WorldWideScience

Sample records for symbiodinium natans sp

  1. Symbiodinium natans sp. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Gert; Daugbjerg, Niels

    2009-01-01

    We examined a free-living Symbiodinium species by light and electron microscopy and nuclear-encoded partial LSU rDNA sequence data. The strain was isolated from a net plankton sample collected in near-shore waters at Tenerife, the Canary Islands. Comparing the thecal plate tabulation of the free...

  2. The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium sp.) of corals are parasites and mutualists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, M. P.; Stat, M.; Gates, R. D.

    2013-09-01

    The evolutionary success and continued survival of reef-building corals under increasing environmental change will, in part, be determined by the composition of their endosymbiotic dinoflagellate communities ( Symbiodinium sp.). Recent research suggests that differences in the phylotype composition of Symbiodinium in the same host can lead to different outcomes for the host when exposed to similar environmental conditions. One explanation for these observations is that symbioses between corals and Symbiodinium represent a continuum of interaction states that encompass mutualisms and parasitisms consistent with current evolutionary theory developed for other symbiotic systems. Here, we discuss the evidence supporting the existence of a parasitic to mutualistic continuum in Symbiodinium interactions and propose that a consideration of the evolutionary ecology of these associations will advance our understanding of how environmental change will influence the ecological outcomes in these important symbioses. We advocate that a robust taxonomic structure for Symbiodinium sp. and empirical studies on sexual reproduction in Symbiodinium, the stability of interaction states among Symbiodinium symbioses spatially and temporally and how interaction states change as the environment changes will generate data for models that accurately forecast how climate change will influence the persistence of corals and the reefs they structure.

  3. A Survey into Taxonomic and Physiological Differences of Symbiodinium sp., the Photosynthetic Symbiont of Reef-building Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Gong, Xianzhe

    2012-11-01

    The dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium is a popular research topic in the coral reef molecular biology field. Primarily because these organisms serve as the coral holobiont’s primary source of energy, carrying out photosynthesis, and providing hydrocarbons to the coral host. Previous studies have shown the difficulty of isolating Symbiodinium as well as the inherent problems in trying to quantify the diversity of this genus and to qualify the distinct reactions of different Symbiodinium sp. to changing environmental conditions. The main goals of this study are: (1) to detail the relationship between the genetic classification of the organism and its physiology in regard to photosynthesis with a number of established Symbiodinium cultures; and (2) to isolate Symbiodinium from coral of the central Red Sea. To evaluate the photosynthetic physiology of Symbiodinium, a microsensor was used to measure oxygen concentrations along with a phytoplankton analyzer system that used pulse-amplitude-modulation (Phyto-PAM) to measure fluorescence. In order to identify the particular clade that the isolates belonged to, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) was used to identify Symbiodinium based on their internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region. These techniques helped us to achieve our goals in the following ways: Symbiodinium sp. from a culture collection were classified to the subclade level; species-specific and clade-specific photosynthetic profiles were generated; and a Symbiodinium sp. was isolated from the central Red Sea. This study provided preliminary correlation between the photosynthetic difference and Symbiodinium genetic classification; showed the probable existence of a self-protection system inside the Symbiodinium cells by comparing the difference between the initial oxygen production at the beginning of each light step and the oxygen production after light adaptation; and confirmed the possibility of the isolation of Symbiodinium.

  4. Seasonal Preservation Success of the Marine Dinoflagellate Coral Symbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Hagedorn

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are some of the most diverse and productive ecosystems on the planet, but are threatened by global and local stressors, mandating the need for incorporating ex situ conservation practices. One approach that is highly protective is the development of genome resource banks that preserve the species and its genetic diversity. A critical component of the reef are the endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., living within most coral that transfer energy-rich sugars to their hosts. Although Symbiodinium are maintained alive in culture collections around the world, the cryopreservation of these algae to prevent loss and genetic drift is not well-defined. This study examined the quantum yield physiology and freezing protocols that resulted in survival of Symbiodinium at 24 h post-thawing. Only the ultra-rapid procedure called vitrification resulted in success whereas conventional slow freezing protocols did not. We determined that success also depended on using a thin film of agar with embedded Symbiodinium on Cryotops, a process that yielded a post-thaw viability of >50% in extracted and vitrified Symbiodinium from Fungia scutaria, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites compressa. Additionally, there also was a seasonal influence on vitrification success as the best post-thaw survival of F. scutaria occurred in winter and spring compared to summer and fall (P < 0.05. These findings lay the foundation for developing a viable genome resource bank for the world's Symbiodinium that, in turn, will not only protect this critical element of coral functionality but serve as a resource for understanding the complexities of symbiosis, support selective breeding experiments to develop more thermally resilient strains of coral, and provide a 'gold-standard' genomics collection, allowing for full genomic sequencing of unique Symbiodinium strains.

  5. The chloroplast genome of a symbiodinium sp. clade C3 isolate

    KAUST Repository

    Barbrook, Adrian C.

    2014-01-01

    Dinoflagellate algae of the genus Symbiodinium form important symbioses within corals and other benthic marine animals. Dinoflagellates possess an extremely reduced plastid genome relative to those examined in plants and other algae. In dinoflagellates the plastid genes are located on small plasmids, commonly referred to as \\'minicircles\\'. However, the chloroplast genomes of dinoflagellates have only been extensively characterised from a handful of species. There is also evidence of considerable variation in the chloroplast genome organisation across those species that have been examined. We therefore characterised the chloroplast genome from an environmental coral isolate, in this case containing a symbiont belonging to the Symbiodinium sp. clade C3. The gene content of the genome is well conserved with respect to previously characterised genomes. However, unlike previously characterised dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes we did not identify any \\'empty\\' minicircles. The sequences of this chloroplast genome show a high rate of evolution relative to other algal species. Particularly notable was a surprisingly high level of sequence divergence within the core polypeptides of photosystem I, the reasons for which are currently unknown. This chloroplast genome also possesses distinctive codon usage and GC content. These features suggest that chloroplast genomes in Symbiodinium are highly plastic. © 2013 Adrian C. Barbrook.

  6. Characterisation of a Novel Retrovirus and a dsDNA Virus Infecting the Coral Algal Endosymbiont, Symbiodinium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weynberg, K. D.; Neave, M. J.; Clode, P. L.; Voolstra, C. R.; Brownlee, C.; Laffy, P.; Webster, N.; Levin, R.; Wood-Charlson, E.; van Oppen, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Research into viruses associated with coral reefs is a newly emerging field. Corals form an important symbiotic relationship with the dinoflagellate species Symbiodinium, which the coral relies heavily upon for nutrients and calcification. Coral bleaching is the result of disruption of this symbiosis when the algae and/or its photosynthetic pigments are lost from the coral tissues. Environmental stressors, including elevated sea surface temperatures and increased UV light exposure, have been implicated in coral bleaching. We set out to test the hypothesis that Symbiodinium in culture plays host to a latent virus that switches to a lytic infection under stress, such as UV exposure or elevated temperature. Analysis of Symbiodinium cultures (isolated from corals on the Great Barrier Reef) using flow cytometry and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), revealed an active viral infection was ongoing, regardless of experimental conditions. Morphological analysis using TEM revealed filamentous and icosahedral virus-like particles associated with Symbiodinium cultures. We present genomic data of the virus assemblages isolated from cultured Symbiodinium cells that indicate this dinoflagellate is targeted by both a dsDNA virus, related to members of the Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Large dsDNA Virus family (NCLDV), and a novel ssRNA virus related to the Orthoretrovirinae. Further investigations are underway to detect viruses in freshly isolated Symbiodinium from reef corals and to compare these with viruses observed in laboratory cultures of this symbiotic alga. We aim to develop molecular diagnostic probes to detect viruses in field samples to help monitor and assess the impact of viruses in coral bleaching and other climate change-related events, which have huge implications for the health of coral reefs to future global climate scenarios.

  7. Lipid biomarkers in Symbiodinium dinoflagellates: new indicators of thermal stress

    KAUST Repository

    Kneeland, J.

    2013-08-30

    Lipid content and fatty acid profiles of corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts are known to vary in response to high-temperature stress. To better understand the heat-stress response in these symbionts, we investigated cultures of Symbiodinium goreauii type C1 and Symbiodinium sp. clade subtype D1 grown under a range of temperatures and durations. The predominant lipids produced by Symbiodinium are palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) saturated fatty acids and their unsaturated analogs, the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6, n-3; DHA), and a variety of sterols. Prolonged exposure to high temperature causes the relative amount of unsaturated acids within the C18 fatty acids in Symbiodinium tissue to decrease. Thermal stress also causes a decrease in abundance of fatty acids relative to sterols, as well as the more specific ratio of DHA to an algal 4-methyl sterol. These shifts in fatty acid unsaturation and fatty acid-to-sterol ratios are common to both types C1 and D1, but the apparent thermal threshold of lipid changes is lower for type C1. This work indicates that ratios among free fatty acids and sterols in Symbiodinium can be used as sensitive indicators of thermal stress. If the Symbiodinium lipid stress response is unchanged in hospite, the algal heat-stress biomarkers we have identified could be measured to detect thermal stress within the coral holobiont. These results provide new insights into the potential role of lipids in the overall Symbiodinium thermal stress response. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS AND MYCOSPORINE-LIKE AMINO ACIDS (MAAS) FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous extraction methods have been developed and used in the quantitation of both photopigments and mycosporine amino acids (MAAs) found in Symbiodinium sp. and zooanthellate metazoans. We have development of a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol, which when coupl...

  9. Symbiodinium mitigate the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on a noncalcifying cnidarian

    KAUST Repository

    Klein, Shannon G.

    2017-04-08

    Anthropogenic nutrient inputs enhance microbial respiration within many coastal ecosystems, driving concurrent hypoxia and acidification. During photosynthesis, Symbiodinium spp., the microalgal endosymbionts of cnidarians and other marine phyla, produce O and assimilate CO and thus potentially mitigate the exposure of the host to these stresses. However, such a role for Symbiodinium remains untested for noncalcifying cnidarians. We therefore contrasted the fitness of symbiotic and aposymbiotic polyps of a model host jellyfish (Cassiopea sp.) under reduced O (~2.09 mg/L) and pH (~ 7.63) scenarios in a full-factorial experiment. Host fitness was characterized as asexual reproduction and their ability to regulate internal pH and Symbiodinium performance characterized by maximum photochemical efficiency, chla content and cell density. Acidification alone resulted in 58% more asexual reproduction of symbiotic polyps than aposymbiotic polyps (and enhanced Symbiodinium cell density) suggesting Cassiopea sp. fitness was enhanced by CO-stimulated Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity. Indeed, greater CO drawdown (elevated pH) was observed within host tissues of symbiotic polyps under acidification regardless of O conditions. Hypoxia alone produced 22% fewer polyps than ambient conditions regardless of acidification and symbiont status, suggesting Symbiodinium photosynthetic activity did not mitigate its effects. Combined hypoxia and acidification, however, produced similar numbers of symbiotic polyps compared with aposymbiotic kept under ambient conditions, demonstrating that the presence of Symbiodinium was key for mitigating the combined effects of hypoxia and acidification on asexual reproduction. We hypothesize that this mitigation occurred because of reduced photorespiration under elevated CO conditions where increased net O production ameliorates oxygen debt. We show that Symbiodinium play an important role in facilitating enhanced fitness of Cassiopea sp. polyps, and

  10. Local endemicity and high diversity characterise high-latitude coral- Symbiodinium partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, L. C.; Sampayo, E.; Gardner, J. P. A.; Davy, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    Obligate symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium) residing within the tissues of most reef invertebrates are important in determining the tolerance range of their host. Coral communities living at high latitudes experience wide fluctuations in environmental conditions and thus provide an ideal system to gain insights into the range within which the symbiotic relationship can be sustained. Further, understanding whether and how symbiont communities associated with high-latitude coral reefs are different from their tropical counterparts will provide clues to the potential of corals to cope with marginal or changing conditions. However, little is known of the host and symbiont partnerships at high latitudes. Symbiodinium diversity and specificity of high-latitude coral communities were explored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis of the internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA at Lord Howe Island (31°S; Australia), and the Kermadec Islands (29°S; New Zealand). All but one host associated with clade C Symbiodinium, the exception being a soft coral ( Capnella sp.) that contained Symbiodinium B1. Besides ‘host-generalist’ Symbiodinium types C1 and C3, approximately 72% of the Symbiodinium identified were novel C types, and zonation of symbionts in relation to environmental parameters such as depth and turbidity was evident in certain host species. The high-latitude Symbiodinium communities showed little overlap and relatively high diversity compared with communities sampled on the tropical Great Barrier Reef. Although host specificity was maintained in certain species, others shared symbionts and this potential reduction of fidelity at high-latitude locations may be the result of locally challenging and highly variable environmental conditions.

  11. Répartition et abondance des sargasses Sargassum natans et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    végétal, originaire du Nord du Brésil, est composé de deux espèces Sargassum natans et Sargassum fluitans qui sont entraînées dans les eaux marines .... trou sans fond d'Abidjan et l'aire marine du large de reproduction des thons. ..... marins impliqués dans le transport des sargasses du Nord du Brésil vers les côtes.

  12. Phytoremediation of arsenic by Trapa natans in a hydroponic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Sangita; Borgohain, Jayasree; Sarma, K P

    2014-05-01

    Phytoremediation of arsenic (As) by water chestnut (Trapa natans) in a hydroponic system was studied. Plants were grown at two concentrations of arsenic, 1.28 mg/L and 10.80 mg/L, in a single metal solution. Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) confirmed highest arsenic concentration in the roots, followed by shoots and leaves. SEM-EDX also confirmed internalization of arsenic in T. natans and the damage caused due to arsenic exposure. Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (FT-IRS) indicated that the binding characteristics of the arsenic ions involved the hydroxyl, amide, amino, and thiol groups in the biomass. Chlorophyll concentration decreased with increasing metal concentration and duration of exposure, but proline content increases with increasing concentration in the plant. Morphological changes were studied on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day. Unhealthy growth and chlorosis were found to be related with arsenic toxicity. From the above studies it is clear that T. natans can be used successfully for the removal of arsenic ions by a phytoremediation process.

  13. Seasonal fluctuations in photochemical efficiency of Symbiodinium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rDNA) was used in monitoring the Symbiodinium types associated with the studied coral species. Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry method was used to determine seasonal changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence. In this study, it ...

  14. Heterologous DNA Uptake in Cultured Symbiodinium spp. Aided by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Boris; Menzel, Diedrik; Baluška, František; Villanueva, Marco A.

    2015-01-01

    Plant-targeted pCB302 plasmids containing sequences encoding gfp fusions with a microtubule-binding domain; gfp with the fimbrin actin-binding domain 2; and gfp with AtRACK1C from Arabidopsis thaliana, all harbored in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, were used to assay heterologous expression on three different clades of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium. Accessibility to the resistant cell wall and through the plasma membrane of these dinoflagellates was gained after brief but vigorous shaking in the presence of glass beads and polyethylene glycol. A resistance gene to the herbicide Basta allowed appropriate selection of the cells expressing the hybrid proteins, which showed a characteristic green fluorescence, although they appeared to lose their photosynthetic pigments and did not further divide. Cell GFP expression frequency measured as green fluorescence emission yielded 839 per every 106 cells for Symbiodinium kawagutii, followed by 640 and 460 per every 106 cells for Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Symbiodinium sp. Mf11, respectively. Genomic PCR with specific primers amplified the AtRACK1C and gfp sequences after selection in all clades, thus revealing their presence in the cells. RT-PCR from RNA of S. kawagutii co-incubated with A. tumefaciens harboring each of the three vectors with their respective constructs, amplified products corresponding to the heterologous gfp sequence while no products were obtained from three distinct negative controls. The reported procedure shows that mild abrasion followed by co-incubation with A. tumefaciens harboring heterologous plasmids with CaMV35S and nos promoters can lead to expression of the encoded proteins into the Symbiodinium cells in culture. Despite the obvious drawbacks of the procedure, this is an important first step towards a stable transformation of Symbiodinium. PMID:26167858

  15. Plasticity in carbon acquisition of the heterophyllous Luronium natans: an endangered freshwater species in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Benita; Brix, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Luronium natans (L.) Raf. (Floating Water-plantain) is an endangered amphibious freshwater species endemic to Europe. We examined the plasticity in carbon acquisition and photosynthesis in L. natans to assess if lack of plasticity could contribute to explain the low competitive ability...... of the species. The plasticity of photosynthesis in submerged leaves towards inorganic carbon availability was examined and the photosynthesis of submerged, floating and aerial leaves was contrasted. L. natans was shown to be plastic in inorganic carbon uptake, as it was able to effectively acclimate to changed...

  16. The MicroRNA Repertoire of Symbiodinium, the Dinoflagellate Symbiont of Reef-Building Corals

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-07-01

    Animal and plant genomes produce numerous small RNAs (smRNAs) that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally affecting metabolism, development, and epigenetic inheritance. In order to characterize the repertoire of endogenous microRNAs and potential gene targets, we conducted smRNA and mRNA expression profiling over nine experimental treatments of cultures from the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp. A1, a photosynthetic symbiont of scleractinian corals. We identified a total of 75 novel smRNAs in Symbiodinum sp. A1 that share stringent key features with functional microRNAs from other model organisms. A subset of 38 smRNAs was predicted independently over all nine treatments and their putative gene targets were identified. We found 3,187 animal-like target sites in the 3’UTRs of 12,858 mRNAs and 53 plantlike target sites in 51,917 genes. Furthermore, we identified the core RNAi protein machinery in Symbiodinium. Integration of smRNA and mRNA expression profiling identified a variety of processes that could be under microRNA control, e.g. regulation of translation, DNA modification, and chromatin silencing. Given that Symbiodinium seems to have a paucity of transcription factors and differentially expressed genes, identification and characterization of its smRNA repertoire establishes the possibility of a range of gene regulatory mechanisms in dinoflagellates acting post-transcriptionally.

  17. Thermal responses of Symbiodinium photosynthetic carbon assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2014-06-01

    The symbiosis between hermatypic corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts, genus Symbiodinium, is based on carbon exchange. This symbiosis is disrupted by thermally induced coral bleaching, a stress response in which the coral host expels its algal symbionts as they become physiologically impaired. The disruption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply or the thermal inactivation of Rubisco have been proposed as sites of initial thermal damage that leads to the bleaching response. Symbiodinium possesses a highly unusual Form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which exhibits a lower CO2:O2 specificity and may be more thermally unstable than the Form I Rubiscos of other algae and land plants. Components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), which supplies inorganic carbon for photosynthesis, may also be temperature sensitive. Here, we examine the ability of four cultured Symbiodinium strains to acquire and fix DIC across a temperature gradient. Surprisingly, the half-saturation constant of photosynthesis with respect to DIC concentration ( K P), an index of CCM function, declined with increasing temperature in three of the four strains, indicating a greater potential for photosynthetic carbon acquisition at elevated temperatures. In the fourth strain, there was no effect of temperature on K P. Finding no evidence for thermal inhibition of the CCM, we conclude that CCM components are not likely to be the primary sites of thermal damage. Reduced photosynthetic quantum yields, a hallmark of thermal bleaching, were observed at low DIC concentrations, leaving open the possibility that reduced inorganic carbon availability is involved in bleaching.

  18. Oxygen, pH, and Eh microprofiles around submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans response to growing stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, B.; Wang, G. X.; Yu, H. G.

    2017-08-01

    The periphyton, attached to the surfaces of submerged plants, has important effects on plant growth and development in eutrophic waters. Periphyton complicates the microenvironment of diffusive boundary layer around submerged plants. We researched periphyton characteristics, oxygen (O2), pH, and Eh microprofiles at various growing stages of Vallisneria natans. The results suggested that during the growing period of V. natans, O2 concentration and pH decreased from 0 to 2 mm above the leaf surface, whereas the Eh increased. As V. natans grew, O2 and pH gradually increased until they peaked during stable growing stages, while the Eh decreased. However, during the decline stage, O2 and pH gradually decreased, and Eh increased. To summarise, O2 and pH showed a unimodal pattern in response to the life cycle of V. natans, with the maximum levels during the stable growth stage and the minimum levels during the rapid growth and decline stages. Our study demonstrated that V. natans growth induced steep gradients in O2 concentrations, pH, and Eh at the DBL by increasing the layer’s thickness, macrophyte photosynthetic capacity, and periphyton biomass in eutrophic waters.

  19. Coral host transcriptomic states are correlated with Symbiodinium genotypes

    KAUST Repository

    DeSalvo, Michael K.

    2010-03-01

    A mutualistic relationship between reef-building corals and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium spp.) forms the basis for the existence of coral reefs. Genotyping tools for Symbiodinium spp. have added a new level of complexity to studies concerning cnidarian growth, nutrient acquisition, and stress. For example, the response of the coral holobiont to thermal stress is connected to the host-Symbiodinium genotypic combination, as different partnerships can have different bleaching susceptibilities. In this study, we monitored Symbiodinium physiological parameters and profiled the coral host transcriptional responses in acclimated, thermally stressed, and recovered fragments of the coral Montastraea faveolata using a custom cDNA gene expression microarray. Interestingly, gene expression was more similar among samples with the same Symbiodinium content rather than the same experimental condition. In order to discount for host-genotypic effects, we sampled fragments from a single colony of M. faveolata containing different symbiont types, and found that the host transcriptomic states grouped according to Symbiodinium genotype rather than thermal stress. As the first study that links coral host transcriptomic patterns to the clade content of their Symbiodinium community, our results provide a critical step to elucidating the molecular basis of the apparent variability seen among different coral-Symbiodinium partnerships. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Symbiodinium genomes reveal adaptive evolution of functions related to symbiosis

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huanle

    2017-10-06

    Symbiosis between dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium and reef-building corals forms the trophic foundation of the world\\'s coral reef ecosystems. Here we present the first draft genome of Symbiodinium goreaui (Clade C, type C1: 1.03 Gbp), one of the most ubiquitous endosymbionts associated with corals, and an improved draft genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii (Clade F, strain CS-156: 1.05 Gbp), previously sequenced as strain CCMP2468, to further elucidate genomic signatures of this symbiosis. Comparative analysis of four available Symbiodinium genomes against other dinoflagellate genomes led to the identification of 2460 nuclear gene families that show evidence of positive selection, including genes involved in photosynthesis, transmembrane ion transport, synthesis and modification of amino acids and glycoproteins, and stress response. Further, we identified extensive sets of genes for meiosis and response to light stress. These draft genomes provide a foundational resource for advancing our understanding Symbiodinium biology and the coral-algal symbiosis.

  1. Sphaerotilus natans, a neutrophilic iron-related filamentous bacterium : mechanisms of uranium scavenging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seder-Colomina, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and radionuclides are present in some ecosystems worldwide due to natural contaminations or anthropogenic activities. The use of microorganisms to restore those polluted ecosystems, a process known as bioremediation, is of increasing interest, especially under near-neutral pH conditions. Iron minerals encrusting neutrophilic iron-related bacteria, especially Bacterio-genic Iron Oxides (BIOS), have a poorly crystalline structure, which in addition to their large surface area and reactivity make them excellent scavengers for inorganic pollutants. In this PhD work we studied the different mechanisms of uranium scavenging by the neutrophilic bacterium Sphaerotilus natans, chosen as a model bacterium for iron-related sheath-forming filamentous microorganisms. S. natans can grow as single cells and filaments. The latter were used to investigate U(VI) bio-sorption and U(VI) sorption onto BIOS. In addition, uranium sorption onto the abiotic analogues of such iron minerals was assessed. In order to use S. natans filaments for U(VI) scavenging, it was necessary to identify factors inducing S. natans filamentation. The influence of oxygen was ascertained by using molecular biology techniques and our results revealed that while saturated oxygen conditions resulted in single cell growth, a moderate oxygen depletion to ∼ 3 mg O 2 .L -1 led to the desired filamentous growth of S. natans. BIOS attached to S. natans filaments as well as the abiotic analogues were analysed by XAS at Fe K-edge. Both materials were identified as amorphous iron(III) phosphates with a small component of Fe(II), with a high reactivity towards scavenging of inorganic pollutants. In addition, EXAFS at the U LIII-edge revealed a common structure for the O shells, while those for P, Fe and C were different for each sorbent. An integrated approach combining experimental techniques and speciation calculations made it possible to describe U(VI) adsorption isotherms by using a surface complexation

  2. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Meng, F; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    , but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa...

  3. Symbiodinium associations with diseased and healthy scleractinian corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Brandt, M. E.; Smith, T. B.; Thornhill, D. J.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent advances in identifying the causative agents of disease in corals and understanding the impact of epizootics on reef communities, little is known regarding the interactions among diseases, corals, and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts ( Symbiodinium spp.). Since the genotypes of both corals and their resident Symbiodinium contribute to colony-level phenotypes, such as thermotolerance, symbiont genotypes might also contribute to the resistance or susceptibility of coral colonies to disease. To explore this, Symbiodinium were identified using the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of ribosomal DNA from diseased and healthy tissues within individual coral colonies infected with black band disease (BB), dark spot syndrome (DSS), white plague disease (WP), or yellow blotch disease (YB) in the Florida Keys (USA) and the US Virgin Islands. Most of the diseased colonies sampled contained B1, B5a, or C1 (depending on host species), while apparently healthy colonies of the same coral species frequently hosted these types and/or additional symbiont diversity. No potentially “parasitic” Symbiodinium types, uniquely associated with diseased coral tissue, were detected. Within most individual colonies, the same dominant Symbiodinium type was detected in diseased and visually healthy tissues. These data indicate that specific Symbiodinium types are not correlated with the infected tissues of diseased colonies and that DSS and WP onset do not trigger symbiont shuffling within infected tissues. However, few diseased colonies contained clade D symbionts suggesting a negative correlation between hosting Symbiodinium clade D and disease incidence in scleractinian corals. Understanding the influence of Symbiodinium diversity on colony phenotypes may play a critical role in predicting disease resistance and susceptibility in scleractinian corals.

  4. SYMBIODINIUM ISOLATES FROM STONY CORAL: ISOLATION, GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS AND EFFECTS OF UV IRRADIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symbiodinium spp. Isolates from Stony Coral: Isolation, Growth Characteristics and Effects of UV Irradiation (Abstract). J. Phycol. 37(3):42-43.Symbiodinium species were isolated from Montipora capitata, Acropora palmata and two field samples of Porites porites. Cultures ...

  5. Construction of a Learner Corpus for Japanese Language Learners: Natane and Nutmeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuko NISHINA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Japanese language learners aim to acquire reading, listening, writing and speaking skills. We at the Hinoki project (https://hinoki-project.org/ have recently been working on the Natsume collocation search system (https://hinoki-project.org/natsume/, the Natane learner corpus to support Natsume (https://hinoki-project.org/natane/ and the Nutmeg writing support system (http://hinoki-project.org/nutmeg/. In order to test the effectiveness of Nutmeg, we conducted an online experiment with 36 participants who used the system's register misuse identification feature to correct four writing assignments. Results show that Nutmeg can be an effective tool in correcting common register-related errors, especially those involving auxiliary verbs. However, the accuracy of verb and adverb identification was too low, suggesting the need for improvements in the variety of corpora used for identifying register misuse.

  6. sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    adopted as the first line drug. SP has few untoward effects if used carefully in therapeutic doses. Nausea, vomiting, generalized body weakness; diarrhea, skin rashes and hematological reactions are some of the associated side effects. The drug can cause severe skin reactions such as Steven Johnson's syndrome. This.

  7. Microbiological stimulation of phytoremediation process using Salvinia natans to mercury contamined water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filyarovskaya, Viktoriya; Sitarska, Magdalena; Traczewska, Teodora; Wolf, Mirela

    2017-11-01

    An alternative to traditional cleaning methods of heavy metals in the water environment is phytoremediation. They efficiency depends on used technological process conditions as well as plant species. One of the most dangerous metallic elements mercury plays a particular role, which is a trace element and a physiologically foreign in living organisms. Mercury has a high degree of toxicity with strong affinity to thiol groups. This may cause an adverse effect on the enzymatic processes and consequently inhibiting the physiological functions. Because of high risk for human health, water environment treatment from mercury is essential proecological action. Mercury removal studies were conducted using Salvinia natans pleustofit, sampled from its natural water environment. In the first step, epiphytic bacteria, which was resistant to high concentrations of mercury (0,6 mgHg/l), was isolated from the plant and than selected by the tiles gradient mthod. In the next step, the identification using molecular biology methods was made. In the following step plant Salvinia natans was exposure to high levels of mercury in the presence of the three isolated Pseudomonas strains with exceptional resistance characteristics to environmental factors. Has been found a positive bacteria effect on the plant condition because the selected strains belong to Pseudomonas species producing materials supporting plant growth. The use of microbial stimulation to phytoremediation by hyperaccumulator Salvinia natans can multiply the effectiveness of the process.

  8. Microbiological stimulation of phytoremediation process using Salvinia natans to mercury contamined water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filyarovskaya Viktoriya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An alternative to traditional cleaning methods of heavy metals in the water environment is phytoremediation. They efficiency depends on used technological process conditions as well as plant species. One of the most dangerous metallic elements mercury plays a particular role, which is a trace element and a physiologically foreign in living organisms. Mercury has a high degree of toxicity with strong affinity to thiol groups. This may cause an adverse effect on the enzymatic processes and consequently inhibiting the physiological functions. Because of high risk for human health, water environment treatment from mercury is essential proecological action. Mercury removal studies were conducted using Salvinia natans pleustofit, sampled from its natural water environment. In the first step, epiphytic bacteria, which was resistant to high concentrations of mercury (0,6 mgHg/l, was isolated from the plant and than selected by the tiles gradient mthod. In the next step, the identification using molecular biology methods was made. In the following step plant Salvinia natans was exposure to high levels of mercury in the presence of the three isolated Pseudomonas strains with exceptional resistance characteristics to environmental factors. Has been found a positive bacteria effect on the plant condition because the selected strains belong to Pseudomonas species producing materials supporting plant growth. The use of microbial stimulation to phytoremediation by hyperaccumulator Salvinia natans can multiply the effectiveness of the process.

  9. Diversity of the Symbiotic Alga Symbiodinium in Tanzanian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract—With the current increase in frequency of coral bleaching events, knowledge on the genetic diversity of symbiotic algae in the genus Symbiodinium harboured by reef-building corals is important to understand how coral reefs will respond to global climate change. This study was undertaken as very little is known.

  10. Diversity of symbiotic algae in the genus Symbiodinium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Internal transcribed spacer two (ITS-2) region of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was used to identify the symbionts types associating with the 66 sampled reef building corals following polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophresis (PCR-DGGE)-Sequencing approach. ITS-2 Symbiodinium types from ...

  11. About the performance of Sphaerotilus natans to reduce hexavalent chromium in batch and continuous reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caravelli, Alejandro H.; Zaritzky, Noemi E.

    2009-01-01

    The hexavalent chromium biological reduction constitutes a safe and economical detoxification procedure of wastewaters containing Cr(VI). However, little research has been done to evaluate Cr(VI) tolerance and reduction capacity of microbial cultures under different growth conditions. The aims of this work were (a) to evaluate the capacity of Sphaerotilus natans to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in a continuous system limited in carbon and energy source or in nitrogen source, (b) to evaluate the toxic effect of Cr(VI) on this microorganism, (c) to carry out a complete analysis of Cr(VI) reduction by S. natans not only in continuous regime but also in batch system, and (d) to model the obtained results mathematically. S. natans exhibited great resistance to Cr(VI) (19-78 mg l -1 ) and optimal growth in continuous and batch systems using a mineral medium supplemented only with citric acid as organic substrate. In carbon- and energy-limited continuous systems, a maximum percentual decrease in Cr(VI) by 13% was reached for low influent Cr(VI) concentration (4.3-5.32 mgCr(VI) l -1 ); the efficiency of the process did not notoriously increase as the length of cellular residence time was increased from 4.16 to 50 h. A nitrogen-limited continuous operation with a cellular residence time of 28.5 h resulted in a Cr(VI) decrease of approximately 26-32%. In batch system, a mathematical model allowed to predict the Cr(VI) concentration as a function of time and the ratio between the initial Cr(VI) concentration and that of the biomass. High concentrations of initial Cr(VI) and biomass produced the highest performance of the process of Cr(VI) reduction reached in batch system, aspects which should be considered in detoxification strategies of wastewaters.

  12. Growth and physiological responses of submerged plant Vallisneria natans to water column ammonia nitrogen and sediment copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhengjie; Song, Siyuan; Li, Pengshan; Jeelani, Nasreen; Wang, Penghe; Yuan, Hezhong; Zhang, Jinghan; An, Shuqing; Leng, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Background. The decline of submerged plant populations due to high heavy metal (e.g., Cu) levels in sediments and ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) accumulation in the freshwater column has become a significant global problem. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of ammonia-N on submerged macrophytes, but few have focused on the influence of sediment Cu on submerged macrophytes and their combined effects. Methods. In this paper, we selected three levels of ammonia-N (0, 3, and 6 mg L(-1)) and sediment Cu (25.75 ± 6.02 as the control, 125.75 ± 6.02, and 225.75 ± 6.02 mg kg(-1)), to investigate the influence of sediment Cu and ammonia-N on submerged Vallisneria natans. We measured the relative growth rate (RGR), above- and below- ground biomass, chlorophyll, non-protein thiol (NP-SH), and free proline. Results and Discussion. The below-ground biomass of V. natans decreased with increasing Cu sediment levels, suggesting that excessive sediment Cu can result in significant damage to the root of V. natans. Similarly, the above-ground biomass significantly decreased with increasing ammonia-N concentrations, indicating that excessive water ammonia-N can cause significant toxicity to the leaf of V. natans. In addition, high ammonia-N levels place a greater stress on submerged plants than sediment Cu, which is indicated by the decline of RGR and chlorophyll, and the increase of (NP-SH) and free proline. Furthermore, high sediment Cu causes ammonia-N to impose greater injury on submerged plants, and higher sediment Cu levels (Cu ≥ 125.75 mg kg(-1)) led to the tolerant values of ammonia-N for V. natans decreasing from 6 to 3 mg L(-1). This study suggests that high sediment Cu restricts the growth of plants and intensifies ammonia-N damage to V. natans.

  13. Growth and physiological responses of submerged plant Vallisneria natans to water column ammonia nitrogen and sediment copper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjie Zhu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. The decline of submerged plant populations due to high heavy metal (e.g., Cu levels in sediments and ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N accumulation in the freshwater column has become a significant global problem. Previous studies have evaluated the effect of ammonia-N on submerged macrophytes, but few have focused on the influence of sediment Cu on submerged macrophytes and their combined effects. Methods. In this paper, we selected three levels of ammonia-N (0, 3, and 6 mg L−1 and sediment Cu (25.75 ± 6.02 as the control, 125.75 ± 6.02, and 225.75 ± 6.02 mg kg−1, to investigate the influence of sediment Cu and ammonia-N on submerged Vallisneria natans. We measured the relative growth rate (RGR, above- and below- ground biomass, chlorophyll, non-protein thiol (NP-SH, and free proline. Results and Discussion. The below-ground biomass of V. natans decreased with increasing Cu sediment levels, suggesting that excessive sediment Cu can result in significant damage to the root of V. natans. Similarly, the above-ground biomass significantly decreased with increasing ammonia-N concentrations, indicating that excessive water ammonia-N can cause significant toxicity to the leaf of V. natans. In addition, high ammonia-N levels place a greater stress on submerged plants than sediment Cu, which is indicated by the decline of RGR and chlorophyll, and the increase of (NP-SH and free proline. Furthermore, high sediment Cu causes ammonia-N to impose greater injury on submerged plants, and higher sediment Cu levels (Cu ≥ 125.75 mg kg−1 led to the tolerant values of ammonia-N for V. natans decreasing from 6 to 3 mg L−1. This study suggests that high sediment Cu restricts the growth of plants and intensifies ammonia-N damage to V. natans.

  14. Influence of Sulfur on the Arsenic Phytoremediation Using Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Feng, Tao; Li, Zhixian; Chen, Zhang; Chen, Yuanqi; Wang, Haihua; Xiang, Yanci

    2017-09-01

    Influences of sulfur (S) on the accumulation and detoxification of arsenic (As) in Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, an arsenic hyperaccumulating submerged aquatic plant, were investigated. At low sulfur levels (75%) present in the plant after exposure to As(V). Sulfur plays an important role in the arsenic translocation and detoxification, possibly through stimulating the synthesis of thiols and complexation of arsenite-phytochelatins. This suggests that addition of sulfur to the arsenic-contaminated water may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plants for phytoremediation of arsenic pollution.

  15. Ultrastructural characteristic of cells and pigment analysis in floating and submerged leaves of Trapa natans L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оlena M. Nedukha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of ultrastructure of the photosynthetic cells and pigment content of Trapa natans in both floating and submerged leaves at vegetative phase were conducted. It has shown that the changes of cell ultrasructure and pigment content in leaves are depended from the location of leaves above or under water surface. It has ascertained that submersion of the leaves under water lead to: 1 increase of thylakoid number in grana; 2 decrease of number of the chloroplasts with starch grains; 3 decrease of the relation between chlorophylls (Chlа/ Chlb and of the sum of chlorophylls (Chlа+ Chlb in comparison with analogical parameters in floating leaves

  16. Water depth affects reproductive allocation and reproductive allometry in the submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Bonser, Stephen P; Lan, Zhichun; Xu, Ligang; Chen, Jiakuan; Song, Zhiping

    2017-12-04

    In freshwater ecosystems, shifts in hydrological regimes have profound effects on reproductive output (R), along with vegetative biomass (V) and survival of plants. Because reproductive allocation (RA) is allometric, it remains unclear whether the observed variation of RA in response to water level variability is due to fixed patterns of development or plasticity in the developmental trajectories. Here, we investigated shifts in RA of a submerged macrophyte Vallisneria natans in response to water depth to test the hypothesis that allometric trajectories of RA are highly plastic. Plants were grown at three water depths (50, 100 and 150 cm) and measured after 26 weeks of growth. The relationships between R and V among treatments were compared. Deep water affected both biomass and number of fruits produced per plant, leading to less sexual reproduction. Plants in deep water started flowering at a smaller size and despite their small mature size, had a relatively high RA. Furthermore, these plants had a much lower log R-log V relationship than shallow- or intermediate-water plants. In conclusion, reproduction of V. natans is highly variable across water depth treatments, and variations in reproductive allometry represent different strategies under an important stress gradient for these freshwater angiosperms.

  17. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    OpenAIRE

    Irene B. Rodriguez; Tung-Yuan Ho; Tung-Yuan Ho

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and...

  18. The physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae with the increase of N and P concentrations in water bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Jin-Qi; Gao, Yong-Xia; Xie, Xue-Jian

    2015-06-01

    To reveal the mechanism of submerged plants decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters, physiological responses of Vallisneria natans to epiphytic algae were studied in simulation lab by measuring plant physiological indexes of chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity based on a 2 × 4 factorial design with two epiphytic conditions (with epiphytic algae and without) and four levels of N and P concentrations in water (N-P[mg.L(-1)]: 0.5, 0.05; 2.5, 0.25; 4.5, 0.45; 12.5, 1.25). Compared with control (non-presence of epiphytic algae), chlorophyll contents of V. natans were significantly decreased (p algae under any concentrations of N and P in water bodies. While the presence of epiphytic algae induced peroxidation of membrane lipids, MDA contents of V. natans had significantly increased (p algae in the treatments of T2 and T3 in the whole culture process by comparing with control, sometimes reaching an extremely significant level (p algae (p algae on chlorophyll content and SOD activity in the leaves of V. natans were increased at first and then decreased with the concentrations of N and P in water, and MDA content became higher with the increase of N and P. concentrations. Repeated measurement data testing showed that the effects of epiphytic algae on the chlorophyll content and MDA content and SOD activity were significant, respectively (p algae were combining with effects of concentrations of N and P (p algae directly produced adverse effects on physiology of V. natans and epiphytic algal biomass were positively correlated with nutrient available in the water column.

  19. Response of Vallisneria natans to Increasing Nitrogen Loading Depends on Sediment Nutrient Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiao Gu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High nitrogen (N loading may contribute to recession of submerged macrophytes in shallow lakes; yet, its influences vary depending on environmental conditions. In August 2013, we conducted a 28-day factorial-designed field mesocosm experiment in Lake Taihu at the Taihu Laboratory for Lake Ecosystem Research (TLLER to examine the effects of high N loading on the growth of Vallisneria natans in systems with contrasting sediment types. We ran the experiments with two levels of nutrient loading—present-day external nutrient loading (average P: 5 μg·L−1·day−1, N: 130 μg·L−1·day−1 and P: 5 μg·L−1·day−1, and with three times higher N loading (N: 390 μg·L−1·day−1 and used sediment with two contrasting nutrient levels. V. natans growth decreased significantly with increasing N loading, the effect being dependent, however, on the nutrient status of the sediment. In low nutrient sediment, relative growth rates, leaf biomass and root biomass decreased by 11.9%, 18.2% and 23.3%, respectively, at high rather than low N loading, while the decline was larger (44.0%, 32.7% and 41.8%, respectively when using high nutrient sediment. The larger effect in the nutrient-rich sediment may reflect an observed higher shading of phytoplankton and excess nutrient accumulation in plant tissue, though potential toxic effects of the high-nutrient sediment may also have contributed. Our study confirms the occurrence of a negative effect of increasing N loading on submerged plant growth in shallow nutrient-enriched lakes and further shows that this effect is augmented when the plants grow in nutrient-rich sediment. External N control may, therefore, help to protect or restore submerged macrophytes, especially when the sediment is enriched with nutrients and organic matter.

  20. Macroalgal-associated dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium in Caribbean reefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Porto

    Full Text Available Coral-algal symbiosis has been a subject of great attention during the last two decades in response to global coral reef decline. However, the occurrence and dispersion of free-living dinoflagellates belonging to the genus Symbiodinium are less documented. Here ecological and molecular evidence is presented demonstrating the existence of demersal free-living Symbiodinium populations in Caribbean reefs and the possible role of the stoplight parrotfish (Sparisoma viride as Symbiodinium spp. dispersers. Communities of free-living Symbiodinium were found within macroalgal beds consisting of Halimeda spp., Lobophora variegata, Amphiroa spp., Caulerpa spp. and Dictyota spp. Viable Symbiodinium spp. cells were isolated and cultured from macroalgal beds and S. viride feces. Further identification of Symbiodinium spp. type was determined by length variation in the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2, nuclear rDNA and length variation in domain V of the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal DNA (cp23S-rDNA. Determination of free-living Symbiodinium and mechanisms of dispersal is important in understanding the life cycle of Symbiodinium spp.

  1. Exploring the Symbiodinium rare biosphere provides evidence for symbiont switching in reef-building corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulotte, Nadine M; Dalton, Steven J; Carroll, Andrew G; Harrison, Peter L; Putnam, Hollie M; Peplow, Lesa M; van Oppen, Madeleine Jh

    2016-11-01

    Reef-building corals possess a range of acclimatisation and adaptation mechanisms to respond to seawater temperature increases. In some corals, thermal tolerance increases through community composition changes of their dinoflagellate endosymbionts (Symbiodinium spp.), but this mechanism is believed to be limited to the Symbiodinium types already present in the coral tissue acquired during early life stages. Compelling evidence for symbiont switching, that is, the acquisition of novel Symbiodinium types from the environment, by adult coral colonies, is currently lacking. Using deep sequencing analysis of Symbiodinium rDNA internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) PCR amplicons from two pocilloporid coral species, we show evidence consistent with de novo acquisition of Symbiodinium types from the environment by adult corals following two consecutive bleaching events. Most of these newly detected symbionts remained in the rare biosphere (background types occurring below 1% relative abundance), but one novel type reached a relative abundance of ~33%. Two de novo acquired Symbiodinium types belong to the thermally resistant clade D, suggesting that this switching may have been driven by consecutive thermal bleaching events. Our results are particularly important given the maternal mode of Symbiodinium transmission in the study species, which generally results in high symbiont specificity. These findings will cause a paradigm shift in our understanding of coral-Symbiodinium symbiosis flexibility and mechanisms of environmental acclimatisation in corals.

  2. Transmission of a heterologous clade C Symbiodinium in a model anemone infection system via asexual reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Nan U. Chen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anemones of genus Exaiptasia are used as model organisms for the study of cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium endosymbiosis. However, while most reef-building corals harbor Symbiodinium of clade C, Exaiptasia spp. anemones mainly harbor clade B Symbiodinium (ITS2 type B1 populations. In this study, we reveal for the first time that bleached Exaiptasia pallida anemones can establish a symbiotic relationship with a clade C Symbiodinium (ITS2 type C1. We further found that anemones can transmit the exogenously supplied clade C Symbiodinium cells to their offspring by asexual reproduction (pedal laceration. In order to corroborate the establishment of stable symbiosis, we used microscopic techniques and genetic analyses to examine several generations of anemones, and the results of these endeavors confirmed the sustainability of the system. These findings provide a framework for understanding the differences in infection dynamics between homologous and heterologous dinoflagellate types using a model anemone infection system.

  3. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Irene B.; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe′ was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts. PMID:29467748

  4. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions inSymbiodinium kawagutii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Irene B; Ho, Tung-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe' was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts.

  5. Trace Metal Requirements and Interactions in Symbiodinium kawagutii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene B. Rodriguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthetic organisms need trace metals for various biological processes and different groups of microalgae have distinctive obligate necessities due to their respective biochemical requirements and ecological niches. We have previously shown that the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii requires high concentrations of bioavailable Fe to achieve optimum growth. Here, we further explored the trace metal requirements of S. kawagutii with intensive focus on the effect of individual metal and its interaction with other divalent metals. We found that low Zn availability significantly decreases growth rates and results in elevated intracellular Mn, Co, Ni, and Fe quotas in the dinoflagellate. The results highlight the complex interaction among trace metals in S. kawagutii and suggest either metal replacement strategy to counter low Zn availability or enhanced uptake of other metals by non-specific divalent metal transporters. In this work, we also examined the Fe requirement of S. kawagutii using continuous cultures. We validated that 500 pM of Fe′ was sufficient to support maximum cell density during steady state growth period either at 26 or 28°C. This study shows that growth of S. kawagutii was limited by metal availability in the following order, Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Ni > Co. The fundamental information obtained for the free-living Symbiodinium shall provide insights into how trace metal availability, either from ambient seawater or hosts, affects growth and proliferation of symbiotic dinoflagellates and the interaction between symbiont and their hosts.

  6. Phytotoxicity of four herbicides on Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Huiyun; Li, Xiaolu; Xu, Xiaohua; Gao, Shixiang

    2009-01-01

    The physiological effects of 4 herbicides (butachlor, quinclorac, bensulfuron-methyl and atrazine) on 3 submerged macrophytes (Ceratophyllum demersum, Vallisneria natans and Elodea nuttallii) were tested in laboratory. The variables of the relative growth rate and the photosynthetic pigment content showed that all of the tested herbicides affected the growth of the plants obviously, even at the lowest concentration (0.0001 mg/L). Except for the C. demersum treated with quinclorac at 0.005 and 0.01 mg/L, the relative growth rates of the plants were inhibited significantly (p < 0.01). Statistical analysis of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) contents was carried out with both the t-test and one-way ANOVA to determine the difference between the treatment and control. The results showed that Chl-a contents of the plants in all treatment groups were affected by herbicides significantly, except for the C. demersum treated with bensulfuron-methyl at 0.0005 mg/L. The decrease in Chl-a content was positively correlated to the dosage of the herbicides in most treatment groups. It was suggested that herbicides in water bodies might potentially affect the growth of aquatic macrophytes. Since the Chl-a content of submerged macrophytes responded to the stress of herbicides sensitively and directly, it could be used as a biomaker in environmental monitoring or in the ecological risk assessment of herbicide contamination.

  7. Physiological Responses of Salvinia natans L. to Aluminium Stress and Its Interaction with Putrescine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Mandal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Salvinia natans L. a water fern is displayed with some of its physiological attributes in response to aluminium (Al stress in aqua culture as well as its interaction with externally applied putrescine (put. At the tissue level the Al deposition is prominent and mostly distributed in the intracellular spaces as well as cellular interfaces. The accumulation of Al and its induced oxidative damages are also revealed through Evan’s blue staining. In both the cases dose dependent responses of Al induced oxidative damages and its mitigation with Put was the resultant. Under non enzymatic antioxidation pathways, anthocyanin and flavonoids were the two phenolics over expressed as a function of Al and ameliorated with Put application. The property of root membranes was changed with an up regulation of H+/ATPase activity which was moderated by Put.The peroxidase activity particularly those were restricted to the wall bound also showed variability according to Al doses as revealed through in gel staining. From these studies of Al accumulation and its concomitant changes in physiological attributes in Salvinia plants, the species could be selected as a potential hyper accumulator of Al. The role of Put in Al accumulation as well as its moderation has been discussed with reference to physiological activities.

  8. Protein evolution in two co-occurring types of Symbiodinium: an exploration into the genetic basis of thermal tolerance in Symbiodinium clade D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Jason T; Barshis, Daniel J; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2012-11-12

    The symbiosis between reef-building corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) is an integral part of the coral reef ecosystem, as corals are dependent on Symbiodinium for the majority of their energy needs. However, this partnership is increasingly at risk due to changing climatic conditions. It is thought that functional diversity within Symbiodinium may allow some corals to rapidly adapt to different environments by changing the type of Symbiodinium with which they partner; however, very little is known about the molecular basis of the functional differences among symbiont groups. One group of Symbiodinium that is hypothesized to be important for the future of reefs is clade D, which, in general, seems to provide the coral holobiont (i.e., coral host and associated symbiont community) with elevated thermal tolerance. Using high-throughput sequencing data from field-collected corals we assembled, de novo, draft transcriptomes for Symbiodinium clades C and D. We then explore the functional basis of thermal tolerance in clade D by comparing rates of coding sequence evolution among the four clades of Symbiodinium most commonly found in reef-building corals (A-D). We are able to highlight a number of genes and functional categories as candidates for involvement in the increased thermal tolerance of clade D. These include a fatty acid desaturase, molecular chaperones and proteins involved in photosynthesis and the thylakoid membrane. We also demonstrate that clades C and D co-occur within most of the sampled colonies of Acropora hyacinthus, suggesting widespread potential for this coral species to acclimatize to changing thermal conditions via 'shuffling' the proportions of these two clades from within their current symbiont communities. Transcriptome-wide analysis confirms that the four main Symbiodinium clades found within corals exhibit extensive evolutionary divergence (18.5-27.3% avg. pairwise nucleotide difference). Despite these evolutionary

  9. Protein evolution in two co-occurring types of Symbiodinium: an exploration into the genetic basis of thermal tolerance in Symbiodinium clade D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladner Jason T

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The symbiosis between reef-building corals and photosynthetic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium is an integral part of the coral reef ecosystem, as corals are dependent on Symbiodinium for the majority of their energy needs. However, this partnership is increasingly at risk due to changing climatic conditions. It is thought that functional diversity within Symbiodinium may allow some corals to rapidly adapt to different environments by changing the type of Symbiodinium with which they partner; however, very little is known about the molecular basis of the functional differences among symbiont groups. One group of Symbiodinium that is hypothesized to be important for the future of reefs is clade D, which, in general, seems to provide the coral holobiont (i.e., coral host and associated symbiont community with elevated thermal tolerance. Using high-throughput sequencing data from field-collected corals we assembled, de novo, draft transcriptomes for Symbiodinium clades C and D. We then explore the functional basis of thermal tolerance in clade D by comparing rates of coding sequence evolution among the four clades of Symbiodinium most commonly found in reef-building corals (A-D. Results We are able to highlight a number of genes and functional categories as candidates for involvement in the increased thermal tolerance of clade D. These include a fatty acid desaturase, molecular chaperones and proteins involved in photosynthesis and the thylakoid membrane. We also demonstrate that clades C and D co-occur within most of the sampled colonies of Acropora hyacinthus, suggesting widespread potential for this coral species to acclimatize to changing thermal conditions via ‘shuffling’ the proportions of these two clades from within their current symbiont communities. Conclusions Transcriptome-wide analysis confirms that the four main Symbiodinium clades found within corals exhibit extensive evolutionary divergence (18.5-27.3% avg

  10. Coral disease physiology: the impact of Acroporid white syndrome on Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roff, G.; Kvennefors, E. C. E.; Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Acroporid white syndrome, a disease-like syndrome from the Great Barrier Reef, results from degenerative host tissue at lesion borders. Tissue preceding lesion borders appears visually healthy, but it is currently unclear whether the endosymbiotic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) are physiologically ...

  11. A SIMPLE METHOD FOR THE EXTRACTION AND QUANTIFICATION OF PHOTOPIGMENTS FROM SYMBIODINIUM SPP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Rogers and Dragoslav Marcovich. Submitted. Simple Method for the Extraction and Quantification of Photopigments from Symbiodinium spp.. Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods. 19 p. (ERL,GB 1192). We have developed a simple, mild extraction procedure using methanol which, when...

  12. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Bayer

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B. With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation.

  13. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium from Corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Fujise

    Full Text Available The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium. Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C, and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  14. Moderate Thermal Stress Causes Active and Immediate Expulsion of Photosynthetically Damaged Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) from Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Go; Sasaki, Kengo; Liao, Lawrence M; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27°C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30°C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30°C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30°C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress.

  15. Symbiodinium transcriptomes: genome insights into the dinoflagellate symbionts of reef-building corals.

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Till

    2012-04-18

    Dinoflagellates are unicellular algae that are ubiquitously abundant in aquatic environments. Species of the genus Symbiodinium form symbiotic relationships with reef-building corals and other marine invertebrates. Despite their ecologic importance, little is known about the genetics of dinoflagellates in general and Symbiodinium in particular. Here, we used 454 sequencing to generate transcriptome data from two Symbiodinium species from different clades (clade A and clade B). With more than 56,000 assembled sequences per species, these data represent the largest transcriptomic resource for dinoflagellates to date. Our results corroborate previous observations that dinoflagellates possess the complete nucleosome machinery. We found a complete set of core histones as well as several H3 variants and H2A.Z in one species. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis points toward a low number of transcription factors in Symbiodinium spp. that also differ in the distribution of DNA-binding domains relative to other eukaryotes. In particular the cold shock domain was predominant among transcription factors. Additionally, we found a high number of antioxidative genes in comparison to non-symbiotic but evolutionary related organisms. These findings might be of relevance in the context of the role that Symbiodinium spp. play as coral symbionts.Our data represent the most comprehensive dinoflagellate EST data set to date. This study provides a comprehensive resource to further analyze the genetic makeup, metabolic capacities, and gene repertoire of Symbiodinium and dinoflagellates. Overall, our findings indicate that Symbiodinium possesses some unique characteristics, in particular the transcriptional regulation in Symbiodinium may differ from the currently known mechanisms of eukaryotic gene regulation.

  16. Acquisition of symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium) by juveniles of the coral Acropora longicyathus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del C. Gómez-Cabrera, M.; Ortiz, J. C.; Loh, W. K. W.; Ward, S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2008-03-01

    Scleractinian corals may acquire Symbiodinium from their parents (vertically) or from the environment (horizontally). In the present study, adult colonies of the coral Acropora longicyathus from One Tree Island (OTI) on the southern Great Barrier Reef (Australia) acquired two distinct varieties of symbiotic dinoflagellates ( Symbiodinium) from the environment. Adult colonies had either Symbiodinium from clade C (86.7%) or clade A (5.3%), or a mixture of both clades A and C (8.0% of all colonies). In contrast, all 10-day-old juveniles were associated with Symbiodinium from clade A, while 83-day-old colonies contained clades A, C and D even though they were growing at the same location. Symbiodinium from clade A were dominant in both 10- and 83-day-old juveniles (99 and 97% of all recruits, respectively), while clade D was also found in 31% of 83-day-old juveniles. Experimental manipulation also revealed that parental association (with clade A or C), or the location within the OTI reef, did not influence which clade of symbiont was acquired by juvenile corals. The differences between the genetic identity of populations of Symbiodinium resident in juveniles and adult A. longicyathus suggest that ontogenetic changes in the symbiosis may occur during the development of scleractinian corals. Whether or not these changes are due to host selective processes or differences in the physical environment associated with juvenile versus adult colonies remains to be determined.

  17. Symbiodinium spp. associated with high-latitude scleractinian corals from Jeju Island, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palmas, S.; Denis, V.; Ribas-Deulofeu, L.; Loubeyres, M.; Woo, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Song, J. I.; Chen, C. A.

    2015-09-01

    Most studies on endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (genus Symbiodinium) associated with scleractinian corals focus on tropical and sub-tropical reefs. Their diversity in outlying, non-reef coral communities at high latitudes is still not fully documented. In this study, we analyzed the Symbiodinium diversity associated with five scleractinian species collected at eight sites around Jeju Island (South Korea, 33.4°N) between 5 and 15 m depth. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of amplified internal transcribed spacer region 2 distinguished five Symbiodinium types. We observed a high level of specificity between host genera and Symbiodinium spp. despite existing in an environment with large seasonal oscillations in temperature and light. Psammocora albopicta and Psammocora profundacella were associated with C1 and Montipora millepora with C17. Alveopora japonica was associated exclusively with an unusual F-type, the only known clade F representative functionally important to a scleractinian coral. Oulastrea crispata was associated with Symbiodinium boreum (type D15), occasionally co-occurring with type C3 (in 4 % of specimens). In addition to increasing the knowledge of Symbiodinium diversity in high-latitude coral communities, this study constitutes an important baseline upon which the effects of projected environmental change in the near future can be assessed. A better understanding of high-latitude coral communities is critical for understanding how a warming planet will affect the tempo and mode of shifts in the composition of temperate marine communities.

  18. Expanding the population genetic perspective of cnidarian-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Scott R

    2014-09-01

    The modern synthesis was a seminal period in the biological sciences, establishing many of the core principles of evolutionary biology that we know today. Significant catalysts were the contributions of R.A. Fisher, J.B.S. Haldane and Sewall Wright (and others) developing the theoretical underpinning of population genetics, thus demonstrating adaptive evolution resulted from the interplay of forces such as natural selection and mutation within groups of individuals occupying the same space and time (i.e. a population). Given its importance, it is surprising that detailed population genetic data remain lacking for numerous organisms vital to many ecosystems. For example, the coral reef ecosystem is well recognized for its high biodiversity and productivity, numerous ecological services and significant economic and societal values (Moberg & Folke 1999;Cinner 2014). Many coral reef invertebrates form symbiotic relationships with single-celled dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium Freudenthal (Taylor 1974), with hosts providing these (typically) intracellular symbionts with by-products of metabolism and in turn receiving photosynthetically fixed carbon capable of meeting hosts' respiratory demands (Falkowski et al. 1984; Muscatine et al. 1984). Unfortunately, the health and integrity of the coral reef ecosystem has been significantly and negatively impacted by onslaughts like anthropogenic eutrophication and disease in addition to global climate change, with increased incidences of 'bleaching' events (characterized as the loss of photosynthetic pigments from the algal cell or massive reduction of Symbiodinium density from hosts' tissue) and host mortality leading to staggering declines in geographic coverage (Bruno & Selig 2007) that have raised questions on the viability of this ecosystem as we know it (Bellwood et al. 2004; Parmesan 2006). One avenue towards anticipating the future of the coral reef ecosystem is by developing a broader and deeper

  19. Biogeography and molecular diversity of coral symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium around the Arabian Peninsula

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2017-01-02

    Aim: Coral reefs rely on the symbiosis between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium making the assessment of symbiont diversity critical to our understanding of ecological resilience of these ecosystems. This study characterizes Symbiodinium diversity around the Arabian Peninsula, which contains some of the most thermally diverse and understudied reefs on Earth. Location: Shallow water coral reefs throughout the Red Sea (RS), Sea of Oman (SO), and Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG). Methods: Next-generation sequencing of the ITS2 marker gene was used to assess Symbiodinium community composition and diversity comprising 892 samples from 46 hard and soft coral genera. Results: Corals were associated with a large diversity of Symbiodinium, which usually consisted of one or two prevalent symbiont types and many types at low abundance. Symbiodinium communities were strongly structured according to geographical region and to a lesser extent by coral host identity. Overall symbiont communities were composed primarily of species from clade A and C in the RS, clade A, C, and D in the SO, and clade C and D in the PAG, representing a gradual shift from C- to D-dominated coral hosts. The analysis of symbiont diversity in an Operational Taxonomic Unit (OTU)-based framework allowed the identification of differences in symbiont taxon richness over geographical regions and host genera. Main conclusions: Our study represents a comprehensive overview over biogeography and molecular diversity of Symbiodinium in the Arabian Seas, where coral reefs thrive in one of the most extreme environmental settings on the planet. As such our data will serve as a baseline for further exploration into the effects of environmental change on host-symbiont pairings and the identification and ecological significance of Symbiodinium types from regions already experiencing \\'Future Ocean\\' conditions.

