compared with theoretical tidal parameters predicted for a non-hydrostatic inelastic Earth model and demonstrate good agreement for the M 2 component. Due to the high accuracy of the tidal components prediction (better than 1%) tidal measurements were used to estimate the long-term stability of the instrument response

  3. An efficient wave extrapolation method for anisotropic media with tilt

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair bin

    2015-03-23

    Wavefield extrapolation operators for elliptically anisotropic media offer significant cost reduction compared with that for the transversely isotropic case, particularly when the axis of symmetry exhibits tilt (from the vertical). However, elliptical anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for transversely isotropic media. Therefore, we propose effective elliptically anisotropic models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for transversely isotropic media. Specifically, we compute source-dependent effective velocities for the elliptic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the transversely isotropic wavefield. The effective model allows us to use cheaper elliptic wave extrapolation operators. Despite the fact that the effective models are obtained by matching kinematics using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The methodology developed here offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in transversely isotropic media, particularly for media of low to moderate complexity. In addition, the wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference-based transversely isotropic wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate these assertions through numerical tests on synthetic tilted transversely isotropic models.

  4. Effective ellipsoidal models for wavefield extrapolation in tilted orthorhombic media

    KAUST Repository

    Waheed, Umair Bin

    2016-04-22

    Wavefield computations using the ellipsoidally anisotropic extrapolation operator offer significant cost reduction compared to that for the orthorhombic case, especially when the symmetry planes are tilted and/or rotated. However, ellipsoidal anisotropy does not provide accurate wavefield representation or imaging for media of orthorhombic symmetry. Therefore, we propose the use of ‘effective ellipsoidally anisotropic’ models that correctly capture the kinematic behaviour of wavefields for tilted orthorhombic (TOR) media. We compute effective velocities for the ellipsoidally anisotropic medium using kinematic high-frequency representation of the TOR wavefield, obtained by solving the TOR eikonal equation. The effective model allows us to use the cheaper ellipsoidally anisotropic wave extrapolation operators. Although the effective models are obtained by kinematic matching using high-frequency asymptotic, the resulting wavefield contains most of the critical wavefield components, including frequency dependency and caustics, if present, with reasonable accuracy. The proposed methodology offers a much better cost versus accuracy trade-off for wavefield computations in TOR media, particularly for media of low to moderate anisotropic strength. Furthermore, the computed wavefield solution is free from shear-wave artefacts as opposed to the conventional finite-difference based TOR wave extrapolation scheme. We demonstrate applicability and usefulness of our formulation through numerical tests on synthetic TOR models. © 2016 Institute of Geophysics of the ASCR, v.v.i

  5. Evaluation of the Thermal Effects in Tilting Pad Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of thermal effects is of expressive importance in the context of rotordynamics to evaluate the behavior of hydrodynamic bearings because these effects can influence their dynamic characteristics under specific operational conditions. For this reason, a thermohydrodynamic model is developed in this work, in which the pressure distribution in the oil film and the temperature distribution are calculated together. From the pressure distribution, the velocity distribution field is determined, as well as the viscous dissipation, and consequently, the temperature distribution. The finite volume method is applied to solve the Reynolds equation and the energy equation in the thermohydrodynamic model (THD. The results show that the temperature is higher as the rotational speed increases due to the shear rate of the oil film. The maximum temperature in the bearing occurs in the overloaded pad, near the outlet boundary. The experimental tests were performed in a tilting pad journal bearing operating in a steam turbine to validate the model. The comparison between the experimental and numerical results provides a good correlation. The thermohydrodynamic lubrication developed in this assignment is promising to consistently evaluate the behavior of the tilting pad journal bearing operating in relatively high rotational speeds.

  6. Fatigue damage in coarse-grained lean duplex stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubbia, R., E-mail: strubbia@ifir-conicet.gov.ar; Hereñú, S.; Marinelli, M.C.; Alvarez-Armas, I.

    2016-04-06

    The present investigation is focused on assessing the effect of a thermal treatment for grain coarsening on the low cycle fatigue damage evolution in two types of Lean Duplex Stainless Steels (LDSSs). The dislocation structure developed during cycling is observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, a detailed analysis of short crack initiated and grown during low cycle fatigue (LCF) is performed by means of optical and scanning electron (SEM) microscopy in combination with automated electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) technique. Though in both coarse-grained LDSSs the short cracks nucleate in the ferrite phase, in each steels its origin is different. The embrittlement caused by the Cr{sub 2}N precipitation and the plastic activity sustained by each phase can explain this difference. The propagation behavior of the short cracks present two alternative growing mechanisms: the crack grows along a favorable slip plane with high Schmid Factor (SF) or the crack alternates between two slip systems. In both cases, the crack follows the path with the smallest tilt angle (β) at a grain boundary.

  7. Engineering features of the Madison Symmetric Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dexter, R.N.; Kerst, D.W.; Lovell, T.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sprott, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    We describe the design parameters, unconventional features, and status of the Madison Symmetric Torus, MST, an RFP now approaching completion. A desire to minimize field errors dominated the design, leading to flanged gaps and inclusion of a pumping duct with small pump ports into the shell. No liner was to be used in the initial configuration, the versatile aluminum shell being the vacuum containment vessel (VCV). Simplified access to the inside of the vacuum vessel was accomplished by using the tank itself as single-turn poloidal as well as single-turn toroidal field coil. Thus none of the familiar toroidal or poloidal field coil sets surround the tank. A girder structure has been installed to permit removing the core-keeper and top-half of the vacuum vessel for insertion of internal shells or liners. More routinely, we intend to lift core-keeper and top half of the VCV together for entry of personnel into the VCV for changes of internal diagnostics or limiting surfaces, or for installation of movable limiters, etc. All structural features were designed to ease disassembly. 5 figs

  8. Experimental pseudo-symmetric trap EPSILON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skovoroda, A.A.; Arsenin, V.V.; Dlougach, E.D.; Kulygin, V.M.; Kuyanov, A.Yu.; Timofeev, A.V.; Zhil'tsov, V.A.; Zvonkov, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of the conceptual project 'Adaptive Plasma EXperiment' a trap with the closed magnetic field lines 'Experimental Pseudo-Symmetric trap' is examined. The project APEX is directed at the theoretical and experimental development of physical foundations for stationary thermonuclear reactor on the basis of an alternative magnetic trap with tokamak-level confinement of high β plasma. The fundamental principle of magnetic field pseudosymmetry that should be satisfied for plasma to have tokamak-like confinement is discussed. The calculated in paraxial approximation examples of pseudosymmetric curvilinear elements with poloidal direction of B isolines are adduced. The EPSILON trap consisting of two straight axisymmetric mirrors linked by two curvilinear pseudosymmetric elements is considered. The plasma currents are short-circuited within the curvilinear element what increases the equilibrium β. The untraditional scheme of MHD stabilization of a trap with the closed field lines by the use of divertor inserted into axisymmetric mirror is analyzed. The experimental installation EPSILON-OME that is under construction for experimental check of divertor stabilization is discussed. The possibility of ECR plasma production in EPSILON-OME under conditions of high density and small magnetic field is examined. (author)

  9. Device Simulation using Symmetric Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitayama, K.; Toogoshi, M.; Zempo, Y.

    2017-10-01

    We have applied symmetric smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SSPH) to electronic structure calculations for high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs). In layered structures such as field effect transistors (FETs), and especially HEMTs, the current density is mainly dependent on the electron mobility and the electronic field near the gate, where both can be taken to be constant. The relation between the channel current and the applied gate voltage can be obtained by a one-dimensional calculation. Then, it is easy to apply SSPH to evaluate the simple quantum properties of a device. We mainly focus on the I-V characteristics, which are typical device features. The electronic structure of a HEMT was calculated using both SSPH and finite-difference (FD) methods. The results from SSPH calculations are in good agreement with those from the FD method, and the accuracy of SSPH is similar to that of FD. In a simple example, where three particles are employed in the SSPH domain, we show there is an equivalence to the three-point method in FD.

  10. Triple symmetric key cryptosystem for data security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuzail, C. Md; Norman, Jasmine; Mangayarkarasi, R.

    2017-11-01

    As the technology is getting spreads in the macro seconds of speed and in which the trend changing era from human to robotics the security issue is also getting increased. By means of using machine attacks it is very easy to break the cryptosystems in very less amount of time. Cryptosystem is a process which provides the security in all sorts of processes, communications and transactions to be done securely with the help of electronical mechanisms. Data is one such thing with the expanded implication and possible scraps over the collection of data to secure predominance and achievement, Information Security is the process where the information is protected from invalid and unverified accessibilities and data from mishandling. So the idea of Information Security has risen. Symmetric key which is also known as private key.Whereas the private key is mostly used to attain the confidentiality of data. It is a dynamic topic which can be implemented over different applications like android, wireless censor networks, etc. In this paper, a new mathematical manipulation algorithm along with Tea cryptosystem has been implemented and it can be used for the purpose of cryptography. The algorithm which we proposed is straightforward and more powerful and it will authenticate in harder way and also it will be very difficult to break by someone without knowing in depth about its internal mechanisms.

  11. Direct experimental measurement of SRS-induced spectral tilt in multichannel multispan communication systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapin, Yu A; Nanii, Oleg E; Novikov, A G; Pavlov, V N; Plotskii, A Yu; Treshchikov, V N

    2012-09-30

    Nonlinear SRS-induced tilt of the spectrum of a multichannel DWDM signal is studied experimentally in standard singlemode fibreoptic communication lines. It is found that at a fixed spectral bandwidth and total power the nonlinear SRS tilt is independent of the number of channels, radiation source type, and the initial tilt (positive or negative). In a multispan line consisting of identical spans the total nonlinear tilt of the spectrum (in dB) is proportional to the number of spans, spectral width and total power. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF NATURALLY TILTED, RETROGRADELY PRECESSING, NODAL SUPERHUMPING ACCRETION DISKS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Accretion disks around black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf systems are thought to sometimes tilt, retrogradely precess, and produce hump-shaped modulations in light curves that have a period shorter than the orbital period. Although artificially rotating numerically simulated accretion disks out of the orbital plane and around the line of nodes generate these short-period superhumps and retrograde precession of the disk, no numerical code to date has been shown to produce a disk tilt naturally. In this work, we report the first naturally tilted disk in non-magnetic cataclysmic variables using three-dimensional smoothed particle hydrodynamics. Our simulations show that after many hundreds of orbital periods, the disk has tilted on its own and this disk tilt is without the aid of radiation sources or magnetic fields. As the system orbits, the accretion stream strikes the bright spot (which is on the rim of the tilted disk) and flows over and under the disk on different flow paths. These different flow paths suggest the lift force as a source to disk tilt. Our results confirm the disk shape, disk structure, and negative superhump period and support the source to disk tilt, source to retrograde precession, and location associated with X-ray and He II emission from the disk as suggested in previous works. Our results identify the fundamental negative superhump frequency as the indicator of disk tilt around the line of nodes.

  13. Comparative analysis of diffused solar radiation models for optimum tilt angle determination for Indian locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, P.; Chandel, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Tilt angle and orientation greatly are influenced on the performance of the solar photo voltaic panels. The tilt angle of solar photovoltaic panels is one of the important parameters for the optimum sizing of solar photovoltaic systems. This paper analyses six different isotropic and anisotropic diffused solar radiation models for optimum tilt angle determination. The predicted optimum tilt angles are compared with the experimentally measured values for summer season under outdoor conditions. The Liu and Jordan model is found to exhibit t lowest error as compared to other models for the location. (author)

  14. Coarse Grained Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Transmembrane Protein-Lipid Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Spijker

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Many biological cellular processes occur at the micro- or millisecond time scale. With traditional all-atom molecular modeling techniques it is difficult to investigate the dynamics of long time scales or large systems, such as protein aggregation or activation. Coarse graining (CG can be used to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in such a system, and reduce the computational complexity. In this paper the first version of a coarse grained model for transmembrane proteins is presented. This model differs from other coarse grained protein models due to the introduction of a novel angle potential as well as a hydrogen bonding potential. These new potentials are used to stabilize the backbone. The model has been validated by investigating the adaptation of the hydrophobic mismatch induced by the insertion of WALP-peptides into a lipid membrane, showing that the first step in the adaptation is an increase in the membrane thickness, followed by a tilting of the peptide.

  15. Determination of lattice orientation in aluminium alloy grains by low energy gallium ion-channelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silk, Jonathan R. [Aerospace Metal Composites Ltd., RAE Road, Farnborough, GU14 6XE (United Kingdom); Dashwood, Richard J. [WMG, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chater, Richard J., E-mail: r.chater@imperial.ac.u [Department of Materials, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    Polished sections of a fine-grained aluminium, silicon carbide metal matrix composite (MMC) alloy were prepared by sputtering using a low energy gallium ion source and column (FIB). The MMC had been processed by high temperature extrusion. Images of the polished surface were recorded using the ion-induced secondary electron emission. The metal matrix grains were distinguished by gallium ion-channelling contrast from the silicon carbide component. The variation of the contrast from the aluminium grains with tilt angle can be recorded and used to determine lattice orientation with the contrast from the silicon carbide (SiC) component as a reference. This method is rapid and suits site-specific investigations where classical methods of sample preparation fail.

