Mølbak, Kåre; Christiansen, Annette Hartvig; Bygbjerg, Ib C
certain groups of immigrants has not resulted in a general increase in the incidence of hepatitis B. Exceptions are imported cases of hepatitis A in children, which have resulted in outbreaks in the indigenous Danish population, and the import of drug-resistant bacteria, which often pose a serious......In Denmark, about one third of notifiable diseases are imported, but these have had only a limited spread within the Danish community. For example, imported strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain confined to the immigrant population, and the high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B among...
Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina
and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...
Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of disease in the central nervous system in employees at Danish electric companies; Udsaettelse for elektromagnetiske felter og risiko for sygdomme i det centrale nervesystem blandt ansatte ved danske elselskaber
Introduction: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields has been associated with neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Material and method: I studied the incidence of disease in the central nervous system in 30,631 persons employed at Danish electric companies between 1900 and 1993. I linked the cohort to the nationwide, population-based Danish National Register of Patients and compared the number of cases of these diseases found between 1978 and 1993 with the corresponding rates in the general population. In addition, I fit the data on utility workers to a multiplicative Poisson regression model in relation to estimated levels of exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Results: Overall, there was an increase in the risk of senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effects; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. Discussion: The increased risk of senile dementia and motor-neuron diseases may be associated with above average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields. (au)
Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena
, Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...
Waldemar, G; Waldorff, F B; Buss, D V
Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteri......Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline...
Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Kjøller, Mette; Davidsen, Michael
This article gives an overview of a nationally representive public health research database in Denmark, the Danish National Cohort Study (DANCOS). DANCOS combines baseline data from health interview surveys with both pre- and post-baseline data from national health registries with date from a re...... and administrative registries. All respondents and non-respondents were followed through 2002, a total of 3,796 had died and 249 had emigrated. The specific cause of death for 2,485 people was recorded in the Danish Register of Causes of Death, updated through 1998. For 1978-1977, the Danish National Hospital...
Danish contribution to a EU-COST A4 action analysing the emergence of social studies of technology, the Science-Technology-Society field and the 'new sociology' of technology in Europe.......Danish contribution to a EU-COST A4 action analysing the emergence of social studies of technology, the Science-Technology-Society field and the 'new sociology' of technology in Europe....
Klemmensen, Robert; Hobolt, Sara B; Dinesen, Peter Thisted
We compare a recent Danish twin survey on political attitudes and behaviors to a nationally representative survey covering similar topics. We find very similar means and variances for most of our constructed scales of political attitudes and behaviors in the two surveys, although even small...
Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU...
Pisinger, Veronica; Mikkelsen, Stine Schou; Bendtsen, Pernille
schools and 10 vocational schools. RESULTS: A total of 75,853 students participated (70,674 high school students and 5179 vocational school students). In the participating schools, 85% of high school students and 69% of vocational school students took part in the survey. A total of 166 school leaders......AIMS: This paper aims to give a description of the Danish National Youth Study 2014 in terms of study design, study population and questionnaire content. The differences between participants and non-participants regarding socioeconomic characteristics are also described. METHODS: The Danish...... National Youth Study 2014 was a web-based survey with data collected through self-completion questionnaires administered in the classroom. There were two questionnaires: one for students, with >250 core questions; and one for school leaders on the school environment. Data collection took place at 119 high...
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
biological relatives to adoptees without schizophrenia. Clear trends in body mass index of biological relatives and the weight of adoptees were found in several settings. A genetic influence on smoking habits were found within a generation. A moderate genetic influence on the mortality rate has been found....... CONCLUSION: The Danish Adoption Register has contributed to the knowledge about environmental and genetic influence in various fields. Genetic influence on the risk of schizophrenia, body fatness, smoking habits, and on the mortality rate has been found........ RESEARCH TOPICS: To illustrate the adoption study approach in research, we present results achieved in schizophrenia, body fatness, smoking, and mortality. Significantly higher prevalence of schizophrenia and related conditions were found in biological relatives to adoptees with schizophrenia than among...
Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian
BACKGROUND: To present the first national series of salivary duct carcinoma patients, including survival rates and an analysis of prognostic factors. METHODS: By merging three Danish nationwide registries that encompass an entire population, 34 patients diagnosed with salivary duct carcinoma from......-rank test. RESULTS: Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall...... carcinoma incidence averages to two episodes per year in the entire Kingdom of Denmark. With half of patients in this study experiencing distant recurrences and only a third surviving at 5 years, prognosis is dismal. Advanced overall stage, vascular invasion and involved resection margins all seem...
Lauridsen, Eva; Gjørup, Hans
Behandlingen af patienter med medfødte sjældne sygdomme kan have orale, dentale eller kraniofaciale associerede afvigelser og være meget kompleks. Her beskrives kliniske og radiologiske karakteristika og principper for behandling af patienter med ektodermal dysplasi, cleidocranial dysplasi, osteo......, osteogenesis imperfecta og hereditær rakitis...
Tegtmeier, Conny; Uttenthal, Åse; Friis, N.F.
During 1 year, the association between microbiological and pathological findings in 72 lungs from calves submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory for diagnostic purposes was studied. All cases mere evaluated pathologically and bacteriologically, whereas only 68 cases were examined...
Haugan, Ketil; Rost, Dan; Knudsen, Nils
Abdominal obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and its relationship with these comorbidities have not previously been examined in Danish primary care patients.......Abdominal obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemia and hypertension. The prevalence of abdominal obesity and its relationship with these comorbidities have not previously been examined in Danish primary care patients....
Ullidtz, Per; Ertman Larsen, Hans Jørgen
Most existing pavement subgrade criteria are based on the AASHO Road Test, where only one material was tested and for only one climatic condition. To study the validity of these criteria and to refine the criteria a co-operative research program entitled the "International Pavement Subgrade...... Performance Study" was sponsored by the FHWA with American, Finnish and Danish partners. This paper describes the first test series which was carried out in the Danish Road Testing Machine (RTM).The first step in this program is a full scale test on an instrumented pavement in the Danish Road Testing Machine....... Pressure gauges and strain cells were installed in the upper part of the subgrade, for measuring stresses and strains in all three directions. During and after construction FWD testing was carried out to evaluate the elastic parameters of the materials. These parameters were then used with the theory...
Severinsen, Marianne Tang; Kristensen, Søren Risom; Overvad, Kim
Introduction: Epidemiological data on venous thromboembolism (VT), i.e. pulmonary emboli (PE) and deep venous thrombosis (DVT) are sparse. We have examined VT-diagnoses registered in a big Danish Cohort study. Methods: All first-time VT diagnoses in The Danish National Patient Register were...... were probable cases (1.7%) whereas for 449 (41.6%) the diagnosis could be excluded. The incidence rate was 1 per 1000 personyears. Out of the 632 cases 60% were DVT and 40% PE. 315 VT were considered idiopathic (49.8%), 311 were secondary (49.2%) and 15 were unclassifiable. 122 patients had cancer, 87...
Egelund, Tine; Hestbæk, Anne-Dorthe
This paper presents results describing what characterizes young, Danish children in care and their parents, and, furthermore, discusses social policy implications of the complex psychosocial disadvantages influencing the families. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of all Danish children......, born in 1995, who currently are or formerly have been placed in care. The first data collection was conducted in the spring 2003, where the children were 7-8 years of age. It is the intention to follow up the children every third year during childhood, adolescence, and adult life. At each new data...
Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Stenager, Egon; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik
, historical prospective studies identifying some risk factors (e.g. infectious mononucleosis) and refuting others (head trauma and a number of occupational exposures e.g. nurses, utility workers, people exposed to solvents). The most important results are briefly presented. CONCLUSION: The Danish MS register...
Trecca, Fabio; Bleses, Dorthe; Madsen, Thomas O.
closely related languages. In support of this hypothesis, recent work has shown that the phonetic properties of Danish negatively affect online language processing in young Danish children. In this study, we used eye-tracking to investigate whether the challenges associated with processing Danish also...
Wraber, Ida Kristina
The use of wood in Danish prefab building projects is increasing, but there is not a strong architectural tradition in Denmark for constructing timber housing. This paper therefore contains a comparative study of various manners of incorporating architectural features in prefab houses made of wood....... In the study four Danish prefab housing concepts based on wood con¬struc¬tion is compared and discussed, in order to investigate and exemplify how it is possible to work with architectural quality in prefab timber housing and maximise the use of the material, the prefab production and the architectural values....... It was concluded that especially two aspects are of great importance for the concrete handling of the architectural quality of prefab houses made of wood; 1) flexibility in relation to user and site, and 2) the interaction between form, logics and material. It is suggested that keeping these two aspects in mind...
Dogbeh, Audrey; Jomaas, Grunde; Bjarløv, Søren Peter
The indoor environment in a Danish prison was evaluated based on measurements made during the summer season of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide, as well as through carefully conducted surveys among the inmates. The temperatures in the cells were high and well beyond common levels...... a compromise must be found to ensure that the building can comply with minimum health and comfort standards. The findings of this study can be used as background for recommendations for renovation of prison buildings.......The indoor environment in a Danish prison was evaluated based on measurements made during the summer season of temperature, relative humidity and carbon dioxide, as well as through carefully conducted surveys among the inmates. The temperatures in the cells were high and well beyond common levels...... in Danish buildings. The mean CO2 concentrations were generally low, but reached high maximum levels up to 5000 ppm. Thirty-one inmates responded to the questionnaire. They spent on average 19 h in the cell per day (range 12–23 h). Sixty-nine percent of the inmates expressed dissatisfaction...
Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard
the projects so it fits into the university schedule, without leaving out the time perspective of the clients, and secure the research is applicable for the clients and based on their need for knowledge. The case studies have shown different roles of a Science Shop. All Science Shops have a role as mediator...
Rigas, Andreas S; Ejsing, Benedikte H; Sørensen, Erik; Pedersen, Ole B; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Erikstrup, Christian; Ullum, Henrik
Studies confirm that calcium inhibits iron absorption. Danish tap water comes from groundwater, which contains varying amounts of calcium depending on the subsoil. We investigated the association of calcium in drinking water with iron levels in Danish blood donors. We used data on Danish blood donors including dietary and lifestyle habits, blood donation history, and physiologic characteristics including measures of ferritin levels along with information on area of residence from The Danish Blood Donor Study. Data on calcium levels in groundwater ("water hardness") were obtained through the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. We performed multiple linear and logistic regression analyses to evaluate the effect of water hardness on ferritin levels and risk of having iron deficiency (defined as ferritin levels water hardness and ferritin levels in both men and women. Risk of iron deficiency was correspondingly increased in both men (odds ratio [OR], 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.14-2.12) and women (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.03-1.40) with increasing water hardness. In analyses restricted to individuals who received supplemental iron tablets no significant association between groundwater hardness and ferritin levels was observed. As measured by ferritin levels, residential drinking water calcium content is associated with blood donors- iron levels and risk of iron deficiency. However, effect sizes are small. © 2018 AABB.
Waldemar, G.; Waldorff, F.B.; Buss, D.V.
There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics...
This comparative study indicates that Denmark still is the leading nation in wind turbine technology in regard to economics as well as energy output and nacelle weight per swept rotor area. For roughness class 1, the levellized socioeconomic costs of wind power from Danish wind turbines is DKK 0.396 - 0.536 per kWh compared with production costs of DKK 0.525 for the most economic of the foreign wind turbines investigated. Furthermore it is pointed out, that there seems to be no correlation between generator capacity or swept rotor area and costs of windpower for the wind turbines investigated. Nevertheless there are arguments for the statement that large scale wind turbines will be relatively more economic in the future. Danish wind turbine manufacturers only produce tree-bladed, stall- or pitch regulated wind turbines with constant rotational speed. In Holland, Germany and UK two-bladed wind turbines and turbines with variable speed has been introduced. Still the new concepts are less economic, but not without future interest. (au)
Pace, Michelle; Haugbølle, Rikke Hostrup; Skrubbeltrang, Jørgen
This study responds to previous critique of the ‘dialogue objective’ of the Danish Arab Partnership Programme (DAPP). The ‘dialogue objective’ specifically refers to the second objective of the DAPP which is ‘to improve dialogue, understanding and cooperation between Denmark and the MENA region...... (the Middle East and North Africa)’.1 A 2009 review and an evaluation conducted in 2013 both concluded that the DAPP ‘dialogue objective’ needed to be further clarified. Following from this critique the present study examines the ‘dialogue objective’. The study was given the following three aims: 1....... To analyse dialogue assumptions and approaches of DAPP interventions. 2. To review academic state-of-the-art theories on and methods for promoting dialogue. 3. To create tools for improving and documenting dialogue interventions. In the concluding remarks the study points to the need for future studies...
Langballe, Karen Oline; Bardram, Linda
into the secure Web site by the surgeon immediately after the operation. In the present analysis, we have included children ≤ 15 years from the five year period January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2010. RESULTS: In the study period 35,444 patients were operated with a cholecystectomy. Of these, 196 (0.5%) were ≤ 15......BACKGROUND: An increase in the frequency of cholecystectomy in children has been described during the last decades. Part of the reason is that more cholecystectomies in children are performed for dyskinesia of the gallbladder and not only for gallstone disease. We conducted the first nationwide...... study to describe outcome of cholecystectomies performed in children in Denmark by using data from the national Danish Cholecystectomy Database (DCD). METHODS: In the DCD, two data sources were combined: administrative data from the National Patient Registry (NPR) and clinical data entered...
Bleses, Dorthe; Basboll, Hans; Vach, Werner
Cross-linguistic findings have shown that Danish children's early receptive vocabulary development is slower relative to children learning other languages. In this study, we examined whether Danish children's acquisition of inflectional past-tense morphology is delayed relative to Icelandic, Norwegian, and Swedish children. Our comparison of data…
Rikke Simonsen, MA
Conclusions: As approximately half of MtF started cross-sex hormonal SR without attending a gender unit, future treatment needs to focus on this group of MtF individuals in order to accommodate the medical risks of self-initiated hormonal treatment.Earlier intervention with adolescents appears necessary since three-quarters of FtM individuals before age 12 had problems with their assigned sex. For both MtF and FtM, we found problems in areas of school, education, and employment and recommend further help in these core areas. Simonsen R, Hald GM, Giraldi A, and Kristensen E. Sociodemographic study of danish individuals diagnosed with transsexualism. Sex Med 2015;3:109–117.
Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh
Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...
Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Schmidt, Sigrun Alba Johannesdottir; Klausen, Siri; Pottegård, Anton; Friis, Søren; Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Gaist, David
The nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and the Danish Melanoma Database both record data on melanoma for purposes of monitoring, quality assurance, and research. However, the data quality of the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database has not been formally evaluated. We estimated the positive predictive value (PPV) of melanoma diagnosis for random samples of 200 patients from the Cancer Registry (n = 200) and the Melanoma Database (n = 200) during 2004-2014, using the Danish Pathology Registry as "gold standard" reference. We further validated tumor characteristics in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database. Additionally, we estimated the PPV of in situ melanoma diagnoses in the Melanoma Database, and the sensitivity of melanoma diagnoses in 2004-2014. The PPVs of melanoma in the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database were 97% (95% CI = 94, 99) and 100%. The sensitivity was 90% in the Cancer Registry and 77% in the Melanoma Database. The PPV of in situ melanomas in the Melanoma Database was 97% and the sensitivity was 56%. In the Melanoma Database, we observed PPVs of ulceration of 75% and Breslow thickness of 96%. The PPV of histologic subtypes varied between 87% and 100% in the Cancer Registry and 93% and 100% in the Melanoma Database. The PPVs for anatomical localization were 83%-95% in the Cancer Registry and 93%-100% in the Melanoma Database. The data quality in both the Cancer Registry and the Melanoma Database is high, supporting their use in epidemiologic studies.
Gniadecki, Robert; Skov, Lone
Psoriasis is the only disease in dermatology where biologics have been studied in placebo controlled trials. However, drugs have been used for several other indications in dermatology, e.g. pyoderma gangrenosum and pemphigus. We give a brief overview of the indications for biologics in skin disea...
Gerdes, L U; Brønnum-Hansen, H; Madsen, Mette
INTRODUCTION: The incidence rate of a first myocardial infarction declined 3-5% annually in the Danish WHO MONICA population in the period from 1982 to 1991. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of the most commonly considered biological traits associated with cardiovascular risk...... mass indices in men, diastolic blood pressures in men risk factors in the Danish WHO MONICA study population did not show trends during the 1980s that contribute...
Kessing, S.V.; Nissen, O.I.; Thygesen, J.
PURPOSE: Is the new micropenetrating, clear-cornea procedure, intrastromal diathermal keratostomy (IDK), an alternative to the intricate "modern trabeculectomy"? METHODS: Prospective multicenter study. Four surgeons from 4 Danish eye departments attended an IDK course and subsequently decided whe...
Roessler, Kirsten Kaya
AIMS: The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. METHODS: 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined with the ......AIMS: The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. METHODS: 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined...
Andersen, S L; Carlé, A; Olsen, J; Laurberg, P
Immunological changes in and after a pregnancy may influence the onset of autoimmune diseases. An increased incidence of hyperthyroidism has been observed both in early pregnancy and postpartum, but it remains to be studied if the incidence of hypothyroidism varies in a similar way. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All women who gave birth to a singleton live-born child in Denmark from 1999 to 2008 (n = 403 958) were identified, and data on hospital diagnosis of hypothyroidism and redeemed prescriptions of thyroid hormone were extracted. The overall incidence rate (IR) of hypothyroidism during 1997-2010 and the IR in three-month intervals before, during and after the woman's first pregnancy in the study period were calculated and compared with the IR of hyperthyroidism. Altogether 5220 women were identified with onset of hypothyroidism from 1997 to 2010 (overall IR 92.3/100 000/year) and 1572 women developed hypothyroidism in the period from 2 years before to 2 years after birth of the first child in the study period. The incidence of hypothyroidism decreased during the pregnancy (incidence rate ratio (IRR) vs overall IR in the rest of the study period: first trimester: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66-1.19), second trimester: 0.71 (0.52-0.97), third trimester: 0.29 (0.19-0.45)) and increased after birth with the highest level at 4-6 months postpartum (IRR 3.62 (2.85-4.60)). These are the first population-based data on the incidence of hypothyroidism in and around pregnancy. The incidence declined during pregnancy followed by a sharp increase postpartum. Notably, hypothyroidism as opposed to hyperthyroidism showed no early pregnancy increase. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.
Pottegård, Anton; Zoega, H.; Hallas, J.
Our objective was to describe the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the entire Danish population of children and adolescents from 1995 to 2011. Data on filled SSRIs were obtained for all children in Denmark aged 5-17 during 1995-2011. The amount and type of SSRIs filled we...
Ishøy, Torben; Knop, Joachim; Suadicani, Poul
INTRODUCTION: Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms, potentially as a result of neurotoxic exposure during deployment. We tested the hypotheses that: 1) GW veterans...... of neuropsychological symptoms, and stratified according to SCL-90-R score, no trends were found suggesting reduced motor function with increasing symptoms. Of nine dimensions constructed on the basis of the SCL-90-R items, six were significantly associated with being a Gulf War veteran. Statistically, the strongest...... would perform less well than controls using a computerized neuromotor test battery; and that 2) GW veterans have a psychological profile different from that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2...
Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont
Objectives: Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to in...... may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck.......Objectives: Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective...... was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods: We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care...
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren
Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35...... 308 974 person-years under risk, with data accrued from 1993 to 2006. Complete ascertainment of cases was ensured by using population-based and clinical cancer registries. Information on sociodemographic indicators was obtained on an annually updated individual level from Statistics Denmark. Log...
Full Text Available Thomas Meinertz Dantoft,1 Jeanette Frost Ebstrup,1 Allan Linneberg,1–3 Sine Skovbjerg,1 Anja Lykke Madsen,1 Jesper Mehlsen,4 Louise Brinth,4 Lene Falgaard Eplov,5 Tina Wisbech Carstensen,6,7 Andreas Schroder,6,7 Per Klausen Fink,6,7 Erik Lykke Mortensen,8 Torben Hansen,9 Oluf Pedersen,9 Torben Jørgensen1,10,11 1Research Centre for Prevention and Health, The Capital Region of Denmark, Glostrup, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Experimental Research, Rigshospitalet, Glostrup, 4Coordinating Research Centre, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Frederiksberg, 5Mental Health Centre Copenhagen, Research Unit, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen, 6The Research Clinic for Functional Disorders and Psychosomatics, Aarhus University Hospital, 7Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, 8Department of Public Health and Center for Healthy Aging, 9Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, 10Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 11Faculty of Medicine, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark Abstract: The Danish study of Functional Disorders (DanFunD cohort was initiated to outline the epidemiology of functional somatic syndromes (FSS and is the first larger coordinated epidemiological study focusing exclusively on FSS. FSS are prevalent in all medical settings and can be defined as syndromes that, after appropriate medical assessment, cannot be explained in terms of a conventional medical or surgical disease. FSS are frequent and the clinical importance varies from vague symptoms to extreme disability. No well-described medical explanations exist for FSS, and how to delimit FSS remains a controversial topic. The specific aims with the cohort were to test delimitations of FSS, estimate prevalence and incidence rates, identify risk factors
Lundberg, Kristian; Suhr Thykjær, Anne; Søgaard Hansen, Rasmus
PURPOSE: To determine associations between physical activity (PA) and myopia in Danish school children and investigate the prevalence of myopia. METHODS: This is a prospective study with longitudinal data on PA in a Danish child cohort. Physical activity (PA) was measured objectively by repeated....... The ophthalmologic examination was conducted at the mean age of 15.4 ± 0.7 years and included cycloplegic autorefraction and biometry. RESULTS: A total of 307 children participated in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School (CHAMPS) Eye Study. The cycloplegic spherical equivalent (SE) was 0...... PA and myopia, in this first of its kind study based on objective and repeated PA data....
Sarauw, Laura Louise; Madsen, Simon Ryberg
The summary presents the key findings from the first comprehensive survey of what students expect of the Danish Study Progress Reform. The summarised report is based on a survey conducted among 4.354 university students, who were asked to assess how they expect to manage their time and prioritise...... their activities in light of the Study Progress Reform’s requirements for faster completion. The survey was distributed in April 2015 as part of a politically independent research project funded by the Danish Council for Independent Research/Humanities (FKK)....
Vogel, A; Bhattacharya, S; Larsen, J L
This study examined the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its association with depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive complaints in Danish outpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-seven consecutive female SLE-outpatients were examined with a comprehensive neuropsyc......This study examined the prevalence of cognitive impairment and its association with depressive symptoms and self-reported cognitive complaints in Danish outpatients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Fifty-seven consecutive female SLE-outpatients were examined with a comprehensive...
Bilberg, Randi Marie; Andersen, Kjeld; Nielsen, Anette Søgaard
the characteristics of the Danish population in the Elderly-study. Methods The study is a randomized controlled study and has so far enrolled 716 participants from Germany, USA, and Denmark and 341 are from Denmark. Participants are 60+ years old and fulfil the DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorder. The exclusions...
Bunyoz, Kristine Ifigenia; Krarup, Henrik; Weis, Nina
INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in identifying patients who are at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation makes it import-ant to screen for HBV before initiating immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate screening procedures for HBV infection before initiation...... of immunosuppressive therapy and to explore HBV treatment strategies. METHODS: All Danish units of haematology, oncology, dermatology, rheumatology and gastroenterology using immunosuppressive agents were invited to fill out a questionnaire for The Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C. RESULTS: A total of 28 (53......%) of the 53 included units answered the questionnaire, of which 25 (89.3%) had a guideline regarding screening for HBV serological markers prior to immunosuppressive therapy, but only ten (37%) had a guideline that is in line with the joint guidelines from the national Danish Societies of Infectious Diseases...
Fertner, Mette Ely; Toft, Nils; Martin, Henrik Læssøe
High antimicrobial usage and multidrug resistance have been reported in veal calves in Europe. This may be attributed to a high risk of disease as veal calves are often purchased from numerous dairy herds, exposed to stress related to the transport and commingling of new animals, and fed a new...... ration. In this study, we used national register data to characterize the use of antimicrobials registered for large Danish veal calf and young bull producing herds in 2014. A total of 325 herds with veal calf and potentially young bull production were identified from the Danish Cattle database....... According to the national Danish database on drugs for veterinary use (VetStat), a total of 537,399 Animal Daily Doses (ADD200) were registered for these 325 herds during 2014. The amount of antimicrobials registered in 2014 varied throughout the year, with the highest amounts registered in autumn...
Løkkegaard, Ellen; Jovanovic, Zorana; Heitmann, Berit L
by presence of risk factors for stroke. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: In 1993, the Danish Nurse Study was established, and questionnaires on lifestyle and HT use were sent to all Danish nurses older than 44 years, of whom 19,898 (85.8%) replied. PARTICIPANTS: Postmenopausal women (n = 13...
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kj?r, Susanne Kr?ger
Objective To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. Participants 54?362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. In...
Davidsen, Jesper Rømhild; Søndergaard, Jens; Hallas, Jesper
OBJECTIVE: This population-based longitudinal study aimed to investigate trends in use of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and determinants of ICS use in young Danish adults with asthma. METHODS: 106 757 users, aged 18-44 years, of anti-asthmatic drugs were identified in the Danish Register of Medical...... prevalence of ICS use was constant, approximately 64%, during 1997-2000. An annual increase was observed from 67% in 2001 to 77% in 2006. This trend also existed when stratifying on gender, age and IBA use. Using 1997 as baseline, the adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of ICS use in 2000 was 0.98 (95% CI 0...
Tørring, P M; Brusgaard, K; Ousager, L B
carry mutations in the ENG, ACVRL1 or SMAD4 genes. Here, we report on the genetic heterogeneity in the Danish national HHT population and address the prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVM). Probands of 107 apparently unrelated families received genetic testing, including sequencing...... and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analyses of ENG, ACVRL1 and SMAD4. These 107 families included 320 patients confirmed to have HHT either clinically or genetically. In 89% of the probands (n=95), a mutation was identified. We detected 64 unique mutations of which 27 (41%) were novel....... Large deletions were identified in ENG and ACVRL1. The prevalence of PAVM was 52.3% in patients with an ENG mutation and 12.9% in the ACVRL1 mutation carriers. We diagnosed 80% of the patients clinically, fulfilling the Curaçao criteria, and those remaining were diagnosed by genetic testing...
Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Mills, M.; Aamand, J.
Degradation of pesticides in aquifers has been evaluated based on a number of co-ordinated field and laboratory studies carried out in Danish aquifers. These studies included investigations of vertical and horizontal variability in degradation rates from the vadose zone to an aquifer, the effects...
Christensen, Anne Illemann; Ekholm, Ola; Glümer, Charlotte
In 2010 the five Danish regions and the National Institute of Public Health at the University of Southern Denmark conducted a national representative health survey among the adult population in Denmark. This paper describes the study design and the sample and study population as well as the conte...
Jeppesen, Charlotte; Maindal, Helle T; Kristensen, Jette K
Aims: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is increasing worldwide. We studied the prevalence of GDM from 2004 to 2012 in Danish women aged 15–49 years using registries with records of the diagnosis of GDM at delivery. Methods: We conducted a national register-based study of 12...
Nielsen, Bo Gerner; Borlund, Pia
The paper reports on a study of 12 Danish high school students' perceptions of public libraries' role in learning, user education, information literacy, and librarians' information competencies. The study is undertaken by use of literature review and interviews with a purposive select sample of public library users in Denmark. The study…
Bundgaard, Anne; Andersen, Betina Ristorp; Rode, Line
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of polyhydramnios, the related maternal and perinatal morbidity, and to estimate the association between perinatal outcome and the degree of polyhydramnios in a Danish population. METHODS: The study population consisted of 168 w...
Nielsen, Kirsten; Mogensen, Finn
In this study we examined the degree of success that Danish schools achieved en developing central elements of action competence regading environmental issues in the folkeskoler and gymnasier. The Study are based on a questionaire which 845 individuals replied; focus was on BOAP (students Belief...
Esbjerg, Lars; Grunert, Klaus G.; Buck, Nuka
In this paper we investigate the human resource management practices of five Danish grocery retail chains from the perspective of both retailers and employees. We present an analytical framework for analysing the social and institutional context of Danish retailing and interpret our case study...
Olesen, C; Sorensen, HT; de Jong-van den Berg, L; Olsen, J; Steffensen, FH
Aim. To assess the current prescribing pattern for 15,756 primiparae before, during, and after their pregnancies with reference to fetal and neonatal risk. Method. A prescription database study with linkage to The Danish Medical Birth Registry from 1991 to 1996. The drug subsidy system in Danish
Knudsen, Mette Aagaard
, this is problematic. The average travel distance has steadily increased during the latest decades together with the increasing motorisation of daily travel and international aviation. Previously most focus has been on domestic daily travel activities, but globalisation has, together with changes in price structures......), the TU overnight survey, and the Danish Tourism Statistics from the Business and Holiday Survey (HBS). This has enabled focus on infrequent travel activities segmented relative to travel purpose, distance threshold, or travelling with overnight stays. At an overall level the thesis has three main.......g. socio-economic variables. The analysis of Danish travel activities described in the three different travel surveys has outlined detailed information on Danish travel behaviour at an aggregated level during the past two decades. It has above all revealed the significant role of leisure travel. Private...
Dissing, Kristina Boe; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kamper, Steven J.
Objectives The overall aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of spinal pain in 9-15 year-old Danish schoolchildren, over a three-year period. Specifically determining the characteristics of spinal pain in terms of frequency and duration. Methods A three-year prospective longitudinal co...
Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Due, Pernille
Little is known about which elements antenatal education should encompass to meet the needs of parents today. Psycho-social aspects relating to couple- and parenthood have generally not been covered in Danish antenatal education, although studies suggest that parents need this information. The aim...
Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling; Oldrup, Helene
as those children receiving an ADHD diagnosis. Thus, it is possible to study the mechanisms associated with diagnosis versus non-diagnosis over time. Preliminary results suggest that social inequality does, to some degree, exist among children with regard to who receive an ADHD diagnosis in the Danish...
Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Connie Thurøe; Vass, Mikkel; Waldorff, Frans Boch
As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic-related accidents for people aged 65 years or older with a diagnosis of dementia in Denmark. We will conduct a nationwide population-based cohort study consisting of Danish people aged 65 or older living in Denmark as of January 1, 2008. The cohort is followed for 7 years (2008-2014). Individual's personal data are available in Danish registers and can be linked using a unique personal identification number. A person is identified with dementia if the person meets at least one of the following criteria: (1) a diagnosis of the disease in the Danish National Patient Register or in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome. Cox proportional hazard regression models are used for the main analysis. Our study protocol has 3 phases including data collection, data analysis, and reporting. The first phase of register-based data collection of 853,228 individual's personal information was completed in August, 2016. The next phase is data analysis, which is expected to be finished before December 2016, and thereafter writing publications based on the findings. The study started in January 2016 and will end in December 2018. This study covers the entire elderly population of Denmark, and thereby will avoid selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic-related accidents may occur, which will limit estimation
Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Gimsing, Louise NØrreslet; Bautz, Andrea; Hvidt, Niels Christian; Johansen, Christoffer
Limited knowledge of the influence of lifestyle risk factors and religious living on chronic neurological diseases exists. Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) do not consume tobacco, alcohol, or pork, and many adhere to lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet, and Baptists discourage excessive use of alcohol and tobacco. We investigated whether the incidence of four common chronic neurological illnesses: dementia, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy in a large cohort of Danish Adventists and Baptists was different compared to the general Danish population. Three of the illnesses are neurodegenerative, whereas epilepsy can occur at any age. We compared hospital admission rates for some major neurological diseases among members of the Danish Religious Societies Health Study comprising 6,532 SDA and 3,720 Baptists with the general Danish population. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) stratified by sex, age, and calendar time were calculated. SIR of dementia or Alzheimer's disease was significantly decreased for members of both communities (SDA, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-#x2013;0.90 and Baptists, 0.59; 0.47-#x2013;0.73). The SIRs of Parkinson's disease and epilepsy were not significantly different compared to the general population. We observe reduced incidence for dementia or Alzheimer's disease in a large cohort of members of two religious communities characterized by lifestyle recommendations. More studies are needed to disentangle the interaction between such lifestyle and other components of the religious belief system.
Vangkilde, Anders; Olsen, Line; Hoeffding, Louise K
OBJECTIVE: Cross-sectional studies have shown associations between 22q11.2 deletion syndrome and schizophrenia. However, large-scale prospective studies have been lacking. We, therefore, conducted the first large-scale population based study on the risk of being diagnosed with schizophrenia...... in persons identified with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. METHODS: Danish nationwide registers were linked to establish a cohort consisting of all Danish citizens born during 1955-2004 and the cohort was followed from January 1, 1994 until December 31, 2013. Data were analyzed using survival analyses...... and adjusted for calendar year, age, sex, and parental mental health history. RESULTS: A total of 156 individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome were identified, out of which 6 individuals were diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders following identification with 22q11 deletion syndrome. Identified...
Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight, ...... effects on fetal growth measures related to exercise apart from a modest decreased risk of small- and large-for-gestational-age infants. These findings do not speak against advising pregnant women to be physically active during pregnancy....
Allesøe, Karen; Hundrup, Yrsa Andersen; Thomsen, Jane Frølund
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women. METHODS: The effect of work pressure and job influence on the 15-year incidence of IHD in women participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was prospectively s......: In this study we find that work pressure that is too high is a significant risk factor for IHD in younger female employees (
Karstad, Kristina; Jørgensen, Anette F B; Greiner, Birgit A
PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sickness absence and premature retirement are highly prevalent among eldercare workers. We conducted a prospective observational workplace study with the main purpose to investigate longitudinal associations between physical and psychosocial working cond...... and team factors for distribution of physical work demands and development of MSD among the workers. This will provide important knowledge for future workplace interventions to reduce MSD and sickness absence.......PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sickness absence and premature retirement are highly prevalent among eldercare workers. We conducted a prospective observational workplace study with the main purpose to investigate longitudinal associations between physical and psychosocial working...... conditions and occurrence of MSD and its consequences (pain-related interference with daily work activities and sickness absence) among Danish eldercare workers. PARTICIPANTS: At 20 Danish nursing homes, a total of 941 eldercare workers employed in day and evening shifts were invited to the study. Of those...