  20. Marine Invertebrate Larvae Associated with Symbiodinium: A Mutualism from the Start?

    KAUST Repository

    Mies, Miguel

    2017-05-30

    Symbiodinium are dinoflagellate photosynthetic algae that associate with a diverse array of marine invertebrates, and these relationships are comprehensively documented for adult animal hosts. Conversely, comparatively little is known about the associations during larval development of animal hosts, although four different metazoan phyla (Porifera, Cnidaria, Acoelomorpha, and Mollusca) produce larvae associated with Symbiodinium. These phyla represent considerable diversities in larval forms, manner of symbiont acquisition, and requirements on the presence of symbionts for successful metamorphosis. Importantly, the different requirements are conveyed by specific symbiont types that are selected by the host animal larvae. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether these associations during larval stages already represent mutualistic interactions, as evident from the relationship of Symbiodinium with their adult animal hosts. For instance, molecular studies suggest that the host larval transcriptome is nearly unaltered after symbiont acquisition. Even so, a symbiosis-specific gene has been identified in Symbiodinium that is expressed in larval host stages, and similar genes are currently being described for host organisms. However, some reports suggest that the metabolic exchange between host larvae and Symbiodinium may not cover the energetic requirements of the host. Here, we review current studies to summarize what is known about the association between metazoan larvae and Symbiodinium. In particular, our aim was to gather in how far the mutualistic relationship present between adult animals hosts and Symbiodinium is already laid out at the time of symbiont acquisition by host larvae. We conclude that the mutualistic relationship between animal hosts and algal symbionts in many cases is not set up during larval development. Furthermore, symbiont identity may influence whether a mutualism can be established during host larval stages.

  1. Transmission mode predicts specificity and interaction patterns in coral-Symbiodinium networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Putnam, Hollie M; Franklin, Erik C; Stat, Michael; Gates, Ruth D

    2012-01-01

    Most reef-building corals in the order Scleractinia depend on endosymbiotic algae in the genus Symbiodinium for energy and survival. Significant levels of taxonomic diversity in both partners result in numerous possible combinations of coral-Symbiodinium associations with unique functional characteristics. We created and analyzed the first coral-Symbiodinium networks utilizing a global dataset of interaction records from coral reefs in the tropical Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Oceans for 1991 to 2010. Our meta-analysis reveals that the majority of coral species and Symbiodinium types are specialists, but failed to detect any one-to-one obligate relationships. Symbiont specificity is correlated with a host's transmission mode, with horizontally transmitting corals being more likely to interact with generalist symbionts. Globally, Symbiodinium types tend to interact with only vertically or horizontally transmitting corals, and only a few generalist types are found with both. Our results demonstrate a strong correlation between symbiont specificity, symbiont transmission mode, and community partitioning. The structure and dynamics of these network interactions underlie the fundamental biological partnership that determines the condition and resilience of coral reef ecosystems.

  2. Transmission mode predicts specificity and interaction patterns in coral-Symbiodinium networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S Fabina

    Full Text Available Most reef-building corals in the order Scleractinia depend on endosymbiotic algae in the genus Symbiodinium for energy and survival. Significant levels of taxonomic diversity in both partners result in numerous possible combinations of coral-Symbiodinium associations with unique functional characteristics. We created and analyzed the first coral-Symbiodinium networks utilizing a global dataset of interaction records from coral reefs in the tropical Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Oceans for 1991 to 2010. Our meta-analysis reveals that the majority of coral species and Symbiodinium types are specialists, but failed to detect any one-to-one obligate relationships. Symbiont specificity is correlated with a host's transmission mode, with horizontally transmitting corals being more likely to interact with generalist symbionts. Globally, Symbiodinium types tend to interact with only vertically or horizontally transmitting corals, and only a few generalist types are found with both. Our results demonstrate a strong correlation between symbiont specificity, symbiont transmission mode, and community partitioning. The structure and dynamics of these network interactions underlie the fundamental biological partnership that determines the condition and resilience of coral reef ecosystems.

  3. Heritability of the Symbiodinium community in vertically- and horizontally-transmitting broadcast spawning corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Kate M; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K

    2017-08-15

    The dinoflagellate-coral partnership influences the coral holobiont's tolerance to thermal stress and bleaching. However, the comparative roles of host genetic versus environmental factors in determining the composition of this symbiosis are largely unknown. Here we quantify the heritability of the initial Symbiodinium communities for two broadcast-spawning corals with different symbiont transmission modes: Acropora tenuis has environmental acquisition, whereas Montipora digitata has maternal transmission. Using high throughput sequencing of the ITS-2 region to characterize communities in parents, juveniles and eggs, we describe previously undocumented Symbiodinium diversity and dynamics in both corals. After one month of uptake in the field, Symbiodinium communities associated with A. tenuis juveniles were dominated by A3, C1, D1, A-type CCMP828, and D1a in proportional abundances conserved between experiments in two years. M. digitata eggs were predominantly characterized by C15, D1, and A3. In contrast to current paradigms, host genetic influences accounted for a surprising 29% of phenotypic variation in Symbiodinium communities in the horizontally-transmitting A. tenuis, but only 62% in the vertically-transmitting M. digitata. Our results reveal hitherto unknown flexibility in the acquisition of Symbiodinium communities and substantial heritability in both species, providing material for selection to produce partnerships that are locally adapted to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) community patterns in invertebrate hosts from inshore marginal reefs of the southern Great Barrier Reef, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Linda; Sampayo, Eugenia M; Chai, Aaron; Schrameyer, Verena; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2017-06-01

    The broad range in physiological variation displayed by Symbiodinium spp. has proven imperative during periods of environmental change and contribute to the survival of their coral host. Characterizing how host and Symbiodinium community assemblages differ across environmentally distinct habitats provides useful information to predict how corals will respond to major environmental change. Despite the extensive characterizations of Symbiodinium diversity found amongst reef cnidarians on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) substantial biogeographic gaps exist, especially across inshore habitats. Here, we investigate Symbiodinium community patterns in invertebrates from inshore and mid-shelf reefs on the southern GBR, Australia. Dominant Symbiodinium types were characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and sequencing of the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA. Twenty one genetically distinct Symbiodinium types including four novel types were identified from 321 reef-invertebrate samples comprising three sub-generic clades (A, C, and D). A range of host genera harbored C22a, which is normally rare or absent from inshore or low latitude reefs in the GBR. Multivariate analysis showed that host identity and sea surface temperature best explained the variation in symbiont communities across sites. Patterns of changes in Symbiodinium community assemblage over small geographic distances (100s of kilometers or less) indicate the likelihood that shifts in Symbiodinium distributions and associated host populations, may occur in response to future climate change impacting the GBR. © 2017 Phycological Society of America.

  5. Host-specific interactions with environmental factors shape the distribution of symbiodinium across the Great Barrier Reef.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Tonk

    Full Text Available The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium within coral reef invertebrates are critical to the survival of the holobiont. The genetic variability of Symbiodinium may contribute to the tolerance of the symbiotic association to elevated sea surface temperatures (SST. To assess the importance of factors such as the local environment, host identity and biogeography in driving Symbiodinium distributions on reef-wide scales, data from studies on reef invertebrate-Symbiodinium associations from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR were compiled.The resulting database consisted of 3717 entries from 26 studies. It was used to explore ecological patterns such as host-specificity and environmental drivers structuring community complexity using a multi-scalar approach. The data was analyzed in several ways: (i frequently sampled host species were analyzed independently to investigate the influence of the environment on symbiont distributions, thereby excluding the influence of host specificity, (ii host species distributions across sites were added as an environmental variable to determine the contribution of host identity on symbiont distribution, and (iii data were pooled based on clade (broad genetic groups dividing the genus Symbiodinium to investigate factors driving Symbiodinium distributions using lower taxonomic resolution. The results indicated that host species identity plays a dominant role in determining the distribution of Symbiodinium and environmental variables shape distributions on a host species-specific level. SST derived variables (especially SSTstdev most often contributed to the selection of the best model. Clade level comparisons decreased the power of the predictive model indicating that it fails to incorporate the main drivers behind Symbiodinium distributions.Including the influence of different host species on Symbiodinium distributional patterns improves our understanding of the drivers behind the complexity of Symbiodinium

  6. Host-specific interactions with environmental factors shape the distribution of symbiodinium across the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Linda; Sampayo, Eugenia M; Weeks, Scarla; Magno-Canto, Marites; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2013-01-01

    The endosymbiotic dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium) within coral reef invertebrates are critical to the survival of the holobiont. The genetic variability of Symbiodinium may contribute to the tolerance of the symbiotic association to elevated sea surface temperatures (SST). To assess the importance of factors such as the local environment, host identity and biogeography in driving Symbiodinium distributions on reef-wide scales, data from studies on reef invertebrate-Symbiodinium associations from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) were compiled. The resulting database consisted of 3717 entries from 26 studies. It was used to explore ecological patterns such as host-specificity and environmental drivers structuring community complexity using a multi-scalar approach. The data was analyzed in several ways: (i) frequently sampled host species were analyzed independently to investigate the influence of the environment on symbiont distributions, thereby excluding the influence of host specificity, (ii) host species distributions across sites were added as an environmental variable to determine the contribution of host identity on symbiont distribution, and (iii) data were pooled based on clade (broad genetic groups dividing the genus Symbiodinium) to investigate factors driving Symbiodinium distributions using lower taxonomic resolution. The results indicated that host species identity plays a dominant role in determining the distribution of Symbiodinium and environmental variables shape distributions on a host species-specific level. SST derived variables (especially SSTstdev) most often contributed to the selection of the best model. Clade level comparisons decreased the power of the predictive model indicating that it fails to incorporate the main drivers behind Symbiodinium distributions. Including the influence of different host species on Symbiodinium distributional patterns improves our understanding of the drivers behind the complexity of Symbiodinium

  7. Glutathione (GSH Production as Protective Adaptation Against Light Regime Radiation of Symbiodinium Natural Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Muhaemin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH, as a wide range of low molecular weight, which found in marine microalgae and event bacteria, are essential to prevent photooxidation and productivity loss from these Radical Oxigen Species (ROS. Symbiodinium, endo-symbiont of corals, were exposed with different UV radiation combined with irradiance treatments to explore biomass specific initial response. Intracellular glutahione was observed as potential adaptive response of Symbiodinium population under environmental specific stress. The result showed that GSH production increased significantly with increasing irradiance and/or UV levels. GSH concentration was fluctuated among populations exposed by different irradiance treatments, but not effected by UV and irradiance exposure. GSH production as a response of UV exposure was higher than irradiance treatments. Both these high correlative fluctuation of intracellular GSH production and the presence of both treatments indicated protective specific adaptation of Symbiodinium under specific environmental stress, respectively.   Keywords: zooxanthellae, irradiance, glutathione (GSH, corals, Fungia

  8. Prevalent and persistent viral infection in cultures of the coral algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium

    KAUST Repository

    Weynberg, Karen D.

    2017-03-17

    Reef corals are under threat from bleaching and disease outbreaks that target both the host animal and the algal symbionts within the coral holobiont. A viral origin for coral bleaching has been hypothesized, but direct evidence has remained elusive. Using a multifaceted approach incorporating flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, DNA and RNA virome sequencing, we show that type C1 Symbiodinium cultures host a nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA virus (NCLDV) related to Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae, a novel filamentous virus of unknown phylogenetic affiliation, and a single-stranded RNA virus related to retroviruses. We discuss implications of these findings for laboratory-based experiments using Symbiodinium cultures.

  9. Prevalent and persistent viral infection in cultures of the coral algal endosymbiont Symbiodinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weynberg, Karen D.; Neave, Matthew; Clode, Peta L.; Voolstra, Christian R.; Brownlee, Christopher; Laffy, Patrick; Webster, Nicole S.; Levin, Rachel A.; Wood-Charlson, Elisha M.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2017-09-01

    Reef corals are under threat from bleaching and disease outbreaks that target both the host animal and the algal symbionts within the coral holobiont. A viral origin for coral bleaching has been hypothesized, but direct evidence has remained elusive. Using a multifaceted approach incorporating flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy, DNA and RNA virome sequencing, we show that type C1 Symbiodinium cultures host a nucleocytoplasmic large double-stranded DNA virus (NCLDV) related to Phycodnaviridae and Mimiviridae, a novel filamentous virus of unknown phylogenetic affiliation, and a single-stranded RNA virus related to retroviruses. We discuss implications of these findings for laboratory-based experiments using Symbiodinium cultures.

  10. High genetic differentiation and cross-shelf patterns of genetic diversity among Great Barrier Reef populations of Symbiodinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, E. J.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Willis, B. L.

    2009-03-01

    The resilience of Symbiodinium harboured by corals is dependent on the genetic diversity and extent of connectivity among reef populations. This study presents genetic analyses of Great Barrier Reef (GBR) populations of clade C Symbiodinium hosted by the alcyonacean coral, Sinularia flexibilis. Allelic variation at four newly developed microsatellite loci demonstrated that Symbiodinium populations are genetically differentiated at all spatial scales from 16 to 1,360 km (pairwise ΦST = 0.01-0.47, mean = 0.22); the only exception being two neighbouring populations in the Cairns region separated by 17 km. This indicates that gene flow is restricted for Symbiodinium C hosted by S. flexibilis on the GBR. Patterns of population structure reflect longshore circulation patterns and limited cross-shelf mixing, suggesting that passive transport by currents is the primary mechanism of dispersal in Symbiodinium types that are acquired horizontally. There was no correlation between the genetic structure of Symbiodinium populations and their host S. flexibilis, most likely because different factors affect the dispersal and recruitment of each partner in the symbiosis. The genetic diversity of these Symbiodinium reef populations is on average 1.5 times lower on inshore reefs than on offshore reefs. Lower inshore diversity may reflect the impact of recent bleaching events on Sinularia assemblages, which have been more widespread and severe on inshore reefs, but may also have been shaped by historical sea level fluctuations or recent migration patterns.

  11. Environmental Factors Controlling the Distribution of Symbiodinium Harboured by the Coral Acropora millepora on the Great Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Timothy F.; Berkelmans, Ray; Ulstrup, Karin E.; Weeks, Scarla; Radford, Ben; Jones, Alison M.; Doyle, Jason; Canto, Marites; O'Leary, Rebecca A.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Symbiodinium community associated with scleractinian corals is widely considered to be shaped by seawater temperature, as the coral's upper temperature tolerance is largely contingent on the Symbiodinium types harboured. Few studies have challenged this paradigm as knowledge of other environmental drivers on the distribution of Symbiodinium is limited. Here, we examine the influence of a range of environmental variables on the distribution of Symbiodinium associated with Acropora millepora collected from 47 coral reefs spanning 1,400 km on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), Australia. Methodology/Principal Findings The environmental data included Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data at 1 km spatial resolution from which a number of sea surface temperature (SST) and water quality metrics were derived. In addition, the carbonate and mud composition of sediments were incorporated into the analysis along with in situ water quality samples for a subset of locations. Analyses were conducted at three spatio-temporal scales [GBR (regional-scale), Whitsunday Islands (local-scale) and Keppel Islands/Trunk Reef (temporal)] to examine the effects of scale on the distribution patterns. While SST metrics were important drivers of the distribution of Symbiodinium types at regional and temporal scales, our results demonstrate that spatial variability in water quality correlates significantly with Symbiodinium distribution at local scales. Background levels of Symbiodinium types were greatest at turbid inshore locations of the Whitsunday Islands where SST predictors were not as important. This was not the case at regional scales where combinations of mud and carbonate sediment content coupled with SST anomalies and mean summer SST explained 51.3% of the variation in dominant Symbiodinium communities. Conclusions/Significance Reef corals may respond to global-scale stressors such as climate change through changes in their resident symbiont

  12. Recent expansion of heat-activated retrotransposons in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jit Ern

    2017-10-20

    Rising sea surface temperature is the main cause of global coral reef decline. Abnormally high temperatures trigger the breakdown of the symbiotic association between corals and their photosynthetic symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium. Higher genetic variation resulting from shorter generation times has previously been proposed to provide increased adaptability to Symbiodinium compared to the host. Retrotransposition is a significant source of genetic variation in eukaryotes and some transposable elements are specifically expressed under adverse environmental conditions. We present transcriptomic and phylogenetic evidence for the existence of heat stress-activated Ty1-copia-type LTR retrotransposons in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum. Genome-wide analyses of emergence patterns of these elements further indicate recent expansion events in the genome of S. microadriaticum. Our findings suggest that acute temperature increases can activate specific retrotransposons in the Symbiodinium genome with potential impacts on the rate of retrotransposition and the generation of genetic variation under heat stress.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 20 October 2017; doi:10.1038/ismej.2017.179.

  13. Quantification of algal endosymbionts (Symbiodinium) in coral tissue using real-time PCR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieog, J. C.; Van Oppen, M. J. H.; Berkelmans, R.; Stam, W. T.; Olsen, J. L.

    Understanding the flexibility of the endosymbioses between scleractinian corals and single-cell algae of the genus Symbiodinium will provide valuable insights into the future of coral reefs. Here, a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay is presented to accurately determine the cell

  14. Lineage-specific transcriptional profiles of Symbiodinium spp. unaltered by heat stress in a coral host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barshis, Daniel J; Ladner, Jason T; Oliver, Thomas A; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2014-06-01

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium form an endosymbiosis with reef building corals, in which photosynthetically derived nutrients comprise the majority of the coral energy budget. An extraordinary amount of functional and genetic diversity is contained within the coral-associated Symbiodinium, with some phylotypes (i.e., genotypic groupings), conferring enhanced stress tolerance to host corals. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technologies have enabled transcriptome-wide profiling of the stress response of the cnidarian coral host; however, a comprehensive understanding of the molecular response to stress of coral-associated Symbiodinium, as well as differences among physiologically susceptible and tolerant types, remains largely unexplored. Here, we examine the transcriptome-wide response to heat stress via RNA-Seq of two types of Symbiodinium, the putatively thermotolerant type D2 and the more susceptible type C3K, resident within the same coral host species, Acropora hyacinthus. Contrary to previous findings with coral hosts, we find no detectable change in gene expression across the dinoflagellate transcriptome after 3 days of elevated thermal exposure, despite physical evidence of symbiosis breakdown. However, hundreds of genes identified as orthologs between the C and D types exhibited significant expression differences within treatments (i.e., attributable solely to type, not heat exposure). These include many genes related to known thermotolerance mechanisms including heat shock proteins and chloroplast membrane components. Additionally, both the between-treatment similarities and between-type differences remained pervasive after 12-18 months of common garden acclimation and in mixed Symbiodinium assemblages within the same coral host colony. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Nitrate competition in a coral symbiosis varies with temperature among Symbiodinium clades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David M; Andras, Jason P; Jordán-Garza, Adán Guillermo; Fogel, Marilyn L

    2013-06-01

    Many reef-building corals form symbioses with dinoflagellates from the diverse genus Symbiodinium. There is increasing evidence of functional significance to Symbiodinium diversity, which affects the coral holobiont's response to changing environmental conditions. For example, corals hosting Symbiodinium from the clade D taxon exhibit greater resistance to heat-induced coral bleaching than conspecifics hosting the more common clade C. Yet, the relatively low prevalence of clade D suggests that this trait is not advantageous in non-stressful environments. Thus, clade D may only be able to out-compete other Symbiodinium types within the host habitat when conditions are chronically stressful. Previous studies have observed enhanced photosynthesis and fitness by clade C holobionts at non-stressful temperatures, relative to clade D. Yet, carbon-centered metrics cannot account for enhanced growth rates and patterns of symbiont succession to other genetic types when nitrogen often limits reef productivity. To investigate the metabolic costs of hosting thermally tolerant symbionts, we examined the assimilation and translocation of inorganic (15)N and (13)C in the coral Acropora tenuis experimentally infected with either clade C (sub-type C1) or D Symbiodinium at 28 and 30 °C. We show that at 28 °C, C1 holobionts acquired 22% more (15)N than clade D. However, at 30 °C, C1 symbionts acquired equivalent nitrogen and 16% less carbon than D. We hypothesize that C1 competitively excludes clade D in hospite via enhanced nitrogen acquisition and thus dominates coral populations despite warming oceans.

  16. [Study on the disposal process for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater by composite biosorbent of nano Fe3O4/Sphaerotilus natans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xiao-Hui; Qin, Yu-Chun; Wang, Li-Wen; Yin, Rong; Lu, Min; Yang, Ying-Jun

    2007-02-01

    Composite biosorbent nano Fe3O4/Sphaerotilus natans was prepared when nano Fe3O4 was used as carrier, then the composite biosorbent characterized by infrared instrument and investigated on adsorbing heavy metal ions from wastewater. Infrared spectrum analysis shows that--CONH--and--OH are principal activated groups of composite biosorbent. The experiment of adsorption shows that biomass concentration and flow velocity are main influencing factors. The composite biosorbent has best effect on the adsorption of Cu2+ under the conditions of biomass 1.5 g/L (Sphaerotilus natans/Fe3O4 = 3:2), flow velocity 0.96 L/h and initial concentration of Cu2+ was less than 20 mg/L. Composite biosorbent can be used for more 10 times when biosorbent was regenerated by HCl solution, and HCl solution can be used 3 times repeatedly. The selective sequence was Ph2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Cd2+.

  17. Nitrogen nutrition of Salvinia natans: Effects of inorganic nitrogen form on growth, morphology, nitrate reductase activity and uptake kinetics of ammonium and nitrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jampeetong, Arunothai; Brix, Hans

    2009-01-01

    In this study we assessed the growth, morphological responses, and N uptake kinetics of Salvinia natans when supplied with nitrogen as NO3-, NH4+, or both at equimolar concentrations (500 μM). Plants supplied with only NO3- had lower growth rates (0.17 ± 0.01 g g-1 d-1), shorter roots, smaller......+ is probably the main N source for S. natans, but plants probably also exploit NO3- when NH4+ concentrations are low. This is suggested based on the observation that the plants maintain high NRA in the roots at relatively high NH4+ levels in the water, even though the uptake capacity for NO3- is reduced under...

  18. Sphaerotilus natans encrusted with nanoball-shaped Fe(III) oxide minerals formed by nitrate-reducing mixotrophic Fe(II) oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sunhwa; Kim, Dong-Hun; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Hur, Hor-Gil

    2014-01-01

    Ferrous iron has been known to function as an electron source for iron-oxidizing microorganisms in both anoxic and oxic environments. A diversity of bacteria has been known to oxidize both soluble and solid-phase Fe(II) forms coupled to the reduction of nitrate. Here, we show for the first time Fe(II) oxidation by Sphaerotilus natans strain DSM 6575T under mixotrophic condition. Sphaerotilus natans has been known to form a sheath structure enclosing long chains of rod-shaped cells, resulting in a thick biofilm formation under oxic conditions. Here, we also demonstrate that strain DSM 6575T grows mixotrophically with pyruvate, Fe(II) as electron donors and nitrate as an electron acceptor and single cells of strain DSM 6575T are dominant under anoxic conditions. Furthermore, strain DSM 6575T forms nanoball-shaped amorphous Fe(III) oxide minerals encrusting on the cell surfaces through the mixotrophic iron oxidation reaction under anoxic conditions. We propose that cell encrustation results from the indirect Fe(II) oxidation by biogenic nitrite during nitrate reduction and that causes the bacterial morphological change to individual rod-shaped single cells from filamentous sheath structures. This study extends the group of existing microorganisms capable of mixotrophic Fe(II) oxidation by a new strain, S. natans strain DSM 6575T, and could contribute to biogeochemical cycles of Fe and N in the environment. PMID:24965827

  19. Genetic diversity of free-living Symbiodinium in surface water and sediment of Hawai`i and Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takabayashi, M.; Adams, L. M.; Pochon, X.; Gates, R. D.

    2012-03-01

    Marine dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium are primarily known for their symbiotic associations with invertebrates and protists, although they are also found free-living in nanoplankton and microphytobenthic communities. Free-living Symbiodinium are necessary for hosts that must acquire their symbionts anew each generation and for the possible reestablishment of endosymbiosis in bleached adults. The diversity and ecology of free-living Symbiodinium are not well studied by comparison with their endosymbiotic counterparts, and as a result, our understanding of the linkages between free-living and endosymbiotic Symbiodinium is poor. Here, we begin to address this knowledge gap by describing the genetic diversity of Symbiodinium in the surface water and reef sediments of Hawai`i and Florida using Symbiodinium-specific primers for the hypervariable region of the chloroplast 23S domain V (cp23S-HVR). In total, 29 Symbiodinium sequence types were detected, 16 of which were novel. The majority of Symbiodinium sequence types in free-living environments belonged to clades A and B, but smaller numbers of sequence types belonging to clades C, D, and G were also detected. The majority of sequences recovered from Hawai`i belonged to clades A and C and those from Florida to clade B. Such distribution patterns are consistent with the endosymbiotic diversity previously reported for these two regions. The ancestral sequence types in each clade were typically recovered from surface water and sediments both in Hawai`i and Florida and have been previously reported as endosymbionts of a range of invertebrates, suggesting that these types have the capacity to exploit a range of very different habitats. More derived sequence types in clades A, B, C, and G were not recovered here, suggesting they are potentially restricted to endosymbiotic environments.

  20. Most Low-Abundance "Background" Symbiodinium spp. Are Transitory and Have Minimal Functional Significance for Symbiotic Corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moo Joon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Jang, Se Hyeon; Lee, Sung Yeon; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Kim, Hyung Seop; Wham, Drew C; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2016-04-01

    Speculation surrounds the importance of ecologically cryptic Symbiodinium spp. (dinoflagellates) that occur at low abundances in reef-building corals and in the surrounding environment. Evidence acquired from extensive sampling, long-term monitoring, and experimental manipulation can allow us to deduce the ecology and functional significance of these populations and whether they might contribute to the response of coral-dinoflagellate mutualisms to climate change. Quantitative PCR was used here to diagnose the prevalence, seasonal variation, and abundances of Symbiodinium spp. within and between colonies of the coral, Alveopora japonica. Consistent with broader geographic sampling, only one species comprised 99.9 %, or greater, the population of symbionts in every sample. However, other Symbiodinium including the non-mutualistic species, Symbiodinium voratum, were often detected, but at estimated cell densities thousands-fold less than the dominant symbiont. The temporal variation in prevalence and abundances of these "background" Symbiodinium could not be definitively related to any particular environmental factor including seasonality and water chemistry. The prevalence (proportion detected among host samples), but not abundance, of S. voratum may weakly correspond to increases in environmental inorganic silica (SiO2) and possibly nitrogen (NO3). When multiple background Symbiodinium occurred within an individual polyp, the average cell densities were positively correlated, suggesting non-specific processes of cell sorting and retention by the animal. While these findings substantiate the existence of a broader, yet uncharacterized, diversity of Symbiodinium, we conclude that only those species which can occur in high abundance and are temporally stable are ultimately important to coral-dinoflagellate mutualisms. Many transient Symbiodinium spp., which occur only at trace abundances in the coral's microbiome, belong to different functional guilds and likely have

  1. Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) diversity in reef-invertebrates along an offshore to inshore reef gradient near Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonk, Linda; Sampayo, Eugenia M; LaJeunesse, Todd C; Schrameyer, Verena; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove

    2014-06-01

    Despite extensive work on the genetic diversity of reef invertebrate-dinoflagellate symbioses on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR; Australia), large information gaps exist from northern and inshore regions. Therefore, a broad survey was done comparing the community of inshore, mid-shelf and outer reefs at the latitude of Lizard Island. Symbiodinium (Freudenthal) diversity was characterized using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis fingerprinting and sequencing of the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA. Thirty-nine distinct Symbiodinium types were identified from four subgeneric clades (B, C, D, and G). Several Symbiodinium types originally characterized from the Indian Ocean were discovered as well as eight novel types (C1kk, C1LL, C3nn, C26b, C161a, C162, C165, C166). Multivariate analyses on the Symbiodinium species diversity data showed a strong link with host identity, consistent with previous findings. Of the four environmental variables tested, mean austral winter sea surface temperature (SST) influenced Symbiodinium distribution across shelves most significantly. A similar result was found when the analysis was performed on Symbiodinium diversity data of genera with an open symbiont transmission mode separately with chl a and PAR explaining additional variation. This study underscores the importance of SST and water quality related variables as factors driving Symbiodinium distribution on cross-shelf scales. Furthermore, this study expands our knowledge on Symbiodinium species diversity, ecological partitioning (including host-specificity) and geographic ranges across the GBR. The accelerating rate of environmental change experienced by coral reef ecosystems emphasizes the need to comprehend the full complexity of cnidarian symbioses, including the biotic and abiotic factors that shape their current distributions. © 2014 Phycological Society of America.

  2. Experimental flume study on Potamogeton natans and Ranunculus fluitans macrophytes: impact of hydrodynamics on 15N-ammonium uptake rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woule Ebongue, V.; Brion, N.; Hove, N.; Barrón, C.; Dehairs, F.; Bal, K.; Bouma, T.; Schoelynck, J.; de Deckere, E.; Meire, P.

    2010-12-01

    By means of incubations in a flume tank using 15N enriched ammonium label we investigate the concomitant effects of (i) different morphologies and specific surfaces, (ii) bulk water flow successively set at 0.3 and 0.1 m s-1 and (iii) three patch configurations on the rates of 15N-ammonium uptake rates for two macrophytes species: Potamogeton natans and Ranunculus fluitans. Because recent studies have shown that the rate of ammonium uptake by seagrass specimens depends on hydrodynamic factors such as shear stress and turbulence -which notably influence the rate at which ammonium is delivered to the surface of the leaves- these incubations were performed together with high resolution flow velocity measurements. Results of our experiments show higher 15N-ammonium uptake rates at the edges of patches in some of the incubations involving the two species. Currents and turbulence which are supposed to be the highest at the edges of the patches can explain these patterns. R. fluitans showing the highest specific surface of the two species is also the most efficient at obtaining 15N-ammonium from the water column in all experimental conditions. Results also show enhanced 15N-ammonium uptake rates with increased bulk water flow for both species. This result which is consistent with that of previous studies on seagrass communities is explained by turbulent energy and stresses factors that increase both advection of nutrients through the community and rates of diffusion at the surfaces of the specimens as flow velocity increases. Finally, flume configuration only affects uptake rates for R. fluitans at lower bulk flow velocity (0.1 m s-1). Higher 15N-ammonium uptake rates are observed for this species in the configuration when the flume is half filled compare to the configuration when the flume fully filled with both species. No significant difference is observed between the two configurations for P. natans. Our findings provide an improved insight in the concomitant effects

  3. Cell Cycle Dynamics of Cultured Coral Endosymbiotic Microalgae (Symbiodinium) Across Different Types (Species) Under Alternate Light and Temperature Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujise, Lisa; Nitschke, Matthew R; Frommlet, Jörg C; Serôdio, João; Woodcock, Stephen; Ralph, Peter J; Suggett, David J

    2018-01-08

    Dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium live in symbiosis with many invertebrates, including reef-building corals. Hosts maintain this symbiosis through continuous regulation of Symbiodinium cell density via expulsion and degradation (postmitotic) and/or constraining cell growth and division through manipulation of the symbiont cell cycle (premitotic). Importance of premitotic regulation is unknown since little data exists on cell cycles for the immense genetic diversity of Symbiodinium. We therefore examined cell cycle progression for several distinct SymbiodiniumITS2-types (B1, C1, D1a). All types exhibited typical microalgal cell cycle progression, G 1 phase through to S phase during the light period, and S phase to G 2 /M phase during the dark period. However, the proportion of cells in these phases differed between strains and reflected differences in growth rates. Undivided larger cells with 3n DNA content were observed especially in type D1a, which exhibited a distinct cell cycle pattern. We further compared cell cycle patterns under different growth light intensities and thermal regimes. Whilst light intensity did not affect cell cycle patterns, heat stress inhibited cell cycle progression and arrested all strains in G 1 phase. We discuss the importance of understanding Symbiodinium functional diversity and how our findings apply to clarify stability of host-Symbiodinium symbioses. © 2018 The Author(s) Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology © 2018 International Society of Protistologists.

  4. Comparing the Effects of Symbiotic Algae (Symbiodinium) Clades C1 and D on Early Growth Stages of Acropora tenuis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuyama, Ikuko; Higuchi, Tomihiko

    2014-01-01

    Reef-building corals switch endosymbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium during their early growth stages and during bleaching events. Clade C Symbiodinium algae are dominant in corals, although other clades — including A and D — have also been commonly detected in juvenile Acroporid corals. Previous studies have been reported that only molecular data of Symbiodinium clade were identified within field corals. In this study, we inoculated aposymbiotic juvenile polyps with cultures of clades C1 and D Symbiodinium algae, and investigated the different effect of these two clades of Symbiodinium on juvenile polyps. Our results showed that clade C1 algae did not grow, while clade D algae grew rapidly during the first 2 months after inoculation. Polyps associated with clade C1 algae exhibited bright green fluorescence across the body and tentacles after inoculation. The growth rate of polyp skeletons was lower in polyps associated with clade C1 algae than those associated with clade D algae. On the other hand, antioxidant activity (catalase) of corals was not significantly different between corals with clade C1 and clade D algae. Our results suggested that clade D Symbiodinium algae easily form symbiotic relationships with corals and that these algae could contribute to coral growth in early symbiosis stages. PMID:24914677

  5. Confocal imaging of autonomic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord of the caecilian Typhlonectes natans (Amphibia: Gymnophiona).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccone, Daniele; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Capillo, Gioele; Zuwała, Krystyna; Budzik, Karolina Agata; Kuciel, Michał; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2014-10-01

    Little is known about the spinal sympathetic organization in the caecilian amphibians. We examined for the first time the location of sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPNs) in the spinal cord using a panel of specific markers expressed in SPNs. The SPNs of anuran amphibians form two cell columns segregated mainly in the lateral and medial marginal areas of the central gray matter. In the caecilian Typhlonectes natans immunoreactivity for galanin and ChAT is found in most laterally arranged neurons lying in spinal segments 2-7. They are encircled by TH- and nNOS-immunoreactive nerve fibers. These neurons might project specifically to a population of adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons in paravertebral ganglia and/or non-adrenergic sympathetic postganglionic neurons in the celiac ganglia. However the segmental restriction and target specificity of the neurons of the species studied are not known. As mucous and granular glands in the dermis may represent one of the peripheral targets of the adrenergic ganglion cells and reflect the prominent preganglionic cell columns, an immunohistochemical study was done also on these glands. Retrograde-tracing studies are, however, needed to study the segmental localization of the preganglionic neurons and their projections to the postganglionic neurons in sympathetic ganglia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The Symbiodinium kawagutii genome illuminates dinoflagellate gene expression and coral symbiosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Senjie; Cheng, Shifeng; Song, Bo

    2015-01-01

    formation, novel promoter elements, and a microRNA system potentially regulating gene expression in both symbiont and coral.We found biochemical complementarity between genomes of S. kawagutii and the anthozoan Acropora, indicative of host-symbiont coevolution, providing a resource for studying......Dinoflagellates are important components of marine ecosystems and essential coral symbionts, yet little is known about their genomes. We report here on the analysis of a high-quality assembly from the 1180-megabase genome of Symbiodinium kawagutii. We annotated protein-coding genes and identified...... Symbiodinium-specific gene families. No whole-genome duplication was observed, but instead we found active (retro) transposition and gene family expansion, especially in processes important for successful symbiosis with corals. We also documented genes potentially governing sexual reproduction and cyst...

  7. Stimulated Respiration and Net Photosynthesis in Cassiopeia sp. during Glucose Enrichment Suggests in hospite CO2 Limitation of Algal Endosymbionts

    KAUST Repository

    Radecker, Nils

    2017-08-15

    The endosymbiosis between cnidarians and dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium is key to the high productivity of tropical coral reefs. In this endosymbiosis, Symbiodinium translocate most of their photosynthates to their animal host in exchange for inorganic nutrients. Among these, carbon dioxide (CO ) derived fromhost respiration helps to meet the carbon requirements to sustain photosynthesis of the dinoflagellates. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest that productivity in symbiotic cnidarians such as corals is CO -limited. Here we show that glucose enrichment stimulates respiration and gross photosynthesis rates by 80 and 140%, respectively, in the symbiotic upside-down jellyfish Cassiopeia sp. from the Central Red Sea. Our findings show that glucose was rapidly consumed and respired within the Cassiopeia sp. holobiont. The resulting increase of CO availability in hospite in turn likely stimulated photosynthesis in Symbiodinium. Hence, the increase of photosynthesis under these conditions suggests that CO limitation of Symbiodinium is a common feature of stable cnidarian holobionts and that the stimulation of holobiont metabolism may attenuate this CO limitation.

  8. The effects of elevated seawater temperatures on Caribbean gorgonian corals and their algal symbionts, Symbiodinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar L Goulet

    Full Text Available Global climate change not only leads to elevated seawater temperatures but also to episodic anomalously high or low temperatures lasting for several hours to days. Scleractinian corals are detrimentally affected by thermal fluctuations, which often lead to an uncoupling of their mutualism with Symbiodinium spp. (coral bleaching and potentially coral death. Consequently, on many Caribbean reefs scleractinian coral cover has plummeted. Conversely, gorgonian corals persist, with their abundance even increasing. How gorgonians react to thermal anomalies has been investigated utilizing limited parameters of either the gorgonian, Symbiodinium or the combined symbiosis (holobiont. We employed a holistic approach to examine the effect of an experimental five-day elevated temperature episode on parameters of the host, symbiont, and the holobiont in Eunicea tourneforti, E. flexuosa and Pseudoplexaura porosa. These gorgonian corals reacted and coped with 32°C seawater temperatures. Neither Symbiodinium genotypes nor densities differed between the ambient 29.5°C and 32°C. Chlorophyll a and c2 per Symbiodinium cell, however, were lower at 32°C leading to a reduction in chlorophyll content in the branches and an associated reduction in estimated absorbance and increase in the chlorophyll a specific absorption coefficient. The adjustments in the photochemical parameters led to changes in photochemical efficiencies, although these too showed that the gorgonians were coping. For example, the maximum excitation pressure, Qm, was significantly lower at 32°C than at 29.5°C. In addition, although per dry weight the amount of protein and lipids were lower at 32°C, the overall energy content in the tissues did not differ between the temperatures. Antioxidant activity either remained the same or increased following exposure to 32°C further reiterating a response that dealt with the stressor. Taken together, the capability of Caribbean gorgonian corals to modify

  9. Symbiodinium genotypic and environmental controls on lipids in reef building corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Cooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lipids in reef building corals can be divided into two classes; non-polar storage lipids, e.g. wax esters and triglycerides, and polar structural lipids, e.g. phospholipids and cholesterol. Differences among algal endosymbiont types are known to have important influences on processes including growth and the photobiology of scleractinian corals yet very little is known about the role of symbiont types on lipid energy reserves. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The ratio of storage lipid and structural lipid fractions of Scott Reef corals were determined by thin layer chromatography. The lipid fraction ratio varied with depth and depended on symbiont type harboured by two corals (Seriatopora hystrix and Pachyseris speciosa. S. hystrix colonies associated with Symbiodinium C1 or C1/C# at deep depths (>23 m had lower lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately equal parts of storage and structural lipids than those with Symbiodinium D1 in shallow depths (<23 m, which had higher lipid fraction ratios (i.e. approximately double amounts of storage relative to structural lipid. Further, there was a non-linear relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for S. hystrix with a modal peak at ∼23 m coinciding with the same depth as the shift from clade D to C types. In contrast, the proportional relationship between the lipid fraction ratio and depth for P. speciosa, which exhibited high specificity for Symbiodinium C3 like across the depth gradient, was indicative of greater amounts of storage lipids contained in the deep colonies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study has demonstrated that Symbiodinium exert significant controls over the quality of coral energy reserves over a large-scale depth gradient. We conclude that the competitive advantages and metabolic costs that arise from flexible associations with divergent symbiont types are offset by energetic trade-offs for the coral host.

  10. Distinct Bacterial Communities Associated with the Coral Model Aiptasia in Aposymbiotic and Symbiotic States with Symbiodinium

    OpenAIRE

    Röthig, Till; Costa, Rúben M.; Simona, Fabia; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Torres, Ana F.; Radhakrishnan, Anand; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2016-01-01

    Coral reefs are in decline. The basic functional unit of coral reefs is the coral metaorganism or holobiont consisting of the cnidarian host animal, symbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and a specific consortium of bacteria (among others), but research is slow due to the difficulty of working with corals. Aiptasia has proven a tractable model system to elucidate the intricacies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses, but characterization of the associated bacterial microbiome and the und...

  11. Genetic diversity of giant clams (Tridacna spp.) and their associated Symbiodinium in the central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Pappas, Melissa

    2017-05-19

    The biodiversity of the Red Sea remains relatively understudied, particularly for invertebrate taxa. Documenting present patterns of biodiversity is essential for better understanding Red Sea reef ecosystems and how these ecosystems may be impacted by stressors (such as fishing and climate change). Several species of giant clams (genus Tridacna) are reported from the Red Sea, although the majority of research effort has occurred in the Gulf of Aqaba. We investigated the genetic diversity (16S rDNA) of the Tridacna species found in the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea. We also investigated the genetic diversity (ITS rDNA) of symbiotic dinoflagellates Symbiodinium associated with these clams. Samples were collected from nine reefs on a cross-shelf gradient near Thuwal, Saudi Arabia. Two species, T. squamosa and T. maxima, were recorded, with the latter being the most abundant. Tridacna squamosina, a species recently reported in the northern Red Sea, was not found, suggesting that this species is not present or is very rare in our study region. All tridacnids sampled were found to harbor Symbiodinium grouped in Clade A, considered an opportunistic, heat-tolerant symbiont group in anemones and corals. The consistent association with Clade A Symbiodinium in central Red Sea tridacnids may reflect the consequence of adaptation to the relatively extreme conditions of the Red Sea. This study contributes to an ever-growing catalog of Red Sea biodiversity and serves as important baseline information for a region experiencing dynamic pressures.

  12. The Genetic Intractability Of Symbiodinium microadriaticum To Standard Algal Transformation Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Jit Ern

    2017-05-23

    Modern transformation and genome editing techniques have shown great success across a broad variety of organisms. However, no study of successfully applied genome editing has been reported in a dinoflagellate despite the first genetic transformation of Symbiodinium being published about 20 years ago. Using an array of different available transformation techniques, we attempted to transform Symbiodinium microadriaticum (CCMP2467), a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals, in order to perform CRISPR-Ca9 mediated genome editing. Plasmid vectors containing the chloramphenicol resistance gene under the control of the CaMV p35S promoter as well as several putative endogenous promoters were used to test a variety of transformation techniques including biolistics, electroporation, silica whiskers and glass bead agitation. We report that we have been unable to confer chloramphenicol resistance to our specific Symbiodinium strain. These results are intended to provide other researchers with an overview of previously attempted techniques and sequences in order to support efficient planning of future experiments in this important field.

  13. A genomic approach to coral-dinoflagellate symbiosis: Studies of Acropora digitifera and Symbiodinium minutum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuya eShinzato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Far more intimate knowledge of scleractinian coral biology is essential in order to understand how diverse coral-symbiont endosymbioses have been established. In particular, molecular and cellular mechanisms enabling the establishment and maintenance of obligate endosymbiosis with photosynthetic dinoflagellates require further clarification. By extension, such understanding may also shed light upon environmental conditions that promote the collapse of this mutualism. Genomic data undergird studies of all symbiotic processes. Here we review recent genomic data derived from the scleractinian coral, Acropora digitifera, and the endosymbiotic dinoflagellate, Symbiodinium minutum. We discuss Acropora genes involved in calcification, embryonic development, innate immunity, apoptosis, autophagy, UV resistance, fluorescence, photoreceptors, circadian clocks, etc. We also detail gene loss in amino acid metabolism that may explain at least part of the Acropora stress-response. Characteristic features of the Symbiodinium genome are also reviewed, focusing on the expansion of certain gene families, the molecular basis for permanently condensed chromatin, unique spliceosomal splicing, and unusual gene arrangement. Salient features of the Symbiodinium plastid and mitochondrial genomes are also illuminated. Although many questions regarding these interdependent genomes remain, we summarize information necessary for future studies of coral-dinoflagellate endosymbiosis.

  14. Variability of Symbiodinium Communities in Waters, Sediments, and Corals of Thermally Distinct Reef Pools in American Samoa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross Cunning

    Full Text Available Reef-building corals host assemblages of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp. whose diversity and abundance may fluctuate under different conditions, potentially facilitating acclimatization to environmental change. The composition of free-living Symbiodinium in reef waters and sediments may also be environmentally labile and may influence symbiotic assemblages by mediating supply and dispersal. The magnitude and spatial scales of environmental influence over Symbiodinium composition in different reef habitat compartments are, however, not well understood. We used pyrosequencing to compare Symbiodinium in sediments, water, and ten coral species between two backreef pools in American Samoa with contrasting thermal environments. We found distinct compartmental assemblages of clades A, C, D, F, and/or G Symbiodinium types, with strong differences between pools in water, sediments, and two coral species. In the pool with higher and more variable temperatures, abundance of various clade A and C types differed compared to the other pool, while abundance of D types was lower in sediments but higher in water and in Pavona venosa, revealing an altered habitat distribution and potential linkages among compartments. The lack of between-pool effects in other coral species was due to either low overall variability (in the case of Porites or high within-pool variability. Symbiodinium communities in water and sediment also showed within-pool structure, indicating that environmental influences may operate over multiple, small spatial scales. This work suggests that Symbiodinium composition is highly labile in reef waters, sediments, and some corals, but the underlying drivers and functional consequences of this plasticity require further testing with high spatial resolution biological and environmental sampling.

  15. Variability of Symbiodinium Communities in Waters, Sediments, and Corals of Thermally Distinct Reef Pools in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunning, Ross; Yost, Denise M; Guarinello, Marisa L; Putnam, Hollie M; Gates, Ruth D

    2015-01-01

    Reef-building corals host assemblages of symbiotic algae (Symbiodinium spp.) whose diversity and abundance may fluctuate under different conditions, potentially facilitating acclimatization to environmental change. The composition of free-living Symbiodinium in reef waters and sediments may also be environmentally labile and may influence symbiotic assemblages by mediating supply and dispersal. The magnitude and spatial scales of environmental influence over Symbiodinium composition in different reef habitat compartments are, however, not well understood. We used pyrosequencing to compare Symbiodinium in sediments, water, and ten coral species between two backreef pools in American Samoa with contrasting thermal environments. We found distinct compartmental assemblages of clades A, C, D, F, and/or G Symbiodinium types, with strong differences between pools in water, sediments, and two coral species. In the pool with higher and more variable temperatures, abundance of various clade A and C types differed compared to the other pool, while abundance of D types was lower in sediments but higher in water and in Pavona venosa, revealing an altered habitat distribution and potential linkages among compartments. The lack of between-pool effects in other coral species was due to either low overall variability (in the case of Porites) or high within-pool variability. Symbiodinium communities in water and sediment also showed within-pool structure, indicating that environmental influences may operate over multiple, small spatial scales. This work suggests that Symbiodinium composition is highly labile in reef waters, sediments, and some corals, but the underlying drivers and functional consequences of this plasticity require further testing with high spatial resolution biological and environmental sampling.

  16. Expression of a symbiosis-specific gene in Symbiodinium type A1 associated with coral, nudibranch and giant clam larvae

    KAUST Repository

    Mies, M.

    2017-05-24

    Symbiodinium are responsible for the majority of primary production in coral reefs and found in a mutualistic symbiosis with multiple animal phyla. However, little is known about the molecular signals involved in the establishment of this symbiosis and whether it initiates during host larval development. To address this question, we monitored the expression of a putative symbiosis-specific gene (H+-ATPase) in Symbiodinium A1 ex hospite and in association with larvae of a scleractinian coral (Mussismilia hispida), a nudibranch (Berghia stephanieae) and a giant clam (Tridacna crocea). We acquired broodstock for each host, induced spawning and cultured the larvae. Symbiodinium cells were offered and larval samples taken for each host during the first 72 h after symbiont addition. In addition, control samples including free-living Symbiodinium and broodstock tissue containing symbionts for each host were collected. RNA extraction and RT-PCR were performed and amplified products cloned and sequenced. Our results show that H+-ATPase was expressed in Symbiodinium associated with coral and giant clam larvae, but not with nudibranch larvae, which digested the symbionts. Broodstock tissue for coral and giant clam also expressed H+-ATPase, but not the nudibranch tissue sample. Our results of the expression of H+-ATPase as a marker gene suggest that symbiosis between Symbiodinium and M. hispida and T. crocea is established during host larval development. Conversely, in the case of B. stephanieae larvae, evidence does not support a mutualistic relationship. Our study supports the utilization of H+-ATPase expression as a marker for assessing Symbiodinium-invertebrate relationships with applications for the differentiation of symbiotic and non-symbiotic associations. At the same time, insights from a single marker gene approach are limited and future studies should direct the identification of additional symbiosis-specific genes, ideally from both symbiont and host.

  17. Spatial and temporal genetic structure of Symbiodinium populations within a common reef-building coral on the Great Barrier Reef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Emily J; Willis, Bette L; Bay, Line K; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2013-07-01

    The dinoflagellate photosymbiont Symbiodinium plays a fundamental role in defining the physiological tolerances of coral holobionts, but little is known about the dynamics of these endosymbiotic populations on coral reefs. Sparse data indicate that Symbiodinium populations show limited spatial connectivity; however, no studies have investigated temporal dynamics for in hospite Symbiodinium populations following significant mortality and recruitment events in coral populations. We investigated the combined influences of spatial isolation and disturbance on the population dynamics of the generalist Symbiodinium type C2 (ITS1 rDNA) hosted by the scleractinian coral Acropora millepora in the central Great Barrier Reef. Using eight microsatellite markers, we genotyped Symbiodinium in a total of 401 coral colonies, which were sampled from seven sites across a 12-year period including during flood plume-induced coral bleaching. Genetic differentiation of Symbiodinium was greatest within sites, explaining 70-86% of the total genetic variation. An additional 9-27% of variation was explained by significant differentiation of populations among sites separated by 0.4-13 km, which is consistent with low levels of dispersal via water movement and historical disturbance regimes. Sampling year accounted for 6-7% of total genetic variation and was related to significant coral mortality following severe bleaching in 1998 and a cyclone in 2006. Only 3% of the total genetic variation was related to coral bleaching status, reflecting generally small (8%) reductions in allelic diversity within bleached corals. This reduction probably reflected a loss of genotypes in hospite during bleaching, although no site-wide changes in genetic diversity were observed. Combined, our results indicate the importance of disturbance regimes acting together with limited oceanographic transport to determine the genetic composition of Symbiodinium types within reefs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparison of photosynthesis recovery dynamics in floating leaves of Trapa natans after inhibition by manganese or molybdenum: effects on Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldisserotto, Costanza; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Pantaleoni, Laura; Pancaldi, Simonetta

    2013-09-01

    The aquatic plant Trapa natans L. is highly resistant to Mn and moderately resistant to Mo, mainly thanks to its ability to sequestrate the metals by chelation in the vacuole. Excess of Mn and Mo causes somewhat aspecific toxicity symptoms in plants, but the main target of their toxicity seems to be the photosynthetic process. In this work, we aimed at understanding how the effect on photosynthesis caused by Mn (130 μM, full recovery) or Mo (50 μM, partial recovery) in T. natans is linked to changes occurring in the photosynthetic apparatus, with emphasis on Photosystem II (PSII), during a 10 day treatment with these metals. The time-course of net photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigment content, amount of PSII and its peripheral antenna LHCII, and room-temperature fluorescence emission ratios F694/F680 and F700/(F685 + F695) showed that the early inhibiting effect of Mo and Mn (one day exposure) was essentially non-specific with respect to the metal, though more marked in Mo- than in Mn-treated plants. During the subsequent recovery phase, Mo still impaired PSII assembly and, consequently, photosynthesis could not reach the control values. Conversely, in Mn-treated plants the amount of PSII was fully re-established, as was photosynthesis, but the metal induced the accumulation of LHCII. The extent of inhibition and the effectiveness of photosynthesis recovery are proposed to reflect the different ability of T. natans to sequestrate safely excess Mn or Mo in vacuoles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of Temperature and pCO2on Population Regulation of Symbiodinium spp. in a Tropical Reef Coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdasarian, Garen; Osberg, Andrew; Mihora, Danielle; Putnam, Hollie; Gates, Ruth D; Edmunds, Peter J

    2017-04-01

    This study tested the bleaching response of the Pacific coral Seriatopora caliendrum to short-term exposure to high temperature and elevated partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO 2 ). Juvenile colonies collected from Nanwan Bay, Taiwan, were used in a factorial experimental design in which 2 temperatures (∼27.6 °C and ∼30.4 °C) and 2 pCO 2 values (∼47.2 Pa and ∼90.7 Pa) were crossed to evaluate, over 12 days, the effects on the densities and physiology of the symbiotic dinoflagellates (Symbiodinium) in the corals. Thermal bleaching, as defined by a reduction of Symbiodinium densities at high temperature, was unaffected by high pCO 2 . The division, or mitotic index (MI), of Symbiodinium remaining in thermally bleached corals was about 35% lower than in control colonies, but they contained about 53% more chlorophyll. Bleaching was highly variable among colonies, but the differences were unrelated to MI or pigment content of Symbiodinium remaining in the coral host. At the end of the study, all of the corals contained clade C Symbiodinium (either C1d or C15), and the genetic variation of symbionts did not account for among-colony bleaching differences. These results showed that high temperature causes coral bleaching independent of pCO 2 , and underscores the potential role of the coral host in driving intraspecific variation in coral bleaching.

  20. Assessing Symbiodinium diversity in scleractinian corals via next-generation sequencing-based genotyping of the ITS2 rDNA region

    KAUST Repository

    Arif, Chatchanit

    2014-09-01

    The persistence of coral reef ecosystems relies on the symbiotic relationship between scleractinian corals and intracellular, photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. Genetic evidence indicates that these symbionts are biologically diverse and exhibit discrete patterns of environmental and host distribution. This makes the assessment of Symbiodinium diversity critical to understanding the symbiosis ecology of corals. Here, we applied pyrosequencing to the elucidation of Symbiodinium diversity via analysis of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region, a multicopy genetic marker commonly used to analyse Symbiodinium diversity. Replicated data generated from isoclonal Symbiodinium cultures showed that all genomes contained numerous, yet mostly rare, ITS2 sequence variants. Pyrosequencing data were consistent with more traditional denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approaches to the screening of ITS2 PCR amplifications, where the most common sequences appeared as the most intense bands. Further, we developed an operational taxonomic unit (OTU)-based pipeline for Symbiodinium ITS2 diversity typing to provisionally resolve ecologically discrete entities from intragenomic variation. A genetic distance cut-off of 0.03 collapsed intragenomic ITS2 variants of isoclonal cultures into single OTUs. When applied to the analysis of field-collected coral samples, our analyses confirm that much of the commonly observed Symbiodinium ITS2 diversity can be attributed to intragenomic variation. We conclude that by analysing Symbiodinium populations in an OTU-based framework, we can improve objectivity, comparability and simplicity when assessing ITS2 diversity in field-based studies.

  1. Production of three symbiosis-related fatty acids by Symbiodinium types in clades A-F associated with marine invertebrate larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, M.; Chaves-Filho, A. B.; Miyamoto, S.; Güth, A. Z.; Tenório, A. A.; Castro, C. B.; Pires, D. O.; Calderon, E. N.; Sumida, P. Y. G.

    2017-12-01

    Symbiodinium are dinoflagellates engaged in a mutualistic symbiosis with multiple coral reef taxa. They are divided in nine different clades (A-I), which typically associate with different hosts. However, very little information is available on metabolic differences in Symbiodinium types, especially when associated with metazoan larvae. We tested whether three ω3 fatty acids (stearidonic acid, SDA; docosapentaenoic acid, DPA; and docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) that are typically translocated from Symbiodinium to its host are produced by Symbiodinium types within clades A-F associated with Mussismilia hispida (scleractinian coral), Berghia stephanieae (nudibranch), and Tridacna crocea (giant clam) larvae. We acquired and spawned broodstock for each host, cultured their larvae, and offered Symbiodinium types belonging to clades A-F. Samples were taken during a 72-h window after the offer of Symbiodinium, and fatty acids were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography. The concentrations of SDA and DPA for all host larvae-dinoflagellate associations were low and variable, without trends. However, M. hispida planula larvae associated with Symbiodinium A1 and C1 had a statistically significant higher amount of DHA. The veliger larvae of B. stephanieae digested the Symbiodinium, and the amount of DHA remained constant throughout the experiment. The veliger larvae of T. crocea associated with Symbiodinium A1 and C1 also presented a higher amount of DHA, although not statistically different from the other types. These results show that Symbiodinium A1 and C1, in the case of M. hispida and T. crocea (which usually harbor strains within clades A and C), may contribute a small amount of DHA to the larvae of these organisms and form a stronger mutualism than other strains.

  2. Can resistant coral-Symbiodinium associations enable coral communities to survive climate change? A study of a site exposed to long-term hot water input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Keshavmurthy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has led to a decline in the health of corals and coral reefs around the world. Studies have shown that, while some corals can cope with natural and anthropogenic stressors either through resistance mechanisms of coral hosts or through sustainable relationships with Symbiodinium clades or types, many coral species cannot. Here, we show that the corals present in a reef in southern Taiwan, and exposed to long-term elevated seawater temperatures due to the presence of a nuclear power plant outlet (NPP OL, are unique in terms of species and associated Symbiodinium types. At shallow depths (<3 m, eleven coral genera elsewhere in Kenting predominantly found with Symbiodinium types C1 and C3 (stress sensitive were instead hosting Symbiodinium type D1a (stress tolerant or a mixture of Symbiodinium type C1/C3/C21a/C15 and Symbiodinium type D1a. Of the 16 coral genera that dominate the local reefs, two that are apparently unable to associate with Symbiodinium type D1a are not present at NPP OL at depths of <3 m. Two other genera present at NPP OL and other locations host a specific type of Symbiodinium type C15. These data imply that coral assemblages may have the capacity to maintain their presence at the generic level against long-term disturbances such as elevated seawater temperatures by acclimatization through successful association with a stress-tolerant Symbiodinium over time. However, at the community level it comes at the cost of some coral genera being lost, suggesting that species unable to associate with a stress-tolerant Symbiodinium are likely to become extinct locally and unfavorable shifts in coral communities are likely to occur under the impact of climate change.