  16. Germinated grains: a superior whole grain functional food?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Kristina; Stojanovska, Lily; Vasiljevic, Todor; Mathai, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Grains are global dietary staples that when consumed in whole grain form, offer considerable health benefits compared with milled grain foods, including reduced body weight gain and reduced cardiovascular and diabetes risks. Dietary patterns, functional foods, and other lifestyle factors play a fundamental role in the development and management of epidemic lifestyle diseases that share risks of developing adverse metabolic outcomes, including hyperglycaemia, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, oxidative stress, and inflammation. Whole grains provide energy, nutrients, fibres, and bioactive compounds that may synergistically contribute to their protective effects. Despite their benefits, the intake of grains appears to be lower than recommended in many countries. Of emerging interest is the application of germination processes, which may significantly enhance the nutritional and bioactive content of grains, as well as improve palatability. Enhancing grain foods in a natural way using germination techniques may therefore offer a practical, natural, dietary intervention to increase the health benefits and acceptability of whole grains, with potentially widespread effects across populations in attenuating adverse lifestyle disease outcomes. Continuing to build on the growing body of in-vitro studies requires substantiation with extended in-vivo trials so that we may further develop our understanding of the potential of germinated grains as a functional food.

  17. Instabilities in vertically vibrated fluid-grain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, P J; Lopez-Alcaraz, P; Pacheco-Martinez, H A; Clement, C P; Smith, A J; Swift, M R

    2007-03-01

    When a bed of fluid-immersed fine grains is exposed to vertical vibration a wealth of phenomena may be observed. At low frequencies a horizontal bed geometry is generally unstable and the bed breaks spatial symmetry, acquiring a tilt. At the same time it undergoes asymmetric granular convection. Fine binary mixtures may separate completely into layers or patterns of stripes. The separated regions may exhibit instabilities in which they undergo wave-like motion or exhibit quasi-periodic oscillations. We briefly review these and a number of related behaviours, identifying the physical mechanisms behind each. Finally, we discuss the magneto-vibratory separation of binary mixtures which results from exposing each component to a different effective gravity and describe the influence of a background fluid on this process.

  18. Dynamic properties of symmetric optothermal microactuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Q. Y.; Zhang, H. J.; Wang, Y. D.; Chen, J. J.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposes a method of a symmetric optothermal microactuator (S-OTMA) directly driven by laser pulse. Based on the principle of thermal flux, a dynamic model is established describing the laser-induced optothermal temperature rise and optothermal expansion of the S-OTMA’s expansion arm. The dynamic optothermal expansion and the relationship between the expansion amplitude and laser pulse frequency are simulated, indicating that the expansion arm expands and reverts periodically with the same frequency of the laser pulse, and that the expansion amplitude decreases with the increase of laser pulse frequency. Experiments have been further conducted on a micro-fabricated S-OTMA under a laser pulse of 3.3 mW power and 2-18 Hz frequency. It is shown that the S-OTMA can periodically deflect in accordance with the same frequency of the laser pulse, with a maximum response frequency of at least 18 Hz. The maximum deflection (vibration) amplitude is measured to be 13.7 µm (at 2 Hz), and the amplitude decreases as the frequency increases. Both the theoretical model and experiments prove that the S-OTMA is capable of implementing direct laser-controlled microactuation in which only ~3 mW laser power is demanded. Furthermore, bi-directional actuation of the optothermal microactuator (such as S-OTMA) can be easily achieved by alternately irradiating either arm of the microactuator. This work may broaden the applications of the S-OTMA, as well as optothermal microactuators in MEMS/MOEMS and micro/nano-technology.

  19. SPECT imaging: Experimental determination of the effect of camera head tilt and appropriate quality control protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, T.J.; Cradduck, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Although it is recognized in SPECT imaging that the camera face shall remain parallel to the axis of rotation there is no evidence of the limits that must be imposed on this parameter for acceptable reconstruction of the data. This study was made with the purpose of establishing limits of camera head tilt based on experiments designed to measure degradation of the image with increasing camera head tilt. The effect of camera head tilt is to place off-axis data in the wrong plane for reconstruction. Points off axis exhibit a pseudomotion along a line parallel to the axis of rotation so that data from one plane are ''seen'' by the reconstruction algorithm to be in different planes, depending on the angle of rotation. The changes in system resolution due to camera head tilt were assessed using the cold spheres in a Jaszczak phantom. The contrast of the spheres was measured for increasing angles of head tilt. Significant degradation occurred at tilt angles as low as one degree. Based on these observations a quality control procedure for camera head tilt was developed. A point source is imaged off-axis and a computer program has been written that is able to give the angle of head tilt based on the pseudomotion of the point source throughout the rotation of the camera head. This method can be used to calibrate the head tilt angle. It is evident that the camera head tilt must be checked for every patient study. Unlike center of rotation offsets, it is not possible to correct the raw data for camera head tilt during reconstruction

  20. Symmetric lividity of the soles as seen in private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NELSON, L M

    1956-10-01

    As seen in private practice, symmetric lividity of the soles is a relatively common condition which occurs predominantly in males in the first three decades of life.Untreated, the syndrome may persist for many years or it may be self-limiting, lasting only a few days. Occupation does not seem to be a factor predisposing to symmetric lividity of the soles. There is a high incidence of family occurrence of this condition.Any form of treatment which controls the hyperhidrosis controls the other symptoms of symmetric lividity of the soles.

  1. Experimental scheme for unambiguous discrimination of linearly independent symmetric states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez, O.; Burgos-Inostroza, E.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Sanchez-Lozano, X.

    2007-01-01

    We propose an experimental setup for discriminating four linearly independent nonorthogonal symmetric quantum states. The setup is based on linear optics only and can be configured to implement both optimal unambiguous state discrimination [Chefles and Barnett, Phys. Lett. A 250, 223 (1998)] and minimum error discrimination. In both cases, the setup is characterized by an optimal success probability. The experimental setup can be generalized to the case of discrimination among N linearly nonorthogonal symmetric quantum states. We also study the discrimination between two incoherent superpositions of symmetric states. In this case, the setup also achieves an optimal success probability in the case of unambiguous discrimination as well as minimum error discrimination

  2. Color symmetrical superconductivity in a schematic nuclear quark model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Providencia, C.; da Providencia, J.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter, a novel BCS-type formalism is constructed in the framework of a schematic QCD inspired quark model, having in mind the description of color symmetrical superconducting states. In the usual approach to color superconductivity, the pairing correlations affect only the quasi......-particle states of two colors, the single-particle states of the third color remaining unaffected by the pairing correlations. In the theory of color symmetrical superconductivity here proposed, the pairing correlations affect symmetrically the quasi-particle states of the three colors and vanishing net color...

  3. Grain boundary melting in ice

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wilen, L. A.; Wettlaufer, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentr...

  4. Shock processing of interstellar grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seab, C.G.; Shull, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Shock processing plays an important role in the life of a typical interstellar grain. Shocks of 100 km/s-l or greater can destroy about 50% of the grain material under appropriate preshock conditions of density and magnetic field. The destruction occurs by grain-grain collisions and nonthermal sputtering for steady state radiative shocks and by thermal sputtering for fast adiabatic shocks. The evaluation of the lifetime of grains against shock destruction depends on models of the interstellar medium (ISM) structure and on supernova remnants (SNR) evolution. Results from various authors give lifetimes between 10 to the 8th and 10 to the 9th power years, compared to typical injection times for new grains of a few times 10 to the 9th power years. These numbers require that a major portion of the interstellar silicon bearing grain material must be formed by grain growth in the ISM. At the same time, the presence of isotopic anomalies in some meteorites implies that at least some grains must survive from their formation in SNRs or red giant winds through incorporation into the solar system

  5. 'Sit and tilt' preparation for subscapular system free flaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, J; Patwa, H; Costello, M S; Patil, Y

    2018-02-01

    The ablation of advanced head and neck cancer often results in large three-dimensional defects that require free tissue transfer to optimally address functional and cosmetic issues. The subscapular system is a highly versatile donor site for flaps used for head and neck reconstruction. Traditional methods of harvesting subscapular flaps require repositioning and re-preparing, which significantly increases the operative time and prevents simultaneous harvesting of the flap. This paper presents our experience of a single-stage 'sit and tilt' technique, which provides a convenient method for harvesting subscapular system free flaps without significant repositioning. This technique was used for a variety of head and neck defects, and body habitus did not seem to affect free tissue harvesting. It is hoped that utilisation of this preparation and harvesting technique will make head and neck surgeons more willing to take advantage of the subscapular system.

  6. Experimental study of the distillation process in a tilted cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xihui; Chen, Houtao; Wang, Zhijie; Xiao, Gang

    2017-05-01

    Heat and mass transfer correlations in a basin solar still are not applicable for brine-flowing type solar still. Thermal efficiency is hard to determine explicitly due to the varying temperature of brine along the flow direction. A simple method is proposed in the present work to evaluate the performance of the brine-flowing type still through the energy balance equation of brine. Experiments in a tilted cavity which is used to simulate a brine-flowing type solar still are conducted, and it is found that thermal efficiency of the simulated still is always less than 76.3%. An empirical equation is obtained, which may provide a clue for the development of an explicit theoretical model to predict fresh water production of the brine-flowing solar still.

  7. Rain Sensor with Stacked Light Waveguide Having Tilted Air Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle sensor to detect rain drop on and above waveguide utilizing light deflection and scattering was realized, keeping wide sensing coverage and sensitivity to detect mist accumulation. Proposed sensor structure under stacked light wave guide consisted of light blocking fixture surrounding photodetector and adjacent light source. Tilted air gap between stacked light waveguide and light blocking fixture played major role to increase sensitivity and to enhance linearity. This sensor structure eliminated complex collimating optics, while keeping wide sensing coverage using simple geometry. Detection algorithm based on time-to-intensity transformation process was used to convert raining intensity into countable raining process. Experimental result inside simulated rain chamber showed distinct different response between light rain and normal rain. Application as automobile rain sensor is expected.

  8. Patient Specific Modeling of Head-Up Tilt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Nakeya; Wright, Andrew; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    blood pressure. The model contains five compartments representing arteries and veins in the upper and lower body of the systemic circulation, as well as the left ventricle facilitating pumping of the heart. A physiologically based sub-model describes gravitational effects on pooling of blood during......Short term cardiovascular responses to head-up tilt (HUT) experiments involve complex cardiovascular regulation in order to maintain blood pressure at homeostatic levels. This manuscript presents a patient specific compartmental model developed to predict dynamic changes in heart rate and arterial...... that it is possible to estimate a subset of model parameters that allows prediction of observed changes in arterial blood pressure. Furthermore, the model adequately predicts arterial and venous blood pressures, as well as cardiac output in compartments for which data are not available....

  9. Comparison of scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after pectoralis minor stretching on scapular alignment and scapular upward rotators activity in subjects with short pectoralis minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Choi, Sil-Ah; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Sam; Ko, Chang-Hee

    2015-08-01

    To compare scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after pectoralis minor (PM) stretching on the PM index (PMI), scapular anterior tilting index, scapular upward rotation angle, and scapular upward rotators' activity in subjects with a short PM. Fifteen subjects with a short PM participated in this study. The PMI, scapular anterior tilting index, and scapular upward rotation angle were measured after scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretches. Scapular upward rotators' activities were collected during scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretches. The PMI and scapular upward rotation angle, as well as the activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles, were significantly greater for scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching and the scapular anterior tilting index was significantly lower for scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching than the scapular posterior tilting exercise alone. Scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching in subjects with a short PM could be an effective method of modifying scapular alignment and scapular upward rotator activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling of grain refinement driven by negative grain boundary energy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fischer, F. D.; Zickler, G. A.; Svoboda, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 97, č. 23 (2017), s. 1963-1977 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-06390S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : grain refinement * grain nucleation * distribution concept * jump on distribution function Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics OBOR OECD: Thermodynamics Impact factor: 1.505, year: 2016

  11. Substituting maize grain with barley grain in concentrates fed to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the effect of substituting maize grain with barley grain in the diet of lactating Jersey cows grazing kikuyu-ryegrass pasture. Sixty Jersey cows were blocked in terms of number of days in milk, lactation number, milk yield and live weight and randomly assigned to one of five treatments (n ...

  12. Numerical investigation of a scalable setup for efficient terahertz generation using a segmented tilted-pulse-front excitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pálfalvi, László; Tóth, György; Tokodi, Levente; Márton, Zsuzsanna; Fülöp, József András; Almási, Gábor; Hebling, János

    2017-11-27

    A hybrid-type terahertz pulse source is proposed for high energy terahertz pulse generation. It is the combination of the conventional tilted-pulse-front setup and a transmission stair-step echelon-faced nonlinear crystal with a period falling in the hundred-micrometer range. The most important advantage of the setup is the possibility of using plane parallel nonlinear optical crystal for producing good-quality, symmetric terahertz beam. Another advantage of the proposed setup is the significant reduction of imaging errors, which is important in the case of wide pump beams that are used in high energy experiments. A one dimensional model was developed for determining the terahertz generation efficiency, and it was used for quantitative comparison between the proposed new hybrid setup and previously introduced terahertz sources. With lithium niobate nonlinear material, calculations predict an approximately ten-fold increase in the efficiency of the presently described hybrid terahertz pulse source with respect to that of the earlier proposed setup, which utilizes a reflective stair-step echelon and a prism shaped nonlinear optical crystal. By using pump pulses of 50 mJ pulse energy, 500 fs pulse length and 8 mm beam spot radius, approximately 1% conversion efficiency and 0.5 mJ terahertz pulse energy can be reached with the newly proposed setup.