Karstad, Kristina; Jørgensen, Anette F B; Greiner, Birgit A
PURPOSE: Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sickness absence and premature retirement are highly prevalent among eldercare workers. We conducted a prospective observational workplace study with the main purpose to investigate longitudinal associations between physical and psychosocial working...... and team factors for distribution of physical work demands and development of MSD among the workers. This will provide important knowledge for future workplace interventions to reduce MSD and sickness absence....... conditions and occurrence of MSD and its consequences (pain-related interference with daily work activities and sickness absence) among Danish eldercare workers. PARTICIPANTS: At 20 Danish nursing homes, a total of 941 eldercare workers employed in day and evening shifts were invited to the study. Of those...
Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte; Breinegaard, Nina
Objective:This study investigated whether Danish construction workers had an increased prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or affected lung function and if the prevalence differed between types of jobs within construction. Methods:A cross-sectional study of 899 Danish male...... workers: demolition workers, insulators, carpenters and a control group of hospital porters aged 35-60 years answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Results were tested statistically for differences between occupational groups, and all analyses were adjusted for smoking status, age and body.......7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5) and for insulators compared to carpenters was 1.8 (95% CI 0.8-3.9). Demolition workers had significantly lower odds compared to all other groups for forced vital capacity construction workers...
Perbøll, Penille Wimmer; Hammer, N. M.; Østergaard, Birte
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine Danish emergency nurses' attitudes toward people hospitalized after an acetaminophen poisoning. Furthermore, the study examined the relationship between attitudes and factors such as age, gender, and education on self-harm. METHODS: A cross-sectional design...... was applied. Nurses from seven emergency departments (EDs) in a region in Denmark were asked to complete the Danish version of Attitudes towards Deliberate Self-Harm Questionnaire (ADSHQ). RESULTS: Of the 254 eligible nurses working in the ED, 122 returned the questionnaires, leaving the response rate at 48......%. Results show that the emergency nurses generally held positive attitudes toward patients with acetaminophen poisoning. Nurses with longer ED experience held more positive attitudes, and women scored significantly higher than men on the whole scale. Only 19% of the respondents had received education...
Thorup, Anne; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years.Method. Two cohorts were established by linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System (DCRS) with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR), which covers all incident cases of schizophrenia from 15 to 71 years. We estimated the gender- and age......Background. Gender differences are commonly reported in schizophrenia research, especially with regard to age at onset. Few studies have reported the age- and gender-specific incidence of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years, and no studies have reported the cumulative incidence......-specific incidence rates of schizophrenia for people aged up to 71 years. We also estimated the cumulative incidences.Results. The incidence rates for males significantly exceeded those for females in the age range from 17 to 40 years. By their 72nd birthday, 1.59% of males and 1.17% of females had developed...
Bunyoz, Kristine Ifigenia; Krarup, Henrik; Weis, Nina
INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in identifying patients who are at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation makes it import-ant to screen for HBV before initiating immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate screening procedures for HBV infection before initiation of immunos......INTRODUCTION: Difficulty in identifying patients who are at risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation makes it import-ant to screen for HBV before initiating immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this study was to investigate screening procedures for HBV infection before initiation...... of immunosuppressive therapy and to explore HBV treatment strategies. METHODS: All Danish units of haematology, oncology, dermatology, rheumatology and gastroenterology using immunosuppressive agents were invited to fill out a questionnaire for The Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C. RESULTS: A total of 28 (53...
Thorup, Anne; Waltoft, Berit Lindum; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
-specific incidence rates of schizophrenia for people aged up to 71 years. We also estimated the cumulative incidences.Results. The incidence rates for males significantly exceeded those for females in the age range from 17 to 40 years. By their 72nd birthday, 1.59% of males and 1.17% of females had developed......Background. Gender differences are commonly reported in schizophrenia research, especially with regard to age at onset. Few studies have reported the age- and gender-specific incidence of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years, and no studies have reported the cumulative incidence...... of schizophrenia in people aged up to 71 years.Method. Two cohorts were established by linking data from the Danish Civil Registration System (DCRS) with data from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register (DPCR), which covers all incident cases of schizophrenia from 15 to 71 years. We estimated the gender- and age...
Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne; Lund, Bent; Nielsen, Torsten Grønbech
PURPOSE: Predictors of outcome after femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) surgery are not well-documented. This study presents data from the Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry (DHAR) for such analyses. The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of poor outcome after FAI surgery in a Danish FAI...
Askegaard, Søren; Ger, Güliz
Executive summary 1. Stereotype research as known from social psychology and political research has only to a limited extent found its way into the field of product-country images. However, recent studies of country-of-origin or country images have taken up stereotypes and related concepts...... such as schemas and cognitive structures. 2. In this study, we examine product-country images in terms of stereotypes. In order to explore stereotypes of country and product meaning, we conducted research on the meanings pertaining to Denmark and Danish food products in two selected cultures: Germany and Turkey...... with Turkish food culture. 5. Other studies show that Danish exporters tend to have a more positive idea of Danish products' and Denmark's image on export markets than our results can confirm. Thus, there seems to be a clash between the way Danish exporters think others see us and the actual image on export...
Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.
than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...
Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu
Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...... cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative...... magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...
Lausten Hansen, Mette; Marie Thulstrup, Ane; Kolding Kristensen, Jette
OBJECTIVES: To investigate if parity, fertility treatment, body mass index (BMI), time to pregnancy (TTP), and engagement in physical exercise are risk factors for sickness absence during pregnancy weeks 10 to 30. METHOD: We use data from The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Danish...... and health. We excluded women, who were no longer pregnant at the time of the interview, were unemployed, multiple pregnant or had an obstetrical event within one year before the DNBC pregnancy. This resulted in a study population of 65 047 pregnancies. Outcome data were retrieved from DREAM, which contains...... information on sickness absence on a weekly basis. Data will be analysed using multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Mean age of the participants was 30.5 years, 46% were nulliparous, 6.3% received fertility treatment, mean BMI was 23.6 kg/m(2). Prevalence of sickness absence until pregnancy week...
Elkjær, Karina; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Ancker, Marie-Louise
production and body condition score as confounders. Metritis was defined as a score of at least 5 (indicating purulent vaginal discharge with abnormal smell) on the Danish uterine score scale (from 0 to 9, used to evaluate vaginal discharge in the first 19d postpartum on all fresh cows in herds participating......A total of 398,237 lactations of Danish Holstein dairy cows were studied with the main objective to investigate the effects of metritis on 2 fertility variables: interval from calving to first insemination (CFI) and nonreturn rate at 56d after first insemination (NR56), adjusting for milk...... in a national herd health program). Cows with metritis in early lactation presented a significant delay in first insemination (hazard ratio of 0.80) and a significantly reduced probability of success at first insemination. The effect of metritis was also present after adjusting for possible effects of body...
Byrne, Majella; Agerbo, Esben; Bennedsen, Birgit
and 24, 826 individually matched controls. Adjusting for the other obstetric factors, family psychiatric history, and socio-economic and demographic factors, risk of schizophrenia was associated with maternal non-attendance at antenatal appointments (Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 2.08, 95% CI: 1.0, 4...... (IRR 2.15, 95% CI: 1.1, 4.4), and maternal sepsis of childbirth and the puerperium (IRR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.1, 7.9). There was no significant interaction between the obstetric factors and either sex or family psychiatric history. The data suggest a modest association between prematurity, indicators......-control study based on Danish longitudinal registers was conducted to investigate the risk of schizophrenia associated with exposure to a range of obstetric events. The sample included 1039 first admissions to, or contacts with Danish psychiatric services with an ICD-8 or ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia...
Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M
Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 were included (N = 966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years-22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent of individuals with no eating disorders. In males, peak hazard for diagnosis was earlier than in females. The present study represents one of the largest and longest studies of eating disorder incidence and suicide attempts and death in both females and males. Eating disorders are accompanied by increased hazard of suicide attempts and death even in young adults. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...
Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette; Kristensen, Jette Kolding; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst
This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. Data from 51 874 pregnancies in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first episode of sick leave as the primary outcome. We found statistically significant associations between all the predictors and risk of sick leave; for non-sitting work postures (HRrange 1.55-2.79), cumulative lifting HRtrend 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.31, shift work (HRevening 1.90, 95% CI 1.73-2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42-1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way. Our results support previous findings and suggest that initiatives to prevent sick leave during pregnancy could be based on work conditions. Preventive measures may have important implications for pregnant women and workplaces.
Hundrup, Y A; Jacobsen, R K; Andreasen, A H
We evaluated the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hip fracture risk score in 15,648 postmenopausal Danish nurses. The algorithm was well calibrated for Denmark. However, the sensitivity was poor at common decision making thresholds. Obtaining sensitivity better than 80% led to a low specificity...... was to test the clinical performance of the algorithm in a large Danish cohort of postmenopausal Caucasian women against hip fracture. METHODS: The Danish Nurse Cohort is a prospective risk factor and hormone therapy (HT) study established in 1993. Participants in the present analysis were 15......,648 postmenopausal nurses. The calibration and diagnostic performance of the WHI algorithm was evaluated using fracture events captured in the Danish National Hospital Registry. RESULTS: During 5 years of follow-up, 122 participants suffered a hip fracture (1.8/1,000 person years). The WHI algorithm predicted...
Chopin, Kimberly Renée
-up approachto determining language use. This research has implications for other institutions which are affected by similar language issues. It adds to existing work on English-medium instruction in higher education, and adds to discussions on domain loss and the language of education inuniversities.......Universities in Denmark are becoming increasingly internationalized, and areincreasingly using English as a language of research, teaching, and administration. At the same time, the Danish language is seen by some as being under threat, and Danish public discourse has focused on what role...... the Danish language may play in higher education in Denmark. This study investigates both trends through a focus on recently implemented language policies at one Danish university faculty which mandate that graduate instruction becarried out only in English, and undergraduate instruction only in Danish...
Fristrup, Claus; Detlefsen, Sönke; Palnæs Hansen, Carsten
: Death is monitored using data from the Danish Civil Registry. This registry monitors the survival status of the Danish population, and the registration is virtually complete. All data in the database are audited by all participating institutions, with respect to baseline characteristics, key indicators......AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Pancreatic Cancer Database aims to prospectively register the epidemiology, diagnostic workup, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of patients with pancreatic cancer in Denmark at an institutional and national level. STUDY POPULATION: Since May 1, 2011, all patients...... with microscopically verified ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas have been registered in the database. As of June 30, 2014, the total number of patients registered was 2,217. All data are cross-referenced with the Danish Pathology Registry and the Danish Patient Registry to ensure the completeness of registrations...
Lidegaard, Ojvind; Pinborg, Anja; Andersen, Anders Nyboe
The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of imprinting diseases in children born after IVF with the incidence in naturally conceived children.......The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of imprinting diseases in children born after IVF with the incidence in naturally conceived children....
Godt, Jannik; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig
made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study......Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...
Several studies have shown that female researchers have a lower publication productivity and research performance, however a recent published study based on 852 researchers publication data from 2003-2005 (van Arensbergen et al. 2012) found that the performance difference has leveled out...... for the younger generation of researchers (196 men and 160 women) in the social sciences. The aim of this study is to investigate to what extend a similar tendency can be found among young female researchers in Denmark. Publication performance, in this study, is defined as the number of publications......), the present study shows that differences in publication performance between male and female researchers exist in Denmark. We find that when we compare research productivity among researchers in similar academic positions and in similar research areas, the male researchers still outperform their female...
Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Godt, J.; Kristensen, K.
Former studies of the unpleasant odour of meat from certain uncastrated male pigs have been based mainly on evaluations made by trained sensory panellists. This study analyses the effect of the two dominating male pig odour components, skatole and androstenone, on the evaluation of eating quality...... made in-home by consumers, thus bringing the analysis out of the laboratory and into the market place. The vast majority of the population of uncastrated male pigs have low concentrations of skatole and androstenone. The cutlets that were evaluated in this study were selected from uncastrated male pigs...... on a number of castrated male pigs and gilts. No difference was found in the way the odour components affected the eating quality determined by men and women. A total of 5.4% of the consumers in the study reacted negatively in their evaluation of the eating quality of the cutlets selected for the study...
Skott, Charlotte Krog; Østergaard, Camilla Hellsten
Bridging theory and practice is a general challenge in mathematics teacher education. Research shows that Lesson Study (LS) is an effective way for prospective mathematics teachers to build relations between course work and field experiences......Bridging theory and practice is a general challenge in mathematics teacher education. Research shows that Lesson Study (LS) is an effective way for prospective mathematics teachers to build relations between course work and field experiences...
Vaskantiras, Georgios; You, Shi
. This paper presents a case study-based analysis to explore the potential value of reconfiguration in detail. The study is performed using a 10kV distribution grid of Denmark, while reconfiguration is applied to minimize the energy losses under both normal and post-fault conditions. The results show......Distribution network reconfiguration is a mechanism that can improve the distribution system performance from multiple perspectives. In the context of smart grid wherein the degrees of automation and intelligence are high, the potential value of network reconfiguration can be significant...
The thesis of this Ph.D. is new forms of organizing the secondary school in Denmark and the potential of these organizational forms as inclusive learning environments. I´m inspired by multisensory ethnography (Pink, 2011a, 2011b) in my study of the ways the students are categorized into included...
The welfare of farm animals depends on development in production systems, economic drivers and regulation but also human factors – such as farmers’ perceptions of animal welfare, management strategies, communication, knowledge and training. In this study I have examined the perception of animal...
Ervandian, Maria; Høyer, Morten; Petersen, Stine Elleberg
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this observational cohort study was to evaluate the outcome and prognostic factors following salvage radiotherapy (SRT) in a consecutive national cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 2006 and 2010, 259 patients received SRT in Denmark. Patient- and cancer-related chara...
Pinholt, E M; Rindum, J; Pindborg, J J
One hundred Danes with oral cancer who were collected consecutively from 1986 to 1991 were evaluated retrospectively. The study included subjective and objective observations in 56% men and in 44% women. M:F ratio was 1.2:1. Fifty percent of the patients were non-smokers. Nine percent were women...
Mathiasen, John Bang; Gammelgaard, Britta
with higher demands on all parameters but again the price has become decisive and the traditional customer relations no longer automatically generate new orders. Subcontractors in their turn try to meet these new conditions using various strategies, moving production facilities and accepting new roles...... chain linkages between large and SMEs through growing base of international customers. The new conditions impact on SME-subcontractors owing to supply chain connections and this paper using Danish case studies explores these conditions. The results of the study show that the SME-subcontractors are met...
Nybo, Mads; Brusgaard, Klaus; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo
OBJECTIVE: In order to enable clinicians to refer the right persons suspected of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) for mutation screening, a retrospective study was conducted in a Danish FH cohort. DESIGN AND METHODS: The study comprised 643 probands and 395 relatives, of which 421 individuals had...... a pathogenic mutation, and 211 had cardiovascular disease (CVD). Logistic regression, Cox regression, and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were used to find optimal predictive variables for mutation status and evaluate risk factors for CVD. RESULTS: Age alone had significant predictive power...... criteria should therefore be referred in order to facilitate family tracing and genetic counseling...
was a sharp increase of mobility of labor and capital, leading to increased levels of economic activity, and improving social standards. Yet, economic integration can also result in conflict when established parties feel that their interests are threatened. This case study examines a disagreement......The European Union, love it or loathe it, was designed to bring economic and social benefits across Europe. The project aimed to break down the barriers that hinder the free movement of goods, capital, services and labour thereby creating peace and prosperity for nations and regions. The result...
Farah, Rahmo I; Damkier, Per; Christiansen, Anders
Montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist, was marketed in 1998 as an oral supplementary treatment to patients with mild to moderate asthma. The aim of this study was to describe the early discontinuation pattern among montelukast users in Denmark in the period of 1 March 1998 to 31 December....... Early discontinuation was defined as failing to fill a second prescription for montelukast within at least a year after the initial montelukast prescription. Among 135,271 included montelukast users, 47,480 (35%) discontinued the use of montelukast after a single redeemed prescription. The trend...
Grant, Sally; Carlsen, Kathrine; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Bastian, Gro Samsø; Lund, Lasse Wegener; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Johansen, Christoffer
The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer. In a nationwide cohort, we compared the risk for ending cohabitation of the parents of 2450 children (aged 0-20 years) given a diagnosis of cancer with the risk of parents of 44 853 randomly selected, gender- and age-matched cancer-free children. We adjusted for socioeconomic position and demographic factors. Rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals for separation were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model. The parents of children with cancer did not have a higher risk for separation than the general population (rate ratio: 1.00 [95% confidence interval: 0.91-1.10]). Separate analyses according to type of cancer and survival of the child similarly yielded null results. Experiencing cancer in a child does not seem to be a risk factor for separation. Our study will allow clinicians to reassure parents and to support them in facing the trauma of cancer in their child.
Christophersen, Ingrid Elisabeth; Ravn, Lasse Steen; Budtz-Joergensen, Esben
BACKGROUND: Heritability may play a role in nonfamilial atrial fibrillation (AF). We hypothesized that a monozygotic (MZ) twin whose co-twin was diagnosed with AF would have an increased risk of the disease compared with a dizygotic (DZ) twin in the same situation. METHODS AND RESULTS: A sample......-free survival times, we compared the time span between occurrences of disease in MZ and DZ twins. The unaffected twin was included when his or her twin-sibling (the index twin) was diagnosed with AF. After adjustment for age at entry, MZ twins had a significantly shorter event-free survival time (hazard ratio......, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 3.0), thereby indicating a genetic component. Using biometric models, we estimated the heritability of AF to be 62% (55% to 68%), due to additive genetics. There were no significant differences across sexes. CONCLUSIONS: All the analyses of twin similarities in the present study...
Lundgren, Jens Dilling; Melbye, M; Pedersen, C
The objective was to study changes in the occurrence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-related Kaposi's sarcoma and the association with degree of immunodeficiency over time. Danish patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 (n = 687) were followed...... the proportion of patients who died with Kaposi's sarcoma remained constant over time. Furthermore, the CD4 cell count at time of AIDS for patients diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma has declined in recent years. A CD4 cell count liter at the time of AIDS diagnosis predicted an increased risk...
Gottschau, Mathilde; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger; Jensen, Allan; Munk, Christian; Mellemkjaer, Lene
To assess the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and cancer, especially of the endometrium, breast and ovary. The Danish National Patient Register was used to identify 12,070 in- and outpatients in whom PCOS was diagnosed when they were aged 9-49 years during 1977-2012. Using the Danish Cancer Registry, we followed the cohort through 2012 and compared the women's cancer incidence with that of the general Danish female population by means of standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). Cancer was diagnosed in 279 women with PCOS (SIR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.06-1.34). We found an almost fourfold increased risk for endometrial cancer (numbers observed (N) = 16, SIR = 3.9; 95% CI = 2.2-6.3), the large majority of cases being type 1 (N = 14, SIR = 4.7; 95% CI = 2.6-7.9). We found no association between PCOS and breast (N = 59, SIR = 1.1; 95% CI = 0.8-1.4) or ovarian cancer (N = 10, SIR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.8-3.2); however, significantly increased risks were found for kidney, colon and brain cancers. The results of this large cohort study support those of case-control studies showing that women with PCOS are at increased risk for endometrial cancer, whereas their risks for breast and ovarian cancer are similar to those of women in the general population. Our finding that women with PCOS also are at increased risk for cancers of the kidney, colon and brain requires further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
You, Shi; Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten
The future significance of fuel cell (FC) powered micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) units in meeting the residential energy demands is set to increase, which may have a considerable impact on the low voltage (LV) grid. The objective of this paper is to investigate into the related technical...... issues using a Danish case study with different penetration levels of uncoordinated FC micro-CHPs. Based on the findings, it is recommended to design grid oriented integration strategies such as Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) for achieving future smart grids with a large roll out of distributed energy...
Thomsen, Reimar Wernich; Nielsen, Jens Steen; Ulrichsen, Sinna Pilgaard
This paper provides an overview of the baseline data collected in the nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. The paper presents descriptive data from the first 580 patients enrolled in the DD2. The DD2 database will contain detailed interview data......, clinical examination data, and urine and blood samples from up to 10,000 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes each year, collected from general practitioners and hospital outpatient clinics in all of Denmark. Of the first DD2 patients enrolled, blood and urine samples have been obtained from 97...... database represents a valuable source for outcome studies in type 2 diabetes....
towards change in leadership into learning centered leadership (TALIS 2014) is stated. The question here focuses on laboratories on leader observation in classroom, as a praxis to establish such changes. The question is: How do leaders transform and perform leader-focus on pupils learning outcome through......This abstract refers to a micro-optic study on transition from state government into leadership in the Danish public school Folkeskolen. Research question The question is how leaders makes transition between expectations from state government and municipals and into their leadership. An imperative...
Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina
In Denmark the equal pay act was put into force in 1976, but the relative pay of female workers is still considerably below the level of male workers in most occupational and educational groups, and the decline of the aggregate gender wage gap seems to have stagnated since the late 1970s....... In this study different explanations of this evidence are investigated empirically based on the estimation of a human capital model on a panel sample of Danish wage earners observed during the period 1979-1990. Udgivelsesdato: APR...
Nordenbaek, Claudia; Jorgensen, Meta; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm
Genetic epidemiological studies of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) based on twin pairs ascertained from the population and thoroughly assessed to obtain a high degree of diagnostic validity are few. All twin pairs aged 3-14 years in the nationwide Danish Twin Registry were approached. A three......-step procedure was used. Five items from the "Child Behaviour Checklist" (CBCL) were used in the first screening phase, while screening in the second phase included the "Social and Communication Questionnaire" and the "Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire". The final clinical assessment was based on "gold...
Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Norredam, Marie
Refugee children and their families constitute a vulnerable group regarding health and access to care. In a register-based cohort design, we examined differences in uptake of immunisations and child health examinations between refugee children and Danish-born children, including predictors of uptake among refugee children. Refugee children (n = 16,701) who, between January 1993 and December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark were included and matched in a 1:6 ratio on age and sex with Danish-born children (n = 100,206). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the National Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for immunisation and child health examinations. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of uptake. Refugee children had a lower uptake of all immunisations compared to Danish-born children. The lowest uptake was found for immunisation against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (HR = 0.50; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.51). Participation in child health examinations was also lower among refugee children with the lowest at the last child health examination at age 5 (HR = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.47-0.50). Adjusting the analysis for parental income increased the HRs by 10-20 %. This Danish register-based study using nationwide data revealed a lower uptake of routine immunisations and child health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children. •Uptake of immunisation and child health examination is associated with low household income, unemployment and low educational status among the parents. •Uptake may be even lower among refugee families as they constitute a vulnerable group regarding access to healthcare. What is New: •Refugee children had lower uptake of immunisations and child health examinations compared to Danish-born children. •Several predictors of uptake were identified including region of origin and duration of residence.
Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G; Scholderer, Joachim; Hagemann, Kit Skov; Elgaard, Peter; Nielsen, Brian; Graverholt, Jens Peter
Growing consumer awareness of functional foods and understanding of their positive nutritional effects have led to the need of specific studies and have captured more attention than ever before. In Europe, Danish consumers have been found to be relatively negative towards the concept of functional foods. This paper presents the results of a qualitative pilot study that aimed to explore Danish consumers' motives for choosing omega-3/fish oil enriched products. The Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) was applied as a theoretical framework to understand the process by which people choose healthy foods. By conducting qualitative in-depth interviews the study mostly focused on the role of behavioural intention predictors such as risk perception, outcome expectations and self-efficacy. The results of the study suggest that consumers' understanding of healthy eating as such does not relate to the choice of omega-3/fish oil, whereas perception of omega-3 as an ingredient in selected foods does indeed influence consumers' choice of carrier-ingredient combinations.
Braüner, Christina Marie; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Attermann, Jørn
We investigated whether induced abortion is associated with breast cancer when lifestyle confounders, including smoking and alcohol consumption, are adjusted for. Design. Prospective cohort study. Danish women from the Diet, Cancer and Health study. A total of 25,576 women. We obtained exposure data from baseline questionnaires filled in by the women between 1993 and 1997. Information on breast cancer and emigration was retrieved from Danish national registries. The study power was approximately 85% when applying a minimum detection hazard ratio of 1.2. Long-term effects of induced abortion on the risk of breast cancer among women above 50 years of age. During a follow up of approximately 12 years, 1215 women were diagnosed with breast cancer. When comparing parous women who had an abortion with parous women who never had an abortion, there was no association between breast cancer risk and induced abortion (ever vs. never), with a hazard ratio 0.95 (95% confidence interval 0.83-1.09), regardless of whether the abortion occurred before the first birth (hazard ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.65-1.14), or after the first birth (hazard ratio 0.97; 95% confidence interval 0.84-1.13). Our study did not show evidence of an association between induced abortion and breast cancer risk. © 2013 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Glümer, Charlotte; Carstensen, Bendix; Sandbaek, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
To develop a simple self-administered questionnaire identifying individuals with undiagnosed diabetes with a sensitivity of 75% and minimizing the high-risk group needing subsequent testing. A population-based sample (Inter99 study) of 6,784 individuals aged 30-60 years completed a questionnaire on diabetes-related symptoms and risk factors. The participants underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. The risk score was derived from the first half and validated on the second half of the study population. External validation was performed based on the Danish Anglo-Danish-Dutch Study of Intensive Treatment in People with Screen Detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION) pilot study. The risk score was developed by stepwise backward multiple logistic regression. The final risk score included age, sex, BMI, known hypertension, physical activity at leisure time, and family history of diabetes, items independently and significantly (Pscreening strategy for type 2 diabetes, decreasing the numbers of subsequent tests and thereby possibly minimizing the economical and personal costs of the screening strategy.
Hyams, Inger Louise Berling
Despite the number of internationally successful Danish architects like Jacobsen, Utzon and in recent years Ingels just to name a few, Danish architecture has always leaned greatly on international architectural history and theory. This is only natural for a small nation. However, since the begin...
Full Text Available Introduction. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in women from The Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS on the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, and the number of spontaneous abortions. Methods. Retrospective cross sectional study of 11254 women participating in GESUS. Data included biochemical measurements and a self-administrated questionnaire. Results. 6.7% had mild (subclinical hypothyroidism and 9.4% prevalent hypothyroidism. In women with mild hypothyroidism TPOAb was significantly elevated and age at first child was older compared to controls. TSH and TPOAb were negatively linearly associated with the number of children born and the number of pregnancies in the full cohort in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. TSH or TPOAb was not associated with spontaneous abortions. Mild (subclinical hypothyroidism was associated with a risk of not having children and a risk of not getting pregnant in age-adjusted and multiadjusted models. Prevalent hypothyroidism was not associated with the number of children born, the number of pregnancies, or spontaneous abortions. Conclusion. Impaired fertility is associated with TSH, TPOAb, and mild (subclinical hypothyroidism in a Danish population of women.
Vase, Maja Ølholm; Friis, Søren; Bautz, Andrea; Bendix, Knud; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; d'Amore, Francesco
A potential link between breast implants and anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) has been suggested. We examined lymphoma occurrence in a nationwide cohort of 19,885 Danish women who underwent breast implant surgery during 1973-2010. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR), with 95% confidence intervals (CI), for ALCL and lymphoma overall associated with breast implantation were calculated. During 179,246 person-years of follow-up, we observed 31 cases of lymphoma among cohort members. No cases of ALCL were identified. SIRs for ALCL and lymphoma overall were zero (95% CI, 0-10.3) and 1.20 (95% CI, 0.82-1.70), respectively. In our nationwide cohort study, we did not find an increased risk of lymphoma in general, or ALCL in particular, among Danish women who underwent breast implantation. However, our evaluation of ALCL risk was limited by the rarity of the disease. Our results do not support an association between breast implants and ALCL and are consistent with other studies on cancer risk and breast implants. ©2013 AACR.
Egeberg, A; Khalid, U; Gislason, G H; Mallbris, L; Skov, L; Hansen, P R
Psoriasis and asthma are disorders driven by inflammation. Psoriasis may carry an increased risk of asthma, but the reverse relationship has not been investigated. To investigate the risk of psoriasis in subjects with childhood asthma in a nationwide Danish cohort. Data on all Danish individuals aged 6-14 years at study entry between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2011 (n = 1,478,110) were linked at an individual level in nationwide registers. Incidence rates per 10,000 person-years were calculated, and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) adjusted for age, sex, concomitant medication and comorbidity were estimated by Poisson regression models. There were 21,725 cases of childhood asthma and 6586 incident cases of psoriasis. There were 5697 and 889 incident cases of mild and severe psoriasis, respectively. The incidence rates of overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 4.49, 3.88 and 0.61 for the reference population, and 5.95, 5.18 and 0.83 for subjects with childhood asthma, respectively. The IRRs for overall, mild and severe psoriasis were 3.94 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.16-7.17], 5.03 (95% CI 2.48-10.21) and 2.27 (95% CI 0.61-8.42) for patients with childhood asthma. Childhood asthma was associated with a significantly increased risk of psoriasis. Further studies are warranted to determine the clinical significance and effects of therapeutic interventions on this association. © 2015 British Association of Dermatologists.
Schwensen, Jakob F; Menné, Torkil; Andersen, Klaus E; Sommerlund, Mette; Johansen, Jeanne D
In recent years, the prevalence of contact allergy to isothiazolinones has reached epidemic levels. Few studies have presented data on occupations at risk of developing contact allergy to isothiazolinones. To present demographics and examine risk factors for sensitization to methylisothiazolinone (MI), methylchloroisothiazolinone (MCI) in combination with MI and benzisothiazolinone (BIT) in Danish dermatitis patients. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of data from three Danish hospitals departments was conducted. All patients consecutively patch tested with MI, MCI/MI and BIT between 2009 and 2013 were included. MI contact allergy showed a significantly increased trend in prevalence from 1.8% in 2009 to 4.2% in 2012 (p dermatitis mainly drove the increase in 2012. Adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that MI sensitization was significantly associated with occupational exposures, hand and facial dermatitis, age > 40 years, and the occupational groups of tile setters/terrazzo workers, machine operators, and painters. MCI/MI contact allergy was significantly associated with the following high-risk occupations: painting, welding (blacksmiths), machine operating, and cosmetology. The occupational group of painting was frequent in the group of patients with BIT contact allergy. Several high-risk occupations for sensitization to isothiazolinones exist. Regulation on the allowed concentration of isothiazolinones, and especially MI, in both consumer products and industrial products is needed. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
for organic food as the field of inquiry and in particular the evolution of producer-consumer relations in the period 1970-2011. The data used in the paper comes from a historical study of the development of the Danish organic market, studies of recent innovative initiatives, operating on both regional......The Danish market for organic food is distinguished among other European countries by a high market share of organic products. This can be interpreted in different ways. One interpretation is the that these developments is a case of an alternative becoming mainstream, which erases the distinctive...... features of the once ‘alternative’. Another interpretation is that the development of the organic market has created new, alternative economic spaces, which has and will continue to redefine the ‘rules of the game’. The aim of the paper is to address this issue, using the development of the Danish market...
Nielsen, Nete Munk; Pedersen, Bo V; Stenager, Egon; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Frisch, Morten
Current knowledge concerning the association between exposure to stressful life-events (SFLEs) in childhood and later risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) is sparse. We studied the associations between SFLEs in childhood and subsequent risk of MS in a nationwide cohort of 2.9 million Danes born from 1968 to 2011. A SFLE in childhood was defined as exposure before age 18 years to parental divorce, parental death, or death of a sibling, using information from the Danish Civil Registration System. MS cases in the cohort were identified in the Danish Multiple Sclerosis Registry. Associations of SFLE with MS risk were evaluated by incidence rate ratios (RR) of MS obtained in log-linear Poisson regression models. Persons exposed to any SFLE in childhood were at 11% elevated risk of MS (RR = 1.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.03-1.20), compared to non-exposed persons. Stratification by subtype of SFLE showed that parental death and death of a sibling were not associated with MS risk. However, persons exposed to parental divorce were at 13% increased risk of developing MS compared to non-exposed (RR = 1.13; 1.04-1.23). Associations of SFLEs in childhood with risk of MS are weak. However, parental divorce is somehow associated with modestly increased risk of MS. © The Author(s), 2014.
Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria; Nohr, Ellen A; Bech, Bodil H; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn
The aim of this paper was to estimate the effect of maternal and paternal smoking on foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth) and to estimate potential interactions with physical exercise and pre-pregnancy body mass index. We selected 87,930 pregnancies from the population-based Danish National Birth Cohort. Information about lifestyle, occupational, medical and obstetric factors was obtained from a telephone interview and data on pregnancy outcomes came from the Danish population based registries. Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios (adjusted for potential confounders) for predominantly late foetal death (miscarriage and stillbirth). An interaction contrast ratio was used to assess potential effect measure modification of smoking by physical exercise and body mass index. The adjusted hazard ratio of foetal death was 1.22 (95 % CI 1.02-1.46) for couples where both parents smoked compared to non-smoking parents (miscarriage: 1.18, 95 % CI 0.96-1.44; stillbirth: 1.32, 95 % CI 0.93-1.89). On the additive scale, we detected a small positive interaction for stillbirth between smoking and body mass index (overweight women). In conclusion, smoking during pregnancy was associated with a slightly higher hazard ratio for foetal death if both parents smoked. This study suggests that smoking may increase the negative effect of a high BMI on foetal death, but results were not statistically significant for the interaction between smoking and physical exercise.
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. Population based cohort study. Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to all Danish fertility clinics during 1963-98. The median age at first evaluation of infertility was 30 years (range 16-55 years), and the median age at the end of follow-up was 47 (range 18-81) years. Included in the analysis were 156 women with invasive epithelial ovarian cancer (cases) and 1241 subcohort members identified in the cohort during follow-up in 2006. Effect of four groups of fertility drugs (gonadotrophins, clomifene citrate, human chorionic gonadotrophin, and gonadotrophin releasing hormone) on overall risk of ovarian cancer after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer.