  3. Patterns of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) diversity and assemblages among diverse hosts and the coral reef environment of Lizard Island, Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Ziegler, Maren

    2018-04-26

    Large-scale environmental disturbances may impact both partners in coral host-Symbiodinium systems. Elucidation of the assembly patterns in such complex and interdependent communities may enable better prediction of environmental impacts across coral reef ecosystems. In this study, we investigated how the community composition and diversity of dinoflagellate symbionts in the genus Symbiodinium were distributed among 12 host species from six taxonomic orders (Actinaria, Alcyonacea, Miliolida, Porifera, Rhizostoma, Scleractinia) and in the reef water and sediments at Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef before the 3rd Global Coral Bleaching Event. 454 pyrosequencing of the ITS2 region of Symbiodinium yielded 83 Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) at a 97% similarity cut-off. Approximately half of the Symbiodinium OTUs from reef water or sediments were also present in symbio. OTUs belonged to six clades (A-D, F-G), but community structure was uneven. The two most abundant OTUs (100% matches to types C1 and A3) comprised 91% of reads and OTU C1 was shared by all species. However, sequence-based analysis of these dominant OTUs revealed host species-specificity, suggesting that genetic similarity cut-offs of Symbiodinium ITS2 data sets need careful evaluation. Of the less abundant OTUs, roughly half occurred at only one site or in one species and the background Symbiodinium communities were distinct between individual samples. We conclude that sampling multiple host taxa with differing life history traits will be critical to fully understand the symbiont diversity of a given system and to predict coral ecosystem responses to environmental change and disturbance considering the differential stress response of the taxa within. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Symbiodinium community composition in scleractinian corals is not affected by life-long exposure to elevated carbon dioxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam H C Noonan

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is expected to negatively affect coral reefs, however little is known about how OA will change the coral-algal symbiosis on which reefs ultimately depend. This study investigated whether there would be differences in coral Symbiodinium types in response to OA, potentially improving coral performance. We used denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 region of ribosomal DNA to investigate the dominant types of Symbiodinium associating with six species of scleractinian coral that were exposed to elevated partial pressures of carbon dioxide (pCO2 in situ from settlement and throughout their lives. The study was conducted at three naturally occurring volcanic CO2 seeps (pCO2 ∼500 to 900 ppm, pHTotal 7.8 - 7.9 and adjacent control areas (pCO2 ∼390 ppm, pHTotal ∼8.0 - 8.05 in Papua New Guinea. The Symbiodinium associated with corals living in an extreme seep site (pCO2 >1000 ppm were also examined. Ten clade C types and three clade D types dominated the 443 coral samples. Symbiodinium types strongly contrasted between coral species, however, no differences were observed due to CO2 exposure. Within five species, 85 - 95% of samples exhibited the same Symbiodinium type across all sites, with remaining rare types having no patterns attributable to CO2 exposure. The sixth species of coral displayed site specific differences in Symbiodinium types, unrelated to CO2 exposure. Symbiodinium types from the coral inhabiting the extreme CO2 seep site were found commonly throughout the moderate seeps and control areas. Our finding that symbiotic associations did not change in response to CO2 exposure suggest that, within the six coral hosts, none of the investigated 13 clade C and D Symbiodinium types had a selective advantage at high pCO2. Acclimatisation through changing symbiotic association therefore does not seem to be an option for Indo-Pacific corals to deal with future OA.

  5. Using Aiptasia as a Model to Study Metabolic Interactions in Cnidarian-Symbiodinium Symbioses

    KAUST Repository

    Radecker, Nils

    2018-03-16

    The symbiosis between cnidarian hosts and microalgae of the genus Symbiodinium provides the foundation of coral reefs in oligotrophic waters. Understanding the nutrient-exchange between these partners is key to identifying the fundamental mechanisms behind this symbiosis, yet has proven difficult given the endosymbiotic nature of this relationship. In this study, we investigated the respective contribution of host and symbiont to carbon and nitrogen assimilation in the coral model anemone Aiptaisa. For this, we combined traditional measurements with nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) and stable isotope labeling to investigate patterns of nutrient uptake and translocation both at the organismal scale and at the cellular scale. Our results show that the rate of carbon and nitrogen assimilation in Aiptasia depends on the identity of the host and the symbiont. NanoSIMS analysis confirmed that both host and symbiont incorporated carbon and nitrogen into their cells, implying a rapid uptake and cycling of nutrients in this symbiotic relationship. Gross carbon fixation was highest in Aiptasia associated with their native Symbiodinium communities. However, differences in fixation rates were only reflected in the δ13C enrichment of the cnidarian host, whereas the algal symbiont showed stable enrichment levels regardless of host identity. Thereby, our results point toward a “selfish” character of the cnidarian—Symbiodinium association in which both partners directly compete for available resources. Consequently, this symbiosis may be inherently instable and highly susceptible to environmental change. While questions remain regarding the underlying cellular controls of nutrient exchange and the nature of metabolites involved, the approach outlined in this study constitutes a powerful toolset to address these questions.

  6. Temperature Effects on the Growth Rates and Photosynthetic Activities of Symbiodinium Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widiastuti Karim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coral bleaching is caused by environmental stress and susceptibility to bleaching stress varies among types of coral. The physiological properties of the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium spp., especially extent of damage to PSII and its repair capacity, contribute importantly to this variability in stress susceptibility. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the growth rates and photosynthetic activities of six cultured strains of Symbiodinium spp. (clades A, B, C, D, and F at elevated temperature (33 °C. We also observed the recovery of photodamaged-PSII in the presence or absence of a chloroplast protein synthesis inhibitor (lincomycin. The growth rates and photochemical efficiencies of PSII (Fv/Fm decreased in parallel at high temperature in thermally sensitive strains, B-K100 (clade B followed by culture name and A-Y106, but not in thermally tolerant strains, F-K102 and D-K111. In strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, growth declined markedly at high temperature, but Fv/Fm decreased only slightly. These strains may reallocate energy from growth to the repair of damaged photosynthetic machineries or protection pathways. Alternatively, since recoveries of photo-damaged PSII at 33 °C were modest in strains A-KB8 and C-Y103, thermal stressing of other metabolic pathways may have reduced growth rates in these two strains. This possibility should be explored in future research efforts.

  7. Nitric oxide production and tolerance differ among Symbiodinium types exposed to heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Thomas D; Davy, Simon K

    2012-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a ubiquitous molecule and its involvement in metazoan-microbe symbiosis is well known. Evidence suggests that it plays a role in the temperature-induced breakdown ('bleaching') of the ecologically important cnidarian-dinoflagellate association, and this can often lead to widespread mortality of affected hosts. This study confirms that dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium can produce NO and that production of the compound is differentially regulated in different types when exposed to elevated temperature. Temperature-sensitive type B1 cells under heat stress (8°C above ambient) exhibited significant increases in NO synthesis, which occurred alongside pronounced photoinhibition and cell mortality. Tolerant type A1 cells also displayed increases in NO production, yet maintained photosynthetic yields at levels similar to those of untreated cells and displayed less dramatic increases in cell death. Type C1 cells displayed a down-regulation of NO synthesis at high temperature, and no significant mortality increases were observed in this type. Temperature-induced mortality in types A1 and B1 was affected by the prevailing level of NO and, furthermore, photosynthetic yields of these temperature-tolerant and -sensitive types appeared differentially susceptible to NO donated by pharmacological agents. Taken together, these differences in NO synthesis and tolerance could potentially influence the varying bleaching responses seen among hosts harboring different Symbiodinium types.

  8. Distinct bacterial communities associated with the coral model Aiptasia in aposymbiotic and symbiotic states with Symbiodinium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Roethig

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are in decline. The basic functional unit of coral reefs is the coral metaorganism or holobiont consisting of the cnidarian host animal, symbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and a specific consortium of bacteria (among others, but research is slow due to the difficulty of working with corals. Aiptasia has proven a tractable model system to elucidate the intricacies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses, but characterization of the associated bacterial microbiome and the underlying genomic features relevant for bacterial selection and control is required to provide a complete and integrated understanding of holobiont function. In this work, we characterize and analyze the microbiome of aposymbiotic and symbiotic Aiptasia and show that bacterial associates are distinct in both conditions. We further show that key microbial associates can be cultured without their cnidarian host. Our results suggest that bacteria play an important role in the symbiosis of Aiptasia with Symbiodinium, a finding that underlines the power of the Aiptasia model system where cnidarian hosts can be analyzed in aposymbiotic and symbiotic states. The characterization of the native microbiome and the ability to retrieve culturable isolates contributes to the resources available for the Aiptasia model system. This provides an opportunity to comparatively analyze cnidarian metaorganisms as collective functional holobionts and as separated member species. We hope that this will accelerate research into understanding the intricacies of coral biology, which is urgently needed to develop strategies to mitigate the effects of environmental change.

  9. Distinct Bacterial Communities Associated with the Coral Model Aiptasia in Aposymbiotic and Symbiotic States with Symbiodinium

    KAUST Repository

    Röthig, Till

    2016-11-18

    Coral reefs are in decline. The basic functional unit of coral reefs is the coral metaorganism or holobiont consisting of the cnidarian host animal, symbiotic algae of the genus Symbiodinium, and a specific consortium of bacteria (among others), but research is slow due to the difficulty of working with corals. Aiptasia has proven to be a tractable model system to elucidate the intricacies of cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses, but characterization of the associated bacterial microbiome is required to provide a complete and integrated understanding of holobiont function. In this work, we characterize and analyze the microbiome of aposymbiotic and symbiotic Aiptasia and show that bacterial associates are distinct in both conditions. We further show that key microbial associates can be cultured without their cnidarian host. Our results suggest that bacteria play an important role in the symbiosis of Aiptasia with Symbiodinium, a finding that underlines the power of the Aiptasia model system where cnidarian hosts can be analyzed in aposymbiotic and symbiotic states. The characterization of the native microbiome and the ability to retrieve culturable isolates contributes to the resources available for the Aiptasia model system. This provides an opportunity to comparatively analyze cnidarian metaorganisms as collective functional holobionts and as separated member species. We hope that this will accelerate research into understanding the intricacies of coral biology, which is urgently needed to develop strategies to mitigate the effects of environmental change.

  10. Impediment to Symbiosis Establishment between Giant Clams and Symbiodinium Algae Due to Sterilization of Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Takeo; Yamada, Hideaki; Inoue, Ken; Iwai, Kenji; Hatta, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    To survive the juvenile stage, giant clam juveniles need to establish a symbiotic relationship with the microalgae Symbiodinium occurring in the environment. The percentage of giant clam juveniles succeeding in symbiosis establishment (“symbiosis rate”) is often low, which is problematic for seed producers. We investigated how and why symbiosis rates vary, depending on whether giant clam seeds are continuously reared in UV treated or non treated seawater. Results repeatedly demonstrated that symbiosis rates were lower for UV treated seawater than for non treated seawater. Symbiosis rates were also lower for autoclaved seawater and 0.2-µm filtered seawater than for non treated seawater. The decreased symbiosis rates in various sterilized seawater suggest the possibility that some factors helping symbiosis establishment in natural seawater are weakened owing to sterilization. The possible factors include vitality of giant clam seeds, since additional experiments revealed that survival rates of seeds reared alone without Symbiodinium were lower in sterilized seawater than in non treated seawater. In conclusion, UV treatment of seawater was found to lead to decreased symbiosis rates, which is due possibly to some adverse effects common to the various sterilization techniques and relates to the vitality of the giant clam seeds. PMID:23613802

  11. Combining O2 Microsensors and Fiber-Optic Technology to Measure Photo-Physiological Responses of Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth; Kühl, Michael; Ralph, Peter

    Corals associate with a diverse microbial assemblage of which endosymbiotic and phototrophic microalgae, i.e. dinoflagellates belonging to the genetically diverse genus Symbiodinium, are best known. Traditional techniques to estimate photosynthesis activity such as oxygen exchange and 14C......-incorporation of Symbiodinium are confounded by processes due to the coral host. In three case studies we employed a novel approach using two technologies that enable differentiation of the photosynthesis activity of Symbiodinium, pulseamplitude- modulation (PAM) and O2 microsensors. The case studies included i) monotypic...

  12. Does Temperature and UV Exposure History Modulate the Effects of Temperature and UV Stress on Symbiodinium Growth Rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temperature and ultraviolet radiation (UV) alone or in combination are known to inhibit the growth of Symbiodinium isolates. This conclusion was drawn from a number of studies having widely different exposure scenarios. Here we have examined the effects of pre-exposure acclimat...

  13. Nitrogen-deprivation elevates lipid levels in Symbiodinium spp. by lipid droplet accumulation: morphological and compositional analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Luen Jiang

    Full Text Available Stable cnidarian-dinoflagellate (genus Symbiodinium endosymbioses depend on the regulation of nutrient transport between Symbiodinium populations and their hosts. It has been previously shown that the host cytosol is a nitrogen-deficient environment for the intracellular Symbiodinium and may act to limit growth rates of symbionts during the symbiotic association. This study aimed to investigate the cell proliferation, as well as ultrastructural and lipid compositional changes, in free-living Symbiodinium spp. (clade B upon nitrogen (N-deprivation. The cell proliferation of the N-deprived cells decreased significantly. Furthermore, staining with a fluorescent probe, boron dipyrromethane 493/503 (BODIPY 493/503, indicated that lipid contents progressively accumulated in the N-deprived cells. Lipid analyses further showed that both triacylglycerol (TAG and cholesterol ester (CE were drastically enriched, with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA; i.e., docosahexaenoic acid, heneicosapentaenoic acid, and oleic acid became more abundant. Ultrastructural examinations showed that the increase in concentration of these lipid species was due to the accumulation of lipid droplets (LDs, a cellular feature that have previously shown to be pivotal in the maintenance of intact endosymbioses. Integrity of these stable LDs was maintained via electronegative repulsion and steric hindrance possibly provided by their surface proteins. Proteomic analyses of these LDs identified proteins putatively involved in lipid metabolism, signaling, stress response and energy metabolism. These results suggest that LDs production may be an adaptive response that enables Symbiodinium to maintain sufficient cellular energy stores for survival under the N-deprived conditions in the host cytoplasm.

  14. Sharing the slope: depth partitioning of agariciid corals and associated Symbiodinium across shallow and mesophotic habitats (2-60 m) on a Caribbean reef.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongaerts, P.; Frade, P.R.; Ogier, J.J.; Hay, K.B.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Englebert, N.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Bak, R.P.M.; Visser, P.M.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O

    2013-01-01

    Background Scleractinian corals and their algal endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) exhibit distinct bathymetric distributions on coral reefs. Yet, few studies have assessed the evolutionary context of these ecological distributions by exploring the genetic diversity of closely related coral species

  15. Understanding diversity in coral-algal symbiosis: a cluster-based approach to interpreting fine-scale genetic variation in the genus Symbiodinium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, A. M. S.; Baker, A. C.

    2009-03-01

    Reef corals associate with an extraordinary diversity of dinoflagellate endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium), and this diversity has become critical to understanding how corals respond to environmental changes. A popular molecular marker for Symbiodinium diversity, the Internal Transcribed Spacer-2 (ITS-2) region of ribosomal DNA, has revealed hundreds of distinct variants that are generally interpreted as representing different species, even though many have not been systematically tested for functional or ecological differentiation. Many of these variants are only minimally divergent from one another (1 bp or less), and others occupy basal nodes of traditional species phylogenies (“living ancestors”), indicating that some Symbiodinium ITS-2 diversity may represent intraspecific sequence variation. This hypothesis was tested for Symbiodinium clades A- D (the dominant symbionts of reef corals) through the construction of statistical parsimony networks of ITS-2 sequence diversity, and identification of clusters of closely related sequences within these networks. Initial assessments indicated that ecological differentiation exists between, but not within, these clusters. This approach, although imperfect in its ability to identify species boundaries in all cases, nevertheless dramatically reduces “species” diversity in Symbiodinium (from ~175 to 35). This testable alternative hypothesis indicates that, in Symbiodinium, “species” consist of clusters of closely related ITS-2 sequences diverging from ancestral variants that are typically ecologically dominant. A cluster-based view of Symbiodinium ITS-2 diversity improves our ability to: (1) construct well-supported symbiont phylogenies; (2) establish functional niches for symbiont species; and (3) understand flexibility and specificity within coral-algal symbioses. This cluster-based approach can ultimately be integrated with emerging population-level datasets (microsatellites and microsatellite flanking

  16. Evidence for coral range expansion accompanied by reduced diversity of Symbiodinium genotypes

    KAUST Repository

    Grupstra, Carsten G. B.

    2017-05-15

    Zooxanthellate corals are threatened by climate change but may be able to escape increasing temperatures by colonizing higher latitudes. To determine the effect of host range expansion on symbiont genetic diversity, we examined genetic variation among populations of Symbiodinium psygmophilum associated with Oculina patagonica, a range-expanding coral that acquires its symbionts through horizontal transmission. We optimized five microsatellite primer pairs for S. psygmophilum and tested them on Oculina spp. samples from the western North Atlantic and the Mediterranean. We then used them to compare symbiont genotype diversity between an Iberian core and an expansion front population of O. patagonica. Only one multilocus S. psygmophilum genotype was identified at the expansion front, and it was shared with the core population, which harbored seven multilocus genotypes. This pattern suggests that O. patagonica range expansion is accompanied by reduced symbiont genetic diversity, possibly due to limited dispersal of symbionts or local selection.

  17. Condition-specific RNA editing in the coral symbiont Symbiodinium microadriaticum

    KAUST Repository

    Liew, Yi Jin

    2017-03-01

    RNA editing is a rare post-transcriptional event that provides cells with an additional level of gene expression regulation. It has been implicated in various processes including adaptation, viral defence and RNA interference; however, its potential role as a mechanism in acclimatization has just recently been recognised. Here, we show that RNA editing occurs in 1.6% of all nuclear-encoded genes of Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals. All base-substitution edit types were present, and statistically significant motifs were associated with three edit types. Strikingly, a subset of genes exhibited condition-specific editing patterns in response to different stressors that resulted in significant increases of non-synonymous changes. We posit that this previously unrecognised mechanism extends this organism’s capability to respond to stress beyond what is encoded by the genome. This in turn may provide further acclimatization capacity to these organisms, and by extension, their coral hosts.

  18. Gene expression variation resolves species and individual strains among coral-associated dinoflagellates within the genus Symbiodinium

    KAUST Repository

    Parkinson, John Everett

    2016-02-11

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages (“Clades A-I”) and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades—the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups—making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ~20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e. cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host-symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and inter-individual variation in non-model organisms.

  19. Gene Expression Variation Resolves Species and Individual Strains among Coral-Associated Dinoflagellates within the Genus Symbiodinium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, John E; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Michell, Craig T; Baums, Iliana B; LaJeunesse, Todd C; Voolstra, Christian R

    2016-02-11

    Reef-building corals depend on symbiotic mutualisms with photosynthetic dinoflagellates in the genus Symbiodinium. This large microalgal group comprises many highly divergent lineages ("Clades A-I") and hundreds of undescribed species. Given their ecological importance, efforts have turned to genomic approaches to characterize the functional ecology of Symbiodinium. To date, investigators have only compared gene expression between representatives from separate clades-the equivalent of contrasting genera or families in other dinoflagellate groups-making it impossible to distinguish between clade-level and species-level functional differences. Here, we examined the transcriptomes of four species within one Symbiodinium clade (Clade B) at ∼20,000 orthologous genes, as well as multiple isoclonal cell lines within species (i.e., cultured strains). These species span two major adaptive radiations within Clade B, each encompassing both host-specialized and ecologically cryptic taxa. Species-specific expression differences were consistently enriched for photosynthesis-related genes, likely reflecting selection pressures driving niche diversification. Transcriptional variation among strains involved fatty acid metabolism and biosynthesis pathways. Such differences among individuals are potentially a major source of physiological variation, contributing to the functional diversity of coral holobionts composed of unique host-symbiont genotype pairings. Our findings expand the genomic resources available for this important symbiont group and emphasize the power of comparative transcriptomics as a method for studying speciation processes and interindividual variation in nonmodel organisms. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  20. Variation of the Symbiodinium Community Composition in Scleractinian Corals along a Cross-shelf and Depth Gradient

    KAUST Repository

    Mejia Restrepo, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    Corals form a symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic zooxanthellae from the genus Symbiodinium; the breakdown of this symbiosis results in the phenomenon known as coral bleaching. This relationship is especially vulnerable to high temperature stress, although corals may survive if they have resistant types of symbionts, or switch their community composition towards them. To assess the variation of the symbiont community in different environmental conditions, I recorded the temperature and collected samples from six scleractinian coral species and one calcifying hydrozoan, in two inshore, two mid-shelf, and two offshore reefs at 1, 15, and 30m depth, analyzing Symbiodinium diversity using Next Generation Sequencing with the SymPortal profile typing approach. The temperature was very similar for all points in winter, when coral samples were collected, but variation between points increased until a maximum at summer, with the shallower parts of the inshore reefs showing higher temperatures and the points at 30m depth showing the lowest. The Symbiodinium composition was more similar between samples of the same host species than among samples of the same reefs or depths. Coral species from the Pocilloporidae family and Millepora dichotoma showed specific association with different profile types, specifically, intragenomic variants of Symbiodinium type A1, which appears to be dominant in the Red Sea although it has not been reported for these species in other regions. The other species showed specific associations with types previously reported in other regions, mostly from clade C and D, although also having different types and intragenomic variants. For most cases, certain profile types, which can reflect different species or populations, appeared to be dominant in particular environmental conditions, following a distribution related with depth, reef type, or both. In conclusion, this study showed that the Symbiodinium composition depends more on the host species

  1. Symbiont shuffling linked to differential photochemical dynamics of Symbiodinium in three Caribbean reef corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunning, Ross; Silverstein, Rachel N.; Baker, Andrew C.

    2018-03-01

    Dynamic symbioses with functionally diverse dinoflagellate algae in the genus Symbiodinium may allow some reef corals to alter their phenotypes through `symbiont shuffling', or changes in symbiont community composition. In particular, corals may become more bleaching resistant by increasing the relative abundance of thermally tolerant Symbiodinium in clade D after bleaching. Despite the immediate relevance of this phenomenon to corals living in warming oceans—and to interventions aimed at boosting coral resilience—the mechanisms governing how, why, and when symbiont shuffling occurs are still poorly understood. Here, we performed controlled thermal bleaching and recovery experiments on three species of Caribbean corals hosting mixtures of D1a ( S. trenchii) and other symbionts in clades B or C. We show that the degree of symbiont shuffling is related to (1) the duration of stress exposure and (2) the difference in photochemical efficiency ( F v /F m) of co-occurring symbionts under stress (i.e., the `photochemical advantage' of one symbiont over the other). The advantage of D1a under stress was greatest in Montastraea cavernosa, intermediate in Siderastrea siderea, and lowest in Orbicella faveolata and correlated positively with the magnitude of shuffling toward D1a. In holobionts where D1a had less of an advantage over co-occurring symbionts (i.e., only slightly higher F v /F m under stress), a longer stress duration was required to elicit commensurate increases in D1a abundance. In fact, across these three coral species, 92.9% of variation in the degree of symbiont shuffling could be explained by the time-integrated photochemical advantage of D1a under heat stress. Although F v /F m is governed by numerous factors that this study is unable to resolve mechanistically, its strong empirical relationship with symbiont shuffling helps elucidate general features that govern this process in reef corals, which will help refine predictions of coral responses to

  2. Symbiotic specificity, association patterns, and function determine community responses to global changes: defining critical research areas for coral-Symbiodinium symbioses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabina, Nicholas S; Putnam, Hollie M; Franklin, Erik C; Stat, Michael; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-11-01

    Climate change-driven stressors threaten the persistence of coral reefs worldwide. Symbiotic relationships between scleractinian corals and photosynthetic endosymbionts (genus Symbiodinium) are the foundation of reef ecosystems, and these associations are differentially impacted by stress. Here, we couple empirical data from the coral reefs of Moorea, French Polynesia, and a network theoretic modeling approach to evaluate how patterns in coral-Symbiodinium associations influence community stability under climate change. To introduce the effect of climate perturbations, we simulate local 'extinctions' that represent either the loss of coral species or the ability to engage in symbiotic interactions. Community stability is measured by determining the duration and number of species that persist through the simulated extinctions. Our results suggest that four factors greatly increase coral-Symbiodinium community stability in response to global changes: (i) the survival of generalist hosts and symbionts maximizes potential symbiotic unions; (ii) elevated symbiont diversity provides redundant or complementary symbiotic functions; (iii) compatible symbiotic assemblages create the potential for local recolonization; and (iv) the persistence of certain traits associate with symbiotic diversity and redundancy. Symbiodinium may facilitate coral persistence through novel environmental regimes, but this capacity is mediated by symbiotic specificity, association patterns, and the functional performance of the symbionts. Our model-based approach identifies general trends and testable hypotheses in coral-Symbiodinium community responses. Future studies should consider similar methods when community size and/or environmental complexity preclude experimental approaches. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Genetic divergence across habitats in the widespread coral Seriatopora hystrix and its associated Symbiodinium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Bongaerts

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are hotspots of biodiversity, yet processes of diversification in these ecosystems are poorly understood. The environmental heterogeneity of coral reef environments could be an important contributor to diversification, however, evidence supporting ecological speciation in corals is sparse. Here, we present data from a widespread coral species that reveals a strong association of host and symbiont lineages with specific habitats, consistent with distinct, sympatric gene pools that are maintained through ecologically-based selection.Populations of a common brooding coral, Seriatopora hystrix, were sampled from three adjacent reef habitats (spanning a approximately 30 m depth range at three locations on the Great Barrier Reef (n = 336. The populations were assessed for genetic structure using a combination of mitochondrial (putative control region and nuclear (three microsatellites markers for the coral host, and the ITS2 region of the ribosomal DNA for the algal symbionts (Symbiodinium. Our results show concordant genetic partitioning of both the coral host and its symbionts across the different habitats, independent of sampling location.This study demonstrates that coral populations and their associated symbionts can be highly structured across habitats on a single reef. Coral populations from adjacent habitats were found to be genetically isolated from each other, whereas genetic similarity was maintained across similar habitat types at different locations. The most parsimonious explanation for the observed genetic partitioning across habitats is that adaptation to the local environment has caused ecological divergence of distinct genetic groups within S. hystrix.

  4. The actin cytoskeleton organization and disorganization properties of the photosynthetic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Marco A; Arzápalo-Castañeda, Georgina; Castillo-Medina, Raúl Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    The actin cytoskeleton organization in symbiotic marine dinoflagellates is largely undescribed; most likely, due to their intense pigment autofluorescence and cell walls that block fluorescent probe access. Using a freeze-fracture and fixation procedure, we observed the actin cytoskeleton of Symbiodinium kawagutii cultured in vitro with fluorescently labeled phalloidin and by indirect immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies specific for actin. The cytoskeleton appeared as an organized network with interconnected cortical and cytoplasmic thick filaments, along with some intertwined fine filaments. It showed a grid-type, reticular pattern organized in a lattice-like structure within the cell and throughout the cytoplasm. This organization was similar when the observations were done with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-phalloidin or anti-actin, although the latter showed a more evenly distributed fluorescence characteristic of nonpolymerized actin. The network organization collapsed upon treatment with latrunculin, resulting in bright foci and diffuse fluorescence. A similar effect was obtained upon butanedione monoxime treatment, except that no bright foci were observed. We have been able to successfully visualize the actin cytoskeleton of S. kawagutii cells using fluorescence-based procedures. This is the first report on the visualization of the organization of the actin cytoskeleton under various conditions in these walled, highly autofluorescent cells.

  5. Characterizing Photosymbiosis Between Fraginae Bivalves and Symbiodinium Using Phylogenetics and Stable Isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingchun Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photosymbiotic associations between heterotrophic hosts and photosynthetic algae play crucial roles in maintaining the trophic and structural integrity of coral reef ecosystems. The marine bivalve subfamily Fraginae contains both non-symbiotic and photosymbiotic lineages, making it an ideal comparative system to study the origin and evolutionary adaptations of photosymbiosis. The symbiotic species exhibit unique morphological adaptations to photosymbiosis. However, the basic biology of these photosymbiotic relationships, such as symbiont diversity and nutritional benefits, has not been thoroughly characterized. In this study, we examined the general morphology of four Fraginae species occupying different depths (0–10 m: Corculum cardissa, Fragum fragum, Fragum scruposum, and Fragum sueziense. Abundant symbionts were found in the mantle, gill, and part of the foot, contained in tubular networks within host tissues. We used molecular phylogenetics to investigate the algal symbiont community of these Fraginae species. Results showed that symbionts from all four species are dinoflagellates belonging to the Symbiodinium clade C and we did not detect any host-specific or geographic-specific genetic structures within the symbionts. We also used stable carbon isotope analyses to examine whether the cockles are directly utilizing photosynthetically derived carbon sources. All species show less depleted 13C compared to filter-feeding bivalves, suggesting at least part of their organic carbon is derived directly from the symbionts. However, 13C depletion of Fragum sueziense collected from deeper habitats are less distinguishable from filter-feeding bivalves. This indicates that species in deeper habitats may rely less on photosymbiosis due to the reduced light availability. Given that the symbiotic fragines exhibit varying morphologies, habitats, and utilization of symbiont photosynthesis, the subfamily represents an ideal model system to study

  6. Diversity in skeletal architecture influences biological heterogeneity and Symbiodinium habitat in corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, Denise M; Wang, Li-Hsueh; Fan, Tung-Yung; Chen, Chii-Shiarng; Lee, Raymond W; Sogin, Emilia; Gates, Ruth D

    2013-10-01

    Scleractinian corals vary in response to rapid shifts in the marine environment and changes in reef community structure post-disturbance reveal a clear relationship between coral performance and morphology. With exceptions, massive corals are thought to be more tolerant and branching corals more vulnerable to changing environmental conditions, notably thermal stress. The typical responses of massive and branching coral taxa, respectively, are well documented; however, the biological and functional characteristics that underpin this variation are not well understood. We address this gap by comparing multiple biological attributes that are correlated with skeletal architecture in two perforate (having porous skeletal matrices with intercalating tissues) and two imperforate coral species (Montipora aequituberculata, Porites lobata, Pocillopora damicornis, and Seriatopora hystrix) representing three morphotypes. Our results reveal inherent biological heterogeneity among corals and the potential for perforate skeletons to create complex, three-dimensional internal habitats that impact the dynamics of the symbiosis. Patterns of tissue thickness are correlated with the concentration of symbionts within narrow regions of tissue in imperforate corals versus broad distribution throughout the larger tissue area in perforate corals. Attributes of the perforate and environmentally tolerant P. lobata were notable, with tissues ∼5 times thicker than in the sensitive, imperforate species P. damicornis and S. hystrix. Additionally, P. lobata had the lowest baseline levels of superoxide and Symbiodinium that provisioned high levels of energy. Given our observations, we hypothesize that the complexity of the visually obscured internal environment has an impact on host-symbiont dynamics and ultimately on survival, warranting further scientific investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Genotypic diversity and spatial-temporal distribution of Symbiodinium clones in an abundant reef coral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettay, Daniel T; Wham, Drew C; Pinzón, Jorge H; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2011-12-01

    Genetic data are rapidly advancing our understanding of various biological systems including the ecology and evolution of coral-algal symbioses. The fine-scale interactions between individual genotypes of host and symbiont remain largely unstudied and constitute a major gap in knowledge. By applying microsatellite markers developed for both host and symbiont, we investigated the intracolony diversity, prevalence and stability of Symbiodinium glynni (type D1) multilocus genotypes in association with dense populations of Pocillopora at two sites in the Gulf of California. The genetic diversity and allelic frequencies in reef populations of S. glynni remained stable over 3 years. Common clone genotypes persisted over this period, and no temporal population subdivision (Φ(PT) = 0.021 and -0.003) was detected. Collections from circular plots showed no statistical correlation between related Pocillopora individuals and their associations with particular S. glynni genotypes, with no spatial structuring or clonal aggregation across a reef for the symbiont. From permanent linear transects, samples were analysed from multiple locations within a colony and some were resampled approximately 1 year later. Many of these multisampled colonies (approximately 53%) were dominated by a single S. glynni genotype and tended to associate with the same symbiont genotype(s) over time, while colony ramets often possessed unrelated symbiont genotypes. In contrast to the species level, associations between genotypes of Pocillopora and S. glynni are apparently more flexible over space and time. The abundance of sexually recombinant genotypes of S. glynni combined with greater flexibility might provide adaptive mechanisms for these symbioses to evolve rapidly to changes in environmental conditions and allow particular symbiont genotypes to spread through a host population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Diel rhythmicity of lipid-body formation in a coral- Symbiodinium endosymbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.-N. U.; Kang, H.-J.; Weis, V. M.; Mayfield, A. B.; Jiang, P.-L.; Fang, L.-S.; Chen, C.-S.

    2012-06-01

    The biogenesis of intracellular lipid bodies (LBs) is dependent upon the symbiotic status between host corals and their intracellular dinoflagellates (genus Symbiodinium), though aside from this observation, little is known about LB behavior and function in this globally important endosymbiosis. The present research aimed to understand how LB formation and density are regulated in the gastrodermal tissue layer of the reef-building coral Euphyllia glabrescens. After tissue fixation and labeling with osmium tetroxide, LB distribution and density were quantified by imaging analysis of serial cryo-sections, and a diel rhythmicity was observed; the onset of solar irradiation at sunrise initiated an increase in LB density and size, which peaked at sunset. Both LB density and size then decreased to basal levels at night. On a seasonal timescale, LB density was found to be significantly positively correlated with seasonal irradiation, with highest densities found in the summer and lowest in the fall. In terms of LB lipid composition, only the concentration of wax esters, and not triglycerides or sterols, exhibited diel variability. This suggests that the metabolism and accumulation of lipids in LBs is at least partially light dependent. Ultrastructural examinations revealed that the LB wax ester concentration correlated with the number of electron-transparent inclusion bodies. Finally, there was a directional redistribution of the LB population across the gastroderm over the diel cycle. Collectively, these data reveal that coral gastrodermal LBs vary in composition and intracellular location over diel cycles, features which may shed light on their function within this coral-dinoflagellate mutualism.

  9. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiko Hayashi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m3 forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  10. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Aiko; Crombie, Andrew; Lacey, Ernest; Richardson, Anthony J; Vuong, Daniel; Piggott, Andrew M; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-03-16

    Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m³) forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  11. Combining O2 Microsensors and Fiber-Optic Technology to Measure Photo-Physiological Responses of Symbiodinium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Karin Elizabeth; Kühl, Michael; Ralph, Peter

    parallel measurements of gross photosynthesis rate and photosystem II quantum yield at the coral surface under steady-state conditions as a function of increasing irradiances. The studies showed large plasticity in photophysiological acclimation of Symbiodinium linked to light microclimate as well...

  12. Real-time PCR reveals a high incidence of Symbiodinium clade D at low levels in four scleractinian corals across the Great Barrier Reef : implications for symbiont shuffling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieog, J. C.; van Oppen, M. J. H.; Cantin, N. E.; Stam, W. T.; Olsen, J. L.

    Reef corals form associations with an array of genetically and physiologically distinct endosymbionts from the genus Symbiodinium. Some corals harbor different clades of symbionts simultaneously, and over time the relative abundances of these clades may change through a process called symbiont

  13. Partitioning of Respiration in an Animal-Algal Symbiosis: Implications for Different Aerobic Capacity Between Symbiodinium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas David Hawkins

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbioses are ecologically important and the subject of much investigation. However, our understanding of critical aspects of symbiosis physiology, such as the partitioning of total respiration between the host and symbiont, remains incomplete. Specifically, we know little about how the relationship between host and symbiont respiration varies between different holobionts (host-symbiont combinations. We applied molecular and biochemical techniques to investigate aerobic respiratory capacity in naturally symbiotic Exaiptasia pallida sea anemones, alongside animals infected with either homologous ITS2-type A4 Symbiodinium or a heterologous isolate of Symbiodinium minutum (ITS2-type B1. In naturally symbiotic anemones, host, symbiont, and total holobiont mitochondrial citrate synthase (CS enzyme activity, but not host mitochondrial copy number, were reliable predictors of holobiont respiration. There was a positive association between symbiont density and host CS specific activity (mg protein-1, and a negative correlation between host- and symbiont CS specific activities. Notably, partitioning of total CS activity between host and symbiont in this natural E. pallida population was significantly different to the host/symbiont biomass ratio. In re-infected anemones, we found significant between-holobiont differences in the CS specific activity of the algal symbionts. Furthermore, the relationship between the partitioning of total CS activity and the host/symbiont biomass ratio differed between holobionts. These data have broad implications for our understanding of cnidarian-algal symbiosis. Specifically, the long-held assumption of equivalency between symbiont/host biomass and respiration ratios can result in significant overestimation of symbiont respiration and potentially erroneous conclusions regarding the percentage of carbon translocated to the host. The interspecific variability in symbiont aerobic capacity provides

  14. Spatio-Temporal Analyses of Symbiodinium Physiology of the Coral Pocillopora verrucosa along Large-Scale Nutrient and Temperature Gradients in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Sawall, Yvonne

    2014-08-19

    Algal symbionts (zooxanthellae, genus Symbiodinium) of scleractinian corals respond strongly to temperature, nutrient and light changes. These factors vary greatly along the north-south gradient in the Red Sea and include conditions, which are outside of those typically considered optimal for coral growth. Nevertheless, coral communities thrive throughout the Red Sea, suggesting that zooxanthellae have successfully acclimatized or adapted to the harsh conditions they experience particularly in the south (high temperatures and high nutrient supply). As such, the Red Sea is a region, which may help to better understand how zooxanthellae and their coral hosts successfully acclimatize or adapt to environmental change (e. g. increased temperatures and localized eutrophication). To gain further insight into the physiology of coral symbionts in the Red Sea, we examined the abundance of dominant Symbiodinium types associated with the coral Pocillopora verrucosa, and measured Symbiodinium physiological characteristics (i.e. photosynthetic processes, cell density, pigmentation, and protein composition) along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea in summer and winter. Despite the strong environmental gradients from north to south, our results demonstrate that Symbiodinium microadriaticum (type A1) was the predominant species in P. verrucosa along the latitudinal gradient. Furthermore, measured physiological characteristics were found to vary more with prevailing seasonal environmental conditions than with region-specific differences, although the measured environmental parameters displayed much higher spatial than temporal variability. We conclude that our findings might present the result of long-term acclimatization or adaptation of S. microadriaticum to regionally specific conditions within the Red Sea. Of additional note, high nutrients in the South correlated with high zooxanthellae density indicating a compensation for a temperature-driven loss of photosynthetic

  15. Integrating microRNA and mRNA expression profiling in Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a dinoflagellate symbiont of reef-building corals.

    KAUST Repository

    Baumgarten, Sebastian

    2013-10-12

    Animal and plant genomes produce numerous small RNAs (smRNAs) that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally affecting metabolism, development, and epigenetic inheritance. In order to characterize the repertoire of endogenous smRNAs and potential gene targets in dinoflagellates, we conducted smRNA and mRNA expression profiling over 9 experimental treatments of cultures from Symbiodinium microadriaticum, a photosynthetic symbiont of scleractinian corals.

  16. Proof that dinoflagellate spliced leader (DinoSL) is a useful hook for fishing dinoflagellate transcripts from mixed microbial samples: Symbiodinium kawagutii as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhuang, Yunyun; Gill, John; Lin, Senjie

    2013-07-01

    The ability to analyze dinoflagellate lineage-specific transcriptomes in the natural environment would be powerful for gaining understanding on how these organisms thrive in diverse environments and how they form harmful algal blooms and produce biotoxins. This can be made possible by lineage-specific mRNA markers such as the dinoflagellate-specific trans-spliced leader (DinoSL). By constructing and sequencing a 5'-cap selective full-length cDNA library for a monoculture of the coral reef endosymbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium kawagutii and a DinoSL-based cDNA library for a mixture of S. kawagutii and other phytoplankton, we found DinoSL in essentially all full-length cDNAs in the 5'-cap selective library. We also discovered that the DinoSL-based library contained functionally diverse transcripts all belonging to dinoflagellates with no evidence of biases toward certain groups of functional genes. The results verified that DinoSL is specific to dinoflagellate mRNAs and is ubiquitous in the dinoflagellate transcriptomes. Annotation of the unigene dataset generated from the two libraries combined indicated high functional diversity of the transcriptome and revealed some biochemical pathways previously undocumented in Symbiodinium such as an mRNA splicing machinery potentially serving both cis- and trans-splicing. The protocol will be useful for transcriptomic studies of Symbiodinium in hospite and other dinoflagellates in natural environments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrients, signals, and photosynthetic release by symbiotic algae. The impact of taurine on the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.T.; Douglas, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Exogenous concentrations of 10 micromolar to 1 mM of the nonprotein amino acid taurine stimulated photosynthate release from the dinoflagellate alga Symbiodinium, which had been freshly isolated from the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella. Photosynthate release, as induced by taurine and animal extract, was metabolically equivalent at both concentrations in that they (a) stimulated photosynthate release to the same extent and (b) induced the selective release of photosynthetically derived organic acids. A complex mixture of amino acids at 75 mM also promoted photosynthate release, but the release rate was reduced by 34% after the omission of taurine (3 mM) from the mixture, suggesting that much of the effect of amino acids was largely attributable to taurine. Exogenous 14C-labeled taurine was taken up by the cells, and more than 95% of the internalized 14C was recovered as taurine, indicating that taurine-induced photosynthate release was not dependent on taurine metabolism. Both taurine uptake and taurine-induced photosynthate release by Symbiodinium exhibited saturation kinetics, but with significantly different Km values of 68 and 21 micromolar, respectively. The difference in Km values is compatible with the hypothesis that Symbiodinium has a taurine signal transducer that is responsible for photosynthate release and is distinct from the taurine transporter

  18. Tradeoffs to Thermal Acclimation: Energetics and Reproduction of a Reef Coral with Heat Tolerant Symbiodinium Type-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The photo-physiological characteristics of thermo-tolerant Symbiodinium types have been postulated to have negative effects on the energetics of the reef corals by reducing fitness. To investigate this, two key and inextricably coupled indicators of fitness, lipids and reproduction, were monitored in colonies of the broadcast-spawning coral Acropora millepora over a two-year period that included a natural bleaching event. In the absence of bleaching ITS1-type clade D predominant colonies had 26% lower stored lipids compared to C2 colonies. At spawning time, this correlated with 28% smaller eggs in type-D colonies. This energetic disparity is expected to have reduced larval duration and settlement-competency periods in type-D compared to type-C2 colonies. More importantly, irrespective of the effect of genotype, the fitness of all corals was adversely affected by the stress of the bleaching event which reduced prespawning lipids by 60% and halved the number of eggs compared to the previous year. Our results extend work that has shown that direct temperature stress and symbiont change are likely to work in concert on corals by demonstrating that the lipids and reproduction of the reef building corals on tropical reefs are likely to be impaired by these processes as our climate warms.

  19. SP. Pescado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Gendre

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'occhiello di un articolo dal titolo Il Peru dei de[Jini rosa e de/la grande pioggia si legge: "da una partenza  in aereo al «pescado»  che ti  sfamera."1 Questa parola spagnola, giustamente chiusa tra caporali, a noi pare molto interes­ sante, perche, nonostante l'apparenza, non ha nulla da spartire sotto i1 profilo se­ mantico con l'it. pescato. lnfatti, tutti i piu importanti dizionari della lingua italiana, di ieri e di oggi, etimologici e non 2, registrano  accanto a pescata,  ii lemma pescato, 3 ma lo spiegano come "quantita di pesce catturato nel corso di una battuta o di una stagione di pesca",4 mentre lo sp. pescado  indica i1 "pesce (solo nel senso di: pesGe pescato da mangiare [...]".s

  20. Toxicity estimates for diuron and atrazine for the tropical marine cnidarian Exaiptasia pallida and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. using PAM chlorophyll-a fluorometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Pelli Louise; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda Jean; Clark, Malcolm William; Seery, Cliff Ross

    2017-06-01

    Effective ecotoxicological risk assessments for herbicides in tropical marine environments are restricted by a lack of toxicity data, sensitive test methods and endpoints for relevant species, and this requires rectification. The symbiotic sea anemone Exaiptasia pallida is a suitable test species, representing the phylum Cnidaria and allowing for assessments of toxicological responses of both the animal host and in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll-a fluorometry is recognised as a valuable ecotoxicological tool, and here newly-developed test methods are presented using PAM fluorometry to measure herbicide effects on photosynthetic efficiency of in-hospite Symbiodinium spp. Additionally, measurements on healthy laboratory-reared E. pallida provide baseline data demonstrating the normal effective quantum yield (EQY) and the maximum electron transport rate (ETR m ) for Symbiodinium spp. in the absence of herbicide stress. Concentration-dependant reductions in the EQY and ETR m occurred during diuron and atrazine exposures; a mean 48-h EC50 (effective concentration; 50%) of 8μg/L of diuron was estimated, however atrazine elicited a much lower toxicity. Twelve-day exposures to 10-200μg/L diuron showed that the greatest EQY effect occurred during the first 48h, with little subsequent change. However, longer exposures to the lowest diuron treatment (1μg/L) showed the lowest EQYs after 96h followed by recovery to control levels within 12d. Furthermore, asexual reproduction was inhibited during 12-d exposures to diuron, and 12-d EC50 values of 100 and 132μg/L were estimated to inhibit successful reproduction of pedal lacerates and juveniles by 50% respectively. This study provides much needed data contributions to species sensitivity curves for development of diuron and atrazine water quality guidelines in tropical marine environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Draft genome sequences of six neonatal meningitis-causing escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neonatal meningitis Escherichia coli isolates (SP-4, SP-5, SP-13, SP-16, SP-46, and SP-65) were recovered from infants in the Netherlands from 1989 to 1997. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for these six E. coli isolates, which are currently being used to validate food safety processing te...

  2. Draft genomes of the corallimorpharians Amplexidiscus fenestrafer and Discosoma sp

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Xin

    2017-04-13

    Corallimorpharia are the closest non-calcifying relatives of reef-building corals. Aside from their popularity among aquarium hobbyists, their evolutionary position between the Actiniaria (sea anemones) and the Scleractinia (hard corals) makes them ideal candidates for comparative studies aiming at understanding the evolution of hexacorallian orders in general and reef-building corals in particular. Here we have sequenced and assembled two draft genomes for the Corallimorpharia species Amplexidiscus fenestrafer and Discosoma sp.. The draft genomes encompass 370 Mbp and 445 Mbp respectively and encode for 21,372 and 23,199 genes. To facilitate future studies using these resources, we provide annotations for the predicted gene models-not only at gene level, by annotating gene models with the function of the best-matching homolog, and GO terms when available; but also at protein domain level, where gene function can be better verified through the conservation of the sequence and order of protein domains. Further, we provide an online platform (http://corallimorpharia.reefgenomics.org), which includes a BLAST interface as well as a genome browser to facilitate the use of these resources. We believe that these two genomes are important resources for future studies on hexacorallian systematics and the evolutionary basis of their specific traits such as the symbiotic relationship with dinoflagellates of the genus Symbiodinium or the evolution of calcification in reef-building corals. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Site-specific variation in gene expression from Symbiodinium spp. associated with offshore and inshore Porites astreoides in the lower Florida Keys is lost with bleaching and disease stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briana Hauff Salas

    Full Text Available Scleractinian coral are experiencing unprecedented rates of mortality due to increases in sea surface temperatures in response to global climate change. Some coral species however, survive high temperature events due to a reduced susceptibility to bleaching. We investigated the relationship between bleaching susceptibility and expression of five metabolically related genes of Symbiodinium spp. from the coral Porites astreoides originating from an inshore and offshore reef in the Florida Keys. The acclimatization potential of Symbiodinium spp. to changing temperature regimes was also measured via a two-year reciprocal transplant between the sites. Offshore coral fragments displayed significantly higher expression in Symbiodinium spp. genes PCNA, SCP2, G3PDH, PCP and psaE than their inshore counterparts (p<0.05, a pattern consistent with increased bleaching susceptibility in offshore corals. Additionally, gene expression patterns in Symbiodinium spp. from site of origin were conserved throughout the two-year reciprocal transplant, indicating acclimatization did not occur within this multi-season time frame. Further, laboratory experiments were used to investigate the influence of acute high temperature (32°C for eight hours and disease (lipopolysaccharide of Serratia marcescens on the five metabolically related symbiont genes from the same offshore and inshore P. astreoides fragments. Gene expression did not differ between reef fragments, or as a consequence of acute exposure to heat or heat and disease, contrasting to results found in the field. Gene expression reported here indicates functional variation in populations of Symbiodinium spp. associated with P. astreoides in the Florida Keys, and is likely a result of localized adaptation. However, gene expression patterns observed in the lab imply that functional variation in zooxanthellae observed under conditions of chronic moderate stress is lost under the acute extreme conditions studied here.

  4. Distribution and photobiology of Symbiodinium types in different light environments for three colour morphs of the coral Madracis pharensis: is there more to it than total irradiance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frade, P. R.; Englebert, N.; Faria, J.; Visser, P. M.; Bak, R. P. M.

    2008-12-01

    The role of symbiont variation in the photobiology of reef corals was addressed by investigating the links among symbiont genetic diversity, function and ecological distribution in a single host species, Madracis pharensis. Symbiont distribution was studied for two depths (10 and 25 m), two different light habitats (exposed and shaded) and three host colour morphs (brown, purple and green). Two Symbiodinium genotypes were present, as defined by nuclear internal transcribed spacer 2 ribosomal DNA (ITS2-rDNA) variation. Symbiont distribution was depth- and colour morph-dependent. Type B15 occurred predominantly on the deeper reef and in green and purple colonies, while type B7 was present in shallow environments and brown colonies. Different light microhabitats at fixed depths had no effect on symbiont presence. This ecological distribution suggests that symbiont presence is potentially driven by light spectral niches. A reciprocal depth transplantation experiment indicated steady symbiont populations under environment change. Functional parameters such as pigment composition, chlorophyll a fluorescence and cell densities were measured for 25 m and included in multivariate analyses. Most functional variation was explained by two photobiological assemblages that relate to either symbiont identity or light microhabitat, suggesting adaptation and acclimation, respectively. Type B15 occurs with lower cell densities and larger sizes, higher cellular pigment concentrations and higher peridinin to chlorophyll a ratio than type B7. Type B7 relates to a larger xanthophyll-pool size. These unambiguous differences between symbionts can explain their distributional patterns, with type B15 being potentially more adapted to darker or deeper environments than B7. Symbiont cell size may play a central role in the adaptation of coral holobionts to the deeper reef. The existence of functional differences between B-types shows that the clade classification does not necessarily

  5. Fine-Scale Biogeographical Boundary Delineation and Sub-population Resolution in the Symbiodinium thermophilum Coral Symbiont Group From the Persian/Arabian Gulf and Gulf of Oman

    KAUST Repository

    Hume, Benjamin C. C.

    2018-04-24

    The adaptation of tropical coral communities to the world\\'s hottest sea, the Persian/Arabian Gulf (PAG), has recently been associated with ecological selection acting on a group of coral-associated algal symbionts, the Symbiodinium thermophilum group. Previous studies have shown that considerable genetic diversity exists within the group and that group members found within the PAG are significantly differentiated from those found externally, in the Gulf of Oman and wider waters. However, little is known about this genetic diversity. As an initial step towards understanding whether this diversity could represent niche adapted, selectable populations within the S. thermophilum group that may act as natural sources of stress tolerant associations to Indo-Pacific reefs, we investigate whether the diversity is structured between populations and where the location of the internal-external genetic partition lies. We use regions of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) and chloroplastic psbA gene (non-coding region) from >100 S. thermophilum group-harbouring Porites spp. (P. lobata, P. lutea, and P. harrisoni) sampled across steep temperature and salinity gradients to conduct analyses of variance and create maximum parsimony networks to assess genetic structure and (dis)similarity within and between populations of S. thermophilum found within the PAG and externally in the Gulf of Oman. Our analyses resolve a sharp genetic boundary between Symbiodinium populations in the western Strait of Hormuz and identify significant genetic structure between populations with as little as 20 km between them demonstrating that differentiation between populations is likely due to factors other than limited connectivity. Further, we hypothesize that genotypes identified outside of the PAG in the Gulf of Oman existing in near-oceanic salinities, yet thermally challenging waters, putatively represent candidates for stress-tolerant symbionts that could act as natural seed populations of

  6. Investigations into the fast ionic conductors γ-CuBr, Li2S, Na2S, Ba2NH, NaTaN2 and Li3HoCl6 by means of neutron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altorfer, F.

    1994-01-01

    The main topic of this work was the investigation of ionic diffusion in solids by means of neutron scattering. Experiments were carried out on the antifluorites Li 2 S, Na 2 S and γ-CuBr (zinc-blende type) as well as on Barium-Nitride-Hydride Ba 2 NH, NaTaN 2 and Li 3 HoCl 6 which represent three-and two-dimensional ionic conductors, respectively. In the sulphur based antifluorites Li 2 S and Na 2 S the occupation of the interstitial empty cube site by cations occurs at elevated temperatures. The temperature-dependence of the diffusion process has been investigated by quasielastic, incoherent neutron scattering. The cations hop between their regular lattice sites and the interstitial empty cube site, whereas the sulphur ions vibrate in good approximation harmonically even at high temperatures. The jump vectors define a three-dimensional net of possible cation paths through the crystal. The analysis of quasielastic scattering experiments on a Li 2 S single crystal enabled us to determine the jump vectors and the jump rates 1/τ. The temperature dependence of the anharmonic contributions to the copper structure factor was the main point in our neutron diffraction experiments on γ-CuBr. It could be shown that the copper density function deviates strongly from the isotropic form with increasing temperature. Barium-Nitride-Hydride is one of the few documented H - -ionic conductors. The electronic part of the ds-conductivity is only 1/10000 of the ionic contribution. Since Ba 2 NH is a layer compound, where H - and N 3- layers alternate along the c-axis, the probability of jumps out of the plane is suppressed in favour of in plane jumps. This compound is therefore a model system in which two-dimensional diffusion can be studied and in fact the analysis of the quasielastic data proved that the H-diffusion is caused by jumps between regular H - lattice sites. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  7. ExaSP2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-09-08

    ExaSP2 is a reference implementation of typical linear algebra algorithms and workloads for a quantum molecular dynamics (QMD) electronic structure code. The algorithm is based on a recursive second-order Fermi-Operator expansion method (SP2) and is tailored for density functional based tight-binding calculations of material systems.

  8. Fuzzy SP-irresolute functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.E.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, fuzzy SP-irresolute, fuzzy SP-irresolute open and fuzzy SP-irresolute closed functions between fuzzy topological spaces in Sostak sense are defined. Their properties and the relationships between these functions and other functions introduced previously are investigated. Next fuzzy SP-connectedness is introduced and studied with the help of r-fuzzy strongly preopen sets

  9. Cryptosporidium sp. in lizards

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koudela, Břetislav; Modrý, D.

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 1 (1998), s. 8 ISSN 1066-5234. [ Cryptosporidium sp. in lazards. 01.01.1998-02.01.1998, Praha] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA508/95/0273; GA AV ČR IPP2020702 Subject RIV: fp - Other Medical Disciplines

  10. Taxonomy and life history of the Acropora-eating flatworm Amakusaplana acroporae nov. sp. (Polycladida: Prosthiostomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, K. A.; Gillis, J. A.; Billings, R. E.; Borneman, E. H.

    2011-09-01

    Efforts to culture and conserve acroporid corals in aquaria have led to the discovery of a corallivorous polyclad flatworm (known as AEFW - Acropora-eating flatworm), which, if not removed, can eat entire colonies. Live observations of the AEFW, whole mounts, serial histological sections and comparison of 28S rDNA sequences with other polyclads reveal that this is a new species belonging to the family Prosthiostomidae Lang, 1884 and previously monospecific genus Amakusaplana (Kato 1938). Amakusaplana acroporae is distinguished from Amakusaplana ohshimai by a different arrangement and number of eyes, a large seminal vesicle and dorsoventrally compressed shell gland pouch. Typical of the genus, A. acroporae, lacks a ventral sucker and has a small notch at the midline of the anterior margin. Nematocysts and a Symbiodinium sp. of dinoflagellate from the coral are abundantly distributed in the gut and parenchyma. Individual adults lay multiple egg batches on the coral skeleton, each egg batch has 20-26 egg capsules, and each capsule contains between 3-7 embryos. Embryonic development takes approximately 21 days, during which time characteristics of a pelagic life stage (lobes and ciliary tufts) develop but are lost before hatching. The hatchling is capable of swimming but settles to the benthos quickly, and no zooxanthellae were observed in the animal at this stage. We suggest that intracapsular metamorphosis limits the dispersal potential of hatchlings and promotes recruitment of offspring into the natal habitat. The evolutionary and ecological significance of retaining lobes and ciliary tufts in the embryo are discussed. Camouflage, high fecundity and possible dispersal dimorphisms probably explain how Amakusaplana acroporae can cause Acropora sp. mortality in aquaria where natural predators may be absent.

  11. Tsukamurella inchonensis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Brzezinka, H; Burghardt, J; Lee, H J; Schaal, K P

    1995-07-01

    Chemotaxonomic and genomic 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of two isolates obtained from two different clinical materials clearly delineated a new species of the genus Tsukamurella. This new species can be identified by its 16S ribosomal DNA similarity values, as well as its physiological characteristics. The name Tsukamurella inchonensis sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates, which are represented by strain IMMIB D-771T (= DSM 44067T) (T = type strain). This strain exhibits only 45% DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola.

  12. SP-100 surety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    This report describes surety evaluations conducted during GFY 1985 in support of the General Electric design for a Space Nuclear Power System - SP-100. Those surety evaluations address both safety and safeguards requirements, which are derived from OSNP-1 and supporting documents. The report includes results of neutronics (criticality) calculations performed by Los Alamos. The results have been benchmarked against independent calculations performed by General Electric with different codes. These comparisons show close agreement, and are summarized. Los Alamos has also provided specifications of explosion and fire environments, which have been used in evaluation of the GE SP-100 concept. Following the summary of key results, surety requirements are given and recommendations toward specification of requirements for later SP-100 project phases are presented. A conceptual design summary is presented. To establish a comprehensive background for surety evaluations, a reference mission profile and potential accidents for each phase of the mission are identified. The main body of the report addresses surety of the General Electric Thermoelectric Conversion design. GE has also developed a Stirling Engine concept, and performed comprehensive surety evaluations for it. These evaluations are reported

  13. Prolonged exposure to elevated CO2 promotes growth of the algal symbiont Symbiodinium muscatinei in the intertidal sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha Towanda

    2012-05-01

    Some photosynthetic organisms benefit from elevated levels of carbon dioxide, but studies on the effects of elevated PCO2 on the algal symbionts of animals are very few. This study investigated the impact of hypercapnia on a photosynthetic symbiosis between the anemone Anthopleura elegantissima and its zooxanthella Symbiodinium muscatinei. Anemones were maintained in the laboratory for 1 week at 37 Pa PCO2 and pH 8.1. Clonal pairs were then divided into two groups and maintained for 6 weeks under conditions naturally experienced in their intertidal environment, 45 Pa PCO2, pH 8.1 and 231 Pa PCO2, pH 7.3. Respiration and photosynthesis were measured after the 1-week acclimation period and after 6 weeks in experimental conditions. Density of zooxanthellal cells, zooxanthellal cell size, mitotic index and chlorophyll content were compared between non-clonemate anemones after the 1-week acclimation period and clonal anemones at the end of the experiment. Anemones thrived in hypercapnia. After 6 weeks, A. elegantissima exhibited higher rates of photosynthesis at 45 Pa (4.2 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 and 231 Pa (3.30 µmol O2 g−1 h−1 than at the initial 37 Pa (1.53 µmol O2 g−1 h−1. Likewise, anemones at 231 Pa received more of their respiratory carbon from zooxanthellae (CZAR  = 78.2% than those at 37 Pa (CZAR  = 66.6% but less than anemones at 45 Pa (CZAR  = 137.3%. The mitotic index of zooxanthellae was significantly greater in the hypercapnic anemones than in anemones at lower PCO2. Excess zooxanthellae were expelled by their hosts, and cell densities, cell diameters and chlorophyll contents were not significantly different between the groups. The response of A. elegantissima to hypercapnic acidification reveals the potential adaptation of an intertidal, photosynthetic symbiosis for high PCO2.