  13. A Psychometric Investigation of Gender-Tilted Families: Implications for Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, Clark W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Obtained self-reports from 40 couples from gender-tilted families, families which have several children of same sex. Parents of boys reported higher levels of family conflict and lower satisfaction with their families than did parents of girls. Parents of male-tilted families expressed more masculine sex-role orientations, greater personal…

  14. Patients with severe acquired brain injury show increased arousal in tilt-table training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riberholt, Christian G; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) are often mobilised using a tilt-table. Complications such as orthostatic intolerance have been reported. The primary objective of this study was to investigate if using a tilt-table was feasible for mobilising patients with severe ABI admitted...

  15. The Application of Normal Stress Reduction Function in Tilt Tests for Different Block Shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Gratchev, Ivan; Hein, Maw; Balasubramaniam, Arumugam

    2016-08-01

    This paper focuses on the influence of the shapes of rock cores, which control the sliding or toppling behaviours in tilt tests for the estimation of rock joint roughness coefficients (JRC). When the JRC values are estimated by performing tilt tests, the values are directly proportional to the basic friction of the rock material and the applied normal stress on the sliding planes. Normal stress obviously varies with the shape of the sliding block, and the basic friction angle is also affected by the sample shapes in tilt tests. In this study, the shapes of core blocks are classified into three representative shapes and those are created using plaster. Using the various shaped artificial cores, a set of tilt tests is carried out to identify the shape influences on the normal stress and the basic friction angle in tilt tests. The test results propose a normal stress reduction function to estimate the normal stress for tilt tests according to the sample shapes based on Barton's empirical equation. The proposed normal stress reduction functions are verified by tilt tests using artificial plaster joints and real rock joint sets. The plaster joint sets are well matched and cast in detailed printed moulds using a 3D printing technique. With the application of the functions, the obtained JRC values from the tilt tests using the plaster samples and the natural rock samples are distributed within a reasonable JRC range when compared with the measured values.

  16. Optimum Tilt Angle for Photovoltaic Solar Panels in Zomba District, Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kamanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A study to determine the optimum tilt angle for installing photovoltaic solar panels in Zomba district, Malawi, has been conducted. The study determined the optimum monthly tilt angles of PV solar panels and the seasonal adjustments needed for the panels in order to collect maximum solar radiation throughout the year. In this study, global solar radiation (GSR on four tilted surfaces was measured. The north-facing surfaces were titled at angles of 0°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The GSR data was used to determine the daily and monthly optimum tilt angles for the PV panels. The optimum tilt angles were found to be 0° or 25° depending on the time of the year. From October to February, the optimum tilt angle has been determined to be 0° and, from March to September, the optimum tilt angle is observed to be 25°. There are only two seasonal adjustments that are needed for PV solar panels in Zomba district and these should be carried out at the end of February and at the end of September. For fixed solar panels with no seasonal adjustments, the optimum tilt angle for the PV solar panels that are northfacing has been determined to be 25°.

  17. Switching PD-based sliding mode control for hovering of a tilting-thruster underwater robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sangrok; Bak, Jeongae; Kim, Jongwon; Seo, TaeWon; Kim, Hwa Soo

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a switching PD-based sliding mode control (PD-SMC) method for the 6-degree-of-freedom (DOF) hovering motion of the underwater robot with tilting thrusters. Four thrusters of robot can be tilted simultaneously in the horizontal and vertical directions, and the 6-DOF motion is achieved by switching between two thruster configurations. Therefore, the tilting speed of thruster becomes the most essential parameter to determine the stability of hovering motion. Even though the previous PD control ensures stable hovering motion within a certain ranges of tilting speed, a PD-SMC is suggested in this paper by combining PD control with sliding mode control in order to achieve acceptable hovering performance even at the much lower tilting speeds. Also, the sign function in the sliding mode control is replaced by a sigmoid function to reduce undesired chattering. Simulations show that while PD control is effective only for tilting duration of 600 ms, the PD-based sliding mode control can guarantee the stable hovering motion of underwater robot even for the tilting duration of up to 1500 ms. Extensive experimental results confirm the hovering performance of the proposed PD-SMC method is much superior to that of PD method for much larger tilting durations.

  18. On the simplifications for the thermal modeling of tilting-pad journal bearings under thermoelastohydrodynamic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Fillon, Michel; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    The relevance of calculating accurately the oil film temperature build up when modeling tilting-pad journal bearings is well established within the literature on the subject. This work studies the feasibility of using a thermal model for the tilting-pad journal bearing which includes a simplified...

  19. The effect of tilt angle on the performance of evacuated tube solar air ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The evacuated tube solar air collector had different collector tilt angles from the horizontal with the one inclined at 30° and 45°. Experimental results revealed that tilt angle had significant influence on the thermal performance of the evacuated tube solar air collector along with or without reflector. Experiments also showed ...

  20. On the small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in Ti3AlC2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Hu, Tao; Zhan, Xun; Wang, Xiaohui; Zhou, Yanchun

    2016-04-01

    Tilt-dominated grain boundaries have been investigated in depth in the deformation of MAX phases. In stark contrast, another important type of grain boundaries, twist grain boundaries, have long been overlooked. Here, we report on the observation of small angle twist sub-grain boundaries in a typical MAX phase Ti3AlC2 compressed at 1200 °C, which comprise hexagonal screw dislocation networks formed by basal dislocation reactions. By first-principles investigations on atomic-scale deformation and general stacking fault energy landscapes, it is unequivocally demonstrated that the twist sub-grain boundaries are most likely located between Al and Ti4f (Ti located at the 4f Wyckoff sites of P63/mmc) layers, with breaking of the weakly bonded Al-Ti4f. The twist angle increases with the increase of deformation and is estimated to be around 0.5° for a deformation of 26%. This work may shed light on sub-grain boundaries of MAX phases, and provide fundamental information for future atomic-scale simulations.

  1. Symmetric-Galerkin BEM simulation of fracture with frictional contact

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phan, AV

    2003-06-14

    Full Text Available A symmetric-Galerkin boundary element framework for fracture analysis with frictional contact (crack friction) on the crack surfaces is presented. The algorithm employs a continuous interpolation on the crack surface (utilizing quadratic boundary...

  2. Non-symmetric localized fold of a floating sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivetti, Marco

    2013-03-01

    An elastic sheet lying on the surface of a liquid, if axially compressed, shows a transition from a smooth sinusoidal pattern to a well-localized fold. This wrinkle-to-fold transition is a manifestation of a localized buckling. The symmetric and antisymmetric shapes of the fold have recently been described by Diamant and Witten (2011), who found two exact solutions of the nonlinear equilibrium equations. In this Note, we show that these solutions can be generalized to a continuous family of solutions, which yields non-symmetric shapes of the fold. We prove that non-symmetric solutions also describe the shape of a soft strip withdrawn from a liquid bath, a physical problem that allows us to easily observe portions of non-symmetric profiles.

  3. Synthesis of symmetrical systems of discrete power functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Я. Білецький

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure of building up symmetrical matrixes, which form systems of basis digital power functions, is worked out and some peculiarities of using them for the spectral analysis of signals are discussed

  4. On the Symmetric Properties for the Generalized Twisted Bernoulli Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Taekyun

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the symmetry for the generalized twisted Bernoulli polynomials and numbers. We give some interesting identities of the power sums and the generalized twisted Bernoulli polynomials using the symmetric properties for the -adic invariant integral.

  5. Estimation of Time Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this work, we present a novel method for modeling time-varying autoregressive impulsive signals driven by symmetric alpha stable distributions. The proposed...

  6. Symmetrization of mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Blokhin

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of charge transport in semiconductors is considered. The model is a quasilinear system of differential equations. A problem of finding an additional entropy conservation law and system symmetrization are solved.

  7. Optical solitons in periodically managed PT-symmetric media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, F. Kh.; Galimzyanov, R. M.

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of light beams in the nonlinear optical media with periodically modulated in the longitudinal direction parity-time distribution of the complex refractive index is investigated. The possibility of dynamical stabilization of PT-symmetric solitons is demonstrated.

  8. Alignment of symmetric top molecules by short laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Edward; Seideman, Tamar; Ejdrup, Tine

    2005-01-01

    Nonadiabatic alignment of symmetric top molecules induced by a linearly polarized, moderately intense picosecond laser pulse is studied theoretically and experimentally. Our studies are based on the combination of a nonperturbative solution of the Schrodinger equation with femtosecond time...

  9. Optimal [Formula: see text] -symmetric switch features exceptional point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Anatole; Konotop, Vladimir V; Benisty, Henri

    2017-10-16

    We consider the optimization problem of least energy-cost path in open systems that are described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. We apply it to find the optimal gain-loss profile for a non-uniform PT-symmetric coupler performing a binary transfer function. We bring evidence that the gain-loss profile fulfilling this requirement corresponds to a non-conventional situation where light intensity is conserved at every point along the PT-symmetric system. Besides, we find that the optimal profile corresponds to a practically important case of optical switching operation achieved with minimal amount of aggregate amplification level. We show that switching architectures using such type of gain-loss profiles are much more advantageous than conventional uniform PT-symmetric couplers in terms of gain and energy. Furthermore, this type of optimal profile turns out to be robust against fabrication imperfections. This opens new prospects for functional applications of PT-symmetric devices in photonics.

  10. The geometrical theory of diffraction for axially symmetric reflectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusch, W.; Sørensen, O.

    1975-01-01

    The geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) (cf. [1], for example) may be applied advantageously to many axially symmetric reflector antenna geometries. The material in this communication presents analytical, computational, and experimental results for commonly encountered reflector geometries...

  11. Braneworld inflation in supergravity with a shift symmetric Kahler ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    43

    2016-01-16

    Jan 16, 2016 ... Braneworld Inflation in Supergravity with a Shift Symmetric Kähler Potential. Article Type: Original Study. Corresponding Author: MOHAMED BENNAI. MOROCCO. Corresponding Author Secondary. Information: Corresponding Author's Institution: Corresponding Author's Secondary. Institution: First Author:.

  12. Stationary Cylindrically Symmetric Solution Approaching Einstein's Cosmological Solution

    OpenAIRE

    Iftime, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Here we describe a stationary cylindrically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation with matter consisting of a positive cosmological and rotating dust term. The solution approaches Einstein static universe solution.

  13. Sobolev Inequalities: Symmetrization and Self Improvement via Truncation

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Joaquim; Milman, Mario; Pustylnik, Evgeniy

    2007-01-01

    We develop a new method to obtain symmetrization inequalities of Sobolev type. Our approach leads to new inequalities and considerable simplification in the theory of embeddings of Sobolev spaces based on rearrangement invariant spaces.

  14. Estimation of Time-Varying Autoregressive Symmetric Alpha Stable

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the last decade alpha-stable distributions have become a standard model for impulsive data. Especially the linear symmetric alpha-stable processes have found...

  15. Gravito-Inertial Force Resolution in Perception of Synchronized Tilt and Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Holly, Jan; Zhang, Guen-Lu

    2011-01-01

    Natural movements in the sagittal plane involve pitch tilt relative to gravity combined with translation motion. The Gravito-Inertial Force (GIF) resolution hypothesis states that the resultant force on the body is perceptually resolved into tilt and translation consistently with the laws of physics. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis for human perception during combined tilt and translation motion. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS: Twelve subjects provided verbal reports during 0.3 Hz motion in the dark with 4 types of tilt and/or translation motion: 1) pitch tilt about an interaural axis at +/-10deg or +/-20deg, 2) fore-aft translation with acceleration equivalent to +/-10deg or +/-20deg, 3) combined "in phase" tilt and translation motion resulting in acceleration equivalent to +/-20deg, and 4) "out of phase" tilt and translation motion that maintained the resultant gravito-inertial force aligned with the longitudinal body axis. The amplitude of perceived pitch tilt and translation at the head were obtained during separate trials. MODELING METHODS: Three-dimensional mathematical modeling was performed to test the GIF-resolution hypothesis using a dynamical model. The model encoded GIF-resolution using the standard vector equation, and used an internal model of motion parameters, including gravity. Differential equations conveyed time-varying predictions. The six motion profiles were tested, resulting in predicted perceived amplitude of tilt and translation for each. RESULTS: The modeling results exhibited the same pattern as the experimental results. Most importantly, both modeling and experimental results showed greater perceived tilt during the "in phase" profile than the "out of phase" profile, and greater perceived tilt during combined "in phase" motion than during pure tilt of the same amplitude. However, the model did not predict as much perceived translation as reported by subjects during pure tilt. CONCLUSION: Human perception is consistent with

  16. Parity-time symmetric cloak with isotropic modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Lei Mei, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a different kind of parity-time ( PT ) symmetric one-way cloak is proposed. Different from conventional PT -cloak, it enjoys the property of isotropic modulation for refractive index profiles. By combining PT -symmetry with the concept of cloaking at a distance, the dilemma of realizing anisotropic modulation is removed. This combination facilitates the practical realization of PT -symmetric one-way cloak. (letter)

  17. Invariant subspaces in some function spaces on symmetric spaces. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platonov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Let G be a semisimple connected Lie group with finite centre, K a maximal compact subgroup of G, and M=G/K a Riemannian symmetric space of non-compact type. We study the problem of describing the structure of closed linear subspaces in various function spaces on M that are invariant under the quasiregular representation of the group G. We consider the case when M is a symplectic symmetric space of rank 1

  18. Scattering theory for non-selfadjoint extensions of symmetric operators

    OpenAIRE

    Cherednichenko, Kirill D.; Kiselev, Alexander V.; Silva, Luis O.