Würtz, Else Toft; Schlünssen, Vivi; Malling, Tine Halsen; Hansen, Jens Georg; Omland, Øyvind
The aim was to explore the impact of occupation on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in a cross-sectional population-based study among subjects aged 45 to 84 years. In a stratified sampling 89 general practitioners practices (GPP) in Denmark recruited 3106 males and 1636 females through the Danish Civil Registration System. COPD was defined by spirometry by the 2.5(th)-centile Lower Limit of Normal of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. Information about smoking, occupational exposure and the respective occupations were obtained from questionnaires. Occupations followed the Danish adaptation of The International Standard Classification of Occupations, revision 1988 (DISCO-88). Exposure to vapour, gas, dust (organic and inorganic), and fume (VGDF) in each occupation (yes/no) was evaluated by two independent specialist in occupational medicine. Exposures were divided in no, low, medium, and high exposure as 0, occupation with VGDF exposure. Adjusted for smoking, age, sex, and GPP a dose-dependent association of COPD was found among workers in jobs with high organic dust exposure, with OR 1.56 (95% CI 1.09-2.24). Restricted to agriculture the OR was 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33). No association was observed for workers in jobs with inorganic dust, fume/gas, or vapour exposures. In summary, occupational organic dust exposure was associated to the prevalence of COPD.
Stine Linding Andersen
Full Text Available Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy in the child. Moreover, hypothyroidism diagnosed after birth of the child was associated with a significant increased risk of neonatal and febrile seizures. No significant association was seen for maternal diagnosis prior to birth of the child. We speculate if some degree of maternal thyroid dysfunction was already present during the pregnancy in mothers diagnosed after birth of the child and if this untreated condition may present a neurodevelopmental risk.
Andersen, Stine Linding; Laurberg, Peter; Wu, Chun Sen; Olsen, Jørn
Thyroid hormones are essential for brain development, and maternal thyroid disease may affect child neurocognitive development. Some types of seizures may also depend upon early exposure of the developing central nervous system, and we hypothesized that maternal thyroid dysfunction could increase the risk of seizure in the child. In a Danish population-based study we included 1,699,693 liveborn singletons, and from the Danish National Hospital Register we obtained information on maternal diagnosis of hyper- or hypothyroidism and neonatal seizure, febrile seizure, and epilepsy in the child. Maternal diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction before or after birth of the child was registered in two percent of the singleton births. In adjusted analyses, maternal hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism first time diagnosed after birth of the child were associated with a significant increased risk of epilepsy in the child. Moreover, hypothyroidism diagnosed after birth of the child was associated with a significant increased risk of neonatal and febrile seizures. No significant association was seen for maternal diagnosis prior to birth of the child. We speculate if some degree of maternal thyroid dysfunction was already present during the pregnancy in mothers diagnosed after birth of the child and if this untreated condition may present a neurodevelopmental risk.
Mottelson, Ida Nygaard; Sodemann, Morten; Nielsen, Dorthe Susanne
Immigrants, refugees, and their descendants comprise 12% of Denmark's population. Some of these people do not speak or understand Danish well enough to communicate with the staff in a healthcare setting and therefore need interpreter services. Interpretation through video conferencing equipment (video interpretation) is frequently used and creates a forum where the interpreter is not physically present in the medical consultation. The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes to and experiences with video interpretation among charge nurses in a Danish university hospital. An electronic questionnaire was sent to 99 charge nurses. The questionnaire comprised both closed and open-ended questions. The answers were analysed using descriptive statistics and thematic text condensation. Of the 99 charge nurses, 78 (79%) completed the questionnaire. Most charge nurses, 21 (91%) of the daily/monthly users, and 21 (72%) of the monthly/yearly users, said that video interpretation increased the quality of their conversations with patients. A total of 19 (24%) departments had not used video interpretation within the last 12 months. The more the charge nurses used video interpretation, the more satisfied they were. Most of the charge nurses using video interpretation expressed satisfaction with the technology and found it easy to use. Some charge nurses are still content to allow family or friends to interpret. To reach its full potential, video interpretation technology has to be reliable and easily accessible for any consultation, including at the bedside.
Hasselbalch, Ann L; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Rissanen, Aila; Heitmann, Berit L; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko
Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study cohorts included 575 Danish (age range 18-67 years) and 2009 Finnish (age range 22-27 years) adult twin pairs. Self-reported frequency of eating bread was obtained by food frequency questionnaires. Univariate models based on linear structural equations for twin data were used to estimate the relative magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic influence on intake of white bread was moderate (24-31%), while the genetic influence on intake of rye bread was higher in men (41-45%) than in women (24-33%). Environmental influences shared by the twins were not significant. Consumption of bread as well as choice of bread is influenced by genetic predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.
Øgendahl, Bettina; Agerbo, Esben; Byrne, Majella
contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the risk of bipolar disorder is associated with exposure to indicators of fetal growth.Method. A national population nested case-control study based on Danish longitudinal register databases was carried out. Conditional logistic regression was used......, controlling for potential confounding factors such as parental age at birth, socio-economic indicators and psychiatric history. We identified 196 cases, and each case was time-, age- and sex-matched with 25 normal population-based controls. All cases were between the ages of 12 and 26 years at the time......Background. Several studies have found an association between indicators of fetal growth and/or obstetric complications and schizophrenia but only a few studies have investigated the possible association between these factors and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the results of these studies have been...
Green, A.; Andersen, Per Kragh; Svendsen, A.J.
To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... of 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...
Petersen, Jindong Ding; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Nielsen, CT
BACKGROUND: As a consequence of a rapid growth of an ageing population, more people with dementia are expected on the roads. Little is known about whether these people are at increased risk of road traffic-related accidents. OBJECTIVE: Our study aims to investigate the risk of road traffic...... Central Research Register, and/or (2) at least one dementia diagnosis-related drug prescription registration in the Danish National Prescription Registry. Police-, hospital-, and emergency room-reported road traffic-related accidents occurred within the study follow-up are defined as the study outcome...... selection bias due to nonparticipation and loss to follow-up. Furthermore, this ensures that the study results are reliable and generalizable. However, underreporting of traffic-related accidents may occur, which will limit estimation of absolute risks....
Hölmich, Lisbet Rosenkrantz; Klausen, Siri; Spaun, Eva
melanoma and 780 with in situ tumors were registered. The coverage is currently 93% compared with the Danish Pathology Register. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables include demographic, clinical, and pathological characteristics, including Breslow's tumor thickness, ± ulceration, mitoses, and tumor...... studies are based on DMD data. CONCLUSION: DMD holds unique detailed information about tumor characteristics, the surgical treatment, and follow-up of Danish melanoma patients. Registration and monitoring is currently expanding to encompass even more clinical parameters to benefit both patient treatment...
This is an unrefined proposal for a study that could form part of the exploratory phase of the Cultural Usability project. The proposed study compares three cultures (Chinese, Danish, and Indian) and two stakeholder groups (users and developers) with respect to their conceptions of usability....
Atladottir, Hjordis Osk; Schendel, Diana E.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Parner, Erik T.
The aim of this study was to study patterns of contact with hospital for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) using Danish population based register data. We included all children born in Denmark from 1994 through 2002. We found that children diagnosed with ASD had an increased rate of contact with hospital, almost regardless of the cause…
Faber, Mette Tuxen; Jensen, Allan; Søgaard, Marie
A number of epidemiological studies have examined the association between use of dairy products and risk of ovarian cancer, but results are conflicting. Using data from a large Danish population-based case-control study we here further examined the association between dairy consumption, lactose...
Feibert, Diana Cordes; Andersen, Bjørn; Jacobsen, Peter
Logistics processes in hospitals are vital in the provision of patient care. Improving healthcare logistics processes provides an opportunity for reduced healthcare costs and better support of clinical processes. Hospitals are faced with increasing healthcare costs around the world and improvement...... initiatives prevalent in manufacturing industries such as lean, business process reengineering and benchmarking have seen an increase in use in healthcare. This study investigates how logistics processes in a hospital can be benchmarked to improve process performance. A comparative case study of the bed...... logistics process and the pharmaceutical distribution process was conducted at a Danish and a US hospital. The case study results identified decision criteria for designing efficient and effective healthcare logistics processes. The most important decision criteria were related to quality, security...
Kronborg, Hanne; Foverskov, Else; Væth, Michael
introduced to solid food. Full breastfeeding at five weeks was the most influential predictor for later introduction of solid food (OR = 2.52 CI: 1.93-3.28). Among infant factors male gender, increased gestational age at birth, and higher birth weight were found to be statistically significant predictors......BACKGROUND: Early introduction of complementary feeding may interfere with breastfeeding and the infant's self-controlled appetite resulting in increased growth. The aim of the present study was to investigate predictors for early introduction of solid food. METHODS: In an observational study...... Danish mothers filled in a self-administered questionnaire approximately six months after birth. The questionnaire included questions about factors related to the infant, the mother, attachment and feeding known to influence time for introduction of solid food. The study population consisted of 4503...
Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Andersen, Berit; Larsen, Lise Grupe
arm) or present screening plus an HPV test (HPV arm). The study started 1 February 2017 and will run over three screening rounds corresponding to 7-8 years. ANALYSES: The primary endpoint is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or above. The trial is undertaken as a non-inferiority study......INTRODUCTION: The first birth cohorts of women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination as girls are now entering cervical screening. However, there is no international consensus on how to screen HPV vaccinated women. These women are better protected against cervical cancer and could...... vaccination as girls. METHODS: Trial23 is a method study embedded in the existing cervical screening programme in four out of five Danish regions. Without affecting the screening programme, women born in 1994 are randomised to present screening with liquid-based cytology every third year (present programme...
Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Solomon, Thomas Pj; Lauridsen, Jørgen Trankjær
The overall aim of the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) is to near-normalize metabolic control in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) using an individualized treatment approach. We hypothesize that this will not only prevent complications and improve...... quality of life for T2D patients but also result in increased cost efficiency compared with current treatment modalities. This paper provides an overview of the expected outcomes from DD2, focusing on the two main intervention studies. The main data for the DD2 project are collected during patient...... obtaining knowledge about predictors for the long-term outcome and identifying targets for new interventions. Further data are being collected from two intervention studies. The aim of the first intervention study is to improve T2D treatment using an individualized treatment modality optimizing medication...
Pedersen, Lars Henning; Petersen, Olav Bjørn; Nørgaard, Mette
A linked population-based database is being created in Denmark for research on drug safety during pregnancy. It combines information from the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database (with information on all prescriptions reimbursed in Denmark since 2004), the Danish Fetal Medicine...
Full Text Available Magnus Glindvad Ahlström,1 Bo Feldt-Rasmussen,2 Rebecca Legarth,1 Gitte Kronborg,3 Court Pedersen,4 Carsten Schade Larsen,5 Jan Gerstoft,1 Niels Obel1 1Department of Infectious Diseases, 2Department of Nephrology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, 4Department of Infectious Diseases, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 5Department of Infectious Diseases, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark Introduction: Smoking is a main risk factor for morbidity and mortality in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV, but its potential association with renal impairment remains to be established. Methods: We did a nationwide population-based cohort study in Danish PLHIV to evaluate the association between smoking status and 1 overall renal function and risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD, 2 risk of any renal replacement therapy (aRRT, and 3 mortality following aRRT. We calculated estimated creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft–Gault equation (CG-CrCl, and evaluated renal function graphically. We calculated cumulative incidence of CKD (defined as two consecutive CG-CrCls of ≤60 mL/min, ≥3 months apart and aRRT and used Cox regression models to calculate incidence rate ratios (IRRs for risk of CKD, aRRT, and mortality rate ratios (MRRs following aRRT. Results: From the Danish HIV Cohort Study, we identified 1,475 never smokers, 768 previous smokers, and 2,272 current smokers. During study period, we observed no association of smoking status with overall renal function. Previous and current smoking was not associated with increased risk of CKD (adjusted IRR: 1.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.7–1.7; adjusted IRR: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9–1.8 or aRRT (adjusted IRR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.4–1.7; adjusted IRR: 0.9, 95% CI: 0.5–1.7. Mortality following aRRT was high in PLHIV and increased in smokers vs never smokers (adjusted MRR: 3
A closer look at the Muhammad cartoon crisis illuminates some of the key issues that were, and continue to be, at stake for the various actors in the public contestations over the legitimate place of Muslims (and the Islamic tradition) in Danish society. Using a conceptual framework developed...... by Axel Honneth, I suggest in this article that the cartoon crisis is part of an ongoing struggle for recognition in Denmark, through which the terms by which Muslims residing in Denmark are recognized as legitimate citizens/residents of Danish society are negotiated—and on which Muslims may recognize...... the demands of Danish majority society as legitimate. As much as the cartoon affair was an event that, as Palle Weis (2006) writes, “suddenly” ruptured Danish society in 2005, it was therefore also part of a process that continues to shape social actors and their relationships....
Basso, Olga; Baird, Donna D.
, longitudinal studies enrolling couples irrespective of infertility treatment. METHODS: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort: 55 906 singleton live births from women who reported their waiting time to pregnancy (TTP) and other covariates in an interview during the 2nd trimester of pregnancy....... RESULTS: A TTP >1 year was associated with an increased risk of all outcomes studied, including preterm birth [odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) among primiparas and 1.9 (1.5, 2.4) among multiparas]. Odds ratios for preterm remained elevated after adjustment for covariates....... Among couples with a TTP >1 year, infertility treatment was associated with added risk only among multiparas. CONCLUSION: Infertile women are at higher risk of adverse birth outcomes even if they conceive without treatment. With >10% of babies born to infertile couples, it is important to consider...
Carlsen, Kathrine; Oksbjerg Dalton, Susanne; Frederiksen, Kirsten
, physical and psychological comorbidity, low education and low income. Three risk categories were identified (high, medium and low) by cancer site and we found that in the high risk category, people diagnosed with leukemia, prostate cancer or ovary cancer had a more than two-fold increased risk for ERP......AIMS: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for taking early retirement pension (ERP) in cancer survivors who were working at the time of diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide and population based cohort study including 44,905 persons aged 30-60 years diagnosed with selected...... cancers in the period 1981-2000 and 211,562 randomly sampled cancer-free controls. Information on socioeconomic status, demography and physical and psychiatric comorbidity was obtained from Danish administrative registries. RESULTS: We analyzed the risk for ERP adjusted for known risk factors and found...
Bager, Ann Starbæk; Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte
plurivocality and dialogue in organizational and leadership development practices: Discussion and close up discourse analysis of dialogic practices in a leadership development forum. PhD thesis. University of Aalborg, Denmark. Deetz, S (2001): Conceptual Foundations. In: New Handbook of Organizational......With the threat of personal and organizational details being compromised through e.g. hacking, IT security is fast becoming a major concern in many organizations. In the presentation, the authors explore the potential of applying a discourse based methodological approach to the study and change...... of IT-security practices in Danish public organizations. The approach contributes to the field of Organizational Discourse Studies (ODS), in which discourse scholars are actively involved in dealing with local organizational challenges and fostering organizational change (cf. Grant & Iedema, 2005...
Fiil Eldridge, Katrine; Giraldi, Annamaria
Introduction: Several studies have shown that sexuality is an important aspect of life. Nevertheless, sexual matters are only rarely discussed between patients and doctors. Other studies have suggested that women undergoing fertility treatment compose a group of patients with low satisfaction...... in their sexual life. Aim: To investigate how women at a fertility clinic desire and experience communication about sexual matters with doctors and to investigate the sexual function of these women. Methods: A cross-sectional self-administered questionnaire survey of women attending a Danish fertility clinic over...... 4 months was performed. Descriptive statistics were calculated and presented as frequencies. Main Outcome Measure: Communication about sexual matters with doctors included the women’s comfort, preferred and actual frequency of discussion, and initiation of the conversation. Sexual function included...
Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael
The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...... prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...... associations of prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with subtypes of preterm birth. The crude risks of PPROM and of induced preterm deliveries were higher in obese women (BMI > or = 30) than in normal-weight women (18.5 gestation, when obese...
Thomsen, Marianne; Seghetta, Michele; Mikkelsen, Mette Hjorth
Waste to Energy combustion plants currently process most of the organic fraction of the household waste. This study presents an assessment of the environmental performance of an increased circular bioresource management system obtained by reallocating the organic fraction of the household waste...... from combustion (Reference Scenario) to biogas and fertilizer production (Alternative Scenario). The goals defined in the Danish National resource action plan for waste management, i.e. 33% reduction of organic fraction household waste dry weight, is taken as a case study. A comparative life cycle...... assessment of the diverting of the organic fraction of the household waste away from a Waste to Energy combustion plant towards sludge- and manure-based biogas plants in North Zealand (Denmark) shows a net increase in renewable electricity production of 39% at the expense of a reduction in heat production...
Nielsen, Jens Bo; Dau, Torsten; Neher, Tobias
Studies investigating speech-on-speech masking effects commonly use closed-set speech materials such as the coordinate response measure [Bolia et al. (2000). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 107, 1065-1066]. However, these studies typically result in very low (i.e., negative) speech recognition thresholds (SRTs......) when the competing speech signals are spatially separated. To achieve higher SRTs that correspond more closely to natural communication situations, an open-set, low-context, multi-talker speech corpus was developed. Three sets of 268 unique Danish sentences were created, and each set was recorded...... with one of three professional female talkers. The intelligibility of each sentence in the presence of speech-shaped noise was measured. For each talker, 200 approximately equally intelligible sentences were then selected and systematically distributed into 10 test lists. Test list homogeneity was assessed...
Bille, Camilla; Olsen, Jørn; Vach, Werner
supplementation with > or =400 mcg folic acid daily during the entire first trimester (OR: 0.75; CIs: 0.46, 1.22) suggested an inverse associated with oral clefts, similar to our results on coffee drinking. No effects were found for smaller doses of folic acid, vitamin A, B6 or B12 in this study. The present......This study examines the association between oral clefts and first trimester maternal lifestyle factors based on prospective data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The cohort includes approximately 100,000 pregnancies. In total 192 mothers gave birth to child with an oral cleft during 1997......-2003. Information on risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, tea, coffee, cola, and food supplements was obtained during pregnancy for these and 828 randomly selected controls. We found that first trimester maternal smoking was associated with an increased risk of oral clefts (odds ratio (OR): 1.50; 95...
Hansen, N; Obel, N; Christensen, P B
Predictive factors for initiation of antiviral therapy in chronically infected hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine predictive factors for initiation of treatment with standard or pegylated interferon either alone or combined...... with ribavirin. A Danish cohort of individuals chronically infected with HCV was used and observation time was calculated from the date of inclusion in the cohort to date of death, last clinical observation, 1 January 2007, or start of HCV antiviral treatment in treatment-naïve patients. Kaplan-Meier survival...... analysis was used to construct time to event curves. Cox regression was used to determine the incidence rate ratios as estimates of relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). A total of 1780 patients were enrolled in the study. The cumulative chance of treatment initiation over 5 years was 33...
Kristiansen, Aase; Pedersen, Poul Møller
Comparative culture studies on isolates from Lanzarote (Canary Islands) and from Danish waters of Giraudia sphacelarioides show that temperature plays the key role to determine its geographical distribution. Experiments show that the upper lethal temperature is the same for both isolates 26.5--31...
Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben
We performed a nationwide, register-based retrospective follow-up study of epilepsy in all people who were born between January 1, 1980 and June 29, 2006 and registered in the Danish Psychiatric Central Register with Asperger's syndrome on February 7, 2011. All 4,180 identified cases with AS (3,431 males and 749 females) were screened through the…
Hermann, N.V.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Sundberg, K.
Objective To present normative data on prenatal mandibular morphology and growth. Material and Methods Fifty-four normal fetuses (Danish Caucasian) were included in the study (gestational age: 11-26 weeks). Fetuses were scanned using a GE Voluson 730 Expert 3D scanner. Scans were visualized and a...
de Coninck-Smith, Ning
Invoking a statement by the cultural geographer David Livingstone--that location is essential to knowing--this paper focuses on Danish school architecture during the 1950s and 1960s and the interplay between local geography and developments and discussions on the national and international scene. Through exhibitions and study tours and…
Thielen, Karsten; Nygaard, Else; Rugulies, Reiner
ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate if exposure to adverse psychological job characteristics predicts incident use of antidepressants, taking into account differential misclassification and residual confounding. Methods A prospective cohort study with a 3.5-year follow-up of 4661 Danish employees...
Kvetny, Jan; Ellervik, Christina; Bech, Per
BACKGROUND: The first phase of the Danish General Suburban Population Study (GESUS) including 8214 individuals was an attempt to evaluate the association between subclinical hypothyroidism without or with elevated peroxidase antibodies and depression. No such association was found. In the second...
Thøis Madsen, V.; Verhoeven, J.W.M.
Internal social media (ISM) or social intranets provide organizations with a communication arena in which coworkers can actively contribute to organizational communication. Coworkers are, however, far from impulsive and spontaneous when they communicate on ISM. A case study in a Danish bank found
Falstie-Jensen, Anne Mette; Nørgaard, Mette; Hollnagel, Erik
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between compliance with hospital accreditation and length of stay (LOS) and acute readmission (AR). DESIGN: A nationwide population-based follow-up study from November 2009 to December 2012. SETTING: Public, non-psychiatric Danish hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: In-...
Nielsen, Jens Steen; Thomsen, Reimar W; Steffensen, Charlotte
This paper aims to describe the patient enrollment system and implementation strategy for the new nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) project. The paper will also describe the design, current content, and pilot testing of the DD2 registration form. The challenge...... that is part of everyday clinical practice in hospital outpatient clinics and general practitioner (GP) clinics. The enrollment system is thus built on a tested, rational design where patients need only one visit and only specific limited data about physical activity, anthropometric measures, and family...... history of diabetes are collected during a brief patient interview. Later, supplemental data will be extracted by computerized linkage with existing databases. The feasibility of this strategy was verified in a pilot study. For maximum flexibility, three different ways to fill in the DD2 registration form...
Friis, Søren; Thomassen, Lars; Sørensen, Henrik T
Epidemiologic studies investigating the effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on breast cancer have yielded conflicting results. We examined the association between use of aspirin and nonaspirin NSAIDs and breast cancer risk among 28 695 women in the Danish Diet, Cancer...... and Health cohort. Information on NSAID and paracetamol use was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire completed at baseline (1993-1997) and updated through 2003 using a nationwide prescription database. Detailed information on breast cancer incidence and tumour characteristics was obtained from...... nationwide health registers. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute incidence rate ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 847 breast cancer cases over an average follow-up period of 7.5 years. Any NSAID use at baseline was associated with an increased incidence...
Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Mygind-Klausen, Troels; Stærk, Mathilde
Introduction: Advanced life support (ALS) training may increase survival from in-hospital cardiac arrest. Efficient ALS training includes practice of both technical and non-technical skills in a realistic setting with frequent retraining to avoid decay in ALS skills. ALS training strategies among...... hospitals are currently unknown. This study aimed to investigate ALS training strategies in Danish hospitals.Methods: We included all public, somatic hospitals in Denmark with a cardiac arrest team (n=46). Online questionnaires were distributed to resuscitation officers in each hospital. Questionnaires...... inquired information on: A) Course duration and retraining interval, B) Training methods and setting, C) Scenario training and practicing non-technical skills.Results: In total, 44 hospitals replied (response rate: 96%). ALS training was conducted in 43 hospitals (98%). Median (range) ALS course duration...
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...
Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.
of 54 362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of thyroid cancer......BACKGROUND: Findings from the few epidemiological studies that have investigated thyroid cancer risk after fertility drugs have been inconclusive. Using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date, we examined the effects of fertility drugs on thyroid cancer risk. METHODS: A cohort...... associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for age at first live birth. RESULTS: A total of 29 thyroid cancers were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene [RR = 2.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-4.82] or progesterone (RR = 10.14; 95% CI: 1.93-53.33) was associated...
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Frederiksen, Kirsten
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of fertility drugs on overall risk of ovarian cancer using data from a large cohort of infertile women. DESIGN: Population based cohort study. SETTING: Danish hospitals and private fertility clinics. PARTICIPANTS: 54,362 women with infertility problems referred...... confounding factors. RESULTS: Analyses within cohort showed no overall increased risk of ovarian cancer after any use of gonadotrophins (rate ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 1.37), clomifene (1.14, 0.79 to 1.64), human chorionic gonadotrophin (0.89, 0.62 to 1.29), or gonadotrophin releasing...... hormone (0.80, 0.42 to 1.51). Furthermore, no associations were found between all four groups of fertility drugs and number of cycles of use, length of follow-up, or parity. CONCLUSION: No convincing association was found between use of fertility drugs and risk of ovarian cancer....
Torstensson, Maia; Hansen, Annette Højmann; Leth-Møller, Katja
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether drugs used in treatment of cardiovascular diseases (CVD-drugs), including hypertension, increase the risk of fragility fractures in individuals above the age of 65 years. DESIGN: Retrospective nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Danish nationwide national registers...... and statins) was determined by prescription claims from pharmacies. The association between use of specific CVD-drugs and fragility fractures was assessed using multivariable Poisson regression models, and adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated. RESULTS: Overall, 1 586 554 persons were included......, of these 16.1% experienced a fall-related fracture. The multivariable Poisson regression analysis showed positive associations between fracture and treatment with furosemide, thiazide and digoxin. IRRs during the first 14 days of treatment were for furosemide IRR 1.74 (95% CI 1.61 to 1.89) and for thiazides...
Aagaard, Annabeth; Lemmergaard, Jeanette
Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has become an acknowledged and well-established strategic approach in both theory and practice. A large majority of the existing literature emphasises CSR integration within larger corporations, although CSR also plays a pivotal role in small to medium......-sized companies, SMEs. This study explores how four Danish SMEs have integrated CSR, and how the levels of external, internal and diagonal integration affect the qualitative and quantitative results of CSR. Whereas external CSR integration constitutes the external CSR communication and involvement of customers......, suppliers and other stakeholders, the internal CSR integration is explained and measured through the level of employee involvement and the content and the effects of internal oriented CSR activities and communication. The diagonal integration is understood as integration with the business strategy....
Zimmermann, Esther; Ekholm, Ola; Grønbaek, Morten
AIM: To investigate predictors of changes in physical activity, in a prospective population-based study. METHODS: Data were from the Danish Health Interview Surveys in 1994 and 2000, and included persons between 16 and 64 years of age who answered the questions on physical activity and various...... interval (CI) 1.24-3.48, and OR 2.23, 95% CI 1.34-3.71), poor self-rated health (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.25-3.58, and OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.10-2.80), and believing that one's own effort has no effect on health (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.20-2.88, and OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.00-2.65). For men, further predictors for physical...
Andreasen, Margit; Nielsen, Jens; Bækbo, Poul
Sixteen litters of seven pigs from each of nine Danish farrow-to-finish herds were followed to investigate the serological patterns caused by natural infection with Mycoplasma hyponeumoniae, Pasteurella multocida toxin and Actinobacillus pleuroneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12. In seven of the herds......, pigs were followed as two separate cohorts started 4 weeks apart, and in two herds only one cohort was followed. A total of 999 pigs were included in the study. The pigs were blood sampled at weaning and subsequently every fourth week until slaughter. All pigs were examined for antibodies against M....... hyopneumoniae (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), P. multocida toxin (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and A. pleuropneumoniae serotypes 2, 5-7, 12 (complement-fixation tests). The most-common pattern (28%) of seroconversion was that of pigs first seroconverting to A. pleuropneumoniae serotype 2, followed...
Svendsen, Claus Bo; Milman, Nils; Nielsen, Henrik Winther
Rickettsia helvetica has previously been proposed as an aetiological agent in sarcoidosis. The purpose of the present study was to detect possible signs of Rickettsia infection in a Danish population of patients with sarcoidosis. Twenty-six patients with newly diagnosed sarcoidosis were...... interview. Evidence of rickettsial infection was assessed by an immunofluorescence assay testing for antibodies towards Rickettsia as well as specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on lung biopsy specimens. We performed fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) on the biopsies to detect....... There was no difference in the reported frequency of tick bite between patients and controls. In conclusion, we found no evidence of Rickettsia being involved in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis in Denmark....
Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker
Background. Urban birth, a risk factor for schizophrenia, is more frequent among second-generation immigrants. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the increased risk for schizophrenia found in second-generation immigrants is explained by the degree of urbanization of birthplace...... for urbanization of birthplace and parental characteristics reduced these risks slightly. However, urbanization had a lesser effect in second-generation immigrants than in Danes. History of residence abroad was a risk factor for schizophrenia, regardless of whether parents were foreign-born or native Danes...... and/or factors related to parentage, such as geographic origin or history of residence abroad during upbringing.Method. Using data from the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS), we established a population-based cohort of 2.0 million Danes (persons born in Denmark). Schizophrenia in cohort members...
Kristensen, Preben Sander
A study of the Danish foods industry shows that producers of food products largely ignore home marekt demand in their product development activities. They have built up and maintain development of end-user products in interaction with customers in distant sophisticated markets. Concurrently...... view of actors in the global end-user customer market and companies' euclidean view of actors in thelocal business-to-business market. In pr companies combine these two market views by interacting in networks: The global industrial network links various functions which again are each part of a local...... their development of end-user pr through global interaction. It is precisely by not interacting with home market end-user demand, but rather by deriving an industrial home market demand from changing end-user markets that the complex has avoided being insulated....
Hasselbalch, Ann Louise; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu
magnitude of the additive genetic, shared environmental and individual environmental effects on bread eating frequency and choice of bread. The analysis of bread intake frequency demonstrated moderate heritability ranging from 37-40% in the Finnish cohort and 23-26% in the Danish cohort. The genetic...... predisposition. Environmental factors shared by the co-twins (e.g., childhood environment) seem to have no significant effects on bread consumption and preference in adulthood.......Bread is an elementary part of the western diet, and especially rye bread is regarded as an important source of fibre. We investigated the heritability of eating bread in terms of choice of white and rye bread and use-frequency of bread in female and male twins in Denmark and Finland. The study...
Lolle, Ida; Møller, Morten Hylander; Rosenstock, Steffen Jais
Mortality rates in complicated peptic ulcer disease are high. This study aimed to examine the prognostic importance of ulcer site in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) and perforated peptic ulcer (PPU). a nationwide cohort study with prospective and consecutive data collection. all patients treated for PUB and PPU at Danish hospitals between 2003 and 2014. demographic and clinical data reported to the Danish Clinical Registry of Emergency Surgery. 90- and 30-d mortality and re-intervention. the crude and adjusted association between ulcer site (gastric and duodenal) and the outcome measures of interest were assessed by binary logistic regression analysis. Some 20,059 patients with PUB and 4273 patients with PPU were included; 90-d mortality was 15.3% for PUB and 29.8% for PPU; 30-d mortality was 10.2% and 24.7%, respectively. Duodenal bleeding ulcer, as compared to gastric ulcer (GU), was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality within 90 and 30 d, and with re-intervention: adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.30-1.67); p ulcers (DUs) in PPU patients: adjusted OR 0.99 (0.84-1.16); p = 0.698, OR 0.93 (0.78 to 1.10); p = 0.409, and OR 0.97 (0.80-1.19); p = 0.799, respectively. DU site is a significant predictor of death and re-intervention in patients with PUB, as compared to GU site. This does not seem to be the case for patients with PPU.
Í Soylu, Lív; Jensen, Allan; Juul, Kirsten E; Kesmodel, Ulrik S; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Kjaer, Susanne K; Hargreave, Marie
The aim of this study was to investigate whether consumption of coffee, tea and caffeine affects the risk of primary infertility in women. We selected nulliparous Danish women aged 20-29 years from a prospective cohort and retrieved information on coffee and tea consumption from a questionnaire and an interview at enrollment. We assessed the women's fertility by linkage to the Danish Infertility Cohort and retrieved information on children and vital status from the Civil Registration System. All 7574 women included for analysis were followed for primary infertility from the date of enrollment (1991-1993) until 31 December 2010. Analyses were performed with Cox proportional hazard models. During follow up, primary infertility was diagnosed in 822 women. Compared with never consumers, the risk of primary infertility among women who drank coffee or tea was not affected. The risk of primary infertility was neither associated with an increasing number of daily servings of coffee (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.97-1.03) or tea (hazard ratio 1.01; 95% CI, 0.99-1.03) in consumers only. Concerning total caffeine consumption (from coffee and tea), the risk of infertility was similar among consumers compared with never consumers. Finally, none of the additional daily 100 mg of caffeine affected the risk among consumers only (hazard ratio 1.00; 95% CI 0.98-1.02). In this population-based cohort study, not restricted to women seeking pregnancy, we found no association between coffee, tea or total caffeine consumption and the risk of primary infertility in women. © 2018 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Brandt, Frans; Thvilum, Marianne; Almind, Dorthe; Christensen, Kaare; Green, Anders; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Brix, Thomas Heiberg
Thyroid hormones are essential for the normal development of the fetal brain, while hyperthyroidism in adults is associated with mood symptoms and reduced quality of life. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association and temporal relationship between hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity. Register-based nationwide cohort study. Data on hyperthyroidism and psychiatric morbidity were obtained by record linkage of the Danish National Patient Registry and the Danish National Prescription Registry. A total of 2631 hyperthyroid individuals were identified and matched 1:4 with non-hyperthyroid controls and followed for a mean duration of 6 years (range 0-13). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of psychiatric morbidity before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism respectively. BEFORE THE DIAGNOSIS OF HYPERTHYROIDISM, SUCH INDIVIDUALS HAD AN INCREASED RISK OF BEING HOSPITALIZED WITH PSYCHIATRIC DIAGNOSES (ODDS RATIO (OR): 1.33; 95% CI: 0.98-1.80) and an increased risk of being treated with antipsychotics (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.00-1.38), antidepressants (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.01-1.27), or anxiolytics (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.16-1.42). After the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, there was a higher risk of being hospitalized with psychiatric diagnoses (hazard ratio (HR): 1.51; 95% CI: 1.11-2.05) and an increased risk of being treated with antipsychotics (HR: 1.46; 95% CI: 1.20-1.79), antidepressants (HR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.36-1.74), or anxiolytics (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.27-1.69). Hyperthyroid individuals have an increased risk of being hospitalized with psychiatric diagnoses and being treated with antipsychotics, antidepressants, and anxiolytics, both before and after the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism.