  14. Control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. in cultures of Arthrospira sp. Control de Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. en cultivos de Arthrospira sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Méndez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cultivation of cyanobacterium Arthrospira sp. has been developed in many countries for the production of proteins, pigments and other compounds. Outdoor mass cultures are often affected by biological contamination, drastically reducing productivity as far as bringing death. This study evaluates the control of Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. with two chemical compounds: urea (U and ammonium bicarbonate (AB, in laboratory conditions and outdoor mass culture of Arthrospira sp. The lethal concentration 100 (LC100 at 24 h for Branchionus sp. and Amoeba sp. determined was of 60-80 mg L-1 (U and 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. The average effective inhibition concentration for 50% of the population (IC50 in Arthrospira sp., after 72 h, was 80 mg L-1 (U and 150 mg L-1 (AB. The application of doses of 60 mg L-1 (U or 100 mg L-1 (AB in the outdoor mass culture of this contaminated microalga, completely inhibited grazing and did not affect the growth of Arthrospira sp. but rather promoted rapid recovery of algal density at levels prior to infestation. These compounds provided an economical and effective control of predators in cultures of Arthrospira sp.El cultivo de la cianobacteria Arthrospira sp. ha sido desarrollado en muchos países para la obtención de proteínas, pigmentos y otros compuestos. Cultivo que a nivel industrial se ve afectado frecuentemente por contaminación biológica, reduciendo drásticamente la productividad hasta causar la muerte. Este estudio evalúa el control de Branchionus sp. y de Amoeba sp. con dos compuestos químicos, la urea (U y bicarbonato de amonio (AB en cultivos de Arthrospira sp. La concentración letal 100 (LC100 determinada a las 24 h para Branchionus sp. y Amoeba sp. fue de 60-80 mg L-1 (U y 100-150 mg L-1 (AB. La concentración media de inhibición efectiva, después de 72 h, para el 50% de la población (IC50 en Arthrospira fue de 80 mg L-1 (U y 150 mg L-1 (AB. La aplicación de dosis de 60 mg L-1 (U ó 100 mg L-1 (AB en

  15. Letter to the Editor Re: Yu Qing, Wang Hai-Jun, Wang Hong-Zhu, Li Yan, Liang Xiao-Min, Xu Chi, Jeppesen Erik Does the responses of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara to high nitrogen loading differ between the summer high-growth season and the low-growth season? Science of the Total Environment 601-602(2017)1513-1521.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yu; Wang, Wei; Li, Wei

    2018-01-01

    Yu et al.'s paper showed very interesting effects of high nitrogen (N) on the submerged macrophytes Vallisneria natans: active growth in the growing season enabled the macrophytes partly to overcome the ammonium stress. This result was evident in an experiment using ten pond ecosystems; however, their conclusion that shading induced by high phytoplankton biomass together with the toxicity of high ammonium contributed to the decrease of macrophytes growth was not strongly supported by the data provided in the paper. Three factors influencing how submerged macrophytes respond to high ammonium, not addressed by Yu et al.'s paper, are toxicity of ammonium/ammonia (NH 4 + /NH 3 ), the precise extent of shading in water and species-specific characteristics of macrophytes. In conclusion, a comprehensive consideration of abiotic and biotic factors that involve in the responses of submerged macrophytes to high N is urged in future studies of the role of high N on the growth of submerged macrophytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tsukamurella pulmonis sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Brzezinka, H; Burghardt, J; Rifai, M; Seifert, P; Feldmann, K; Schaal, K P

    1996-04-01

    Chemotaxonomic and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of an isolate from the sputum of a patient with a mycobacterial lung infection clearly delineated a new species of the genus Tsukamurella. This new species can be defined on the basis of genotypic and phenotypic data. The name Tsukamurella pulmonis sp. nov. is proposed for this organism; the type strain is IMMIB D-1321T (= DSM 44142T). This isolate shows 44.2 and 36.2% DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola DSM 20162T (T = type strain) and Tsukamurella inchonensis DSM 44067T, respectively.

  17. Acetobacter intermedius, sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, C; Trcek, J; Sievers, M; Teuber, M

    1998-03-01

    Strains of a new species in the genus Acetobacter, for which we propose the name A. intermedius sp. nov., were isolated and characterized in pure culture from different sources (Kombucha beverage, cider vinegar, spirit vinegar) and different countries (Switzerland, Slovenia). The isolated strains grow in media with 3% acetic acid and 3% ethanol as does A. europaeus, do, however, not require acetic acid for growth. These characteristics phenotypically position A. intermedius between A. europaeus and A. xylinus, DNA-DNA hybridizations of A. intermedius-DNA with DNA of the type strains of Acetobacter europaeus, A. xylinus, A. aceti, A. hansenii, A. liquefaciens, A. methanolicus, A. pasteurianus, A. diazotrophicus, Gluconobacter oxydans and Escherichia coli HB 101 indicated less than 60% DNA similarity. The important features of the new species are described. Acetobacter intermedius strain TF2 (DSM11804) isolated from the liquid phase of a tea fungus beverage (Kombucha) is the type strain.

  18. Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, A F; Rainey, F A; Burghardt, J; Brzezinka, H; Schmitt, S; Seifert, P; Zimmermann, O; Mauch, H; Gierth, D; Lux, I; Schaal, K P

    1997-07-01

    Chemotaxonomic and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence analyses of four bacterial isolates from blood cultures from patients with cardiac pacemaker implants and sputa of patients with chronic lung infections clearly demonstrated that these bacteria belong to the genus Tsukamurella. DNA-DNA hybridization data, as well as the physiological characteristics of the isolates, indicate that they are closely related and belong to a single species that differs from previously described members of the genus Tsukamurella. The name Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates, and the new species is represented by strain IMMIB D-1397T (= DSM 44234T). Strain IMMIB D-1397T exhibits 53.4, 53.5, and 54.7% DNA-DNA relatedness to Tsukamurella paurometabola DSM 20162T, Tsukamurella inchonensis DSM 44067T, and Tsukamurella pulmonis DSM 44142T, respectively.

  19. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  20. SP-100 reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.; Atwell, J.; Pluta, P.R.; Smith, M.A.; Solorzano, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    The SP-100 space reactor power system is being designed and developed as part of the Ground Engineering System (GES) contract between General Electric Company as the system developer and the Department of Energy. Other key participants in the GES program include Westinghouse Hanford Company (site operator), Los Alamos National Laboratory (fuel development and production), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (materials), and Westinghouse, Advanced Energy Systems Division (shield, HTS equipment). The GES Program includes two major elements. First, the development of a Reference Flight System design at 100 kWe output to the user, and second the validation of the Reference Flight System design by analysis and by testing. Development of key technologies along with component and system testing is an essential part of the validation program. The nuclear subsystem validation includes the design, manufacture, assembly and operational testing of a Ground Reactor Test Assembly. The subject of this paper is the reactor design for the Reference Flight System. The reference flight design is in the preliminary design stage and will evolve over the next year

  1. Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov., Penicillium elleniae sp. nov., Penicillium penarojense sp. nov., Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. and Penicillium wotroi sp. nov., isolated from leaf litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbraken, Jos; López-Quintero, Carlos A.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    Several species of the genus Penicillium were isolated during a survey of the mycobiota of leaf litter and soil in Colombian Amazon forest. Five species, Penicillium penarojense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113178T = IBT 23262T), Penicillium wotroi sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118171T = IBT 23253T......), Penicillium araracuarense sp. nov. (type strain CBS 113149T = IBT 23247T), Penicillium elleniae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 118135T = IBT 23229T) and Penicillium vanderhammenii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 126216T = IBT 23203T) are described here as novel species. Their taxonomic novelty was determined using......, andrastin A, pulvilloric acid, paxillin, paspaline and janthitrem, were commonly produced by these phylogenetically related species. The novel species had a high growth rate on agar media, but could be distinguished from each other by several macro- and microscopical characteristics....

  2. Uji Fitokimia, Kandungan Total Fenol dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Mikroalga Spirulina sp., Chlorella sp., dan Nannochloropsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diini Fithriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia, total fenol, dan aktivitas antioksidan dari mikroalga Spirulina sp., Nannochloropsis sp., dan Chlorella sp. Mikroalga diekstrak dengan ekstraksi tunggal menggunakan etanol. Skrining fitokimia dilakukan secara kualitatif. Analisis total fenol dilakukan secara spektrofotometri dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Analisis antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH dan Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan keberadaan tanin, flavonoid, steroid, glikosida, dan alkaloid pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga, sedangkan saponin hanya terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dan Chlorella sp., adapun triterpenoid tidak terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan total fenol, aktivitas antioksidan (IC50, dan kapasitas antioksidan (FRAP tertinggi diperoleh pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dengan nilai berturut turut sebesar 0,32 ± 0,025 mg GAE g-1D.W., 518,94 ppm, dan  49,95 ± 2,02 (mmol Fe2+ eq.g-1D.W. Dalam penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kandungan fenol total memiliki korelasi  yang kuat  dengan kapasitas antioksidan metode FRAP (R2= 0,84, dan aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH (R2= 0,79.

  3. Uji Fitokimia, Kandungan Total Fenol Dan Aktivitas Antioksidan Mikroalga Spirulina Sp., Chlorella Sp., dan Nannochloropsis Sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diini Fithriani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia, total fenol, dan aktivitas antioksidan dari mikroalga Spirulina sp., Nannochloropsis sp., dan Chlorella sp. Mikroalga diekstrak dengan ekstraksi tunggal menggunakan etanol. Skrining fitokimia dilakukan secara kualitatif. Analisis total fenol dilakukan secara spektrofotometri dengan metode Folin-Ciocalteu. Analisis antioksidan dilakukan dengan metode 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH dan Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP. Skrining fitokimia menunjukkan keberadaan tanin, flavonoid, steroid, glikosida, dan alkaloid pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga, sedangkan saponin hanya terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dan Chlorella sp., adapun triterpenoid tidak terdeteksi pada ekstrak etanol ketiga jenis mikroalga. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kandungan total fenol, aktivitas antioksidan (IC50, dan kapasitas antioksidan (FRAP tertinggi diperoleh pada ekstrak etanol Spirulina sp. dengan nilai berturut turut sebesar 0,32 ± 0,025 mg GAE g-1D.W., 518,94 ppm, dan  49,95 ± 2,02 (mmol Fe2+ eq.g-1D.W. Dalam penelitian ini diketahui bahwa kandungan fenol total memiliki korelasi  yang kuat  dengan kapasitas antioksidan metode FRAP (R2= 0,84, dan aktivitas antioksidan metode DPPH (R2= 0,79.

  4. Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov., isolated from the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsterfjord, Magnus; Nilson, Bo; Butler, Èile; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    We previously discovered a symbiotic lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota in the honey stomach of the honeybee Apis mellifera. The microbiota was composed of several phylotypes of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses and phenotypic and genetic characteristics revealed that the phylotypes isolated represent seven novel species. One grouped with Lactobacillus kunkeei and the others belong to the Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus delbrueckiisubgroups of Lactobacillus. We propose the names Lactobacillus apinorum sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellifer sp. nov., Lactobacillus mellis sp. nov., Lactobacillus melliventris sp. nov., Lactobacillus kimbladii sp. nov., Lactobacillus helsingborgensis sp. nov. and Lactobacillus kullabergensis sp. nov. for these novel species, with the respective type strains being Fhon13NT ( = DSM 26257T = CCUG 63287T), Bin4NT ( = DSM 26254T = CCUG 63291T), Hon2NT ( = DSM 26255T = CCUG 63289T), Hma8NT ( = DSM 26256T = CCUG 63629T), Hma2NT ( = DSM 26263T = CCUG 63633T), Bma5NT ( = DSM 26265T = CCUG 63301T) and Biut2NT ( = DSM 26262T = CCUG 63631T). PMID:24944337

  5. Ecdysteroids from a Zoanthus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suksamrarn, Apichart; Jankam, Aroon; Tarnchompoo, Bongkoch; Putchakarn, Sumaitt

    2002-08-01

    A new ecdysteroid, zoanthusterone, has been isolated from a marine zoanthid, Zoanthus sp. Ten known ecdysteroids, ponasterone A, 20-hydroxyecdysone 2-acetate, viticosterone E, integristerone A 25-acetate, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone, ecdysone, ajugasterone C, dacryhainansterone, inokosterone, and 20-hydroxyecdysone, have also been isolated. This is the first report of ecdysteroids in a Zoanthus species.

  6. Sporulation of Cyclospora sp. oocysts.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, H V; Paton, C A; Mitambo, M M; Girdwood, R W

    1997-01-01

    Cyclospora sp. oocysts sporulated maximally at 22 and 30 degrees C for 14 days retarded sporulation. Up to 12% of human- and baboon-derived oocysts previously stored at 4 degrees C for 1 to 2 months sporulated when stored for 6 to 7 days at 30 degrees C.

  7. An Sp1/Sp3 binding polymorphism confers methylation protection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanis A Boumber

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Hundreds of genes show aberrant DNA hypermethylation in cancer, yet little is known about the causes of this hypermethylation. We identified RIL as a frequent methylation target in cancer. In search for factors that influence RIL hypermethylation, we found a 12-bp polymorphic sequence around its transcription start site that creates a long allele. Pyrosequencing of homozygous tumors revealed a 2.1-fold higher methylation for the short alleles (P<0.001. Bisulfite sequencing of cancers heterozygous for RIL showed that the short alleles are 3.1-fold more methylated than the long (P<0.001. The comparison of expression levels between unmethylated long and short EBV-transformed cell lines showed no difference in expression in vivo. Electrophorectic mobility shift assay showed that the inserted region of the long allele binds Sp1 and Sp3 transcription factors, a binding that is absent in the short allele. Transient transfection of RIL allele-specific transgenes showed no effects of the additional Sp1 site on transcription early on. However, stable transfection of methylation-seeded constructs showed gradually decreasing transcription levels from the short allele with eventual spreading of de novo methylation. In contrast, the long allele showed stable levels of expression over time as measured by luciferase and approximately 2-3-fold lower levels of methylation by bisulfite sequencing (P<0.001, suggesting that the polymorphic Sp1 site protects against time-dependent silencing. Our finding demonstrates that, in some genes, hypermethylation in cancer is dictated by protein-DNA interactions at the promoters and provides a novel mechanism by which genetic polymorphisms can influence an epigenetic state.

  8. Antioxidant capacity, polyphenol content and iron bioavailability from algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Casal, Maria N; Ramírez, José; Leets, Irene; Pereira, Ana C; Quiroga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Marine algae are easily produced and are good sources of Fe. If this Fe is bioavailable, algae consumption could help to combat Fe deficiency and anaemia worldwide. The objective of the present study was to evaluate Fe bioavailability, polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity from three species of marine algae distributed worldwide. A total of eighty-three subjects received maize- or wheat-based meals containing marine algae (Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp.) in different proportions (2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g) added to the water to prepare the dough. All meals administered contained radioactive Fe. Absorption was evaluated calculating radioactive Fe incorporation in subjects' blood. The three species of marine algae were analysed for polyphenol content and reducing power. Algae significantly increased Fe absorption in maize- or wheat-based meals, especially Sargassum sp., due to its high Fe content. Increases in absorption were dose-dependent and higher in wheat- than in maize-based meals. Total polyphenol content was 10.84, 18.43 and 80.39 gallic acid equivalents/g for Ulva sp., Porphyra sp. and Sargassum sp., respectively. The antioxidant capacity was also significantly higher in Sargassum sp. compared with the other two species analysed. Ulva sp., Sargassum sp. and Porphyra sp. are good sources of bioavailable Fe. Sargassum sp. resulted in the highest Fe intake due to its high Fe content, and a bread containing 7.5 g Sargassum sp. covers daily Fe needs. The high polyphenol content found in Sargassum sp. could be partly responsible for the antioxidant power reported here, and apparently did not affect Fe absorption.

  9. Pantoea rodasii sp. nov., Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov., isolated from Eucalyptus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Carrie L; Cleenwerck, Ilse; van der Westhuizen, Lorinda; Venter, Stephanus N; Coutinho, Teresa A; De Vos, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Several Gram-negative-staining, facultatively anaerobic bacterial isolates were obtained from Eucalyptus seedlings showing symptoms of bacterial blight and dieback in Colombia, Rwanda and South Africa. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, together with partial gyrB sequencing, placed the isolates in the genus Pantoea and indicated that they constituted three novel species. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on partial sequences of gyrB, rpoB, infB and atpD revealed Pantoea dispersa, Pantoea eucrina and Pantoea cypripedii as their closest phylogenetic relatives. DNA-DNA hybridization studies confirmed the classification of the new isolates as three novel species and phenotypic tests allowed them to be differentiated from their closest phylogenetic neighbours. The names Pantoea rodasii sp. nov. [type strain LMG 26273(T)=BD 943(T) (deposited with the Plant Pathogenic and Plant Protecting Bacteria Collection, South Africa)=BCC 581(T) (deposited with the Bacterial Culture Collection, Forestry and Agricultural Institute, South Africa)], Pantoea rwandensis sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26275(T)=BD 944(T)=BCC 571(T)) and Pantoea wallisii sp. nov. (type strain LMG 26277(T)=BD 946(T)=BCC 682(T)) are proposed.

  10. Répartition et abondance des sargasses Sargassum natans et ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their expansion in May in all coastal water environments is enhanced by salinity, light, temperature and nutrients, but from June, the low salinity observed in surface water lagoon and strength of waves hampering their adaptation and their development in the Ivorian aquatic ecosystems. Because of socio-economic problem ...

  11. DISTRIBUSI Solen sp DI PERAIRAN KABUPATEN BANGKALAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ari Wahyuni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available DISTRIBUTION OF Solen sp IN BANGKALAN WATERSSolen sp potential needs to be developed on the island of Madura, particularly in Bangkalan. Solen sp utilization has increased which has the potential to overfishing. Therefore, this study aims to determine the density of Solen sp and their ecology in the waters Modung village, Modung District, Bangkalan. The experiment was conducted in April 2015 using the descriptive method. The materials used include Solen sp and physico-chemical parameters of the environment (temperature, salinity, pH, and substrate. The analyzes were conducted at the Laboratory of Marine Science, Department of Marine Sciences, Trunojoyo University of Madura by using the tool grabsampler, sieveshaker, and pipetting with gravimetric method. The analysis shows the range of values of temperature between 29-300C, salinity between 31-32 ppt, pH were 7.9-8.0 and the type of substrate in the form of sandy mud, as well as the density of Solen sp from 8-10 individuals/m2. All measurement results indicate normal conditions and in accordance with the sea water quality standard for marine life, which can be a suitable habitat for the growth and development of Solen sp. This condition is thought to affect the density of Solen sp.Keywords: Bangkalan, density, distribution, Solen sp, substrate.ABSTRAKPotensi Solen sp perlu dikembangkan di pulau Madura, khususnya di Kabupaten Bangkalan. Pemanfaatan Solen sp mengalami peningkatan sehingga berpotensi overfishing. Untuk itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kepadatan Solen sp dan ekologinya di perairan desa Modung, Kecamatan Modung, Kabupaten Bangkalan. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan April 2015 dengan metode deskriptif. Materi dan bahan yang digunakan diantaranya Solen sp dan parameter fisika-kimia lingkungan (suhu, salinitas, pH, dan substrat. Analisa dilakukan di Laboratorium Ilmu Kelautan, Program studi/Jurusan Ilmu Kelautan Universitas Trunojoyo Madura dengan menggunakan alat

  12. Especificidad del hongo micorrizico (Rhizoctonia sp.) en Phalaenopsis sp., Cymbidium sp., Trichoceros antenifer, Oncidium excavatum, y Cyrtochilum sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Ordoñez, Silvia L.; Pillacela Zhunio, Dora Priscila; Salazar, Jazmín M.; Peña Tapia, Denisse Fabiola

    2016-01-01

    Las orquídeas producen abundantes semillas pequeñas, careciendo de endospermo, cotiledones y sustancias de reserva para llevar a cabo su germinación. Es por esto que estratégicamente las semillas establecen una relación simbiótica con un hongo micorrízico que favorece a su germinación y desarrollo. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la especificidad del hongo micorrízico (Rhizoctonia sp.) en la germinación de cinco géneros de orquídeas. Se usaron dos medios de cultivo: 1) PhytamaxTM y...

  13. Rodentibacter gen. nov including Rodentibacter pneumotropicus comb. nov., Rodentibacter heylii sp nov., Rodentibacter myodis sp nov., Rodentibacter ratti sp nov., Rodentibacter heidelbergensis sp nov., Rodentibacter trehalosifermentans sp nov., Rodentibacter rarus sp nov., Rodentibacter mrazii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikary, Sadhana; Nicklas, Werner; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    genomic comparison allowed the estimation of DNA–DNA renaturation. Rodentibacter heylii sp. nov. was proposed for a group that included the biovar Heyl of [ Pasteurella ] pneumotropica with the type strain ATCC 12555T (=CCUG 998T). A group was proposed as Rodentibacter ratti sp. nov., which included...

  14. Xylanolytic enzyme systems in Arthrobacter sp MTCC 5214 and Lactobacillus sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Khandeparker, R.; Jalal, T.

    The production of extracellular xylanolytic enzymes such as xylanase, alfa-L-arabinofuranosidase (alfa-l-AFase), and acetyl xylan esterase (Axe) by marine Arthrobacter sp and Lactobacillus sp was investigated using different carbon sources Induction...

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic properties of Cynobacteria, Limnothrix sp. and Leptolyngbya sp. from Arabian sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anas, A.; Vinothkumar, S.; Gupta, S.; Jasmin, C.; Joseph, V.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Nair, S.

    The hexane fractions of the marine cyanobacteria: Leptolyngbya sp. and Limnothrix sp., collected from Arabian Sea were found to display promising antioxidant properties than their ethyl acetate fraction during radical scavenging ABTS/DPPH assays (IC...

  16. First report of Anisakis sp. in Epinephelus sp. in East Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Annytha Ina Rohi Detha; Diana Agustiani Wuri; Julianty Almet; Yuni Riwu; Christin Melky

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The present research was conducted to identify the prevalence of Anisakis sp. as fish-borne zoonoses in Epinephelus sp. in territorial waters of East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia. Materials and methods: A total of 50 fish (Epinephelus sp.) were collected from Kupang Fish Market in East Nusa Tenggara. Identification of Anisakis sp. was performed based on morphological observations considering shape of ventriculus, boring tooth, and mucron using binocular microscope. Results: Prev...

  17. Specialised predation by Palpimanus sp. (Araneae: Palpimanidae ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is the first detailed report on the natural prey and the prey-capture tactics of a Palpimanus sp. from Entebbe (Uganda). Although this species fed occasionally on insects, its dominant prey in the field was other spiders, especially jumping spiders (Salticidae) and their eggs. Encounters between Palpimanus sp. and ...

  18. Guide til gode spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Henning

    Spørgeskemaundersøgelser bliver ofte brugt til at dokumentere forskellige forhold og begrunde politiske beslutninger. Men resultaterne kan være forbundet med stor usikkerhed. Det kræver omhu og stor sproglig formåen at udarbejde spørgeskemaer. Seniorforsker Henning Olsen har i flere år arbejdet med...... viden om, hvordan folk forstår sproglige meddelelser og genkalder sig informationer. I guiden behandles emner som fx styrende problemstillinger og spørgsmåls fokus og neutralitet, formulering af åbne eller lukkede spørgsmål og svarkategorier, tematiske spørgeforløb, aflastning af svarpersoners...

  19. Listeria floridensis sp. nov., Listeria aquatica sp. nov., Listeria cornellensis sp. nov., Listeria riparia sp. nov. and Listeria grandensis sp. nov., from agricultural and natural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Bakker, Henk C; Warchocki, Steven; Wright, Emily M; Allred, Adam F; Ahlstrom, Christina; Manuel, Clyde S; Stasiewicz, Matthew J; Burrell, Angela; Roof, Sherry; Strawn, Laura K; Fortes, Esther; Nightingale, Kendra K; Kephart, Daniel; Wiedmann, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Sampling of agricultural and natural environments in two US states (Colorado and Florida) yielded 18 Listeria-like isolates that could not be assigned to previously described species using traditional methods. Using whole-genome sequencing and traditional phenotypic methods, we identified five novel species, each with a genome-wide average BLAST nucleotide identity (ANIb) of less than 85% to currently described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and amino acid sequences of 31 conserved loci showed the existence of four well-supported clades within the genus Listeria; (i) a clade representing Listeria monocytogenes, L. marthii, L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri and L. ivanovii, which we refer to as Listeria sensu stricto, (ii) a clade consisting of Listeria fleischmannii and two newly described species, Listeria aquatica sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1188(T) = DSM 26686(T) = LMG 28120(T) = BEI NR-42633(T)) and Listeria floridensis sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1187(T) = DSM 26687(T) = LMG 28121(T) = BEI NR-42632(T)), (iii) a clade consisting of Listeria rocourtiae, L. weihenstephanensis and three novel species, Listeria cornellensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0210(T) = FSL F6-0969(T) = DSM 26689(T) = LMG 28123(T) = BEI NR-42630(T)), Listeria grandensis sp. nov. (type strain TTU A1-0212(T) = FSL F6-0971(T) = DSM 26688(T) = LMG 28122(T) = BEI NR-42631(T)) and Listeria riparia sp. nov. (type strain FSL S10-1204(T) = DSM 26685(T) = LMG 28119(T) = BEI NR- 42634(T)) and (iv) a clade containing Listeria grayi. Genomic and phenotypic data suggest that the novel species are non-pathogenic. © 2014 IUMS.

  20. Predictive value of Sp1/Sp3/FLIP signature for prostate cancer recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roble G Bedolla

    Full Text Available Prediction of prostate cancer prognosis is challenging and predictive biomarkers of recurrence remain elusive. Although prostate specific antigen (PSA has high sensitivity (90% at a PSA level of 4.0 ng/mL, its low specificity leads to many false positive results and considerable overtreatment of patients and its performance at lower ranges is poor. Given the histopathological and molecular heterogeneity of prostate cancer, we propose that a panel of markers will be a better tool than a single marker. We tested a panel of markers composed of the anti-apoptotic protein FLIP and its transcriptional regulators Sp1 and Sp3 using prostate tissues from 64 patients with recurrent and non-recurrent cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy as primary treatment for prostate cancer and were followed with PSA measurements for at least 5 years. Immunohistochemical staining for Sp1, Sp3, and FLIP was performed on these tissues and scored based on the proportion and intensity of staining. The predictive value of the FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 signature for clinical outcome (recurrence vs. non-recurrence was explored with logistic regression, and combinations of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 and Gleason score were analyzed with a stepwise (backward and forward logistic model. The discrimination of the markers was identified by sensitivity-specificity analysis and the diagnostic value of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 was determined using area under the curve (AUC for receiver operator characteristic curves. The AUCs for FLIP, Sp1, Sp3, and Gleason score for predicting PSA failure and non-failure were 0.71, 0.66, 0.68, and 0.76, respectively. However, this increased to 0.93 when combined. Thus, the "biomarker signature" of FLIP/Sp1/Sp3 combined with Gleason score predicted disease recurrence and stratified patients who are likely to benefit from more aggressive treatment.

  1. Antibacterial Actions and Potential Phototoxic Effects of Volatile oils of Foeniculum sp. (fennel, Salvia sp. (sage, Vitis sp. (grape, Lavandula sp. (lavender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Ayse Erdogan Eliuz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the volatile compounds of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel, Salvia officinalis (sage, Vitis vinifera (grape, Lavandula angustifolia (lavender were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS using the Nist and Willey libraries. It was determined that the main components of Foeniculum sp. were anethole (41.11%, carvacrol (9.18%. whereas main components of Salvia sp were 1.8 cineole (34.09%, caryophyllene (10.95%, camphor (9.44%, α-pinene (8.42%. Vitis sp. contained linoleic acid (36.98%, 2,4-decadienal (30.79%. Finally, volatile component of Lavandula sp. was linalool (33.57%, linalyl acetate (30.74%. Photoxic antibacterial activity of volatile oil of those plants against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25293, Klebsiella pneumoniae (10031, Salmonella thyphimurium, Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25925, Enterococcus feacalis (ATCC 29212 were examined by using disc diffusion method. We demonstrated that volatile oil effectively can be activated by a standard LED light. In vitro, significant phototoxicity was demonstrated by volatile oil of Foeniculum sp. and Vitis sp. (P < 0.05, while minor phototoxicity was induced by Lavandula sp. Therefore, volatile oil of plant can be considered as a potential photosensitizer in the photochemical therapy.

  2. TurboSP and the Topological Trigger

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    TurboSP was originally proposed as an alternative to Full stream in LHCb data flow. TurboSP is a data flow strategy which not only selects events that should be preserved, like in Full stream, but also provides selective persistence. This is achieved by saving candidates and subset of the reconstruction. During this summer project we investigated the physics viability of using TurboSP with the topological lines and found out a possibility to reduce the number of kept tracks per event by two times while keeping a ratio of fully picked up interesting decay modes on $\\sim 97 \\%$ level.

  3. Amphibian (Xenopus sp.) iodothyronine deiodinase ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA-MED amphibian thyroid group is currently screening chemicals for inhibition of human iodothyronine deiodinase activity as components of the thyroid system important in human development. Amphibians are a bellwether taxonomic group to gauge toxicity of chemicals in the environment. Amphibian thyroid function is not only important in development but also metamorphosis. Xenopus sp. have been used extensively as model organisms and are well characterized genetically. We propose to screen a list of chemicals (selected from the human DIO screening results) to test for inhibition of Xenopus deiodinases. Large quantities of the enzymes will be produced using an adenovirus system. Our preliminary results show that there may be catalytic differences between human and Xenopus deiodinases. The Twin Ports Early Career Scientists is a new group formed within the Duluth-Superior scientific community. This presentation will provide a basic introduction to my research and our mission at EPA, and help to establish networking and collaboration relationships across disciplines and institutions.

  4. Detection of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekawati, ER; Yusmiati, S. N. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) has high level of zinc and protein, which is beneficial for therapeutic function for malnourished particularly stunting case in children. Zinc in animal foods is more absorbable than that from vegetable food. Blood cockle (Anadara granosa) is rich in nutrient and an excellent environment for the growth of microorganisms. This research aimed to identify the contamination of Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp. and total plate count bacteria on blood cockle (Anadara granosa). This was observation research with laboratory analysis. Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. were detected from blood cockle. Total plate count was determine of the total amount of the bacteria. Results detected from 20 samples of blood cockle showed that all samples were negative of Salmonella sp. and 1 sample positive Vibrio sp. The result of total plate count bacteria was sample.

  5. Helicotylenchus stylocercus n. sp. and Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hoplolaimidae) from Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, M R; Pinochet, J

    1979-10-01

    Two new species of plant-parasitic nematodes from Costa Rica are described. Helicotygenchus styloeercus n. sp., from soil around roots of banana at Coto, is distinguished hy the female tail, which bears a large pillarlike ventral projection. Rotylenchus phaliurus n. sp., from soil artmnd roots of Dioscoroea sp. at Sixaola, differs from R. caudaphasmidius in having the conus equal to or more than half the spear length, and large terminal annules on the female tail.

  6. SP (4,R) symmetry in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    A classification of nuclear states according to the noncompact sympletic Lie algebras sp(2n,R), n = 1, 2, 3, is investigated. Such a classification has recently been shown to be physically meaningful. This classification scheme is the appropriate generalization fo Elliott's SU 3 model of rotational states in deformed light nuclei to include core excitations. A restricted classification according to the Lie algebra, sp(4,R), is motivated. Truncation of the model space to a single sp(4,R) irreducible representation allows the inclusion of states possessing very high excitation energy. An sp(4,R) model study is performed on S = T = 0 positive-parity rotational bands in the deformed light nuclei 16 O and 24 Mg. States are included in the model space that possess up to 10h ω in excitation energy. Results for the B(E2) transition rates compare favorable with experiment, without resort to effective charges

  7. EOP Gold Coral (Gerardia sp.) Growth Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gold coral (Gerardia sp.) trees that were inspected years earlier on Pisces submersible dives were revisited and their change in size measured. The fishery for...

  8. Silencing the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 Genes in Tomato Reduces Abscisic Acid—Mediated Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major threat to agriculture production worldwide. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs play a pivotal role in sensing and converting stress signals into appropriate responses so that plants can adapt and survive. To examine the function of MAPKs in the drought tolerance of tomato plants, we silenced the SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 genes in wild-type plants using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS method. The results indicate that silencing the individual genes or co-silencing SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 reduced the drought tolerance of tomato plants by varying degrees. Co-silencing SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 impaired abscisic acid (ABA-induced and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced stomatal closure and enhanced ABA-induced H2O2 production. Similar results were observed when silencing SpMPK3 alone, but not when SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 were individually silenced. These data suggest that the functions of SpMPK1 and SpMPK2 are redundant, and they overlap with that of SpMPK3 in drought stress signaling pathways. In addition, we found that SpMPK3 may regulate H2O2 levels by mediating the expression of CAT1. Hence, SpMPK1, SpMPK2, and SpMPK3 may play crucial roles in enhancing tomato plants’ drought tolerance by influencing stomatal activity and H2O2 production via the ABA-H2O2 pathway.

  9. Penggunaan Jamur Antagonis Trichoderma SP. Dan Gliocladium SP. Untuk Mengendalikan Penyakit Layu Fusarium Pada Tanaman Bawang Merah (Allium Ascalonicum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Arie Ramadhina, Arie Ramadhina; Lisnawita, Lisnawita; Lubis, Lahmuddin

    2013-01-01

    The use of antagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. for controlling wilt(Fusarium oxysporum) in red onion plants. The aim of the research was to know the effectiviness ofantagonism fungus of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. in controlling wilt in red onion plants.The research used non-factorial RAK (random group design) with eight treatments: control, 10grams of F. oxysporum, 12 grams of Trichoderma sp., 18 grams of Trichoderma sp., 24 grams ofTrichoderma sp., and 12 grams ...

  10. Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae) from east Anatolia, Turkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildirim, Hasan; Tan, Kit; Senol, Serdar

    2010-01-01

    Chaenorhinum semispeluncarum H. Yildirim, Kit Tan, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. and C. yildirimlii Kit Tan, H. Yildirim, S. Senol & A. Pirhan sp. nov. (Scrophulariaceae, C. sect. Microrrhinum) from east Anatolia are described and illustrated. They are both narrow endemics related to the rare C...

  11. Metallaphotoredox-catalysed sp3-sp3 cross-coupling of carboxylic acids with alkyl halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Craig P.; Smith, Russell T.; Allmendinger, Simon; MacMillan, David W. C.

    2016-08-01

    In the past 50 years, cross-coupling reactions mediated by transition metals have changed the way in which complex organic molecules are synthesized. The predictable and chemoselective nature of these transformations has led to their widespread adoption across many areas of chemical research. However, the construction of a bond between two sp3-hybridized carbon atoms, a fundamental unit of organic chemistry, remains an important yet elusive objective for engineering cross-coupling reactions. In comparison to related procedures with sp2-hybridized species, the development of methods for sp3-sp3 bond formation via transition metal catalysis has been hampered historically by deleterious side-reactions, such as β-hydride elimination with palladium catalysis or the reluctance of alkyl halides to undergo oxidative addition. To address this issue, nickel-catalysed cross-coupling processes can be used to form sp3-sp3 bonds that utilize organometallic nucleophiles and alkyl electrophiles. In particular, the coupling of alkyl halides with pre-generated organozinc, Grignard and organoborane species has been used to furnish diverse molecular structures. However, the manipulations required to produce these activated structures is inefficient, leading to poor step- and atom-economies. Moreover, the operational difficulties associated with making and using these reactive coupling partners, and preserving them through a synthetic sequence, has hindered their widespread adoption. A generically useful sp3-sp3 coupling technology that uses bench-stable, native organic functional groups, without the need for pre-functionalization or substrate derivatization, would therefore be valuable. Here we demonstrate that the synergistic merger of photoredox and nickel catalysis enables the direct formation of sp3-sp3 bonds using only simple carboxylic acids and alkyl halides as the nucleophilic and electrophilic coupling partners, respectively. This metallaphotoredox protocol is suitable for

  12. Five novel Wickerhamomyces- and Metschnikowia-related yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov., Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov., Candida danieliae sp. nov., Candida robnettiae sp. nov. and Candida eppingiae sp. nov., isolated from plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewald, Marizeth; Robert, Vincent; Smith, Maudy Th

    On the basis of nucleotide divergences in the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) domain of the rRNA gene, five novel yeast species, Wickerhamomyces chaumierensis sp. nov. (CBS 8565(T)  = JCM 17246(T)), Candida pseudoflosculorum sp. nov. (CBS 8584(T)  = JCM

  13. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  14. Ovos de Toxocara sp. e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em praça pública de Lavras, MG Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. larva in public parks, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Marcos Guimarães

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Larva migrans visceral e cutânea são zoonoses parasitárias causadas pela infecção da larva de Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp., respectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi verificar a contaminação por ovos de Toxocara sp. e ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solos coletadas de praças públicas e de áreas de recreação infantil de Lavras, Estado de Minas Gerais, por meio da técnica de centrífugo-flutuação e do método de Baermann. A ocorrência de ovos de Toxocara sp. e, ovos e larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi observada em 69,6% (16/23 das amostras de solo coletadas de praças públicas. A contaminação somente por ovos de Ancylostoma sp. em amostras de solo coletadas em escolas/creches foi de 22,2% (4/18. A percentagem de amostras de areia coletadas de escolas/creches contaminadas somente com larvas de Ancylostoma sp. foi de 11,1% (2/18. Praças públicas são as áreas com maior risco potencial de infecção por Toxocara sp. e Ancylostoma sp. Exame coproparasitológico realizado em 174 amostras de fezes de cães observou 58% e 23%, respectivamente, com ovos de Ancylostoma sp. e Toxocara sp.Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans are parasitic zoonoses caused by the infection of larval nematodes Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. respectively. The objective of this study was to investigate the contamination by Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. eggs and larva of soil samples collected from public parks and children's playground areas in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, using both Baermann's method and centrifugal flotation technique. Toxocara sp. and Ancylostoma sp. eggs were observed in soil samples collected from public squares in 17.4% (4/23 and 69.6 (16/23 respectively. In schools and child day care settings the contamination by Ancylostoma sp. larva in sand samples was 11.1% (2/18. Public parks are settings of more potential risk of Toxocara sp. eggs and Ancylostoma sp. infection. Stool parasitology testing of 174 stool

  15. Nitrogen fixation in Asaia sp. (family Acetobacteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaddar, Neeloy; Paul, Arundhati; Chakravorty, Somnath; Chakraborty, Writachit; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Chowdhuri, Debarati; Gachhui, Ratan

    2011-08-01

    The genus Asaia (family Acetobacteraceae) was first introduced with a single species-Asaia bogorensis and later six more species were described namely A. siamensis, A. krungthepensis, A. lannaensis, A. platycodi, A. prunellae, and A. astilbes. Acetobacteraceae family has been divided into ten genera but, only three of them include nitrogen fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Acetobacter, and Swaminathania. This article originated from our study primarily aimed to isolate new endosymbiotic nitrogen fixer among Acetobacteraceae during which we have isolated, for the first time in India, four different strains of Asaia sp. from three different sources: Michalia champaca flower, Anopheles mosquito, and ant Tetraponera rufonigra. All the endosymbiotic strains isolated possess the ability to fix nitrogen. Evidence for both nitrogenase activity and the presence of nifH gene in isolated Asaia sp. is presented. Asaia bogorensis (MTCC 4041(T)) and A. siamensis (MTCC 4042(T)), two of the validated type strains available from the repository, were tested positive for the presence of functional nitrogenase. The nifH gene sequences from these type strains were also confirmed and compared with other nitrogen fixing members of the family Acetobacteraceae. Our result corroborate with the previous reports that Asaia sp. are indeed widely distributed in nature but this is the first time demonstration of their functional nitrogenase activity. This study shows Asaia sp. as fourth genera of nitrogen fixing bacteria in the family Acetobacteraceae.

  16. Molecular characterization of Trichoderma sp. isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic relatedness among 15 isolates of Trichoderma sp. was analyzed with six micro-satellite primers. ISSR profiles showed 83.7% genetic diversity among the isolates with the formation of four clusters. Analysis of dendrogram revealed that similarity coefficient ranged from 0.27 to 0.95. ITS-PCR of rDNA region with ...

  17. Som man spørger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lars

    Indhold: Input og outputinterview ; Tre interviewtyper ; Tre grundprincipper ; De syv dødssynder ; Åbne, simple og neutrale spørgsmål ; Skuffespørgsmål ; Fokus ; Aktiv lytning ; Mål ; Strategi ; Abstrakt og konkret ; Det kritiske interview ; Kilder med et budskab ; Oldfruens fif ; Resumé i punktform...

  18. POTENSI MELANOTUS SP. DALAM MENDEGRADASI LIGNIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNIK SULISTINAH

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Ten isolates of fungus were isolated from oil palm stem at oil palm plantation in Medan All of them were tested its abilities to degrade lignin. The results showed that one of them was able to grow on ligninase media and the fungi has the ability to degrade ligin. The fungi is identified as Melanotus sp.

  19. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T., E-mail: lcvieira@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Ferreira, Rafael V. de P., E-mail: rafael@itatijuca.com [Itatijuca Biotech, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A., E-mail: edson.silva2@unioeste.br [Universidade Estadual do Oeste Parana (UNIOESTE), Toledo, PR (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  20. Biosorption of uranium by Azolla, SP, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Ludmila C.; Alves, Eliakim G.; Marumo, Julio T.; Ferreira, Rafael V. de P.; Canevesi, Rafael L.S.; Silva, Edson A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive liquid waste needs special attention and requires suitable treatment before deposition. Among the potential technologies under development for the treatment of liquid radioactive wastes the biosorption has been highlighted by being an efficient and low cost technique. Biosorption process involves the exchange of ions contained in the biomass matrix by others present in solution. There are many biomasses that could be applied in treatment of radioactive wastes, for example, agricultural residues and macrophyte. The aim of this study is evaluate the ability of the Azolla sp., a floating aquatic plant, to absorb uranium in solution. Azolla sp. is a macrophyte that has been used to treat effluents containing heavy metals. The biosorption capacity of uranium by Azolla sp. was experimentally determined and modeled by isotherms. Experiments were performed to determine metal uptake, and then the solutions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The isotherms applied to model the data was Langmuir, Freundlich, Sips Toth, Redlich Peternson, Two-Site-Langmuir, Radke Prausnitz to develop a technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid waste generated at the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Brazil. (author)

  1. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We...

  2. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  3. Test af spørgeskema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Denne bog gennemgår alle surveyarbejdets faser og giver en praktisk indføring i •design af undersøgelsen og udvælgelse af stikprøver, •formulering af spørgeskemaer samt indsamling og kodning af data, •metoder til at analysere resultaterne....

  4. Botrallin from the endophytic fungus Hyalodendriella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-12-12

    Dec 12, 2011 ... Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude methanol extract of the mycelia from the endophytic fungus. Hyalodendriella sp. Ponipodef12, associated with the hybrid 'Neva' of Populus deltoides Marsh × P. nigra L., led to the isolation of one compound coded as P12-1 which was identified as botrallin (1,7-.

  5. C (sp2)–C (sp2) cross coupling reaction catalyzed by a palladacycle ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (sp2) cross coupling reaction catalyzed by a palladacycle phosphine complex: A simple and sustainable protocol in aqueous media. Seyyed Javad Sabounchei Marjan Hosseinzadeh. Articles Volume 127 Issue 11 November 2015 pp 1919- ...

  6. Nanocrystalline sp{sup 2} and sp{sup 3} carbons: CVD synthesis and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terranova, M. L. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy); Rossi, M. [Università degli Studi di Roma “Sapienza,” via A. Scarpa, Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Applicate per l’Ingegneria and Centro di Ricerca per le Nanotecnologie Applicate all’Ingegneria (CNIS) (Italy); Tamburri, E., E-mail: emanuela.tamburri@uniroma2.it [Università degli Studi di Roma “Tor Vergata,” via Della Ricerca Scientifica, Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche—MinimaLab (Italy)

    2016-11-15

    The design and production of innovative materials based on nanocrystalline sp{sup 2}- and sp{sup 3}-coordinated carbons is presently a focus of the scientific community. We present a review of the nanostructures obtained in our labs using a series of synthetic routes, which make use of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques for the selective production of non-planar graphitic nanostructures, nanocrystalline diamonds, and hybrid two-phase nanostructures.

  7. Analisis Fosfor pada Cacing Tanah (Megascolex sp. dan Fridericia sp.) Secara Spektrofotometri Sinar Tampak

    OpenAIRE

    Safira, Cut Shafa

    2015-01-01

    Earthworm is natural resource which can be used for medication due to its highly amount of minerals. One of these minerals is phosphorus. The aim of this research are to identify, determine and know the difference content of phosphorus in Megascolex sp. and Fridericia sp. Qualitative analysis shows positive results with addition of ammonium molybdate 4% and BaCl2 5%. Quantitative analysis was done using visible spectrophotometer with ascorbic acid method, measuring blu-colored molybdenum ...

  8. Differences in nutrient uptake capacity of the benthic filamentous algae Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. under varying N/P conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junzhuo; Vyverman, Wim

    2015-03-01

    The N/P ratio of wastewater can vary greatly and directly affect algal growth and nutrient removal process. Three benthic filamentous algae species Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp. were isolated from a periphyton bioreactor and cultured under laboratory conditions on varying N/P ratios to determine their ability to remove nitrate and phosphorus. The N/P ratio significantly influenced the algal growth and phosphorus uptake process. Appropriate N/P ratios for nitrogen and phosphorus removal were 5-15, 7-10 and 7-20 for Cladophora sp., Klebsormidium sp. and Pseudanabaena sp., respectively. Within these respective ranges, Cladophora sp. had the highest biomass production, while Pseudanabaena sp. had the highest nitrogen and phosphorus contents. This study indicated that Cladophora sp. had a high capacity of removing phosphorus from wastewaters of low N/P ratio, and Pseudanabaena sp. was highly suitable for removing nitrogen from wastewaters with high N/P ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anomalous self potential (sp) log signatures observed in a water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geophysical logging was done after drilling had been completed in a water well at Okwudor, South Eastern Nigeria. Three electric logs were run viz: Self Potential (SP), Resistivity N16″ and N64″ logs. An anomaly was observed in the SP log. The SP results from this well show some deviation from the standard norm.

  10. Biosorption of chromium by mangrove-derived Aplanochytrium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The microbial dried biomass of Thraustochytrids is used as bioadsorbent for the removal of the chromium in aqueous solution. In this investigation, three species of Thraustochydrids namely Aplanochytrium sp., Thraustochytrium sp. and Schizochytrium sp. were tested for the efficiency of chromium accumulation by culturing ...

  11. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-01-09

    Jan 9, 1992 ... An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors. 'n Voal-piroplasma, Babesia peircei sp. nov. afkomstig ...

  12. Occurrence of Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp., and aflatoxins in corn hybrids with different systems of storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Sbardelotto Di Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess alternatives for viable corn storage for small rural properties in two annual storage experiments. A 4×5 factorial design was used with four types of storage (conventional bags, hermetic bags, metal silos and corncobs and five periods of storage (0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. We used corn hybrids 2B688RR and 30K73Hx cultivated in winter 2012 and summer 2012/2013 in the city of Dois Vizinhos, Paraná, Brazil. The moisture contents, counts of Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp., and the occurrence of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 were assessed. The kernels stored in hermetic bags had lower moisture contents. Aspergillus sp. and Fusarium sp. were observed in 20.37 and 86.11% of winter storage samples, respectively, and in 83.3 and 91.6% of summer storage samples, respectively. The storage system and time of storage had no influence on the occurrence of Aspergillus sp. and aflatoxins in the winter crop samples. The corncobs from the summer crop samples had the lowest counts of Aspergillus sp. and did not have aflatoxins. We detected aflatoxins at concentrations of 2.8-14.5 and 3-197.5 µg kg-1 in the winter and summer crop samples, respectively.

  13. Two new species of suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov. epizoic on ostracods

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.

    Two, species of protozoic suctorians, Acineta satyanandani sp. nov. and Paracineta karunakarani sp. nov., are described. These were found attached on the body of the marine ostracod, Cypridina dentata (Muller), collected from the shelf and slope...

  14. The family Carabodidae (Acari, Oribatida) VIII. The genus Machadocepheus (first part) Machadocepheusleoneae sp. n. and Machadocepheusrachii sp. n. from Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nestor; Theron, Pieter; Rollard, Christine; Leiva, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The genus Machadocepheus, being one of the more complex genera of the Carabodidae family, is briefly outlined to demonstrate this complexity. Descriptions of two new species from Gabon, Machadocepheusleoneae sp. n. and Machadocepheusrachii sp. n. are given.

  15. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in southern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus Hillard Farret; Vinicius da Rosa Fanfa; Luisa Ragagnin; Aleksandro Schafer da Silva; Silvia Gonzalez Monteiro

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was ...

  16. Agromyces italicus sp. nov., Agromyces humatus sp. nov. and Agromyces lapidis sp. nov., isolated from Roman catacombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurado, Valme; Groth, Ingrid; Gonzalez, Juan M; Laiz, Leonila; Schuetze, Barbara; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2005-03-01

    A polyphasic study was carried out to clarify the taxonomic positions of three Gram-positive isolates from the Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome (Italy). 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons placed these strains within the genus Agromyces. The morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of these isolates were consistent with the description of the genus Agromyces. The three isolates could be readily distinguished from one another and from representatives of all Agromyces species with validly published names by a broad range of phenotypic characteristics and DNA-DNA relatedness studies. Therefore, these isolates are proposed to represent three novel species of the genus Agromyces, Agromyces italicus sp. nov. (type strain CD1(T)=HKI 0325(T)=DSM 16388(T)=NCIMB 14011(T)), Agromyces humatus sp. nov. (type strain CD5(T)=HKI 0327(T)=DSM 16389(T)=NCIMB 14012(T)) and Agromyces lapidis sp. nov. (type strain CD55(T)=HKI 0324(T)=DSM 16390(T)=NCIMB 14013(T)).

  17. Cryptotrichosporon argae sp. nov., Cryptotrichosporon brontae sp. nov. and Cryptotrichosporon steropae sp. nov., isolated from forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Ana; Röhl, Oliver; Maldonado, Cristina; Yurkov, Andrey M; Sampaio, José Paulo

    2017-09-01

    Yeast strains belonging to the basidiomycetous genus Cryptotrichosporon were isolated from forest soils in Serra da Arrábida Natural Park in Portugal. Similar to the already-known representatives of this genus, the new isolates formed pigmented colonies of a distinctive pale orange colour. Phylogenetic analyses employing concatenated sequences of the D1/D2 domains of the 26S (large subunit) rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region supported the recognition of three novel species: Cryptotrichosporon argae sp. nov. (type strain CM 19T=CBS 14376T=PYCC 7010T=DSM 104550T; MycoBank accession number MB 817168), Cryptotrichosporon brontae sp. nov. (type strain CM 1562T=CBS 14303T=PYCC 7011T=DSM 104551T; MycoBank accession number MB 817077) and Cryptotrichosporon steropae sp. nov. (type strain OR 395T=CBS 14302T=PYCC 7012T=DSM 104552T; MycoBank accession number MB 817078).

  18. Fitoremediasi limbah budidaya sidat menggunakan filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Apriadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi dari filamentous algae (Spirogyra sp. sebagai agen bioremediasi dalam mereduksi kandungan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan perlakuan perbedaan dosis limbah (25 %, 50 %, 75 %, 100%. Wadah penelitian berupa akuarium resirkulasi menggunakan sistem carrousel. Dilakukan pengukuran secara rutin terhadap beberapa parameter kualitas air serta perubahan bobot Spirogyra sp. selama dua minggu retensi. Diperoleh hasil bahwa penurunan konsentrasi bahan organik menggunakan Spirogyra sp. berlangsung efektif hingga hari keenam. Spirogyra sp. mampu mentolelir limbah budidaya sidat pada dosis limbah 25% dan 50%. Spirogyra sp. pada perlakuan dosis limbah 50% memiliki kemampuan yang lebih baik dalam menurunkan bahan organik limbah budidaya sidat.

  19. A superhard sp3 microporous carbon with direct bandgap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yilong; Xie, Chenlong; Xiong, Mei; Ma, Mengdong; Liu, Lingyu; Li, Zihe; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Gao, Guoying; Zhao, Zhisheng; Tian, Yongjun; Xu, Bo; He, Julong

    2017-12-01

    Carbon allotropes with distinct sp, sp2, and sp3 hybridization possess various different properties. Here, a novel all-sp3 hybridized tetragonal carbon, namely the P carbon, was predicted by the evolutionary particle swarm structural search. It demonstrated a low density among all-sp3 carbons, due to the corresponding distinctive microporous structure. P carbon is thermodynamically stable than the known C60 and could be formed through the single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) compression. P carbon is a direct bandgap semiconductor displaying a strong and superhard nature. The unique combination of electrical and mechanical properties constitutes P carbon a potential superhard material for semiconductor industrial fields.

  20. Sp6 and Sp8 Transcription Factors Control AER Formation and Dorsal-Ventral Patterning in Limb Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Endika; Delgado, Irene; Junco, Marisa; Yamada, Yoshihiko; Mansouri, Ahmed; Oberg, Kerby C.; Ros, Marian A.

    2014-01-01

    The formation and maintenance of the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) is critical for the outgrowth and patterning of the vertebrate limb. The induction of the AER is a complex process that relies on integrated interactions among the Fgf, Wnt, and Bmp signaling pathways that operate within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and the mesoderm of the early limb bud. The transcription factors Sp6 and Sp8 are expressed in the limb ectoderm and AER during limb development. Sp6 mutant mice display a mild syndactyly phenotype while Sp8 mutants exhibit severe limb truncations. Both mutants show defects in AER maturation and in dorsal-ventral patterning. To gain further insights into the role Sp6 and Sp8 play in limb development, we have produced mice lacking both Sp6 and Sp8 activity in the limb ectoderm. Remarkably, the elimination or significant reduction in Sp6;Sp8 gene dosage leads to tetra-amelia; initial budding occurs, but neither Fgf8 nor En1 are activated. Mutants bearing a single functional allele of Sp8 (Sp6−/−;Sp8+/−) exhibit a split-hand/foot malformation phenotype with double dorsal digit tips probably due to an irregular and immature AER that is not maintained in the center of the bud and on the abnormal expansion of Wnt7a expression to the ventral ectoderm. Our data are compatible with Sp6 and Sp8 working together and in a dose-dependent manner as indispensable mediators of Wnt/βcatenin and Bmp signaling in the limb ectoderm. We suggest that the function of these factors links proximal-distal and dorsal-ventral patterning. PMID:25166858

  1. Bioakumulasi logam berat Cu oleh Bacillus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riesta Primaharinastiti

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to investigate the ability of Bacillus sp in accumulating Cu and how much it can be acumulated. Themedium used to growth the bacterium was Nutrient Broth and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry methods was used to assay theCu, both in the cells and medium. The result of this study showed that Bacillus sp incubated in the Nutrient Broth medium containing10 ppm of Cu, with continuous stirring in the room temperature was able to reduce Cu in the medium 8.912–12.623% and accumulateCu in the cell 0.1149–0.1400 %/mg cells. Based on this result, it is necessary to develop more studies to find out what factors thatinfluence the accumulation process and to optimize the bioprocess.

  2. Analysis list: SP2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SP2 Blood,Liver,Pluripotent stem cell + hg19 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyus...hu-u/hg19/target/SP2.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/target/SP2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.B...lood.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Liver.tsv,http://dbarchive.bioscience...dbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/colo/SP2.Pluripotent_stem_cell.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc

  3. Superfield quantization in Sp(2) covariant formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M

    2001-01-01

    The rules of the superfield Sp(2) covariant quantization of the arbitrary gauge theories for the case of the introduction of the gauging with the derivative equations for the gauge functional are generalized. The possibilities of realization of the expanded anti-brackets are considered and it is shown, that only one of the realizations is compatible with the transformations of the expanded BRST-symmetry in the form of super translations along the Grassmann superspace coordinates

  4. Carbon sp chains in graphene nanoholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelli, Ivano E.; Ferri, Nicola; Onida, Giovanni; Manini, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Nowadays sp carbon chains terminated by graphene or graphitic-like carbon are synthesized routinely in several nanotech labs. We propose an ab initio study of such carbon-only materials, by computing their structure and stability, as well as their electronic, vibrational and magnetic properties. We adopt a fair compromise of microscopic realism with a certain level of idealization in the model configurations, and predict a number of properties susceptible to comparison with experiment.

  5. Commercial technologies from the SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truscello, V.C.; Fujita, T.; Mondt, J.F.

    1995-01-01

    For more than a decade, Jet Propulsion Labortory and Los Alamos have managed a multi-agency funded effort to develop a space reactor power system. This SP-100 Program has developed technologies required for space power systems that can be implemented in the industrial and commercial sectors to improve competitiveness in the global economy. Initial steps taken to transfer this technology from the laboratories to industrial and commercial entities within United States include: (1) identifying specific technologies having commercial potential; (2) distributing information describing the identified technologies and interacting with interested commercial and industrial entities to develop application-specific details and requirements; and (3) providing a technological data base that leads to transfer of technology or the forming of teaming arrangements to accomplish the transfer by tailoring the technology to meet application-specific requirements. SP-100 technologies having commercial potential encompass fabrication processes, devices, and components. Examples: a process for bonding refractory metals to graphite, a device to sense the position of an actuator and a component to enable rotating machines to operate without supplying lubrication (self-lubricating ball bearing). Shortly after the NASA Regional Technology Transfer Centers widely disseminated information covering SP-100 technologies, over one hundred expressions of interest were received, which indicate that there is a large potential benefit in transferring SP-100 technology. Interactions with industrial and commercial entities have identified a substantial need for creating teaming arrangements involving the interested entity and personnel from laboratories and their contractors, who have the knowledge and ability to tailor the technology to meet application-specific requirements. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  6. Sterols from the Madagascar sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aknin, Maurice; Gros, Emmanuelle; Vacelet, Jean; Kashman, Yoel; Gauvin-Bialecki, Anne

    2010-12-17

    The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae) from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean) is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, Δ(5), Δ(7) and Δ(5,7), were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in Δ(5,7) sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5α,8α-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5α,8α-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts) were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and β-caroten bleaching assays.