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with the functional model for extensions of symmetric operators and its applications to the theory of wave scattering. In terms of Boris Pavlov's spectral form of this model, we find explicit formulae for the action of the unitary group of exponentials corresponding to almost solvable extensions of a given closed symmetric operator with equal deficiency indices. On the basis of these formulae, we are able to construct wave operators and derive a new representation for the scat...

  19. Axially symmetric domain wall in 2+1-dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soda, Jiro; Yamanaka, Yuki.

    1991-04-01

    An axially symmetric domain wall (string) in 2+1-dimensions is investigated in the synchronous gauge. This problem is also regarded as a cylindrical symmetric domain wall (membrane) in 3+1-dimensions. Using Israel's method, we present a general solution. As a special case, a static solution is obtained which agrees with the previous result of Deser and Jackiw obtained by another method. (author)

  20. Equivalencies, Identities, Symmetric Differences, and Congruencies in Orthomodular Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megill, Norman D.; Pavičić, Mladen

    2003-12-01

    It is shown that operations of equivalence cannot serve for building algebras which would induce orthomodular lattices as the operations of implication can. Several properties of equivalence operations have been investigated. Distributivity of equivalence terms and several other 3 variable expressions involving equivalence terms have been proved to hold in any orthomodular lattice. Symmetric differences have been shown to reduce to complements of equivalence terms. Some congruence relations related to equivalence operations and symmetric differences have been considered.

  1. On the symmetric block design with parameters (153, 57, 21)

    OpenAIRE

    Rexhep Gjergji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper it is proved that:A) Up to isomorphism and duality there are exactly two possible orbital structures for a putative symmetric block design with parameters (153, 57, 21) constructed using the Frobenius group F_{17·16}B) Up to isomorphism and duality there are exactly 16 possible orbital structures for a putative symmetric block design with parameters (153, 57, 21) constructed using the collineation group G.

  2. On the symmetric block design with parameters (153, 57, 21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rexhep Gjergji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is proved that:A Up to isomorphism and duality there are exactly two possible orbital structures for a putative symmetric block design with parameters (153, 57, 21 constructed using the Frobenius group F_{17·16}B Up to isomorphism and duality there are exactly 16 possible orbital structures for a putative symmetric block design with parameters (153, 57, 21 constructed using the collineation group G.

  3. Performance verification of focus variation and confocal microscopes measuring tilted ultra-fine surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Baruffi, Federico; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The behaviour of two optical instruments, scilicet a laser scanning confocal microscope and a focus-variation microscope, was investigated considering measurements of tilted surfaces. The measured samples were twelve steel artefacts for mould surface finish reference, covering Sa roughness...... parameter in the range (101—103) nm. The 3D surface texture parameters considered were Sa, Sq and Sdq. The small working distance of the confocal microscope objectives influenced the measurement setup, preventing from selecting a high tilting angle. The investigation was carried out comparing measurements...... of flat surfaces (0° tilt) with measurements of 12.5° tilted surfaces. The confocal microscope results showed a high sensitivity to tilting due to the laser beam reflection on the metal surfaces. The focus variation microscope results were more robust with respect to the considered angular variation...

  4. Validation of Tilt Gain under Realistic Path Loss Model and Network Scenario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Huan Cong; Rodriguez, Ignacio; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard

    2013-01-01

    Despite being a simple and commonly-applied radio optimization technique, the impact on practical network performance from base station antenna downtilt is not well understood. Most published studies based on empirical path loss models report tilt angles and performance gains that are far higher...... than practical experience suggests. We motivate in this paper, based on a practical LTE scenario, that the discrepancy partly lies in the path loss model, and shows that a more detailed semi-deterministic model leads to both lower gains in terms of SINR, outage probability and downlink throughput...... and lower optimum tilt settings. Furthermore, we show that a simple geometrically based tilt optimization algorithm can outperform other tilt profiles, including the setting applied by the cellular operator in the specific case. In general, the network performance is not highly sensitive to the tilt...

  5. In-vitro hemodynamics of stented bioprosthetic heart valves in the tilted implantation position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin-Ebell, Joerg; Sievers, Hans H; Misfeld, Martin; Runge, Maike; Vogt, Paul Robert; Scharfschwerdt, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Although, in small aortic annulus or aortic annulus calcification, it is recommended that valves are implanted in a tilted position, mechanical valves show impaired hemodynamic performance when positioned in this way. To date, no investigations have been conducted with biological valves implanted in a tilted position. Measurements were performed in a pulsatile flow simulator. The aortic roots were mounted in a fluid reservoir and tested with bioprosthetic valves implanted in the regular position (21 mm; n = 7) or at a 200 tilt (23 mm; n = 7). Additional 21 mm valves were implanted in both positions with a systemic pressure of 120/80 mmHg. Subsequently, the valves were implanted into a glass model and flow visualization monitored by adding air bubbles illuminated with a laser diode. The 21 mm valves showed a slightly higher transvalvular gradient in the tilted than in the regular position, while 23 mm valves in a tilted position showed a lower gradient than 21 mm valves in the regular position. Flow in the regular position was seen to be straight and central, but in the tilted position was diverted and impacted on the aortic wall. Vortex formation in the tilted position was more pronounced than in the regular position, with certain low-flow areas being observed. The implantation of a one size-larger bioprosthetic valve at a 20 degree tilt in a small aortic root resulted in a slight reduction in transvalvular gradient compared to a smaller valve implanted in the regular position. Whilst mechanical valve performance is markedly compromised in the tilted position, the bioprosthetic valve showed only minor impairment of transvalvular pressure gradient due to tilting, and this was overcompensated by the larger valve size. However, the advantage of a greater orifice area must be traded against the consequences of the observed flow disturbances.

  6. Alignment of suprathermally rotating grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarian, A.

    1995-12-01

    It is shown that mechanical alignment can be efficient for suprathermally rotating grains, provided that they drift with supersonic velocities. Such a drift should be widely spread due to both Alfvenic waves and ambipolar diffusion. Moreover, if suprathermal rotation is caused by grain interaction with a radiative flux, it is shown that mechanical alignment may be present even in the absence of supersonic drift. This means that the range of applicability of mechanical alignment is wider than generally accepted and that it can rival the paramagnetic one. We also study the latter mechanism and re-examine the interplay between poisoning of active sites and desorption of molecules blocking the access to the active sites of H_2 formation, in order to explain the observed poor alignment of small grains and good alignment of large grains. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of alignment, we briefly discuss the alignment by radiation fluxes and by grain magnetic moments.

  7. Autonomous grain combine control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Lucas, James R.; Prickel, Marvin A.

    2013-06-25

    A system for controlling a grain combine having a rotor/cylinder, a sieve, a fan, a concave, a feeder, a header, an engine, and a control system. The feeder of the grain combine is engaged and the header is lowered. A separator loss target, engine load target, and a sieve loss target are selected. Grain is harvested with the lowered header passing the grain through the engaged feeder. Separator loss, sieve loss, engine load and ground speed of the grain combine are continuously monitored during the harvesting. If the monitored separator loss exceeds the selected separator loss target, the speed of the rotor/cylinder, the concave setting, the engine load target, or a combination thereof is adjusted. If the monitored sieve loss exceeds the selected sieve loss target, the speed of the fan, the size of the sieve openings, or the engine load target is adjusted.

  8. A comparative EBSD and micro-XRD study of the intergranular grain structure in CP-Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, P.A., E-mail: Peter.Lynch@csiro.a [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Gate 5 Normanby Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia); Tomus, D.; Bettles, C.J. [Monash University, ARC Centre of Excellence for Design in Light Metals, Materials Engineering, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Gibson, M.A.; Stevenson, A.W. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Gate 5 Normanby Road, Clayton, Victoria 3168 (Australia)

    2010-07-21

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and scanning polychromatic X-ray micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) have been applied to study the intergranular grain structure in CP-Ti strip. Prior to synchrotron experimentation, a polycrystalline CP-Ti sample was electrochemically polished and a series of fiducial markers were placed on the surface to define a 500 {mu}mx500 {mu}m region of interest. Within this area EBSD was used to obtain an orientation map of the grains at the sample surface. Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray micro-diffraction data, collected on beamline 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, was then used to map an area of 200x60 {mu}m{sup 2} within the region of interest. Comparison of the respective grain maps indicated an average grain size of {approx}50 {mu}m. Micro-XRD data was initially used to locate the same surface grains determined by EBSD. Based on comparison of the Euler angles, grain orientation maps from the two data sets were found to be in close agreement. The typical rolling texture found in CP-Ti was identified with the basal pole maxima tilted slightly toward the transverse direction. Subsequent 3D analysis of the Laue pattern intensity distribution of the surface grains revealed that some of the large grains identified by EBSD formed sub-cell structures below the sample surface.

  9. A comparative EBSD and micro-XRD study of the intergranular grain structure in CP-Ti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, P. A.; Tomus, D.; Bettles, C. J.; Gibson, M. A.; Stevenson, A. W.

    2010-07-01

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and scanning polychromatic X-ray micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) have been applied to study the intergranular grain structure in CP-Ti strip. Prior to synchrotron experimentation, a polycrystalline CP-Ti sample was electrochemically polished and a series of fiducial markers were placed on the surface to define a 500 μm×500 μm region of interest. Within this area EBSD was used to obtain an orientation map of the grains at the sample surface. Synchrotron polychromatic X-ray micro-diffraction data, collected on beamline 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source, was then used to map an area of 200×60 μm 2 within the region of interest. Comparison of the respective grain maps indicated an average grain size of ˜50 μm. Micro-XRD data was initially used to locate the same surface grains determined by EBSD. Based on comparison of the Euler angles, grain orientation maps from the two data sets were found to be in close agreement. The typical rolling texture found in CP-Ti was identified with the basal pole maxima tilted slightly toward the transverse direction. Subsequent 3D analysis of the Laue pattern intensity distribution of the surface grains revealed that some of the large grains identified by EBSD formed sub-cell structures below the sample surface.

  10. Synthesis of C3-symmetric and C4-symmetric amino acid derivatives via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotha, S; Shah, V R

    2008-06-01

    Various non-natural C(3)- and C(4)-symmetric alpha-amino acid derivatives have been synthesized via Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction between aromatic iodides or bromide and a suitably protected DL-4-boronophenylalanine derivative.

  11. Analysis of the Symmetric and Anti-Symmetric Modes in Spoof-Insulator-Spoof Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhao, Maoxiong; Liu, Liang; Xiang, Hong; Han, Dezhuan

    2017-06-01

    Spoof-insulator-spoof (SIS) waveguides can support propagating modes of spoof surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Here, the symmetry properties and dependence of dimensionality of the spoof SPPs in SIS waveguides are studied both numerically and experimentally. The dispersions of spoof SPPs in two-dimensional (2D) waveguides are distinct from those in 3D waveguides. A cut-off frequency appears at k = 0 for the symmetric mode in the 2D structure. It is found that, from the 2D to 3D case, the dimensional dependence of the spoof SPPs in SIS waveguides is similar to the "real" SPPs in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures. However, their asymptotic behaviors for large k are quite different since the coupling in the direction of thickness are different for the spoof SPPs and "real" SPPs. Our results can be useful in both the physics and applications of the surface modes in the microwave regime.

  12. The morphology of pollen presenter and polymorphism of pollen grains Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the structure of the pollen presenter of Taraxacum officinale and morphology of pollen grains was conducted based on plant material sampled from three different sites. One of them was a forest meadow situated away from the city, and the other two were located in the city centre of Lublin. Light and electron scanning microscopy were used in the study. The pollen presenter in Taraxacum officinale occurs at the upper part of the style situated over the androecium and on the outer part of the stigma. Numerous unicellular trichomes are found on the entire surface of the epidermis of the presenter. The function of the presenter consists in transferring pollen grains above the androecium and corolla petals. Its activity does not stop after pollen release from anthers. Taraxacum pollen grains represent the Crepis - type. Most frequently, they are tricolporate, radially symmetric and isopolar. In terms of the size, they are included in medium-sized grains. In the material examined, many deformed and asymmetric grains were observed, though they were marked by high viability at the level of 96.5-99%. Grains with the largest average lengths of the equatorial and polar axes were found in plants sampled from the meadow situated out of town. In the plant material from all sites, grains with disturbances of the external structure occurred.

  13. Methods of assessing grain-size distribution during grain growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tweed, Cherry J.; Hansen, Niels; Ralph, Brian

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers methods of obtaining grain-size distributions and ways of describing them. In order to collect statistically useful amounts of data, an automatic image analyzer is used, and the resulting data are subjected to a series of tests that evaluate the differences between two related...... distributions (before and after grain growth). The distributions are measured from two-dimensional sections, and both the data and the corresponding true three-dimensional grain-size distributions (obtained by stereological analysis) are collected. The techniques described here are illustrated by reference...