, in the light of the rich and complex Danish sound system. The first two studies report on native adults’ perception of Danish speech sounds in quiet and noise. The third study examined the development of language-specific perception in native Danish infants at 6, 9 and 12 months of age. The book points......Little is known about the perception of speech sounds by native Danish listeners. However, the Danish sound system differs in several interesting ways from the sound systems of other languages. For instance, Danish is characterized, among other features, by a rich vowel inventory and by different...... reductions of speech sounds evident in the pronunciation of the language. This book (originally a PhD thesis) consists of three studies based on the results of two experiments. The experiments were designed to provide knowledge of the perception of Danish speech sounds by Danish adults and infants...
Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik
A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore.......A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....
Dissing, Kristina Boe; Hestbæk, Lise; Hartvigsen, Jan; Williams, Christopher; Kamper, Steven; Boyle, Eleanor; Wedderkopp, Niels
Spinal pain in children and adolescents is a common condition, usually transitory, but the picture of spinal pain still needs elucidation, mainly due to variation in measurement methods. The aim of this study was to describe the occurrence of spinal pain in 8-15 year-old Danish school children, over a 3-year period. Specifically determining the characteristics of spinal pain in terms of frequency and duration. The study was a 3-year prospective longitudinal cohort study including 1400 school children. The outcomes were based on weekly text messages (SMS) to the parents inquiring about the child's musculoskeletal pain, and on clinical data from examinations of the children. The 3-year prevalence was 55%. The prevalence was 29%, 33% and 31% for each of the three study years respectively, and increased statistically significantly with age, especially for lumbopelvic pain. Most children had few and short-lasting episodes with spinal pain, but more than one out of five children had three or more episodes during a study year and 17% of all episodes lasted for more than 4 weeks. This study demonstrates that spinal pain is a substantial problem. Most episodes are brief, but there are a vast number of children with frequent and long-lasting episodes of spinal pain indicating a need for action regarding evidence-based prevention and management.
Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone
The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...
Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette
Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.
Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma Becic
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR) is to continuously monitor and improve the quality of treatment of primary and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The DHR is a Danish nationwide arthroplasty register established in January 1995...
Tarp, Finn; Kragh, Mads Váczy
This study is an analysis of Danish Balance for Payments Support (BOP) covering the period 1988-94. This aid instrument has not so far been used as an active tool to further Danish policy conditionalities vis-à-vis the reform process in developing countries. On the contrary, BOP has mainly been...
Gram Quist, Helle; Christensen, Ulla; Christensen, Karl Bang; Aust, Birgit; Borg, Vilhelm; Bjorner, Jakob B
Lifestyle variables may serve as important intermediate factors between psychosocial work environment and health outcomes. Previous studies, focussing on work stress models have shown mixed and weak results in relation to weight change. This study aims to investigate psychosocial factors outside the classical work stress models as potential predictors of change in body mass index (BMI) in a population of health care workers. A cohort study, with three years follow-up, was conducted among Danish health care workers (3982 women and 152 men). Logistic regression analyses examined change in BMI (more than +/- 2 kg/m(2)) as predicted by baseline psychosocial work factors (work pace, workload, quality of leadership, influence at work, meaning of work, predictability, commitment, role clarity, and role conflicts) and five covariates (age, cohabitation, physical work demands, type of work position and seniority). Among women, high role conflicts predicted weight gain, while high role clarity predicted both weight gain and weight loss. Living alone also predicted weight gain among women, while older age decreased the odds of weight gain. High leadership quality predicted weight loss among men. Associations were generally weak, with the exception of quality of leadership, age, and cohabitation. This study of a single occupational group suggested a few new risk factors for weight change outside the traditional work stress models.
Frederiksen, Nynne Johanne Sahl; Bakke, Sunniva Leonore; Dalum, Peter
Danish youth has for years had the highest alcohol consumption in Europe, however recent surveys show that consumption levels have diminished slightly and that the age of first intoxication has been raised. To explore young moderate drinkers' attitudes, values, and behaviour in relation to alcohol consumption. Data consists of 10 individual semi-structured interviews with 16-17-year-old moderate drinkers attending high school in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study shows that the respondents perceive drinking as a necessity for feeling included at parties, but also that they do not feel a need to drink large amounts of alcohol in order to feel this social inclusion. The study finds that respondents employ a number of different behavioural and cognitive strategies aimed at controlling their own and close friends' drinking behaviour, and that short-term negative social implications are of much greater concern than long-term health consequences. In addition, the study shows that parents have a limited direct influence in this group. The study identifies a group of young people who have clearly defined restrictions as to what they consider positive drinking behaviour. As parents and long-term health consequences only have an limited influence on the respondents' drinking behaviour, these elements should not have primary focus in future interventions. In stead, interventions should take into account the social dynamics involved in drinking and recognise that the social qualities surrounding alcohol weighs higher among this group of young people than the quantity of alcohol consumed.
Full Text Available Camilla Kjersgaard,1 Linn Håkonsen Arendt,1,2 Andreas Ernst,1 Morten Søndergaard Lindhard,2 Jørn Olsen,1,3 Tine Brink Henriksen,2 Katrine Strandberg-Larsen,4 Cecilia Høst Ramlau-Hansen1 1Department of Public Health, Section for Epidemiology, Aarhus University, Aarhus, 2Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Public Health, Section of Social Medicine, Copenhagen University, Copenhagen, Denmark Purpose: Cryptorchidism is the most frequent congenital malformation in boys and is associated with low sperm count, infertility and testicular cancer. Unhealthy maternal lifestyle during pregnancy such as smoking, high prepregnancy body mass index (BMI as well as alcohol and caffeine intake may constitute possible risk factors for cryptorchidism, but results from the few previous studies are conflicting. We aimed to explore the association between maternal lifestyle factors and occurrence of cryptorchidism in sons.Patients and methods: The Danish National Birth Cohort and the Aarhus Birth Cohort provided information on maternal lifestyle from early pregnancy. Data were linked to several Danish health registers, multiple imputation was used to handle missing data and Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for potential confounders.Results: In total, 85,923 boys were included, and of them, 2.2% were diagnosed with cryptorchidism. We observed the strongest associations between maternal tobacco smoking and prepregnancy BMI and cryptorchidism. Sons of women who smoked 10–14 cigarettes/day had the highest hazard ratio (HR for cryptorchidism (1.37; 95% CI: 1.06–1.76, and for maternal BMI ≥30 kg/m2, the HR was 1.32 (95% CI: 1.06–1.65. Binge drinking was associated with an HR <1, if the women had one or two episodes in pregnancy (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67–0.98. Average maternal alcohol intake
Ferløv-Schwensen, Charlotte; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo
Graves' disease (GD) is associated with excess morbidity and mortality, but little is known about unnatural manners of death and the potential relation with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). This study investigated the risk of unnatural death in Graves' patients with and without orbitopathy compared to matched control populations. This was a cohort study covering all adult Danes (≥18 years) diagnosed with GD or GO during 1995-2012. Median follow-up time was 7.9 years (range 0-17.5 years). Utilizing the Danish Register of Causes of Death and the Danish National Patient Registry, 28,461 subjects with GD and 3965 with GO were identified and matched for age and sex with four subjects from the background population. The manner of death was identified, and hazard ratios (HR) for mortality due to unnatural deaths (accident, suicide, violence/homicide, and unknown) were calculated using Cox regression analyses, adjusted for pre-existing somatic and psychiatric morbidity. In Graves' disease overall (GD + GO), there was an increased risk of death from unknown unnatural manners (HR = 2.01 [confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.45], p = 0.012) and of suicide, although the latter difference was not with certainty statistically significant (HR = 1.43 [CI 1.00-2.04], p = 0.053). There was no significant difference in risk of death from suicide in GD subjects compared to their controls (HR = 1.27 [CI 0.85-1.89], p = 0.253). However, GO patients had a significantly higher risk of death from suicide (HR = 2.71 [CI 1.16-6.32], p = 0.022). Mortality by suicide was increased in Graves' disease overall, most significantly in patients with GO, also after adjustment for pre-existing somatic and psychiatric disease. These findings indicate that GD and GO may have a significant role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of suicidal behavior. Beyond independent confirmation, reasons for this need to be explored in order to introduce preventive measures.
Friis, Søren; Poulsen, Aslak H; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
The optimal duration and dose of aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the potential prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been established. We examined this issue in the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study. Self-reported NSAID use at entry (January...... a protective effect against CRC. Further studies of the effective dose of aspirin and the potential interaction between NSAID use and BMI are warranted....
Madsen, Ida E H; Diderichsen, Finn; Burr, Hermann
Previous Danish studies have shown that employees who "work with people" (i.e., do person-related work) are at increased risk of hospitalization with a diagnosis of depression. However, these studies were purely register-based and consequently unable to point to factors underlying this elevated...... risk. This paper examines whether person-related work is associated with incident use of antidepressants, and whether this association is mediated by several work environment exposures....
Mostofsky, Elizabeth; Berg Johansen, Martin; Tjønneland, Anne; Chahal, Harpreet S; Mittleman, Murray A; Overvad, Kim
To evaluate the association between chocolate intake and incident clinically apparent atrial fibrillation or flutter (AF). The Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Study is a large population-based prospective cohort study. The present study is based on 55 502 participants (26 400 men and 29 102 women) aged 50-64 years who had provided information on chocolate intake at baseline. Incident cases of AF were ascertained by linkage with nationwide registries. During a median of 13.5 years there were 3346 cases of AF. Compared with chocolate intake less than once per month, the rate of AF was lower for people consuming 1-3 servings/month (hazard ratio (HR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82 to 0.98), 1 serving/week (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.92), 2-6 servings/week (HR 0.80, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.91) and ≥1 servings/day (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.09; p-linear trend chocolate intake may be inversely associated with AF risk, although residual confounding cannot be ruled out. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Welderufael, B. G.; Løvendahl, Peter; de Koning, Dirk-Jan; Janss, Lucas L. G.; Fikse, W. F.
Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2) and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3) were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis. PMID:29755506
Knudsen, Nikoline Nygård; Schullehner, Jörg; Jørgensen, Lisbeth Flindt
Importance of the work and objectives: Lithium occurs naturally in drinking water and may have a positive effect on mental health and suicide. In clinical practice, lithium in high therapeutic doses is used as a mood-stabilizer in the treatment of affective disorders. Previous studies performed...... at an ecological level have found an association between lithium in drinking water and risk of suicide. The present study is the first to investigate this association at an individual level considering long-term exposure. Methodologies: The study population consisted of all 3,724,588 Danish adults (≥20 years......) of which 15,370 committed suicide from 1990-2012. Information on suicides was obtained from the nationwide Danish Register of Causes of Death. Data on lithium concentrations were obtained through a nationwide drinking water campaign from 2013 including 151 measurements from waterworks supplying...
Henriksen, Birgit; Danelund, Lise
A number of lexical studies report a strong correlation between L2 learners’ vocabulary size and depth and their writing skills. Three Danish empirical studies explore this relationship further by looking at the vocabulary knowledge of young upper-secondary school learners of English...... analysis of written essays from learners across two educational levels. All studies show a surprisingly low level of receptive and productive vocabulary knowledge for the pupils tested. Moreover, the lexical analyses of the texts reveal that the learners do not exploit the vocabulary resources they have...... in their written production. Even the high-level learners, who have more L2 vocabulary, are using a “playing-it-safe strategy”, relying on familiar high-frequent lexical items in their writing. The results are discussed in light of the meaning-based teaching approaches used in Danish EFL classrooms and the lack...
Roger T Webb
Full Text Available Immigrant populations in western societies have grown in their size and diversity yet evidence is incomplete for their risks of suicidality and criminal violence. We examined these correlated harmful behaviours in a national cohort.(i Compare absolute risk between first and second generation immigrants, foreign-born adoptees and native Danes by plotting cumulative incidence curves to onset of early middle age; (ii estimate sex-specific relative risks for these immigrant type subgroups vs. native Danes; (iii examine effect modification by higher vs. lower socio-economic status.In a cohort of over two million persons, attempted suicides and violent crimes were investigated using data from multiple interlinked registers. We plotted sex-specific cumulative incidence curves and estimated incidence rate ratios.In the whole study cohort, 1414 people died by suicide, 46,943 attempted suicide, and 51,344 were convicted of committing a violent crime. Among all immigrant subgroups combined, compared with native Danes, relative risk of attempted suicide was greater in female immigrants (incidence rate ratio, 1.59; 95% confidence interval: CI 1.54-1.64 than in male immigrants (1.26; CI 1.20-1.32, and vice versa for relative risk of violent offending in male immigrants (2.36; CI 2.31-2.42 than in female immigrants (1.74; CI 1.62-1.87. Risk for both adverse outcomes was significantly elevated in virtually every gender-specific immigrant type subgroup examined. Violent crime risk was markedly raised in first generation immigrant males and in the Danish born male children of two immigrant parents. However, male immigrants of lower social status had lower risk of attempted suicide than their native Danish peers.Young immigrants of both first and second generation status face serious challenges and vulnerabilities that western societies need to urgently address. Relative risk patterns for these adverse outcomes vary greatly between the genders and also by
Suadicani, P; Ishøy, T; Guldager, B; Appleyard, M; Gyntelberg, F
Compared with controls, up to six years after their return, Danish Gulf War Veterans have a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported neuropsychological symptoms. Independent associations are found for concentration or memory problems, repeated fits of headache, balance disturbances or fits of dizziness, abnormal fatigue not caused by physical activity, and problems sleeping all night. We investigated whether psychosocial, physical, chemical or biological exposures were associated with these symptoms. This study is a prevalence study using retrospective data on exposure. Some 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2 1990 until December 31 1997 were included; the control group comprised 257 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, and were interviewed by a physician based on a completed questionnaire. A clustering of three to five of the above symptoms were found in 21.4% of Gulf War Veterans vs. 6.2% in controls, p work conditions known to be important in civilian life, and also environmental factors, should be improved to minimize the risk of long-term neuropsychological symptoms.
Full Text Available Purpose. Families with children are frequently exposed to pinworm infection and treatment involves the whole family. Information on consequences of exposure during, pregnancy is limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the exposure to pyrvinium and mebendazole before, during, and after pregnancy in a Danish nationwide cohort. Methods. From nationwide administrative registers, we identified 718, 900 births in Denmark between January 1997 and December 2007 as well as maternal prescription data of anthelmintics and maternal characteristics. Redemption of a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole was used to identify exposure. Results. 4715 women redeemed a prescription for pyrvinium or mebendazole during pregnancy; 1606 for pyrvinium, 2575 for mebendazole, and 534 for both drugs. Having >2 children compared to having no previous children was associated with exposure to pyrvinium (OR: 7.1, 95% CI: 5.8–8.7 and mebendazole (OR: 20.8, 95% CI: 17.3–24.9. Conclusion. 4715 pregnant women redeemed a prescription for either mebendazole or pyrvinium. We believe the exposure to be even higher since pyrvinium is also sold over-the-counter. Limited information on birth outcomes is available at present time, and considering the number of exposed pregnancies, we recommend that studies are to be undertaken to assess the safety of pyrvinium and mebendazole during pregnancy.
Bech-Larsen, Tino; Nielsen, Niels Asger; Grunert, Klaus G.
value maps', which are normally used for analysing laddering data, have been criticised for being questionable representations of raw data. 3. This paper reports on a study in which laddering was used to measure means-end chains for a low involvement product (vegetable oil), explicitly controlling....... 2. Some of the critique relates to the use of laddering with low involvement products, neglect of the situational factor when making laddering interviews, and the lack of a link from means-ends chains to constructs which are closer to the actual behaviour of consumers. Furthermore 'hierarchical...... for the situation. Also, a possible way of linking means-ends data to overall product perceptions and alternat the 'hierarchical value map' analysis are presented. 4. The study presented is part of the Danish research project Rape seed oil for human consumption. Although modern Danish rape seed oil has nutritional...
Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Appel, Emil Vincent Rosenbaum; Svendstrup, Mathilde
BackgroundHypothyroidism is associated with obesity, and thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body composition, including fat mass. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 19 and 6 loci associated with plasma concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH......) and free thyroxine (fT4), respectively.ObjectiveThis study aimed to identify and characterize genetic variants associated with circulating TSH and fT4 in Danish children and adolescents and to examine whether these variants associate with obesity.MethodsGenome-wide association analyses of imputed genotype...... data with fasting plasma concentrations of TSH and fT4 from a population-based sample of Danish children, adolescents, and young adults, and a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with overweight and obesity were performed (N = 1,764, mean age = 12.0 years [range 2.5-24.7]). Replication...
Rasmussen, Line; Kronborg, Gitte; Larsen, Carsten S
Recent studies have suggested that statins possess diverse immune modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. As statins might attenuate inflammation, statin therapy has been hypothesized to reduce mortality in HIV-infected individuals. We therefore used a Danish nationwide cohort of HIV......-infected individuals to estimate the impact of statin use on mortality before and after a diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease or diabetes....
Qin, Ping; Waltoft, Berit L; Mortensen, Preben B; Postolache, Teodor T
Objectives Since the well-observed spring peak of suicide incidents coincides with the peak of seasonal aeroallergens as tree-pollen, we want to document an association between suicide and pollen exposure with empirical data from Denmark. Design Ecological time series study. Setting Data on suicide incidents, air pollen counts and meteorological status were retrieved from Danish registries. Participants 13 700 suicide incidents over 1304 consecutive weeks were obtained from two large areas covering 2.86 million residents. Primary and secondary outcome measures Risk of suicide associated with pollen concentration was assessed using a time series Poisson-generalised additive model. Results We noted a significant association between suicide risk and air pollen counts. A change of pollen counts levels from 0 to ‘10–suicides in the population, and from 0 to ‘30–100’ grains, a relative risk of 1.132. The observed association remained significant after controlling for effects of region, calendar time, temperature, cloud cover and humidity. Meanwhile, we observed a significant sex difference that suicide risk in men started to rise when there was a small increase of air pollen, while the risk in women started to rise until pollen grains reached a certain level. High levels of pollen had slightly stronger effect on risk of suicide in individuals with mood disorder than those without the disorder. Conclusions The observed association between suicide risk and air pollen counts supports the hypothesis that aeroallergens, acting as immune triggers, may precipitate suicide. PMID:23793651
Petersen, Thomas T; Fonager, Kirsten; Bøggild, Henrik; Pedersen, Lars; Mortensen, Jens T
To investigate if a pending application for disability pension had an influence on the applicant's purchase of medical drugs, with a particular focus on musculoskeletal disorders and the use of painkillers. We performed a registry-based follow-up study including 12,020 applicants for disability pension in a Danish county from 1995 to 2000 and linked this information to a database of drug prescriptions. Purchase of drug was calculated for the 6-month period just before the decision and for the 6-month period 2 years later. Changes in a 2-year time period were estimated by differences in purchase rates. Furthermore, the proportion of applicants with an increased purchase of drugs and the proportion of applicants who ceased buying drugs were estimated. The results were stratified by diagnosis and result of application (awarded/rejected). The analyses were furthermore restricted to musculoskeletal disorders and the use of painkillers. At baseline 81% had a purchase and after the 2-year time period 11% ceased buying prescribed drugs. Half of all applicants increased the purchase of drugs. For musculoskeletal disorders one third had an increased purchase rate of painkillers while one fourth ceased purchase of drugs with variations in different diagnostic subgroups. The major changes of drug purchase after a pending application for disability pension are probably ascribed to characteristics of the diseases underlying the disability.
Hesselvig, Jeanette Halskou; Kofoed, Kristian; Wu, Jashin J; Dreyer, Lene; Gislason, Gunnar; Ahlehoff, Ole
Recent findings indicate that patients with systemic sclerosis have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. To determine whether patients with systemic sclerosis or localized scleroderma are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, a cohort study of the entire Danish population aged ≥ 18 and ≤ 100 years was conducted, followed from 1997 to 2011 by individual-level linkage of nationwide registries. Multivariable adjusted Cox regression models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) for a composite cardiovascular disease endpoint. A total of 697 patients with localized scleroderma and 1,962 patients with systemic sclerosis were identified and compared with 5,428,380 people in the reference population. In systemic sclerosis, the adjusted HR was 2.22 (95% confidence interval 1.99-2.48). No association was seen between patients with localized scleroderma and cardiovascular disease. In conclusion, systemic sclerosis is a significant cardiovascular disease risk factor, while patients with localized scleroderma are not at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Pultz, Kirsten; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda A
To explore experiences with engaging community pharmacists in educational programmes on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities for the disabled. A secondary analysis of data from two Danish intervention studies where community pharmacists were engaged in educational programmes. Data included 10 semi-structured interviews with staff, five semi-structured interviews and three open-ended questionnaires with residential facility managers, and five open-ended questionnaires to community pharmacists. Data were thematically coded to identify key points pertaining to the themes 'pharmacists as educators' and 'perceived effects of engaging pharmacists in competence development'. As educators, pharmacists were successful as medicines experts. Some pharmacists experienced pedagogical challenges. Previous teaching experience and obtained knowledge of the local residential facility before teaching often provided sufficient pedagogical skills and tailored teaching to local needs. Effects of engaging community pharmacists included in most instances improved cooperation between residential facilities and community pharmacies through a trustful relationship and improved dialogue about the residents' medication. Other effects included a perception of improved patient safety, teaching skills and branding of the pharmacy. Community pharmacists provide a resource to engage in educational programmes on medication handling in residential facilities, which may facilitate improved cooperation between community pharmacies and residential facilities. However, development of pedagogical competences and understandings of local settings are prerequisites for facilities and pharmacists to experience the programmes as successful. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Özcan, Cengiz; Juel, Knud; Lassen, Jens Flensted
AIM: The Danish Heart Registry (DHR) seeks to monitor nationwide activity and quality of invasive diagnostic and treatment strategies in patients with ischemic heart disease as well as valvular heart disease and to provide data for research. STUDY POPULATION: All adult (≥15 years) patients...... undergoing coronary angiography (CAG), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), coronary artery bypass grafting, and heart valve surgery performed across all Danish hospitals were included. MAIN VARIABLES: The DHR contains a subset of the data stored in the Eastern and Western Denmark Heart Registries (EDHR...
Østergaard, Peder; Stacey, Julia
The quality of fruit and berries has often been the topic of debate and Danish strawberries have been both praised and criticized. Therefore the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Danish Fruit Growers' Association, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and MAPP have joined together...... in a project about quality assurance of strawberries. One purpose of the project has been to provide systematic knowledge about Danish consumers' attitudes towards strawberries, knowledge, buying behaviour and consumption of strawberries. Another purpose has been to take an active part in the development...... of new strawberry varieties and growing methods and also to support better distribution and sale of strawberries. During 1999, focus group interviews and a representative study with 1174 householdswere carried out. In-home tests of existing and new varieties of strawberries will be carried out during...
Andreassen, Christian Nicolaj; Eriksen, Jesper Grau
Working as a physician at an oncology department has some distinctive characteristics that may lead to a stressful work environment. The present study was conducted to provide a nationwide description of the work conditions of all oncologists in Denmark. By comparing the results of the present study with those of a similar study carried out in 2006, the aim was furthermore to elucidate changes in the psychosocial work environment over time. From May to September 2009, 330 physicians employed at six oncology centres and seven community based oncology departments were invited to participate in a survey based on the short version of the COPSOQ II questionnaire. The results were compared with data from a representative section of Danish employees and with data from the 2006 survey. Two hundred and twenty of the 330 invited physicians returned the questionnaire (response rate 67%). Concerning the aspects quantitative demands, work pace, emotional demands, influence, burnout and stress, the oncologists reported worse work conditions than the average Danish employee. However, with regard to possibilities for development, meaning of work and commitment to workplace, the oncologists reported better work conditions. Between 2006 and 2009, substantial improvement was seen concerning several of the assessed work environment aspects within the group of young physicians at the oncology centres. Though substantial improvement of the work conditions has been achieved between 2006 and 2009, certain aspects of the psychosocial work environment at Danish oncology departments still require attention.
Østergaard, Lars; Grøntved, Anders; Bjørkelund Børrestad, Line Anita
Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents.......Previous studies have been inconclusive concerning the effect of active transport on BMI. Our objective was to investigate the association between travel mode and BMI in a large community-based sample of Danish adolescents....
Ekstrand, K R; Christiansen, M E C; Qvist, V
Ekstrand KR, Christiansen MEC, Qvist V, Ismail A. Factors associated with inter-municipality differences in dental caries experience among Danish adolescents. An ecological study. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2009; 00: 000-000. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SAbstract - Background: Caries...... in the water supply and DMF-S values diminished in both years at a level above 0.35 ppm. The structured interview disclosed that municipalities with significant improvement in mean DMFS from 1999 to 2004 had established goals and were committed to the prevention of dental caries at the individual level...... on children and adolescents in Denmark has declined significantly over the last 30 years. Our first analysis in 1999, however, disclosed huge inter-municipality disparities in mean DMFS values as well as in prevalence of caries on Danish children; that fluoride in the water supply and the length...
Sun, Yuelian; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Vestergaard, Mogens
Seizures are often found in children with fetal alcohol syndrome, but it is not known whether binge drinking during pregnancy by nonalcoholic women is associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children. The authors conducted a population-based cohort study of 80,526 liveborn...... singletons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on maternal binge drinking (intake of > or = 5 drinks on a single occasion) was collected in 2 computer-assisted telephone interviews during pregnancy. Children were followed for up to 8 years. Information on neonatal seizures, epilepsy......, and febrile seizures was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register. Results showed that exposure to binge drinking episodes during pregnancy was not associated with an increased risk of seizure disorders in children, except for those exposed at 11-16 gestational weeks. These children had a 3...
Rubin, K H; Abrahamsen, B; Hermann, A P
.5% of those with more than 40 km to the nearest scanner had a history of DXA. Logistic regression analysis showed that distance, fracture risk, oral glucocorticoids, low-energy fracture, conditions associated with secondary osteoporosis, low BMI, history of falls, age 65–79 years, spouse status, and income......To determine the relationship between risk factors and use of DXA scans. Our study showed a relatively high use of DXA in low-risk women and the relatively low coverage in women with multiple risk factors. Moreover, distance to DXA clinics, age, and socio-economic factors are associated...... with the use of DXA. Introduction To determine the relationship between risk factors for fracture and use of DXA scans in Danish women in relation to distance to DXA clinics and socio-economic factors. Methods From the Danish National Civil Register we randomly selected 5,000 women aged 40–90 years living...
Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Grøn, Randi
the data from a nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort on 21,867 female nurses (age > 44 years) who at recruitment in 1993 or 1999 reported information on smoking status, onset, duration, and intensity, as well as breast cancer risk factors. We obtained data on incidence of breast cancer from Danish Cancer...... Registry until 2013, and used Cox regression models to analyze the association between smoking and breast cancer. RESULTS: Of 21,831 women (mean age 53.2 years) 1162 developed breast cancer during 15.7 years of follow-up. 33.7% of nurses were current and 30.0% former smokers at cohort baseline. Compared...
Soegaard, O.S.; Lohse, N.; Gerstoft, J.
-based cohort of individuals with HIV, we included persons hospitalized with pneumonia from the Danish National Hospital Registry and obtained mortality data from the Danish Civil Registration System. Comparing individuals with and without pneumonia, we used Poisson regression to estimate relative mortality....... The following variables predicted mortality within 90 days following hospitalization for pneumonia (adjusted Odds Ratios): male sex (3.77, 95% CI: 1.37-10.4), Charlson Comorbidity Index score > or = 2 (3.86, 95% CI: 2.19-6.78); no current HAART (3.58, 95% CI: 1.83-6.99); history of AIDS (2.46, 95% CI: 1...
Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 were included (N=966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, Broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish National Patient Register (NPR). Suicide attempts and deaths were captured in the NPR, the PCRR, and the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS). In females, AN had a peak hazard at approximately age 15 years, BN at 22 years, and EDNOS had an extended peak that spanned 18 years to 22 years. Eating disorder diagnoses predicted a significantly higher hazard for death and suicide attempt compared with the referent of individuals with no eating disorders. In males, peak hazard for diagnosis was earlier than in females. The present study represents one of the largest and longest studies of eating disorder incidence and suicide attempts and death in both females and males. Eating disorders are accompanied by increased hazard of suicide attempts and death even in young adults. PMID:25958083
Priskorn, L; Holmboe, Sarah; Jacobsen, R
The fertility rate has recently declined in many parts of the World, including Europe. To a large extent, this change can be explained by the socio-economic development. However, increasing fertility problems and widespread occurrence of poor semen quality could in part explain the few births....... The objective of this registry based study was to investigate birth cohort related trends in fertility and childlessness among Danish men. The study population comprised all 1 616 677 men in Denmark born from 1945 to 1980 of whom 1 359 975 (84.1%) were native Danes. Data were obtained from Statistics Denmark...... and contained information from The National Danish Birth Registry and The Danish In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Registry. For consecutive birth cohorts of native Danish men cumulative fertility rates at age 45 declined from 1.91 children per man in the 1945 birth cohort to 1.71 for men born in 1960...
Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B
Recent findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in offspring. We initiated this study to determine whether maternal prepartum anemia influences offspring risk of schizophrenia. We conducted a population-based study with individual...... a 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.15) increased risk of schizophrenia. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown and independent replication is needed, our findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency increases offspring risk of schizophrenia....... record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. In a cohort of 1 115 752 Danish singleton births from 1978 to 1998, cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received...
Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B
Recent findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in offspring. We initiated this study to determine whether maternal prepartum anemia influences offspring risk of schizophrenia. We conducted a population-based study with individual...... a 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.15) increased risk of schizophrenia. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown and independent replication is needed, our findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency increases offspring risk of schizophrenia....... record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. In a cohort of 1 115 752 Danish singleton births from 1978 to 1998, cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received...
Arentoft, Johanne Louise; Hoppe, Camilla; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford
Diet is recognised as one modifiable lifestyle factor for ischaemic heart disease (IHD). We aimed at investigating the associations between adherence to the Danish Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) indicated by a Dietary Quality Index (DQI) and selected cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-...
Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John
higher in the 1980s compared to in particular the most recent decade. This may be related to factors such as untying of aid in the same period. The econometric analysis has two important limitations. First of all, the model can only give information about marginal changes in aid. As a decision to give...... and trade policies. The main result of the study is that Danish bilateral aid has a positive and statistically significant impact on Danish exports to the recipient countries. Bilateral development assistance may affect exports through several channels. Three of the main channels are direct aid tying......; increasing recipient income where higher income leads to higher imports, and decreased trade costs, say due to improved information about cultural and administrative customs and practices. Thus, as for preferential trade arrangements, bilateral aid has two potential economic effects; trade creation working...
Kørup, Alex Kappel; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Christensen, René dePont; Johansen, Christoffer; Søndergaard, Jens; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Objectives Studies comprising Danish Seventh-day Adventists (SDAs) and Danish Baptists found that members have a lower risk of chronic diseases including cancer. Explanations have pointed to differences in lifestyle, but detailed aetiology has only been sparsely examined. Our objective was to investigate the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among Danish SDAs and Baptists as a proxy for cancers related to sexual behaviour. Methods We followed the Danish Cohort of Religious Societies from 1977 to 2009, and linked it with national registers of all inpatient and outpatient care contacts using the National Patient Register. We compared the incidence of syphilis, gonorrhoea and chlamydia among members of the cohort with the general population. Results The cohort comprised 3119 SDA females, 1856 SDA males, 2056 Baptist females and 1467 Baptist males. For the entire cohort, we expected a total of 32.4 events of STD, and observed only 9. Female SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (both p<0.001). Male SDAs and Baptists aged 20–39 years also had significant lower incidence of chlamydia (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). No SDA members were diagnosed with gonorrhoea, when 3.4 events were expected, which, according to Hanley's ‘rule of three’, is a significant difference. No SDA or Baptist was diagnosed with syphilis. Conclusions The cohort shows significant lower incidence of STD, most likely including human papillomavirus, which may partly explain the lower incidence of cancers of the cervix, rectum, anus, head and neck. PMID:27016243
Christensen, Ann; Søgaard, Rikke
In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. The analysis was based on data from a range of Danish person-level and company-level registers (explanatory variables). These data were combined with information on insurance status obtained from the trade organisation for insurance (dependent variable). A logistic regression was performed to estimate the odds of having employer-paid health insurance coverage. The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity, region of residence, years of education, and annual income. Both company and individual characteristics were found to be important and significant predictors for employer-paid health insurance coverage. The Danish tax exemption on private health insurance in the years 2002-12 thus seems to have led to inequality in employer-paid health insurance coverage.
Nagy, Abdou; Fahnøe, Ulrik; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun
Scandinavian countries have successfully pursued bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) eradication without the use of vaccines. In Denmark, control and eradication of BVDV were achieved during the last two decades, but occasionally new BVDV infections are detected in some Danish cattle herds. The aim...
Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm
The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...
Deleuran, Thomas; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Overgaard, Søren
and knee. METHODS: In Danish healthcare databases we identified all residents over 60 years diagnosed with cirrhosis in 1994-2011, and for each of them we sampled five age- and gender-matched reference persons from the general population. We excluded everyone with risk factors for secondary osteoarthritis...
Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I.A.; Grunert, Klaus G.
This paper presents the results of a survey which aimed at uncovering the influence of COO information on the perceptions of 281 Danish and Lithuanian consumers regarding several cereal foods and their marketing characteristics, such as price, place-of-purchase, brand, packaging, and labelling. P...