  7. Sterols from the Madagascar Sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoel Kashman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sponge Fascaplysinopsis sp. (order Dictyoceratida, Family Thorectidae from the west coast of Madagascar (Indian Ocean is a particularly rich source of bioactive nitrogenous macrolides. The previous studies on this organism led to the suggestion that the latter should originate from associated microsymbionts. In order to evaluate the influence of microsymbionts on lipid content, 10 samples of Fascaplysinopsis sp. were investigated for their sterol composition. Contrary to the secondary metabolites, the sterol patterns established were qualitatively and quantitatively stable: 14 sterols with different unsaturated nuclei, D5, D7 and D5,7, were identified; the last ones being the main sterols of the investigated sponges. The chemotaxonomic significance of these results for the order Dictyoceratida is also discussed in the context of the literature. The conjugated diene system in D5,7 sterols is known to be unstable and easily photo-oxidized during storage and/or experiments to produce 5a,8a-epidioxy sterols. However, in this study, no 5a,8a-epidioxysterols (or only trace amounts were observed. Thus, it was supposed that photo-oxidation was avoided thanks to the natural antioxidants detected in Fascaplysinopsis sp. by both the DPPH and b-caroten bleaching assays.

  8. Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) with simultaneous intestinal Giardia sp., Spironucleus sp., and trichomonad infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Barbara J; Stockdale Walden, Heather D; Kondo, Hirotaka

    2013-11-01

    A commercial facility producing hamsters with a history of infection by dwarf tapeworm (Hymenolepis nana) submitted 15 animals for necropsy and postmortem parasitological and microscopic examination. No tapeworms were detected grossly or microscopically. Fecal examination including gastrointestinal mucosal smears demonstrated mixed intestinal bacteria and low numbers of Giardia sp. Histologic examination of small intestine demonstrated filling of the small intestinal crypts by large numbers of 7-9 µm × 3 µm, rod to crescent or teardrop-shaped flagellates consistent with Spironucleus sp. These organisms had two 1-µm, basophilic, oval nuclei and multiple superficial flagella-like structures. Much larger 10-15 µm × 8-10 µm, oval to pear-shaped organisms were also present in lower numbers and usually located with the crypts. These larger flagellates had multiple flagella and a basophilic rod-shaped nucleus. The larger flagellates included Giardia sp., which had an intimate interface with the surface of the mucosal epithelium, bilaterally symmetry, and binucleation. Lower numbers of trichomonads were also present and were distinguished by an undulating surface membrane and a single nucleus. The mucosa was hyperplastic and moderately inflamed. Although the tapeworm infection was resolved, diagnosis of multiple intestinal flagellates by fecal examination is complicated by the varying sensitivity and diagnostic accuracy of different types of fecal analysis for different flagellate types. Key differences in the morphology and location of the different types of flagellates as observed by histology of intestinal tissues provide important additional diagnostic information to distinguish trichomonads, Spironucleus sp., and Giardia sp.

  9. Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov. prevail in diverse enzootic transmission cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margos, Gabriele; Lane, Robert S.; Fedorova, Natalia; Koloczek, Johannes; Piesman, Joseph; Hojgaard, Andrias; Sing, Andreas; Fingerle, Volker

    2018-01-01

    Two species of the genus Borrelia, Borrelia bissettiae sp. nov. and Borrelia californiensis sp. nov., were first described by Postic and co-workers on the basis of genetic analyses of several loci. Multilocus sequence analysis of eight housekeeping loci confirmed that these two Borrelia genomospecies are distinct members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex. B. bissettiae sp. nov. was initially described in transmission cycles involving Neotoma fuscipes wood rats and Ixodes pacificus ticks in California, and Neotoma mexicana and Ixodes spinipalpis in Colorado. The preferred host of B. californiensis sp. nov. appears to be the California kangaroo rat, Dipodomys californicus; Ixodes jellisoni, I. spinipalipis and I. pacificus ticks are naturally infected with it. Thus, the ecological associations of the two genomospecies and their genetic distance from all other known Borrelia genomospecies species justify their description as separate genomospecies: B. bissettiae sp. nov. (type strain DN127T=DSM 17990T= CIP 109136T) and B. californiensis (type strain CA446T=DSM 17989T=ATCC BAA-2689T). PMID:26813420

  10. EFEKTIFITAS DAYA HAMBAT BAKTERI Streptomyces sp TERHADAP Erwinia sp PENYEBAB PENYAKIT BUSUK REBAH PADA TANAMAN LIDAH BUAYA (Aloe barbadensis Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARMILA TASNIM

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp was conducted from December 2010 - June 2011 at the Laboratoryof Microbiology, Biology Department, Math and Science Faculty, UdayanaUniversity Bukit Jimbaran-Bali. Implementation stages of the research consisted ofisolation and testing of the antibiotic activity Streptomyces sp to inhibit growthbacterial pathogens Erwinia sp as a cause of disease in plants fallen foul (Soft rot ofAloe barbadensis Mill.The results of this study have eight isolates of Streptomyces spwith macroscopic and microscopic characters are varied. Furthermore, all isolateswere obtained and then tested against antibiotic activity to inhibit growth the bacteriaErwinia sp. Test results obtained by Streptomyces sp that has the most effective ininhibiting the ability of the bacteria Erwinia sp isolates are Streptomyces sp2for (45%.

  11. SpAHA1 and SpSOS1 Coordinate in Transgenic Yeast to Improve Salt Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhou

    Full Text Available In plant cells, the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SOS1 (salt overly sensitive 1 mediates Na+ extrusion using the proton gradient generated by plasma membrane H+-ATPases, and these two proteins are key plant halotolerance factors. In the present study, two genes from Sesuvium portulacastrum, encoding plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter (SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase (SpAHA1, were cloned. Localization of each protein was studied in tobacco cells, and their functions were analyzed in yeast cells. Both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 are plasma membrane-bound proteins. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses showed that SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 were induced by salinity, and their expression patterns in roots under salinity were similar. Compared with untransformed yeast cells, SpSOS1 increased the salt tolerance of transgenic yeast by decreasing the Na+ content. The Na+/H+ exchange activity at plasma membrane vesicles was higher in SpSOS1-transgenic yeast than in the untransformed strain. No change was observed in the salt tolerance of yeast cells expressing SpAHA1 alone; however, in yeast transformed with both SpSOS1 and SpAHA1, SpAHA1 generated an increased proton gradient that stimulated the Na+/H+ exchange activity of SpSOS1. In this scenario, more Na+ ions were transported out of cells, and the yeast cells co-expressing SpSOS1 and SpAHA1 grew better than the cells transformed with only SpSOS1 or SpAHA1. These findings demonstrate that the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter SpSOS1 and H+-ATPase SpAHA1 can function in coordination. These results provide a reference for developing more salt-tolerant crops via co-transformation with the plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter and H+-ATPase.

  12. Copper resistance of different ectomycorrhizal fungi such as Pisolithus microcarpus, Pisolithus sp., Scleroderma sp. and Suillus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Environments contaminated with heavy metals negatively impact the living organisms. Ectomycorrhizal fungi have shown important role in these impacted sites. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the copper-resistance of ectomycorrhizal fungi isolates Pisolithus microcarpus - UFSC-Pt116; Pisolithus sp. - UFSC-PT24, Suillus sp. - UFSM RA 2.8 and Scleroderma sp. - UFSC-Sc124 to different copper doses in solid and liquid media. The copper doses tested were: 0.00, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.25 mmol L-1 in the solid medium and 0.00, 0.32, 0.64 and 0.96 mmol L-1 in the liquid medium. Copper was amended as copper sulphate in order to supplement the culture medium MNM at pH 4.8, with seven replicates to each fungus-dose combination. The fungal isolates were incubated for 30 days at 28 °C. UFSC-Pt116 showed high copper-resistance such as accessed by CL50 determinations (concentration to reduce 50% of the growth as while as UFSC-PT24 displayed copper-resistance mechanism at 0.50 mmol L-1 in solid medium. The UFSC-PT24 and UFSC-Sc124 isolates have increased copper-resistance in liquid medium. The higher production of extracellular pigment was detected in UFSC-Pt116 cultures. The UFSC-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 isolates showed higher resistance for copper and produced higher mycelium biomass than the other isolates. In this way, the isolates UFSG-Pt116 and UFSC-PT24 can be important candidates to survive in copper-contaminated areas, and can show important role in plants symbiosis in these contaminated sites.

  13. Isolation of C11 Cyclopentenones from Two Didemnid Species, Lissoclinum sp. and Diplosoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Ueda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of new C11 cyclopentenones 1-7 was isolated, together with four known metabolites 9/10, 12 and 13, from the extract of the didemnid ascidian Lissoclinum sp. The other didemnid ascidian Diplosoma sp. contained didemnenones 1, 2 and 5, and five known metabolites 8-12. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines (HCT116, A431 and A549.

  14. Construction of human MASP-2-CCP1/2SP, CCP2SP, SP plasmid DNA nanolipoplexes and the effects on tuberculosis in BCG-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Dong, Xinfang; Luo, Yanping; Zhang, Guochao; Shan, Jinyu; Wang, Qian; He, Qi; Zhang, Lifeng; Wang, Jingqiu; Zhu, Bingdong; Ma, Xingming

    2017-08-01

    The lectin pathway, one of the complement cascade systems, provides the primary line of defense against invading pathogens. The serine protease of MASP-2 plays an essential role in complement activation of the lectin pathway. The C-terminal segment of MASP-2 is comprised of the CCP1-CCP2-SP domains, and is the crucial catalytic segment. However, what is the effect of CCP1-CCP2-SP domains in controlling chronic infection is unknown. In order to evaluate the potential impact of CCP1-CCP2-SP domains on tuberculosis, we constructed the human MASP-2 CCP1/2SP, CCP2SP and SP recombinant plasmids, and delivered these plasmids by DNA-DOTAP:cholesterol cationic nanolipoplexes to BCG-infected mice. After 21 days post DNA-DOTAP:chol nanolipoplexes application, we analyzed bacteria loads of pulmonary, pathology of granuloma, lymphocyte subpopulations. The C3a, C4a and MASP-2 levels in serum were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Compared to the control group that received GFP DNA-DOTAP:chol nanolipoplexes, MASP-2 CCP1/2SP DNA-DOTAP:chol nanolipoplexes treated group showed significantly enlarged pulmonary granulomas lesion (P  0.05). These findings provided experimental evidence that MASP-2 CCP1/2SP DNA nanolipoplexes shown the negative efficacy in controlling Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and displayed a potential role of down-regulating T-cell-mediated immunity in tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Quality improvement on half-fin anchovy (Setipinna taty) fish sauce by Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bin; Liu, Yu; He, Xiaoxia; Hu, Shiwei; Li, Shijie; Chen, Meiling; Jiang, Wei

    2017-10-01

    A method of improving fish sauce quality during fermentation was investigated. Psychrobacter sp. SP-1, a halophilic protease-producing bacterium, was isolated from fish sauce with flavor-enhancing properties and non-biogenic amine-producing activity. The performance of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 in Setipinna taty fish sauce fermentation was investigated further. The inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 did not significantly affect pH or NaCl concentration changes (P > 0.05), although it significantly increased total moderately halophilic microbial count, protease activity, total soluble nitrogen content and amino acid nitrogen content, and also promoted the umami taste and meaty aroma (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the inoculation of Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 significantly decreased total volatile basic nitrogen content and biogenic amines content (P < 0.05), which were regarded as harmful compounds in foods. The results of the present study demonstrate that Psychrobacter sp. SP-1 can be used as a potential starter culture for improving fish sauce quality by fermentation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Dominancy of Trichodesmium sp. in the Biawak Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihadi, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    The Biawak Island is one of the small islands in West Java Province with an abundance of marine biological resources. This research was conducted to collect the primary producer zooplankton and water quality parameters. Direct observation is done by field surveys and measurement in situ for plankton and environmental parameters such as temperature, water transparency, water current, salinity, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Trichodesmium sp. was found dominance in where some other types of zooplankton were found in the area, like Scenedesmus sp., Sagitta sp., Acartia sp. also occurred. Further, the most abundance of Trichodesmium sp. was found in southern of Biawak Island where mangroves, coral and seagrass ecosystem provide nutrients which indirectly support the abundance of planktons. Trichodesmium sp. is plankton that can survive in water with minimum nutrient.

  17. The SP Theory of Intelligence: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gerard Wolff

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article is an overview of the SP theory of intelligence, which aims to simplify and integrate concepts across artificial intelligence, mainstream computing and human perception and cognition, with information compression as a unifying theme. It is conceived of as a brain-like system that receives "New" information and stores some or all of it in compressed form as "Old" information; and it is realised in the form of a computer model, a first version of the SP machine. The matching and unification of patterns and the concept of multiple alignment are central ideas. Using heuristic techniques, the system builds multiple alignments that are "good" in terms of information compression. For each multiple alignment, probabilities may be calculated for associated inferences. Unsupervised learning is done by deriving new structures from partial matches between patterns and via heuristic search for sets of structures that are "good" in terms of information compression. These are normally ones that people judge to be "natural", in accordance with the "DONSVIC" principle—the discovery of natural structures via information compression. The SP theory provides an interpretation for concepts and phenomena in several other areas, including "computing", aspects of mathematics and logic, the representation of knowledge, natural language processing, pattern recognition, several kinds of reasoning, information storage and retrieval, planning and problem solving, information compression, neuroscience and human perception and cognition. Examples include the parsing and production of language with discontinuous dependencies in syntax, pattern recognition at multiple levels of abstraction and its integration with part-whole relations, nonmonotonic reasoning and reasoning with default values, reasoning in Bayesian networks, including "explaining away", causal diagnosis, and the solving of a geometric analogy problem.

  18. Early SP-100 flight mission designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Kirpich, A.S.; Murata, R.; Smith, M.A.; Stephen, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Early flight mission objectives can be met with a Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) using thermoelectric conversion in conjunction with fast spectrum, lithium-cooled reactors. This paper describes two system design options using thermoelectric technology to accommodate an early launch. In the first of these options, radiatively coupled Radioiosotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) unicouples are adapted for use with a SP-100-type reactor heat source. Unicouples have been widely used as the conversion technology in RTGs and have demonstrated the long-life characteristics necessary for a highly relible SRPS. The thermoelectric leg height is optimized in conjunction with the heat rejection temperature to provide a mass optimum 6-kW e system configured for launch on a Delta II launch vehicle. The flight-demonstrated status of this conversion technology provides a high confidence that such a system can be designed, assembled, tested, and launched by 1997. The use of a SP-100-type reactor assures compliance with safety requirements and expedites the flight safety approval process while, at the same time, providing flight performance verification for a heat source technology with the growth potential to meet future national needs for higher power levels. A 15-kW 2 , Atlas IIAS-launched system using the compact, conductively coupled multicouple converters being developed under the SP-100 program to support an early flight system launch also described. Both design concepts have been scaled to 20-kW e in order to support recent studies by DOE/NASA for higher power early launch missions

  19. Amino Alcohols from the Ascidian Pseudodistoma sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Hyung Won

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seven new amino alcohol compounds, pseudoaminols A–G (1–7, were isolated from the ascidian Pseudodistoma sp. collected off the coast of Chuja-do, Korea. Structures of these new compounds were determined by analysis of the spectroscopic data and from chemical conversion. The presence of an N-carboxymethyl group in two of the new compounds (6 and 7 is unprecedented among amino alcohols. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity, as well as weak inhibitory activity toward Na+/K+-ATPase.

  20. SP-100 control drive assembly development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Thomas; Gilchrist, A. Richard; Schuster, Gary

    1993-01-01

    The SP-100 is an electrical generating nuclear power system for space operation. This paper describes the nuclear reactor control systems and the methods used to assure reliable performance for the 10-year design life. Reliable performance is achieved by redundancy and by selecting highly reliable components and design features. Reliability is quantified by analysis using established reliability data. Areas lacking reliability data are identified for development testing. A specific development test description is provided as an example to demonstrate how this process is meeting the system reliability goals.

  1. ANCAMAN DARI NYAMUK Culex sp YANG TERABAIKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumrotus Sholichah

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Nyamuk Culex sp lebih menyukai meletakkan telurnya pada genangan air berpolutan tinggi, berkembang biak di air keruh dan lebih menyukai genangan air yang sudah lama daripada genangan air yang baru. Aktif menggigit pada malam hari. Tempat yang gelap, sejuk dan lembab merupakan tempat yang disukai untuk beristirahat. Nyamuk betina dewasa menggigit dengan abdomen terletak sejajar dengan permukaan induk semang yang sedang digigit.Gangguan yang ditimbulkan oleh nyamuk selain dapat menularkan penyakit juga dapat sangat mengganggu dengan dengungan dan gigitannya sehingga bagi orang-orang tertentu dapat menimbulkan phobi (entomopobhia serta dapat menyebabkan dermatitis dan urticaria.

  2. Methyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Štěpnička

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Fe(C5H5(C19H16O2P], obtained serendipitously during recrystallization of 1-hydroxybenzotriazolyl (Sp-2-(diphenylphosphinoferrocene-1-carboxylate from methanol, crystallizes in the chiral space group P212121. Its crystal structure not only confirms the anticipated absolute configuration but also establishes a rather regular geometry for the ferrocene unit, devoid of any significant deformation due to the attached substituents. In the crystal, symmetry-related molecules are linked via weak C—H...O interactions.

  3. Genome Sequence of Streptomyces sp. Strain Tü6071▿

    OpenAIRE

    Erxleben, Anika; Wunsch-Palasis, Julia; Grüning, Björn A.; Luzhetska, Marta; Bechthold, Andreas; Günther, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 is a soil-dwelling bacterium which has a highly active isoprenoid biosynthesis. Isoprenoids are important precursors for biopharmaceutical molecules such as antibiotics or anticancer agents, e.g., landomycin. Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 produces the industrially important terpene glycosides phenalinolactones, which have antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive bacteria. The availability of the genome sequence of Streptomyces sp. Tü6071 allows for understanding ...

  4. Screening of biodiesel production from waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.), seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamsjah, Mochammad Amin; Abdillah, Annur Ahadi; Mustikawati, Hutami; Atari, Suci Dwi Purnawa

    2017-09-01

    Biodiesel has several advantages over solar. Compared to solar, biodiesel has more eco-friendly characteristic and produces lower greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel that is made from animal fats can be produced from fish oil, while other alternative sources from vegetable oils are seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii and Gracilaria sp. Waste tuna oil (Thunnus sp.) in Indonesia is commonly a side product of tuna canning industries known as tuna precook oil; on the other hand, seaweed Gracilaria sp. and Kappaphycus alvarezii are commonly found in Indonesia's seas. Seaweed waste that was used in the present study was 100 kg and in wet condition, and the waste oil was 10 liter. The seaweed was extracted with soxhletation method that used n-hexane as the solvent. To produce biodiesel, trans esterification was performed on the seaweed oil that was obtained from the soxhletation process and waste tuna oil. Biodiesel manufactured from seaweed K. alvarezii obtained the best score in flash point, freezing point, and viscosity test. However, according to level of manufacturing efficiency, biodiesel from waste tuna oil is more efficient and relatively easier compared to biodiesel from waste K. alvarezii and Gracilaria sp.

  5. SHEAR STRENGTH IN THE GLUE LINE OF Eucalyptus sp. AND Pinus sp.WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Jerásio Bianche

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To evaluate the adhesive efficiency on the union of glued joints in a particular temperature and humidity conditions for a specified time the adhesive must be submitted to specific load tests, such as shear in the glue line. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shear strength in the glue line of Eucalyptus sp and Pinus sp.woods. Five adhesives (castor oil, sodium silicate, modified silicate, , PVA and resorcinol-formaldehyde, three weights (150 g/m2, 200 g/m2, and 250 g/m2 and two species (Eucalyptus sp. and Pinus sp. of wood were used. Twelve specimens were obtained from each repetition per treatment, corresponding to 108 specimens that were conditioned at a temperature of 23 ± 1°C and relative humidity of 50 ± 2%. The interaction between the weight and type of adhesive was significant for the shear strength in the glue line of eucalyptus wood. However, no interaction between the weight and the adhesive was found for pinus, only the isolated from the adhesive effect. Chemical bonds originated in the polymerization of resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives and castor bi-component conferred upon these adhesives the greatest resistance in the glue line. Castor and resorcinol-formaldehyde adhesives showed the highest shear strength values in the line of glue and wood failure. Castor adhesive presented satisfactory performance for bonding of eucalyptus and pine woods.

  6. Genetic diversity in Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi and F. redolens f.sp. dianthi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baayen, R.P.; Dreven, van F.; Krijger, M.C.; Waalwijk, C.

    1997-01-01

    Pathogenic isolates were selected representing all known vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs) and races of Fusarium oxysporum sensu lato from Dianthus spp. On basis of differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, six VCGs were classified as F. oxysporum f.sp. dianthi

  7. Biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) in wastewater using Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. bacterial strains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasim, Muhammad [Department of Chemical Engineering, American University of Sharjah (United Arab Emirates)

    2013-07-01

    The recovery of toxic metal compounds is a deep concern in all industries. Hexavalent chromium is particularly worrying because of its toxic influence on human health. In this paper, biodegradation of hexavalent chromium (Cr+6) present in wastewater has been studied using two different bacterial strains; Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. A chemostat (with and without recycle of cells) with 10 L liquid culture volume was used to study the substrate and the biomass cell concentrations with time. Also, the degree of substrate conversion was studied by the varying the dilution rate as an independent parameter. The dilution rate (ratio of feed flow rate to the culture volume) was varied by varying the feed volumetric rate from 110-170 mL/h for inlet hexavalent chromium concentrations of 70 mg/dm3. The results show that a chemostat with recycle gives a better performance in terms of substrate conversion than a chemostat without a recycle. Moreover, the degree of substrate conversion decreases as the dilution rate is increased. Also, Bacillus sp. was found to give higher conversions compared to pseudomonas sp.

  8. Sp(2) covariant quantisation of general gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Bello, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    The Sp(2) covariant quantization of gauge theories is studied. The geometrical interpretation of gauge theories in terms of quasi principal fibre bundles Q(M s , G s ) is reviewed. It is then described the Sp(2) algebra of ordinary Yang-Mills theory. A consistent formulation of covariant Lagrangian quantisation for general gauge theories based on Sp(2) BRST symmetry is established. The original N = 1, ten dimensional superparticle is considered as an example of infinitely reducible gauge algebras, and given explicitly its Sp(2) BRST invariant action. (author). 18 refs

  9. Lagenidium callinectes INFECTION ON ROTIFERS Brachionus sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Roza

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Milkfish, Chanos chanos and humpback grouper, Cromileptes altivelis hatcheries have developed at Gondol, Bali since 1995 and until now still rely on rotifers, the main natural food, supply. Recent problem on mass culture of rotifer, Brachionus sp. is harvest failure caused by fungus infection. Under light microscope, infected eggs and bodies of the rotifers was filled with numerous aseptate hyphae. Two isolates of fungi were isolated from rotifer eggs and carcass on June 21st, 2004 and on June 25th, 2004 obtained from milkfish and humpback grouper hatcheries at Gondol. Based on its morphological characteristics, the pathogenic fungus was identified as Lagenidium callinectes which grows optimally at 25°C and survives in 1.0%, 2.5%, and 5.0% NaCl as well as in 1.0% and 2.5% KCl. Both of the present isolates utilize only 8 out of 26 carbohydrates and derivatives tested as carbon, nutrition and energy sources. This finding is the first report on rotifer, Brachionus sp. infected with L. callinectes causing up to 100% mortality.

  10. Polyhydroxybutyrate by Streptomyces sp.: Production and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Sivakumar; Chinnadurai, Gandhi Shree; Perumal, Palani

    2017-11-01

    A total number of 20 actinomycetes isolates were isolated from soil sediments obtained from Semmancheri coastal areas of Bay of Bengal, India and they were qualitatively screened for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) on a medium containing Sudan black stain. Nine of the 20 isolates produced PHB and the quantity of PHB produced varied from 1.79 to 4.26g -L . Among the positive isolates an actinomycete isolate which was identified as Streptomyces sp. through 16S rRNA sequencing analysis (Accession No: KF667247) produced relatively higher PHB than other positive isolates. Subsequently, the growth conditions were optimized for the maximum PHB production by the chosen organism. Attempt was also made to utilize natural carbon sources such as paddy straw, wheat bran, rice bran, sugarcane molasses and oil cake for the production of PHB in an attempt to reduce the cost production of PHB. The purified PHB was analyzed by Solid-State 13 C NMR, Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffraction, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Scanning and Transmission Electron Microscopic analyses to determine the structure, crystallinity, purity and thermal stability. The present investigation has revealed that Streptomyces sp. could be a potential source for the production of PHB with desirable characteristics and could also be exploited for the industrial production. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Fluorescence Properties of Chlorella sp. Algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibor Teplicky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water quality and its fast and reliable monitoring is the challenge of the future. Design of appropriate biosensors that would be capable of non-invasive identification of water pollution is an important prerequisite for such challenge. Chlorophylls are pigments, naturally presented in all plants that absorb light. The main forms of chlorophyll in algae are chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b, other pigments include xantophylls and beta-carotenes. Our aim was to characterize endogenous fluorescence of the Chlorella sp. algae, present naturally in drinking water. We recorded spatial, spectral and lifetime fluorescence distribution in the native algae. We noted that the fluorescence was evenly distributed in the algae cytosol, but lacked in the nucleus and reached maximum at 680-690 nm. Fluorescence decay of chlorella sp. was double-exponential, and clearly shorter than that of its isolated pigments. For the first time, fluorescence lifetime image of the algae is presented. Study of the fluorescence properties of algae is aimed at the improvement of water supply contamination detection and cleaning.

  12. Karakterisasi protease Bacillus sp. UGM5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Purwati Widowati

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment is to indentify the characters of proetease produced by Bacillus sp.UGM5.the protease secreted by Bacillus sp.UGM5 was first isolated,purified and then charactirezed.The crude enzyme has spesific actifity of 1.14 U/mg,however,the spesific activity of purified enzyme was increased by 23.8 times fold and recovery was 33.69%.The Page of nondenatured crude enzymes showes two type of proreases,however ,the SDS-Page of denatured purified enzyme showed four protein-bends with molecular weights of 55.5 kDa,18kDa respecetively.The optimum pH and temperature for the enzyme acrivity are 8.5 and 420C and belongs to serin protease type,with Km 3 X 10-3mM and Vmax 0.0890mM/30 minutes.The activity is not inhibited by Ca+2,Fe+2 and EDTA.

  13. UTILIZAÇÃO DE ADESIVO PVA EM COMPENSADOS DE Pinus sp. E Eucalyptus sp. / UTILIZATION OF PVA ADHESIVES IN Pinus sp. and Eucalyptus sp. PLYWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. I. De Campos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos sobre novos adesivos ou resinas para colagem de madeira e derivados estão sendo realizados com a intenção de diminuir o impacto ambiental sem alterar suas propriedades. Por este motivo, novas formulações de adesivos PVA (Acetato de Polivinila vêm sendo desenvolvidas. Este trabalho testou a utilização deste adesivo na produção de compensado de Eucalyptus sp. e Pinus sp., com tempo e temperatura de prensagem, respectivamente, de 10 minutos e90°C. Foram realizados os ensaios físicos de densidade, teor de umidade e absorção, e os ensaios mecânicos de flexão estática e de resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, todos de acordo com as normas ABNT. Obtiveram-se bons resultados com relação à resistência ao cisalhamento na linha de cola, a qual foi superior para os adesivos PVA, se comparados com compensados produzidos com ureia-formaldeído e o fenol-formaldeído, enquanto que os resultados de MOE e MOR apresentaram-se inferiores em ambos os casos. 

  14. The Effect of Acupuncture to SP6 on Skin Temperature Changes of SP6 and SP10: An Observation of “Deqi”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Min Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Deqi sensation is a complex but an important component for acupuncture effect. In this study, we tried to observe the relationship between Deqi and skin temperature changes and whether there was some relativity between Deqi and needle stimulations on cold congealing and dysmenorrhea rat model. Thirty-two female Sprague Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into four groups (Saline Control Group, Model Group, Group A with strong stimulation, and Group B with small stimulation. Group A and Group B were performed with different stimulations. We found that, compared with saline control group, model group, and Group B, Group A showed that the skin temperature changes on right acupoint SP6 and SP10 increased significantly at 5 min–10 min interval. The skin temperature changes on left SP6 decreased at instant–5 min interval. The skin temperature changes on right SP10 decreased significantly at instant–5 min interval and 10 min–20 min interval. Thermogenic action along Spleen Meridian of Foot Greater Yin was manifested as simultaneous skin temperature increase on right SP6 and SP10 at 5 min–10 min interval after needling SP6, which was helpful to illustrate the relationship between the characteristic of Deqi and needle stimulations.

  15. First report of Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in fecal samples in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Hillard Farret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the gastrointestinal parasitism by Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. in blue macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus in the southern region of Brazil. Fecal samples of two species kept in captivity in the state of Rio Grande do Sul were analyzed by the direct smear method, centrifugal flotation technique with zinc sulfate and Kinyoun staining technique for research of parasites. Mixed infection by eggs of Capillaria, cysts of Giardia sp. and oocysts of Cryptosporidium sp. was observed. This is the first report this protozoa in blue macaw.

  16. Integrative Gene Cloning and Expression System for Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 Bioactive Molecule Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samiha Sioud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58, two strains producing interesting bioactive molecules, were successfully transformed using E. coli ET12567 (pUZ8002, as a conjugal donor, carrying the integrative plasmid pSET152. For the Streptomyces sp. US 24 strain, two copies of this plasmid were tandemly integrated in the chromosome, whereas for Streptomyces sp. TN 58, the integration was in single copy at the attB site. Plasmid pSET152 was inherited every time for all analysed Streptomyces sp. US 24 and Streptomyces sp. TN 58 exconjugants under nonselective conditions. The growth, morphological differentiation, and active molecules production of all studied pSET152 integrated exconjugants were identical to those of wild type strains. Consequently, conjugal transfer using pSET152 integration system is a suitable means of genes transfer and expression for both studied strains. To validate the above gene transfer system, the glucose isomerase gene (xylA from Streptomyces sp. SK was expressed in strain Streptomyces sp. TN 58. Obtained results indicated that heterologous glucose isomerase could be expressed and folded effectively. Glucose isomerase activity of the constructed TN 58 recombinant strain is of about eighteenfold higher than that of the Streptomyces sp. SK strain. Such results are certainly of importance due to the potential use of improved strains in biotechnological process for the production of high-fructose syrup from starch.

  17. Microfungi on the Pandanaceae: Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov., L. siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. are described with a key to Linocarpon species from the Pandanaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongkantha, S; Lumyong, S; Lumyong, P; Whitton, S R; McKenzie, E H C; Hyde, K D

    2003-01-01

    Linocarpon species are reported from Pandanaceae in Australia, Brunei, Hong Kong, Nepal, New Zealand, Philippines, Seychelles, Thailand and Vanuatu. Linocarpon lammiae sp. nov. were collected on decaying leaves of Pandanus tectorius in Hong Kong. Linocarpon siamensis sp. nov. and L. suthepensis sp. nov. were collected from decaying leaves of P. penetrans in Thailand. These taxa are described, illustrated and compared with Linocarpon species with similar ascospore morphology and dimensions. Included are a synoptic table, which compares the new species to similar known species, and a dichotomous key to species of Linocarpon known from members of the Pandanaceae.

  18. 75 FR 42411 - Orders Finding That the SP-15 Financial Day-Ahead LMP Peak Daily Contract; SP-15 Financial Day...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Orders Finding That the SP-15 Financial Day-Ahead LMP Peak Daily Contract; SP-15 Financial Day-Ahead LMP Off-Peak Daily Contract; SP-15 Financial Swap Real Time...-Peak Daily (``SQP'') contract; SP-15 Financial Swap Real Time LMP-Peak Daily (``SRP'') contract; NP-15...

  19. Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida), a parasitic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. (Kroyeriidae: Siphonostomatoida) is described from both sexes collected from the gills of spinner sharks, Carcharhinus brevipinna (Müller & Henle, 1839), captured in the Indian Ocean off the coast of South Africa. Kroyeria deetsi n.sp. can easily be distinguished from all of its congeners because the ...

  20. Evaluation of Cr (VI) remediation potential of Eichornia sp in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Evaluation of Cr (VI) removal by indigenous chromium resistant bacterial strains alone and in combination with Eichornia sp. Methods: Three chromium resistant bacterial strains S-4 Ochrobactrum grignonense, SF-5 Bacillus sp. and S-6 Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonenses were isolated from industrial effluent.

  1. Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella sp and Escherichia coli Isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Strains of Salmonella sp and E. coli isolated were significantly resistant to gentamicin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, cefixine and ampicillin. Resistance to gentamicin was the least with 33-71% in Salmonella sp and 25-80% in E. coli. The level of drug resistance in these organisms is ascribed to ...

  2. Biochemical characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f . sp. cubense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxyspoum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a major biotic constraint for banana production. The characteristics of F. oxyspoum f. sp. cubense isolates were investigated using electrophoretic studies of isozyme and whole-cell protein. The morphological characteristics of the isolates were very ...

  3. LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOCALIZATION OF SP22 ON HUMAN SPERM OF DIFFERING QUALITY. AE Lavers*1, GR Klinefelter2, DW Hamilton1, KP Roberts1, 1University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN and 2US EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC. SP22 is a sperm membrane protein that has been implicated in sperm function d...

  4. Biochemical characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 570 006, India. Accepted 24 November, 2009. The Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxyspoum f. sp. cubense (Foc) is a major biotic constraint for banana production. The characteristics of F. oxyspoum f. sp. cubense ...

  5. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms ( Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas putida, P. alcaligenes, P. aeruginosa (Pa28), A. awamori) and Rhizobium sp. was observed on the growth, nodulation yield and root-rot disease complex of chickpea under field condition. Inoculation of Rhizobium sp. caused a greater ...

  6. HANSENULA WICKERHAMII SP. N., A NEW YEAST FROM FINNISH SOIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, Augusto

    1961-01-01

    Capriotti, Augusto (l'Università di Perugia, Perugia, Italy). Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n., a new yeast from Finnish soil. J. Bacteriol. 82:259–360. 1961.—Hansenula wickerhamii sp. n. is described; it was isolated from a Finnish soil, and is named in honor of Lynferd J. Wickerham. Images PMID:13690638

  7. Linking surfactant protein SP-D and IL-13

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qaseem, Asif S; Sonar, Sanchaita; Mahajan, Lakshna

    2012-01-01

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is an innate immune molecule that plays a protective role against lung infection, allergy, asthma and inflammation. In vivo experiments with murine models have shown that SP-D can protect against allergic challenge via a range of mechanisms including inhibition...

  8. Biofixation of carbon dioxide by Chlorococcum sp. in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Chlorococcum sp. was cultured in a photobioreactor with a polytetrafluoroethene membrane sparger (PTFE) to study CO2 biofixation and microalgae growth. Daily variations of dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and dissolved CO2 were analyzed during batch culture of Chlorococcum sp. in the photobioreactor.

  9. Production of mycelium and blastospores of sp. in submerged culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hirsutella sp. was grown in four liquid media containing either casamino acids, corn steep liquor, collagen peptone or casein peptone. These media were inoculated with a 7 day-old culture of mycelia and blastospores of Hirsutella sp. and the cultures incubated with shaking at 250 rpm at 26°C. The media containing corn ...

  10. Brachystelma nallamalayana sp. Nov. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae: Ceropegieae from India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Brachystelma nallamalayana sp. nov., collected from Nallamalais, the Eastern Ghats of Andhra Pradesh, India is described and illustrated. The new species is compared to its closest species, Brachystelma maculatum Hook. f. Brachystelma nallamalayana, sp. nov. is distinct from other species of Brachystelma in having ca 80cm high glabrous stems, peduncled cymes, basally united calyx lobes and biseriate corona.

  11. Effects of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms and Rhizobium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Effects of Phosphate solubilizing microorganisms (Glomus intraradices, Pseudomonas putida, P. alcaligenes, P. aeruginosa (Pa28), A. awamori) and Rhizobium sp. was observed on the growth, nodulation yield and root-rot disease complex of chickpea under field condition. Inoculation of. Rhizobium sp.

  12. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tolypocladium sp. Ts-1 was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild Cordyceps sinensis, one of the best known traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. The antioxidant activities of hot-water extracts from cultured mycelia of Tolypocladium sp. were assessed in different in vitro systems. The extracts showed ...

  13. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of a Tolypocladium sp. fungus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... Tolypocladium sp. Ts-1 was isolated from the fruiting body of a wild Cordyceps sinensis, one of the best known traditional Chinese medicine and health foods. The antioxidant activities of hot-water extracts from cultured mycelia of Tolypocladium sp. were assessed in different in vitro systems. The extracts ...

  14. Oncholaim~ jessicae n.sp. (Nematoda: Oncholaimidae) from fresh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncholaim~ jessicae n.sp. (Nematoda: Oncholaimidae) from fresh water in the Transvaal. A. Coomans. Instituut voor Dierkunde, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, Gent, Belgium. J. Heyns. Department of Zoology, Rand Afrikaans University, Johannesburg. Oncholaimus jessicae n.sp. is described from several sites in the Blyde River ...

  15. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mühlfeld Christian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surfactant protein D (SP-D deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. Methods SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. Main Results After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Conclusion Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are

  16. Truncated recombinant human SP-D attenuates emphysema and type II cell changes in SP-D deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Lars; Ochs, Matthias; Mackay, Rosemarie; Townsend, Paul; Deb, Roona; Mühlfeld, Christian; Richter, Joachim; Gilbert, Fabian; Hawgood, Samuel; Reid, Kenneth; Clark, Howard

    2007-10-03

    Surfactant protein D (SP-D) deficient mice develop emphysema-like pathology associated with focal accumulations of foamy alveolar macrophages, an excess of surfactant phospholipids in the alveolar space and both hypertrophy and hyperplasia of alveolar type II cells. These findings are associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with a truncated recombinant fragment of human SP-D (rfhSP-D) has been shown to decrease the lipidosis and alveolar macrophage accumulation as well as production of proinflammatory chemokines. The aim of this study was to investigate if rfhSP-D treatment reduces the structural abnormalities in parenchymal architecture and type II cells characteristic of SP-D deficiency. SP-D knock-out mice, aged 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 9 weeks were treated with rfhSP-D for 9, 6 and 3 weeks, respectively. All mice were sacrificed at age 12 weeks and compared to both PBS treated SP-D deficient and wild-type groups. Lung structure was quantified by design-based stereology at the light and electron microscopic level. Emphasis was put on quantification of emphysema, type II cell changes and intracellular surfactant. Data were analysed with two sided non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test. After 3 weeks of treatment, alveolar number was higher and mean alveolar size was smaller compared to saline-treated SP-D knock-out controls. There was no significant difference concerning these indices of pulmonary emphysema within rfhSP-D treated groups. Type II cell number and size were smaller as a consequence of treatment. The total volume of lamellar bodies per type II cell and per lung was smaller after 6 weeks of treatment. Treatment of SP-D deficient mice with rfhSP-D leads to a reduction in the degree of emphysema and a correction of type II cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. This supports the concept that rfhSP-D might become a therapeutic option in diseases that are characterized by decreased SP-D levels in the lung.

  17. Analysis of Biophysical, Optical and Genetic Diversity of DoD Coral Reef Communities Using Advanced Fluorescence and Molecular Biology Techniques (Addendum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    Symbiodinium sp. as a bioindicator . 20 ii List of Figures 1. An example of the FIRe fluorescence transients. 6 2. Bench-top versions of the...dynoflagellates, Symbiodinium sp. as a bioindicator . Petroleum product Fv/Fm protocol Extended FIRe protocol Gasoline 87 AKI 300 ppm 30 ppm Kerosene...Gorbunov, and V. Fadeev (2010) - Phytoplankton as a fluorescent bioindicator of ecotoxicants in natural waters. - «SPIE Photonics Europe», 2010

  18. Post-neonatal drop in alveolar SP-A expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stray-Pedersen, Arne; Vege, Ashild; Stray-Pedersen, Asbjorg

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is synthesized in the lung and is a part of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of SP-A in lung tissue from fetuses, infants, children and adults with special regard to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). METHODS......: A total of 160 cases were studied; 19 fetuses and neonates, 59 SIDS and 49 explained infant deaths below 1 year of age, 19 toddlers and 14 adults. Immunohistochemical detection of SP-A using monoclonal antibodies was performed by microscopy of lung tissue specimens collected at autopsy. A scoring system...... was developed enabling semi-quantitative estimation of staining intensity and distribution. RESULTS: SP-A was detected in the terminal bronchioles and alveolar spaces of fetuses >35 weeks gestation. The intra-alveolar SP-A expression increased in the perinatal period followed by a marked drop in infants aged...

  19. SP-100 space reactor power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpich, A.; Kruger, G.; Matteo, D.; Stephen, J.

    1990-01-01

    A generic flight system (GFS) design for a 100-kWe space reactor power (SP-100) system is presented. The design has evolved around issues such as the selection of a lithium liquid-metal-cooled reactor built of refractory metals and permitting operation in the range of 1300-1400 K; heat transport by lithium circulation using thermoelectrically driven liquid-metal pumps; thermoelectric power conversion; and waste heat rejection at approximately 800 K through lithium circulation to potassium heat pipe radiators. Various thermal-hydraulic analytical procedures have been utilized in the design of the reactor, ducting, hot-side and cold-side heat exchangers, circulating pumps, and heat pipe radiators. The physical and performance characteristics of the GFS and its power margins are estimated as a function of mission time

  20. Thermoelectric electromagnetic pump design for SP-100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collett, J.; Kugler, W.; Sinha, U.; Surjadi, T.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the Thermoelectric Electromagnetic (TEM) pump used in the SP-100 space power system. The TEM pump is designed to pump liquid (molten) lithium (Li) coolant in the Primary Heat Transport Subsystem (PHTS) and Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRSS). The pump utilizes advanced Thermoelectric (TE) cells to generate electric current that induces magnetic flux in a Z-shaped magnetic structure. The electric current and magnetic flux pass through the liquid Li perpendicular to each other to create the pumping force. The TE cells are semiconductors located between rectangular ducts connected to the reactor hot PHTS piping and the cooler HRSS piping. The temperature difference (ΔT) across the TE cells generates the voltage to power the pump. The design provides a minimum mass, self-regulated pump, with no moving parts and self-powered by an internal temperature gradient

  1. SP-100 status and technology accomplishments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1989-01-01

    There are many space missions that require electric power in the 10-kW(electric) to 1-MW(electric) range. The SP-100 program will provide technology that demonstrates that a nuclear reactor heat source and passive thermoelectric conversion can reliably provide electrical power over this full range for 10 yr. Based on the generic flight system (GFS) design at 100 kW(electric), tests will be conducted to demonstrate that technologies required for the GFS have been validated. In addition, system-level tests will show that the GFS design and predictive capability to design at other power levels are well understood and meet an enveloping set of requirements. Technology and component testing has begun at General Electric (GE), its subcontractors, and several national laboratories. This paper reviews the significant progress made to date and major planned future tests with respect to the reference flight system, technology and component achievements, and nuclear assembly and integrated assembly tests

  2. Epitheliotropic lymphoma in a squirrel (Sciurus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnold, Shelley P; Arun, Iyampillai; Saturday, Greg; McLeod, Charles

    2007-09-01

    A 12-yr-old, intact male squirrel (Sciurus sp.) presented with a 15 mm-by-20 mm area of alopecia and plaque-like dermal thickening over the left caudolateral thorax. Routine diagnostic tests ruled out more common conditions that result in alopecia, such as dermatophytosis and acariasis. A punch biopsy was obtained under anesthesia and submitted for histopathologic evaluation. The diagnosis of epitheliotropic lymphoma was made, and follow-up surgical excision was performed. Histopathologic features were consistent with epitheliotropic lymphoma, and immunohistochemistry confirmed a T-cell origin. There was no local recurrence, new lesions, or evidence of metastasis 10 mo after surgical excision. To our knowledge, to date, epitheliotropic lymphoma has not been described in a squirrel.

  3. Chitinase Production by Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolla J.P. Narayana

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Chitinase production by a terrestrial Streptomyces sp. ANU 6277 was studied under sub-merged fermentation. Chitinase production started after 24 h of incubation and reached maximum levels after 60 h of cultivation. A high level of chitinase activity was observed in the culture medium with pH 6 at 35ºC. Culture medium amended with 1% chitin was found to be suitable for maximum production of chitinase. An optimum concentration of colloidal chitin for chitinase production was determined. Studies on the influence of additional carbon and nitrogen sources on chitinase production revealed that starch and yeast extract served as good carbon and nitrogen sources to enhance chitinase yield.Chitinase was purified from crude enzyme extract by single step gel filtration by Sephadex G-100. Purified chitinase of the strain exhibited a distinct protein band near 45 kDa by means of SDS-PAGE.

  4. Kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi Aeromonas hydrophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Sukenda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This experiment was conducted to assess performance of Bacillus sp. probiotic on catfish juvenile Clarias sp. infected by Aeromonas hydrophila. The probiotic content in the diets were 0% (K+ and K-, 1%, and 2% in duplicates. This experiment used randomized design with four treatments and two replications. Juveniles with average body weight of 3.22±0.15 g/fish were reared in the 1.5×2.8×0.5 m3 pond with density of 800 fish/pond. Fish were reared for 30 days and fed three times a day at rate 8% of  total body weight. At day 31, catfish were challenged by A. hydrophila 0.1 mL (106 cfu/mL. Post infection observation was carried out ten days with density 10 fish/aquaria. The result showed that fish fed diet containing 2% probiotic gave the best probiotic performance with survival rate of catfish 83.33% after challenged, spesific growth rate 5.40%, and 0,75 of feed conversion ratio. The results of the blood profile showed significantly better results in the treatment of probiotics compared to the positive control after challenge test A. hydrophila. Probiotic Bacillus sp. has given as much as 2% on feed provides better performance on catfish juvenile. Keywords: probiotic, Bacillus sp., A. hydrophila, catfish juvenille, growth  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji kinerja probiotik Bacillus sp. dalam pakan pada pendederan benih ikan lele Clarias sp. yang diinfeksi bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan yaitu kandungan probiotik dalam pakan perlakuan yaitu 0% (K+ dan K-, 1%,  dan 2%, masing-masing dengan dua ulangan. Ikan lele yang digunakan memiliki bobot rata-rata 3,22±0,15 g/ekor, dipelihara dalam kolam terpal berukuran 1,5×2,8×0,5 m3 dengan kepadatan 800 ekor/kolam. Ikan dipelihara selama 30 hari dengan frekuensi pemberian pakan tiga kali sehari sebanyak 8% dari bobot tubuh ikan. Hari ke-31 benih lele diinjeksi bakteri A. hydrophila dosis 0,1 m

  5. Neorickettsia risticii, Rickettsia sp. and Bartonella sp. in Tadarida brasiliensis bats from Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicuttin, Gabriel L; De Salvo, María N; La Rosa, Isabel; Dohmen, Federico E Gury

    2017-06-01

    Bats are potential reservoirs of many vector-borne bacterial pathogens. The aim of the present study was to detect species of Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Neorickettsia, Rickettsia, Borrelia and Bartonella in Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis, Molossidae) from Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Between 2012 and 2013, 61 T. brasiliensis from urban areas of Buenos Aires city were studied. The samples were molecularly screened by PCR and sequencing. Five bats (8.2%) were positive to Neorickettsia risticii, one (1.6%) was positive to Rickettsia sp. and three bats (4.9%) to Bartonella sp. For molecular characterization, the positive samples were subjected to amplification and sequencing of a fragment of p51 gene for N. risticii, a fragment of citrate synthase gene (gltA) for Rickettsia genus and a fragment of gltA for Bartonella genus. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the maximum-likelihood method. Phylogenetic analysis of N. risticii detect in our study revealed that it relates to findings in the USA West Coast; Rickettsia sp. detected is phylogenetically within R. bellii group, which also includes many other Rickettsia endosymbionts of insects; and Bartonella sp. found is related to various Bartonella spp. described in Vespertilionidae bats, which are phylogenetically related to Molossidae. Our results are in accordance to previous findings, which demonstrate that insectivorous bats could be infected with vector-borne bacteria representing a potential risk to public health. Future research is necessary to clarify the circulation of these pathogens in bats from Buenos Aires. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. From spent graphite to amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated sp2 graphite for high-performance lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhuang, Yuchan; Deng, Yaoming; Song, Xiaona; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Xiao, Xin; Nan, Junmin

    2018-02-01

    Today, with the massive application of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) in the portable devices and electric vehicles, to supply the active materials with high-performances and then to recycle their wastes are two core issues for the development of LIBs. In this paper, the spent graphite (SG) in LIBs is used as raw materials to fabricate two comparative high-capacity graphite anode materials. Based on a microsurgery-like physical reconstruction, the reconstructed graphite (RG) with a sp2+sp3 carbon surface is prepared through a microwave exfoliation and subsequent spray drying process. In contrast, the neural-network-like amorphous sp2+sp3 carbon-coated graphite (AC@G) is synthesized using a self-reconfigurable chemical reaction strategy. Compared with SG and commercial graphite (CG), both RG and AC@G have enhanced specific capacities, from 311.2 mAh g-1 and 360.7 mAh g-1 to 409.7 mAh g-1 and 420.0 mAh g-1, at 0.1C after 100 cycles. In addition, they exhibit comparable cycling stability, rate capability, and voltage plateau with CG. Because the synthesis of RG and AC@G represents two typical physical and chemical methods for the recycling of SG, these results on the sp2+sp3 carbon layer coating bulk graphite also reveal an approach for the preparation of high-performance graphite anode materials derived from SG.

  7. Wnt-mediated down-regulation of Sp1 target genes by a transcriptional repressor Sp5

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fujimura, Naoko; Vacík, Tomáš; Machoň, Ondřej; Vlček, Čestmír; Scalabrin, S.; Speth, M.; Diep, D.; Krauss, S.; Kozmik, Zbyněk

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 282, č. 2 (2007), s. 1225-1237 ISSN 0021-9258 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : Wnt -mediated signaling * Sp5 transcription factor * Sp1 target genes Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.581, year: 2007

  8. Desulfuromonas svalbardensis sp nov and Desulfuromusa ferrireducens sp nov., psychrophilic, Fe(III)-reducing bacteria isolated from Arctic sediments, Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandieken, V.; Mussmann, M.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    succinoxidans Gylac(T) (95.9%) within the Deltaproteobacteria. Strains 112(T) and 102(T) therefore represent novel species, for which the names Desulfuromonas svalbardensis sp. nov. (type strain 112(T) = DSM 16958(T) = JCM 12927(T)) and Desulfuromusa ferrireducens sp. nov. (type strain 102(T) = DSM 16956 (T...

  9. Elevated expression and potential roles of human Sp5, a member of Sp transcription factor family, in human cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongxin; Guo Yingqiu; Ge Xijin; Itoh, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Akira; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Aburatani, Hiroyuki

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we describe the expression and function of human Sp5, a member of the Sp family of zinc finger transcription factors. Like other family members, the Sp5 protein contains a Cys2His2 zinc finger DNA binding domain at the C-terminus. Our experiments employing Gal4-Sp5 fusion proteins reveal multiple transcriptional domains, including a N-terminal activity domain, an intrinsic repressive element, and a C-terminal synergistic domain. Elevated expression of Sp5 was noted in several human tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma, gastric cancer, and colon cancer. To study the effects of the Sp5 protein on growth properties of human cancer cells and facilitate the identification of its downstream genes, we combined an inducible gene expression system with microarray analysis to screen for its transcriptional targets. Transfer of Sp5 into MCF-7 cells that expressed no detectable endogenous Sp5 protein elicited significant growth promotion activity. Several of the constitutively deregulated genes have been associated with tumorigenesis (CDC25C, CEACAM6, TMPRSS2, XBP1, MYBL1, ABHD2, and CXCL12) and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling pathways (BAMBI, SIX1, IGFBP5, AES, and p21 WAF1 ). This information could be utilized for further mechanistic research and for devising optimized therapeutic strategies against human cancers

  10. Direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. oil be using immobilized isolated novel Bacillus sp. lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Ramachandran; Muthukumar, Karuppan

    2014-01-01

    This work emphasizes the potential of the isolated Bacillus sp. lipase for the production of fatty acid methyl ester by the direct transesterification of Oedogonium sp. of macroalgae. Dimethyl carbonate was used as the extraction solvent and also as the reactant. The effect of solvent/algae ratio, water addition, catalyst, temperature, stirring and time on the direct transesterification was studied. The highest fatty acid methyl ester yield obtained under optimum conditions (5 g Oedogonium sp. powder, 7.5 ml of solvent (dimethyl carbonate)/g of algae, 8% catalyst (%wt/wt of oil), distilled water 1% (wt/wt of algae), 36 h, 55°C and 180 rpm) was 82%. Final product was subjected to thermogravimetric analysis and (1)H NMR analysis. The results showed that the isolated enzyme has good potential in catalyzing the direct transesterification of algae, and the dimethyl carbonate did not affect the activity of the isolated lipase. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. PENGGUNAAN EKSTRAK BIOTA LAUTAGLAOPHENIA SP. UNTUK MENGENDALIKANFUSARIUM OXYSPORUM F.SP.VANILLAE PENYEBAB BUSUK BATANG VANILI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KETUT SUADA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Use of Aglaophenia sp. Marine Biota Extract to Control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vanillae, a Pathogen of Vanilla Stem Rot The use of marine biota for organic fungicide material has enormous potential to be developed. The organic fungicide was directed to substitute synthetic fungicide for vanilla cultivation. Application of synthetic fungicide degraded environmental quality, therefore its applications does not support sustainable agriculture. The objective of this research was to know the potence of Aglaopheniain suppressing the growth of F. oxysporum f. sp.vanillae, the pathogen of vanilla stem rot. The research was done in green house in order to find the best substance for formulation of the extract. The substances screened were water, tween-80, and detergents with two different concentrations. Subsequently, two best formulas were chosen to apply in endemic area in Tabanan. The green house and field trial research used Randomized Completely Design with three and five replications respectively. Results showed that tween was the best substance used for formulation and concentration of 0.2% was better than other concentrations. The extract diluted in tween-80 on the concentration of 0.2% showed the lowest rot on stem, longest shoot, and the most leaves on vanilla shoot. Because of its significant performance, the 0.1% extract ofAglaopheniain 0.1% tween-80 was proposed to be the best formula to suppress the vanilla stem rot disease.

  12. Kinetics of petroleum oil biodegradation by a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kachieng’a

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum oil is a complex mixture of substances, the majority of which are hydrocarbons; the latter represent an extremely important and heterogeneous group of compounds that find their way into water resources by anthropogenic or natural ways. The majority of toxic hydrocarbon components of petroleum are biodegradable, where bioremediation using microbial species has become an integral process for the restoration of oil-polluted areas. In this study, three bioremediation processes, namely natural attenuation, nutrient supplementation by adding glucose and biostimulation by adding Tween® 80, were carried out in various petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in polluted water media using a consortium of three protozoan isolates (Aspidisca sp., Trachelophyllum sp. and Peranema sp.. A first-order kinetics model was fitted to the biodegradation data to evaluate the biodegradation rate and to determine the corresponding half-life time. First-order kinetics satisfactorily described the biodegradation of the petroleum-based contaminants under abiotic conditions. The results showed an increase in the percentage removal of petroleum oil at the lower petroleum concentrations and a gradual percentage decrease in removing petroleum oil residues occurred when there was an increase in the initial concentrations of the petroleum oil: 39%, 27%, 22%, 12%, 10% for various petroleum oil concentrations of 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 mg/L, respectively. A similar trend was also observed in the glucose-supplemented culture media where the reduction was 45% and 78% for petroleum concentrations of 250 mg/L and 50 mg/L, respectively. Biodegradation of between 33 and 90% was achieved at a Tween® 80 concentration of between 50 mg/L and 250 mg/L. The degradation rate constants for the natural attenuation process ranged between ≥0 to ≤0.50, ≥0 to ≤0.35, ≥0 to ≤0.25, ≥0 to ≤ 0.14 and ≥ 0 to ≤0.11 for petroleum oil concentrations varying from 50, 100, 150

  13. A sp2+sp3 hybridized carbon allotrope transformed from AB stacking graphyne and THD-graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available New carbon allotropes can be designed by combining sp, sp2 and sp3 three hybridization states. And the hybridization states or coordination numbers of carbon atoms can be changed by applying high pressure on carbon materials. In this study, a common high pressure phase (named as TBBC transformed from AB-stacking graphyne or THD-graphene is predicted. Its kinetic stability is examined using finite displacement method. We find that the sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms behave different vibration features at high frequency region. Both graphene-like and diamond-like vibration peaks occurs. Phase transition energy barriers from both graphyne and THD-graphene to TBBC are estimated. Electronic structure calculations show that the TBBC is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 0.66 eV. The ideal tensile strength of TBBC is high in [0001] and [11¯00] directions, but is weak along [12¯10] direction.

  14. A sp2+sp3 hybridized carbon allotrope transformed from AB stacking graphyne and THD-graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Shang, Jiacheng; Fu, Weida; Zeng, Li; Tang, Tao; Cai, Yingxiang

    2018-01-01

    New carbon allotropes can be designed by combining sp, sp2 and sp3 three hybridization states. And the hybridization states or coordination numbers of carbon atoms can be changed by applying high pressure on carbon materials. In this study, a common high pressure phase (named as TBBC) transformed from AB-stacking graphyne or THD-graphene is predicted. Its kinetic stability is examined using finite displacement method. We find that the sp2 and sp3 hybridized carbon atoms behave different vibration features at high frequency region. Both graphene-like and diamond-like vibration peaks occurs. Phase transition energy barriers from both graphyne and THD-graphene to TBBC are estimated. Electronic structure calculations show that the TBBC is an indirect semiconductor with a bandgap of 0.66 eV. The ideal tensile strength of TBBC is high in [0001] and [1 1 ¯ 00 ] directions, but is weak along [1 2 ¯ 10 ] direction.