  14. Prevalence of IgE antibodies to grain and grain dust in grain elevator workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.M.; Romeo, P.A.; Olenchock, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    IgE-mediated allergic reactions have been postulated to contribute to respiratory reactions seen in workers exposed to grain dusts. In an attempt better to define the prevalence of IgE antibodies in workers exposed to grain dusts, we performed the radioallergosorbent test (RAST) on worker sera using both commercial allergens prepared from grain and worksite allergens prepared from grain dust samples collected at the worksite. We found that the two types of reagents identified different populations with respect to the specificity of IgE antibodies present. The RAST assay performed using worksite allergens correlated well with skin test procedures. These results may allow us to gain better understanding of allergy associated with grain dust exposure, and document the utility of the RAST assay in assessment of occupational allergies

  15. Accurate electron channeling contrast analysis of a low angle sub-grain boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, H.; Crimp, M.A.; Gey, N.; Maloufi, N.

    2015-01-01

    High resolution selected area channeling pattern (HR-SACP) assisted accurate electron channeling contrast imaging (A-ECCI) was used to unambiguously characterize the structure of a low angle grain boundary in an interstitial-free-steel. The boundary dislocations were characterized using TEM-style contrast analysis. The boundary was determined to be tilt in nature with a misorientation angle of 0.13° consistent with the HR-SACP measurements. The results were verified using high accuracy electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), confirming the approach as a discriminating tool for assessing low angle boundaries

  16. MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF GRAIN MICRONIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Afanas’ev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. During micronisation grain moisture evaporates mainly in decreasing drying rate period. Grain layer located on the surface of the conveyor micronisers will be regarded as horizontal plate. Due to the fact that the micronisation process the surface of the grain evaporates little moisture (within 2-7 % is assumed constant plate thickness. Because in the process of micronization grain structure is changing, in order to achieve an exact solution of the equations necessary to take into account changes thermophysical, optical and others. Equation of heat transfer is necessary to add a term that is responsible for the infrared heating. Because of the small thickness of the grain, neglecting the processes occurring at the edge of the grain, that is actually consider the problem of an infinite plate. To check the adequacy of the mathematical model of the process of micronisation of wheat grain moisture content must be comparable to the function of time, obtained by solving the system of equations with the measured experimental data of experience. Numerical solution of a system of equations for the period of decreasing drying rate is feasible with the help of the Maple 14, substituting the values of the constants in the system. Calculation of the average relative error does not exceed 7- 10 %, and shows a good agreement between the calculated data and the experimental values.

  17. Why Is It Important to Eat Grains, Especially Whole Grains?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nutrients, including dietary fiber , several B vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and folate), and minerals ( iron , magnesium , and selenium). Dietary fiber from whole grains or other foods, may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and may ...

  18. Evaluation of tilted cone-beam CT orbits in the development of a dedicated hybrid mammotomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhav, P; Crotty, D J; Tornai, M P [Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); McKinley, R L [Zumatek Incorporated, Chapel Hill, NC 27519 (United States)], E-mail: priti.madhav@duke.edu

    2009-06-21

    A compact dedicated 3D breast SPECT-CT (mammotomography) system is currently under development. In its initial prototype, the cone-beam CT sub-system is restricted to a fixed-tilt circular rotation around the patient's pendant breast. This study evaluated stationary-tilt angles for the CT sub-system that will enable maximal volumetric sampling and viewing of the breast and chest wall. Images of geometric/anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired using various fixed-tilt circular and 3D sinusoidal trajectories. The iteratively reconstructed images showed more distortion and attenuation coefficient inaccuracy from tilted cone-beam orbits than from the complex trajectory. Additionally, line profiles illustrated cupping artifacts in planes distal to the central plane of the tilted cone-beam, otherwise not apparent for images acquired with complex trajectories. This indicates that undersampled cone-beam data may be an additional cause of cupping artifacts. High-frequency objects could be distinguished for all trajectories, but their shapes and locations were corrupted by out-of-plane frequency information. Although more acrylic balls were visualized with a fixed-tilt and nearly flat cone-beam at the posterior of the breast, 3D complex trajectories have less distortion and more complete sampling throughout the reconstruction volume. While complex trajectories would ideally be preferred, negatively fixed-tilt source-detector configuration demonstrates minimally distorted patient images.

  19. Tilted microstrip phased arrays with improved electromagnetic decoupling for ultrahigh-field magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yong; Wu, Bing; Jiang, Xiaohua; Vigneron, Daniel B; Zhang, Xiaoliang

    2014-12-01

    One of the technical challenges in designing a dedicated transceiver radio frequency (RF) array for MR imaging in humans at ultrahigh magnetic fields is how to effectively decouple the resonant elements of the array. In this work, we propose a new approach using tilted microstrip array elements for improving the decoupling performance and potentially parallel imaging capability. To investigate and validate the proposed design technique, an 8-channel volume array with tilted straight-type microstrip elements was designed, capable for human imaging at the ultrahigh field of 7 Tesla. In this volume transceiver array, its electromagnetic decoupling behavior among resonant elements, RF field penetration to biological samples, and parallel imaging performance were studied through bench tests and in vivo MR imaging experiments. In this specific tilted element array design, decoupling among array elements changes with the tilted angle of the elements and the best decoupling can be achieved at certain tilted angle. In vivo human knee MR images were acquired using the tilted volume array at 7 Tesla for method validation. Results of this study demonstrated that the electromagnetic decoupling between array elements and the B1 field strength can be improved by using the tilted element method in microstrip RF coil array designs at the ultrahigh field of 7T.

  20. Marginal bone loss around tilted implants in comparison to straight implants: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monje, Alberto; Chan, Hsun-Liang; Suarez, Fernando; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this systematic review was to compare the amount of marginal bone loss around tilted and straight implants. As the secondary aim, the incidence of biomechanic complications was compared. An electronic literature search from five databases, for the years 2000 to 2011, and a hand search in implant-related journals were conducted. Clinical human studies in the English language that had reported marginal bone loss in tilted and straight implants at 12-months follow-up or longer were included. Mean marginal bone loss and the number of implants that were available for analysis were extracted from original articles for meta-analyses. Eight (six prospective and two retrospective) studies were included. One-year data were available in seven articles, which included 1,015 (451 tilted) implants. Three articles provided 3- to 5-year data from 302 (164 tilted) implants. No significant difference in weighted mean marginal bone loss was found between the tilted and straight implants in the short and medium terms. Three articles reported the incidence of biomechanic complications. There was not enough information to make a comparison. This meta-analysis failed to support the hypothesis that tilted implants that were splinted for the support of fixed prostheses had more marginal bone loss. Additionally, there was not enough evidence to claim a higher incidence of biomechanic complications in tilted implants. However, due to the nature of the study design of the included articles, caution should be exercised when interpreting the results of this review.

  1. Twenty-degree-tilt radiography for evaluation of lateral humeral condylar fracture in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hideaki; Tanaka, Ryuji; Itoh, Yohei; Kishi, Kazuhiko

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of '20 -tilt anteroposterior (A-P) radiography' in the assessment of lateral condylar fractures of the distal humerus. Eighteen children with lateral humeral condylar fractures were studied. Every child underwent conventional A-P and lateral radiography, and six children underwent multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT). For the investigation of 20 -tilt radiography, ten children with lateral humeral condylar fractures had conventional and 20 -tilt A-P and lateral radiography both preoperatively and postoperatively. Fragment dislocation was measured at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture on both the conventional A-P and 20 -tilt A-P radiographs. The lateral condylar fragment was triangular and was most prominent posteriorly. The fracture line was typically tilted approximately 20 to a reference line perpendicular to the long axis of the humerus in the lateral view. The extent of dislocation at the lateral and medial margins of the fracture site by 20 -tilt A-P radiography (9.3 ± 3.6 mm and 5.6 ± 2.5 mm) was significantly wider than that measured by the conventional method (6.8 ± 4.1 mm and 2.0 ± 1.5 mm), which may influence treatment. Twenty-degree-tilt A-P radiography may more precisely demonstrate fragment dislocation than standard radiographs and may influence patient treatment. (orig.)

  2. Comparative study of absorption in tilted silicon nanowire arrays for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayes, Md Imrul; Leu, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Silicon nanowire arrays have been shown to demonstrate light trapping properties and promising potential for next-generation photovoltaics. In this paper, we show that the absorption enhancement in vertical nanowire arrays on a perfectly electric conductor can be further improved through tilting. Vertical nanowire arrays have a 66.2% improvement in ultimate efficiency over an ideal double-pass thin film of the equivalent amount of material. Tilted nanowire arrays, with the same amount of material, exhibit improved performance over vertical nanowire arrays across a broad range of tilt angles (from 38° to 72°). The optimum tilt of 53° has an improvement of 8.6% over that of vertical nanowire arrays and 80.4% over that of the ideal double-pass thin film. Tilted nanowire arrays exhibit improved absorption over the solar spectrum compared with vertical nanowires since the tilt allows for the excitation of additional modes besides the HE 1m modes that are excited at normal incidence. We also observed that tilted nanowire arrays have improved performance over vertical nanowire arrays for a large range of incidence angles (under about 60°).

  3. Evaluation of tilted cone-beam CT orbits in the development of a dedicated hybrid mammotomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhav, P; Crotty, D J; Tornai, M P; McKinley, R L

    2009-01-01

    A compact dedicated 3D breast SPECT-CT (mammotomography) system is currently under development. In its initial prototype, the cone-beam CT sub-system is restricted to a fixed-tilt circular rotation around the patient's pendant breast. This study evaluated stationary-tilt angles for the CT sub-system that will enable maximal volumetric sampling and viewing of the breast and chest wall. Images of geometric/anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired using various fixed-tilt circular and 3D sinusoidal trajectories. The iteratively reconstructed images showed more distortion and attenuation coefficient inaccuracy from tilted cone-beam orbits than from the complex trajectory. Additionally, line profiles illustrated cupping artifacts in planes distal to the central plane of the tilted cone-beam, otherwise not apparent for images acquired with complex trajectories. This indicates that undersampled cone-beam data may be an additional cause of cupping artifacts. High-frequency objects could be distinguished for all trajectories, but their shapes and locations were corrupted by out-of-plane frequency information. Although more acrylic balls were visualized with a fixed-tilt and nearly flat cone-beam at the posterior of the breast, 3D complex trajectories have less distortion and more complete sampling throughout the reconstruction volume. While complex trajectories would ideally be preferred, negatively fixed-tilt source-detector configuration demonstrates minimally distorted patient images.

  4. Do tilt-in-space wheelchairs increase occupational engagement: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrand, Jenny; Bannigan, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    A wheelchair can enhance the quality of life of an individual with limited mobility, poor trunk control and stability, by enabling activity and participation and so occupational engagement. High specification wheelchairs which can tilt-in-space enable the position of users to be altered to suit activity and context. Despite tilt-in-space wheelchairs being expensive little is known about their therapeutic value. A critical literature review of the evidence was undertaken to evaluate whether the use of tilt-in-space increases occupational engagement. A wide ranging search strategy identified 170 articles which were screened using inclusion criteria. The eligible literature (n = 6) was analysed thematically using open coding. The majority of the participants used tilt-in-space but the data was too heterogeneous to combine. Measures of occupational engagement were not used so the therapeutic value could not be assessed. There is a lack of high quality evidence about the therapeutic benefits of tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Given the expense associated with providing these wheelchairs, and the increase in their provision, research is needed to justify provision of high specification wheelchairs to meet the occupational needs of users within the limited resources of health and social care. Implications for Rehabilitation Tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Wheelchairs are an important and essential assistive device for promoting independence and function. Suggests there are benefits for tilt-in-space wheelchairs. Identifies the need for additional large scale research.