Østergaard, Lauge; Adelborg, Kasper; Sundbøll, Jens; Pedersen, Lars; Loldrup Fosbøl, Emil; Schmidt, Morten
The positive predictive value of an infective endocarditis diagnosis is approximately 80% in the Danish National Patient Registry. However, since infective endocarditis is a heterogeneous disease implying long-term intravenous treatment, we hypothesiszed that the positive predictive value varies by length of hospital stay. A total of 100 patients with first-time infective endocarditis in the Danish National Patient Registry were identified from January 2010 - December 2012 at the University hospital of Aarhus and regional hospitals of Herning and Randers. Medical records were reviewed. We calculated the positive predictive value according to admission length, and separately for patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device and a prosthetic heart valve using the Wilson score method. Among the 92 medical records available for review, the majority of the patients had admission length ⩾2 weeks. The positive predictive value increased with length of admission. In patients with admission length value was 65% while it was 90% for admission length ⩾2 weeks. The positive predictive value was 81% for patients with a cardiac implantable electronic device and 87% for patients with a prosthetic valve. The positive predictive value of the infective endocarditis diagnosis in the Danish National Patient Registry is high for patients with admission length ⩾2 weeks. Using this algorithm, the Danish National Patient Registry provides a valid source for identifying infective endocarditis for research.
Andersen, Kasper; Mikkelsen, Søren; Jørgensen, Gitte; Zwisler, Stine Thorhauge
Little is known regarding paediatric medical emergency calls to Danish Emergency Medical Dispatch Centres (EMDC). This study aimed to investigate these calls, specifically the medical issues leading to them and the pre-hospital units dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. We performed a retrospective, observational study on paediatric medical emergency calls managed by the EMDC in the Region of Southern Denmark in February 2016. We reviewed audio recordings of emergency calls and ambulance records to identify calls concerning patients ≤ 15 years. We examined EMDC dispatch records to establish how the medical issues leading to these calls were classified and which pre-hospital units were dispatched to the paediatric emergencies. We analysed the data using descriptive statistics. Of a total of 7052 emergency calls in February 2016, 485 (6.9%) concerned patients ≤ 15 years. We excluded 19 and analysed the remaining 466. The reported medical issues were commonly classified as: "seizures" (22.1%), "sick child" (18.9%) and "unclear problem" (12.9%). The overall most common pre-hospital response was immediate dispatch of an ambulance with sirens and lights with a supporting physician-manned mobile emergency care unit (56.4%). The classification of medical issues and the dispatched pre-hospital units varied with patient age. We believe our results might help focus the paediatric training received by emergency medical dispatch staff on commonly encountered medical issues, such as the symptoms and conditions pertaining to the symptom categories "seizures" and "sick child". Furthermore, the results could prove useful in hypothesis generation for future studies examining paediatric medical emergency calls. Almost 7% of all calls concerned patients ≤ 15 years. Medical issues pertaining to the symptom categories "seizures", "sick child" and "unclear problem" were common and the calls commonly resulted in urgent pre-hospital responses.
B. G. Welderufael
Full Text Available Because mastitis is very frequent and unavoidable, adding recovery information into the analysis for genetic evaluation of mastitis is of great interest from economical and animal welfare point of view. Here we have performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS to identify associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and investigate the genetic background not only for susceptibility to – but also for recoverability from mastitis. Somatic cell count records from 993 Danish Holstein cows genotyped for a total of 39378 autosomal SNP markers were used for the association analysis. Single SNP regression analysis was performed using the statistical software package DMU. Substitution effect of each SNP was tested with a t-test and a genome-wide significance level of P-value < 10-4 was used to declare significant SNP-trait association. A number of significant SNP variants were identified for both traits. Many of the SNP variants associated either with susceptibility to – or recoverability from mastitis were located in or very near to genes that have been reported for their role in the immune system. Genes involved in lymphocyte developments (e.g., MAST3 and STAB2 and genes involved in macrophage recruitment and regulation of inflammations (PDGFD and PTX3 were suggested as possible causal genes for susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis, respectively. However, this is the first GWAS study for recoverability from mastitis and our results need to be validated. The findings in the current study are, therefore, a starting point for further investigations in identifying causal genetic variants or chromosomal regions for both susceptibility to – and recoverability from mastitis.
Jensen de López, Kristine M.; Sundahl Olsen, Lone; Chondrigianni, V.
This study examines the comprehension and production of subject and object relative clauses (SRCs, ORCs) by children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) and their typically developing (TD) peers. The purpose is to investigate whether relative clauses are problematic for Danish children with S...... with the assignment of thematic roles rather than with the structural make-up of RCs....
Søndergaard, Susanne Friis; Lorentzen, Vibeke; Sørensen, Erik E
of 2015 to 2016, six participants tested an EHR containing a Danish edition of a selected section of the Perioperative Nursing Data Set. This study relied on realistic evaluation and participant observations to generate data. We found that nursing leadership was essential for improving perioperative...
Skytthe, Axel; Ohm Kyvik, Kirsten; Vilstrup Holm, Niels
Introduction: The Danish Twin Registry is a unique source for studies of genetic, familial and environmental factors on life events, health conditions and diseases. Content: More than 85,000 twin pairs born 1870-2008 in Denmark. Validity and coverage: Four main ascertainment methods have been emp...
Prinds, Christina; Hvidtjørn, Dorte; Skytthe, Axel; Mogensen, Ole; Hvidt, Niels Christian
Mothers' existential dimensions in the transition to motherhood have not been described thoroughly. They might experience disruption and new perspectives in existential ways and this may especially be the case in preterm birth. The aim of this study was twofold. First we investigated the existential dimension of motherhood transition in a secularized context, through practices of prayer and meditation. Second we described the relationship between time of birth (term/preterm) and the prayer/meditation practices of the mothers. Data were gathered from a nationwide questionnaire survey among first time mothers conducted during the summer 2011. All Danish women who gave birth before the 32(nd) pregnancy week (n = 255), and double the number of mothers who gave birth at full term (n = 658) in 2010 were included (total n = 913). The questionnaire consisted of 46 overall items categorized in seven sections, which independently cover important aspects of existential meaning-making related to becoming a mother. The respondent rate was 57% (n = 517). Moments of praying or meditation 6-18 months post partum were reported by 65%, and mothers who responded affirmatively, practiced prayer (n = 286) more than meditation (n = 89), p meditation between mothers of full term or preterm born children, not even after controlling for perinatal or post partum loss, mode of birth, age, status of cohabiting or education. In this explorative study we found specific practices of existential meaning-making through prayer and/or meditation among first time mothers, living in a very secularized context. Yet we know only little about character or importance of these practices among mothers, and hardly anything about existential meaning-making among new fathers. Hence the implications of meaning-making practices related to other dimensions of health are difficult to address in a qualified way in care for new mothers and families.
Brauer, Charlotte; Baandrup, Ulrik; Jacobsen, Peter
in asbestos-exposed populations. Data do not currently support implementation of screening programs for asbestos-exposed persons in Denmark. Since mesothelioma is most often an occupational disease, these patients should be admitted to an occupational clinic for aetiological evaluation. Udgivelsesdato: 2009...
Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter
Hypothyroidism is a common endocrine disease. The frequency of pregnancy loss in women with known hypothyroidism as opposed to women with a later diagnosis of hypothyroidism has not been evaluated and compared with other common endocrine diseases. Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers. All pregnancies in Denmark, 1997-2008, resulting in live birth (n = 732 533), spontaneous abortion (n = 112 487) or stillbirth (n = 2937) were identified together with information on maternal hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism and diabetes. Cox model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (95%CI) for spontaneous abortion and stillbirth, reference: no hypo- or hyperthyroidism or diabetes (n = 824 310). We identified 4951 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed before the pregnancy (group 1) and 2464 pregnancies where maternal hypothyroidism was diagnosed in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (group 2). In group 1, 825 pregnancies (16·7%) resulted in spontaneous abortion which was more frequent than in nonexposed (13·2%), (aHR 1·19 (95%CI 1·12-1·27)), and of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (17·2%, P = 0·5) and diabetes (17·5%, P = 0·2) diagnosed before the pregnancy. In group 2, the frequency was 12·2% (aHR 0·92 (0·84-1·02)). In group 2, 16 pregnancies (0·65%) resulted in stillbirth which was more frequent than in nonexposed (0·36%), (aHR 1·81 (1·11-2·97)), of the same magnitude as in hyperthyroidism (0·82%, P = 0·5) and less frequent than in diabetes (2·9%, P hyperthyroidism and in particular diabetes. We hypothesize that undetected or insufficiently treated maternal disease in the pregnancy may be of causal importance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sunesen, Kåre G; Nørgaard, Mette; Lundby, Lilli; Havsteen, Hanne; Buntzen, Steen; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Laurberg, Søren
In anal cancer, colostomy-free survival is a measure of anal sphincter preservation after treatment with radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. Failure to control anal cancer and complications of treatment are alternative indications for colostomy. However, no data exist on cause-specific colostomy rates. We examined this in a cohort study. Through national registries and review of medical records, we identified patients with anal cancer diagnosed from 1995 to 2003 who had curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy in four Danish centers. We computed cumulative incidence of tumor-related colostomy and therapy-related colostomy, treating colostomy and death as competing events. Follow-up started at completion of radiotherapy and continued throughout 2008. We used competing risk regression to compute hazard ratios (HRs) to compare the cumulative incidence of cause-specific colostomies between age, sex, tumor size, chemotherapy, and local excision before radiotherapy. We included 235 patients with anal cancer. The 5-year cumulative incidences of tumor-related and therapy-related colostomy were 26% (95% CI, 21% to 32%) and 8% (95% CI, 5% to 12%), respectively. Tumor size greater than 6 cm versus less than 4 cm was a risk factor for tumor-related colostomy (adjusted HR, 3.8; 95% CI, 1.7 to 8.1), and local excision before radiotherapy was a risk factor for therapy-related colostomy (adjusted HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.5 to 13.5). After curative-intent radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy, one third of patients had a colostomy, of which one third were related to therapy. Large tumor size was associated with a higher risk of tumor-related colostomy, whereas history of prior excision was associated with an increased incidence of therapy-related colostomy.
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456,532 antibiotic prescriptions issued between July 2012 and June 2013. Pneumonia was the most common indication with 178,354 prescriptions (39%), followed by acute tonsillitis (21%) and acute otitis media (19%). In total, penicillin V accounted for 58% of all prescriptions, followed by macrolides (18%) and amoxicillin (15%). The use of second-line agents increased with age for all indications, and comprised more than 40% of the prescriptions in patients aged >75 years. Women were more often prescribed antibiotics regardless of clinical indication. This is the first Danish study to characterise antibiotic prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second-line agents like macrolides and amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid are overused. Strategies to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing especially for pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute rhinosinusitis are warranted. TRACKING THE OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS: Better adherence to guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for different respiratory tract infections are warranted in Danish general practice. The over-use of antibiotics, particularly so
Richter, B.; Hesse, U.; Hansen, Alastair Bierre
OBJECTIVE To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC...
Waldorff, Frans Boch; Nielsen, Anni B S; Waldemar, Gunhild
, but the validity and the influence on other factors on SRH among cognitively impaired persons remain unknown. This study reports how patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) report SRH and which factors influence SRH. The study was based on baseline data from 321 home living patients with mild AD who...... participated in the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study (DAISY). Analysis using the generalized estimating equation (GEE) models revealed that good/excellent SRH among patients with mild AD were associated with longer education, lack of other chronic conditions, higher scores of quality of life (QOL), lower...
Nielsen, N H; Linneberg, A; Menné, T
factors for developing contact allergy in an adult general population sample. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 1990 a random sample of 567 persons of the 15-69-year-old population living in the western part of Copenhagen County (Denmark) was patch tested in a cross-sectional study. In 1998 a follow-up study...... of these women had bought the eliciting item in Denmark before 1995, when vigorous control of the Danish nickel legislation was introduced. CONCLUSIONS: We found a considerable number of incident cases of contact allergy in the adult population. The results of the study support the actions taken to restrict...
obesity among adolescents are high and continue to rise. Results from this study suggest that the inverse social gradient in overweight becomes steeper for girls and emerges for boys in late adolescence (age span 15 to 21 years. Late adolescence seems to be an important window of opportunity in reducing the social inequality in overweight among Danish adolescents.
Rugbjerg, Kathrine; Friis, Søren; Jørgensen, Thomas
prevalence of NSAID use among cohort members, and lung cancer (0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80), indicating a lower prevalence of smoking than usual. Our results do not support the hypothesis that patients with prolonged use of NSAID and other analgesics are at reduced risk for Parkinson's disease. A possible lower......It has been suggested that use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) protects against Parkinson's disease, although the results are not consistent. We investigated the risk for Parkinson's disease in patients with osteoarthritis, who are typically intensive users of NSAID. By using......-2007 was compared with that expected from the age-, gender- and period-specific hospital contact rates of the general Danish population, and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were derived. Cohort members were also linked to the Danish Cancer Register to estimate...
Poulsen, Thomas Rødgaard; Burr, Hermann; Hansen, Henrik Lyngbeck
diagnoses and conditions and accidents. Standardized risks estimates were typically calculated by comparison with the total Danish working population. Results: Elevated rates were found in all four categories. For mortality male seafarers had excess rates of accidents, cirrhosis of the liver, cancer......, and suicides, and fishermen of accidents and cardiovascular disorders. Female seafarers in male-dominated occupations also had increased mortality rates. Elevated hospitalization rates for male seafarers were particularly prominent for endocrine/nutritional conditions, cervical discopathy, gastrointestinal...... OF SAFETY MEASURES AND SIGNIFICANT STRUCTURAL CHANGES IN THE DANISH MERCHANT AND FISHING FLEET, THE SPECTRUM OF HEALTH INDICATORS CONTINUES TO INDICATE CONSIDERABLE RISK FACTORS IN THE MARITIME ENVIRONMENT AND/OR THE LIFESTYLE OF SEAFARERS AND FISHERMEN FUTURE MONITORING OF FISHERMEN'S AND SEAFARERS' HEALTH...
Peyton, Margit Malmmose
Inspired by New Public Management and global meta discourse, such as democratisation and commodity (Fairclough, 1992), Performance Measurements has made its entry into the Danish health sector. As a result considerable changes have been made within the health structure with a new health reform...... qualitative to quantitative outputs. The output measures form the foundation for a number of decisions such as allocation of human resources and funding. The purpose of this paper is to show how performance measurements have had a dominant impact on different stakeholders and their influences, which...... furthermore has had an impact on the perceived concept of service and service quality. The following research questions will be addressed: Is there a change in the relative power construction of stakeholders within the Danish health care system over the period of 2002-2008? If so, what effect has this change...
Vogel, A.; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Waldemar, G.
Impaired awareness may be associated with increased neuropsychiatric symptoms in moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease, but relatively little is known about the association in early Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if impaired awareness was associated with a higher...... frequency of neuropsychiatric symptoms in early Alzheimer's disease. In a Danish multicenter study, 321 patients with MMSE score > or =20 were evaluated. Patients with poor insight had significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms than patients with full insight. When patients had increasing neuropsychiatric...
Objective This study compares reconviction rates for Danish offenders sentenced to community service and imprisonment. A large general sample of offenders (n = 1602) is examined. Methods The study relies on a quasi-experimental design and uses propensity score matching as well as logistic....... Results Imprisonment is associated with a higher rate of recidivism and the result is statistically significant at conventional statistical levels. Conclusions Community service (CS) compared to imprisonment appears to cause a lower reconviction rate in general. Additional research is needed to shed light...
Larsen, Christian Albrekt; Dejgaard, Thomas Engel
The article investigates how the poor and welfare recipients are depicted in British, Danish and Swedish newspapers. The study was inspired by American media studies that have documented a negative stereotypic way of portraying the poor and welfare recipients; especially in the case...... they are African-Americans. The article argues that there is an institutional welfare-regime logic behind the way the poor and welfare recipients are depicted in the mass media. It is not only a matter of race. This argument is substantiated by showing that the poor and welfare recipients are a) also depicted...
Full Text Available Lars H Pedersen,1,2 Olav B Petersen,1,2 Mette Nørgaard,3 Charlotte Ekelund,4 Lars Pedersen,3 Ann Tabor,4 Henrik T Sørensen3 1Department of Clinical Medicine, Aarhus University, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 4Department of Fetal Medicine, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark Abstract: A linked population-based database is being created in Denmark for research on drug safety during pregnancy. It combines information from the Danish National Health Service Prescription Database (with information on all prescriptions reimbursed in Denmark since 2004, the Danish Fetal Medicine Database, the Danish National Registry of Patients, and the Medical Birth Registry. The new linked database will provide validated information on malformations diagnosed both prenatally and postnatally. The cohort from 2008 to 2014 will comprise 589,000 pregnancies with information on 424,000 pregnancies resulting in live-born children, ~420,000 pregnancies undergoing prenatal ultrasound scans, 65,000 miscarriages, and 92,000 terminations. It will be updated yearly with information on ~80,000 pregnancies. The cohort will enable identification of drug exposures associated with severe malformations, not only based on malformations diagnosed after birth but also including those having led to termination of pregnancy or miscarriage. Such combined data will provide a unique source of information for research on the safety of medications used during pregnancy. Keywords: malformations, teratology, therapeutic drug monitoring, epidemiological methods, registries
Christensen, Tina Paulsen
in terms of what constitutes good interpreting. When selecting a form of address, the guidelines state that the Danish legislative community equates good interpreting and interpreting quality with the use of the direct, first-person style and that this applies to all actors in a court room. For example......, Berk-Seligson (1990: 61/151) notes that professional actors often approach the interpreter and not the non-native speaking individual. The present empirical study examines the legal discourse in terms of the use of direct speech in Danish court proceedings. In this context, it is examined whether any...... conclusions may be drawn for situations in which professional actors, specifically judges and justices, deviate from the recommended use of the direct speech. Thus, the primary objective of my paper is to study the potential correlation between the use of direct/indirect speech and certain contents of court...
Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens; Olsen, Jørn
The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life. Population-based cohort study. Denmark. All singleton births in Denmark between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2006 were identified. These newborns were then linked to mothers, fathers, grandparents and siblings using individually assigned civil personal registration numbers. We identified that data on childhood injuries were obtained from the Danish National Patient Registry, which contains data on all hospital stays and outpatient visits. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated from birth using log-linear Poisson regression models, and person-years were used as the offset variable. Age, residence, calendar period, maternal education, maternal income and parental-cohabitation status are treated as time-dependent variables (records were extracted from the offspring's birth year). Exposure to maternal bereavement due to a father's death had the strongest association with childhood injuries, especially when the cause of death was due to a traumatic event (adjusted estimates of IRR (aIRR): 1.25, 95%CI: 0.99 to 1.58). We did not find an association for childhood injuries and maternal bereavement due to grandparent's death, and we only found an association for sibling death when restricting to deaths due to traumatic events (aIRR: 1.20, 95%CI:1.03 to 1.39). The aetiology of childhood injuries is complex and may be related to events that take place during prenatal life. This study suggests that exposure to a stressful life event during gestation may be linked to injury susceptibility in childhood. However, changes in postnatal family conditions related to loss or genetic factors may also play a role. Developmental plasticity related to early life exposures leading to disease programming in offspring is a theory with substantial theoretical and empirical support. Prenatal stress exposure has been
Poulsen, Kjeld; Cleal, Bryan; Clausen, Thomas; Andersen, Lars L
The rise in prevalence of diabetes is alarming and research ascribes most of the increase to lifestyle. However, little knowledge exists about the influence of occupational factors on the risk for developing diabetes. This study estimates the importance of work and lifestyle as risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus among healthcare workers and explores the association of work factors and obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes. Questionnaire-based prospective cohort study among 7,305 health care workers followed for seven years in the Danish National Diabetes Register. We used bivariate comparisons to give an unadjusted estimate of associations, followed by adjusted survival analysis and logistic regression models to estimate the influences of potential risk factors related to job, health and lifestyle on diabetes and obesity. During seven years of follow up, 3.5% of participants developed diabetes, associated with obesity (HR = 6.53; 95% CI 4.68-9.10), overweight (HR = 2.89; CI 2.11-3.96) age 50-69 y (HR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.57-3.43) and high quality of leadership (HR = 1.60; CI 1.19-2.16). Obesity at baseline was most common among the youngest employees, and was mainly associated with developing diabetes (OR = 3.84; CI 2.85-5.17), impaired physical capacity and physical inactivity. In the occupational setting, obesity was associated with shift work, severe musculoskeletal pain, low influence, but also by good management, fewer role conflicts and a positive work-life balance. Looking only at non-smokers, removed the influence of age and pain. However, non-smokers also had higher depression scores and more role conflicts. Confirming obesity as the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes, the present study identified few occupational risk factors. However, obesity, the key risk factor for diabetes, had a more variable relation with work than did diabetes.
Full Text Available The rise in prevalence of diabetes is alarming and research ascribes most of the increase to lifestyle. However, little knowledge exists about the influence of occupational factors on the risk for developing diabetes. This study estimates the importance of work and lifestyle as risk factors for developing diabetes mellitus among healthcare workers and explores the association of work factors and obesity, which is a risk factor for diabetes.Questionnaire-based prospective cohort study among 7,305 health care workers followed for seven years in the Danish National Diabetes Register. We used bivariate comparisons to give an unadjusted estimate of associations, followed by adjusted survival analysis and logistic regression models to estimate the influences of potential risk factors related to job, health and lifestyle on diabetes and obesity.During seven years of follow up, 3.5% of participants developed diabetes, associated with obesity (HR = 6.53; 95% CI 4.68-9.10, overweight (HR = 2.89; CI 2.11-3.96 age 50-69 y (HR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.57-3.43 and high quality of leadership (HR = 1.60; CI 1.19-2.16. Obesity at baseline was most common among the youngest employees, and was mainly associated with developing diabetes (OR = 3.84; CI 2.85-5.17, impaired physical capacity and physical inactivity. In the occupational setting, obesity was associated with shift work, severe musculoskeletal pain, low influence, but also by good management, fewer role conflicts and a positive work-life balance. Looking only at non-smokers, removed the influence of age and pain. However, non-smokers also had higher depression scores and more role conflicts.Confirming obesity as the strongest risk factor for developing diabetes, the present study identified few occupational risk factors. However, obesity, the key risk factor for diabetes, had a more variable relation with work than did diabetes.
Rikke Baastrup Nordsborg
Full Text Available Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL is a frequent cancer and incidence rates have increased markedly during the second half of the 20(th century; however, the few established risk factors cannot explain this rise and still little is known about the aetiology of NHL. Spatial analyses have been applied in an attempt to identify environmental risk factors, but most studies do not take human mobility into account. The aim of this study was to identify clustering of NHL in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential addresses. We utilised the nation-wide Danish registers and unique personal identification number that all Danish citizens have to conduct a register-based case-control study of 3210 NHL cases and two independent control groups of 3210 each. Cases were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry and controls were matched by age and sex and randomly selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio-temporal variation of such factors in Denmark is too small to be detected with the applied method.
Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene; Bonde, Jens Peter; Burr, Hermann
The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility.
Hougaard, Karin Sørig; Hannerz, Harald; Feveile, Helene
The possible association between employment in horticulture with potential exposure to pesticides and female infertility was examined by identification of women with hospital contact due to infertility and working in horticulture through the Danish Occupational Hospitalization Register. This follow......-up study gave a standardized incidence ratio of 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 0.84-1.32) for treatment of infertility in women working in horticulture compared with the standard population and did not confirm that women working in the horticultural industry are at increased risk for infertility....
Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja; Schack, Patrick
of resilience to militant Islamism in three Danish communities. It shows how families and trust-based networks, including local government, are the major sources of resilience, but also how punitive national policies and discourses work at cross purposes with resilience-building by reducing local actors......Building community resilience to violent extremism increasingly figures as a goal in national security strategies and debates. The exact meaning of resilience remains unclear, complicating an informed discussion of whom and what to support. This article presents findings from an explorative study...
The aim of this study was to describe Danish parents' experiences when their newborn or small child was critically ill. Thirteen parents were interviewed. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The child's transfer to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) meant either help...... or death for the parents. The back transfer was experienced as joy and despair. The parents had confidence in most nurses, and they were kind, helpful, informative and capable. Less capable and distressed nurses made the parents feel uncomfortale and insecure. Parents need help and support during...... their child's transfer to and from the PICU. Critical care nurses have to discuss the policy of family-centred care....
Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Ben Amer-Allam, Sara; Hansen, Anders Bavnhøj
Municipal activities play an important role in national and global CO2-emission reduction efforts, with Nordic countries at the forefront thanks to their energy planning tradition and high penetration of renewable energy sources. In this work, we present a case study of the Danish municipality...... dependent on changes in energy prices.We conclude that in order to achieve their CO2 emission goals in the most energy-efficient, cost-effective and sustainable way, municipalities similar to Sønderborg should compare a wide range of energy system configurations, for example, scenarios with a high degree...
Jensen-Dahm, C.; Vogel, A.; Waldorff, F.B.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence of self- and proxy-reported pain in a cohort with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to identify characteristics of individuals with AD reporting pain. DESIGN: Data were collected at the baseline visit of the Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study. SETTING......: Community. PARTICIPANTS: Three hundred twenty-one community-living individuals with AD (MMSE >/= 20) and their primary caregivers. MEASUREMENTS: Pain was assessed as part of the EuroQol EQ-5D (caregiver- and self-rated). The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Quality of Life in Alzheimer's Disease...
Jacobsen, S; Petersen, J; Ullman, S
influence on survival related to mortality caused by infections. Diffuse central nervous system disease and myocarditis were related to increased SLE-related mortality, whereas photosensitivity predicted a decreased mortality. Non-fatal infections and thrombotic events predicted a decreased overall survival......In this Danish multicentre study, predictive clinical factors of mortality and survival were calculated for 513 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 122 of whom died within a mean observation period of 8.2 years equalling a mortality rate of 2.9% per year. Survival rates were 97%, 91...
Gradel, K.O.; Rattenborg, Erik
A questionnaire-based, retrospective field study was conducted in 78 Danish broiler houses (analytical units) on 42 farms. In spring 1997, all these broiler houses had been infected with Salmonella Enteritidis, phage type 8, and/or Salmonella Typhimurium, definitive-type 66, by day-old chicks del...... soap and water for washing hands in the anteroom, hygiene barriers when removing dead broilers, gravel alongside the broiler house, systematic checks of indoor rodent-bait depots, and combined surface and pulse-fogging disinfection....
Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide; Nielsen, Christian F.B.; Simonsen, Christian G.; Astrup, Thomas
Highlights: • Environmental impact of a power system with a high share of wind power assessed. • LCI data for electricity supply in Denmark in 2010 and 2030 (low carbon) provided. • Focus on GHG reduction may lead to increase in other impact categories. • Imported biomass might cause high GHG emissions form Land Use Change. • Need for guidelines for LCA of electricity supply (cogeneration and power import). - Abstract: The need to reduce dependency on fossil resources and to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is driving many countries towards the implementation of low-carbon electricity systems. In this study the environmental impact of a future (2030) possible low-carbon electricity system in Denmark was assessed and compared with the current situation (2010) and an alternative 2030 scenario using life cycle assessment (LCA). The influence on the final results of the modeling approach used for (i) electricity import, (ii) biomass resources, and (iii) the cogeneration of heat and power was discussed. The results showed that consumption of fossil resources and global warming impacts from the Danish electricity sector could be reduced significantly compared with 2010. Nevertheless, a reduction in GHG may be at the expense of other environmental impacts, such as the increased depletion of abiotic resources. Moreover, the results were very dependent upon biomass origin: when agricultural land was affected by biomass import, and land use changes and transportation were included, GHG emissions from imported biomass were comparable to those from fossil fuels. The results were significantly influenced by the modeling approach regarding the import of electricity, biomass provision, and the allocation between heat and power in cogeneration plants. As the importance of all three aspects is likely to increase in the future, transparency in LCA modeling is critical. Characterized impacts for Danish power plants in 2010 and 2030 (including corresponding
Adelborg, Kasper; Szépligeti, Szimonetta Komjáthiné; Holland-Bill, Louise; Ehrenstein, Vera; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet; Henderson, Victor W; Sørensen, Henrik Toft
To examine the risks of myocardial infarction, stroke (ischaemic and haemorrhagic), peripheral artery disease, venous thromboembolism, atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and heart failure in patients with migraine and in a general population comparison cohort. Nationwide, population based cohort study. All Danish hospitals and hospital outpatient clinics from 1995 to 2013. 51 032 patients with migraine and 510 320 people from the general population matched on age, sex, and calendar year. Comorbidity adjusted hazard ratios of cardiovascular outcomes based on Cox regression analysis. Higher absolute risks were observed among patients with incident migraine than in the general population across most outcomes and follow-up periods. After 19 years of follow-up, the cumulative incidences per 1000 people for the migraine cohort compared with the general population were 25 v 17 for myocardial infarction, 45 v 25 for ischaemic stroke, 11 v 6 for haemorrhagic stroke, 13 v 11 for peripheral artery disease, 27 v 18 for venous thromboembolism, 47 v 34 for atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter, and 19 v 18 for heart failure. Correspondingly, migraine was positively associated with myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio 1.49, 95% confidence interval 1.36 to 1.64), ischaemic stroke (2.26, 2.11 to 2.41), and haemorrhagic stroke (1.94, 1.68 to 2.23), as well as venous thromboembolism (1.59, 1.45 to 1.74) and atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (1.25, 1.16 to 1.36). No meaningful association was found with peripheral artery disease (adjusted hazard ratio 1.12, 0.96 to 1.30) or heart failure (1.04, 0.93 to 1.16). The associations, particularly for stroke outcomes, were stronger during the short term (0-1 years) after diagnosis than the long term (up to 19 years), in patients with aura than in those without aura, and in women than in men. In a subcohort of patients, the associations persisted after additional multivariable adjustment for body mass index and smoking
Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30% of the Danish population has one or more chronic conditions, and general practitioners (GPs play a key role in effective chronic care management. However, little is known about these encounters in general practice. The aim was to describe the frequency of patients with one or more chronic conditions in general practice and how these consultations were experienced by the GPs. Methods All GPs in the Central Denmark Region were invited to register all contacts during one day in the 12‒month study period from December; 404 (46% accepted. For each patient contact, the GPs were asked to fill in a one‒page registration form covering information on chronic disease, reason for encounter, diagnosis, number of additional psychosocial problems raised by the patient during the consultation, time consumption, experienced burden of the consultation, referral to specialized care, and whether a nurse could have substituted the GP. Patients were categorized according to the number of chronic conditions (none, one, two, three or more and the categories compared with regard to the GP‒experienced burden of the contacts. Moreover, we examined which chronic conditions posed the the greatest challenge to the GPs. Results Patients aged 40 years or more had a total of 8,236 contacts. Among these patients 2,849 (34.6%; 95% CI 33.6‒35.6 had one and 2,596 (31.5%; CI 30.5‒32.5 had more than one chronic disease. The time consumption and the burden of their contacts tended to rise with the number of chronic conditions. Being present in 22.9% (CI 21.6‒24.3 of all face‒to‒face contacts, hypertension was the most common chronic condition. The burden of the contacts was experienced as particularly heavy for patients with depression and dementia due to more additional psychosocial problems and the time consumption. Conclusion General practitioners considered consultations with multimorbid patients demanding and not easily delegated to
Jakobsen, Erik; Rasmussen, Torben Riis
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) was established by the Danish Lung Cancer Group. The primary and first goal of the DLCR was to improve survival and the overall clinical management of Danish lung cancer patients. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish primary lung cancer patients since...... 2000 are included into the registry and the database today contains information on more than 50,000 cases of lung cancer. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information on patient characteristics such as age, sex, diagnostic procedures, histology, tumor stage, lung function, performance...... the results are commented for local, regional, and national audits. Indicator results are supported by descriptive reports with details on diagnostics and treatment. CONCLUSION: DLCR has since its creation been used to improve the quality of treatment of lung cancer in Denmark and it is increasingly used...
Daugaard, Gedske; Kier, Maria Gry Gundgaard; Bandak, Mikkel
AIM: The nationwide Danish Testicular Cancer database consists of a retrospective research database (DaTeCa database) and a prospective clinical database (Danish Multidisciplinary Cancer Group [DMCG] DaTeCa database). The aim is to improve the quality of care for patients with testicular cancer (TC......) in Denmark, that is, by identifying risk factors for relapse, toxicity related to treatment, and focusing on late effects. STUDY POPULATION: All Danish male patients with a histologically verified germ cell cancer diagnosis in the Danish Pathology Registry are included in the DaTeCa databases. Data...... collection has been performed from 1984 to 2007 and from 2013 onward, respectively. MAIN VARIABLES AND DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The retrospective DaTeCa database contains detailed information with more than 300 variables related to histology, stage, treatment, relapses, pathology, tumor markers, kidney function...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intelligence is a life-long trait that has strong influences on lifestyle, adult morbidity and life expectancy. Hence, lower cognitive abilities are therefore of public health interest. Our primary aim was to examine if prenatal bereavement measured as exposure to death of a close family member is associated with the intelligence quotient (IQ scores at 18-years of age of adult Danish males completing a military cognitive screening examination. METHODS: We extracted records for the Danish military screening test and found kinship links with biological parents, siblings, and maternal grandparents using the Danish Civil Registration System (N = 167,900. The prenatal exposure period was defined as 12 months before conception until birth of the child. We categorized children as exposed in utero to severe stress (bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband, parent or sibling during the prenatal period; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. Mean score estimates were adjusted for maternal and paternal age at birth, residence, income, maternal education, gestational age at birth and birth weight. RESULTS: When exposure was due to death of a father the offsprings' mean IQ scores were lower among men completing the military recruitment exam compared to their unexposed counterparts, adjusted difference of 6.5 standard IQ points (p-value = 0.01. We did not observe a clinically significant association between exposure to prenatal maternal bereavement caused by death of a sibling, maternal uncle/aunt or maternal grandparent even after stratifying deaths only due to traumatic events. CONCLUSION: We found maternal bereavement to be adversely associated with IQ in male offspring, which could be related to prenatal stress exposure though more likely is due to changes in family conditions after death of the father. This finding supports other literature on maternal adversity during fetal
Jørgensen, Marianne Johansson; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Olesen, Frede
. Results: Four major categories of risk behavior were identified: Alcohol consumption is associated with “no condom use”, Nights on the town and meetings in foreign counties or at festivals are associated with one night stands and often lead to unsafe sex, Low self-esteem increases the risk of pushing one...... one Danish Folk High School, but with different social and educational backgrounds. The interview guide was developed from literature reviews and hypotheses based on years of experience with sexually transmitted infections. Data were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using qualitative description...