  15. DAN IDENTIFIKASI PATOGEN POTENSIAL YANG MENGINFEKSI IKAN RAINBOW (Melanotaenia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Sholichah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pemeliharaan ikan rainbow (Melanotaenia sp. di Balai Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Ikan Hias selalu terjadi kematian secara bertahap mulai calon induk hingga proses pemijahan. Hal ini terjadi berulang kali sehingga ketersediaan induk Melanotaenia sp. sangat terancam. Ikan ini berasal dari Papua yang diperoleh mengandalkan penangkapan di alam. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menginventarisir dan mengidentifikasi berbagai patogen (parasit, jamur, bakteri potensial yang menginfeksi ikan rainbow yang dipelihara di dalam akuarium berukuran 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm dengan sistem aliran air stagnan. Tiga jenis rainbow yang dipelihara yaitu: rainbow Sungai Salawati, asal Sungai Sawiat, dan asal Danau Kurumoi. Setiap ikan masing-masing berjumlah 100 ekor dipelihara di akuarium dengan penambahan batu karang dan tanpa penambahan karang (kontrol ke dalam akuarium. Ikan diberi pakan sekenyangnya berupa jentik nyamuk dan cacing rambut beku setiap pagi dan sore hari. Sampling dilakukan secara random sebulan sekali dan secara unrandom setiap ada kejadian ikan sakit. Gejala klinis ikan yang sakit sebagai berikut: ikan berenang di permukaan dan menggosok-gosokkan badan di dinding akuarium, nafsu makan berkurang, gerakan berputar-putar, warna memudar menjadi putih, penekanan warna hitam pada sirip punggung dan perut meningkat, pendarahan pada perut, lendir berlebihan dan sangat berbau, serta sisik berdiri/terbuka. Diagnosa dan deteksi penyakit awal berupa pengamatan parasit baik ektoparasit maupun endoparasit, pengamatan dan isolasi jamur pada media selektif jamur, dan isolasi bakteri dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis patogen yang menginfeksi ketiga jenis ikan rainbow. Selanjutnya dilakukan uji histologi dan analisa DNA beberapa patogen. Hasil pengamatan diperoleh patogen berupa parasit (Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., dan Trichodina sp. dan bakteri (Aeromonas hydrophila, Acinetobacter sp

  16. Genetic polymorphism of horse serum protein 3 (SP3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juneja, R K; Sandberg, K; Kuryl, J; Gahne, B

    1989-01-01

    Two-dimensional agarose gel (pH 8.6)-horizontal polyacrylamide gel (pH 9.0) electrophoresis of horse serum samples, followed by general protein staining, revealed genetic polymorphism of an unidentified protein tentatively designated serum protein 3 (SP3). The SP3 fractions appeared distinctly when a 14% concentration of acrylamide was used in the separation gels. The 2-D mobilities of SP3 fractions were quite similar to that of albumin. Family data were consistent with the hypothesis that the observed SP3 phenotypes were controlled by four co-dominant, autosomal alleles (D, F, I, S). Evidence was provided that the F allele can be further divided into two alleles (F1 and F2); the mobilities of F1 and F2 variants were very similar. Each of the SP3 alleles gave rise to one fraction and each of the heterozygous types showed two fractions. More than 600 horses representing five different breeds (Swedish Trotter, North-Swedish Trotter, Thoroughbred, Arab and Polish Tarpan) were typed for SP3, and allele frequency estimates were calculated. SP3 was highly polymorphic in all breeds studied.

  17. Efektivitas Ovitrap Bambu terhadap Jumlah Jentik Aedes sp yang Terperangkap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwit Aditama

    2015-05-01

    places of 10 subdistricts. Data of trapped Aedes sp larvae numbers was collected four times repeatedly within one week time-lapse. Analysis was conducted using the mean number of larvae in ovitraps and ovitrap index. The number of Aedes sp larvae trapped was 1,265. The most effective ovitrap is piece of bamboo, mean = 123, p value = 0.006, HI = 10.01% (16.66 26.67%, CI = 36.8% (336.06 - 39.74%, BI = 29.97% (73.33 - 103.3%. Health authorities should promote bamboo ovitrap, especially to public as an effort to control Aedes sp.

  18. Pengaruh Perbedaan Konsentrasi Ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan Lama Penyimpanan terhadap Oksidasi Lemak pada Fillet Ikan Patin (Pangasius sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin Hidayati

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Ikan patin merupakan ikan air tawar yang mengandung lemak dan protein tinggi sehingga apabila dilakukan penyimpanan rentan terjadi oksidasi yang mengakibatkan ketengikan. Sargassum sp. dengan kandungan fenol dan flavonoid mampu menghambat terjadinya oksidasi pada fillet ikan patin. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh perbedaan ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan lama penyimpanan dalam menghambat terjadinya oksidasi pada fillet ikan patin. Materi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan fillet ikan patin. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah experimental laboratories dengan menggunakan Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL faktorial dengan 2 faktor yaitu konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum sp. (0%, 1%, 1,5% dan 2% dan lama penyimpanan (hari ke-0, hari ke-2, hari ke-4, dan hari ke-6. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan penambahan konsentrasi ekstrak Sargassum sp. dan lama penyimpanan memberikan pengaruh nyata terhadap nilai PV, nilai TBA, kadar lemak, kadar protein, kadar air serta organoleptik (P < 0,05. Hasil penelitian tahap I didapatkan rendemen Sargassum sp. dengan pelarut etanol 96% sebesar 1,39%, kandungan fenol 1,813%, flavonoid 0,278% dan aktivitas antioksidan 99,1659 ppm (kuat. Hasil penelitian tahap II didapatkan nilai PV berkisar antara 2,03 - 19,82 meq/kg, nilai TBA 0,63 - 6,72 mg.mal/kg. Konsentrasi 1,5% merupakan konsentrasi terbaik ekstrak Sargassum sp. dalam menghambat oksidasi lemak pada fillet ikan patin selama penyimpanan. Kata kunci: Antioksidan, Ekstrak Sargassum sp., Lama Penyimpanan, Oksidasi lemak, Fillet Ikan patin ABSTRACT Catfish is a freshwater fish that contain high fat and protein so that if its stored it will susceptible to oxidation process which leads to rancidity. Sargassum sp. with its phenolic and flavonoid content are able to inhibit the oxidation process in catfish fillet. This research was aimed to know the effects of different concentrations of Sargassum sp. extracts and

  19. Description of Pristina armata n. sp. (Clitellata: Naididae: Pristininae) from a carnivorous plant (Nepenthes sp.) in Borneo, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenková, Jana; Čermák, Václav

    2013-01-01

    A new clitellate species of Pristininae (Naididae), Pristina armata n. sp., found in the pitcher of the carnivorous plant Nepenthes sp., is reported from East Kalimantan, Indonesia. P. armata n. sp. is a very small clitellate, less than 1 mm long in fixed state, and without proboscis on the prostomium. Signs of reproduction by paratomy were observed, but the generic placement remains preliminary because sexually mature individuals were not found. P. armata n. sp. is characterized by giant hook-like dorsal chaetae at IV. The description of P. armata n. sp. was based on six fixed specimens of different size and stage of development. Noteworthy is the habitat of P. armata n. sp. in Nepenthes pitchers, this being the first clitellate species described from such a habitat. P. armata n. sp. may be a member of the nepenthebionts' community, realizing its life cycle inside the digestive fluid of the Nepenthes pitcher, or it belongs to nepenthephiles, species that commonly occur in this habitat but do not specialize on it.

  20. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov., from wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mañes-Lázaro, Rosario; Ferrer, Sergi; Rosselló-Mora, Ramón; Pardo, Isabel

    2009-08-01

    Ten Lactobacillus strains, previously isolated from different Bobal grape wines from the Utiel-Requena Origin Denomination of Spain, were characterized phylogenetically, genotypically and phenotypically. The 16S rRNA genes were sequenced and phylogenetic analysis showed that they form a tight phylogenetic clade that is closely related to reference strains Lactobacillus satsumensis NRIC 0604T, 'Lactobacillus uvarum' 8 and Lactobacillus mali DSM 20444T. DNA-DNA hybridization results confirmed the separation of the strains from other Lactobacillus species. Genotypically, the strains could be differentiated from their closest neighbours by 16S amplified rDNA restriction analysis and random amplified polymorphic DNA patterns. The strains were Gram-staining-positive, facultatively anaerobic rods that did not exhibit catalase activity. Phenotypically, they could be distinguished from their closest relatives by several traits such as their inabilities to grow at pH 3.3, to ferment sucrose, amygdalin and arbutin or to hydrolyse aesculin. The characteristics of the ten wine isolates suggest that they represent a novel species, for which the name Lactobacillus oeni sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 59bT (=CECT 7334T=DSM 19972T).

  2. Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov., an alkaliphilic cellulomonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian E; Grant, William D; Duckworth, A W; Schumann, Peter; Weiss, Norbert; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2005-07-01

    An alkaliphilic, slightly halotolerant, chemo-organotrophic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain 69B4(T), was isolated from the sediment of the littoral zone of Lake Bogoria, Kenya. Phylogenetically, it is a member of the genus Cellulomonas, showing less than 97.5 % sequence similarity to the type strains of other Cellulomonas species. The highest level of similarity, albeit moderate, was found with respect to Cellulomonas cellasea DSM 20118(T). Chemotaxonomic properties confirm the 16S rRNA gene-based generic affiliation, i.e. a DNA G+C content of 71.5 mol%, anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0) as the major fatty acids, MK-9(H(4)) as the major isoprenoid quinone, a peptidoglycan containing L-ornithine as the diamino acid and D-aspartic acid in the interpeptide bridge and phosphatidylglycerol as the only identified main polar lipid. The strain is aerobic to facultatively anaerobic, being capable of growth under strictly anaerobic conditions. Optimal growth occurs between pH values 9.0 and 10.0. On the basis of its distinct phylogenetic position and metabolic properties, strain 69B4(T) represents a novel species of the genus Cellulomonas, for which the name Cellulomonas bogoriensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 69B4(T) (=DSM 16987(T)=CIP 108683(T)).

  3. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1994-01-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems

  4. Preliminary SP-100/Stirling heat exchanger designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitz, P.; Tower, L.; Dawson, R.; Blue, B.; Dunn, P.

    1993-12-01

    Analytic modeling of several heat exchanger concepts to couple the SP-100 nuclear reactor primary lithium loop and the Space Stirling Power Convertor (SSPC) was performed. Four 25 kWe SSPC's are used to produce the required 100 kW of electrical power. This design work focused on the interface between a single SSPC and the primary lithium loop. Manifolding to separate and collect the four channel flow was not modeled. This work modeled two separate types of heat exchanger interfaces (conductive coupling and radiative coupling) to explore their relative advantages and disadvantages. The minimum mass design of the conductively coupled concepts was 18 kg or 0.73 kg/kWe for a single 25 kWe convertor. The minimum mass radiatively coupled concept was 41 kg or 1.64 kg/kWe. The direct conduction heat exchanger provides a lighter weight system because of its ability to operate the Stirling convertor evaporator at higher heat fluxes than those attainable by the radiatively coupled systems. Additionally the conductively coupled concepts had relatively small volumes and provide potentially simpler assembly. Their disadvantages were the tight tolerances and material joining problems associated with this refractory to superalloy interface. The advantages of the radiatively coupled designs were the minimal material interface problems

  5. Accomplishments and plans of SP-100 program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The SP-100 program is proceeding toward concept definitions for a space nuclear reactor which is safe and suitable for civilian and military applications. The selection of a specific design and demonstration of the base technologies was scheduled for the end of 1985, to be followed by engineering development and ground testing in 1986. The main current uses/users thus far anticipated are communications satellites, both military and civilian, radar (and possibly laser) surveillance and remote sensing systems, and manufacturing and other extensions of a space station growth scenario. The reactor will weigh no more than 3000 kg and must fit into the Orbiter bay with a payload and OTV. Three concepts are still under evaluation: a lithium-cooled reactor with thermoelectrics; an in-core thermionic system with pumped sodium-potassium coolant; and a configuration with a Stirling engine to convert reactor heat into electricity. If the engineering analyses and base tests are successful, it is expected that the flight application phase can be reached by 1991 at the latest

  6. Phenotypic diversity of Xanthomonas sp. mangiferaeindicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, O; Couteau, A; Perrier, X; Luisetti, J

    1998-01-01

    Carbohydrate utilization profiles by means of the API (Appareils et Procédés d'Identification) system and sensitivity to antibiotics and heavy metal salts of 68 Xanthomonas sp. mangiferaeindicae strains isolated in nine countries from mango (Mangifera indica L.) and other genera of the Anacardiaceae were examined to assess the variability of the taxon. The strains could be separated into 10 groups according to Ward clustering. Apigmented strains isolated from the pepper tree [syn. Brazilian pepper] (Schinus terebenthifolius Raddi) could not be clearly differentiated from most apigmented strains isolated from mango. Yellow-pigmented strains isolated from mango in Brazil and Reunion Island, apigmented strains isolated from mango in Brazil and from ambarella in the French West Indies, clustered in distinct groups. The results are consistent with those of other studies, based on isozyme analysis of esterase, phosphoglucomutase and superoxide dismutase, and hrp-RFLP analysis; they indicate the need for a comprehensive taxonomic evaluation of xanthomonads associated with Anacardiaceae.

  7. Kribbella sindirgiensis sp. nov. isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir-Kocak, Fadime; Isik, Kamil; Saricaoglu, Salih; Saygin, Hayrettin; Inan-Bektas, Kadriye; Cetin, Demet; Guven, Kiymet; Sahin, Nevzat

    2017-12-01

    A Kribbella strain FSN23 T was isolated from soil sample which was collected from Caygoren Dam lakeside located in Sındırgı, Turkey. The isolate was investigated using a polyphasic approach consisting of numeric, chemotaxonomic and molecular analysis. The isolate indicated chemotaxonomic, morphological and phylogenetic properties associated with members of the genus Kribbella. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA sequence of the strain demonstrated that the strain forms a subclade with K. aluminosa HKI 0478 T and K. jejuensis HD9 T . The organism formed an extensively branched substrate and aerial hyphae which generated spiral chains of spores with smooth surfaces. The cell wall contained LL-diaminopimelic acid, and the whole cell sugars were glucose and ribose along with trace amounts of mannose. The polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, diphosphatidylglycerol, four unidentified lipids and five unidentified polar lipids. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H 4 ). The major cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C 15:0 and iso-C 16:0 . Polyphasic taxonomy properties confirm that strain FSN23 T represents a novel Kribbella taxon distinguished from closely related type strains. Hence, strain FSN23 T (=KCTC 29220 T  = DSM 27082 T ) is proposed as the type strain of a novel species with the name Kribbella sindirgiensis sp. nov.

  8. Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov., isolated from reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Maarten J; Kik, Marja; Miller, William G; Duim, Birgitta; Wagenaar, Jaap A

    2015-03-01

    During sampling of reptiles for members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria, strains representing a member of the genus Campylobacter not belonging to any of the established taxa were isolated from lizards and chelonians. Initial amplified fragment length polymorphism, PCR and 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed that these strains were most closely related to Campylobacter fetus and Campylobacter hyointestinalis. A polyphasic study was undertaken to determine the taxonomic position of five strains. The strains were characterized by 16S rRNA and atpA sequence analysis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and conventional phenotypic testing. Whole-genome sequences were determined for strains 1485E(T) and 2463D, and the average nucleotide and amino acid identities were determined for these strains. The strains formed a robust phylogenetic clade, divergent from all other species of the genus Campylobacter. In contrast to most currently known members of the genus Campylobacter, the strains showed growth at ambient temperatures, which might be an adaptation to their reptilian hosts. The results of this study clearly show that these strains isolated from reptiles represent a novel species within the genus Campylobacter, for which the name Campylobacter iguaniorum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1485E(T) ( = LMG 28143(T) = CCUG 66346(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  9. Taxonomic study of bacteria isolated from plants: proposal of Sphingomonas rosa sp. nov., Sphingomonas pruni sp. nov., Sphingomonas asaccharolytica sp. nov., and Sphingomonas mali sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, M; Sakane, T; Yanagi, M; Yamasato, K; Hamana, K; Yokota, A

    1995-04-01

    The taxonomic positions of 10 strains of 3-ketolactose-forming bacteria which were isolated from the roots of plants (Rosa sp., Psychotria nairobiensis, Ardisia crispa, Prunus persica, and apple trees) were investigated. The DNA base compositions of these strains ranged from 64.0 to 65.7 mol%, the isoprenoid quinone of each strain was ubiquinone 10, 3-hydroxy fatty acids were lacking in the cellular fatty acids of these organisms, and all of the strains contained a sphingolipid with the long-chain base dihydrosphingosin. These are characteristics of the genus Sphingomonas. On the basis of morphological, physiological, and chemotaxonomic characteristics, together with DNA-DNA hybridization and 16S ribosomal DNA sequence comparison data, we propose the following four new species of the genus Sphingomonas: Sphingomonas rosa (type strain, IFO 15208) for the strains isolated from rose plants and formerly named [Agrobacterium rhizogenes]; Sphingomonas pruni (type strain, IFO 15498) for the strains isolated from Prunus persica; and Sphingomonas asaccharolytica (type strain, IFO 15499) and Sphingomonas mali (type strain, IFO 15500) for the strains isolated from apple trees. Two strains which were isolated from Psychotria nairobiensis and formerly named [Chromobacterium lividum] were identified as Sphingomonas yanoikuyae strains.

  10. Chryseobacterium solincola sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmalek, Yam; Cayol, Jean-Luc; Bouanane, Nabila A; Hacene, Hocine; Fauque, Guy; Fardeau, Marie-Laure

    2010-08-01

    A Gram-staining-negative, yellow-pigmented, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated strain 1YB-R12T, was isolated from a soil sample in western Algeria. The novel isolate was heterotrophic, chemoorganotrophic, halotolerant and psychrotolerant. The temperature and pH optima for growth were 28-30 degrees C and pH 7.3-8. The bacterium tolerated up to 6% (w/v) NaCl. Cells were non-motile, non-gliding and non-spore-forming, and were characterized by a variable morphological cycle. Flexirubin-type pigments were not detected. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain 1YB-R12T occupied a distinct lineage within the genus Chryseobacterium and shared highest sequence similarity with Chryseobacterium haifense LMG 24029T (96.5%). The DNA G+C content of strain 1YB-R12T was 40.9 mol%. The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15:0 (41.4%) and iso-C15:0 (14.4%). On the basis of phenotypic properties and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain 1YB-R12T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Chryseobacterium, for which the name Chryseobacterium solincola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 1YB-R12T (=DSM 22468T=CCUG 55604T).

  11. Production of biodiesel from Coelastrella sp. microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, Dieni; Fitriady, Muhammad Arifuddin; Susilaningsih, Dwi; Simanungkalit, Sabar Pangihutan

    2017-11-01

    Microalgae have a wide area of usage and one of them it can be used for biodiesel production. In biodiesel production, lipids containing triglyceride or free fatty acid are converted into methyl ester through trans/esterification reactions. Lipids from microalgae can be extracted by acetone and dimethyl carbonate using homogenizer. Esterification of the lipids was investigated using various catalysts and source of methyl group. Activity of homogeneous catalyst such as HCl and H2SO4 and heterogeneous catalysts such as montmorillonit K-10 and ledgestone was investigated. Moreover, methanol and dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group were also studied. Among of catalysts with methanol as source of methyl group, it was found that yield of crude biodiesel derived from Choelestrella Sp. microalgae was high over H2SO4 catalyst. On the other hand, over H2SO4 catalyst using dimethyl carbonate as source of methyl group, yield of crude biodiesel significant increase. However, FAME composition of crude biodiesel was high over HCl catalyst.

  12. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (Ocotea sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra-Escobar, Jorge A; Castro Restrepo, Dagoberto; Osorio Vega, Walter

    2009-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was carried out to determine the mycorrhizal dependency of laurel (>Ocotea sp.). In order to do this, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments in a factorial array of 3 x 2 and five repetitions. The treatments involved a combination of three Phosphorus (P) levels in soil solution (0.002, 0.02 and 0.2 mg L-1) and two levels of mycorrhizal inoculation, either inoculated or non-inoculated with Glomus aggregatum Schenck and Smith. The leaf P content as a function of time was used as an output variable. Shoot dry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, and mycorrhizal dependence were measured at harvest. The results indicated that the leaf P content increased significantly when using the mycorrhizal inoculation in laurel at P level 0.2 mg L -1, but not in the other P levels, on some of the sampling days. Shoot dry weight and total plant P content did not increase at all levels of soil available P. Mycorrhizal dependency of laurel reached 28%, which allows this species to be classified as moderately dependent on mycorrhiza.

  13. The Growth of Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. Cells in the Presence of Thorium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Cristina de Queiroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxicity of thorium by Monoraphidium sp. and Scenedesmus sp. was studied. Microalgal cultures were inoculated in ASM-1 medium in presence and absence of thorium. Its effect was monitored by direct counting on Fuchs-Rosenthal chamber and with software. The toxicity of thorium over the species was observed for concentrations over 50.0 mg/L. After 30 days, Monoraphidium cells decreased their concentration from 4.23×106 to 4.27×105 and 8.57×105 cells/mL, in the presence of 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L of thorium, respectively. Scenedesmus sp. cells were more resistant to thorium: for an initial cell concentration of 7.65×104 cells/mL it was observed a change to 5.25×105 and 5.12×105 cells/mL, in the presence of thorium at 50.0 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. This is an indication that low concentrations of the radionuclide favored the growth, and that Scenedesmus cells are more resistant to thorium than Monoraphidium cells. The software used for comparison with direct count method proved to be useful for the improvement of accuracy of the results obtained, a decrease in the uncertainty and allowed recording of the data. The presence of thorium suggests that low concentrations have a positive effect on the growth, due to the presence of the nitrate, indicating its potential for ecotoxicological studies.

  14. Aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. Leptospira sp. as a cause of equine abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Argenta Pescador

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de aborto eqüino por Leptospira sp. em um feto de 6 meses proveniente de um estabelecimento localizado próximo a Porto Alegre/RS. As lesões macroscópicas se caracterizaram por icterícia e hemorragias distribuídas difusamente sobre a pele, mucosa oral, tecido subcutâneo, pulmão, coração e sistema gastrintestinal. O fígado estava aumentado de tamanho, friável e de coloração amarelada. Os rins apresentavam hemorragias petequiais na superfície capsular e na superfície de corte observaram-se palidez da região cortical e medular. Cortes de rim e sistema nervoso central, corados por Warthin-Starry, revelaram a presença de espiroquetas nos túbulos, glomérulos e substância branca do encéfalo. Cultivo aeróbio de amostras de fígado e pulmão não revelaram crescimento bacteriano significativo. O teste de imunofluorescência direta para Leptospira sp. foi positivo e a sorologia fetal resultou numa titulação de 80 para o sorovar copenhageni e 40 para os sorovares icterohaemorragiae e pomona.This report describes an abortion on 6-month-old equine aborted fetus that has been caused by Leptospira sp. Main lesions included jaundice and hemorrhages diffusely scattered throughout the skin, oral mucosa, subcutaneous tissues, lungs, heart and gastrointestinal system. The liver was enlarged, pliable and yellow colored. The cortical and medullar of the kidneys were pale and petechial hemorrhages were present on the capsular surface. Warthin-Starry stained slices of the kidneys and central nervous system revealed the presence of spirochaetes within the tubules, glomeruli and white matter of the encephalo. Aerobic cultivation from samples of the liver and lungs were negative. The direct immunofluorescence test for Leptospira sp. was positive and the fetus’s serological test resulted titers of 80 against sorotype copenhageni and 40 against the sorotypes icterohaemorragiae and pomona.

  15. Microfibril-associated Protein 4 Binds to Surfactant Protein A (SP-A) and Colocalizes with SP-A in the Extracellular Matrix of the Lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlosser, Anders; Thomsen, Theresa H.; Shipley, J. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein A (SP-A) is an oligomeric collectin that recognizes lipid and carbohydrate moieties present on broad range of micro-organisms, and mediates microbial lysis and clearance. SP-A also modulates multiple immune-related functions including cytokine production and chemotaxis......-A composed of the neck region and carbohydrate recognition domain of SP-A indicating that the interaction between MFAP4 and SP-A is mediated via the collagen domain of SP-A. Monoclonal antibodies directed against MFAP4 and SP-A were used for immunohistochemical analysis, which demonstrates that the two...

  16. In vitro micropropagation of orchid, Oncidium sp. (Dancing Dolls ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oncidium sp.). In vitro regeneration multiplication and rooting of plantlets were achieved from the immature seeds on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l). Rooted plantlets were then transferred to perforated ...

  17. 4-Dehydroecdysterone, a new ecdysteroid from the zoanthid Parazoanthus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searle, P A; Molinski, T F

    1995-02-01

    A novel ecdysteroid, 4-dehydroecdysterone [3], has been isolated from the zoanthid Parazoanthus sp. collected from Port Phillip Bay, Australia. The known ecdysteroids ecdysterone [1] and ajugasterone C [2] were also isolated, together with the known alkaloid paragracine [4].

  18. Biomineralization of a calcifying ureolytic bacterium Microbacterium sp. GM-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The results of this research provide evidence that Microbacterium sp. GM-1 can biologically induce calcification and suggest that strain GM-1 may play a potential role in the synthesis of new biominerals and in bioremediation or biorecovery.

  19. Biotransformation of 6-deoxypseudoanisatin by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wang

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Thus, the study appears to demonstrate that Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 can transform 6-deoxypseudoanisatin. The polarity of the converted product is less than that of 6-deoxypseudoanisatin.

  20. Volvatellin, caulerpenyne-related product fromt he sacoglossan Volvatella sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A; Ciavatta, M.L.; Mollo, E; Naik, C.G.; Wahidullah, S.; De; Cimino, G.

    Volvatellin (4) is a highly unstable terpene isolated from the extracts of the Indian opisthobranch mollusk Volvatella sp. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of 4 were determined by NMR methods. The paper also describes a hypothetical...

  1. Massarina armatispora sp. nov., a new intertidal ascomycete from mangroves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hyde, K.D.; Vrijmoed, L.L.P.; Chinnaraj, S.; Jones, E.B.G.

    Massarina armatispora sp. nov. is described from dead intertidal mangrove wood collected in India and Hong Kong. The new taxon is compared with other M. species, and its placement in the genus Massarina is discussed...

  2. Environmental interactions and the SP-100 power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative High-Capacity-Power Environmental Interactions Program has made great progress in defining and evaluating the interactions of the SP-100 power system with its expected ambient environments. The NASCAP/LEO and POLAR computer codes demonstrated that local electric fields at the user interface module are high. Therefore, particular attention must be paid to geometries and materials in this region to prevent arcing at conductor-insulator junctions in low Earth orbit. NASCAP/LEO and EPSAT computer models revealed that SP-100 payloads float about 100 V negative of the LEO plasma. In addition, ground tests and modeling done for the Space Station Freedom Electrical Grounding Tiger Team found that dielectric coatings often break down at such voltages in a plasma. Thus, surface coatings for SP-100 payloads should be carefully selected. Sputtering may also be a concern for long-duration missions in LEO at these voltages. Much work has been done on a sputtering model to evaluate surface material loss rates on SP-100 payloads. In ground plasma chamber tests of cables and cable insulators at SP-100 voltages, parasitic power losses due to the plasma current collected from possible pinholes or coating defects were quantified and shown to be small. Modeling revealed that the power loss from currents to other surfaces is also small. The atomic oxygen durability of SP-100 materials and coatings continues to be investigated in ground tests. In the upcoming Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) Shuttle flight experiment, a host of SP-100 materials will be evaluated for atomic oxygen durability in LEO. Finally, an evaluation of the interactions of the SP-100 power system with lunar and planetary environments has started. At a workshop on chemical and electrical interactions on Mars recently held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, many of primary interactions were identified

  3. Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis associated with corynebacterium sp. Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stary, Creed Michael; Lee, Yun Sun; Balfour, John

    2011-05-01

    Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare inflammatory condition of the breast. The etiology and treatments options of IGM remain controversial. Previous case reports have suggested that Corynebacterium sp., a gram-positive bacillus endogenous to the skin, may be associated with IGM. In the present report, we describe the first case of IGM with a positive culture for Corynebacterium sp. reported in the United States.

  4. Pigment Production from Immobilized Monascus sp. Utilizing Polymeric Resin Adsorption

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Patrick J.; Wang, Henry Y.

    1984-01-01

    Pigment production by the fungus Monascus sp. was studied to determine why Monascus sp. provides more pigment in solid culture than in submerged culture. Adding a sterilized nonionic polymeric adsorbent resin directly to the growing submerged culture did not enhance the pigment production, thus indicating that pigment extraction is probably not a factor. Monascus cells immobilized in hydrogel were studied and exhibited decreased pigment production as a result of immobilization. This result is...

  5. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov., Candida taylorii sp. nov. and Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov., novel yeasts from mangrove and coral reef ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statzell-Tallman, Adele; Scorzetti, Gloria; Fell, Jack W

    2010-08-01

    Three species of yeasts are taxonomically described for strains isolated from marine environments. Candida spencermartinsiae sp. nov. (type strain CBS 10894T =NRRL Y-48663T) and Candida taylorii sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8508T =NRRL Y-27213T) are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts in a phylogenetic cluster of marine yeasts in the Debaryomyces/Lodderomyces clade of the Saccharomycetales. The two species were isolated from multiple locations among coral reefs and mangrove habitats. Pseudozyma abaconensis sp. nov. (type strain CBS 8380T =NRRL Y-17380T) is an anamorphic basidiomycete that is related to the smut fungi of the genus Ustilago in the Ustilaginales. P. abaconensis was collected from waters adjacent to a coral reef.

  6. Uranium and thorium uptake by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Prasath, C.S.; Manikandan, N.; Prakash, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents uptake of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. Increasing concentration of U and Tb showed decrease in absorption by Pseudomonas Sp. Dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. exhibited same or more uptake of U and Th than living cells. Increasing temperature promotes uptake of U and Th by Pseudomonas Sp. (author)

  7. Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supong, Khomsan; Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Suwanborirux, Khanit; Pittayakhajonwut, Pattama; Thawai, Chitti

    2013-11-01

    An actinomycete strain, SP03-05(T), was isolated from a marine sponge sample (Xestospongia sp.) collected from Phuket Province of Thailand. The strain was aerobic, Gram-stain-positive and produced single spores at the tips of the substrate mycelium. Strain SP03-05(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in the peptidoglycan; whole-cell sugars were arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose, ribose and xylose. The polar lipid profile of strain SP03-05(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides and unknown polar lipids. Morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics of the strain identified it as a member of the family Micromonosporaceae. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed similarity of the strain to Verrucosispora lutea YIM 013(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora sediminis MS426(T) (96.90 %), Verrucosispora gifhornensis DSM 44337(T) (96.80 %), Verrucosispora maris AB-18-032(T) (96.80 %) and Verrucosispora qiuiae RtIII47(T) (95.40 %). The DNA G+C content was 72.4 mol%. The phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization results supported the classification of this strain as a representative of a novel species in the genus Verrucosispora, for which the name Verrucosispora andamanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SP03-05(T) ( = BCC 45620(T) = NBRC 109075(T)).

  8. Cellulomonas soli sp. nov. and Cellulomonas oligotrophica sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Esaki, Kouji; Ide, Teruhiko

    2013-01-01

    Two novel bacterial strains, designated Kc1(T) and Kc5(T), were isolated from soil in Japan. Cells of the novel strains were Gram-reaction-positive, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, motile rods. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that both strains belonged to the genus Cellulomonas. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of strains Kc1(T) and Kc5(T) showed closest similarity to that of Cellulomonas terrae DB5(T) (98.1 % and 98.4 % similarity, respectively), and the 16S rRNA gene similarity between the two novel strains was 97.8 %. In both strains, the major menaquinone was MK-9(H(4)), the predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylinositol mannosides, and the peptidoglycan contained ornithine and glutamic acid. Cell-wall sugars were identified as rhamnose, galactose and mannose in strain Kc1(T) and rhamnose and glucose in strain Kc5(T). The DNA G+C contents of strains Kc1(T) and Kc5(T) were 73.6 mol% and 75.8 mol%, respectively. Based on the chemotaxonomic and physiological data and the results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, the two strains represent two novel species within the genus Cellulomonas, for which the names Cellulomonas soli sp. nov. (type strain Kc1(T) =DSM 24484(T) =JCM 17535(T)) and Cellulomonas oligotrophica sp. nov. (type strain Kc5(T) =DSM 24482(T) =JCM 17534(T)) are proposed.

  9. Halotolerant laccases from Chaetomium sp., Xylogone sphaerospora, and Coprinopsis sp. isolated from a Mediterranean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasemian, Leila; Billette, Christophe; Guiral, Daniel; Alazard, Emilie; Moinard, Magalie; Farnet, Anne-Marie

    2012-10-01

    Laccases (EC 1.10.3.2) are phenoloxidases involved in the transformation of the recalcitrant fraction of organic matter in soil. These enzymes are also able to transform certain aromatic pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are known to be inhibited by chloride ions. This study aims to test the potential of some fungal strains newly isolated from natural environments subjected to high osmotic pressure such as coastal ecosystems, to produce chloride tolerant laccases. Three strains were identified as Chaetomium sp., Xylogone sphaerospora (two Ascomycota), and Coprinopsis sp. (a Basidiomycota) and the laccases produced by these fungi were weakly inhibited by chloride ions compared with previous data from literature. Moreover, we tested their reactivity towards various PAHs which are widespread anthropic pollutants. They were able to transform anthracene to 9,10-anthraquinone and we determine 7.5 eV as the threshold of ionization potential for PAH oxidation by these laccases. Copyright © 2012 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Description and phylogenetic relationships of Spumochlamys perforata n. sp. and Spumochlamys bryora n. sp. (Amoebozoa, Arcellinida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Alexander; Pawlowski, Jan; Hausmann, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Spumochlamys perforata n. sp. and Spumochlamys bryora n. sp. were isolated and described from dry epiphytic moss. The morphology and ultrastructure of both species clearly demonstrate that they belong to the genus Spumochlamys (family Microchlamyiidae). They differ from its only described member, Spumochlamys iliensis (as well as from species of Microchlamys), in the relief of the dorsal surface of the test, revealed by scanning electron microscopy, which can represent a good characteristic for species identification. They also differ in the structure of the dorsal part of the test wall (especially S. perforata). Small subunit ribosomal DNA-based molecular phylogenetic analyses show that Spumochlamys is a deeply branching lineage of the Arcellinida, without any close affinities. Actin gene sequence analysis places this genus within the Tubulinea, close to two other arcellinid lineages but without forming a monophyletic group with them. These data together strongly suggest that the lack of resolution in the arcellinid molecular phylogenies is due to serious undersampling of taxa, a limited number of sequence data, and high divergence rates in most of the species.

  11. Potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o isolados de Fusarium sp., in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Anthony Hoffmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo – O uso discriminado de agrotóxicos acarreta em uma grande prejuízo a saúdes das pessoas e do meio ambiente. O uso de novos métodos de combate a pragas se faz necessário para o equilíbrio da cadeia produtiva. A utilização de microrganismos no combate a pragas se faz como uma boa alternativa. O trabalho objetivou-se em avaliar o potencial de antagonismo de isolados de Trichoderma sp. contra o patógeno Fusarium sp. in vitro. Para isso foi utilizado os métodos de confronto direto, pareamento de culturas e de metabólitos voláteis. Os experimentos foram realizados na incubadora de empresas da Universidade Federal do Tocantins – UFT Campus de Gurupi, seguiram com três repetições. Foram testados 15 isolados do antagonista em confronto direto com o patógeno e os mesmos isolados e patógeno foram testados em metabólitos voláteis ambos utilizando o meio de cultura BDA. Todos os isolados apresentaram antagonismo in vitro contra o patógeno.

  12. Identification and production of bioflocculants by Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp. and their characterization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthulakshmi, L; Nellaiah, H; Kathiresan, T; Rajini, N; Christopher, Fenila

    2017-05-28

    In this work, two bioflocculants, namely, EB-EPS and B1-EPS, were derived from Enterobacter sp. and Bacillus sp., respectively, and analyzed with regard to their production and characterization. About 0.9 and 0.16 g of purified EB and B1 were obtained from I L of fermentation broth. Chemical analysis showed the contents of purified EB and B1 mainly as 88.7 and 92.8% (w/w) of carbohydrate, and 11.3 and 21.8% (w/w) protein, respectively. Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry analysis revealed the presence of hydroxyl, amide, and carboxyl groups in the identified bioflocculant. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) results exhibited enhanced thermal stability with a minimum mass loss of 50% while 25% were found to have occurred at higher temperatures (>400°C) for microbe-derived compounds EB and B1 leading to the possibility of using these compounds as fillers or for fabricating composite films for high-temperature applications. Further, the compounds from both the bacteria exhibited good antibacterial characteristics against pathogenic Escherichia coli. Degradability study of bioflocculant-embedded composite films shows the possibility of attaining eco-friendly bioremediation. Accordingly, experimental results revealed the suitability of developed composite films as a suitable alternative for food packaging and biomedical applications.

  13. Listeria booriae sp. nov. and Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov., from food processing environments in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Daniel; Andrus, Alexis; Wiedmann, Martin; den Bakker, Henk C

    2015-01-01

    Sampling of seafood and dairy processing facilities in the north-eastern USA produced 18 isolates of Listeria spp. that could not be identified at the species-level using traditional phenotypic and genotypic identification methods. Results of phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggested that the isolates represent two novel species with an average nucleotide blast identity of less than 92% with previously described species of the genus Listeria. Phylogenetic analyses based on whole genome sequences, 16S rRNA gene and sigB gene sequences confirmed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) and FSL A5-0209 cluster phylogenetically with Listeria cornellensis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that the isolates represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) cluster phylogenetically with Listeria riparia. The name Listeria booriae sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL A5-0281(T) ( =DSM 28860(T) =LMG 28311(T)), and the name Listeria newyorkensis sp. nov. is proposed for the species represented by type strain FSL M6-0635(T) ( =DSM 28861(T) =LMG 28310(T)). Phenotypic and genotypic analyses suggest that neither species is pathogenic. © 2015 IUMS.

  14. Watery rot of pseudo-stem (Dickeya sp. management in banana (Musa sp. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín Guillermo Ramírez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This crop has serious constraints with diseases, including those caused by bacteria, such as Dickeya sp. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of 4 resistance inductors and 3 doses in Chlorine Dioxide in handling watery rot of pseudo-stem (Dickeya sp. in banana. Resistance inducers and their doses were Potassium Phosphite: 1.5 cm 3 .l -1 ; 3-Aminobutanoic Acid: 1.0 g.l -1 ; Methyl Jasmonate: 0.2 g.l -1 ; S-Methyl-Acibenzolar: 0.3 ml.l -1 , all by foliar application, while Chlorine Dioxide was injected into the pseudo-stem, in doses of 10, 20 and 30 mg.l -1 . The evaluated variables were: development of the disease, total biomass and quantification of the bacterium in the inoculated pseudo-stems. Applications of Chlorine Dioxide achieved a reduction of disease by 65.4, 91.99 and 61.5%, in addition to an inhibition of 100% of the pathogen, using 30 and 50 mg.l -1 doses. Meanwhile, the use of resistance inductors reduced up to 60.6% of the disease, but this effect failed to improve plant growth.

  15. Lactobacillus saniviri sp. nov. and Lactobacillus senioris sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Kaihei; Kudo, Yuko; Watanabe, Koichi

    2012-03-01

    Two Gram-stain-positive strains, YIT 12363(T) and YIT 12364(T), were isolated from human faeces. They were rod-shaped, non-motile, asporogenous, facultatively anaerobic and did not exhibit catalase activity. Comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pheS and rpoA gene sequences demonstrated that the novel strains were members of the genus Lactobacillus. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, the type strains of Lactobacillus casei (95.3% similarity), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (95.6%), Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. tolerans (95.3%) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (95.4%) were the closest neighbours to strain YIT 12363(T). For strain YIT 12364(T), the highest similarity values were observed with the type strains of Lactobacillus diolivorans, Lactobacillus parafarraginis and Lactobacillus rapi (95.8, 96.0 and 96.0%, respectively). Phenotypic and genotypic features demonstrated that these strains each represent a separate novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, and the names Lactobacillus saniviri sp. nov. (type strain YIT 12363(T)=JCM 17471(T)=DSM 24301(T)) and Lactobacillus senioris sp. nov. (type strain YIT 12364(T)=JCM 17472(T)=DSM 24302(T)), respectively, are proposed.

  16. Prevotella copri sp. nov. and Prevotella stercorea sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Hidenori; Shibata, Kensaku; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Tomita, Shinichi; Benno, Yoshimi

    2007-05-01

    Six strains (CB7(T), CB18, CB23, CB26, CB28 and CB35(T)) were isolated from human faeces. Based on phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic characteristics, cellular fatty acid profiles and menaquinone profiles, these strains could be included within the genus Prevotella and made up two clusters. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that five strains were most closely related to Prevotella veroralis, sharing about 92 % sequence similarity; the remaining strain was most closely related to Prevotella shahii, sharing about 90 % sequence similarity. All six strains were obligately anaerobic, non-pigmented, non-spore-forming, non-motile, Gram-negative rods. The cellular fatty acid compositions of the six strains differed significantly from those of other Prevotella species. Five strains (CB7(T), CB18, CB23, CB26 and CB28) contained dimethyl acetals and the major menaquinones of these strains were MK-11, MK-12 and MK-13. The major menaquinones of CB35(T) were MK-12 and MK-13. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, two novel species, Prevotella copri sp. nov. and Prevotella stercorea sp. nov., are proposed, representing the two different strain clusters. The DNA G+C contents of strains CB7(T) and CB35(T) were 45.3 and 48.2 mol%, respectively. The type strains of P. copri and P. stercorea are CB7(T) (=JCM 13464(T)=DSM 18205(T)) and CB35(T) (=JCM 13469(T)=DSM 18206(T)), respectively.

  17. Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov., isolated from traditional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Mika; Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Chaipitakchonlatarn, Winai; Malimas, Taweesak; Sugimoto, Masako; Yoshino, Mayumi; Kamakura, Yuki; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanaka, Naoto; Nakagawa, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Ken-ichiro

    2015-08-01

    Three Lactobacillus-like strains, NB53T, NB446T and NB702, were isolated from traditional fermented food in Thailand. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that these strains belong to the Lactobacillus plantarum group. Phylogenetic analysis based on the dnaK, rpoA, pheS and recA gene sequences indicated that these three strains were distantly related to known species present in the L. plantarum group. DNA-DNA hybridization with closely related strains demonstrated that these strains represented two novel species; the novel strains could be differentiated based on chemotaxonomic and phenotypic characteristics. Therefore, two novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, Lactobacillus plajomi sp. nov. (NB53T) and Lactobacillus modestisalitolerans sp. nov. (NB446T and NB702), are proposed with the type strains NB53T ( = NBRC 107333T = BCC 38054T) and NB446T ( = NBRC 107235T = BCC 38191T), respectively.

  18. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  19. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed. © 2014 IUMS.

  20. Optimization of Chlorella SP. Flour Fortification in the Processing of Nata

    OpenAIRE

    Zulistiara, Juanidia; ', Syahrul; ', Sumarto

    2017-01-01

    This research aimed to study the effect of Chlorella sp.different weight and to find out the optimum weigth of Chlorella sp. flour fortified into the nata. The method used was experimental, that was fortification of Chlorella sp. flour in the processing of nata. The design used was a non-factorial completely randomized design, consisted of 4 weigth levels, namely: no Chlorella sp. flour added (N1), added with 2 gs Chlorella sp. Flour (N2), 4 gs Chlorella sp. flour (N3) and 6 gs Chlorella sp. ...

  1. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-7 Projects and Evaluation of SPC Panel SP-7 Management and Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Rodney A

    1993-01-01

    .... Projects that have provided important reference information have also been beneficial. This Task has also assessed the opinion of the shipyard using community on the administration and management of Panel SP-7 itself...

  2. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-4 Projects and Evaluation of SPC Panel SP-4 Management and Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Rodney A

    1993-01-01

    This Task has investigated the benefits derived from the projects sponsored during the past 12 years by SNAME Ship Production Committee Panel SP-4 on Design/Production Integration under the National...

  3. Benefit Analysis of SPC Panel SP-3 Projects and Evaluation of SPC Panel SP-3 Management and Administration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robinson, Rodney A

    1993-01-01

    This Task has investigated the benefits derived from the projects sponsored during the past 4 years by SNAME Ship Production Committee Panel SP-3 on Surface Preparation and Coatings under the National...

  4. Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. and Australomysis reubeni sp. nov. (Crustacea-Mysidacea) from south-west Australian waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Panampunnayil, S.U.

    Two new species of mysids are described, Rhopalophthalmus constrictus sp. nov. is in having a well-produced triangular rostral plate, pleural plates on the anterior five abdominal somites and prominent constriction at the distal end of the telson...

  5. Enhanced photocatalytic activity induced by sp 3 to sp 2 transition of carbon dopants in BiOCl crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Jianguo

    2017-09-19

    The insufficient light absorption and low quantum efficiency limit the photocatalytic performance of wide bandgap semiconductors. Here, we report a facile strategy to engineer the surface disordered defects of BiOCl nanosheets via carbon doping. The surface defects boost the light absorption and also the quantum yields, as the doped carbon atoms exhibit a transition from sp3 to sp2 hybridization at elevated temperature, corresponding to a change of assembly state from 3D cluster to 2D graphite-like structure. This transition results in an effective charge separation and thus one order of enhancement in photocatalytic activity toward phenol degradation under visible light. The current study opens an avenue to introduce sp3 to sp2 transition of carbon dopants for simultaneous increment of light absorption and quantum efficiency for application in photocatalysis and energy conversion.

  6. Growth kinetics and biodeterioration of polypropylene microplastics by Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp. isolated from mangrove sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auta, H S; Emenike, C U; Jayanthi, B; Fauziah, S H

    2018-02-01

    Interest in the biodegradation of microplastics is due to their ubiquitous distribution, availability, high persistence in the environment and deleterious impact on marine biota. The present study evaluates the growth response and mechanism of polypropylene (PP) degradation by Bacillus sp. strain 27 and Rhodococcus sp. strain 36 isolated from mangrove sediments upon exposure to PP microplastics. Both bacteria strains were able to utilise PP microplastic for growth as confirmed by the reduction of the polymer mass. The weight loss was 6.4% by Rhodococcus sp. strain 36 and 4.0% by Bacillus sp. strain 27 after 40days of incubation. PP biodegradation was further confirmed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analyses, which revealed structural and morphological changes in the PP microplastics with microbial treatment. These analyses showed that the isolates can colonise, modify and utilise PP microplastics as carbon source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Planomonospora corallina sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suriyachadkun, Chanwit; Ngaemthao, Wipaporn; Chunhametha, Suwanee

    2016-08-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, A-T 11038T, was isolated from bamboo rhizospheric soil collected in Thailand. Based on a polyphasic approach, the novel strain was characterized as a member of the genus Planomonospora, which developed cylindrical to clavate sporangia containing a single motile spore on aerial mycelium. The 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicated that strain A-T 11038T was closely related to Planomonospora sphaerica JCM 9374T (98.82 %), P.lanomonospora parontospora subsp. parontospora NBRC 13880T and P.parontospora subsp. antibiotica JCM 3094T (98.54 %), Planomonospora alba JCM 9373T (98.41 %) and Planomonospora venezuelensis JCM 3167T (97.51 %). The DNA-DNA relatedness values that distinguished strain A-T 11038T from the most closely related species were below 45 %. The novel strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid in cell-wall hydrolysates, and rhamnose, ribose, madurose and glucose in whole-cell hydrolysates. The predominant menaquinone was MK-9(H2). The diagnostic phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, phosphatidylinositol and aminophosphoglycolipids. The predominant cellular fatty acids were unsaturated fatty acids C17 : 1 and C16 : 1 and saturated fatty acid C16 : 0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 73.5 mol%. Following the evidence obtained using a polyphasic approach, the novel strain is proposed as a representative of a novel species to be named Planomonospora corallina sp. nov. The type strain is A-T 11038T (=BCC 67829T=TBRC 4489T=NBRC 110609T).

  8. Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soon Dong

    2012-03-01

    An aerobic, Gram-reaction-negative, chemo-organotrophic bacterium, designated strain SSW-35(T), was isolated from seawater in Jeju, Republic of Korea. Cells were motile, short rods; colonies were circular, smooth, convex, translucent and beige in colour. No diffusible pigment formed on any of the media tested. The bacterium grew at 4-30 °C and pH 7.1-10.1. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the organism was related to members of the genus Loktanella, its closest recognized relatives being Loktanella rosea Fg36(T) (98.1% sequence similarity) and Loktanella maricola DSW-18(T) (97.8%). Levels of 16S rRNA gene similarity between strain SSW-35(T) and other recognized species of the genus Loktanella were all <97%. Polar lipid analysis revealed the presence of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and an unknown lipid as major components, as well as small amounts of two unknown phospholipids. The predominant ubiquinone was Q-10. The major cellular fatty acid was C(18:1) (summed feature 7), and the 3-hydroxy fatty acids detected were C(12:1) 3-OH and C(10:0) 3-OH. The genomic DNA G+C content was 55.0 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, the relatedness values between strain SSW-35(T) and the type strains of the phylogenetically closest recognized species were all <11%. On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics, phylogenetic analysis and DNA-DNA relatedness, a novel species, Loktanella tamlensis sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is SSW-35(T) (=KCTC 12722(T)=JCM 14020(T)).

  9. Morfologia da laringe de cutia (Dasyprocta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrezza B.S. Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A cutia (Dasyprocta sp. é um roedor silvestre com distribuição mundial. Atualmente, além de importante papel ecológico que exerce, está sendo utilizada como modelo em experimento animal. Estudos sobre a morfologia destes animais são importantes porque podem ser uma alternativa para o estudo de diversos processos patológicos, além de contribuirem para a preservação da espécie. A laringe é um órgão localizado entre a faringe e a traqueia, no qual está envolvido nas funções de respiração, deglutição e fonação. O presente estudo propôs realizar uma descrição morfológica macroscópica e microscópica da laringe da cutia. Para tanto, foram utilizadas quinze cutias pertencentes ao Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Piauí e provenientes do Núcleo de Estudos e Preservação de Animais Silvestres com licença do IBAMA (Nº 02/08-618, CTF Nº 474064. Todos os animais foram identificados, promovida a sexagem e, posteriormente, a laringe acessada e dissecada sendo os fragmentos cartilagíneos encaminhados para rotina histológica e corados pelo método de hematoxilina-eosina. As lâminas obtidas foram visualizadas em microscopia óptica de luz e foto documentadas. A laringe da cutia apresenta cinco cartilagens, com ausência da cartilagem cuneiforme e presença da incisura caudal na cartilagem tireoide. O tecido epitelial da laringe varia de epitélio estratificado pavimentoso queratinizado à não queratinizado e ciliado com células caliciformes.

  10. Phycicoccus soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hina; Won, KyungHwa; Ngo, Hien T T; Du, Juan; Kook, MooChang; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-08-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, non-motile, coccus-shaped bacterium, strain THG-a14T, was isolated from soil of Gyeyang mountain in Incheon, Republic of Korea. The isolate grew optimally at 28 °C, at pH 6.5-7.5 and with 0-3 % (w/v) NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strain THG-a14T was closely related to Phycicoccus aerophilus 5516T-20T (97.7 %), P. ginsenosidimutans BXN5-13T (97.6 %), 'P. ochangensis' L1b-b9 (97.4 %) and P. bigeumensis MSL-03 (97.2 %). The DNA G+C content of strain THG-a14T was 71.6 mol%. In DNA-DNA hybridization, the DNA-DNA relatedness between strain THG-a14T and its closest phylogenetically neighbours was below 50.0 %. Strain THG-a14T was characterized chemotaxonomically as having meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Strain THG-a14T contained glucose and ribose as whole-cell-wall sugars and menaquinone MK-8(H4) as the major isoprenoid quinone. Polar lipids in strain THG-a14T consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphoaminoglycolipids, unidentified phospholipids and unidentified lipids. The major fatty acids were iso-C16:0, iso-C15:0 and C17:1ω8c. On the basis of our polyphasic taxonomy study, strain THG-a14T represents a novel species within the genus Phycicoccus, for which the name Phycicoccussoli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is THG-a14T ( = KACC 17892T = JCM 19837T).

  11. Tsukamurella soli sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weon, Hang-Yeon; Yoo, Seung-Hee; Anandham, Rangasamy; Schumann, Peter; Kroppenstedt, Reiner M; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Stackebrandt, Erko

    2010-07-01

    A Gram-positive, rod-shaped, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, white-coloured bacterium, designated strain JS18-1(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from Halla mountain, Jeju island, Korea. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the strain was most closely related to members of the genus Tsukamurella with levels of sequence similarity of 95.4-96.5 %. Strain JS18-1(T) shared highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Tsukamurella strandjordii DSM 44573(T) (96.5 %), Tsukamurella carboxydivorans Y2(T) (96.4 %) and Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (96.4 %). The G+C content of the total DNA of strain JS18-1(T) was 70 mol%. The cell-wall peptidoglycan type was A1gamma and mycolic acids were also detected. The predominant polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol. The major quinone was menaquinone-9 (MK-9) and major cell-wall sugars were arabinose, ribose and glucose. The major fatty acids (>10 % of the total fatty acids) were C(16 : 0), C(18 : 1)omega9c, C(18 : 0) 10-methyl and summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and chemotaxonomic, biochemical and physiological characteristics indicate that strain JS18-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Tsukamurella, for which the name Tsukamurella soli sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS18-1(T) (=KACC 20764(T)=DSM 45046(T)).

  12. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Methods: Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Embase, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases and reviewed by 2 independent readers. Standard mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated to assess the difference in serum levels of SP-A/D among patients with IPF, when compared to patients with non-IPF interstitial lung disease (ILD), pulmonary infection, and healthy control. Hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were used to compare the relative risk of mortality. Results: Twenty-one articles (totalling 1289 IPF patients) were included in final meta-analysis. Serum SP-A levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with non-IPF ILD (SMD: 1.108 [0.584, 1.632], P infection (SMD: 1.320 [0.999, 1.640], P SMD: 2.802 [1.901, 3.702], P SMD: 0.459 [−0.000, 0.919], P = .050). Serum SP-D levels were significantly higher in patients with IPF than in patients with pulmonary infection (SMD: 1.308 [0.813, 1.803], P SMD: 2.235 [1.739, 2.731], P < .001). Risk of death in patients with IPF and elevated serum SP-A was increased 39% compared to patients with low SP-A groups. Elevated SP-D increased risk by 111% when compared to low SP-D. In acute exacerbation of IPF, serum SP-A/D were higher than those in stable stage. The comparisons and prognosis might be different in Asian and Caucasian patients. Conclusions: Serum SP-A/D detection might be useful for differential diagnosis and prediction of survival in patients with IPF. PMID:28591049

  13. Modular Stereoselective Synthesis of (1 -> 2)-C-Glycosides based on the sp(2)-sp(3) Suzuki-Miyaura Reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oroszová, B.; Choutka, J.; Pohl, Radek; Parkan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 19 (2015), s. 7043-7047 ISSN 0947-6539 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP207/12/P713; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-17572S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : C-disaccharides * C-glycosides * diastereoselectivity * Mitsunobu reaction * sp(2)-sp(3) coupling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.771, year: 2015

  14. Impact of serum SP-A and SP-D levels on comparison and prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kai; Ju, Qing; Cao, Jing; Tang, Wenze; Zhang, Jian

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has a poor prognosis in general; however, it is heterogeneous to detect relative biomarkers for predicting the disease progression. Serum biomarkers can be conveniently collected to detect and help to differentially diagnose IPF and predict IPF prognosis. This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the use of serum surfactant proteins A and D (SP-A and SP-D) for differential diagnosis and prognosis of IPF. Methods: Relevant artic...

  15. Ion irradiation-induced, localized sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation in walls of multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Reetu; Singh, Fouran; Yadav, Brajesh S.; Kotnala, Ravinder K.; Peta, Koteswara Rao; Tyagi, Pawan K.; Kumar, Sanjeev; Puri, Nitin K.

    2017-12-01

    In this report, ion irradiation-induced localized sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation in multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) was observed after irradiating MWCNTs with high-energy Au+8 ions (100 MeV). The used MWCNTs were grown using cobaltocene and benzene as catalyst and carbon source, respectively by the thermal CVD technique and consist of both unfilled and Co-filled tubes. Prior to irradiation, the MWCNT sample was characterized using scanning electron microscope and micro-Raman and photoluminescence spectrometers. The effect of ion fluence on MWCNT walls and transformation of sp2 to sp3 sites was analyzed by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. We found that as the fluence increased, the localized transformation from sp2 to sp3 sites occurred in the walls of MWCNTs, which was evident by the emergence of peak at approximately 1543 cm-1 associated with the G peak in tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) and the vanishing of 2D band (2700 cm-1). Furthermore, we observed broadening in D and G, with slight shift in their positions and consistent decrease in 2D band intensity, as fluence increased.

  16. Botanical pesticides effect from shells of bean’s cashew nut on biological agents of trichoderma sp. and gliocladium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bande, L. O. S.; Mariadi; Gusnawaty, HS; Nuriadi; Trisulpa, L.; Rahmania

    2018-02-01

    A shell of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentanle) has contained Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) that is used as botanical pesticides. CNSL oil consists of active substance such as anacardat acid, cardol and cardanol. Utilization of the pesticides from shells of cashew nut to control pests and diseases of plants would be affected on biological agents. The objective of this research was to investigate pesticides inhibition on the increase of mycelium Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. by in vitro method. The tested concentration sample consisted of 0.0% (control), 2.5%, 7.5% and 10.0% in PDA media. The results of this research showed that 2.5% botanical pesticides concentration could minimize mycelium of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. 22.73% and 21.04% respectively and also the increase shells of cashew extract could be affected the increase of mycelium inhibition. The extract with 2.5% concentration was the recommended concentration to control of fruit rot diseases and if concentration was 10.0% then its inhibition become 54.98% and 49.35%, respectively. The results proved that uncontrolled utilization of the pesticides could be affected on decrease of Trichoderma sp. and Gliocladium sp. growth.

  17. Characterization of Ethanolic Extract of Streptomyces sp. as a Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitors Produced by Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenni Fitri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 isolated from Zingiber cassumunar (Bangle is known to produce pancreatic lipase inhibitory compound. However, the characteristics of this active compound has not been reported yet. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of pancreatics inhibitory compound produced by Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 and to assess the role of endophytic actinobacteria in producing pancreatic lipase inhibitor using endophytic-free bangle tissue culture, wild bangle and compared with the activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 endophytes. Supernatant of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was extracted using ethanol, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane solvents. Toxicity test was performed using larvae of shrimp Artemia salina. The results showed that the best solvent to obtain pancreatic lipase inhibitor compounds was ethanol. Phytochemical analysis showed that ethanolic extract of endophytic Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 contained flavonoids. IC50 value of ethanol extract was 180.83 µg/ml. The result of TLC showed that ethanolic extract of Streptomyces AEBg12 had a blue luminescence band indicated that there were either flavone, flavanones, flavonols or isoflavones. Inhibitory activity of Streptomyces sp. AEBg12 was higher than wild bangle and bangle tissue culture. The information from this study can be be used as a basic data for further characterization of the active compound, which might be developed as an antiobesity agent through its pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity.

  18. Using SP and SF to Lower Cement Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassen A. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, using different percents of superplasticizer (SP and silica fume (SF to improve the characteristics of concrete is performed. SP and SF are added to two types of  normal concrete, the first is of mixing ratio (1:2:4 and the second is of mixing ratio (1:1.5:3.28The results show that adding SF lead to increase compressive strength for first mix by about 45.3% and 47.7% while adding SP lead to increase the compressive strength by about 43% and 41%  compared to reference mix at 7 and 28 day respectively. The corresponding values for second mix are 46.7% , 49%, 44% and 43% respectively.The maximum compressive strength when SP and SF used together can be attained when the percents of SF and SP are 5% and 3% respectively. The increase in compressive strength is about 49.3% and 48.4%  for first mix, while the corresponding values for second mix are 52.4% and 51.2% as they compared to reference mix at 7 and 28 day respectively.For Tensile strength, adding SP lead to increase it by about 29.2% and 31.6% for first and second mix respectively, while the corresponding values when adding SF are 38.1% and 40.3%. The effect of using SP and SF together on increase tensile strength is more than the effect of using each one separately. The maximum tensile strength can be attained when the percents of SF and SP are 5% and 3% respectively as they increase the tensile strength by about 38.9% and 40.7% for first and second mix.The effect of using admixtures on cement content can be noted clearly as the maximum reduction percents are about 8.7% and 9.35% for first and second mix respectively when the percent of SP is 3%. The corresponding values are 9.4% and 11.26% when the percent of SF is 5%. Using SP and SF together at percents 3% and 5% respectively lead to reduce cement content by about 10.15% and 13.54% for first and second mix respectively.