  5. Research on Method of Photoelectric Measurement for Tilt Angle of Scanning Mirror of Infrared Earth Sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, X P; Zhang, G Y; Zhang, N; Wang, L Y

    2006-01-01

    Tilt angle of scanning mirror is one of the important qualifications of performance measurement on the earth surface for swing scanning mode infrared the earth sensor. In order to settle the problem of measuring the tilt angle of scanning mirror in dynamic, real-time and non-contact, based on laser inspecting technology and CCD probing technology, a method of laser dynamical measurement for tilt angle of scanning mirror of the infrared earth sensor is presented. The measurement system developed in this paper can accomplish the dynamic and static laser non-contact measurement for the parameters of scanning mirror such as tilt angle, swing frequency, etc. In this paper the composition and overall structure of system are introduced. Emphasis on analyzing and discussing the theory of dynamically measuring tilt angle of scanning mirror, the problems of data processing and error correction are settled by established mathematic model of system. The accuracy of measurement system is verified by experiment, the results indicated that measurement range of system for tilt angle is 0∼±12 0 , accuracy of dynamic and static measurement is less than ±0.05 0 , this method of dynamically measuring tilt angle is suitable

  6. Investigation of Universal Behavior in Symmetric Diblock Copolymer Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medapuram, Pavani

    Coarse-grained theories of dense polymer liquids such as block copolymer melts predict a universal dependence of equilibrium properties on a few dimensionless parameters. For symmetric diblock copolymer melts, such theories predict a universal dependence on only chieN and N¯, where chie is an effective interaction parameter, N is the degree of polymerization, and N¯ is a measure of overlap. This thesis focuses on testing the universal behavior hypothesis by comparing results for various properties obtained from different coarse-grained simulation models to each other. Specifically, results from pairs of simulations of different models that have been designed to have matched values of N¯ are compared over a range of values of chiN. The use of vastly different simulation models allows us to cover a vast range of chi eN ≃ 200 - 8000 that includes most of the experimentally relevant range. Properties studied here include collective and single-chain correlations in the disordered phase, block and chain radii of gyration in the disordered phase, the value of chieN at the order-disorder transition (ODT), the free energy per chain, the latent heat of transition, the layer spacing, the composition profile, and compression modulus in the ordered phase. All results strongly support the universal scaling hypothesis, even for rather short chains, confirming that it is indeed possible to give an accurate universal description of simulation models that differ in many details. The underlying universality becomes apparent, however, only if data are analyzed using an adequate estimate of chie, which we obtained by fitting the structure factor S( q) in the disordered state to predictions of the recently developed renormalized one-loop (ROL) theory. The ROL theory is shown to provide an excellent description of the dependence of S(q on chain length and thermodynamic conditions for all models, even for very short chains, if we allow for the existence of a nonlinear dependence of

  7. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClintock, B. H. [University of Southern Queensland, Toowoomba, 4350 (Australia); Norton, A. A. [HEPL, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94305 (United States); Li, J., E-mail: u1049686@umail.usq.edu.au, E-mail: aanorton@stanford.edu, E-mail: jli@igpp.ucla.edu [Department of Earth, Planetary, and Space Sciences, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators.

  8. RE-EXAMINING SUNSPOT TILT ANGLE TO INCLUDE ANTI-HALE STATISTICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, B. H.; Norton, A. A.; Li, J.

    2014-01-01

    Sunspot groups and bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs) serve as an observational diagnostic of the solar cycle. We use Debrecen Photohelographic Data (DPD) from 1974-2014 that determined sunspot tilt angles from daily white light observations, and data provided by Li and Ulrich that determined sunspot magnetic tilt angle using Mount Wilson magnetograms from 1974-2012. The magnetograms allowed for BMR tilt angles that were anti-Hale in configuration, so tilt values ranged from 0 to 360° rather than the more common ±90°. We explore the visual representation of magnetic tilt angles on a traditional butterfly diagram by plotting the mean area-weighted latitude of umbral activity in each bipolar sunspot group, including tilt information. The large scatter of tilt angles over the course of a single cycle and hemisphere prevents Joy's law from being visually identified in the tilt-butterfly diagram without further binning. The average latitude of anti-Hale regions does not differ from the average latitude of all regions in both hemispheres. The distribution of anti-Hale sunspot tilt angles are broadly distributed between 0 and 360° with a weak preference for east-west alignment 180° from their expected Joy's law angle. The anti-Hale sunspots display a log-normal size distribution similar to that of all sunspots, indicating no preferred size for anti-Hale sunspots. We report that 8.4% ± 0.8% of all bipolar sunspot regions are misclassified as Hale in traditional catalogs. This percentage is slightly higher for groups within 5° of the equator due to the misalignment of the magnetic and heliographic equators

  9. Combined Influence of Visual Scene and Body Tilt on Arm Pointing Movements: Gravity Matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto Di Cesare, Cécile; Sarlegna, Fabrice R.; Bourdin, Christophe; Mestre, Daniel R.; Bringoux, Lionel

    2014-01-01

    Performing accurate actions such as goal-directed arm movements requires taking into account visual and body orientation cues to localize the target in space and produce appropriate reaching motor commands. We experimentally tilted the body and/or the visual scene to investigate how visual and body orientation cues are combined for the control of unseen arm movements. Subjects were asked to point toward a visual target using an upward movement during slow body and/or visual scene tilts. When the scene was tilted, final pointing errors varied as a function of the direction of the scene tilt (forward or backward). Actual forward body tilt resulted in systematic target undershoots, suggesting that the brain may have overcompensated for the biomechanical movement facilitation arising from body tilt. Combined body and visual scene tilts also affected final pointing errors according to the orientation of the visual scene. The data were further analysed using either a body-centered or a gravity-centered reference frame to encode visual scene orientation with simple additive models (i.e., ‘combined’ tilts equal to the sum of ‘single’ tilts). We found that the body-centered model could account only for some of the data regarding kinematic parameters and final errors. In contrast, the gravity-centered modeling in which the body and visual scene orientations were referred to vertical could explain all of these data. Therefore, our findings suggest that the brain uses gravity, thanks to its invariant properties, as a reference for the combination of visual and non-visual cues. PMID:24925371

  10. Effects of Frequency and Motion Paradigm on Perception of Tilt and Translation During Periodic Linear Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, K. H.; Holly, J. E.; Clement, G. R.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an effect of frequency on the gain of tilt and translation perception. Results from different motion paradigms are often combined to extend the stimulus frequency range. For example, Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) and Variable Radius Centrifugation (VRC) are useful to test low frequencies of linear acceleration at amplitudes that would require impractical sled lengths. The purpose of this study was to compare roll-tilt and lateral translation motion perception in 12 healthy subjects across four paradigms: OVAR, VRC, sled translation and rotation about an earth-horizontal axis. Subjects were oscillated in darkness at six frequencies from 0.01875 to 0.6 Hz (peak acceleration equivalent to 10 deg, less for sled motion below 0.15 Hz). Subjects verbally described the amplitude of perceived tilt and translation, and used a joystick to indicate the direction of motion. Consistent with previous reports, tilt perception gain decreased as a function of stimulus frequency in the motion paradigms without concordant canal tilt cues (OVAR, VRC and Sled). Translation perception gain was negligible at low stimulus frequencies and increased at higher frequencies. There were no significant differences between the phase of tilt and translation, nor did the phase significantly vary across stimulus frequency. There were differences in perception gain across the different paradigms. Paradigms that included actual tilt stimuli had the larger tilt gains, and paradigms that included actual translation stimuli had larger translation gains. In addition, the frequency at which there was a crossover of tilt and translation gains appeared to vary across motion paradigm between 0.15 and 0.3 Hz. Since the linear acceleration in the head lateral plane was equivalent across paradigms, differences in gain may be attributable to the presence of linear accelerations in orthogonal directions and/or cognitive aspects based on the expected motion paths.

  11. Effects of Vestibular Loss on Orthostatic Responses to Tilts in the Pitch Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Serrador, Jorge M.; Black, F. Owen; Rupert,Angus H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which vestibular loss might impair orthostatic responses to passive tilts in the pitch plane in human subjects. Data were obtained from six subjects having chronic bilateral vestibular loss and six healthy individuals matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Vestibular loss was assessed with a comprehensive battery including dynamic posturography, vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, and ocular counterrolling. Head up tilt tests were conducted using a motorized two-axis table that allowed subjects to be tilted in the pitch plane from either a supine or prone body orientation at a slow rate (8 deg/s). The sessions consisted of three tilts, each consisting of20 min rest in a horizontal position, tilt to 80 deg upright for 10 min, and then return to the horizontal position for 5 min. The tilts were performed in darkness (supine and prone) or in light (supine only). Background music was used to mask auditory orientation cues. Autonomic measurements included beat-to-beat recordings of blood pressure (Finapres), heart rate (ECG), cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), end tidal CO2, respiratory rate and volume (Respritrace), and stroke volume (impedance cardiography). For both patients and control subjects, cerebral blood flow appeared to exhibit the most rapid adjustment following transient changes in posture. Outside of a greater cerebral hypoperfusion in patients during the later stages of tilt, responses did not differ dramatically between the vestibular loss and control subjects, or between tilts performed in light and dark room conditions. Thus, with the 'exception of cerebrovascular regulation, we conclude that orthostatic responses during slow postural tilts are not substantially impaired in humans following chronic loss of vestibular function, a result that might reflect compensation by nonvisual graviceptor

  12. Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests, 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph; Mehl, H. L.; Acharya, Bhupendra

    2017-01-01

    Offers data about the grain sorghum testing program, and evaluations of commercial and experimental varieties of grain sorghum. Statistical analyses are provided, as well as information on relative yield, grain moisture, head mold, and more.

  13. Virginia Grain Sorghum Performance Tests, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Balota, Maria; Oakes, Joseph; Thomason, Wade Everett; Pitman, Robert Melvin, 1948-; Mehl, H. L.

    2016-01-01

    Offers data about the grain sorghum testing program, and evaluations of commercial and experimental varieties of grain sorghum. Statistical analyses are provided, as well as information on relative yield, grain moisture, head mold, and more.

  14. Quantum carpets in a one-dimensional tilted optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra Murillo, Carlos Alberto; Muã+/-Oz Arias, Manuel Humberto; Madroã+/-Ero, Javier

    A unit filling Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian embedded in a strong Stark field is studied in the off-resonant regime inhibiting single- and many-particle first-order tunneling resonances. We investigate the occurrence of coherent dipole wavelike propagation along an optical lattice by means of an effective Hamiltonian accounting for second-order tunneling processes. It is shown that dipole wave function evolution in the short-time limit is ballistic and that finite-size effects induce dynamical self-interference patterns known as quantum carpets. We also present the effects of the border right after the first reflection, showing that the wave function diffuses normally with the variance changing linearly in time. This work extends the rich physical phenomenology of tilted one-dimensional lattice systems in a scenario of many interacting quantum particles, the so-called many-body Wannier-Stark system. The authors acknownledge the finantial support of the Universidad del Valle (project CI 7996). C. A. Parra-Murillo greatfully acknowledges the financial support of COLCIENCIAS (Grant 656).

  15. Gastrointestinal Physiology During Head Down Tilt Bedrest in Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaksman, Z.; Guthienz, J.; Putcha, L.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility plays a key role in the physiology and function of the GI tract. It directly affects absorption of medications and nutrients taken by mouth, in addition to indirectly altering GI physiology by way of changes in the microfloral composition and biochemistry of the GI tract. Astronauts have reported nausea, loss of appetite and constipation during space flight all of which indicate a reduction in GI motility and function similar to the one seen in chronic bed rest patients. The purpose of this study is to determine GI motility and bacterial proliferation during -6 degree head down tilt bed rest (HTD). Methods: Healthy male and female subjects between the ages of 25-40 participated in a 60 day HTD study protocol. GI transit time (GITT) was determined using lactulose breath hydrogen test and bacterial overgrowth was measured using glucose breath hydrogen test. H. Pylori colonization was determined using C13-urea breath test (UBIT#). All three tests were conducted on 9 days before HDT, and repeated on HDT days 2, 28, 58, and again on day 7 after HDT. Results: GITT increased during HTD compared to the respective ambulatory control values; GITT was significantly lower on day 7 after HTD. A concomitant increase in bacterial colonization was also noticed during HDT starting after approximately 28 days of HDT. However, H. Pylori proliferation was not recorded during HDT as indicated by UBIT#. Conclusion: GITT significantly decreased during HDT with a concomitant increase in the proliferation of GI bacterial flora but not H. pylori.

  16. Ferromagnetism controlled by electric field in tilted phosphorene nanoribbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, M. Umar; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2016-01-01

    Study on phosphorene nanoribbon was mostly focused on zigzag and armchair structures and no ferromagnetic ground state was observed in these systems. Here, we investigated the magnetic property of tilted black phosphorene nanoribbons (TPNRs) affected by an external electric field. We also studied the edge passivation effect on the magnetism and thermal stability of the nanoribbons. The pure TPNR displayed an edge magnetic state, but it disappeared in the edge reconstructed TPNR due to the self-passivation. In addition, we found that the bare TPNR was mechanically unstable because an imaginary vibration mode was obtained. However, the imaginary vibration mode disappeared in the edge passivated TPNRs. No edge magnetism was observed in hydrogen and fluorine passivated TPRNs. In contrast, the oxygen passivated TPNR was more stable than the pure TPNR and the edge-to-edge antiferromagntic (AFM) ground state was obtained. We found that the magnetic ground state could be tuned by the electric field from antiferromagnetic (AFM) to ferromagnetic (FM) ground state. Interestingly, the oxygen passivated TPNR displayed a half-metallic state at a proper electric field in both FM and AFM states. This finding may provoke an intriguing issue for potential spintronics application using the phosphorene nanoribbons. PMID:27189417

  17. Cyclonic circulation of Saturn's atmosphere due to tilted convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, Y. D.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Saturn displays cyclonic vortices at its poles and the general atmospheric circulation at other latitudes is dominated by embedded zonal jets that display cyclonic circulation. The abundance of small-scale convective storms suggests that convection plays a role in producing and maintaining Saturn's atmospheric circulation. However, the dynamical influence of small-scale convection on Saturn's general circulation is not well understood. Here we present laboratory analogue experiments and propose that Saturn's cyclonic circulation can be explained by tilted convection in which buoyancy forces do not align with the planet's rotation axis. In our experiments—conducted with a cylindrical water tank that is heated at the bottom, cooled at the top and spun on a rotating table—warm rising plumes and cold sinking water generate small anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices that are qualitatively similar to Saturn's convective storms. Numerical simulations complement the experiments and show that this small-scale convection leads to large-scale cyclonic flow at the surface and anticyclonic circulation at the base of the fluid layer, with a polar vortex forming from the merging of smaller cyclonic storms that are driven polewards.