Borup, Gitte; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim; Tønnesen, Philip
dependence. Method: Through advertisements in three national Danish newspapers, long-term NRT users were recruited to answer a short questionnaire about basic characteristics, health status and satisfaction with using NRT. A modified version of the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) questionnaire was applied...... addicted and fear of adverse health effects. Scoring on the modified HSI scale was 22.0% low, 68.0% moderate and 9.3% high dependent. Of the respondents, 67.0% used NRT within the first 30 min after waking. A validation check found a significant linear association between the two items in the modified HSI...
Borup, Gitte; Christrup, Lona Louring; Lyngby Mikkelsen, Kim
dependence. Method Through advertisements in three national Danish newspapers, long-term NRT users were recruited to answer a short questionnaire about basic characteristics, health status and satisfaction with using NRT. A modified version of the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI) questionnaire was applied...... and fear of adverse health effects. Scoring on the modified HSI scale was 22.0% low, 68.0% moderate and 9.3% high dependent. Of the respondents, 67.0% used NRT within the first 30 min after waking. A validation check found a significant linear association between the two items in the modified HSI...
Rosenstock, S J; Jørgensen, T
Peptic ulcer prevalence and five year incidence were assessed in a sex and age stratified population sample of 3608 Danish subjects aged 30-60 years. Statements of peptic ulcer disease obtained from questionnaires were scrutinised by reviewing medical records. Life time ulcer prevalence (95% confidence intervals) was 5.6 (4.9-6.4) per cent. Male to female prevalence ratio was 2.2:1, and duodenal to gastric ulcer prevalence ratio was 3.8:1. Thirty two participants with no previous history of p...
Li, Xiujin; Buitenhuis, Albert Johannes; Lund, Mogens Sandø
is highly consistent between the Chinese and Danish Holstein populations, such that a joint genome-wide association study (GWAS) can be performed. In this study, a joint GWAS was performed for 16 milk FA traits based on data of 784 Chinese and 371 Danish Holstein cows genotyped by a high-density bovine...... different effects in the 2 populations. Ten FA were influenced by a quantitative trait loci (QTL) region including DGAT1. Both C14:1 and the C14 index were influenced by a QTL region including SCD1 in the combined population. Other QTL regions also showed significant associations with the studied FA....... A large region (14.9–24.9 Mbp) in BTA26 significantly influenced C14:1 and the C14 index in both populations, mostly likely due to the SNP in SCD1. A QTL region (69.97–73.69 Mbp) on BTA9 showed a significantly different effect on C18:0 between the 2 populations. Detection of these important SNP...
He, Chen; Mikkelsen, Bent E
School food in many countries has become the object of change and innovation processes, not only in relation to policies for healthier eating but also in relation to policies for more sustainable food consumption and procurement. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible influence that organic food sourcing policies in Danish school meal systems may have on the development of healthier school food environments. The study was a cross-sectional analysis undertaken among 179 school food coordinators (SFCs) through a web-based questionnaire (WBQ) in a sample of Danish public primary schools. The 'organic' schools were compared to 'non-organic' schools. The questionnaire explored the attitudes, intentions/policies and actions in relation to organic and healthy foods served in the schools. Data indicates that 20 'organic' schools were associated with the indicators of healthier school environments, including adopting a Food and Nutrition Policy (FNP) in the school (p = .032), recommending children to eat healthily (p = .004). The study suggests that organic food policies in schools may have potential to support a healthier school food environment.
Mygind-Klavsen, Bjarne; Grønbech Nielsen, Torsten; Maagaard, Niels
Danish Hip Arthroscopy Registry (DHAR) was initiated in 2012 as a web-based prospective registry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and report the epidemiologic and perioperative data of the first 2000 procedures in a Danish hip arthroscopy population and to describe the development of DHAR...... was 0.65 and HAGOS sub-scores were 51 (pain), 49 (symptoms), 53 (ADL), 35 (sport), 20 (physical activity) and 29, respectively. We conclude that patients undergoing hip arthroscopy report considerable pain, loss of function, reduced level of activity and reduced quality-of-life prior to surgery....... The problems with development and maintaining a large clinical registry are described and further studies are needed to validate data completeness. We consider the development of a national clinical registry for hip arthroscopy as a successful way of developing and maintaining a valuable clinical...
Tu, Mingshan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
Background: Due to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension and its role in the development of athe- rosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, hypertension is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is limited knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension among seafarers who......, however, are known to have an excess morbidity and mortality from these disorders. This article addresses the prevalence of hypertension among Danish seafarers and discusses potential risk factors for hypertension in maritime settings. Materials and methods: A representative sample of 629 Danish seafarers...... who had statutory medical examinations was studied from the beginning of October 2011 to the end of June 2012. The medical examination included measurements of blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the study po- pulation was stratified by age, work place on board, smoking status, alcohol...
The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the role of Danish wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in the emission of microplastic to the environment in terms of amounts and types of plastic polymers emitted and if possible, to evaluate which sources these plastic polymers could originate...... investigations (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy imaging applying a Focal Plane Array). This method allows both determination of the microplastic concentrations in the samples and identification of the type of plastic polymer of each microplastic particle....
Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev
development with international ESCO experience as well as refer to public innovation literature. Combined with empirical case studies on ESCO contracting, we discuss factors and conditions that influence decisions on ESCO, the flexibility of ESCO contracts and whether it implies an innovative process...... mainly been used in the industry so far, but in recent years more and more municipalities have taken up ESCO initiatives, in order to retrofit existing public buildings, and to make them more energy efficient. ESCO is in many ways a new way of collaboration for Danish municipalities, and therefore...... in municipalities ESCOs have received much attention in different Danish energy-.efficiency policies, where ESCOs are often described as a promising way to achieve energy savings in existing housing and to overcome barriers encountered by other attempts at energy savings. Instead of assessing ESCO only...
Jørgensen, Peter Holmberg; Lausten, Gunnar Schwarz; Pedersen, Alma B
AIM: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. STUDY POPULATION: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both...... skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. MAIN VARIABLES: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor...... of Diseases - tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System). Data quality and completeness are currently secured. CONCLUSION: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring...
Guldberg, Rikke; Brostrøm, Søren; Hansen, Jesper Kjær
in the DugaBase from 1 January 2009 to 31 October 2010, using medical records as a reference. RESULTS: A total of 16,509 urogynaecological procedures were registered in the DugaBase by 31 December 2010. The database completeness has increased by calendar time, from 38.2 % in 2007 to 93.2 % in 2010 for public......INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: The Danish Urogynaecological Database (DugaBase) is a nationwide clinical database established in 2006 to monitor, ensure and improve the quality of urogynaecological surgery. We aimed to describe its establishment and completeness and to validate selected variables....... This is the first study based on data from the DugaBase. METHODS: The database completeness was calculated as a comparison between urogynaecological procedures reported to the Danish National Patient Registry and to the DugaBase. Validity was assessed for selected variables from a random sample of 200 women...
Sesilje B. Petersen
Full Text Available Limited evidence exists for an association between maternal diet during pregnancy and offspring bone health. In a prospective study, we examined the association between dietary patterns in mid-pregnancy and offspring forearm fractures. In total, 101,042 pregnancies were recruited to the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC during 1996–2002. Maternal diet was collected by a food frequency questionnaire. Associations were analyzed between seven dietary patterns extracted by principal component analysis and offspring first occurrence of any forearm fracture diagnosis, extracted from the Danish National Patient Register, between time of birth and end of follow-up (<16 year (n = 53,922. In multivariable Cox regression models, offspring of mothers in the fourth vs. first quintile of the Western pattern had a significant increased risk (Hazard ratio, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.01–1.23 of fractures, and there was a borderline significant positive trend (p = 0.06. The other dietary patterns showed no associations and neither did supplementary analyses of macro- and micronutrients or single food groups, except for the intake of artificially sweetened soft drinks, which was positively associated with offspring forearm fractures (p = 0.02. In the large prospective DNBC high mid-pregnancy consumption of Western diet and artificially sweetened soft drinks, respectively, indicated positive associations with offspring forearm fractures, which provides interesting hypotheses for future research.
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kragh Andersen, Per; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Hawton, Keith
Genetic factors have been found to influence the risk of suicide. It is less clear if this also applies to attempted suicide. We have investigated genetic and familial environmental factors by studying the occurrence of suicide attempts in biological and adoptive siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide compared to siblings of adoptees with no suicide attempts. We used a random sample of 1933 adoptees from the Danish Adoption Register, a register of non-familial adoptions of Danish children, i.e. the adoptive parents are biologically unrelated to the adoptee. Analyses were conducted on incidence rates of attempted suicide in biological and adoptive siblings given occurrence of attempted suicide in the adoptees while also taking into account psychiatric disorders. Information about suicidal attempt and history of psychiatric disorder was based on hospital admissions. The rate of attempted suicide in full siblings of adoptees who attempted suicide before age 60 years was higher than in full siblings of adoptees who had not attempted suicide (incidence rate ratios (IRR)=3.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.94-12.7). After adjustment for history of psychiatric admission of siblings the increased rate was statistically significant (IRR=3.88; 95% CI-1.42-10.6). Information on attempted suicide and psychiatric history was limited to that which involved hospitalisation. Genetic factors influence risk of suicide attempts. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Pedersen, Elsebet Frydendal
A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry.......A review on the Danish situation on womens entry and participation as tradeswomen in the Danish Construction Industry....
Thamsborg, Lise Holst; Andersen, Berit; Larsen, Lise Grupe; Christensen, Jette; Johansen, Tonje; Hariri, Jalil; Christiansen, Sanne; Rygaard, Carsten; Lynge, Elsebeth
The first birth cohorts of women offered human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination as girls are now entering cervical screening. However, there is no international consensus on how to screen HPV vaccinated women. These women are better protected against cervical cancer and could therefore be offered less intensive screening. Primary HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology, allowing for a longer screening interval. The aim of Trial23 is to investigate if primary HPV testing with cytology triage of HPV positive samples is a reasonable screening scheme for women offered HPV vaccination as girls. Trial23 is a method study embedded in the existing cervical screening programme in four out of five Danish regions. Without affecting the screening programme, women born in 1994 are randomised to present screening with liquid-based cytology every third year (present programme arm) or present screening plus an HPV test (HPV arm). The study started 1 February 2017 and will run over three screening rounds corresponding to 7-8 years. The primary endpoint is cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or above. The trial is undertaken as a non-inferiority study including intention-to-treat and per-protocol analyses. The potential effect of primary HPV screening with a 6-year interval will be calculated from the observed data. The study protocol has been submitted to the ethical committee and deemed a method study. All women are screened according to routine guidelines. The study will contribute new evidence on the future screening of HPV vaccinated birth cohorts of women. All results will be published in open-access journal. NCT03049553; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Jensen, Pia Majbritt
on media reception and media geography. Buyers are a critical first audience for any imported content; they are the gatekeepers to the importing market. Distributors and international buyers will therefore be interviewed about the reasons for buying the Danish series. What are the special attractions......Part of the panel 'Challenging America in the realm of quality TV drama: The international success of Danish TV drama series' This paper, which is part of the ‘Challenging America in the realm of quality TV drama’ panel, introduces the audience study methodology designed for the collaborative...... research project What Makes Danish TV Drama Travel?. For the audience research, conducted in Australia, Brazil, Germany, Japan, Turkey, UK and the USA, I have developed a three-tier audience model. The three types of audiences believed to be important in the recent and unprecedented global success...
Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Carlsen, Berit Christina
with isolated cobalt allergy than among patients with nickel allergy (P exposures was available. CONCLUSIONS: Nickel allergy decreased among young female patients with dermatitis between 1985 and 2007 whereas it increased among older patients, probably......BACKGROUND: An increased prevalence of nickel allergy prompted the Danish government to prohibit excessive nickel release (ie, >0.5 microg nickel/cm(2)/wk) from consumer products in 1990. Concomitant allergy to nickel and cobalt is often observed among patients with dermatitis, probably as a result...... of cosensitization. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the development of nickel and cobalt allergy among Danish female patients with dermatitis tested between 1985 and 2007. This was done to examine whether Danish nickel regulation has reduced the prevalence of nickel allergy and to examine whether the prevalence...
Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas
Introduction The benefits of physical activity for children’s health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers’ views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers’ motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. Methods and analysis The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases—a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers’ motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers’ internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers’ motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. Ethics and dissemination All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000–40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. Trial
Knudsen, Louise Stjerne; Skovgaard, Thomas; Bredahl, Thomas
The benefits of physical activity for children's health, both mental and physical, and its positive effects on academic achievement are well established. Research also emphasises that schools could provide a natural setting for regular physical activity. There is, however, a limited amount of knowledge about teachers' views when it comes to integrating physical activity as part of teaching. The aim of this study is to understand teachers' motivation for integrating physical activity as part of teaching and to assess their need for guidance and support. The study uses an explanatory sequential mixed-methods design. Schools from across Denmark are included in the sample. The design comprises two separated phases-a quantitative and qualitative phase. The quantitative phase is guided by the self-determination theory where teachers' motivation will be measured using the Work Task Motivation Scale for Teachers. The theory of scaffolding guides the qualitative phase, which consists of in-depth interviews with participants selected from the quantitative phase based on levels of motivation and on demographic information. In accordance with the study aims, the analysis of data will identify teachers' internal and external levels of motivation. The purpose of the qualitative phase is to enhance understanding of teachers' motivation and of their need for support in the use of physical activity in teaching. All relevant ethics approvals have been acquired. All participants in this study will provide written informed consent prior to data collection. All data emerging from the quantitative and qualitative phase will be anonymised for analysis. Ethics approval was requested from the Regional Committee on Health Research Ethics for Southern Denmark approval ID S-20162000-40 and the Danish Data Protection Agency approval ID 16/15491). The study was deemed not notifiable by both authorities. NCT02894346; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated
Christensen, Mette Krogh
This study explores the practical sense of talent among top-level football coaches in Denmark, and aims to identify specific structures of the coaches' expert knowledge related to talent identification. The theoretical foundation of the study is Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework......, in particular the concept of practical sense. The data compile from eight biographical, in-depth interviews with Danish national youth team football coaches. The interviews are analyzed through a process of coding and recoding. Thematic cross-case analyses as well as purposeful selected single-case analyses......' classificatory schemes. Conclusively, the study supports the theory that talent identification in top-level football is strongly connected to the coach's practical sense of the game and taste for football talents. Furthermore, the study points at the importance of being aware of the person "behind" the coach...
Vikelsoe, J.; Andersen, H.V. [National Environmental Research Inst., Roskilde (Denmark)
To gain more knowledge about dioxin levels, sources and emissions in Denmark, the Danish government year 2001 initiated the Danish Dioxin Monitoring Program. The program is a series of investigations, comprising soil, compost, percolate, bio-ash, incineration of municipal and hazardous waste, deposition, air, lake and fjord sediment as well as cows milk and human milk. The present paper describes the preliminary results for the continued investigation of air. Deposition of dioxin over land or sea is of major importance for the human exposure, which takes place mainly from food intake. The dioxin are emitted mainly to the atmosphere, therefore air measurements are well suited for tracking the transport and fate of dioxin from sources to exposure. Whereas measurements from chimneys has been frequently used to estimate the industrial emission from point sources such as incinerators, air measurements also include emission from diffuse sources such as larger urban or industrial regions, residential quarters, and from evaporation. Furthermore, emission measurements must be done on known sources, whereas air measurements include contribution from unknown source. The major drawbacks of air measurements are the long duration required (years), and the results depends on meteorological conditions, such as temperature, rainfall, wind speed and direction. The purpose of the present study has been to measure dioxins in Danish air, emphasizing - background concentrations and annual variation - difference between urban, rural and residential zones - influence from local sources and long range transport - connection between dioxin in air and deposition.
Jensen, Camilla B.; Lundqvist, Marika; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.
Background: Vitamin D level in pregnancy may be associated with risk of overweight in the offspring later in life. Methods: In a case-cohort study based on Danish biobanks and registers we examined the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) level at birth and overweight at 7 years....... Cases of overweight (n = 871) were randomly selected among 7-year-old children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) with a BMI above the 90th percentile. The cohort (n = 1,311) was a random sample selected among all Danish children born during the same period. Neonatal 25(OH...
Rugulies, Reiner; Norborg, Malene; Sørensen, Tilde Sand
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to analyze if adverse psychosocial working conditions, defined by the model of effort-reward imbalance (ERI), increase the risk of sleep disturbances in the Danish workforce. METHODS: Analyses were conducted both cross-sectionally and prospectively in a representative...... disturbances in the Danish workforce. Among women, an association between ERI and sleep disturbances was restricted to the cross-sectional sample. Improving psychosocial working conditions might reduce the risk of sleep disturbances and subsequently also help to prevent clinical disorders related to sleep...
Sørensen, Karsten Engsig
The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...
Hannibal, C.G.; Jensen, A.; Sharif, H.
. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of malignant melanoma associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for parity status. RESULTS: 112 malignant melanomas were identified......OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the effects of fertility drugs on malignant melanoma risk using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date. METHODS: A cohort of 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established...... with a significant increased risk. For all groups of fertility drugs, we found no association with number of cycles of use or years since first use (latency). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed no strong association between malignant melanoma risk and use of fertility drugs, although the results indicated that use...
Schick, Lea; Gad, Christopher
According to many visions for smart grids, consumers will come to play a more ‘active’ role in the energy systems of tomorrow. In this paper, we examine how the future ‘flexible electricity consumer’ is imagined in the Danish National Smart Grid Strategy. Our analysis of reports produced...... by the national Smart Grid Network shows that this vision relies on a techno-centric and rather ‘inflexible’ consumer figuration. However, rather than adopting a conventional social science approach in order to criticize this narrow imaginary, we show that potentials for critique and alternatives can be found...... internally in the Smart Grid Network. Paying attention to different stories, we thus aim to characterize particular forms of ‘infra-critique’ and ‘infra-reflexivity’ emerging from within the field. This mode of reflexivity, we argue, opens up to more flexible and reflexive conceptions of the ‘flexible...
Sørensen, Kresta Munkholt
Risk-assessment models are widely used in casework involving vulnerable children and families. Internationally, there are a number of different kinds of models with great variation in regard to the characteristics of factors that harm children. Lists of factors have been made but most of them give...... very little advice on how the factors should be weighted. This paper will address the use of risk-assessment models in six different Danish municipalities. The paper presents a comparative analysis and discussion of differences and similarities between three models: the Integrated Children’s System...... (ICS), the Signs of Safety (SoS) model and models developed by the municipalities themselves (MM). The analysis will answer the following two key questions: (i) to which risk and protective factors do the caseworkers give most weight in the risk assessment? and (ii) does each of the different models...
Søsted, H; Hesse, U; Menné, T
BACKGROUND: Contact allergy to hair dye ingredients is a well-known entity seen both in consumers using hair dyes and among hairdressers with occupational contact dermatitis. Surveys show that consumers with even severe adverse skin reactions to hair dyes only rarely contact the healthcare services....... The frequency of hair dye-induced skin reactions in the consumer population is unknown. OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological investigation with the aim of establishing the proportion of hair dye-induced skin reactions was performed in a population-based sample. METHODS: A representative random sample (n = 4000......) was taken of the Danish adult population. Personal interview questions were asked regarding adverse skin reactions to hair dyes, either compatible with a classical allergic eczematous reaction with redness, scaling and itching or a severe allergic reaction with oedema of the forehead and face. The response...
Cronin-Fenton, Deirdre P; Kjærsgaard, Anders; Ahern, Thomas P
BACKGROUND: Validation studies of the Danish Breast Cancer Group (DBCG) registry show good agreement with medical records for adjuvant treatment data, but inconsistent recurrence information. No studies have validated changes in menopausal status or endocrine therapy during follow-up. In a longit...
Munk, Estrid Muff; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders
Unexplained chest/epigastric pain is a common symptom in the general population. However, it has not previously been studied whether such pain could be a marker of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer. We aimed to estimate the risk of gastrointestinal cancers in a Danish 10-year follow-up study amo...
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren
Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier...... and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of =11 years was not related to an increased vestibular...... reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma...
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren
Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier...... and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ≥11 years was not related to an increased vestibular...... reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma...
Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn
OBJECTIVE: The sparse knowledge of the aetiology of pelvic pain in pregnancy makes evidence based prevention a limited option. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between pelvic pain in pregnancy and physical and psychosocial working conditions. METHODS: This study used self reported...... data on working conditions for 1219 cases and 1539 controls, sampled as a nested case-control study within the Danish national birth cohort. Cases and controls were selected on the basis of self reported pelvic pain intensity, pain localisation, and pain impact on daily living activities. Exposure data...... were collected prospectively; early in pregnancy and before the onset of pelvic pain. Main outcome measures were odds ratios for pelvic pain in pregnancy as a function of physical and psychosocial working conditions. RESULTS: Pregnant women with fixed evening work and with rotating shifts (without...
Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Grøn, Randi; Brauner, Elvira Vaclavik; Lynge, Elsebeth
No scientific consensus has been reached on whether active tobacco smoking causes breast cancer. We examine the association between active smoking and breast cancer risk in Denmark, which has some of the highest smoking and breast cancer rates in women worldwide. We used the data from a nationwide Danish Nurse Cohort on 21,867 female nurses (age > 44 years) who at recruitment in 1993 or 1999 reported information on smoking status, onset, duration, and intensity, as well as breast cancer risk factors. We obtained data on incidence of breast cancer from Danish Cancer Registry until 2013, and used Cox regression models to analyze the association between smoking and breast cancer. Of 21,831 women (mean age 53.2 years) 1162 developed breast cancer during 15.7 years of follow-up. 33.7% of nurses were current and 30.0% former smokers at cohort baseline. Compared to never smokers, we found increased risk of breast cancer of 18% in ever (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval: 1.18; 1.04-1.34) and 27% in current (1.27; 1.11-1.46) smokers. We detected a dose-response relationship with smoking intensity with the highest breast cancer risk in women smoking >15 g/day (1.31; 1.11-1.56) or >20 pack-years (1.32; 1.12-1.55). Parous women who smoked heavily (>10 pack-years) before first childbirth had the highest risk of breast cancer (1.58; 1.20-2.10). Association between smoking and breast cancer was not modified by menopausal status, obesity, alcohol or hormone therapy use, and seemed to be limited to the estrogen receptor positive breast cancer subtype. Active smoking increases risk of breast cancer, with smoking before first birth being the most relevant exposure window.
Hansen, Camilla Plambeck; Overvad, Kim; Kyrø, Cecilie; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre; Dahm, Christina Catherine
Specific dietary patterns, including the Mediterranean diet, have been associated with stroke prevention. Our aim was to investigate whether adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, including fish, apples and pears, cabbages, root vegetables, rye bread, and oatmeal, was associated with risk of stroke. Incident cases of stroke among 55 338 men and women from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and verified by review of records. Cases of ischemic stroke were further subclassified based on etiology according to the TOAST classification system (Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment). Information on diet was collected at baseline (1993-1997) using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazards ratios of total stroke and subtypes of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. During a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 2283 cases of incident stroke were verified, including 1879 ischemic strokes. Adherence to a healthy Nordic diet, as reflected by a higher Healthy Nordic Food Index score, was associated with a lower risk of stroke. The hazards ratio comparing an index score of 4 to 6 (high adherence) with an index score of 0 to 1 (low adherence) was 0.86 (95% confidence interval 0.76-0.98) for total stroke. Inverse associations were observed for ischemic stroke, including large-artery atherosclerosis. No trend was observed for hemorrhagic stroke; however, a statistically insignificant trend was observed for intracerebral hemorrhage. Our findings suggest that a healthy Nordic diet may be recommended for the prevention of stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen
Full Text Available Hypothyroidism is associated with obesity, and thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body composition, including fat mass. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS in adults have identified 19 and 6 loci associated with plasma concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH and free thyroxine (fT4, respectively.This study aimed to identify and characterize genetic variants associated with circulating TSH and fT4 in Danish children and adolescents and to examine whether these variants associate with obesity.Genome-wide association analyses of imputed genotype data with fasting plasma concentrations of TSH and fT4 from a population-based sample of Danish children, adolescents, and young adults, and a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with overweight and obesity were performed (N = 1,764, mean age = 12.0 years [range 2.5-24.7]. Replication was performed in additional comparable samples (N = 2,097, mean age = 11.8 years [1.2-22.8]. Meta-analyses, using linear additive fixed-effect models, were performed on the results of the discovery and replication analyses.No novel loci associated with TSH or fT4 were identified. Four loci previously associated with TSH in adults were confirmed in this study population (PDE10A (rs2983511: β = 0.112SD, p = 4.8 ∙ 10-16, FOXE1 (rs7847663: β = 0.223SD, p = 1.5 ∙ 10-20, NR3C2 (rs9968300: β = 0.194SD, p = 2.4 ∙ 10-11, VEGFA (rs2396083: β = 0.088SD, p = 2.2 ∙ 10-10. Effect sizes of variants known to associate with TSH or fT4 in adults showed a similar direction of effect in our cohort of children and adolescents, 11 of which were associated with TSH or fT4 in our study (p<0.0002. None of the TSH or fT4 associated SNPs were associated with obesity in our cohort, indicating no pleiotropic effects of these variants on obesity.In a group of Danish children and adolescents, four loci previously associated with plasma TSH concentrations in adults, were associated with plasma TSH
Kappel, Nanna; Toth, Eva Charlotte; Tegner, Jette
-being of vulnerable citizens and to reduce the number of overdoses. Five Danish DCRs are currently being operated. This article presents results from a national investigation focused on assessing the impact of Danish drug consumption rooms on the health and well-being of DCR clients and factors facilitating...
This article critically examines emergence of Danishness via an autoethnography of passing as Danish. Drawing on feminist scholarship, the author conceptualizes passing as an embodied, affective and discursive relation; simultaneously spontaneous and laboured, fleeting and solid, emergent and con...
Hansen, Steen Møller; Riahi, Sam; Hjortshøj, Søren; Mortensen, Rikke; Køber, Lars; Søgaard, Peter; Torp-Pedersen, Christian
Exposure to electric shock has been associated with an increased risk of developing delayed cardiac arrhythmias and cardiac diseases. We examined whether electric shock patients have an increased risk of developing cardiac disease, cardiac arrhythmias or death compared with the general Danish population. Matched cohort study. A nationwide study in Denmark from 1994 to 2011. We identified 11 462 Danish patients who visited an emergency ward or were admitted to a hospital due to electric shock from 1994 to 2011. Each patient was matched for age and sex with five random controls from the Danish population. Mortality, cardiac procedures and cardiac diseases following electric shock. A total of 7390 electric shock patients were seen at an emergency ward and 4072 electric shock patients were admitted to a hospital. The median patient age was 28.6 years (Q1-Q3, 21.3-37.7) for the emergency ward patients and 26.4 years (Q1-Q3, 18.3-37.4) for admitted patients. In both groups, most patients were male (74.0% and 76.8%). Few of the electric shock patients had a record of cardiovascular disease at baseline (364/11 462, 3.2%). The 5-year cumulative incidence of death was 0.47% (95% CI 0.29% to 0.65%) for emergency ward patients and 1.04% (95% CI 0.71% to 1.37%) for admitted patients. No difference in 5-year survival was observed compared with matched controls (emergency ward, p=0.10; admitted patients, p=0.80). Fewer than four patients received a pacemaker within 30 days. This nationwide study did not demonstrate an increase in mortality among patients seen at hospitals after accidental electric shock compared with a background population. Cardiac procedures and diseases following electric shock were very rare. We suggest that nearly all patients can be discharged safely from the emergency room after electric shock without further observation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial
Quinto Romani, Annette
In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate, it is rel......In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate......, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne K
and 1998. In a case-cohort study, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effects of 4 groups of fertility drugs on overall risk of uterine cancer after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Through mid-2006, 83 uterine cancers were identified. Ever use of any fertility......Some epidemiologic studies have indicated that uterine cancer risk may be increased after use of fertility drugs. To further assess this association, the authors used data from a large cohort of 54,362 women diagnosed with infertility who were referred to Danish fertility clinics between 1965...... drug was not associated with uterine cancer risk (rate ratio (RR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.76). However, ever use of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropin) increased uterine cancer risk (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.50); the risk was primarily...
Zhu, Jin Liang; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar; Andersen, AM
OBJECTIVE: We conducted a follow-up study to examine whether exposure to pesticides during pregnancy had an adverse effect on pregnancy outcomes among Danish gardeners and farmers. METHODS: Using data from the National Birth Cohort in Denmark, we identified 226 pregnancies of gardeners and 214...... regression was applied to analyze late fetal loss and congenital malformations, and logistic regression was used to analyze preterm birth and small for gestational age. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the studied pregnancy outcomes between gardeners or farmers and all other workers, except...... for an increased risk of very preterm birth for gardeners and a favorable birth weight for farmers. With the exception of biologic approach used in gardening, neither work activities nor exposure to pesticides showed a significant increased risk of adverse birth outcomes among gardeners or farmers. CONCLUSIONS...
The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed.......The effects of Danish cultural traditions on dental education in Denmark are described, as well as the system's current structure and developing issues. Some Danish ideas for future exports of dental education programs and dental personnel are also discussed....
Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Kupcinskas, Limas; Jacobsen, Bent A; Krarup, Henrik B; Vogel, Ulla; Jonaitis, Laimas; Denapiene, Goda; Kiudelis, Gediminas; Balschun, Tobias; Franke, Andre
Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD) and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH) tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL) SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02). No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10) or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7) in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs.Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively).No SNP reached genome
Full Text Available Abstract Background Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome wide association study (GWAS (Franke et al., 2010, for 1 association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2 for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3 eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods Eleven SNPs were replicated in a Danish sample consisting of 560 UC patients and 796 controls and nine missing SNPs of the German GWAS study were successfully genotyped in the Baltic sample comprising 441 UC cases and 1156 controls. The independent replication data was then jointly analysed with the original data and systematic comparisons of the findings between ethnicities were made. Pearson's χ2, Breslow-Day (BD and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel (CMH tests were used for association analyses and heterogeneity testing. Results The rs5771069 (IL17REL SNP was not associated with UC in the Danish panel. The rs5771069 (IL17REL SNP was significantly associated with UC in the combined Baltic, Danish and Norwegian UC study sample driven by the Norwegian panel (OR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.79-0.98, P = 0.02. No association was found between rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7 and UC (OR = 1.20, 95% CI: 0.95-1.52, P = 0.10 or between UC and all other remaining SNPs. We had 94% chance of detecting an association for rs7809799 (SMURF1/KPNA7 in the combined replication sample, whereas the power were 55% or lower for the remaining SNPs. Statistically significant PBD was found for OR heterogeneity between the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001, rs12518307 (P = 0.007, and rs2395609 (TCP11 (P = 0
Hartling, Hans J; Sørensen, Cecilie J; Rigas, Andreas S
), and HRQL in healthy individuals. A total of 17, 293 healthy Danish individuals from the Danish Blood Donor Study were included in the analyses. We tested rs6897932 as a predictor of LGI, self-reported IM, and HRQL in univariable and multivariable models stratified by sex. No associations between rs6897932...
Aagaard, Sissel Kramer; Larsen, Agnete; Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lesnikova, Iana; Telving, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Anna Louise; Tørring, Niels; Uldbjerg, Niels; Bor, Pinar
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of xenobiotic substances, such as caffeine, nicotine and illicit drugs (eg, cannabis and cocaine), in blood samples from first-trimester Danish pregnant women unaware of the screening. A cross - sectional study examined 436 anonymised residual blood samples obtained during 2014 as part of the nationwide prenatal first-trimester screening programme. The samples were analysed by ultra performance liquid chromatography with high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry. An antenatal clinic in a Danish city with 62 000 inhabitants, where >95% of pregnant women joined the screening programme. The prevalence and patterns of caffeine, nicotine, medication and illicit drug intake during the first trimester of pregnancy. The prevalence of prescription and over-the-counter drug detection was 17.9%, including acetaminophen (8.9%) and antidepressants (3.0%), of which citalopram (0.9%) was the most frequent. The prevalence of illegal drugs, indicators of smoking (nicotine/cotinine) and caffeine was 0.9%, 9.9%, and 76.4%, respectively. Only 17.4% of women had no substance identified in their sample. This study emphasises the need for further translational studies investigating lifestyle habits during pregnancy, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms through which xenobiotic substances may affect placental function and fetal development. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
After an introduction to the use of the word artifact as it is defined by Brian Malley in his work on the Bible as artifact, follows a section on The Danish Hymnbook as Artifac, a section on The Danish Hymnbook between Artifact and Text, and a section on The Danish Hymnbook as Text. The article e...