  19. UJI POTENSI Gliocladium sp TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN DAN PRODUKSI TANAMAN TOMAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Herlina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMikroorganisme tanah seperti Gliocladium sp dapat bertindak sebagai dekomposer dan juga sebagai agen pengendali hayati patogen tanaman hal ini memberikan harapan untuk mengurangi penggunaan pupuk dan fungisida sintetik. Tujuan penelitian untuk menguji potensi biofertililzer Gliocladium sp terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. Variabel bebas yaitu bioferlizer Gliocladium sp  dengan dosis (g/tanaman 0,50, 100, 150, dan 200 .Variabel tergantung adalah pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman tomat. Parameter pertumbuhan yang diukur adalah  tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan b. Parameter hasil tanaman yang diukur adalah berat buah setelah panen. Hasil uji Anava satu jalan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian Gliocladium sp perpengaruh terhadap tinggi tanaman, kandungan klorofil a dan klorofil b, berat tomat  . Hasil uji lanjut Duncan menunjukkan bahwa dosis 100, g 150 g dan 200 g tidak berbeda signifikan terhadap tinggi tanaman, dosis 150g dan 200 g tidak berbedan nyata dalam pembentukan klorofil a dan klorofil b. Pemberian Gliocladium dosis 150g paling tinggi terhadap berat buah. Simpulan dalam penelitian ini bahwa pemberian Gliokompos sp berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi buah tomat. AbstractSoil microorganisms such as Gliocladium sp. can play role in the decomposition and can also become the biological control of pathogenic plants. The animal is potentially reduce the use of fertilizers and synthetic fungidid. The aim of the study was to test the potential effect of biofertililzer Gliocladium sp. on the growth and production of tomatoes. The independent variables was biofertilizer Gliocladium sp. at various dosages (g/plant of 0, 50, 100, 150, dan 200. The dependent variables were the growth and the production of tomatoes. The growth parameter measured were plant height, as well as a and b chlorophyl contents.  The crop parameter was the fruit weight post-harvest.  A one-way anova showed that Gliocladium sp. affected the

  20. On the fourth Diadema species (Diadema-sp from Japan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seinen Chow

    Full Text Available Four long-spined sea urchin species in the genus Diadema are known to occur around the Japanese Archipelago. Three species (D. savignyi, D. setosum, and D. paucispinum are widely distributed in the Indo-Pacific Ocean. The fourth species was detected by DNA analysis among samples originally collected as D. savignyi or D. setosum in Japan and the Marshall Islands and tentatively designated as Diadema-sp, remaining an undescribed species. We analyzed nucleotide sequences of the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene in the "D. savignyi-like" samples, and found all 17 individuals collected in the mainland of Japan (Sagami Bay and Kyushu to be Diadema-sp, but all nine in the Ryukyu Archipelago (Okinawa and Ishigaki Islands to be D. savignyi, with large nucleotide sequence difference between them (11.0%±1.7 SE. Diadema-sp and D. savignyi shared Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores along the interambulacrals, but individuals of Diadema-sp typically exhibited a conspicuous white streak at the fork of the Y-shaped blue iridophore lines, while this feature was absent in D. savignyi. Also, the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines of iridophores was approximately twice as long as the V-component in D. savignyi whereas it was of similar length in Diadema-sp. Two parallel lines were observed to constitute the central axis of the Y-shaped blue lines in both species, but these were considerably narrower in Diadema-sp. Despite marked morphological and genetic differences, it appears that Diadema-sp has been mis-identified as D. savignyi for more than half a century.

  1. Development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as an emerging chassis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial-derived natural products are important in both the pharmaceutical industry and academic research. As the metabolic potential of original producer especially Streptomyces is often limited by slow growth rate, complicated cultivation profile, and unfeasible genetic manipulation, so exploring a Streptomyces as a super industrial chassis is valuable and urgent. Streptomyces sp. FR-008 is a fast-growing microorganism and can also produce a considerable amount of macrolide candicidin via modular polyketide synthase. In this study, we evaluated Streptomyces sp. FR-008 as a potential industrial-production chassis. First, PacBio sequencing and transcriptome analyses indicated that the Streptomyces sp. FR-008 genome size is 7.26 Mb, which represents one of the smallest of currently sequenced Streptomyces genomes. In addition, we simplified the conjugation procedure without heat-shock and pre-germination treatments but with high conjugation efficiency, suggesting it is inherently capable of accepting heterologous DNA. In addition, a series of promoters selected from literatures was assessed based on GusA activity in Streptomyces sp. FR-008. Compared with the common used promoter ermE*-p, the strength of these promoters comprise a library with a constitutive range of 60–860%, thus providing the useful regulatory elements for future genetic engineering purpose. In order to minimum the genome, we also target deleted three endogenous polyketide synthase (PKS gene clusters to generate a mutant LQ3. LQ3 is thus an “updated” version of Streptomyces sp. FR-008, producing fewer secondary metabolites profiles than Streptomyces sp. FR-008. We believe this work could facilitate further development of Streptomyces sp. FR-008 for use in biotechnological applications.

  2. Actinophytocola timorensis sp. nov. and Actinophytocola corallina sp. nov., isolated from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoguro, Misa; Yamamura, Hideki; Tamura, Tomohiko; Irzaldi, Rohmatussolihat; Ratnakomala, Shanti; Ridwan, Roni; Kartina, Gina; Triana, Evi; Nurkanto, Arif; Lestari, Yulin; Lisdiyanti, Puspita; Widyastuti, Yantyati; Ando, Katsuhiko

    2011-04-01

    Two actinomycete strains, ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T), were isolated from soils of West Timor and Lombok island, respectively, in Indonesia. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis clearly demonstrated that the isolates belonged to the family Pseudonocardiaceae and were closely related to the genus Actinophytocola. Strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) exhibited 98.1 and 98.2 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively, with Actinophytocola oryzae GMKU 367(T). The isolates grew well on ISP media and produced white aerial mycelium. Short spore chains were formed directly on the substrate mycelium. The isolates contained meso-diaminopimelic acid, arabinose and galactose as cell-wall components, MK-9(H(4)) as the sole isoprenoid quinone, iso-C(16 : 0) as the major cellular fatty acid and phosphatidylethanolamine as the diagnostic polar lipid. The DNA G+C contents of strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) were 69.7 and 71.2 mol%, respectively. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, DNA-DNA relatedness and 16S rRNA gene sequence comparisons, strains ID05-A0653(T) and ID06-A0464(T) each represent a novel species of the genus Actinophytocola, for which the names Actinophytocola timorensis sp. nov. (type strain ID05-A0653(T)  = BTCC B-673(T)  = NBRC 105524(T)) and Actinophytocola corallina sp. nov. (type strain ID06-A0464(T)  = BTCC B-674(T)  = NBRC 105525(T)) are proposed.

  3. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203 T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900 T and SN 1904 T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900 T (40 T =CECT 8763 T =DSM 43219 T ) and SN 1904 T (2409 T =CECT 8766 T =DSM 43532 T ) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  4. Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., isolated from the pitcher plant Sarracenia purpurea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong M; Dahl, John L

    2016-11-01

    Several fast- to intermediate-growing, acid-fast, scotochromogenic bacteria were isolated from Sarracenia purpurea pitcher waters in Minnesota sphagnum peat bogs. Two strains (DL734T and DL739T) were among these isolates. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, the phylogenetic positions of both strains is in the genus Mycobacterium with no obvious relation to any characterized type strains of mycobacteria. Phenotypic characterization revealed that neither strain was similar to the type strains of known species of the genus Mycobacterium in the collective properties of growth, pigmentation or fatty acid composition. Strain DL734T grew at temperatures between 28 and 32 °C, was positive for 3-day arylsulfatase production, and was negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urease and nitrate reduction. Strain DL739T grew at temperatures between 28 and 37 °C, and was positive for Tween 80 hydrolysis, urea, nitrate reduction and 3-day arylsulfatase production. Both strains were catalase-negative while only DL739T grew with 5 % NaCl. Fatty acid methyl ester profiles were unique for each strain. DL739T showed an ability to survive at 8 °C with little to no cellular replication and is thus considered to be psychrotolerant. Therefore, strains DL734T and DL739T represent two novel species of the genus Mycobacterium with the proposed names Mycobacterium sarraceniae sp. nov. and Mycobacterium helvum sp. nov., respectively. The type strains are DL734T (=JCM 30395T=NCCB 100519T) and DL739T (=JCM 30396T=NCCB 100520T), respectively.

  5. Serratia myotis sp. nov. and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov., isolated from bats hibernating in caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fraile, P; Chudíčková, M; Benada, O; Pikula, J; Kolařík, M

    2015-01-01

    During the study of bacteria associated with bats affected by white-nose syndrome hibernating in caves in the Czech Republic, we isolated two facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacteria, designated strains 12(T) and 52(T). Strains 12(T) and 52(T) were motile, rod-like bacteria (0.5-0.6 µm in diameter; 1-1.3 µm long), with optimal growth at 20-35 °C and pH 6-8. On the basis of the almost complete sequence of their 16S rRNA genes they should be classified within the genus Serratia; the closest relatives to strains 12(T) and 52(T) were Serratia quinivorans DSM 4597(T) (99.5 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences) and Serratia ficaria DSM 4569(T) (99.5% similarity in 16S rRNA gene sequences), respectively. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain 12(T) and S. quinivorans DSM 4597(T) was only 37.1% and between strain 52(T) and S. ficaria DSM 4569(T) was only 56.2%. Both values are far below the 70% threshold value for species delineation. In view of these data, we propose the inclusion of the two isolates in the genus Serratia as representatives of Serratia myotis sp. nov. (type strain 12(T) =CECT 8594(T) =DSM 28726(T)) and Serratia vespertilionis sp. nov. (type strain 52(T) =CECT 8595(T) =DSM 28727(T)). © 2015 IUMS.

  6. Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., from the north-west Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Zhukova, Natalia V; Lysenko, Anatoly M; Gorshkova, Nataliya M; Sergeev, Alexander F; Mikhailov, Valery V; Bowman, John P

    2005-09-01

    One whitish and four pinkish strains of Gram-negative, non-motile, aerobic bacteria were isolated from sea-water and sediment samples collected in Chazhma Bay (Sea of Japan, Pacific Ocean). Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that these strains belonged to the 'Alphaproteobacteria', having highest sequence similarity of about 94-97% with species of the genus Loktanella. None of the strains degraded gelatin, casein, chitin, agar, DNA or starch and they had limited ability to utilize carbon sources. The four pinkish strains, Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117, degraded Tween 80. Sea-water strain R10SW5(T) grew at 3-6% NaCl and a temperature range of 8-35 degrees C, whilst strains Fg36(T), Fg1, Fg116 and Fg117 grew at NaCl concentrations of 1-12% and a temperature range of 4-35 degrees C. Phosphatidylglycerol (58/79%), diphosphatidylglycerol (11/6%) and phosphatidylcholine (28/22%) were the major phospholipids. The predominant fatty acids were 16:0 (12.2/8.6%) and 18:1omega7 (76.6/68.4%). The DNA G+C content of strain R10SW5(T) was 59.1 mol% and those of the four pinkish strains ranged from 60.5 to 61.8 mol%. Based on the results of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic investigation, two novel species, Loktanella agnita sp. nov. and Loktanella rosea sp. nov., are proposed. The type strains are R10SW5(T) (=KMM 3788(T)=CIP 107883(T)) and Fg36(T) (=KMM 6003(T)=CIP 107851(T)=LMG 22534(T)), respectively.

  7. Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov., isolated from Palythoa caribaeorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, Luciane A; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Moreira, Ana Paula B; Brocchi, Marcelo; Willems, Anne; De Vos, Paul; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2011-12-01

    Two novel vibrio isolates (R-40492(T) and R-40493(T)) originating from the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum in Brazil in 2005 were taxonomically characterized by means of a polyphasic approach comprising multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA), DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH), ΔT(m) analysis and phenotypic characterization. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) fell within the genus Vibrio and were most closely related to each other with 99% similarity; similarities of these two novel isolates towards Vibrio neptunius LMG 20536(T), Vibrio coralliilyticus LMG 20984(T), Vibrio nigripulchritudo LMG 3896(T), Vibrio sinaloensis LMG 25238(T) and Vibrio brasiliensis LMG 20546(T) varied between 97.1 and 98.5%. DDH experiments showed that the two isolates had less than 15% relatedness to the phylogenetically most closely related Vibrio species. R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) had 55-57% relatedness to each other. The ΔT(m) between R-40492(T) and R-40493(T) was 6.12 °C. In addition, MLSA of concatenated sequences (16S rRNA, ftsZ, gyrB, recA, rpoA, topA, pyrH and mreB; 6035 bp in length) showed that the two novel isolates formed a separate branch with less than 92% concatenated gene sequence similarity towards known species of vibrios. Two novel species are proposed to accommodate these novel isolates, namely Vibrio variabilis sp. nov. (type strain, R-40492(T)=LMG 25438(T)=CAIM 1454(T)) and Vibrio maritimus sp. nov. (type strain, R-40493(T)=LMG 25439(T)=CAIM 1455(T)).

  8. Analysis of polyhydroxyalkanoates granuales in bacillus Sp. MFD11 and enterobacter Sp. SEL2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naheed, N.; Jamil, N.

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus sp. MFD11 (JF901809) and Enterobacter sp. SEL2 (JF901810) were isolated from agriculture waste contaminated sites. When fed with 2% glucose as a carbon source, these bacteria produced 75.26±0.45% and 76.61±0.28% PHA of their wet weight respectively. The accumulated PHA was extracted by direct addition of sodium dodysyl sulphate in the culture medium, which yielded 52.3±0.56 micro g/l and 136.21±0.45 micro g/l PHA respectively when assayed with Crotonic acid. The PHA detection medium (PDM) provided nutrient limitation condition which favored accumulation of PHA granules. A tremendous increase in cell size was observed when strain MFD11 was grown in PDM. The size of the granules as revealed by TEM micrographs spanned from 0.1 to 1.5 micro m which is quite large as compared to the size reported in the literature 0.2 to 0.5 micro m 18). (PHA polymer was analyzed by FTIR, GC/MS and proton Nuclear magnetic resonance. The intense absorption band in the spectrum at 1724-1740 cm -1 and 1215 cm -1 to 1280 corresponding to C=O and C-O stretching group, respectively, indicated that the both strains were PHA producers. GC/MS analysis indicated that the polymer produced were copolymers of PHB-co-PHV. NMR also suggested that the extracted PHA was not a homopolymer but was the blend of copolymers with 3HV in lower abundance. Differential calorimetric thermal analysis showed melting temperature of 163 and 169 degree C for PHA produced by both strains, respectively. However, the observed melting temperature was found to be lower than the standard PHB (Signa-aldrich). (author)

  9. Acidovorax lacteus sp. nov., isolated from a culture of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium (Microcystis sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Seong-Jun; Cui, Yingshun; Ko, So-Ra; Lee, Hyung-Gwan; Srivastava, Ankita; Oh, Hee-Mock; Ahn, Chi-Yong

    2017-09-01

    A novel Gram-negative, rod-shaped and motile bacterial strain, designated strain M36 T , was isolated from a culture of a bloom-forming cyanobacterium, Microcystis sp., collected from a eutrophic lake in Korea. Its taxonomic position was investigated by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. The isolate was found to grow aerobically at 15-42 °C (optimum 25 °C), pH 7.0-11.0 (optimum pH 8.0) and in the presence of 0-1.0% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 0% NaCl) on R2A medium. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the strain M36 T is closely related to Acidovorax anthurii DSM 16745 T (98.1%), Acidovorax konjaci DSM 7481 T (97.7%) and Acidovorax avenae DSM 7227 T (97.0%) and also formed a clear phylogenetic lineage with other Acidovorax species. DNA-DNA relatedness between strain M36 T and the closely related species of the genus Acidovorax was <30%. The major fatty acid components identified included summed feature 3 (C 16:1 ω7c and/or C 16:1 ω6c), C 16:0 and summed feature 8 (C 18:0 ω7c and/or C 18:0 ω6c). The DNA G+C content of strain M36 T was determined to be 66.8 mol%. Based on above polyphasic evidence, strain M36 T is concluded to represent a new species of genus Acidovorax, for which the name Acidovorax lacteus sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is M36 T (=KCTC 52220 T  = JCM 31890 T ).

  10. Bacillus swezeyi sp. nov. and Bacillus haynesii sp. nov., isolated from desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Christopher A; Schisler, David A; Perry, Elizabeth B; Connor, Nora; Cohan, Frederick M; Rooney, Alejandro P

    2017-08-01

    Two isolates of Gram-reaction-positive, facultatively anaerobic, motile, rod-shaped, endospore-forming bacteria were identified during a survey of the diversity of strains belonging to the genus Bacillus deposited in the Agriculture Research Service Culture Collection. These strains were originally isolated from soil in Evolution Canyon III (Israel) in a survey of ecological diversification. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of strains NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T determined they were closely related to members of the Bacillus licheniformis clade. The genome of each strain was sequenced, and further analysis indicated that the strains represented unique species based on in silico DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. A phylogenomic analysis revealed that NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T were closely related to the group that includes B. licheniformis. In phenotypic characterization, both NRRL B-41294T and NRRL B-41327T were found to grow at temperatures of between 15 and 60 °C and tolerated up to 12 % NaCl (w/v). The predominant cellular fatty acids were anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C15 : 0, and peptidoglycan from cell walls contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The DNA G+C content was 45.7 and 44.3 mol% for NRRL B-41327T and NRRL B-41294T, respectively. Furthermore, each strain had a unique carbon utilization pattern that distinguished it from its nearest phylogenetic neighbours. Based upon the consensus of phylogenetic and phenotypic analyses, we conclude that these strains represent two novel species within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus swezeyi sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41294T (=CCUG 70177T), and the name Bacillus haynesii sp. nov. is proposed, with type strain NRRL B-41327T (=CCUG 70178T).

  11. Description of Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov., isolated from hydrothermal sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qing-Lei; Yu, Chao; Luan, Zhen-Dong; Lian, Chao; Hu, Yong-Hua; Sun, Li

    2018-03-01

    Two Gram-staining-positive, strictly aerobic bacilli, designated as strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T , were isolated from the hydrothermal sediments of Manus Basin in the western Pacific Ocean. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence, strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T were most closely related to Bacillus alveayuensis (97.0 and 97.2 % identity, respectively). The 16S rRNA gene sequence identity between strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T was 97.4 %. The identities between strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T and other closely related organisms were below 97.0 %. The G+C contents of the genomic DNA of strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T were 43.4 and 47.6 mol%, respectively. The major fatty acids (>10 %) of both strains were iso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0. The predominant isoprenoid quinone detected in both strains was menaquinone-7. Phylogenetic, physiological, biochemical and morphological analyses suggested that strains Ma50-5 T and Ma50-6 T represent two novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the names Bacillus kexueae sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-5 T =KCTC 33881 T =CCTCC AB 2017020 T ) and Bacillus manusensis sp. nov. (type strain Ma50-6 T =KCTC 33882 T =CCTCC AB 2017019 T ), respectively, are proposed.

  12. Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov. and Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov., two novel species isolated from leaf surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämpfer, P; Wellner, S; Lohse, K; Lodders, N; Martin, K

    2013-03-01

    Two Gram-positive, non-endospore-forming rods, strains C5(T) and T8(T), were isolated from the phyllospheres of Cerastium holosteoides and Trifolium repens, respectively, and were studied in detail for their taxonomic position. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis allocated both isolates clearly to the genus Rhodococcus. Isolate C5(T) was most closely related to Rhodococcus fascians and Rhodococcus yunnanensis, showing 99.2 % gene sequence similarity to both species. Strain T8(T) revealed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Rhodococcus corynebacterioides (98.8 %) and Rhodococcus kroppenstedtii (98.6 %). The quinone system of both strains was composed of dihydrogenated menaquinones with eight (major amount) as well as nine, seven and six isoprenoid units (MK-8H2, MK-9H2 MK-7H2 MK-6H2).The polar lipid profiles of strains C5(T) and T8(T) consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and one unknown phospholipid. Additionally, strain C5(T) contained one unknown glycolipid, and strain T8(T) three unknown aminolipids. The fatty acid profiles contained major amounts of C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c and 10-methyl C18 : 0, which supported the grouping of the two isolates in the genus Rhodococcus. Physiological/biochemical characterization and DNA-DNA hybridizations with the type strains of the most closely related species allowed a clear phenotypic and genotypic differentiation of both strains. For this reason, we propose strain C5(T) ( = LMG 26203(T)  = CCM 7906(T)) as the type strain of a novel species with the name Rhodococcus cerastii sp. nov., and strain T8(T) ( = LMG 26204(T)  = CCM 7905(T)) as the type strain of a second novel species with the name Rhodococcus trifolii sp. nov.

  13. CULTIVO EXPERIMENTAL DEL CLADOCERO Moina sp ALIMENTADO CON Ankistrodesmus sp y Saccharomyces cereviseae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Prieto

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces cereviseae. Materiales y métodos. Fueron realizados cultivos experimentales de la cepade cladóceros Moina sp en el laboratorio de Alimento Vivo de la Universidad de Córdoba, bajo condicionescontroladas de temperatura (22oC, pH (7.6, intensidad lumínica (2000 lux y aireación. Se emplearondos dietas de alimento como tratamiento (Ankistrodesmus y Ankistrodesmus mas Saccharomyces cereviseaeen concentración de 40 x 105 cel.ml-1 cada uno, para determinar su efecto sobre el desempeño de lapoblación. Diariamente se registró la densidad poblacional y celular. Resultados. Se obtuvieron diferenciassignificativas para el efecto de las dietas sobre el crecimiento poblacional de los cladóceros, los individuosalimentados con Ankistrodesmus sp + Saccharomyces cereviseae alcanzaron una densidad de 12.3a±0.30 org/ml-1 presentando mayor tasa instantánea de crecimiento (K 0.36 ± 0.002, el menor tiempode duplicación (td 1.94 ± 0.012 y el mayor rendimiento (r 1,1 ± 0.07 clad.ml-1.día-1. Conclusión. Loscladóceros por sus características de crecimiento en cultivo, presentan adaptación favorable a lascondiciones de manejo para la producción de biomasas potencialmente útiles como partícula nutritivacon fines acuícolas.

  14. Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. and Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov., isolated from raw cow's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Neubeck, M; Huptas, C; Glück, C; Krewinkel, M; Stoeckel, M; Stressler, T; Fischer, L; Hinrichs, J; Scherer, S; Wenning, M

    2016-03-01

    Analysis of the microbiota of raw cow's milk and semi-finished milk products yielded seven isolates assigned to the genus Pseudomonas that formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis based on partial rpoD and 16S rRNA gene sequences. The two groups could be differentiated from each other and also from their closest relatives as well as from the type species Pseudomonas aeruginosa by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and average nucleotide identity (ANIb) values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values within the groups were higher than 97.3 %, whereas similarity values to the closest relatives were 85 % or less. The major cellular lipids of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol; the major quinone was Q-9 in both strains, with small amounts of Q-8 in strain WS4917T. The DNA G+C contents of strains WS4917T and WS4993T were 58.08 and 57.30 mol%, respectively. Based on these data, strains WS4917T, WS4995 ( = DSM 29141 = LMG 28434), WS4999, WS5001 and WS5002 should be considered as representatives of a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas helleri sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas helleri is strain WS4917T ( = DSM 29165T = LMG 28433T). Strains WS4993T and WS4994 ( = DSM 29140 = LMG 28438) should be recognized as representing a second novel species of the genus Pseudomonas, for which the name Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of Pseudomonas weihenstephanensis is strain WS4993T ( = DSM 29166T = LMG 28437T).

  15. Pseudomonas lactis sp. nov. and Pseudomonas paralactis sp. nov., isolated from bovine raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Neubeck, Mario; Huptas, Christopher; Glück, Claudia; Krewinkel, Manuel; Stoeckel, Marina; Stressler, Timo; Fischer, Lutz; Hinrichs, Jörg; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2017-06-01

    Five strains, designated WS 4672T, WS 4998, WS 4992T, WS 4997 and WS 5000, isolated from bovine raw milk formed two individual groups in a phylogenetic analysis. The most similar species on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences were Pseudomonas azotoformans IAM 1603T, Pseudomonas gessardii CIP 105469T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T showing 99.7-99.6 % similarity. Using rpoD gene sequences Pseudomonas veronii LMG 17761T (93.3 %) was most closely related to strain WS 4672T and Pseudomonas libanensis CIP 105460T to strain WS 4992T (93.3 %). The five strains could be differentiated from their closest relatives and from each other by phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characterization and ANIb values calculated from draft genome assemblies. ANIb values of strains WS 4992T and WS4671T to the closest relatives are lower than 90 %. The major cellular polar lipids of both strains are phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, a phospholipid and diphosphatidylglycerol, and their major quinone is Q-9. The DNA G+C content of strains WS 4992T and WS 4672T were 60.0  and 59.7  mol%, respectively. Based on these genotypic and phenotypic traits two novel species of the genus Pseudomonas are proposed: Pseudomonas lactis sp. nov. [with type strain WS 4992T (=DSM 29167T=LMG 28435T) and the additional strains WS 4997 and WS 5000], and Pseudomonasparalactis sp. nov. [with type strain WS 4672T (=DSM 29164T=LMG 28439T) and additional strain WS 4998].

  16. CAPACIDAD ANTAGONISTA DE HONGOS CELULOLÍTICOS FRENTE A Fusarium sp. Y Macrophomina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Leopoldo Tarazona Meza

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar la capacidad antagónica de ocho hongos celulolíticos nativos frente a los hongos fitopatógenos Fusarium sp. y Macrophomina sp. En primera instancia se determinó la cepa promisoria del hongo celulolítico, para lo cual, en caja Petri se colocó un disco de agar de 4 mm de diámetro con micelio de una cepa antagonista y en el extremo opuesto, a una distancia de cinco centímetros aproximadamente, otro disco de 4 mm con micelio de un patógeno. La capacidad antagónica se determinó por el grado de micoparasitismo y la competencia por nutrientes y espacios, registrando el porcentaje de inhibición del crecimiento radial. Con la cepa del hongo celulolítico que tuvo el mejor comportamiento antagonista se realizó un cocultivo independiente con cada patógeno, aquí se evalúo las UFC, crecidas en medio PDA. También se inoculó junto a las cepas fitopatógenas en plantas de pimiento para conocer el nivel de antagonismo en macetas. En la evaluación cualitativa, la cepa A.O-5 mostró una invasión y esporulación total en la superficie en ambos patógenos; mientras que en el cocultivo inhibe el crecimiento de los patógenos a las 96 h. Igualmente demostró su acción antagonista frente a Fusarium y Macrophomina en las plántulas de pimiento. Por lo encontrado, se estima que la cepa A.O-5 es un potencial agente antagonista de los fitopatógenos evaluados.

  17. Alistipes inops sp. nov. and Coprobacter secundus sp. nov., isolated from human faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkoporov, Andrei N; Chaplin, Andrei V; Khokhlova, Ekaterina V; Shcherbakova, Victoria A; Motuzova, Oksana V; Bozhenko, Vladimir K; Kafarskaia, Lyudmila I; Efimov, Boris A

    2015-12-01

    Culture-based study of the faecal microbiome in two adult female subjects revealed the presence of two obligately anaerobic, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped, non-motile, Gram-negative bacterial strains that represent novel species. The first strain, designated 627T, was a fastidious, slow-growing, indole-positive bacterium with a non-fermentative type of metabolism.The strain was characterized by the production of acetic and succinic acids as metabolic end products, the prevalence of iso-C15 : 0 fatty acid and the presence of menaquinones MK-10 and MK-11. The DNA G+C content was found to be 56.6 mol%. The second strain, designated 177T, was capable of fermenting a rich collection of carbohydrate substrates, producing acetic acid as a terminal product. The strain was indole-negative and resistant to bile. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 (in a 1 : 1 ratio) and the predominant menaquinone was MK-11.The DNA G+C content was 37.8 mol%. A phylogenomic analysis of the draft genomes of strains 627T and 177T placed these bacteria in the genera Alistipes(family Rikenellaceae) and Coprobacter (family Porphyromonadaceae), respectively.On the basis of the phenotypic and genotypic properties of strains 627T and 177T, we conclude that these strains from human faeces represent two novel bacterial species, for which the names Alistipes inops sp. nov. (type strain 627T5DSM 28863T5VKM B-2859T) and Coprobacter secundus sp. nov. (type strain 177T=DSM 28864T=VKM B-2857T) are proposed.

  18. Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov., isolated from bryophytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Akio; Sahin, Nurettin

    2013-09-01

    Pink-pigmented, facultatively methylotrophic bacteria, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T), were isolated from the bryophytes Haplocladium microphyllum and Brachythecium plumosum, respectively. The cells of both strains were Gram-reaction-negative, motile, non-spore-forming rods. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) were found to be related to Methylobacterium organophilum ATCC 27886(T) (97.1% and 97.7%, respectively). Strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) showed highest 16S rRNA gene similarity to Methylobacterium gnaphalii 23e(T) (98.3 and 99.0%, respectively). The phylogenetic similarities to all other species of the genus Methylobacterium with validly published names were less than 97%. Major cellular fatty acids of both strains were C(18:1)ω7c and C(18:0). The results of DNA-DNA hybridization, phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA and cpn60 gene sequences, fatty acid profiles, whole-cell matrix-assisted, laser-desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, and physiological and biochemical tests allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) from their phylogenetically closest relatives. We propose that strains 87e(T) and 99b(T) represent novel species within the genus Methylobacterium, for which the names Methylobacterium haplocladii sp. nov. (type strain 87e(T) =DSM 24195(T) =NBRC 107714(T)) and Methylobacterium brachythecii sp. nov. (type strain 99b(T) =DSM 24105(T) =NBRC 107710(T)) are proposed.

  19. Occurrence of Pyemotes sp. on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Ferreira de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the population reduction of the tomato leafminer moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, by Pyemotes sp. in the laboratory. The mite became greenish when fed on caterpillars, pupae, and adults of T. absoluta. The caterpillars and adults of T. absoluta were quickly paralyzed by the mite venom. A single T. absoluta could host many Pyemotes sp, physogastric females, which were allowed to grow on the moth. Pyemotes sp. can be a new alternative for the biological control of T. absoluta. However, this possibility must be better understood before it could be recommended, because Pyemotes sp. could also cause dermatitis in the humans.O ácaro Pyemotes sp. (Acari: Pyemotidae é um parasita de várias espécies de insetos e exibe o processo de fisogastria na reprodução. É registrada a ocorrência de Pyemotes sp. sobre a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick, que sofreu redução considerável de suas populações em condições de laboratório. Este ácaro foi observado parasitando larvas, pupas e adultos de T. absoluta e suas fêmeas fisogástricas apresentaram coloração esverdeada. As larvas e adultos de T. absoluta atacados por Pyemotes sp. exibiram paralisia em poucos minutos, devido à injeção de toxinas por parte do ácaro. Observou-se que um único indivíduo de T. absoluta pode suportar muitas fêmeas fisogástricas de Pyemotes sp., permitindo que outra geração do ácaro continuasse a se reproduzir. O ácaro Pyemotes sp. surge como uma possibilidade para o controle biológico de T. absoluta, mas sua utilização deve ser melhor avaliada já que é uma espécie causadora de dermatites em humanos.

  20. Biodegradation of organophosphate pesticide quinalphos by Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, M P; Mulla, S I; Ninnekar, H Z

    2014-11-01

    Isolation and identification of bacteria capable of degrading organophosphate pesticide quinalphos and elucidation of its biodegradative pathway. A bacterium capable of degrading organophosphate pesticides was isolated from the pesticide-contaminated soil samples by selective enrichment on quinalphos (QP) as a sole source of carbon and energy. The bacterial strain was identified as Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM on the basis of its morphological and biochemical characteristics and by phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. The organism utilized various organophosphate pesticides such as quinalphos, profenofos, parathion-methyl and chlorpyrifos as growth substrates. Response surface methodology (RSM) showed optimum conditions for quinalphos degradation at pH 7 and 27°C. 2-Hydroxyquinoxaline and diethyl phosphate were identified as metabolites of quinalphos degradation by HPLC and GC-MS analysis. Cell-free extract of Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM grown on quinalphos contained the quinalphos hydrolase activity. A bacterial strain capable of degrading quinalphos was isolated and identified as Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM. The organism utilized organophosphate pesticides quinalphos, profenofos, parathion-methyl and chlorpyrifos as carbon sources. The organism degraded quinalphos by hydrolysis to yield 2-hydroxyquinoxaline and diethyl phosphate which were further utilized as carbon sources. The isolated bacterium Ochrobactrum sp. strain HZM was versatile in degrading various organophosphate pesticides. There was complete mineralization of quinalphos by Ochrobactrum sp. This strain could potentially be useful in the bioremediation of soil and water contaminated with toxic organophosphate pesticides. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. The SP Theory of Intelligence: Benefits and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gerard Wolff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes existing and expected benefits of the SP theory ofintelligence, and some potential applications. The theory aims to simplify and integrate ideasacross artificial intelligence, mainstream computing, and human perception and cognition,with information compression as a unifying theme. It combines conceptual simplicitywith descriptive and explanatory power across several areas of computing and cognition.In the SP machine—an expression of the SP theory which is currently realized in theform of a computer model—there is potential for an overall simplification of computingsystems, including software. The SP theory promises deeper insights and better solutions inseveral areas of application including, most notably, unsupervised learning, natural languageprocessing, autonomous robots, computer vision, intelligent databases, software engineering,information compression, medical diagnosis and big data. There is also potential inareas such as the semantic web, bioinformatics, structuring of documents, the detection ofcomputer viruses, data fusion, new kinds of computer, and the development of scientifictheories. The theory promises seamless integration of structures and functions within andbetween different areas of application. The potential value, worldwide, of these benefits andapplications is at least $190 billion each year. Further development would be facilitatedby the creation of a high-parallel, open-source version of the SP machine, available toresearchers everywhere.

  2. MANFAAT Indigofera Sp. DALAM BIDANG PERTANIAN DAN INDUSTRI

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    - Suharlina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Indigofera    sp. is a leguminous plant which has varoius species, wide spread in tropical regions and adapted to a wide range of environmental condition. Indigofera sp. has many benefits in agricultural and industrial sector. It is widely used in agriculture as forage because its  high protein content, easily cultivated, high adaptability, and high biomass production (I. zollingeriana, I. hirsuta, I. pilosa, I. schimperi Syn,    I.    oblongifolia,    I.    spicata,    I. subulata Syn, and I. trita. Over the last 5 years Indigofera sp has been explored as forage feed for the goats. As cover crops, Indigofera is used to prevent erosion and nutrient leaching in the soil surface (I. hirsuta and I. Trita and it is also used as green manure, mulch, erosion control and ornamental plants (I. australis. In industrial sector, Indigofera sp. widely used as dyes and traditional medicine. Indigofera is used as a natural dye (I. tinctoria because it contains an excellent pigment called ‘indigo’ to dye silk material. Indigofera sp is also used as traditional medicine because it contains phytochemical substance which roles as antipyretic, laxative, diuretic, and useful against snakes attack, bees and insect bites. Using Indigofera    spp. as traditional medicine should be considered to avoid causing poisoning.

  3. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease

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    Winter Tobias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surfactant proteins B (SP-B and C (SP-C are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. Methods We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. Results SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Conclusion Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  4. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafel, Oliver; Latzin, Philipp; Paul, Karl; Winter, Tobias; Woischnik, Markus; Griese, Matthias

    2008-04-11

    The surfactant proteins B (SP-B) and C (SP-C) are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  5. Potamogeton × exilis (P. alpinus × P. natans), a new hybrid pondweed from Finland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaplan, Zdeněk; Uotila, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2011), s. 477-483 ISSN 0107-055X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : hybridization * taxonomy * diversity Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.551, year: 2011

  6. Molecular prevalence of Bartonella, Babesia, and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. in dogs with splenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanat, M; Maggi, R G; Linder, K E; Breitschwerdt, E B

    2011-01-01

    Among diseases that cause splenomegaly in dogs, lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH), splenic hemangiosarcoma (HSA), and fibrohistiocytic nodules (FHN) are common diagnoses. The spleen plays an important role in the immunologic control or elimination of vector-transmitted, blood-borne pathogens, including Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. To compare the prevalence of Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA in spleens from dogs with LNH, HSA, and FHN. Paraffin-embedded, surgically obtained biopsy tissues from LNH (N = 50), HSA (N = 50), and FHN (N = 37) were collected from the anatomic pathology archives. Spleens from specific pathogen-free (SPF) dogs (N = 8) were used as controls. Bartonella sp., Babesia sp., and Mycoplasma sp. DNA was amplified by PCR, followed by DNA sequencing. Bartonella sp. DNA was more prevalent in FHN (29.7%) and HSA (26%) as compared to LNH (10%) (P = .019, .0373, respectively) or control spleens (0.0%). The prevalence of Babesia sp. and hemotropic Mycoplasma sp. DNA was significantly lower than Bartonella sp. DNA in HSA (P = .0005, .006, respectively) and FHN (P = .003, .0004, respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in DNA prevalence among the 3 genera in the LNH group. The higher prevalence of Bartonella sp. in FHN and HSA warrants future investigations to determine if this bacterium plays a role in the development of these splenic diseases. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. SP-R210 (Myo18A Isoforms as Intrinsic Modulators of Macrophage Priming and Activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Yang

    Full Text Available The surfactant protein (SP-A receptor SP-R210 has been shown to increase phagocytosis of SP-A-bound pathogens and to modulate cytokine secretion by immune cells. SP-A plays an important role in pulmonary immunity by enhancing opsonization and clearance of pathogens and by modulating macrophage inflammatory responses. Alternative splicing of the Myo18A gene results in two isoforms: SP-R210S and SP-R210L, with the latter predominantly expressed in alveolar macrophages. In this study we show that SP-A is required for optimal expression of SP-R210L on alveolar macrophages. Interestingly, pre-treatment with SP-A prepared by different methods either enhances or suppresses responsiveness to LPS, possibly due to differential co-isolation of SP-B or other proteins. We also report that dominant negative disruption of SP-R210L augments expression of receptors including SR-A, CD14, and CD36, and enhances macrophages' inflammatory response to TLR stimulation. Finally, because SP-A is known to modulate CD14, we used a variety of techniques to investigate how SP-R210 mediates the effect of SP-A on CD14. These studies revealed a novel physical association between SP-R210S, CD14, and SR-A leading to an enhanced response to LPS, and found that SP-R210L and SP-R210S regulate internalization of CD14 via distinct macropinocytosis-like mechanisms. Together, our findings support a model in which SP-R210 isoforms differentially regulate trafficking, expression, and activation of innate immune receptors on macrophages.

  8. Streptomyces sp. 173, an insecticidal micro-organism from marine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, L; Li, J; Kong, F

    2004-01-01

    To find new insecticidal antibiotics from marine micro-organisms. Strains isolated from seawater and sea sediments from Beidiahe and Dagang of the east coast of China were screened for their insecticidal qualities. The screening was carried out using bioassay of brine shrimp and the insect pest Helicoverpa armigera. The fermentation, preliminary extraction and isolation of Streptomyces sp.173 were carried out. In total 331 isolates were examined through bioassay of brine shrimp and 40 isolates (12.08%) showed potential insecticidal activities. Of the 40 isolates, one isolate, designated Streptomyces sp.173, was found to have strong insecticidal activity against both brine shrimp and H. armigera, similar to that of avermectin B1. The isolated Streptomyces sp.173 has great insecticidal potency. This work indicated that marine micro-organisms could be an important source of insecticidal antibiotics and the improved anti-brine shrimp bioassay is suitable for primary screening.

  9. Micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, reporte de dos casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José G. Somocurcio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta los dos primeros casos de micetoma pulmonar por Scedosporium sp, en el Perú, tratados quirúrgicamente en el Hospital Nacional Hipólito Unanue. Se practicó resección pulmonar debido a micetoma pulmonar de donde se tomó muestras que fueron enviadas a microbiología y anatomía patológica para cultivo y estudio histopatológico. Se identificó el moho Scedosporium sp en dos pacientes con secuelas cavitarias por tuberculosis, quienes presentaron tos y hemoptisis de dos meses y tres años de evolución, respectivamente. Radiológicamente las cavidades estaban ocupadas por una "bola fúngica". La histopatología indicó presencia de abundantes hifas, indistinguibles de las de Aspergillus sp, mientras que la inmunodifusión para Aspergillus fue negativa.

  10. Vitreoscilla hemoglobin promotes Salecan production by Agrobacterium sp. ZX09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun-mei; Xu, Hai-yang; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian-fa; Wang, Shi-ming

    2014-11-01

    Salecan is a novel exopolysaccharide produced by the strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09, and it is composed of only glucose monomers. The unique chemical composition and excellent physicochemical properties make Salecan a promising material for applications in coagulation, lubrication, protection against acute liver injury, and alleviating constipation. In this study, we cloned the Vitreoscilla hemoglobin gene into a broad-host-range plasmid pCM158. Without antibiotic selection, there was negligible loss of the plasmid in the host Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 after one passage of cultivation. The expression of Vitreoscilla hemoglobin was demonstrated by carbon monoxide (CO) difference spectrum. The engineered strain Agrobacterium sp. ZX09 increased Salecan yield by 30%. The other physiological changes included its elevated respiration rate and cellular invertase activity.

  11. Symbiotic properties of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus assayed on serradella plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysława Deryło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological and symbiotic properties of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus nodule isolates were compared to the standard slow-growing Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus strain USDA 3045. Lupine nodules isolates showed typical characteristics for bradyrhizobial strains and nodulated small seed legume, serradella (Ornithopus sativus, in tube test. We observed a permanent physiological segregation of the effective (Fix' and ineffective (Fix- symbiotic phenotype for all tested bradyrhizobial strains during the growth of serradella in plant tube test. The ultrastructural differences between Fix* and Fix serradella nodules were observed. Rapid and visible nodulation as well as easy assay of the reduction of acetylene make serradella a convenient system for studies of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus strains in laboratory conditions.

  12. Ballastfritt spår : Förslag till dimensioneringsmetoder

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Olle; Berhane, Henok

    2015-01-01

    Ballastfria spår har på senare tid börjat byggas i allt större utsträckning. En anledning till detta är höjda krav på järnvägstransporter. Ett ballastfritt spår är ofta utformat som en långsträckt betongplatta på mark som för ned lasten från rälerna till underbyggnaden. I nuläget saknar Sverige dimensioneringsprinciper för ballastfria spår. Principerna är redan etablerade i andra länder men behöver inordnas för svenska förhållanden. År 2012 gjorde regeringen bedömningen att en ny stambana för...

  13. Microbial succession during thermophilic digestion: the potential of Methanosarcina sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Illmer

    Full Text Available A distinct succession from a hydrolytic to a hydrogeno- and acetotrophic community was well documented by DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and dHPLC (denaturing high performance liquid chromatography, and confirmed by qPCR (quantitative PCR measurements and DNA sequence analyses. We could prove that Methanosarcina thermophila has been the most important key player during the investigated anaerobic digestion process. This organism was able to terminate a stagnation phase, most probable caused by a decreased pH and accumulated acetic acid following an initial hydrolytic stage. The lack in Methanosarcina sp. could not be compensated by high numbers of Methanothermobacter sp. or Methanoculleus sp., which were predominant during the initial or during the stagnation phase of the fermentation, respectively.

  14. Green Decision Making: Sustainable Transport and Systemic Planning (SP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    interests as regards the outcome represented by different group members. The process is guided by a facilitator and is assisted by an analyst, with the analyst providing ongoing, interactive modelling. This collective (man/machine) learning aims to lead to a final decision (or decision recommendation) about......) and soft (qualitative) operations research (OR) methods; especially the latter have a function as regards knowledge generation that relates to obtaining systemic insights. Furthermore, SP applies a process that drives group-based learning forward. The group should be formed with the different stakeholder...... the best alternative or course of action for the actual strategic planning problem. The flexibility of SP makes it adaptable to different problem types. The paper is disposed as follows: After the Introduction about green decision making, Section 2 presents five SP-perspectives, where each perspective...

  15. Effectivity of the Earthworms Pheretima hupiensis, Eudrellus sp. and Lumbricus sp. on the Organic Matter Decomposition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ea Kosman Anwar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The earthworms are the one of soil fauna component in soil ecosystem have an important role in organic matter decomposition procces. The earthworm feed plant leaf and plant matter up to apart and dissolved. Earthworm metabolisms produce like faeces that mixed with decomposed organic matter mean vermicompost. The vermicompost fertility varies because of some kind of earthworm differ in “niche” and attitude. The experiment was to study the effectivity of earthworm on organic matter decomposition which has been conducted in Soil Biological and Healthy Laboratory and Green House of Soil Research Institute Bogor, during 2006 Budget Year. The three kind of earthworms i.e Pheretima hupiensis, Lumbricus sp. and Eudrellus sp. combined with three kind of organic matter sources i.e rice straw, trash and palm oil plant waste (compost heap. The result shows that the Lumbricus sp. are the most effective decomposer compared to Pheretima hupiensis and Eudrellus sp. and the organic matter decomposed by Lumbricus sp. as followed: market waste was decomposed of 100%, palm oil empty fruit bunch (compost heap 95.8 % and rice straw 84.9%, respectively. Earthworm effectively decreased Fe, Al, Mn, Cu dan Zn.

  16. A comprehensive survey of Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. in seabirds from southeastern Brazil: outcomes for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, M D; Lemos, L S; Roges, E M; de Moura, J F; Tavares, D C; Matias, C A R; Rodrigues, D P; Siciliano, S

    2018-05-01

    To perform a microbiological survey regarding the presence, prevalence and characterization of Aeromonas sp. and Vibrio sp. in debilitated wrecked marine birds recovered from the centre-north coast of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Swabs obtained from 116 alive and debilitated wrecked marine birds, comprising 19 species, from the study area were evaluated by biochemical methods. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests and pathogenicity gene screening were performed for bacterial strains of public health importance. Vibrio sp. and Aeromonas sp. were identified, as well as certain pathogenic genes and resistance to selected antimicrobials. This study demonstrates that the identified bacteria, mainly Vibrio sp., are fairly prevalent and widespread among several species of seabirds and highlights the importance of migratory birds in bacterial dispersion. In addition, it demonstrates the importance of the bacterial strains regarding their pathogenic potential. Therefore, seabirds can act as bacterial reservoirs, and their monitoring is of the utmost importance in a public health context. The study comprehensively evaluates the importance of seabirds as bacteria of public health importance reservoirs, since birds comprising several pathogenic bacterial species were evaluated. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. sp sup 2 and sp sup 3 bonding configurations in low nitrogen content a-CN sub x thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Mezzasalma, A M; Neri, F; Trusso, S

    2003-01-01

    The results of an electron spectroscopy study carried out on a set of pulsed laser deposited CN sub x films are reported. A progressive degree of graphitization, deduced from the continuous increase in the sp sup 2 bond fraction, has been found for x values up to 25%. The mass density values, deduced by a proper treating of both the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy data, are consistent with a material made up by two phases, namely a sp sup 2 threefold (graphite-like) and a sp sup 3 fourfold (diamond-like) coordinated one. The behaviour of the density of the samples as a function of the N content does not show any abrupt change in going from lower to higher nitrogen concentrations as found by other authors, this certainly being due to differences in the starting sp sup 3 /sp sup 2 ratio of the films at zero N concentration and to their different preparation parameters.

  18. Benthic and Sedimentological Studies of the Georgetown Ocean Dredged Material Disposal Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-02-01

    fasciatus; the cownose Grab samples from control, disposal, and ray, Rhinoptera bonasus ; the portunid crabs "down current" stations yielded more than...Group K 0 Sclerodacty birus (Ech) Sargassum natans (Al) Microporella ciliata (Bry) Aplidium sp. (ch) Polinices duplicatus; (Mo) Rhinoptera bonasue (Ch

  19. Ozone Technology for Pathogenic Bacteria of Shrimp (Vibrio sp.) Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulansarie, Ria; Dyah Pita Rengga, Wara; Rustamadji

    2018-03-01

    One of important marine commodities in Indonesia, shrimps are susceptible with Vibrio sp bacteria infection. That infection must be cleared. One of the technologies for disinfecting Vibrio sp. is ozone technology. In this research, Vibrio sp. is a pathogenic bacterium which infects Penaeus vannamei. Ozone technology is applied for threatening Vibrio sp. In this research, ozonation was performed in different pH. Those are neutral, acid (pH=4), and base (pH=9). The sample was water from shrimp embankment from Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Air Payau (BBPBAP) located in Jepara. That water was the habitat of Penaeus vannamei shrimp. The brand of ozonator used in this research was “AQUATIC”. The used ozonator in this research had 0,0325 g/hour concentration. The flow rate of sample used in this research was 2 L/minute. The ozonation process was performed in continuous system. A tank, pipe, pump, which was connected with microfilter, flowmeter and ozone generator were the main tools in this research. It used flowmeter and valve to set the flow rate scalable as desired. The first step was the insert of 5 L sample into the receptacle. Then, by using a pump, a sample supplied to the microfilter to be filtered and passed into the flow meter. The flow rate was set to 2 LPM. Furthermore, gas from ozonator passed to the flow for the disinfection of bacteria and then was recycled to the tank and the process run continuously. Samples of the results of ozonation were taken periodically from time 0, 3, 7, 12, 18, 24 to 30 minutes. The samples of the research were analyzed using Total Plate Count (TPC) test in BBPBAP Jepara to determine the number of Vibrio sp. bacteria. The result of this research was the optimal condition for pathogenic bacteria of shrimp (Vibrio sp.) ozonation was in neutral condition.

  20. Multimeric and trimeric subunit SP-D are interconvertible structures with distinct ligand interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Grith Lykke; Hoegh, Silje V; Leth-Larsen, Rikke

    2009-01-01

    -D compared to Met11 SP-D. Multimerization has proven important for enhancement of microbial phagocytosis. In the present study defined multimeric forms of Met11Thr SP-D were isolated from human amniotic fluid. Implementation of ManNAc-affinity chromatography allowed high recovery of natural trimeric SP......-D multimers. Trimeric SP-D subunits also showed greater binding to endogenous lipoproteins: LDL, oxLDL, and HDL, than multimeric SP-D. In conclusion, purified trimeric and multimeric SP-D represent separate and only partly interconvertible molecular populations with distinct biochemical properties....

  1. Azospirillum sp. strain B510 enhances rice growth and yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isawa, Tsuyoshi; Yasuda, Michiko; Awazaki, Hirotoshi; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Shinozaki, Satoshi; Nakashita, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    Inoculation experiments with the endophytic bacterium Azospirillum sp. strain B510, an isolate from surface-sterilized stems of field-grown rice, were conducted in pots in a greenhouse, and in paddy fields in Hokkaido, Japan. B510 significantly enhanced the growth of newly generated leaves and shoot biomass under greenhouse conditions. When rice seedlings were treated with 1×10(8) CFU ml(-1), then transplanted to paddy fields, tiller numbers and seed yield significantly increased. Azospirillum sp. strain B510 is a promising bacterial inoculant for plant growth promotion and agricultural practices.

  2. Profil des examens radiographiques spéciaux conventionnels dans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    But : Montrer l'apport des examens spéciaux dans la démarche diagnostique Méthodologie : Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective qui a porté sur les résultats de 249 examens spéciaux colligés dans le service de radiologie du CHU- Tokoin de Lomé du 1er mars 2003 au 1er mars 2004. Résultats : L'âge de nos patients varie ...

  3. Induced adaptation of Bacillus sp. to antimicrobial nanosilver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Cindy; Teoh, Wey Yang; Marquis, Christopher P; Amal, Rose

    2013-11-11

    The natural ability of Bacillus sp. to adapt to nanosilver cytotoxicity upon prolonged exposure is reported for the first time. The combined adaptive effects of nanosilver resistance and enhanced growth are induced under various intensities of nanosilver-stimulated cellular oxidative stress, ranging from only minimal cellular redox imbalance to the lethal levels of cellular ROS stimulation. An important implication of the present work is that such adaptive effects lead to the ultimate domination of nanosilver-resistant Bacillus sp. in the microbiota, to which nanosilver cytotoxicity is continuously applied. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. PRODUCCIÓN DE BIOFERTILIZANTES UTILIZANDO Pseudomonas sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Santillana-Villanueva, Nery; Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina (Perú).

    2006-01-01

    Con el objetivo de producir biofertilizantes utilizando 3 cepas de Pseudomonas sp., se realizaron tres experimentos: el primero, para encontrar un medio de cultivo apropiado para la multiplicación de las bacterias; el segundo, para determinar la sobrevivencia de las cepas de Pseudomonas sp en los biofertilizantes y el tercero para determinar la dosis eficiente de aplicación del biofertilizante en frijol, maíz, papa y tomate, en condiciones de invernadero. Al evaluar los resultados, se determi...

  5. Sistema de gerencia de pavimentos do DER/SP

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Antonio da Silva

    2008-01-01

    Resumo: Este trabalho versa sobre métodos de levantamento de defeitos e avaliação das condições estruturais, funcionais e de segurança dos pavimentos asfálticos nas estradas estaduais sob a jurisdição do Departamento de Estradas de Rodagem do Estado de São Paulo - DER/SP. Aborda também alguns aspectos administrativos da Autarquia Estadual, aonde atuo como engenheiro de carreira na área de planejamento e de projeto. O DER/SP tem como missão administrar o sistema rodoviário estadual, sua integr...

  6. SP-100 advanced radiator designs for thermoelectric and Stirling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, M.P.; Determan, W.R.

    1989-01-01

    The authors advanced radiator designs employing carbon-carbon liquid metal heat pipe technology which can significantly reduce the mass of the heat rejection subsystem for high temperature space technology systems such as the SP-100. This technology is being developed to address the need for lightweight heat transfer components and structures for space applications. Heat pipe and subsystem designs were optimized for thermoelectric and Stirling engine bases SP-100 system designs. A multiple, deployed petal radiator concept was selected for the heat rejection subsystem design based upon minimum mass. Radiator stowage in the Space Transportation System cargo bay and deployment schemes were investigated for each of these optimized designs

  7. Mycelium characterization of the Amauroderma sp collected from Royal Belum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Mat Rasol Awang; Fauzi Daud; Rosnani Rashid; Meswan Maskom; Arfah Sumeri

    2010-01-01

    Etnobotanical study carried on the native community in the Royal Belum Forest areas had identified many potentially valuable spices that could be further explored for its medicinal and health purposes. The mushrooms, Amauroderma sp. was one of the resources that had been screened and collected for further investigation. In this works, the mycelium characterization of the mushroom was carried out in order to develop suitable seed or spawn for cultivation. The Amauroderma sp. mycelium, cultured from the fruit body tissue was found to grow well on the PDA plate. While on the potato extract liquid medium the mushroom could grow and produce stalk like fruit body. (author)

  8. A comparative study on phyllosphere nitrogen fixation by newly isolated Corynebacterium sp. & Flavobacterium sp. and their potentialities as biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, S; Pati, B R

    2004-01-01

    A number of nitrogen fixing bacteria has been isolated from forest phyllosphere on the basis of nitrogenase activity. Among them two best isolates are selected and identified as Corynebacterium sp. AN1 & Flavobacterium sp. TK2 able to reduce 88 and 132 n mol of acetylene (10(8)cells(-1)h(-1)) respectively. They were grown in large amount and sprayed on the phyllosphere of maize plants as a substitute for nitrogenous fertilizer. Marked improvements in growth and total nitrogen content of the plant have been observed by the application of these nitrogen-fixing bacteria. An average 30-37% increase in yield was obtained, which is nearer to chemical fertilizer treatment. Comparatively better effect was obtained by application of Flavobacterium sp.

  9. Halobacillus dabanensis sp. nov. and Halobacillus aidingensis sp. nov., isolated from salt lakes in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W Y; Zeng, J; Wang, L; Dou, Y T; Yang, S S

    2005-09-01

    Two moderately halophilic spore-forming bacteria were isolated from salt lakes in the Xinjiang region of China. The two strains, designated AD-6(T) and D-8(T), were aerobic, Gram-positive, rod-shaped and motile by means of peritrichous flagella. Strains AD-6(T) and D-8(T) grew in the presence of 0.5-20% and 0.5-25% (w/v) NaCl in complex medium, respectively. Their cell-wall peptidoglycan was of the L-Orn-D-Asp type. The major menaquinone found in both strains was menaquinone-7 (MK-7). The fatty acid profile contained a large amount of branched fatty acids; the main fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0), anteiso-C(17:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(16:0). The DNA G+C content of strains D-8(T) and AD-6(T) was 41.4 and 42.2 mol%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strains D-8(T) and AD-6(T) were located in the genus Halobacillus. Levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolated strains and the type strains of Halobacillus species were in the range 96.2-99.5%. DNA-DNA relatedness values of 17.0-52.2% were found between the two strains and other Halobacillus species. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between D-8(T) and AD-6(T) was 50.6%. On the basis of phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties, phylogenetic analysis and genomic distinctiveness, strains D-8(T) and AD-6(T) should be placed in the genus Halobacillus as two novel species, for which the names Halobacillus dabanensis sp. nov. (type strain=JCM 12772(T)=CGMCC 1.3704(T)) and Halobacillus aidingensis sp. nov. (type strain=JCM 12771(T)=CGMCC 1.3703(T)) are proposed, respectively.

  10. Lysobacter fragariae sp. nov. and Lysobacter rhizosphaerae sp. nov. isolated from rhizosphere of strawberry plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hina; Du, Juan; Ngo, Hien T T; Won, KyungHwa; Yang, Jung-Eun; Kim, Ki-Young; Yi, Tae-Hoo

    2015-06-01

    Two bacterial strains, designated THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T), were isolated from the rhizosphere of a strawberry plant in Gyeryong Mountain, South Korea. Cells of both isolates were observed to be Gram-negative, yellow-coloured and rod-shaped. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain THG-DN8.7(T) had highest sequence similarities to Lysobacter yangpyeongensis KACC 11407(T) (97.2 %), Lysobacter niabensis KACC 11587(T) (97.0 %) and Lysobacter oryzae KCTC 22249(T) (96.9 %), while strain THG-DN8.3(T) had closely similarity with L. niabensis KACC 11587(T) (98.1 %), L. oryzae KCTC 22249(T) (97.1 %) and L. yangpyeongensis KACC 11407(T) (96.1 %). DNA-DNA relatedness values between strains THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T) and their closest phylogenetically neighbours were below 30.0 %, which indicates that strains THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T) represent distinct species within the genus Lysobacter. Both strains were found to contain iso-C15:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C17:1 ω9c as predominant fatty acids and ubiquinone-8 as major isoprenoid quinone. The major polar lipids were identified as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidyl-N-methylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strains THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T) were determined to be 66.9 and 67.8 mol%, respectively. These data are consistent with the affiliation of the two new species represented by THG-DN8.7(T) and THG-DN8.3(T) to the genus Lysobacter. The names Lysobacter fragariae sp. nov. and Lysobacter rhizosphaerae sp. nov. are proposed for these species with the type strains THG-DN8.7(T) (=KCTC 42236(T) = JCM 30322(T)) and THG-DN8.3(T) (=KCTC 42237(T) = JCM 30321(T)), respectively.