  18. Tilt-table test: its role in modern practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Kulwinder S; Khan, Pervez; Panting, John; Nadar, Sunil

    2013-06-01

    Syncope is a major healthcare problem with significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare cost. It is a common symptom with a complex pathophysiology and, therefore, several aetiologies. Tilt-table testing (TTT) is an important, yet perhaps not widely-used, test that forms part of the management of syncope. We sought to assess the utilisation of this test in our institution for the investigation of patients with syncope, to study the referral patterns and the outcomes and usefulness of the TTT in a real-life setting. We undertook a retrospective study of all the TTT that were performed in our institution between January 2009 and October 2009. Of the 69 patients in which TTT was performed, 14 (20%) presented with presyncope, 24 (35%) with a single episode of syncope and 24 (44%) with multiple episodes. The average age was 57.2 years and 64% were female. Of the total patients, 35 (51%) had an abnormal TTT. Of the patients with normal TTT, four had internal loop recorders and six were referred to other medical specialities. The remaining patients (49%) had no formal diagnosis and were referred back to their general practitioner. TTT remains a common test modality and has great value when undertaken in the correct clinical context. This underlines the importance of a detailed clinical history. The European Society of Cardiology guidelines ensure a methodical and rational approach to syncopal patients and aide in choosing the right patient for the right test.

  19. A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage voltage multiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Shahid; Singh, G K; Besar, R; Muhammad, G

    2006-01-01

    A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (CW-VM) is proposed in this report. It consists of three single-phase symmetrical voltage multipliers, which are connected in series at their smoothing columns like string of batteries and are driven by three-phase ac power source. The smoothing column of each voltage multiplier is charged twice every cycle independently by respective oscillating columns and discharged in series through load. The charging discharging process completes six times a cycle and therefore the output voltage ripple's frequency is of sixth order of the drive signal frequency. Thus the proposed approach eliminates the first five harmonic components of load generated voltage ripples and sixth harmonic is the major ripple component. The proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical voltage multiplier has less than half the voltage ripple, and three times larger output voltage and output power than the conventional single-phase symmetrical CW-VM. Experimental and simulation results of the laboratory prototype are given to show the feasibility of proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical CW-VM

  20. Optomechanically induced absorption in parity-time-symmetric optomechanical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X. Y.; Guo, Y. Q.; Pei, P.; Yi, X. X.

    2017-06-01

    We explore the optomechanically induced absorption (OMIA) in a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric optomechanical system (OMS). By numerically calculating the Lyapunov exponents, we find out the stability border of the PT -symmetric OMS. The results show that in the PT -symmetric phase the system can be either stable or unstable depending on the coupling constant and the decay rate. In the PT -symmetric broken phase the system can have a stable state only for small gain rates. By calculating the transmission rate of the probe field, we find that there is an inverted optomechanically induced transparency (OMIT) at δ =-ωM and an OMIA at δ =ωM for the PT -symmetric optomechanical system. At each side of δ =-ωM there is an absorption window due to the resonance absorption of the two generated supermodes. Comparing with the case of optomechanics coupled to a passive cavity, we find that the active cavity can enhance the resonance absorption. The absorption rate at δ =ωM increases as the coupling strength between the two cavities increases. Our work provides us with a promising platform for controlling light propagation and light manipulation in terms of PT symmetry, which might have potential applications in quantum information processing and quantum optical devices.

  1. Symmetric peace education and Unesco's potential for promoting it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikas, Anatol

    1983-09-01

    Peace education activities, widely contrasting and often mutually inconsistent, may be understood as constituting a dialectic in which each step is based on fundamental human reaction patterns mobilized as incentives. Although neither thesis, `Sounding the Alarm', nor anthithesis, `Identifying Causes', is adequate on its own for building peace, each is a necessary stage in development towards the synthesis, `Symmetric Peace Education'. According to this concept, peace can only be achieved through co-operation between the parties threatening or threatened by each other; and the task of symmetric peace education is to bring both sides and involved neutrals together to work out a basis of common values and joint activities while protecting the identity and integrity of all participants. On the micro-level, in schools, appropriate exercises can be designed to enable pupils to learn, from their own experiences of conflict, symmetrical and constructive habits in communication. Extension to the macro-, international, level may be achieved by representative groups of educators working together without destructive confrontation to produce common peace education packages: these would be used symmetrically by mutual agreement in countries currently rearming against each other. A different approach is proposed for bringing together groups of other professional people in `prepared, constructive confrontations' in order to reduce distrust and increase mutual understanding. The express purpose for the foundation of Unesco was to build peace; and by virtue of this mandate and the nature of its constitution, the organization is uniquely placed to promote symmetric peace education in the ways described.

  2. Tibia Bone Microvascular Flow Dynamics as Compared to Anterior Tibial Artery Flow During Body Tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Rachel L; Siamwala, Jamila H; Macias, Brandon R; Hargens, Alan R

    2018-04-01

    We compared microvascular and macrovascular blood flows of the tibia and anterior tibial artery during graded whole-body tilt. We hypothesized equal responses for bone microvascular and macrovascular blood flows during varying angles of tilt. There were 18 volunteers who were randomly positioned in the following postures: supine, 15° head-up tilt, 6° head-up tilt, 6° head-down tilt, and 15° head-down tilt using an inversion table with reference to seated posture (baseline control). Ultrasonography quantified anterior tibial arterial diameter and peak systolic velocity, enabling calculation of macrovascular blood flow to the tibia. Tibial bone microvascular blood flow was measured noninvasively using photoplethysmography in the same leg. Transitioning from a seated position to a supine position, macrovascular blood flow did not change significantly (1.81 ± 1.18 to 2.80 ± 1.74cm 3 · s-1). However, bone microvascular flow increased significantly (0.36 ± 0.23 to 1.11 ± 0.79 V) from the seated to the supine position. Transitioning from a seated posture to 15° head-down tilt, both arterial macrovascular and bone microvascular flows increased significantly (1.81 ± 1.18 to 3.32 ± 2.08 cm3 · s-1 and 0.36 ± 0.23 V to 2.99 ± 2.71 V, respectively). The normalized flow for microvascular blood flow as a function of body tilt was significantly greater than that for macrovascular blood flow at 6° and 15° head-down tilt. These data do not support our hypothesis that bone microvascular flow and arterial macrovascular flow share equal responses to altered body tilt. Therefore, for a given decrease in local blood pressure in the leg with head-down body tilt, the magnitude of increase in blood flow is greater in the microcirculation as compared to the feeding artery.Becker RL, Siamwala JH, Macias BR, Hargens AR. Tibia bone microvascular flow dynamics as compared to anterior tibial artery flow during body tilt. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(4):357-364.

  3. The importance of prostate bed tilt during postprostatectomy intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Linda J., E-mail: Linda.Bell1@health.nsw.gov.au [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Cox, Jennifer [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia); Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Sydney, Lidcombe, New South Wales (Australia); Eade, Thomas; Rinks, Marianne; Kneebone, Andrew [Northern Sydney Cancer Centre, Radiation Oncology Department, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, New South Wales (Australia)

    2014-10-01

    Variations in rectal and bladder filling can create a tilt of the prostate bed, which generates the potential for a geographic miss during postprostatectomy radiotherapy. The aim of this study is to assess the effect that bladder and rectum filling has on planning target volume angle, to determine a method to assess prostate bed tilt leading to potential geographic miss, and to discuss possible implementation issues. The cone-beam computed tomography images (n = 377) of 40 patients who received postprostatectomy radiotherapy with intensity-modulated radiotherapy were reviewed. The amount of tilt in the prostate bed was defined as the angle change between 2 surgical clips, one in the upper prostate bed and another in the lower. A potential geographic miss was defined as movement of any clip of more than 1 cm in any direction or 0.5 cm posteriorly when aligned to bone anatomy. Variations in bladder and rectum size were correlated with the degree of prostate bed tilt, and the rate of potential geographic miss was determined. A possible clinical use of prostate bed tilt was then assessed for different imaging techniques. A tilt of more than 10° was seen in 20.2% of images, which resulted in a 57.9% geographic miss rate of the superior clip. When tilt remained within 10°, there was only a 9% rate of geographic miss. Potential geographic miss of the inferior surgical clip was rare, occurring in only 1.9% of all images reviewed. The most common occurrence when the prostate bed tilt increased by more than 10° was a smaller bladder and larger rectum (6.4% of all images). The most common occurrence when the prostate bed tilt decreased by more than 10° was a larger bladder and smaller rectum (1.3% of all images). Significant prostate bed tilt (>± 10°) occurred in more than 20% of images, creating a 58% rate of geographic miss. Greatest prostate bed tilt occurred when the bladder size increased or reduced by more than 2 cm or the superior rectum size increased by more

  4. Analysis of fixed tilt and sun tracking photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, Sunanda; Chandel, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: 6 kW p photovoltaic–micro wind based hybrid power system analysis in a Indian Western Himalayan location. - Highlights: • Power generation by a roof mounted photovoltaic–micro wind hybrid system is explored. • Optimum hybrid configurations using fixed and sun tracking photovoltaic systems are determined. • Analysis of hybrid systems with optimally tilted and different sun tracking systems is presented. • Two axis sun tracking systems are found to generate 4.88–26.29% more energy than fixed tilt system. • Hybrid system installed at optimum tilt angle is found to be cost effective than a sun tracking system. - Abstract: In this study fixed tilt and sun tracking photovoltaic based micro wind hybrid power systems are analyzed along with determining the optimum configurations for a 6 kW p roof mounted micro wind based hybrid system using fixed and tracking photovoltaic systems to enhance the power generation potential in a low windy Indian hilly terrain with good solar resource. The main objective of the study is to enhance power generation by focusing on photovoltaic component of the hybrid system. A comparative power generation analysis of different configurations of hybrid systems with fixed tilt, monthly optimum tilt, yearly optimum tilt and 6 different sun tracking photovoltaic systems is carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables. Monthly and seasonal optimum tilt angles determined for the location vary between 0° and 60° with annual optimum tilt angle as 29.25°. The optimum configurations for all sun tracking systems except for the two axis tracking system is found to be 7 kW p photovoltaic system, one 5 kW p wind turbine, 10 batteries and a 2 kW p inverter. The optimum configuration for two axis tracking system and two types of fixed tilt systems, is found to be a 8 kW p photovoltaic system, one 5 kW p wind turbine, 10 batteries and a 2 kW p inverter. The results show that horizontal axis with

  5. Modulation of internal estimates of gravity during and after prolonged roll-tilts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A Tarnutzer

    Full Text Available Perceived direction of gravity, as assessed by the subjective visual vertical (SVV, shows roll-angle dependent errors that drift over time and a bias upon return to upright. According to Bayesian observer theory, the estimated direction of gravity is derived from the posterior probability distribution by combining sensory input and prior knowledge about earth-vertical in a statistically optimal fashion. Here we aimed to further characterize the stability of SVV during and after prolonged roll-tilts. Specifically we asked whether the post-tilt bias is related to the drift pattern while roll-tilted. Twenty-nine healthy human subjects (23-56 yo repetitively adjusted a luminous arrow to the SVV over periods of 5 min while upright, roll-tilted (± 45°, ± 90°, and immediately after returning to upright. Significant (p<0.05 drifts (median absolute drift-amplitude: 10°/5 min were found in 71% (± 45° and 78% (± 90° of runs. At ± 90° roll-tilt significant increases in absolute adjustment errors were more likely (76%, whereas significant increases (56% and decreases (44% were about equally frequent at ± 45°. When returning to upright, an initial bias towards the previous roll-position followed by significant exponential decay (median time-constant: 71 sec was noted in 47% of all runs (all subjects pooled. No significant correlations were found between the drift pattern during and immediately after prolonged roll-tilt. We conclude that the SVV is not stable during and after prolonged roll-tilt and that the direction and magnitude of drift are individually distinct and roll-angle-dependent. Likely sensory and central adaptation and random-walk processes contribute to drift while roll-tilted. Lack of correlation between the drift and the post-tilt bias suggests that it is not the inaccuracy of the SVV estimate while tilted that determines post-tilt bias, but rather the previous head-roll orientation relative to gravity. We therefore favor central

  6. Conceptual design study of 1985 commercial tilt rotor transports. Volume 3. STOL design summary. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sambell, K.W.