Background Otitis media (OM) is a very common condition in children and occurs during years that are critical to the development of learning, literacy, and math skills. Therefore, among a large cohort of Danish conscripts, we aimed to examine the association between hospitalisation with OM in early childhood and cognitive function and educational level in early adulthood. Methods We conducted a population-based prevalence study using linked data from healthcare databases and conscription records of Danish men born between 1977 and 1983. We identified all hospitalisations with OM before 8 years of age. Cognitive function was measured by the Boerge Prien validated group intelligence test (Danish Børge Prien Prøve, BPP). We adjusted for potential confounders with and without stratification by hearing impairment. Furthermore, we examined the association between hospitalisation with OM and the prevalence of having achieved a General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE), stratified by quartiles of BPP scores. Results Of the 18 412 eligible conscripts aged 18–25 years, 1000 (5.5%) had been hospitalised with OM before age 8. Compared with conscripts without such a record, the adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for a BPP score in the bottom quartile was 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09–1.33). There was no major difference in the proportion of men with a GCSE and those without among those hospitalised with OM in early childhood. For men in the bottom and upper quartiles of BPP scores, the PRs for early childhood hospitalisation with OM were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.59–1.33) and 0.96 (95% CI, 0.88–1.05), respectively. Among men with severe hearing impairment, the proportion with a BPP score in the bottom quartile did not differ between those with and without an OM hospitalisation [PR = 1.01 (95% CI: 0.78–1.34)]. Conclusions Overall, we found that hospitalisation with OM in early childhood was associated with a slightly lower cognitive function in early
Full Text Available Abstract Background It is currently unknown if school-based social norms interventions are effective in preventing harmful alcohol consumption and other drug use among adolescents in Denmark. This paper describes the social norms-based programme The GOOD life and the design of a cluster-randomized controlled trial to test its effectiveness. Methods/Design The intervention The GOOD life is composed of three social norms components representing three different communication channels, namely face-to-face communication (normative feedback session, print communication (posters and interactive media (web application. The intervention period of 8 weeks is preceded and followed by data collection, with the follow-up taking place 3 months after baseline. Public schools in the Region of Southern Denmark with grades 8 and 9 are invited to participate in the study and participating schools are randomly allocated to either intervention or control schools. The aim is to recruit a total of 39 schools and a sample of 1.400 pupils for the trial. An online questionnaire is conducted to examine the use of alcohol, tobacco and marijuana as well as the perceived frequency of use among peers of their own grade, which is measured before and after the intervention. Baseline data is used to develop social norms messages which are included in the three intervention components. Primary outcomes are binge drinking (more than 5 units at one occasion and perceived frequency of binge drinking among peers, while smoking, marijuana use and alcohol-related harm will be assessed as secondary outcomes. Discussion The GOOD life study will provide necessary insights on descriptive and injunctive norms regarding alcohol and other drug use among Danish adolescents. In addition, it will provide new knowledge and insight on the feasibility, implementation context and effectiveness of a newly developed social norms intervention in the Danish school context. Trial registration Date of
Borritz, Marianne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Bultmann, Ute; Rugulies, Reiner; Lund, Thomas; Andersen, Ingelise; Villadsen, Ebbe; Diderichsen, Finn; Kristensen, Tage S.
Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine if burnout and psychosocial factors predicted long-term sickness absence (>2 weeks) at work unit level. Methods: Data were collected prospectively at 82-work units in human services (PUMA cohort, PUMA: Danish acronym for Burnout, Motivation and
Blicher, Thalia Marie; Hommel, Kristine; Olesen, Jonas Bjerring
The aim of this Danish nationwide study was to evaluate the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with non-end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT). Upgraded guidelines for the management of MI were implemented around 2004; hence...
Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the cross-sectional association between cynical hostility and high symptom load in a Danish population-based study. Furthermore, the aim was to investigate to what extent health risk behaviors mediated this association. METHODS: Data were based on a postal questionnaire...
Jensen, Camilla B.; Lundqvist, Marika; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.
Background: Vitamin D level in pregnancy may be associated with risk of overweight in the offspring later in life.Methods: In a case-cohort study based on Danish biobanks and registers we examined the association between 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25(OH)D) level at birth and overweight at 7 years. Cases...
Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Carlsen, Kathrine; Kines, Pete
. In addition, we consider the impact of age, gender, education, job type and seniority as well as company size and industrial sector on the rating of safety climate. Predictors of safety climate ratings are analysed by use of multiple regression analysis. Our results show that the leadership style measured...... and transformational leadership and safety climate, and to explore how safety climate is affected by a number of socio-demographic factors and within different industries and company sizes. The analyses are based on data from a recent Danish work environment cross-sectional study including 3681 employees from a wide...... range of industries and who report that safety climate is relevant for their job. We use two safety climate items, (one regarding management safety empowerment; one regarding co-workers’ safety priority), one question about transactional leadership and two scales concerning transformational leadership...
Lock-Andersen, J; Drzewiecki, K T; Wulf, H C
The number of melanocytic naevi in Caucasians is related to previous exposure to the sun and is a well-documented major risk factor for cutaneous malignant melanoma. Basal cell carcinoma, which is the most common form of skin cancer, has also been shown to be related to exposure to the sun....... To investigate whether the number of common naevi is a risk factor for basal cell carcinoma in Caucasians we performed whole-body counting of naevi > or =2 mm in a Danish case-control study with 145 cases of primary basal cell carcinoma and 119 controls matched on age, gender and place of residence. Naevi were...... recorded according to size and body region and the skin phototype was assessed. There was no correlation between self-reported skin type and the number of naevi. Females with basal cell carcinoma had more naevi than did female controls (median number of naevi: 65 and 32, respectively) while males...
The role of the father has undergone considerable change in the West. Fathers of today are expected to take a more active part in birth preparation, birth and childcare than their predecessors were. The purpose of the present study is to describe some Danish fathers' experiences around birth. Three...... first-time fathers were interviewed at three different times: in the last month of pregnancy, two weeks after the birth of their child, and again three months later. Data were analyzed in several steps using a hermeneutical approach. The fathers' experiences were identified as fun and excitement...... at the end of the pregnancy, love at first sight at the birth, at which they all attended and took an active part, awakening when the new family was united at home and when they came to realize how much effort is needed in caring for an infant, and joy and trouble three months later. It is suggested...
Turconi, Roberto; Tonini, Davide; Nielsen, Christian F.B.
by the modeling approach regarding the import of electricity, biomass provision, and the allocation between heat and power in cogeneration plants. As the importance of all three aspects is likely to increase in the future, transparency in LCA modeling is critical. Characterized impacts for Danish power plants......The need to reduce dependency on fossil resources and to decrease greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is driving many countries towards the implementation of low-carbon electricity systems. In this study the environmental impact of a future (2030) possible low-carbon electricity system in Denmark...... was assessed and compared with the current situation (2010) and an alternative 2030 scenario using life cycle assessment (LCA). The influence on the final results of the modeling approach used for (i) electricity import, (ii) biomass resources, and (iii) the cogeneration of heat and power was discussed...
Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang
AIM: This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. METHODS: The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998......) with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for each psychiatric diagnosis and by sex. Age at first diagnosis presented as means were compared using the one-sample t-test. RESULTS: In the DNBC, the selected childhood psychiatric diagnoses were underrepresented by 3% (PR=0.97, 95% CI 0.......94-0.99), ranging from a 20% underrepresentation for schizophrenia (PR=0.80, 95% CI 0.59-1.09) to a 6% over-representation for anxiety disorder or obsessive-compulsive disorder (PR=1.06, 95% CI 0.97-1.17). The majority of the specific diagnoses were modestly underrepresented in the DNBC compared to the general...
Larsen, Mette Bach; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Rasmussen, Morten
, register-based, cross-sectional study among men and women randomized to be invited to participate in the prevalence round of the Danish CRC screening program between March 1 and December 31, 2014. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were used to quantify the association between sociodemographic characteristics...... and nonparticipation (including active nonparticipation). PRs were assessed using Poisson regression with robust error variance. RESULTS: The likelihood of being a nonparticipant was highest in the younger part of the population; however, for women, the association across age groups was U-shaped. Female immigrants...... were more likely to be nonparticipants. Living alone, being on social welfare, and having lower income were factors that were associated with nonparticipation among both men and women. For both men and women, there was a U-shaped association between education and nonparticipation. For both men...
Pape-Haugaard, Louise; Haugaard, Karin; Carøe, Per
Denmark has unique health informatics databases such as “The Children’s Database” (CDB), which since 2009 has held data on all Danish children from birth until 17 years of age. In the current set-up a number of potential sources of error exist - both technical and human - which means that the data...... is flawed. The objective of this paper is both to clarify errors in the database and to enlighten the underlying mechanisms causing these errors. This is done through an ethnographic study using participant observations, interviews and workshops. Additionally, errors are documented through statistical...... analysis. The data show redundant records. This redundancy can be explained by multiple transmissions conducted by end users or systems, or a lack of validation methods in the National CDB. In our results three types of cases are presented: from health visitors at school, from health visitors visiting...
Bliddal, Mette; Pottegård, Anton; Kirkegaard, Helene
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown an association between prepregnancy BMI and postpartum depression, but little is known about this association beyond one year postpartum and the influence of postpartum weight retention (PPWR). METHODS: We used data from 70355 mothers from the Danish National......-weight, though the associations were attenuated after adjustments (HR 1.24 [95% CI 1.06-1.45], 1.05 [95% CI 0.96-1.15] and 1.07 [95% CI 0.95-1.21] for underweight, overweight and obese, respectively). Compared to mothers who had returned to their prepregnancy BMI, risk of depression/anxiety disorders...... Birth Cohort to estimate the associations between maternal prepregnancy BMI and PPWR, respectively, and incident depression/anxiety disorders until six years postpartum. Outcome was depression or anxiety diagnosed clinically or filling a prescription for an antidepressant. Cox regression was used...
Rasmussen, Ditte K; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Staerk, Mathilde
Introduction: High-quality chest compressions and early defibrillation is essential to improve survival following in-hospital cardiac arrest. Efficient training in basic life support (BLS) for clinical staff is therefore important. This study aimed to investigate duration, training methods...... and retraining intervals for BLS training of clinical staff in Danish hospitals.Methods: We included all public, somatic hospitals in Denmark with a cardiac arrest team. Online questionnaires were distributed to resuscitation officers in each hospital. Questionnaires inquired information on: A) Course duration...... and retraining interval, and B) Training methods and setting.Results: In total, 44 hospitals replied (response rate: 96%). BLS training for clinical staff was conducted in 41 hospitals (93%). Median (Q1;Q3) course duration was 1.5 (1;2.5) hours. Retraining was conducted every year (17%), every second year (56...
Lund, Rikke; Nielsen, Karoline Kragelund; Hansen, Ditte Hjorth
BACKGROUND: Bullying among children is associated with high symptom load and depression. There is little knowledge about long-term consequences of bullying. The aim of the present study is to examine the association between recall of bullying at school and depression in midlife controlling...... for adult social class and parents' mental health. METHODS: The analyses were based on the 2004 survey among men from the Metropolit 1953 Danish Male Birth Cohort (n = 6094). Information on depression was retrieved by the Major Depression Inventory (MDI) (prevalent depression) and by a measure of first...... doctor diagnosed depression between the ages 31-51 years (DD). Information on bullying was based on a recall measure of bullying in school categorized into three dimensions: occurrence; intensity; and duration. RESULTS: Compared to subjects who had never been bullied, those exposed to bullying in school...
Osler, Merete; Prescott, Eva; Grønbaek, Morten
) and individual mortality was examined with Cox proportional hazard analyses. SETTING: Two population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: 13 710 women and 12 018 men followed for a mean of 12.8 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: All cause mortality. RESULTS: Age standardised mortality was highest...... (adjusted hazard ratio for men 0.51 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.59) and for women 0.60 (0.54 to 0.68)). CONCLUSION: Area income inequality is not in itself associated with all cause mortality in this Danish population. Adjustment for individual risk factors makes the apparent effect disappear...... in the parishes with the least equal income distribution. After adjustment for individual risk factors, parish income inequality was not associated with mortality, whereas individual household income was. Thus, individuals in the highest income quarter had lower mortality than those in the lowest quarter...
Christensen, Ann Demant; Søgaard, Rikke
AIM: In 2002, the Danish tax law was changed, giving employees a tax exemption on supplemental, employer-paid health insurance. This might have conflicted with one of the key foundations of the healthcare system, namely equal access for equal needs. The aim of this study was to investigate...... determinants for employer-paid health insurance coverage. Because the policy change affected only people who were part of the labour force and because the public sector at that time had no tradition of providing fringe benefits, the analysis was restricted to the private labour force. METHOD: The analysis...... employer-paid health insurance coverage. RESULTS: The individuals who were most likely to be insured were those employed in foreign companies as mid-level managers within the field of building and construction. Other important variables were the number of persons employed in a company, gender, ethnicity...
Milman, N; Byg, KE; Hvas, Anne-Mette
OBJECTIVE: To assess folate and homocysteine status during normal pregnancy and postpartum in a longitudinal setting. METHODS: This study, performed in 1995-1996, comprised 404 healthy pregnant Danish Caucasian women residential in Copenhagen County. Women taking folic acid tablets or vitamin B12...... injections were not included. Dietary multivitamin supplements containing folic acid 100 microg or vitamin B12 1 microg, taken by 34%, were discontinued at inclusion. Participants had normal renal function. Folate status [erythrocyte (Ery-) folate, plasma (P-) folate, P-homocysteine] was measured at 18, 32...... new guidelines for folic acid supplement since 1997, only 13% of pregnant women followed the guidelines in 2003. The official recommendations for periconceptional folic acid supplement should be reconsidered and reinforced....
Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Olsen, Jørn
, physical exercise, working conditions, medication and infections during pregnancy, and environmental possible toxins. The study designs cover straightforward cohort analyses, case-control studies and sub-cohort analyses with enriched data collection. CONCLUSION: So far, the Danish National Birth Cohort has......INTRODUCTION: In this review a selection of studies published during the period 2002-2010, based on data from the Danish National Birth Cohort linked with other health registers, is described. Illustrative examples of studies addressing perinatal health outcomes (pregnancy complications and fetal...... that this investment in epidemiologic infrastructure was well spent. The existence of the Danish National Birth Cohort together with other cohorts and national registers has given Denmark a leading position in reproductive epidemiology....
Loengaard, Katja; Bjorner, Jakob Bue; Fink, Per Klausen; Burr, Hermann; Rugulies, Reiner
Medically Unexplained Symptoms (MUS) are frequently encountered in general practice. However, little is known whether MUS affects labor market participation. We investigated the prospective association between MUS at baseline and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA), unemployment, and disability pensioning in a 5-year-follow-up study. In the Danish Work Environment Cohort Study 2005, 8187 randomly selected employees from the Danish general population answered a questionnaire on work and health. Responses were linked with national registers on prescribed medication and hospital treatment. Participants were classified with MUS if they: a) had reported three or more symptoms during the last month, and b) did not have a chronic condition, neither in the self-reported nor the register data. We assessed LTSA, unemployment, and disability pensioning by linking our data with National registers of social transfer payments. Of the 8187 participants, 272 (3.3%) were categorized with MUS. Compared to healthy participants, participants with MUS had an increased risk of LTSA (Rate ratio (RR) = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.28-2.42), and of unemployment (RR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.02-2.15) during follow-up. MUS participants also showed an elevated RR with regard to risk of disability pensioning, however this association was not statistically significant (RR = 2.06, 95% CI = 0.77-5.52). MUS seem to have a negative effect on labor market participation defined by LTSA and unemployment, whereas it is more uncertain whether MUS affects risk of disability pensioning.
Aarkrog, Asker; Solgaard, Per Bent; Fenger, J.
A long-term study (1962-1976) of the Pb content of food has been performed using samples of Danish food substances collected annually at the Riso National Laboratory. Samples so far investigated are: 150 samples of dried milk from 7 factories; 500 samples of Danish cereals (spring and winter whea...
Køster, Brian; Thorgaard, Camilla; Philip, Anja; Clemmensen, Inge H
In Denmark, the incidence of melanoma has been increasing since the 1960s. Intermittent exposure to ultraviolet radiation and a history of sunburn and sunbed use are known risk factors. We describe the association between use of protective measures, sun-related behaviour and experience of sunburn in the Danish population three months after the start of the campaign. A population-based sample of 3,499 persons aged 15-59 years completed a questionnaire that included items on exposure to ultraviolet radiation. We examined the relations between sunburn and sun-related behaviour by logistic regression analysis. Within the previous 12 months, 35% of the study population had experienced sunburn. Sunburn became less frequent with age (odds ratio (OR) 4.44; 15-19 vs. 50-59) and skin type (OR 2.57; I vs. III). Sunburn was negatively associated with shade and clothing and positively with use of sunscreens. We found no significant difference in sunscreen use between intentional tanners who experienced sunburn and those who did not. A larger fraction of unintentional tanners with sunburn than those who were not sunburnt had used sunscreen. Sunscreen was used to prolong the time spent in the sun by 66% of sunburnt people; however, we found no association between duration of sun exposure and sunscreen use. Future campaigns to reduce the prevalence of sunburn in the Danish population must especially target young persons and intentional tanning, and they should emphasize that sunscreen cannot be used to extend the time spent in the sun and that shade and clothing provide the best protection against sunburn.
Grønvold, Mogens; Adsersen, Mathilde; Hansen, Maiken Bang
Aims: The aim of the Danish Palliative Care Database (DPD) is to monitor, evaluate, and improve the clinical quality of specialized palliative care (SPC) (ie, the activity of hospital-based palliative care teams/departments and hospices) in Denmark. Study population: The study population is all...... patients were registered in DPD during the 5 years 2010–2014. Of those registered, 96% had cancer. Conclusion: DPD is a national clinical quality database for SPC having clinically relevant variables and high data and patient completeness....
Meier, Sandra M; Bulik, Cynthia M; Thornton, Laura M; Mattheisen, Manuel; Mortensen, Preben B; Petersen, Liselotte
Anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa are frequently acknowledged to be highly comorbid conditions, but still, little is known about the clinical and aetiological cohesion of specific anxiety diagnoses and anorexia nervosa. Using the comprehensive Danish population registers, we aimed to determine the risk of anorexia nervosa in patients with register-detected severe anxiety disorders. We also explored whether parental psychopathology was associated with offspring's anorexia nervosa. Anxiety disorders increased the risk of subsequent anorexia nervosa, with the highest risk observed in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Especially, male anxiety patients were at an increased risk for anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, an increased risk was observed in offspring of fathers with panic disorder. A diagnosis of an anxiety disorder, specifically obsessive-compulsive disorder, constitutes a risk factor for subsequent diagnosis of anorexia nervosa. These observations support the notion that anxiety disorders and anorexia nervosa share etiological mechanisms and/or that anxiety represents one developmental pathway to anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Ketzel, Matthias; Sørensen, Mette; Hansen, Johnni; Loft, Steffen; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim
Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993-1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs) with adjustment for potential confounders. Mean levels of NO₂ at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06-1.51, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04-1.23, per doubling of NO₂ concentration) after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate fruit and vegetables per day, the MRR was 1.45 (95% CI, 1.13-1.87) for mortality from cardiovascular disease and 1.25 (95% CI, 1.11-1.42) for mortality from all causes. Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.
Hannibal, Charlotte Gerd; Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne Krüger
The aim was to examine the effects of fertility drugs on malignant melanoma risk using data from the largest cohort of infertile women to date. A cohort of 54,362 women with infertility problems referred to Danish fertility clinics in the period 1963-1998 was established. A detailed data collection including information about type and amount of treatment was conducted. Using case-cohort techniques, we calculated rate ratios (RRs) of malignant melanoma associated with different fertility drugs after adjustment for parity status. 112 malignant melanomas were identified during follow-up through 2000. Use of clomiphene, gonadotrophins, hCG or GnRH did not affect risk of malignant melanoma significantly. When stratifying for parity, however, use of gonadotrophins (RR = 2.29; CI: 1.16-4.52) or GnRH (RR = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.50-7.09) among parous women was associated with a significant increased risk. For all groups of fertility drugs, we found no association with number of cycles of use or years since first use (latency). Our findings showed no strong association between malignant melanoma risk and use of fertility drugs, although the results indicated that use of gonadotrophins or GnRH might increase risk in parous women. Longer follow-up is needed to confirm our findings.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular mortality, which might be due to co-exposure to road traffic noise. Further, personal and lifestyle characteristics might modify any association. Methods We followed up 52 061 participants in a Danish cohort for mortality in the nationwide Register of Causes of Death, from enrollment in 1993–1997 through 2009, and traced their residential addresses from 1971 onwards in the Central Population Registry. We used dispersion-modelled concentration of nitrogen dioxide (NO2 since 1971 as indicator of traffic air pollution and used Cox regression models to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRRs with adjustment for potential confounders. Results Mean levels of NO2 at the residence since 1971 were significantly associated with mortality from cardiovascular disease (MRR, 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06–1.51, per doubling of NO2 concentration and all causes (MRR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.04–1.23, per doubling of NO2 concentration after adjustment for potential confounders. For participants who ate Conclusions Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake.
Baandrup, Lone; Cerqueira, Charlotte; Haller, Lea
Aim of database: To systematically monitor and improve the quality of treatment and care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. In addition, the database is accessible as a resource for research. Study population: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and receiving mental health care...... to the data for use in specific research projects by applying to the steering committee. Conclusion: The Danish Schizophrenia Registry represents a valuable source of informative data to monitor and improve the quality of care of patients with schizophrenia in Denmark. However, continuous resources and time...
Antonsen, Kristian; Rosenstock, Charlotte Vallentin; Lundstrøm, Lars Hyldborg
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD) is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. STUDY POPULATION: The DAD was founded in 2004....... In addition, an annual DAD report is a benchmark for departments nationwide. CONCLUSION: The DAD is covering the anesthetic process for the majority of patients undergoing anesthesia in Denmark. Data in the DAD are increasingly used for both quality and research projects....
Class, Quetzal A.; Mortensen, Preben B.; Henriksen, Tine B.; Dalman, Christina; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Khashan, Ali S.
Objectives Preconception maternal bereavement may be associated with an increased risk for infant mortality, though these previously reported findings have not been replicated. We sought to examine if the association could be replicated and explore if risk extended into childhood. Methods Using a Danish population-based sample of offspring born 1979–2009 (N=1,865,454), we predicted neonatal (0–28 days), post-neonatal infant (29–364 days), and early childhood (1–5 years) mortality following maternal bereavement in the preconception (6–0 months before pregnancy) and prenatal (between conception and birth) periods. Maternal bereavement was defined as death of a first degree relative of the mother. Analyses were conducted using logistic and log-linear Poisson regression that were adjusted for offspring, mother, and father sociodemographic and health factors. Results We identified 6,541 (0.004%) neonates, 3,538 (0.002%) post-neonates, and 2,132 (0.001%) children between the ages of 1 to 5 years who died. After adjusting for covariates, bereavement during the preconception period was associated with an increased odds of neonatal (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.87, 95% CI: 1.53–2.30) and post-neonatal infant mortality (aOR=1.52, 95% CI: 1.15–2.02). Associations were timing-specific (6 months prior to pregnancy only) and consistent across sensitivity analyses. Bereavement during the prenatal period was not consistently associated with increased risk of offspring mortality, however this may reflect relatively low statistical power. Conclusions Results support and extend previous findings linking bereavement during the preconception period with increased odds of early offspring mortality. The period immediately prior to pregnancy may be a sensitive period with potential etiological implications and ramifications for offspring mortality. PMID:26374948
Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Dahm, Christina Catherine; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre
Low fat dairy products are part of dietary guidelines to prevent stroke. However, epidemiological evidence is inconclusive with regard to the association between dairy products and stroke. We therefore investigated associations for substitutions between dairy product subgroups and risk of total stroke and stroke subtypes. We included 55,211 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years without previous stroke. Baseline diet was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire. Cases were identified through a national register and subsequently verified. The associations were analyzed using Cox proportional hazard regression. During a median follow-up of 13.4 years, we identified 2272 strokes, of which 1870 were ischemic (318 large artery atherosclerotic, 839 lacunar, 102 cardioembolic, 98 other determined types, 513 of unknown type), 389 were hemorrhages (273 intracerebral, 116 subarachnoid) and 13 of unknown etiology. Substitution of semi-skimmed fermented milk or cheese for whole-fat fermented milk was associated with a higher rate of ischemic stroke [semi-skimmed fermented milk: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.45), cheese: HR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.98-1.31) per serving/day substituted] and substitutions of whole-fat fermented milk for low-fat milk, whole-fat milk or buttermilk were associated with a lower rate [low-fat milk: HR = 0.85 (95% CI 0.74-0.99), whole-fat milk: HR = 0.84 (95% CI 0.71-0.98) and buttermilk: HR = 0.83 (95% CI 0.70-0.99)]. We observed no associations for substitutions between dairy products and hemorrhagic stroke. Our results suggest that intake of whole-fat fermented milk as a substitution for semi-skimmed fermented milk, cheese, buttermilk or milk, regardless of fat content, is associated with a lower rate of ischemic stroke.
Lau, Cathrine; Glümer, Charlotte; Toft, Ulla; Tetens, Inge; Carstensen, Bendix; Jørgensen, Torben; Borch-Johnsen, Knut
We aimed to identify dietary patterns in a Danish adult population and assess the reproducibility of the dietary patterns identified. Baseline data of 3,372 women and 3,191 men (30-60 years old) from the population-based survey Inter99 was used. Food intake, assessed by a FFQ, was aggregated into thirty-four separate food groups. Dietary patterns were identified by principal component analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis and Bland Altman plots were used to assess the reproducibility of the dietary patterns identified. The Bland Altman plots were used as an alternative and new method. Two factors were retained for both women and men, which accounted for 15.1-17.4 % of the total variation. The 'Traditional' pattern was characterised by high loadings ( > or = 0.40) on paté or high-fat meat for sandwiches, mayonnaise salads, red meat, potatoes, butter and lard, low-fat fish, low-fat meat for sandwiches, and sauces. The 'Modern' pattern was characterised by high loadings on vegetables, fruit, mixed vegetable dishes, vegetable oil and vinegar dressing, poultry, and pasta, rice and wheat kernels. Small differences were observed between patterns identified for women and men. The root mean square error approximation from the confirmatory factor analysis was 0.08. The variation observed from the Bland Altman plots of factors from explorative v. confirmative analyses and explorative analyses from two sub-samples was between 18.8 and 47.7 %. Pearson's correlation was >0.89 (P < 0.0001). The reproducibility was better for women than for men. We conclude that the 'Traditional' and 'Modern' dietary patterns identified were reproducible.
Andersen, Zorana J; Ravnskjaer, Line; Andersen, Klaus Kaae
BACKGROUND: An association between air pollution and breast cancer risk has been suggested but evidence is sparse and inconclusive. METHODS: We included 22,877 female nurses from the Danish Nurse cohort who were recruited in 1993 or 1999, and followed them for incidence of breast cancer (N=1......,145) until 2013 in the Danish Cancer Register. We estimated annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter nurses' residences since 1990 using an atmospheric chemistry transport model. We examined the association between...
Overgaard, D.; Gamborg, M.; Gyntelberg, Finn
AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....
Zerwas, Stephanie; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Petersen, Liselotte; Thornton, Laura M.; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Bulik, Cynthia M.
Our aim was to characterize the incidence rates and cumulative incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS), and examine associations among eating disorder diagnoses, suicide attempts, and mortality. Individuals born in Denmark between 1989 and 2006 were included (N=966,141, 51.3% male). Eating disorders diagnoses (AN, Broad AN, BN, EDNOS) were drawn from the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Register (PCRR) and Danish Nationa...
position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...... of business. The study takes its starting point in a value chain perspective. The value chain covers the product- and distribution stages a product passes through before reaching the consumers. The value chain perspective presumes that added value is accumulated when a product passes through the stages...
Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Møller, Morten Hylander; Nielsen, Henrik
AIM OF DATABASE: The aim of this database is to improve the quality of care in Danish intensive care units (ICUs) by monitoring key domains of intensive care and to compare these with predefined standards. STUDY POPULATION: The Danish Intensive Care Database (DID) was established in 2007...... and standardized mortality ratios for death within 30 days after admission using case-mix adjustment (initially using age, sex, and comorbidity level, and, since 2013, using SAPS II) for all patients and for patients with septic shock. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The DID currently includes 335,564 ICU admissions during 2005...
Yttri, Janne Elin; Christensen, Kaare; Knudsen, Lisbeth
Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the reproduction pattern among Danish women born with isolated oral clefts with the Danish background population. Design and setting: A nationwide population based historic cohort-study based on three registers: The Danish Facial Cleft...... Register, The Danish Civil Registration System and the Fertility of Women and Couples Dataset. Participants: Through linkages of the registers, number of children and the exact age at childbirth of all Danish women born with an oral cleft during 1950 through 1988 (N=1,931) were obtained. These data were...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The etiology of type-2 diabetes is only partly known, and a possible role of prenatal stress in programming offspring for insulin resistance has been suggested by animal models. Previously, we found an association between prenatal stress and type-1 diabetes. Here we examine the association between prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and pregnancy and development of type-2 diabetes in the off-spring. METHODS: We utilized data from the Danish Civil Registration System to identify singleton births in Denmark born January 1(st 1979 through December 31(st 2008 (N = 1,878,246, and linked them to their parents, grandparents, and siblings. We categorized children as exposed to bereavement during prenatal life if their mothers lost an elder child, husband or parent during the period from one year before conception to the child's birth. We identified 45,302 children exposed to maternal bereavement; the remaining children were included in the unexposed cohort. The outcome of interest was diagnosis of type-2 diabetes. We estimated incidence rate ratios (IRRs from birth using log-linear poisson regression models and used person-years as the offset variable. All models were adjusted for maternal residence, income, education, marital status, sibling order, calendar year, sex, and parents' history of diabetes at the time of pregnancy. RESULTS: We found children exposed to bereavement during their prenatal life were more likely to have a type-2 diabetes diagnosis later in life (aIRR: 1.31, 1.01-1.69. These findings were most pronounced when bereavement was caused by death of an elder child (aIRR: 1.51, 0.94-2.44. Results also indicated the second trimester of pregnancy to be the most sensitive period of bereavement exposure (aIRR:2.08, 1.15-3.76. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that fetal exposure to maternal bereavement during preconception and the prenatal period may increase the risk for developing type-2 diabetes in
Holmes, Ashley C; Riis, Anders H; Erichsen, Rune; Fedirko, Veronika; Ostenfeld, Eva Bjerre; Vyberg, Mogens; Thorlacius-Ussing, Ole; Lash, Timothy L
Recurrence is a common outcome among patients that have undergone an intended curative resection for colorectal cancer. However, data on factors that influence colorectal cancer recurrence are sparse. We report descriptive characteristics of both colon and rectal cancer recurrence in an unselected population. We identified 21,152 patients with colorectal cancer diagnosed between May 2001 and December 2011 and registered with the Danish Colorectal Cancer Group. Recurrences were identified in 3198 colon and 1838 rectal cancer patients during follow-up. We calculated the frequency, proportion, and incidence rates of colon and rectal cancer recurrence within descriptive categories, and the cumulative five- and ten-year incidences of recurrence, treating death as a competing risk. We used a Cox proportional hazard model to calculate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Recurrence risk was highest in the first three years of follow-up. Patients colon: 7.2 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 6.5-7.9; rectum: 8.1 per 100 person-years; 95% CI: 7.2-9.0) and patients diagnosed with stage III cancer (colon HR: 5.70; 95% CI: 4.61-7.06; rectal HR: 7.02; 95% CI: 5.58-8.82) had increased risk of recurrence. Patients diagnosed with stage III cancer from 2009 to 2011 had a lower incidence of recurrence than those diagnosed with stage III cancer in the years before. Cumulative incidences of colon and rectal cancer recurrence were similar for both cancer types among each descriptive category. In this population, increases in colorectal cancer recurrence risk were associated with younger age and increasing stage at diagnosis. Cumulative incidence of recurrence did not differ by cancer type. Descriptive characteristics of colon and rectal cancer recurrence may help to inform patient-physician decision-making, and could be used to determine adjuvant therapies or tailor surveillance strategies so that recurrence may be identified early, particularly within the first 3 years of
Full Text Available Mette Bach Larsen,1 Ellen M Mikkelsen,2 Morten Rasmussen,3 Lennart Friis-Hansen,4 Anders U Ovesen,5 Hans Bjarke Rahr,6 Berit Andersen1 1Department of Public Health Programmes, Randers Regional Hospital, Central Denmark Region, Randers NO, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Central Denmark Region, Aarhus N, 3Digestive Disease Center K, Bispebjerg Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark, Copenhagen NV, 4Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Nordsjællands Hospital, The Capital Region of Denmark, Hillerød, 5Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Aalborg University Hospital, North Denmark Region, Aalborg, 6Department of Surgery, Vejle Hospital, Region of Southern Denmark, Vejle, Denmark Introduction: Fecal occult blood tests are recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC screening in Europe. Recently, the fecal immunochemical test (FIT has come into use. Sociodemographic differences between participants and nonparticipants may be less pronounced when using FIT as there are no preceding dietary restrictions and only one specimen is required. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and nonparticipation for both genders, with special emphasis on those who actively unsubscribe from the program. Methods: The study was a national, register-based, cross-sectional study among men and women randomized to be invited to participate in the prevalence round of the Danish CRC screening program between March 1 and December 31, 2014. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to quantify the association between sociodemographic characteristics and nonparticipation (including active nonparticipation. PRs were assessed using Poisson regression with robust error variance.Results: The likelihood of being a nonparticipant was highest in the younger part of the population; however, for women, the association across age groups was U-shaped. Female immigrants were more likely to be
Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Vitus, Kathrine; Ditlevsen, Kia; TØrslev, Mette Kirstine; Kristiansen, Maria
This paper examines the importance of recruitment site in relation to the recruitment of ethnic minorities into health research. It presents a synthesis of experiences drawn from six interlinked Danish studies which applied different methods and used healthcare facilities and educational settings as sites for recruitment. Inspired by interpretive reviewing, data on recruitment methods from the different studies were synthesized with a focus on the various levels of recruitment success achieved. This involved an iterative process of comparison, analysis and discussion of experiences among the researchers involved. Success in recruitment seemed to depend partly on recruitment site. Using healthcare facilities as the recruitment site and healthcare professionals as gatekeepers was less efficient than using schools and employees from educational institutions. Successful study designs also depended on the possibility of singling out specific locations with a high proportion of the relevant ethnic minority target population. The findings, though based on a small number of cases, indicate that health professionals and healthcare institutions, despite their interest in high-quality health research into all population groups, fail to facilitate research access to some of the most disadvantaged groups, who need to be included in order to understand the mechanisms behind health disparities. This happens despite the genuine wish of many healthcare professionals to help facilitate such research. In this way, the findings indirectly emphasize the specific challenge of accessing more vulnerable and sick groups in research studies.