  11. Lactobacillus silagincola sp. nov. and Lactobacillus pentosiphilus sp. nov., isolated from silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohno, Masanori; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Irisawa, Tomohiro; Masuda, Takaharu; Sakamoto, Mitsuo; Arita, Masanori; Ohkuma, Moriya; Kobayashi, Hisami

    2017-09-01

    Three Gram-stain positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, catalase-negative and rod-shaped bacterial strains (IWT5T, IWT25T and IWT140), isolated from silage, were investigated by using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strains IWT5T and IWT25T grew at 10-37 °C and 30-37 °C, and at pH 4.0-7.5 and 4.0-7.0, respectively. The G+C contents of genomic DNA of strains IWT5T and IWT25T were 43.2 and 44.4 mol%, respectively. Strains IWT5T and IWT25T contained C16 : 0, C18 : 1 ω9c and summed feature 7 (unknown 18.846/C19 : 1 ω6c/C19 : 0cyclo ω10c) as the major fatty acids. Strain IWT5T was most closely related to the type strains of Lactobacillus mixtipabuli (99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity) and Lactobacillus silagei (99.5 %). For IWT25T, the 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities with the closely related neighbour type strains L. mixtipabuli and L. silagei were 99.5 and 99.5 %, respectively. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities among the three novel isolates were 99.5-99.9 %. The average nucleotide identities of strains IWT5T and IWT25T to other neighbours of the genus Lactobacillus were less than 82 % and the genomes of IWT25T and IWT140 shared 97.3 % average nucleotide identity, demonstrating that the three strains were allocated to two different novel species of the genus Lactobacillus. Together with multilocus sequence analysis, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strains IWT5T (=JCM 31144T=DSM 102973T) and IWT25T (=JCM 31145T=DSM 102974T) are proposed as the type strains of novel species of the genus Lactobacillus, with the names Lactobacillus silagincola sp. nov. and Lactobacillus pentosiphilus sp. nov., respectively.

  12. Growth performance and proximate composition of mixed cultures of marine microalgae (Nannochloropsis sp. & Tetraselmis sp. with monocultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasana Arkronrat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth performance and proximate composition of two marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. and Tetraselmis sp., in monoculture and mixed culture of both species under laboratory conditions were compared. Microalgae were cultured in enriched seawater (28 ppt in 8 L plastic bottles using Conway medium. Microalgae were grown in a temperature-controlled room (25°C under continuous illumination at a light intensity of about 3,000 Lux for 240 hours (10 days. Results showed that maximum cell density and growth rate of both species (45.06±2.67×105 cells ml-1 and 0.43±0.02 day-1, reps. in mixed culture had a significantly higher than Tetraselmis sp. (5.09±0.99×105 cells ml-1 and 0.16±0.03 day-1, reps., but not significantly different with Nannochloropsis sp. (29.25±22.70×105 cells ml-1 and 0.37±0.14 day-1, reps. in monoculture. For proximate composition, protein content of both species in mixed culture and Nannochloropsis sp. in monoculture was significantly higher than for Tetraselmis sp. in monoculture after 120 and 240 hours of cultivation. Carbohydrate and lipid contents of each treatment were found to be significantly different after 120 hours of cultivation but not significantly different after 240 hours of cultivation. Therefore, this study indicates that an alternative option for commercial microalgal production is to use a mixed culture to obtain higher production.

  13. Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov.--a symbiotic fungus of Euwallacea sp., an invasive ambrosia beetle in Israel and California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Sharon, M; Maymon, M; Mendel, Z; Protasov, A; Aoki, T; Eskalen, A; O'Donnell, K

    2013-01-01

    The invasive Asian ambrosia beetle Euwallacea sp. (Coleoptera, Scolytinae, Xyleborini) and a novel Fusarium sp. that it farms in its galleries as a source of nutrition causes serious damage to more than 20 species of live trees and pose a serious threat to avocado production (Persea americana) in Israel and California. Adult female beetles are equipped with mandibular mycangia in which its fungal symbiont is transported within and from the natal galleries. Damage caused to the xylem is associated with disease symptoms that include sugar or gum exudates, dieback, wilt and ultimately host tree mortality. In 2012 the beetle was recorded on more than 200 and 20 different urban landscape species in southern California and Israel respectively. Euwallacea sp. and its symbiont are closely related to the tea shot-hole borer (E. fornicatus) and its obligate symbiont, F. ambrosium occurring in Sri Lanka and India. To distinguish these beetles, hereafter the unnamed xyleborine in Israel and California will be referred to as Euwallacea sp. IS/CA. Both fusaria exhibit distinctive ecologies and produce clavate macroconidia, which we think might represent an adaption to the species-specific beetle partner. Both fusaria comprise a genealogically exclusive lineage within Clade 3 of the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) that can be differentiated with arbitrarily primed PCR. Currently these fusaria can be distinguished only phenotypically by the abundant production of blue to brownish macroconidia in the symbiont of Euwallacea sp. IS/CA and their rarity or absence in F. ambrosium. We speculate that obligate symbiosis of Euwallacea and Fusarium, might have driven ecological speciation in these mutualists. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe and illustrate the novel, economically destructive avocado pathogen as Fusarium euwallaceae sp. nov. S. Freeman et al.

  14. PROTOZOÁRIOS GASTRINTESTINAIS EM BUGIOS (Alouatta sp. MANTIDOS EM CATIVEIRO GASTROINTESTINAL PROTOZOA IN CAPTIVE HOWLER MONKEYS (Alouatta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bonfim Carregaro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o parasitismo gastrintestinal por protozoários em bugios (Alouatta sp. mantidos em cativeiro no município de Santa Maria, RS. Foram analisadas amostras de fezes de oito macacos das espécies Alouatta caraya e Alouatta guariba, pelo método de centrífugo-flutuação com sulfato de zinco. Observaram-se oocistos de Cryptosporidium spp. nas fezes de todos os animais pesquisados, sendo que em três deles havia infecção mista com cistos de Giardia spp. Analisando a água oferecida aos primatas detectou-se a presença elevada de oocistos de Cryptosporidium sp. e raros oocistos de outro coccidio. Conclui-se que os macacos A. caraya e A. guariba, mantidos em cativeiro, são hospedeiros dos gêneros Giardia e Cryptosporidium.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Alouatta sp., bugio, Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp.

    This study evaluated the gastrointestinal parasitism by protozoa in captive howler monkeys (Alouatta sp. in the city of Santa Maria, RS. Fecal samples from eight monkeys of the Alouatta caraya and Alouatta guariba species were analyzed by the zinc sulfate centrifugal flotation method. Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts were observed in the feces of all the studied animals, three of which having mixed infection with Giardia spp. cysts. Analyzing the water offered to the primates it was detected elevated presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts and rare oocysts of other coccidium. In conclusion, A. caraya and A. guariba monkeys, kept in captivity, are hosts for Giardia and Cryptosporidium genus.

    KEY WORDS:  Alouatta sp., Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia spp., howler monkey.

  15. [Study on the Visualization of the Biomass of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp. Based on Hyperspectral Imaging Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lu-lu; Wet, Xuan; Zhao, Yan-ru; Shao, Yong-ni; Qiu, Zheng-jun; He, Yong

    2016-03-01

    Effective cultivation of the microalgae is the key issue for microalgal bio-energy utilization. In nutrient rich culture conditions, the microalge have a fast growth rate, but they are more susceptible to environmental pollution and influence. So to monitor the the growth process of microalgae is significant during cultivating. Hyperspectral imaging has the advantages of both spectra and image analysis. The spectra contain abundant material quality signal and the image contains abundant spatial information of the material about the chemical distribution. It can achieve the rapid information acquisition and access a large amount of data. In this paper, the authors collected the hyperspectral images of forty-five samples of Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., respectively. The average spectra of the region of interest (ROI) were extracted. After applying successive projection algorithm (SPA), the authors established the multiple linear regression (MLR) model with the spectra and corresponding biomass of 30 samples, 15 samples were used as the prediction set. For Chlorella sp., Isochrysis galbana, and Spirulina sp., the correlation coefficient of prediction (r(pre)) are 0.950, 0.969 and 0.961, the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for 0.010 2, 0.010 7 and 0.007 1, respectively. Finally, the authors used the MLR model to predict biomass for each pixel in the images of prediction set; images displayed in different colors for visualization based on pseudo-color images with the help of a Matlab program. The results show that using hyperspectral imaging technique to predict the biomass of Chlorella sp. and Spirulina sp. were better, but for the Isochrysis galbana visualization needs to be further improved. This research set the basis for rapidly detecting the growth of microalgae and using the microalgae as the bio-energy.

  16. Low SP1 expression differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun Seok Lee

    Full Text Available Specificity protein 1 (SP1 is an essential transcription factor that regulates multiple cancer-related genes. Because aberrant expression of SP1 is related to cancer development and progression, we focused on SP1 expression in gastric carcinoma and its correlation with disease outcomes. Although patient survival decreased as SP1 expression increased (P<0.05 in diffuse-type gastric cancer, the lack of SP1 expression in intestinal-type gastric cancer was significantly correlated with poor survival (P<0.05. The knockdown of SP1 in a high SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, MKN28, increased migration and invasion but decreased proliferation. Microarray data in SP1 siRNA-transfected MKN28 revealed that the genes inhibiting migration were downregulated, whereas the genes negatively facilitating proliferation were increased. However, both migration and invasion were decreased by forced SP1 expression in a low SP1-expressing intestinal-type gastric cell line, AGS. Unlike the intestinal-type, in a high SP1-expressing diffuse-type gastric cell line, SNU484, migration and invasion were decreased by SP1 siRNA. In contrast to previous studies that did not identify differences between the 2 histological types, our results reveal that low expression of SP1 is involved in cancer progression and metastasis and differentially affects intestinal-type compared with diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma.

  17. Re-examination of the genus Acetobacter, with descriptions of Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleenwerck, I; Vandemeulebroecke, K; Janssens, D; Swings, J

    2002-09-01

    Thirty-four Acetobacter strains, representing Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter pomorum, Acetobacter peroxydans, Acetobacter lovaniensis, Acetobacter estunensis, Acetobacter orleanensis, Acetobacter indonesiensis and Acetobacter tropicalis, were subjected to a polyphasic study that included DNA-DNA hybridizations, DNA base ratio determinations, 16S rDNA sequence analysis and phenotypic characterization. Two novel species are proposed, Acetobacter cerevisiae sp. nov. and Acetobacter malorum sp. nov. The type strains of these species are respectively LMG 1625T (= DSM 14362T = NCIB 8894T = ATCC 23765T) and LMG 1746T (= DSM 14337T).

  18. Helicotylenchus oleae n. sp. and H. neopaxilli n. sp. (Hoplolaimidae), Two New Spiral Nematodes Parasitic on Olive Trees in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, R N; Vovlas, N; Golden, A M

    1979-01-01

    Helicotylenchus oleae n. sp. and H. neopaxilli n. sp., from olive roots and soil in Italy, are described and illustrated. Helicotylenchus oleae can be distinguished from the related species H. canadensis and H. tunisiensis especially by the smaller styler, its distinctive tail shape, and a tail longer than one anal body width. Helicotylenchus neopaxilli differs from the close species H. paxilli by having a conical, anteriorly truncated labial region, shorter stylet, and phasmids always anterior to level of anus. Also illustrated and discussed are histopathological changes within feeder roots of olive caused by the feeding activity of the semi-endoparasitic H. oleae.

  19. Ocorrência de Babesia sp em pequenos roedores no Brasil Occurrence of Babesia sp in small rodents in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    G.S. Gazeta; R.W. Carvalho; R.F. Avelar; M. Amorim; A.E. Aboud-Dutra

    2004-01-01

    Foi analisada a ocorrência de babesiose em pequenos roedores nos municípios de Silva Jardim e Nova lguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram capturados 44 roedores de seis espécies diferentes e entre eles a prevalência da infecção foi de 27,3%. Rattus norvegicus foi considerado o principal reservatório (50,0%) e Oligoryzomys nigripes como novo hospedeiro para Babesia sp. Este foi o primeiro relato de Babesia sp. em roedores no Brasil. A freqüência de roedores positivos e o risco de infecção dos...

  20. Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov., Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov., rhizobial species nodulating the medicinal legume Calliandra grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Villalobos-Escobedo, José M; Rogel, Marco A; Martinez, Julio; Ormeño-Orrillo, Ernesto; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2013-09-01

    Calliandra grandiflora has been used as a medicinal plant for thousands of years in Mexico. Rhizobial strains were obtained from root nodules of C. grandiflora collected from different geographical regions in Chiapas and characterized by BOX-PCR, amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Most isolates corresponded to members of the genus Rhizobium and those not related to species with validly published names were further characterized by recA, atpD, rpoB and nifH gene phylogenies, phenotypic and DNA-DNA hybridization analyses. Three novel related species of the genus Rhizobium within the 'Rhizobium tropici group' share the same symbiovar that may be named sv. calliandrae. The names proposed for the three novel species are Rhizobium calliandrae sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE524(T) =ATCC BAA-2435(T) =CIP 110456(T) =LBP2-1(T)), Rhizobium mayense sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE526(T) =ATCC BAA-2446(T) = CIP 110454(T) =NSJP1-1(T)) and Rhizobium jaguaris sp. nov. (type strain, CCGE525(T) =ATCC BAA-2445(T) =CIP 110453(T) =SJP1-2(T)).

  1. Metschnikowia chrysoperlae sp. nov., Candida picachoensis sp. nov. and Candida pimensis sp. nov., isolated from the green lacewings Chrysoperla comanche and Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Sung-Oui; Gibson, Cara M; Blackwell, Meredith

    2004-09-01

    Fourteen yeast isolates comprising three taxa were cultured from digestive tracts of adult Chrysoperla species (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and their eggs. The yeast taxa were distinguished based on an estimated molecular phylogeny, DNA sequences and traditional taxonomic criteria. The new yeasts are closely related to Metschnikowia pulcherrima but are sufficiently distinguished by sequence comparison of rRNA gene sequences to consider them as novel species. Here, three novel species are described and their relationships with other taxa in the Saccharomycetes are discussed. Metschnikowia chrysoperlae sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27615T = CBS 9803T) produced needle-shaped ascospores and was the only teleomorph found. Large numbers of chlamydospores similar to those observed in M. pulcherrima were also produced. The other two novel species are asexual yeasts, Candida picachoensis sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27607T = CBS 9804T) and Candida pimensis sp. nov. (type strain, NRRL Y-27619T = CBS 9805T), sister taxa of M. chrysoperlae and M. pulcherrima. A specialized relationship between yeasts and lacewing hosts may exist, because the yeasts were isolated consistently from lacewings only. Although M. chrysoperlae was isolated from eggs and adult lacewings, suggesting the possibility of vertical transmission, no yeast was isolated from larvae.

  2. Elevation of three subspecies of Lonsdalea quercina to species level: Lonsdalea britannica sp. nov., Lonsdalea iberica sp. nov. and Lonsdalea populi sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Xue, Han; Guo, Li-Min; Koltay, András; Palacio-Bielsa, Ana; Chang, Jupu; Xie, Shoujiang; Yang, Xuqi

    2017-11-01

    Four subspecies of Lonsdalea quercina (L. quercina subsp. quercina, L. quercina subsp. britannica, L. quercina subsp. iberica and L. quercina subsp. populi) were studied by genome sequence-derived average nucleotide identity (ANI), phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and phenotypic characteristics. In phylogenetic trees, based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, and in MLSA data, the four subspecies were divided into four subclusters in the Lonsdalea clade with high boot strap support. The ANI values between the four subspecies were 88.71-93.38 %, respectively, lower than the proposed species boundary ANI cut-off (95-96 %) that is considered the most important criterion to reclassify these subspecies at the species level. It is proposed that three subspecies be elevated to the species level as Lonsdalea britannica sp. nov. (type strain R-43280 T =LMG 26267 T =NCPPB 4481 T =CFCC 10822 T ), Lonsdalea iberica sp. nov. (type strain R-44166 T =LMG 26264 T =NCPPB 4490 T =CFCC 10824 T ) and Lonsdalea populi sp. nov. (type strain NY060 T =DSM 25466 T =NCAIM B 02483 T =LMG 27349 T =CFCC 13125 T ).

  3. Halomonas saccharevitans sp. nov., Halomonas arcis sp. nov. and Halomonas subterranea sp. nov., halophilic bacteria isolated from hypersaline environments of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xue-Wei; Wu, Yue-Hong; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Chun-Sheng; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Zhang, Hui-Bin; Wang, Yong; Wu, Min

    2007-07-01

    Three strains of Gram-negative, aerobic, neutrophilic and halophilic bacteria were isolated from samples of a salt lake on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and a subterranean saline well in the Si-Chuan Basin of China. These isolates, designated AJ275(T), AJ282(T) and ZG16(T), were investigated using a polyphasic approach. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, the isolates could be affiliated to the genus Halomonas. Genomic DNA G+C contents were 65.9 mol% for AJ275(T), 56.7 mol% for AJ282(T) and 57.6 mol% for ZG16(T). The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, fatty acid analysis and physiological and biochemical tests allowed the isolates to be differentiated genotypically and phenotypically from closely related species. It is proposed that strains AJ275(T) (=CGMCC 1.6493(T)=JCM 14606(T)=LMG 23976(T)), AJ282(T) (=CGMCC 1.6494(T)=JCM 14607(T)=LMG 23978(T)) and ZG16(T) (=CGMCC 1.6495(T)=JCM 14608(T)=LMG 23977(T)) represent the type strains of three novel species in the genus Halomonas: Halomonas saccharevitans sp. nov., Halomonas arcis sp. nov. and Halomonas subterranea sp. nov., respectively.

  4. Synthetic surfactant based on analogues of SP-B and SP-C is superior to single-peptide surfactants in ventilated premature rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almlén, Andreas; Walther, Frans J; Waring, Alan J; Robertson, Bengt; Johansson, Jan; Curstedt, Tore

    2010-06-01

    Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is currently treated with surfactant preparations obtained from natural sources and attempts to develop equally active synthetic surfactants have been unsuccessful. One difference in composition is that naturally derived surfactants contain the two hydrophobic proteins SP-B and SP-C while synthetic preparations contain analogues of either SP-B or SP-C. It was recently shown that both SP-B and SP-C (or SP-C33, an SP-C analogue) are necessary to establish alveolar stability at end-expiration in a rabbit RDS model, as reflected by high lung gas volumes without application of positive end-expiratory pressure. To study the efficacy of fully synthetic surfactants containing analogues of both SP-B and SP-C compared to surfactants with only one protein analogue. Premature newborn rabbits, treated with synthetic surfactants, were ventilated for 30 min without positive end-expiratory pressure. Tidal volumes as well as lung gas volumes at end-expiration were determined. Treatment with 2% Mini-B (a short-cut version of SP-B) and 2% SP-C33, or its C-terminally truncated form SP-C30, in 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol, 68:31 (w/w) resulted in median lung gas volumes of 8-9 ml/kg body weight, while animals treated with 2% Mini-B surfactant or 2% SP-C33/SP-C30 surfactant had lung gas volumes of 3-4 ml/kg, and those treated with Curosurf, a porcine surfactant, 15-17 ml/kg. In contrast, mixing SP-C33 with peptides with different distributions of positively charged and hydrophobic residues did not improve lung gas volumes. The data indicate that synthetic surfactants containing analogues of both SP-B and SP-C might be superior to single-peptide surfactants in the treatment of RDS.

  5. Cytosporones O, P and Q from an endophytic Cytospora sp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abreu, L.M.; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Pfenning, L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Cytosporones O, P and Q, together with the known compounds cytosporones B, C, D, E and dothiorelones A, 13, C. and H were isolated from the ascomycete fungus Cytospora sp. during a chemotaxonomic study Of fungal endophytes belonging to the related genera Cytospora and Phomopsis from Brazil...

  6. Effects of oxygen concentration on the growth of Nannochloropsis sp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raso, S.

    2013-01-01

    ANannochloropsissp. is a promising microalgal resource for production of food, feed and bio-based commodities, as it can grow relatively fast and combines high lipid content with high content of poly-unsaturated fatty acids. High productivity with constant product quality can be

  7. Genome sequencing and annotation of Cellulomonas sp. HZM

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Patric; Har, Zi Mei; Austin, Christopher M.; Yule, Catherine M.; Dykes, Gary A.; Lee, Sui Mae

    2015-01-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cellulomonas sp. HZM, isolated from a tropical peat swamp forest. The draft genome size is 3,559,280 bp with a G + C content of 73% and contains 3 rRNA sequences (single copies of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA).

  8. Genome sequencing and annotation of Cellulomonas sp. HZM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Patric; Har, Zi Mei; Austin, Christopher M; Yule, Catherine M; Dykes, Gary A; Lee, Sui Mae

    2015-09-01

    We report the draft genome sequence of Cellulomonas sp. HZM, isolated from a tropical peat swamp forest. The draft genome size is 3,559,280 bp with a G + C content of 73% and contains 3 rRNA sequences (single copies of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA).

  9. Genome sequencing and annotation of Cellulomonas sp. HZM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patric Chua

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the draft genome sequence of Cellulomonas sp. HZM, isolated from a tropical peat swamp forest. The draft genome size is 3,559,280 bp with a G + C content of 73% and contains 3 rRNA sequences (single copies of 5S, 16S and 23S rRNA.

  10. Report of the first human case of Caulobacter sp. infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Ulrik S; Holt, Hanne M; Thiesson, Helle

    2007-01-01

    A Caulobacter sp. isolate was recovered from the dialysis fluid of a patient undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Bacterial identification included electron microscopy and 16S rDNA sequencing. To our knowledge, this is the first report of human Caulobacter infection. Special growth requirements sugges...

  11. Cellulase production by Trichoderma sp . on apple pomace under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feasibility of using apple pomace for cellulase production by Trichoderma sp. under solid state fermentation was evaluated in this study. Our results indicated that initial moisture level of the medium, incubation temperature and inoculum size influenced the cellulase production greatly. The optimum initial moisture level ...

  12. ERRATUM Electron field emission from sp -induced insulating to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Electron field emission from sp. 2. -induced insulating to metallic behaviour of amorphous carbon (a-C) films. Pitamber Mahanandia, P N Viswakarma, Prasad Vishnu Bhotla, S V Subramanyam and Karuna Kar Nanda. 2010 Bull. Mater. Sci. 33 pp 215–220. The MS received date should be read as “MS received 20 October ...

  13. Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. elaeidis (Fofse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization of Fusarium oxysporum F. sp. elaeidis (Fofse) causal agent of vascular wilt disease of oil palm. SMA Tagoe, PNL Lamptey, KA Oduro. Abstract. No Abstract. Ghana Journal of Agricultural Science No. 1, 2005: 181-185. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  14. Beta-Glucan Synthase Gene Expression in Pleurotus sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Nie, H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Pleurotus sp. is a popular edible mushroom, containing various functional component, in particular, Beta-glucan. Beta-glucans is a part of glucan family of polysaccharides and supposedly contribute to medicinal and nutritional value of Pleurotus.sp. In order to understand the distribution of Beta-glucan in Pleurotus.sp, the Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was determined and compared in different part of Pleurotus, namely mycelium, stripe and cap. The Pleurotus.sp RNA was extracted using commercial kit, employing Tissuelyser ll (Qiagen, USA) to disrupt the cell walls. Then the RNA was quantified by Nano drop (Thermo Fisher, USA) and visualized using denaturing agarose gel. RNA with good OD 260.280 reading (∼2.0) was chosen and converted to cDNA. Using Laccase synthase gene as home keeping gene, Beta-glucan synthase gene expression was quantified using CFX 96 Real Time PCR detection system (Biorad, USA). Preliminary result shows that Beta-glucan synthase was relatively expressed the most in stripe, followed by mycelium and barely in cap. (author)

  15. Enhancement of clavulanic acid production by Streptomyces sp MU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance clavulanic acid production using UV-mutagenesis on Streptomyces sp. NRC77. Methods: UV-mutagenesis was used .... Maxima® Hot Start PCR Master Mix (2X) in a. 50μL reaction mixture as follows: activation of ..... Planning toward the application of large scale production of CA in a bioreactor by the ...

  16. Degradation of morpholine by Mycobacterium sp. isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The biodegradation of morpholine has attracted much interest because morpholine causes environmental pollution. Ten species belonging to nine genera were tested for their abilities to degrade morpholine in mineral salts medium containing morpholine (1 g/l). Mycobacterium sp. isolated from polluted water sample ...

  17. Acanthamoeba Sp. S-11 phagocytotic activity on Mycobacterium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) is a pathogenic bacterium that causes leprosy. The presence of M. leprae in the environment is supported by microorganisms that act as the new host for M. leprae. Acanthamoeba's potential to be a host of M. leprae in the environment. Acanthamoeba sp. is Free Living ...

  18. Phellinus artemisiae sp. nov. (Basidiomycota, Hymenochaetaceae), from western USA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vlasák, Josef; Vlasák, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 303, č. 1 (2017), s. 93-96 ISSN 1179-3155 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : chaparral Fungi * Phellinus artemisiae sp. nov. * molecular taxonomy * Fungi Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 1.240, year: 2016

  19. Papposphaera heldalii sp nov (Haptophyta, Papposphaeraceae) from Svalbard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Helge Abildhauge; Egge, Jorun Karin

    2016-01-01

    In an attempt to establish a taxonomy for the polar contingent of lightly calcified coccolithophores, we are currently dealing with species of Papposphaera. Here we describe a new species, Papposphaera heldalii sp. nov., based on material from Svalbard. The species is unique in terms of calyx...

  20. Characteristics of DMSP-lyase in Phaeocystis sp (Prymnesiophyceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefels, J.; Dijkhuizen, L.

    The marine phytoplankton species Phaeocystis sp, is one of the few microalgae known to be able to convert dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) enzymatically into dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and acrylic acid. The function of this enzymatic process for the organism is not known. From experiments with crude

  1. THE SAGA OF A MALE FERTILITY PROTEIN (SP22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxicologic studies designed to identify chemical-induced alterations in the structure and function of the epididymis, particularly the acquisition of fertility by proximal cauda epididymal sperm, have lead to the discovery of a novel sperm protein (SP22) that is well correlated ...

  2. Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1973-06-22

    Jun 22, 1973 ... Isozyme-based genetic fingerprinting of Manihot sp. Efisue, A. A.. Development of Crop & Soil Science, University of Port Harcourt P.M.B. 5323 Choba, Port Harcourt,. Rivers State, Nigeria. (Received 29:10:13, Accepted 20:12:13). Abstract. Many cassava varieties have been released into farmers' fields in ...

  3. Aspects of the biology of Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. (Crustacea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amphipods form an important component of coastal fauna and this study is focused on the biology of semi-terres- trial Platorchestia fayetta sp. nov. inhabiting sand and wave-cast algae on the north-eastern coast at Poste La Fayette, Mauritius. The population structure, size class variation, sex ratio and female reproductive ...

  4. Formation water resistivity (R w )determination: The SP method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uncontaminated by drilling mud) that saturates the porous formation. It is also referred to as connate water or interstitial water. Its resistivity can be determined by a number of methods, one of which is by the SP curve discussed in this work. Analysis of ...

  5. Tannin Acyl Hydrolase Production by Citrobacter sp. isolated from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial isolate, Citrobacter sp., from tannery effluent loaded sites has proved as a potent producer of tannase. Production of tannase was compared in solid-state and submerged fermentation using tamarind seed as sole carbon source. Two times increase in tannase activity was seen in solid-state fermentation (90 U) than ...

  6. Optimization of cholesterol oxidase production by Brevibacterium sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An ultrasound-assisted emulsification as a pretreatment for cholesterol oxidase production by submerge fermentation using Brevibacterium sp. in a batch system was studied. Medium improvement for the production employing response surface methodology (RSM) was optimized in this paper. The concentration of ...

  7. Molecular characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri were isolated from rhizosphere soil of chickpea from different locations in Northern India. The amount of genetic variation was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with a set of 40 RAPD primers and 2 IGS primers. Less than 10% of the amplified ...

  8. The astaxanthin dideoxyglycoside biosynthesis pathway in Sphingomonas sp. PB304

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Se Hyeuk; Kim, Jin Ho; Lee, Bun Yeol

    2014-01-01

    libraries using degenerate probes that harbor highly conserved sequences from the Sphigomonas elodea-derived crtI and Nostoc sp. PCC 7120-dervied crtW genes. Selected positive gene clusters were fully sequenced and annotated, revealing genes encoding six putative carotenogenic enzymes: phytoene synthase...

  9. Biochemical characterization of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... The characteristics of F. oxyspoum f. sp. cubense isolates were investigated using ... use in evolutionary and population studies of phyto- .... SDS-PAGE. The protein profile of different isolates showed common protein band of 53 kDa in all Foc isolates except isolate 6 and also it could be differentiated by ...

  10. Anaerobic Co-Digestion of the Microalgae Scenedesmus Sp.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos-Suarez, J. L.; Carreras, N.

    2011-06-07

    Microalgae biomass has been widely studied for biogas production over the last years and results show that anaerobic digestion is often limited by the low C/N ratio of this type of biomass. Therefore, codigestion with substrates of high C/N ratio is necessary. The objectives of this study are to set up an experimental method that ease reproducibility and control of anaerobic digestion processes in laboratory conditions and to determine the biodegradability and biogas production potential of the co-digestion process of microalgae Scenedesmus sp. and energy crop Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Miller. Results obtained showed that higher C/N ratios are preferred in order to maximize methane production. Highest methane yield obtained was 0.252m3CH4/Kg VS and degradability expressed as percentage COD reduced is around 30% for the ideal mixture found, made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. A laboratory setup using MicroOxymax respirometer, after its adaptation to work under anaerobic conditions, can be used for the monitoring of anaerobic digestion processes. Scenedesmus sp. as sole substrate for anaerobic digestion does not give good results due to low C/N ratio. However, when codigesting it with O. ficus-indica methane production is satisfactory. Best mixture was made up of 75% O. ficus-indica and 25% Scenedesmus sp. in VS basis. (Author)

  11. Archaeperidinium saanichi sp. nov

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertens, Kenneth Neil; Yamaguchi, Aika; Kawami, Hisae

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe a new species, Archaeperidinium saanichi sp. nov. within the Archaeperidinium minutum Jörgensen 1912 species complex. We examined the morphological variation of the cyst and motile stage by incubation experiments from sediment samples collected in coastal British Columbia...

  12. Production and optimization of L-asparaginase by Bacillus sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L-Asparaginase (L-asparagine amido hydrolase, E.C.3.5.1.1) is an important enzyme which has antitumor properties. This paper describes the production and optimization of L-asparaginase by Bacillus sp. KK2S4 utilization of ground corn cob waste as substrate to reduce and manage the waste in our environment.

  13. Medium optimization for acarbose production by Actinoplanes sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to improve the production of acarbose, the fermentation medium of acarbose-producing strain Actinoplanes sp. A56 was optimized in this paper. Firstly, fractional factorial design was employed to investigate the influences of glucose, maltose, corn steep liquor, soy bean flour and monosodium glutamate on ...

  14. Nematoproctus kubani sp. nov. (Insecta, Diptera, Dolichopodidae) from Laos

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olejníček, Jiří

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 87, - (2002), s. 67-70 ISSN 1211-8788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6022909 Keywords : Dolichopodidae * Nematoproctus kubani sp.nov. * Oriental region Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  15. Culture characteristics of Candida sp in waste conversion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A strain of Candida sp. was isolated from ripe banana pulp during the preliminary phase of a process for the production of a protein-enriched feed supplement. Morphological and biochemical tests demonstrated that the strain, which was bipolar and elongated, was not capable of growth at 37ºC but grew at room ...

  16. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were

  17. Single-Particle Soot Photometer (SP2) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlacek, Arthur [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The SP2 is an instrument that measures, in situ, the time-dependent scattering and incandescence signals produced by individual BC-containing particles as they travel through a continuous-wave laser beam. Any particle traversing the laser beam will scatter light, and the BC component of a BC-containing particle will absorb some of the laser energy until its temperature is raised to the point at which it incandesces (hereafter we adopt the standard terminology of the SP2 community and denote any substance determined by the SP2 to be BC as refractory black carbon (rBC)). The amplitude of the rBC incandescence signal is related to the amount of refractory material contained in the illuminated particle. By binning the individual incandescence signals per unit sample volume, the mass concentration [ng/m3] of rBC can be derived. By binning the individual signals by volume equivalent diameter the size distribution (dN/dlogDVED) per unit time can be derived. The rBC mass loading per unit time and the rBC size distribution unit time are the core data products produced by the SP2. Additionally, the scattering channel can be used to provide information on the rBC particle population-based mixing states within ambient aerosols. However, this data product is produced on a requested-basis since additional detailed analysis and QC/QA must be conducted.

  18. Calibration of PIXE-SP system of elementary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabacniks, M.H.

    1983-04-01

    The set-up and calibration of the PIXE-SP System of Elementary Analysis located at the Institute of Physics of the University of Sao Paulo is described. The PIXE-SP, that operates with 8 MeV alpha beam, has been calibrated for elements with Z >= 11, by means of homemade evaporated standard targets of Al, Si, Bacl 2 , K 2 CrO 4 , Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Ge, Ag, Sn, and Au. Those targets are thin, homogeneous, and have been calbrated on a microbalance within an average precision of 6%. The overall precision of the PIXE-SP System is estimated in 10% for elements with 16 2 thick, irradiated with a 10 μC electric charge, shows a minimum of about 0,1 ng (approximated 4 ppm) for Mn. The PIXE-SP System has also been intercalibrated with the PIXE located at University of Gent, Belgium, by means of 12 atmospheric aerosol targets collected on two Batelle Cascade Impactors. The analyzed masses of elements with 16 [pt

  19. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products.

  20. Comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The comparative study of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium sp. in the biodegradation of automotive gas oil (AGO) and premium motor spirit (PMS) was carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of using these microorganisms in cleaning and restoring the ecosystem when polluted by petroleum products. These fungi were ...

  1. Optimization of lipase production by Staphylococcus sp. Lp12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A bacterial strain isolated from an oil contaminated soil, identified as Staphylococcus sp. Lp12 was screened for lipase activity on tributyrin agar and spirit blue agar medium. Maximum lipase production was observed at 48 h of growth (3.5 Eu/ml). Peptone was found to be as an ideal nitrogen source for production at a ...

  2. Biscalitheca suzanneana, N. Sp., from the uppermost Pennsylvanian of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamay, S.H.

    1972-01-01

    Biscalitheca suzanneana, n. sp., is described from specimens found in an uppermost Pennsylvanian deposit in north-central Texas. The genus was identified primarily on the basis of impressions of the unique sporangial annuli. The occurrence establishes for Biscalitheca a stratigraphic range equivalent to nearly the entire Upper Pennsylvanian Series. ?? 1972.

  3. Paraconcinnum leirsi n.sp. (Trematoda: Dicrocoeliidae) from rodents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The trematode Paraconcinnum leirsi n.sp. (Dicrocoeliidae) is described from two rodent species, the African gerbil, Gerbilliscus vicinus, and the spiny mouse, Acomys spinosissimus, from Tanzania. It differs from the description of P. hylomisci found in the Stella wood mouse, Hylomyscus stella, in the Democratic Republic of ...

  4. Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. from Sabah (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Afendy, Aqilah; Rahman, Homathevi

    2016-04-14

    Telosticta fugispinosa sp. nov. (holotype male, from Borneo, Sabah, West Coast division, Crocker Range National Park, Inobong, Kimamabang waterfall stream system, 21 ix 2012, deposited in RMNH) is described from Kinabalu National Park and Crocker Range National Park in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. It is distinguished from all other species of Telosticta by the form of the male anal appendages.

  5. Bioaccumulation of platinum group metals in dolphins, Stenella sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Platinum group metals (PGMs) concentrations were measured in the tissues= of dolphins (Stenella sp.) caught along the Ghanaian coastline. Tissues from specimens caught by fishermen from Dixcove, western Ghana, were analysed in 2006 for palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt) and rhodium (Rh) using the Neutron Activation ...

  6. Reproductive status of opisthoteuthis sp . Over an annual cycle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive biology of deepwater cephalopods has received relatively little attention. The cirrate octopus Opisthoteuthis sp. is a regular bycatch in deep benthic trawls from 800 to 1 200 m deep west of Scotland. Specimens were sampled throughout the seasonal cycle. Mature females occurred over a broad size range ...

  7. Occurrence of Anatrichosoma sp. in a Nigerian feral cat | Ohiolei ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a report of the presence of an embryonated egg with distinct morphological features consistent with those of Anatrichosoma sp., in cat faeces from Ibadan, Nigeria. This is important because detailed information about this parasite's clinical pattern, epidemiology and host range is just being gradually unravelled.

  8. Complete genome sequence of Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia Chow; Guang Nong; Franz J. St. John; John D. Rice; Ellen Dickstein; Olga Chertkov; David Bruce; Chris Detter; Thomas Brettin; James Han; Tanja Woyke; Sam Pitluck; Matt Nolan; Amrita Pati; Joel Martin; Alex Copeland; Miriam L. Land; Lynne Goodwin; Jeffrey B. Jones; Lonnie O. Ingram; Keelnathan T. Shanmugam; James F. Preston

    2012-01-01

    Paenibacillus sp. strain JDR-2, an aggressively xylanolytic bacterium isolated from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) wood, is able to efficiently depolymerize, assimilate and metabolize 4-O-methylglucuronoxylan, the predominant structural component of hardwood hemicelluloses. A basis for this capability was first supported by...

  9. Electron field emission from sp -induced insulating to metallic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    possible applications as semiconductor materials (Silva et al 1998) and as potential field emission cathode ... Though post treatment and annealing results in higher sp. 2 content cluster sizes, graphitization of the ... The samples were prepared by a simple pyrolysis method at different temperatures (700, 800 and 900°C) ...

  10. Antibacterial secondary metabolites from the cave sponge Xestospongia sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankisetty, Sridevi; Slattery, Marc

    2012-05-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  11. Antibacterial Secondary Metabolites from the Cave Sponge Xestospongia sp

    OpenAIRE

    Ankisetty, Sridevi; Slattery, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the cave sponge Xestospongia sp. resulted in the isolation of three new polyacetylenic long chain compounds along with two known metabolites. The structures of the new metabolites were established by NMR and MS analyses. The antibacterial activity of the new metabolites was also evaluated.

  12. Two new alkaloids from Xestospongia sp., a New Caledonian sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirion, J C; Sevenet, T; Husson, H P; Weniger, B; Debitus, C

    1992-10-01

    Five alkaloids have been isolated from a New Caledonian sponge Xestospongia sp. These include three known xestospongin derivatives, the new demethylxestospongin B (1) and a tetrahydrocarboline derivative 5. The structures of the new compounds 1 and 5 have been established by nmr studies and comparison with previously described products.

  13. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism of Puccinia graminis f. sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in its continued effort to minimize the impact of stem rust on wheat in Ethiopia. Keywords: AFLP, wheat, stem rust, ... as the main causes of crop losses in wheat. Of these, stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici (Pgt) is the main ..... estimated losses in major food and cash crops. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 808 p. Ordonez ...

  14. Radiotoxicological analysis at IPEN-CNEN/SP-Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Gaburo, J.; Bellintani, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    The methodology of control of internal contamination of handlers of radioactive materials is briefly described. The aim of IPEN-CNEN/SP-Brazil is the evaluation of occupational exposure of compounds of uranium, tritium, iodine-131, lead and fluorine among other ones. (M.A.C.) [pt

  15. Procamacolaimus Dorylaimus Sp. Nov. (Nematoda: Leptolaimidae) from the southern atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.

    2003-01-01

    Procamacolaimus dorylaimus sp. nov. is described from the Southern Atlantic (South Shetland Islands, Antarctica). The species is characterised by 3.4-3.5 mm long body; coarsely annulated cuticle without lateral field, epidermal glands and body pores absent, somatic setae present; labial sensilla

  16. Identification and antifungal activity of Streptomyces sp. S72 isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The test of antifungal activity for several pathogens fungi causing invasive aspergillosis and systemic candidiasis revealed that the Streptomyces sp. S72 was a good moderate antifungal compound producer against Aspergillus fumigatus and Candida albicans, and had no activity against Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus ...

  17. Phenotyping and molecular characterization of Lysinibacillus sp. P ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial strain Lysinibacillus sp. (P-011) was isolated from the midgut of the Drosophila melanogaster larvae. The bacteria were gram positive, spore forming, rod shaped ranging from 1.86 to 2.5µm in length and 0.50 to 0.67 µm in diameter, positive for catalase, indole, oxidase, nitrate reduction, starch and gelatin ...

  18. Polydactyly in the central pacific gecko, Lepidodactylus sp. (Squamata: Gekkonidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.M.; Hathaway, S.A.; Fisher, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first known case of naturally occurring polydactyly in a gekkotan lizard. A single individual from Palmyra Atoll exhibited a triplication of digit III of the m hand. No obvious teratogenic sources are present on the atoll and the causal factors of polydactyly in Lepidodactylus sp. remain unknown.

  19. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palilu, Prayolga Toban; Budiarso, Tri Yahya

    2017-05-01

    Staphylococcus sp. is one of the most dangerous bacteria that could cause food poisoning. It is a pathogenic bacterium which is able to produce enterotoxin in foods. Milk is an ideal growth medium for Staphylococcus sp., that may cause problem if it is to be consumed, especially by infant. It is the objective of this research to detect the presence of Staphylococcus sp. in powdered infant milk. As many as 14 samples obtained from market were used as samples for bacterial isolation. The isolation were done by employing enrichment step on BHI-broth, continued with Baird-Parker Agar which will produce a typical colony. It is then picked and grown on Mannitol Salt Agar, and gram staining, coagulase assay, and fermentation tests. The confirmation step was done by using API-Staph which gives the identification of Staphylococcus hemoliticus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a percentage of identity ranging from 65.9-97.7%. Two isolates with the highest identification similarity values were then picked for molecular detection. A PCR primer pair targeting gene coding for enterotoxin A was used, and it gives positive result for the two isolates being tested. It is then concluded that the two isolates belong to Staphylococcus sp., and further research need to be done to correctly identify these isolates.

  20. Mucilaginibacter terrae sp nov., isolated from Antarctic soil

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, I.; Pantůček, R.; Králová, S.; Mašlaňová, I.; Holochová, P.; Staňková, E.; Sobotka, Roman; Barták, M.; Busse, H.-J.; Švec, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 10 (2017), s. 4002-4007 ISSN 1466-5026 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1416 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Mucilaginibacter terrae sp nov. * James ross island * Antarctic Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.134, year: 2016

  1. Biodegradation of Polyethylene by Bacillus sp. Indigenous to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    Available online at www.biotechsocietynigeria.org. Biodegradation of Polyethylene by Bacillus sp. Indigenous to the. Niger Delta Mangrove Swamp. Ibiene, A. A., Stanley, H. O., Immanuel, O. M.. Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, College of Applied and Natural Sciences,. University of Port Harcourt, ...

  2. Evaluation of xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite being present in relatively low amounts, pentosans and hemicelluloses play an important role in dough rheology and bread properties. The aim of this work is to understand how the xylanases from Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma sp. influence dough rheology, such as elasticity, extensibility, strength and stability.

  3. An Acetylenic Alkaloid from the Calcareous Sponge Leucetta sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole J. de Voogd

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A new acetylenic alkaloid was isolated from the sponge Leucetta sp. The structure was established by analyzing spectroscopic data. The alkaloid showed cytotoxicity IC50 2.5 mg/mL against NBT-T2 cells.

  4. Micropropagation of some Malaysian banana and plantain (Musa sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... 1Department of Biochemistry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia. 2Department of Cell ... of people, especially in South East Asia (FAOstat, 2005). As one of the origins of ... After emergence at 10 weeks old, male flower bunches were collected from Musa sp. cv.

  5. Drepanosticta rahmani sp. nov., from Kedah, Malaysia (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Rory A; Choong, Chee Yen; Ng, Yong Foo

    2017-10-24

    Drepanosticta rahmani sp. nov. (holotype ♂, steep tributary to stream in hills between Baling and Gulai, north west Kedah, Malaysia, 15 xi 2016, leg. R.A. Dow, to be deposited in the Natural History Museum, London) is described from both sexes.

  6. ε-Caprolactam Utilization by Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. Isolated From Solid Waste Dumpsites in Lagos State, Nigeria, First Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanuth, Hassan Adeyemi; Yadav, Amit; Fagade, Obasola Ezekiel; Shouche, Yogesh

    2013-06-01

    The ε-caprolactam is the monomer of the synthetic non-degradable nylon-6 and often found as nonreactive component of nylon-6 manufacturing waste effluent. Environmental consequences of its toxicity to natural habitats and humans pose a global public concern. Soil samples were collected from three designated solid waste dumpsites, namely, Abule-Egba, Olusosun and Isheri-Igando in Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixteen bacteria isolated from these samples were found to utilize the ε-caprolactam as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen at concentration of ≤20 g l(-1). The isolates were characterized using their 16S rRNA gene sequence and showed similarity with Pseudomonas sp., Proteus sp., Providencia sp., Corynebacterium sp., Lysinibacillus sp., Leucobacter sp., Alcaligenes sp. and Bordetella sp. Their optimal growth conditions were found to be at temperature range of 30 to 35 °C and pH range of 7.0-7.5. High Performance liquid chromatography analysis of the ε-caprolactam from supernatant of growth medium revealed that these isolates have potential to remove 31.6-95.7 % of ε-caprolactam. To the best of our knowledge, this study is first to report the ability of Proteus sp. and Bordetella sp. for ε-caprolactam utilization.

  7. Revaluation of the film test as a screening test for' Eurytrema sp infection in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Pacífico Antonio Diniz Belém; Mauro Rodrigues de Oliveira; Carlos Roberto Padovani

    1992-01-01

    Film test was performed in fecal samples of Eurytrema sp infected and non infected cattle but both groups showed similar results. So, it was concluded that film test is an unreliable one for screening Eurytrema sp infection in cattle.

  8. STUDYING THE FEATURES OF CULTIVATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF COMPOSITION CULTURE MEDIA FOR LACTOBACILLUS SP.

    OpenAIRE

    Aniskina M. V.; Volobueva E. S.; Petenko A. I.; Volkova S. A.

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the materials of the study of the features of cultivation of Lactobacillus sp. on different culture medium. We have made a comparison of standard culture medium for cultivation Lactobacillus sp. and determined the most optimal culture medium

  9. Babesia peircei sp. nov. from the jackass penguin | Earlé | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An avian piroplasm, Babesia peircei sp. nov. is described from the jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus. Morphological differences between Babesia peircei sp. nov. and the other valid Babesia spp. are discussed together with the possible vectors.

  10. Multitasking Immune Sp185/333 Protein, rSpTransformer-E1, and Its Recombinant Fragments Undergo Secondary Structural Transformation upon Binding Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lun, Cheng Man; Bishop, Barney M; Smith, L Courtney

    2017-04-01

    The purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus , expresses a diverse immune response protein family called Sp185/333. A recombinant Sp185/333 protein, previously called rSp0032, shows multitasking antipathogen binding ability, suggesting that the protein family mediates a flexible and effective immune response to multiple foreign cells. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that rSp0032 is intrinsically disordered, and its multiple binding characteristic suggests structural flexibility to adopt different conformations depending on the characteristics of the target. To address the flexibility and structural shifting hypothesis, circular dichroism analysis of rSp0032 suggests that it transforms from disordered (random coil) to α helical structure. This structural transformation may be the basis for the strong affinity between rSp0032 and several pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The N-terminal Gly-rich fragment of rSp0032 and the C-terminal His-rich fragment show unique transformations by either intensifying the α helical structure or changing from α helical to β strand depending on the solvents and molecules added to the buffer. Based on these results, we propose a name change from rSp0032 to rSpTransformer-E1 to represent its flexible structural conformations and its E1 element pattern. Given that rSpTransformer-E1 shifts its conformation in the presence of solvents and binding targets and that all Sp185/333 proteins are predicted to be disordered, many or all of these proteins may undergo structural transformation to enable multitasking binding activity toward a wide range of targets. Consequently, we also propose an overarching name change for the entire family from Sp185/333 proteins to SpTransformer proteins. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Diversity of symbiotic algae in the genus Symbiodinium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 11, No 1 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Resistance to Puccinia graminis f. sp. avenae in Barley Is Associated with the Rpg5 Locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dracatos, Peter; Singh, Davinder; Fetch, Tom; Park, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In barley, gene Rpg5 was first identified for providing resistance to the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis). A subsequent study determined that Rpg5 is required for rpg4-mediated resistance to the wheat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. tritici) including pathotype TTKSK ("Ug99"), which poses a major threat to global wheat and barley production. Based on the effectiveness of Rpg5 against P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis, we assessed whether it also conferred resistance to the oat stem rust pathogen (P. graminis f. sp. avenae). A barley F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population was produced by crossing 'Q21861' (Rpg1 and Rpg5) with '73-G1' (Rpg1), which is susceptible to P. graminis f. sp. avenae, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, and some pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici. Seedling tests were performed on the F8 RIL population using Australian pathotypes of P. graminis f. sp. tritici, P. graminis f. sp. secalis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae, and a putative somatic hybrid between P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis known as the 'Scabrum' rust. Segregation in the responses to all rust isolates for the RILs was identical (50 resistant: 52 susceptible), and fitted a 1:1 ratio (X2=0.039, P=0.843), indicating that resistance to all isolates was monogenetically inherited. Screening of the RILs and the parental lines with perfect markers for the functional Rpg1 and Rpg5 resistance alleles indicated that Rpg1 was fixed, while Rpg5 was positive in all resistant lines and negative in all susceptible lines. This suggests that different formae speciales of P. graminis may share common effectors, and that the Rpg5 locus confers resistance to both P. graminis f. sp. tritici and P. graminis f. sp. secalis and the heterologous formae speciales of P. graminis, P. graminis f. sp. avenae.

  13. Molecular evidence of a new Babesia sp. in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozubek, Sezayi; Aktas, Munir

    2017-01-15

    In this study, a novel Babesia sp. infecting goats was detected and its phylogenetic relationship to related species was determined. A total of 200 blood samples collected from sheep (n=78) and goats (n=122) were examined in the study. The V4 hypervariable region of the 18S rRNA gene of the novel Babesia sp. was amplified by PCR and analysed using a reverse line blot hybridization assay adapted for small ruminants. Samples from seven goats hybridized to Theileria/Babesia catch-all and Babesia catch-all probes and did not hybridize to any species-specific probe tested, suggesting the presence of an unrecognized Babesia species or genotype. Sequencing results showed the isolate to clearly differ from ovine Babesia species and genotypes currently available in the GenBank database. The isolate showed 90.9%, 93.5%, and 93.4% identity to B. ovis, B. motasi, and B. crassa, respectively and 91-93% similarity to Babesia genotypes recently described in small ruminants. The highest homology (∼96-97%) observed was with Babesia odocoilei, Babesia sp. EU1, and Babesia divergens. The new isolate was provisionally designated Babesia sp. The study contributes to better insight into the distribution and phylogenetic diversity of piroplasms in small ruminants. The survey indicated a high prevalence of piroplasms in small ruminants (21.5%). Of those detected, T. ovis was the most prevalent (17%), followed by Babesia sp. (3.5%), and B. ovis (2%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sp1/Sp3 and DNA-methylation contribute to basal transcriptional activation of human podoplanin in MG63 versus Saos-2 osteoblastic cells

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    Puri Christina

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Podoplanin is a membrane mucin that, among a series of tissues, is expressed on late osteoblasts and osteocytes. Since recent findings have focussed on podoplanin's potential role as a tumour progression factor, we aimed at identifying regulatory elements conferring PDPN promoter activity. Here, we characterized the molecular mechanism controlling basal PDPN transcription in human osteoblast-like MG63 versus Saos-2 cells. Results We cloned and sequenced 2056 nucleotides from the 5'-flanking region of the PDPN gene and a computational search revealed that the TATA and CAAT box-lacking promoter possesses features of a growth-related gene, such as a GC-rich 5' region and the presence of multiple putative Sp1, AP-4 and NF-1 sites. Reporter gene assays demonstrated a functional promoter in MG63 cells exhibiting 30-fold more activity than in Saos-2 cells. In vitro DNase I footprinting revealed eight protected regions flanked by DNaseI hypersensitive sites within the region bp -728 to -39 present in MG63, but not in Saos-2 cells. Among these regions, mutation and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA identified four Sp1/Sp3 binding sites and two binding sites for yet unknown transcription factors. Deletion studies demonstrated the functional importance of two Sp1/Sp3 sites for PDPN promoter activity. Overexpression of Sp1 and Sp3 independently increased the stimulatory effect of the promoter and podoplanin mRNA levels in MG63 and Saos-2 cells. In SL2 cells, Sp3 functioned as a repressor, while Sp1 and Sp3 acted positively synergistic. Weak PDPN promoter activity of Saos-2 cells correlated with low Sp1/Sp3 nuclear levels, which was confirmed by Sp1/Sp3 chromatin immunoprecipitations in vivo. Moreover, methylation-sensitive Southern blot analyses and bisulfite sequencing detected strong methylation of CpG sites upstream of bp -464 in MG63 cells, but hypomethylation of these sites in Saos-2 cells. Concomitantly

  15. Hydrolysis of surimi wastewater for production of transglutaminase by Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H-Kittikun, Aran; Bourneow, Chaiwut; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2012-12-01

    Surimi wastewater (SWW) is an industrial wastewater, released during the washing step of surimi preparation from minced fish, that causes environmental problem. In this study, SWW produced from ornate threadfin bream (Nemipterus hexodon) was hydrolysed and used to cultivate Enterobacter sp. C2361 and Providencia sp. C1112 for the production of microbial transglutaminase (MTGase, EC 2.3.2.13). The SWW was repeatedly used to wash the fish mince that gained a final protein content of 3.20% (w/v). The commercial protease, Delvolase was the most appropriate protease used to produce fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) from SWW. The FPH at 40% degree of hydrolysis was used instead of a peptone portion in the SPY medium (3.0% starch, 2.0% peptone, 0.2% yeast extract, 0.2% MgSO(4), 0.2% K(2)HPO(4) and 0.2% KH(2)HPO(4), pH 7.0) to cultivate the tested strains at 37°C, shaking speed at 150rpm. Providencia sp. C1112 produced higher MTGase activity (1.78±0.05U/ml) than Streptoverticillium mobaraense (1.61±0.02U/ml) at 18h of cultivation in FPH medium. On the other hand, the Enterobacter sp. C2361 produced lower MTGase activity (1.18±0.03U/ml). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antifungal Activity of Jasminum sambac against Malassezia sp. and Non-Malassezia sp. Isolated from Human Skin Samples

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    Jacinta Santhanam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia sp. causes skin diseases such as pityriasis versicolor, folliculitis, and atopic dermatitis. The present study aims to evaluate the antifungal activity of J. sambac or Arabian jasmine, a flowering plant abundant in the Southeast Asia against Malassezia sp. using disc diffusion and broth microdilution method. The methanol extract and essential oil from the flowers and leaves of J. sambac were, respectively, prepared using solvent extraction and hydrodistillation process. Skin samples from individuals with dandruff were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar overlaid with olive oil. The fungi that grew were observed microscopically, tested with Tween assimilation test, and cultured on CHROMagar (the chromogenic media pioneer to identify Malassezia sp. Out of 5 skin samples, only 2 Malassezia sp. isolates were identified based on morphology and their ability to assimilate Tween. The inhibition zones of methanol extract of flowers and leaves of J. sambac and essential oil of flowers showed potential for antifungal activity with inhibition zones of 11.10 ± 1.92, 12.90 ± 1.68, and 13.06 ± 0.26 mm, respectively, and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 80 mg/mL to 160 mg/mL and 50%, respectively. In conclusion, J. sambac may be used as an alternative treatment against Malassezia-associated skin infections.

  17. SP-A-enriched surfactant for treatment of rat lung transplants with SP-A deficiency after storage and reperfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erasmus, ME; Hofstede, GJH; Petersen, AH; Batenburg, JJ; Haagsman, HP; Oetomo, SB; Prop, J

    2002-01-01

    Background. The function of pulmonary surfactant is affected by lung transplantation, contributing to impaired lung transplant function. A decreased amount of surfactant protein-A (SP-A) after reperfusion is believed to contribute to the impaired surfactant function. Surfactant treatment has been

  18. Effect of Indigenous Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. Strains on Yield and Main Chemical Growth Parameters of Radicchio

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    Stanojković-Sebić Aleksandra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas sp. and Bacillus sp. belong to plant growth promoting rhizobacteria which are able to colonize the plants roots and stimulate growth. In this study, the effect of two indigenous plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains Pseudomonas sp. Q4 and Bacillus sp. Q10 and their mixture (mix Q4+Q10 on content of the main chemical growth parameters (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium and the yield of dry biomass of radicchio (Cichorium spp. var. rossa di treviso aerial parts and root, was investigated. The study was carried out with stagnosol type of soil in pot experiments under semi-controlled conditions in the Institute of Soil Science (Belgrade, in the period from July to October in 2013. Phosphorus was determined by spectrophotometer, potassium - by flame emission photometry and total nitrogen and carbon - using elemental CNS analyzer, while calcium and magnesium were determined by AAS. The data on yield of both aerial parts and root dry biomass of radicchio showed that its treatment with Q4 and Q10 strains, as well as with their mixture, caused noticeably increase in this parameter in relation to the control, whereby the strain Q4 was more effective for aerial parts, while mix Q4+Q10 - for roots. The obtained data on the studied chemical parameters of radicchio root and aerial parts were in total accordance with their yield. Concluding, studied strains have a potential in promoting the biomass yield and main chemical growth parameters of both aerial parts and root of radicchio.

  19. Evaluation of Culture Conditions to Obtain Fatty Acids from Saline Microalgae Species: Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp.

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    D. A. Castilla Casadiego

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of the saline microalgae, Dunaliella salina, Sinecosyfis sp., and Chroomonas sp., was explored as an alternative source for the production of fatty acids using fertilizer and glycerol as culture media. The nutrient medium used contained “Nutrifoliar,” a commercial fertilizer, and/or glycerol, in natural sea water. The microalgae were placed in cultures with different conditions. The parameters that favored the largest production of fatty acids were 24 hours of agitation and illumination, 1620 L/day of air supply, 2.25 L of air/min, and a temperature of 32°C using “Nutrifoliar” as the culture media. Results indicated that, from 3 g of microalgae in wet base of Chroomonas sp., 54.43 mg of oil was produced. The chromatographic characterization of oil obtained revealed the presence of essential fatty acids such as 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid (omega-3 and 4,7,10-hexadecatrienoic acid (omega-6 from the species Dunaliella salina. On the other hand, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (omega-6 and cis-11-eicosenoic acid (omega-9 were identified from the species Chroomonas sp. The temperature variations played an important role in the velocity of growth or the production of the algae biomass, the amount of oil, and the ability to produce fatty acids.

  20. Ocorrência de Babesia sp em pequenos roedores no Brasil Occurrence of Babesia sp in small rodents in Brazil

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    G.S. Gazeta

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a ocorrência de babesiose em pequenos roedores nos municípios de Silva Jardim e Nova lguaçu, Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram capturados 44 roedores de seis espécies diferentes e entre eles a prevalência da infecção foi de 27,3%. Rattus norvegicus foi considerado o principal reservatório (50,0% e Oligoryzomys nigripes como novo hospedeiro para Babesia sp. Este foi o primeiro relato de Babesia sp. em roedores no Brasil. A freqüência de roedores positivos e o risco de infecção dos roedores não diferiram entre as áreas estudadas.The occurrence of babesiosis was studied in 44 small rodents of six species captured in Silva Jardim and Nova lguaçu counties, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The prevalence of injection was 27.3%. Rattus norvegicus was considered as the main reservoir and Oligoryzomys nigripes as a new host to Babesia sp. The frequency and the risk of rodent infection were considered equal among the studied areas. This is the first report of Babesia sp in small rodents in Brazil.