    1976-04-01

    A conceptual design study is presented of 1,985 commercial tilt rotor STOL transports for a NASA 200 n. mi. (370 km) STOL Mission. A 100-passenger STOL Variant (Bell D313) of the Phase I VTOL Tilt Rotor Aircraft is defined. Aircraft characteristics are given; with the aircraft redesigned to meet 2,000-foot (610 m) field criteria, with emphasis on low fuel consumption and low direct operating cost. The 100-passenger STOL Tilt Rotor Aircraft was analyzed for performance, weights, economics, handling qualities, noise footprint and aeroelastic stability. (GRA)

  7. Does osteoporosis reduce the primary tilting stability of cementless acetabular cups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schulze Pellengahr, Christoph; von Engelhardt, Lars V; Wegener, Bernd; Müller, Peter E; Fottner, Andreas; Weber, Patrick; Ackermann, Ole; Lahner, Matthias; Teske, Wolfram

    2015-04-21

    Cementless hip cups need sufficient primary tilting stability to achieve osseointegration. The aim of the study was to assess differences of the primary implant stability in osteoporotic bone and in bone with normal bone density. To assess the influence of different cup designs, two types of threaded and two types of press-fit cups were tested. The maximum tilting moment for two different cementless threaded cups and two different cementless press-fit cups was determined in macerated human hip acetabuli with reduced (n=20) and normal bone density (n=20), determined using Q-CT. The tilting moments for each cup were determined five times in the group with reduced bone density and five times in the group with normal bone density, and the respective average values were calculated. The mean maximum extrusion force of the threaded cup Zintra was 5670.5 N (max. tilting moment 141.8 Nm) in bone with normal density and.5748.3 N (max. tilting moment 143.7 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. For the Hofer Imhof (HI) threaded cup it was 7681.5 N (192.0 Nm) in bone with normal density and 6828.9 N (max. tilting moment 170.7 Nm) in the group with osteoporotic bone. The mean maximum extrusion force of the macro-textured press-fit cup Metallsockel CL was 3824.6 N (max. tilting moment 95.6 Nm) in bone with normal and 2246.2 N (max. tilting moment 56.2 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. For the Monoblock it was 1303.8 N (max. tilting moment 32.6 Nm) in normal and 1317 N (max. tilting moment 32.9 Nm) in osteoporotic bone. There was no significance. A reduction of the maximum tilting moment in osteoporotic bone of the ESKA press-fit cup Metallsockel CL was noticed. Results on macerated bone specimens showed no statistically significant reduction of the maximum tilting moment in specimens with osteoporotic bone density compared to normal bone, neither for threaded nor for the press-fit cups. With the limitation that the results were obtained using macerated bone, we could not detect any restrictions for

  8. Modulation of Internal Estimates of Gravity during and after Prolonged Roll-Tilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A.; Bertolini, Giovanni; Bockisch, Christopher J.; Straumann, Dominik; Marti, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Perceived direction of gravity, as assessed by the subjective visual vertical (SVV), shows roll-angle dependent errors that drift over time and a bias upon return to upright. According to Bayesian observer theory, the estimated direction of gravity is derived from the posterior probability distribution by combining sensory input and prior knowledge about earth-vertical in a statistically optimal fashion. Here we aimed to further characterize the stability of SVV during and after prolonged roll-tilts. Specifically we asked whether the post-tilt bias is related to the drift pattern while roll-tilted. Twenty-nine healthy human subjects (23-56yo) repetitively adjusted a luminous arrow to the SVV over periods of 5min while upright, roll-tilted (±45°, ±90°), and immediately after returning to upright. Significant (p<0.05) drifts (median absolute drift-amplitude: 10°/5min) were found in 71% (±45°) and 78% (±90°) of runs. At ±90° roll-tilt significant increases in absolute adjustment errors were more likely (76%), whereas significant increases (56%) and decreases (44%) were about equally frequent at ±45°. When returning to upright, an initial bias towards the previous roll-position followed by significant exponential decay (median time-constant: 71sec) was noted in 47% of all runs (all subjects pooled). No significant correlations were found between the drift pattern during and immediately after prolonged roll-tilt. We conclude that the SVV is not stable during and after prolonged roll-tilt and that the direction and magnitude of drift are individually distinct and roll-angle-dependent. Likely sensory and central adaptation and random-walk processes contribute to drift while roll-tilted. Lack of correlation between the drift and the post-tilt bias suggests that it is not the inaccuracy of the SVV estimate while tilted that determines post-tilt bias, but rather the previous head-roll orientation relative to gravity. We therefore favor central adaptation, most

  9. Grain boundary melting in ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, E. S.; Hansen-Goos, Hendrik; Wettlaufer, J. S.; Wilen, L. A.

    2013-03-01

    We describe an optical scattering study of grain boundary premelting in water ice. Ubiquitous long ranged attractive polarization forces act to suppress grain boundary melting whereas repulsive forces originating in screened Coulomb interactions and classical colligative effects enhance it. The liquid enhancing effects can be manipulated by adding dopant ions to the system. For all measured grain boundaries this leads to increasing premelted film thickness with increasing electrolyte concentration. Although we understand that the interfacial surface charge densities qs and solute concentrations can potentially dominate the film thickness, we cannot directly measure them within a given grain boundary. Therefore, as a framework for interpreting the data we consider two appropriate qs dependent limits; one is dominated by the colligative effect and other is dominated by electrostatic interactions.

  10. Strong localization of photonics in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y H; Tsao, C W; Chen, C H; Hsueh, W J

    2015-01-01

    Strong localization from the Fabry-Pérot-like resonances that occur in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices is presented in this study. When compared with traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, in symmetric Fibonacci superlattices, the middle space is a variant rather than an invariant half-wavelength thickness for each resonance with different orders. In addition, the electric fields of the resonances may be located on both sides of the space layer in the superlattice, which is in contrast to those in a traditional Fabry–Pérot resonator. The electric field of the resonances is strongly localized as the generation order increases. Moreover, the group delays of these peaks increase with generation order. More strongly localized modes can be found from the symmetric Fibonacci superlattices than from the traditional Fabry–Pérot resonators, which makes the proposed structure an attractive alternative to a wide variety of optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  11. Lagrangian formulation of symmetric space sine-Gordon models

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis; Shin, H J; Park, Q Han

    1996-01-01

    The symmetric space sine-Gordon models arise by conformal reduction of ordinary 2-dim \\sigma-models, and they are integrable exhibiting a black-hole type metric in target space. We provide a Lagrangian formulation of these systems by considering a triplet of Lie groups F \\supset G \\supset H. We show that for every symmetric space F/G, the generalized sine-Gordon models can be derived from the G/H WZW action, plus a potential term that is algebraically specified. Thus, the symmetric space sine-Gordon models describe certain integrable perturbations of coset conformal field theories at the classical level. We also briefly discuss their vacuum structure, Backlund transformations, and soliton solutions.

  12. Decomposition of a symmetric second-order tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras, José A.

    2018-05-01

    In the three-dimensional space there are different definitions for the dot and cross products of a vector with a second-order tensor. In this paper we show how these products can uniquely be defined for the case of symmetric tensors. We then decompose a symmetric second-order tensor into its ‘dot’ part, which involves the dot product, and the ‘cross’ part, which involves the cross product. For some physical applications, this decomposition can be interpreted as one in which the dot part identifies with the ‘parallel’ part of the tensor and the cross part identifies with the ‘perpendicular’ part. This decomposition of a symmetric second-order tensor may be suitable for undergraduate courses of vector calculus, mechanics and electrodynamics.

  13. Free vibration of symmetric and sigmoid functionally graded nanobeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, M. A.; Eltaher, M. A.; Sadoun, A. M.; Almitani, K. H.

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this paper was the investigation of vibration characteristics of both nonlinear symmetric power and sigmoid functionally graded nonlocal nanobeams. The volume fractions of metal and ceramic are assumed to be distributed through a beam thickness by sigmoid law distribution and symmetric power function. Structures with symmetric distribution with mid-plane such as ceramic-metal-ceramic and metal-ceramic-metal are proposed. Nonlocal differential Eringen's elasticity is exploited to incorporate size dependency of nanobeam. The kinematic relations of Euler-Bernoulli beam are proposed, with the assumption of a small strain. A nonlocal equation of motion of nanobeam is derived by using principle of virtual work and then discretized by finite element method to obtain numerical solution. Numerical results show the effects of the function distribution, gradient index and nonlocal parameter on natural frequencies of macro- and nanobeam. This model is helpful in the mechanical design of nanoelectromechanical systems manufactured from FGM.

  14. Symmetric spaces and the Kashiwara-Vergne method

    CERN Document Server

    Rouvière, François

    2014-01-01

    Gathering and updating results scattered in journal articles over thirty years, this self-contained monograph gives a comprehensive introduction to the subject. Its goal is to: - motivate and explain the method for general Lie groups, reducing the proof of deep results in invariant analysis to the verification of two formal Lie bracket identities related to the Campbell-Hausdorff formula (the "Kashiwara-Vergne conjecture"); - give a detailed proof of the conjecture for quadratic and solvable Lie algebras, which is relatively elementary; - extend the method to symmetric spaces; here an obstruction appears, embodied in a single remarkable object called an "e-function"; - explain the role of this function in invariant analysis on symmetric spaces, its relation to invariant differential operators, mean value operators and spherical functions; - give an explicit e-function for rank one spaces (the hyperbolic spaces); - construct an e-function for general symmetric spaces, in the spirit of Kashiwara and Vergne's or...

  15. Tourist Demand Reactions: Symmetric or Asymmetric across the Business Cycle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Fred; de Hoog, Robert

    2017-09-01

    Economizing and spending priorities on different types of vacations are investigated during two periods: an economic downturn and returning prosperity. Two nation-wide samples of vacationers are used: one during a downturn, the other one at the start of the recovery period. Through comparing the results, conclusions can be drawn about symmetric or asymmetric tourist demand across the business cycle. The main summer holiday has an asymmetric profile: being fairly crisis-resistant during a recession and showing considerable growth during an expansion. This does not apply to short vacations and day trips, each having a symmetric profile: during a recession they experience substantial reductions and during expansion comparable growth. So when talking about tourist demand in general , one cannot say that it is symmetric or asymmetric across the business cycle: it depends on the type of vacation. Differences in tourist demand are best explained by the role of Quality-of-Life for vacationers.

  16. Rings with involution whose symmetric elements are central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taw Pin Lim

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available In a ring R with involution whose symmetric elements S are central, the skew-symmetric elements K form a Lie algebra over the commutative ring S. The classification of such rings which are 2-torsion free is equivalent to the classification of Lie algebras K over S equipped with a bilinear form f that is symmetric, invariant and satisfies [[x,y],z]=f(y,zx−f(z,xy. If S is a field of char ≠2, f≠0 and dimK>1 then K is a semisimple Lie algebra if and only if f is nondegenerate. Moreover, the derived algebra K′ is either the pure quaternions over S or a direct sum of mutually orthogonal abelian Lie ideals of dim≤2.

  17. Radon transformation on reductive symmetric spaces:Support theorems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuit, Job Jacob

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a class of Radon transforms for reductive symmetric spaces, including the horospherical transforms, and derive support theorems for these transforms. A reductive symmetric space is a homogeneous space G/H for a reductive Lie group G of the Harish-Chandra class, where H is an open...... thus obtained can be extended to a large class of distributions containing the rapidly decreasing smooth functions and the compactly supported distributions. For these transforms we derive support theorems in which the support of ϕ is (partially) characterized in terms of the support of RPϕ. The proof...... is based on the relation between the Radon transform and the Fourier transform on G/H, and a Paley–Wiener-shift type argument. Our results generalize the support theorem of Helgason for the Radon transform on a Riemannian symmetric space....

  18. Encapsulated lipomas of the tongue in benign symmetric lipomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Tobias; Gaumann, Andreas; Ehrenberg, Ramin; Reichert, Torsten E; Driemel, Oliver

    2009-05-01

    Benign symmetric lipomatosis (Madelung disease) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology characterized by diffuse growth of unencapsulated lipomas predominantly in the head, neck and shoulder region. Involvement of the tongue has been previously described in only five cases. A 49-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis presented with an 11-year history of benign symmetric lipomatosis complaining of increasing dysphagia, dysarthria and hoarseness. Clinical intraoral examination revealed asymmetric, globular, firm, circumscribed masses on both borders of the tongue. During surgery, the masses seemed encapsulated from surrounding muscles and could easily be extirpated. However, "satellite fat cells" became obvious, which might give rise to the development of new lipomas.

  19. Four cases of acoustic neurinoma presenting with symmetrical hearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyoshi, Hidetake; Minoda, Ryousei; Yumoto, Eiji

    2008-01-01

    There were 37 cases of acoustic neurinoma, diagnosed at Kumamoto University hospital from 2002 to 2006. We reported four cases of acoustic neurinoma presenting with symmetrical hearing. As for chief complaint at the initial examination, three patient had cochlear or vestibular symptoms of ear fullness, vertigo or hearing loss, one patient had only headache. All cases displayed nystagmus such as paralysis-related nystagmus or upbeat nystagmus, in addition, displayed canal paresis in the affected ear. Caloric test and nystagmus showed valuable findings for detecting acoustic neurinomas presenting with symmetrical hearing. (author)

  20. (Anti)symmetric multivariate exponential functions and corresponding Fourier transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimyk, A U; Patera, J

    2007-01-01

    We define and study symmetrized and antisymmetrized multivariate exponential functions. They are defined as determinants and antideterminants of matrices whose entries are exponential functions of one variable. These functions are eigenfunctions of the Laplace operator on the corresponding fundamental domains satisfying certain boundary conditions. To symmetric and antisymmetric multivariate exponential functions there correspond Fourier transforms. There are three types of such Fourier transforms: expansions into the corresponding Fourier series, integral Fourier transforms and multivariate finite Fourier transforms. Eigenfunctions of the integral Fourier transforms are found