Beier, Sofie; Ejlers, Steen
The talk will focus on Danish type designers and their work on Æ (AE), Ø (Oslash) and Å (Aring). These 'anomalies' found in the Danish written language, often causes difficulties for type designers. The counters of Ø/ø sometimes appear overcrowded, the uppercase Æ can result in an uncomfortably o......' attempt to create the optimal variation of these letters, we will give a brief introduction to the Danish typography tradition ranging from the early 20th Century and up until today....
Erlendsson, Andrés M; Egekvist, Henrik; Lorentzen, Henrik F; Philipsen, Peter A; Stausbøl-Grøn, Birgitte; Stender, Ida M; Haedersdal, Merete
The incidence of actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing, and several treatment options are available. The aim of this study was to describe clinical characteristics and treatment patterns in patients with AK treated by Danish dermatologists. A multicenter, non-interventional, cross-sectional study was conducted. Three dermatology hospital departments and seven private dermatology clinics enrolled eligible AK patients consecutively during one week. A total of 312 patients were included. Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) was previously reported in 51.0% of patients and currently suspected in 9.4% of AK-affected anatomical regions. Lesions of AK were located primarily on the face (38.6%), scalp (12.8%), and hands (11.2%). Actinic keratosis commonly presented with multiple AK lesions (38.6%) and field cancerization (38.5%). The treatments used most frequently were cryotherapy (57.7%) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolevulinate (17.1%) and imiquimod (11.2%). The likelihood of receiving cryotherapy was higher for men (odds ratio [OR] 1.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-2.47) and increased with age (2.2% per year, 0.4-4.0%). PDT represented the most frequently applied treatment for severe actinic damage and was more likely to be prescribed to women (OR 4.08, 95% CI 2.22-7.47) and young patients (OR 0.97 per year, 95% CI 0.95-0.99). The prevalence of severe actinic damage (17.3% versus 9.6%) and intake of immunosuppressive medication (29.0 versus 2.0) were higher among hospital patients compared with those treated in private practices (P AK patients in Danish dermatology clinics have a history of skin cancer, and NMSC is suspected in almost 10% of AK-affected regions. Cryotherapy is the most frequently used treatment overall, except in instances of severe actinic damage, in which PDT is the first-choice treatment. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.
Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Olsen, Jørgen H; Johansen, Christoffer
Vestibular schwannomas grow in the region within the brain where most of the energy by radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from using mobile phones is absorbed. The authors used 2 Danish nationwide cohort studies, one a study of all adult Danes subscribing for a mobile phone in 1995 or earlier and one on sociodemographic factors and cancer risk, and followed subjects included in both cohorts for occurrence of vestibular schwannoma up to 2006 inclusively. In this study including 2.9 million subjects, a long-term mobile phone subscription of ≥11 years was not related to an increased vestibular schwannoma risk in men (relative risk estimate = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.52, 1.46), and no vestibular schwannoma cases among long-term subscribers occurred in women versus 1.6 expected. Vestibular schwannomas did not occur more often on the right side of the head, although the majority of Danes reported holding their mobile phone to the right ear. Vestibular schwannomas in long-term male subscribers were not of larger size than expected. Overall, no evidence was found that mobile phone use is related to the risk of vestibular schwannoma. Because of the usually slow growth of vestibular schwannoma and possible diagnostic delay, further surveillance is indicated.
Vesterlund, Gitte Kingo; Keller, Amélie Cléo; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal
Obesity as well as job strain is increasing, and job strain might contribute to weight gain. The objective of the current study was to examine associations between longitudinal alterations in the components of job strain and subsequent weight gain. The study was designed as a prospective cohort study with three questionnaire surveys enabling measurement of job-strain alterations over 6 years and subsequent measurements of weight gain after further 10 years of follow-up. ANCOVA and trend analyses were conducted. Job demands were measured as job busyness and speed, and control as amount of influence. Employed nurses in Denmark. We included a sub-sample of 6188 female nurses from the Danish Nurse Cohort, which consisted of the nurses who participated in surveys in 1993, 1999 and 2009. A linear trend in weight gain was seen in nurses who were often busy in 1999 between those who were rarely v. sometimes v. often busy in 1993 (P=0·03), with the largest weight gain in individuals with sustained high busyness in both years. Loss of influence between 1993 and 1999 was associated with larger subsequent weight gain than sustained high influence (P=0·003) or sustained low influence (P=0·02). For speed, no associations were found. Busyness, speed and influence differed in their relationship to subsequent weight gain. A decrease in job influence and a sustained burden of busyness were most strongly related to subsequent weight gain. Focus on job strain reduction and healthy diet is essential for public health.
Larsen, Mette Bach; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe; Rasmussen, Morten
INTRODUCTION: Fecal occult blood tests are recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in Europe. Recently, the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has come into use. Sociodemographic differences between participants and nonparticipants may be less pronounced when using FIT as there are no prec......INTRODUCTION: Fecal occult blood tests are recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in Europe. Recently, the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has come into use. Sociodemographic differences between participants and nonparticipants may be less pronounced when using FIT...... as there are no preceding dietary restrictions and only one specimen is required. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and nonparticipation for both genders, with special emphasis on those who actively unsubscribe from the program. METHODS: The study was a national......, register-based, cross-sectional study among men and women randomized to be invited to participate in the prevalence round of the Danish CRC screening program between March 1 and December 31, 2014. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were used to quantify the association between sociodemographic characteristics...
The thesis, Select Papyri from Danish Collections: Philological and Archaeometric Studies, consists of an introduction, a book, four articles and a rapport on a scientific experiment at EuropeanRadiation Synchrotron Facility(ESRF), Grenoble, France, together with an application for another...
Increasing internationalisation of production is often cited as causing erosion of West European social systems and in particular the worker's position, but the macro-level empirical evidence is often flawed. This article provides evidence based on a case study of Danish slaughterhouses that offs...
Larsen, J.B.; Saxe, H.
Results from Danish experimental field and chamber studies indicate that in general the projected climatic changes are likely to promote tree growth especially for those trees, which have their northern limit in southern Scandinavia. The only major species which will experience a setback, is Norway Spruce - unfortunately however so far the most common commercially planted tree in Denmark. (LN)
Christensen, Søren; Zachariae, Robert; Jensen, Anders Bonde
surgery for breast cancer, and to identify clinical risk factors while adjusting for pre-cancer sociodemographic factors, comorbidity, and psychiatric history. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort consists of 4917 Danish women, aged 18-70 years, receiving standardized treatment for early stage invasive...... breast cancer during the 2 1/2 year study period. Of these, 3343 women (68%) participated in a questionnaire study 12-16 weeks following surgery. Depressive symptoms (Beck's Depression Inventory II) and health-related behaviors were assessed by questionnaire. The Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group...... prognostic information. Physical functioning, smoking, alcohol use, and BMI were also independently associated with depressive symptoms. CONCLUSION: Risk factors for depressive symptoms were primarily restricted to pre-cancer conditions rather than disease-specific conditions. Special attention should...
Aastrup, Jesper; Bjerre, Mogens; Kornum, Niels
This paper presents an overview of the Danish retail market. A detailed picture of the Danish grocery sector is provided, and we highlight issues from the specialty sectors of fashion and DIY as well as patterns of internationalisation among Danish retailers. We further profile the Danish consumer...... in terms of consumption patterns and demographic changes as well as some specific consumer tendencies with a special emphasis on sustainability issues. E-commerce is taken up as a special theme, both profiling the consumer side and the retailer side. This part is exemplified with books and groceries...
Gammelgaard, Britta; Bentzen, Eric; Aagaard Andreassen, Mette
compatible survey. The International Manufacturing Strategy Survey (IMSS) doesbring up the question of supply chain management, but unfortunately, we did not have access to thedatabase. Data from the members of the SCOR-model, in the form of benchmarked performance data,may exist, but are nonetheless...... not public. The survey is a cooperative project "Benchmarking DanishIndustries" with CIP/Aalborg University, the Danish Technological University, the DanishTechnological Institute and Copenhagen Business School as consortia partners. The project has beenfunded by the Danish Agency for Trade and Industry...
Full Text Available Jens Steen Nielsen,1 Reimar W Thomsen,2 Charlotte Steffensen,2 Jens S Christiansen31Department of Endocrinology M, Odense University Hospital, Odense, 2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, 3Department of Endocrinology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, DenmarkAbstract: This paper aims to describe the patient enrollment system and implementation strategy for the new nationwide Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2 project. The paper will also describe the design, current content, and pilot testing of the DD2 registration form. The challenge of the DD2 project was to construct a registration system functioning in the entire Danish health care system, where new type 2 diabetes patients are initially met, and with the capacity to enroll 200 newly diagnosed diabetes patients per week nationwide. This requires a fast and simple registration that is part of everyday clinical practice in hospital outpatient clinics and general practitioner (GP clinics. The enrollment system is thus built on a tested, rational design where patients need only one visit and only specific limited data about physical activity, anthropometric measures, and family history of diabetes are collected during a brief patient interview. Later, supplemental data will be extracted by computerized linkage with existing databases. The feasibility of this strategy was verified in a pilot study. For maximum flexibility, three different ways to fill in the DD2 registration form were provided and an interactive webpage was constructed. The DD2 project also involves collection of blood and urine samples from each diabetes patient, to be stored in a biobank. Clinicians may obtain the samples themselves or refer patients to the nearest clinical biochemical department. GPs have the additional option of referring patients to the nearest hospital outpatient diabetes clinic to obtain interview data, clinical data, and samples. At present, the enrollment system is in use at
Hansen, Mille Charlotte; Aagaard, Tine; Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Hartvigsen, Jan
Little is known about the physical and psychosocial work environment of chiropractors and their work-related health complaints, and this has never been described for Danish chiropractors. The aim of this study was, therefore, to describe work-related acute physical injuries, overuse complaints, and psychosocial stress in Danish chiropractic work settings. We developed a questionnaire specifically for this study and distributed it electronically in August 2016 using SurveyXact to all 575 members of the Danish Chiropractors' Association working in primary care clinics. Chiropractors were asked about their work-related acute physical injuries and overuse complaints as well as any psychosocial stress they experienced at work during the previous year. We described our sample and variables using means, medians, ranges, and confidence intervals where appropriate. Statistically significant differences between genders, types of complaints and injuries, and between clinic owners and associates were examined using Chi-square and Fischer's exact tests, where appropriate, or by examining confidence intervals for non-overlap. 355 (65.2%) chiropractors answered the survey. Of these, 216 (61%, 95% CI 56-66) had experienced a work-related acute physical injury and/or overuse complaint during the previous year. Work-related overuse complaints were most commonly reported in the low back, wrist, thumb, and shoulder, and were more common among women (63%, 95% CI 56-70) than men (51%, 95% CI 43-59). Chiropractors with more than five years in practice (59%, 95% CI 52-64) reported significantly fewer work-related acute injuries and overuse complaints during the previous year compared with chiropractors with less than five years in practice (83%, 95% CI 73-91). In general, these practicing Danish chiropractors reported having a good psychosocial work environment, and 90% of chiropractors "always" or "often" felt that they were motivated and committed to their work. This sample of Danish
Antvorskov, Julie C; Aunsholt, Lise; Buschard, Karsten
. The study included 238 cases and 10 147 controls selected from the Copenhagen School Health Record Register (CSHRR). Cases of T1D were identified in the Danish Registry of Childhood and Adolescent Diabetes and 2 regional studies and linked to CSHRR. Using conditional logistic regression models......The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is increasing, and obesity may be a contributing factor by increasing the risk and accelerating the onset. We investigated the relation between childhood body mass index z-scores (BMIz) and the later risk of T1D, including association with age at onset of T1D...... BMIz at 7 and 13 years of age and the age of onset (P = .34 and P = .42, respectively). Increased BMIz is associated with a moderate increase in risk of T1D, but with no relation to age at onset within the analyzed age range. Increased BMIz over time is unlikely to explain the rising incidence of T1D....
Jensen, Allan; Sharif, Heidi; Kjaer, Susanne K
Some epidemiologic studies have indicated that uterine cancer risk may be increased after use of fertility drugs. To further assess this association, the authors used data from a large cohort of 54,362 women diagnosed with infertility who were referred to Danish fertility clinics between 1965 and 1998. In a case-cohort study, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the effects of 4 groups of fertility drugs on overall risk of uterine cancer after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Through mid-2006, 83 uterine cancers were identified. Ever use of any fertility drug was not associated with uterine cancer risk (rate ratio (RR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.76). However, ever use of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating hormone and human menopausal gonadotropin) increased uterine cancer risk (RR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.08, 4.50); the risk was primarily observed after 10 years of follow-up. Furthermore, uterine cancer risk increased with number of cycles of use for clomiphene (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 1.96, 95% CI: 1.03, 3.72) and human chorionic gonadotropin (for > or =6 cycles, RR = 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16, 4.08) but not for other gonadotropins. Use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs was not associated with risk. Gonadotropins, and possibly clomiphene and human chorionic gonadotropin, may increase the risk of uterine cancer, with higher doses and longer follow-up leading to greater risk.
Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Appel, Emil Vincent Rosenbaum; Svendstrup, Mathilde
BackgroundHypothyroidism is associated with obesity, and thyroid hormones are involved in the regulation of body composition, including fat mass. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in adults have identified 19 and 6 loci associated with plasma concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH...... data with fasting plasma concentrations of TSH and fT4 from a population-based sample of Danish children, adolescents, and young adults, and a group of children, adolescents, and young adults with overweight and obesity were performed (N = 1,764, mean age = 12.0 years [range 2.5-24.7]). Replication...... associated with TSH in adults were confirmed in this study population (PDE10A (rs2983511: beta = 0.112SD, p = 4.8.10(-16)), FOXE1 (rs7847663: beta = 0.223SD, p = 1.5 . 10(-20)), NR3C2 (rs9968300: beta = 0.194SD), p = 2.4 . 10(-11)), VEGFA (rs2396083: beta = 0.088SD, p = 2.2 . 10(-10))). Effect sizes...
Fryzek, Jon P; Holmich, Lisbet; McLaughlin, Joseph K
PURPOSE: Numerous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that breast implants are not associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). However, many CTDs are rare, and continued follow-up of women with breast implants is warranted. METHODS: We extended by 5 years the follow-up of our earlier...... population-based cohort study of Danish women with cosmetic breast implants (n = 2761) and comparison groups of women with other types of cosmetic surgery (n = 8807). All women were followed from January 1977 through December 2001. Hospitalization and outpatient data for CTD and ill-defined and other...... rheumatic conditions in the implant and comparison groups were compared with those in the general Danish population. Additionally, CTDs and fibromyalgia were confirmed through medical chart review, and direct comparisons of the breast implant cohort with the comparison cohort were performed. RESULTS: When...
Rigas, A S; Skytthe, A; Erikstrup, C
AIMS: This study aimed at quantifying the healthy donor effect by comparing self-perceived mental and physical health between blood donors and non-donors. BACKGROUND: In theory, the selection process known as the healthy donor effect should result in better self-perceived, health-related quality...... of life in donors than in non-donors. METHODS: The Short Form-12 data from the Danish Twin Registry (DTR) was compared with the data from the Danish Blood Donor Study (DBDS). Data on age, sex and smoking status were included in the analyses. The multivariable linear regression analysis was stratified......-perceived mental health was associated with a blood donor. With the increase in age, better self-perceived physical health was associated with blood donation....
Kærlev, Linda; Hansen, Johnny; Lyngbeck Hansen, Hans
), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among...... extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. METHODS: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986-1999 (33,340 men; 11,291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked...... with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517,518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. RESULTS: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1...
Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose
In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model and contr......In a previous study from 2014 it was found that US Holstein cows that gave birth to heifer calves produced more milk than cows having bull calves. We wanted to assess whether this is also true for Danish cattle. Data from 578 Danish Holstein herds were analysed with a mixed effect model...... and contrary to the findings in the US, we found that cows produced higher volumes of milk if they had a bull calf compared to a heifer calf. We found a significantly higher milk production of 0.28% in the first lactation period for cows giving birth to a bull calf, compared to a heifer calf. This difference...... was even higher when cows gave birth to another bull calf, so having two bull calves resulted in a difference of 0.52% in milk production compared to any other combination of sex of the offspring. Furthermore, we found that farmer assisted calvings were associated with a higher milk yield. Cows...
Torp-Pedersen, C; Møller, M; Bloch-Thomsen, P E
patients with symptomatic congestive heart failure and severe left ventricular dysfunction at 34 Danish hospitals. We randomly assigned 762 patients to receive dofetilide, a novel class III antiarrhythmic agent, and 756 to receive placebo in a double-blind study. Treatment was initiated in the hospital...... and reduced left ventricular function, dofetilide was effective in converting atrial fibrillation, preventing its recurrence, and reducing the risk of hospitalization for worsening heart failure. Dofetilide had no effect on mortality....
Hoeg, Didde; Schmidt, Lone; Macklon, Kirsten T.
Introduction Fertility counselling for young women newly diagnosed with cancer is an important field of preconceptional counselling. This qualitative, small-scale study explored how young women newly diagnosed with cancer experienced specialized fertility preservation counselling and treatment in the public Danish health care system. Methods Semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with five women below 40 years recently diagnosed with cancer. All women received fertility counselli...
Feibert, Diana Cordes; Sørup, Christian Michel; Jacobsen, Peter
Pharmaceuticals are a vital part of patient treatment and the timely delivery of pharmaceuticals to patients is therefore important. Hospitals are complex systems that provide a challenging environment for decision making. Implementing process changes and technologies to improve the pharmaceutical...... distribution process can therefore be a complex and challenging undertaking. A comparative case study was conducted benchmarking the pharmaceutical distribution process at a Danish and US hospital to identify best practices. Using the ANP method, taking tangible and intangible aspects into consideration...
Slagboom, Margot; Kargo, Morten; Edwards, David
The aim of this study was to characterize preferences of farmers for breeding goal traits with Danish Red (DR) or Danish Jersey (DJ) cows. A breed-specific survey was established to characterize farmers’ preferences for improvements in 10 traits, by means of pairwise rankings using the online sof...
Quinto Romani, Annette
In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate......, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...... of sports dedication. Our results indicate that sports participation increases peer relations in sports, however less for pupils involved in ‘energy’ and especially ‘time’ demanding training. From a policy perspective, on the basis of our results, it can be argued that elite sports classes reduces pupils...
Quinto Romani, Annette
, it is relevant to address whether demanding training has a harmful or beneficial impact on pupils’ social life. Using a longitudinal dataset of 1,095 Danish pupils in the Municipality of Aalborg, this paper attempts to estimate the impact of sports participation on peer relations, considering different levels...... of sports dedication. Our results indicate that sports participation increases peer relations in sports, however less for pupils involved in ‘energy’ and especially ‘time’ demanding training. From a policy perspective, on the basis of our results, it can be argued that elite sports classes reduces pupils......In a Danish context, elite sports classes have been moved into the educational system. However, moving the selection of young sports talents into state schools conflicts with the spirit of the equality concept on which the Danish educational system is built. In the light of this debate...
in the transformation process. While they can contribute with resources, capabilities, and their connections to the development of the new grid infrastructure, they may also impede innovation given their ownership of and assumed interest in the established system. These insights should be considered in policy...... transformation of the energy grid infrastructure. The focus is set on how the interplay between established and new technologies and actors determines the direction and outcomes of innovation in large technological systems (such as the Danish smart grid). Results of several chapters indicate that in the Danish......Combining elements form the Science, Technology and Society (STS) tradition with the Technological Innovation System (TIS) framework and utilising unstructured and relational data as well as novel analysis tools, this thesis explores the development of the Danish smart grid and the associated...
Szomlaiski, N; Dyrborg, J; Rasmussen, H
Aim: To establish the validity of a Danish version of the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), secondly to present national norm scores compared to that of United States and other European data and thirdly to evaluate ADHD-RS when used for monitoring treatment...... effectiveness. Methods: A Danish translation of the ADHD-RS was used on a normative sample of 837 children. Two clinical samples, 138 hyperkinetic disorder (HKD) cases and 110 clinical controls were recruited from eleven Danish Child and Adolescent Mental Health (CAMH) centres and assessed according to usual...... clinical standards. The HKD children were rated by parents and teachers at baseline and at follow-up 3 months later. Results: Internal validity of ADHD-RS was high and the factor structure supported the diagnostic classification system ICD-10. The questionnaire discriminated HKD patients in a mixed...
Kaae, Susanne; Saleem, Sahdia; Kristiansen, Maria
Background Counter counseling is an important part of community pharmacies service delivery. Difficulties arise because customers appear less interested than the staff in discussing their medicine. It is unclear how individual pharmacies differ with regard to overcoming these obstacles. Objective This study explores differences in the communication practices of pharmacies with regard to engaging customers in medicine dialogues. Methods The work of Stevenson et al. describing five types of interaction scenarios at the counter was used for structured overt non-participant observations of 100 encounters in each of five Danish pharmacies. Variation in pharmacies success in engaging customers in medicine dialogues were calculated using descriptive statistics, and the statistical significance of observed differences across pharmacies was analyzed using odds ratios (OR). Results Considerable differences between the pharmacies were identified. Differences exist in how often pharmacy staff attempts to encourage customers to participate in medication dialogues and how often they succeed. The pharmacies serving the most customers per day were the most successful. A possible link between a low number of refill customers offered counseling and ‘success rate’ was identified. Conclusions The pharmacies showed considerable variation in attempts to engage customers in medication dialogues at the counter and success in doing so. The reasons for the identified patterns are unclear. PMID:25243031
Kaae, Susanne; Saleem, Sahdia; Kristiansen, Maria
Counter counseling is an important part of community pharmacies service delivery. Difficulties arise because customers appear less interested than the staff in discussing their medicine. It is unclear how individual pharmacies differ with regard to overcoming these obstacles. This study explores differences in the communication practices of pharmacies with regard to engaging customers in medicine dialogues. The work of Stevenson et al. describing five types of interaction scenarios at the counter was used for structured overt non-participant observations of 100 encounters in each of five Danish pharmacies. Variation in pharmacies success in engaging customers in medicine dialogues were calculated using descriptive statistics, and the statistical significance of observed differences across pharmacies was analyzed using odds ratios (OR). Considerable differences between the pharmacies were identified. Differences exist in how often pharmacy staff attempts to encourage customers to participate in medication dialogues and how often they succeed. The pharmacies serving the most customers per day were the most successful. A possible link between a low number of refill customers offered counseling and 'success rate' was identified. The pharmacies showed considerable variation in attempts to engage customers in medication dialogues at the counter and success in doing so. The reasons for the identified patterns are unclear.
Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo
An interrelationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, due to a shared autoimmune background or based on deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork in the eye, has been suggested but is at present unsubstantiated. Therefore, our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide and population-based level, whether there is such an association. Observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. 121,799 individuals diagnosed with a first episode of hypothyroidism were identified and were matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls according to age and sex. Prevalence of glaucoma was recorded and cases and controls were followed over a mean of 7.1 years (range 0-17). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of glaucoma before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Overall, we found a higher prevalence of glaucoma in subjects with hypothyroidism as compared to controls (4.6% vs. 4.3%, p glaucoma [1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.13]. Based on the Cox regression model, there was no increased risk of glaucoma after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism [hazard ratio (HR) 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96-1.06], and the HR decreased further after adjusting for pre-existing co-morbidity (0.88; 95% CI: 0.84-0.93). There was an increased risk of glaucoma before but not after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, suggesting that screening for glaucoma in hypothyroid individuals is unwarranted.
Thvilum, Marianne; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hegedüs, Laszlo
Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased somatic and psychiatric disease burden. Whether there are any socioeconomic consequences of hypothyroidism, such as early retirement or loss of income, remains unclarified. Our aim was to examine, compared with a matched control group, the risk of receiving disability pension (before the age of 60) and the effect on labor market income in patients diagnosed with hypothyroidism. This was an observational register-based cohort study. By record linkage between different Danish health registers, 1745 hypothyroid singletons diagnosed before the age of 60 were each matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls and followed for a mean of 5 (range 1-31) years. Additionally, we included 277 same-sex twin pairs discordant for hypothyroidism. The risk of disability pension was evaluated by the Cox regression analysis. Changes in labor market income progression over 5 years were evaluated using a difference in difference model. With a hazard ratio of 2.24 (95% confidence interval = 1.73-2.89), individuals diagnosed with hypothyroidism had a significantly increased risk of disability pension. This remained significant when adjusting for educational level and comorbidity (hazard ratio = 1.89; 95% confidence interval = 1.42-2.51). In an analysis of labor market income, 2 years before compared with 2 years after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, the hypothyroid individuals had on average a €1605 poorer increase than their euthyroid controls (P pension.
Soll-Johanning, Helle; Bach, Elsa; Jensen, Steen S
The combustion of fossil fuels produces small amounts of mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. We investigated the association between employment and lung and bladder cancer in Danish bus drivers and tramway employees. We carried out a nested case-control study of 153 lung and 84 bladder cancer cases, and 606 controls sampled in a cohort of 18 174 bus drivers or tramway employees employed in Copenhagen during the period 1900-1994. The cases and controls or their next of kin were interviewed about smoking, along with occupational and residential history. An exposure index based on which bus routes the bus drivers had mainly been driving was established. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated by conditional logistic regression. The analysis showed decreasing risk for lung cancer with increasing years of employment as a bus driver (RR = 0.97 for each added year, 95% confidence interval = 0.96-0.99). The air pollution index based on main bus for the bus drivers showed no positive correlation with risk.
Saidj, Madina; Jørgensen, Torben; Jacobsen, Rikke Kart; Linneberg, Allan; Aadahl, Mette
Built environmental attributes have been studied in relation to domestic time spent sedentary. An indoor behaviour has thus been linked to an outdoor setting. Yet, attributes of the actual domestic environment may also influence the time spent sedentary at home. Therefore, the aim was to examine if housing characteristics were cross-sectionally and prospectively related to leisure-time sitting in adults. In the Danish Health2006 cohort, 2308 adults were followed for 5 years. At baseline, subjects self-reported housing characteristics (habitat type, habitat surface area and household size), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and socio-demographic factors. Leisure-time sitting was self-reported at baseline and 5-year follow-up. Multiple linear regression was used to assess cross-sectional and prospective associations. At baseline habitat surface area and household size were inversely associated with leisure-time sitting (pleisure-time sitting compared to living in a house (pleisure-time sitting (pleisure-time sitting in adults, while especially household size was a predictor of leisure-time sitting five years later. The findings highlight the importance of home-environmental attributes when targeting a reduction in sedentary behaviours. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nexø, Mette Andersen; Carlsen, Kathrine; Pedersen, Jacob
Background and aims: The number of individuals with diabetes mellitus within the working age range is expected to rise. Type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes) can have work related consequences such as decreased productivity, increased risks of sickness absence and early retirement...... year of diagnosis and in subsequent years. Materials and methods: The study was based on registers with up to 17 years of follow-up. In a working population (n=102.746) individuals with the diagnoses of type 1 or type 2 diabetes (n=3.325: women, n=1.987, men=1338) and individuals without diabetes (n=99.......421: women, n=73.332, men=26.089) were identified by Danish national registries of diagnosis (ICD-10 codes: E10.0-10.9, E11.0-E11.9, E12-E14) and prescribed medicine (ATC codes: A10A, A10B, A10BA02), in the period 1994 to 2011. We estimated the hazard ratios of transitions from work to LTSA (>3 consecutive...
these changes. This article examines the relationship between changes in co-authorship and research in Danish economics and political science to gain greater insights into whether there are changes in the research or in researchers' behavior. The analysis shows that articles with empirical research......The number of co-authors has in the social sciences has been rising over the last decades, but a deeper understanding of why this rise is occurring is lacking. Previous studies of co-authorship in the social sciences often refer to the physical or life sciences or anecdotal evidence to explain......, quantitative research and/or survey are more likely to have a higher number of coauthors than articles based on theoretical, interview, and qualitative research. Furthermore, international and interinstitutional Danish articles tend to have more coauthors than interinstitutional articles. The analysis also...
Pazianas, M; Abrahamsen, B; Eiken, Pia Agnete
whether alendronate acts as chemopreventive. INTRODUCTION: When bisphosphonates are given by mouth, around 99% remains non-absorbed in the intestine. Based on their biochemical actions, we predicted that oral bisphosphonates might prevent colon cancers. METHODS: This is a Danish national register...... incidence and post-diagnosis survival in patients taking oral alendronate for osteoporosis. RESULTS: Cox proportional hazards analysis of death due to colon cancer showed lower risk in alendronate users, crude hazard ratio (HR) 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.81) with an adjusted HR of 0.62 (95% CI 0......In this Danish national register-based cohort study, we examined the effects of alendronate on the development of colon cancers and survival. The incidence of colon cancer and mortality rate, once colon cancer had been diagnosed, were lower in patients treated with alendronate, posing the question...
Kopp, Tine Iskov; Andersen, Vibeke; Tjoøneland, Anne
Maintenance of a balance between commensal bacteria and the mucosal immune system is crucial and intestinal dysbiosis may be a key event in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is an important pattern-recognition receptor that regulates inflammation...... and barrier function in the gut by a mechanism that involves activation of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) transcription factor. Dietary and life style factors may impact these functions. We therefore used a Danish prospective case-cohort study of 1010 CRC cases and 1829 randomly selected participants...... from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort to investigate three polymorphisms in NFKB1 and TLR4 and their possible interactions with diet and life style factors in relation to risk of CRC. Homozygous carriage of the variant allele of the TLR4/rs5030728 polymorphism was associated with increased...
Fuglkjær, Signe; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels; Boyle, Eleanor; Jespersen, Eva; Junge, Tina; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Hestbæk, Lise
Musculoskeletal pain is common in childhood and adolescence, and may be long-lasting and recurrent. Musculoskeletal problems tend to follow adolescents into adulthood, and therefore it is important to design better prevention strategies and early effective treatment. To this end, we need in-depth knowledge about the epidemiology of musculoskeletal extremity problems in this age group, and therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, frequency and course of musculoskeletal pain in the upper and lower extremities in a cohort of Danish school children aged 8-14 years at baseline. This was a prospective 3-year school-based cohort study, with information about musculoskeletal pain collected in two ways. Parents answered weekly mobile phone text messages about the presence or absence of musculoskeletal pain in their children, and a clinical consultation was performed in a subset of the children. We found that approximately half the children had lower extremity pain every study year. This pain lasted on average for 8 weeks out of a study year, and the children had on average two and a half episodes per study year. Approximately one quarter of the children had upper extremity pain every study year that lasted on average 3 weeks during a study year, with one and a half episodes being the average. In general, there were more non-traumatic pain episodes compared with traumatic episodes in the lower extremities, whereas the opposite was true in the upper extremities. The most common anatomical pain sites were 'knee' and 'ankle/ft'. Lower extremity pain among children and adolescents is common, recurrent and most often of non-traumatic origin. Upper extremity pain is less common, with fewer and shorter episodes, and usually with a traumatic onset. Girls more frequently reported upper extremity pain, whereas there was no sex-related difference in the lower extremities. The most frequently reported locations were 'knee' and 'ankle/ft'.
Full Text Available Hans Friis-Andersen1,2, Thue Bisgaard2,3 1Surgical Department, Horsens Regional Hospital, Horsens, Denmark; 2Steering Committee, Danish Hernia Database, 3Surgical Gastroenterological Department 235, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark Aim of database: To monitor and improve nation-wide surgical outcome after groin hernia repair based on scientific evidence-based surgical strategies for the national and international surgical community. Study population: Patients ≥18 years operated for groin hernia. Main variables: Type and size of hernia, primary or recurrent, type of surgical repair procedure, mesh and mesh fixation methods. Descriptive data: According to the Danish National Health Act, surgeons are obliged to register all hernia repairs immediately after surgery (3 minute registration time. All institutions have continuous access to their own data stratified on individual surgeons. Registrations are based on a closed, protected Internet system requiring personal codes also identifying the operating institution. A national steering committee consisting of 13 voluntary and dedicated surgeons, 11 of whom are unpaid, handles the medical management of the database. Results: The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database comprises intraoperative data from >130,000 repairs (May 2015. A total of 49 peer-reviewed national and international publications have been published from the database (June 2015. Conclusion: The Danish Inguinal Hernia Database is fully active monitoring surgical quality and contributes to the national and international surgical society to improve outcome after groin hernia repair. Keywords: nation-wide, recurrence, chronic pain, femoral hernia, surgery, quality improvement
Bjerregaard, Beth; Larsen, Ole B
The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established.......The National Board of Health, Denmark in 1997 published guidelines for reporting of pathology data and the Danish Pathology Register (DPR) was established....
Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm
In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....
On a number of Danish (including Icelandic) 17th and 18th century autobiographical accounts of slavery in the Maghreb.......On a number of Danish (including Icelandic) 17th and 18th century autobiographical accounts of slavery in the Maghreb....
Bonke, Sten; Jørgensen, Tom Rydahl
This report investigates the occurrence of foundation failures within the context of the Danish construction technology framework. The report comprises a definition/typology section on the basis of which Danish regulatory and administrative procedures in relation to foundation failures are reviewed....
The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented.......The status of Danish technology for solar heating systems for hot water supply as well as R&D work in the field is presented....
Petersen, Liselotte; Sørensen, Thorkild I A
The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia.......The Danish Adoption Register was established in 1963-1964 to explore the genetic and environmental contribution to familial aggregation of schizophrenia....
The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry.......The article outlines the major changes in the discourse on cleaner technology and on pollution prevention, together with policy instuments applied in the Danish industry....
Pedersen, Peder Kaj
by Bernhard Christensen and Herman D. Koppel’s Symphony nr. 3, op. 39. Through a case study of those two works and the reception of their first performance in the cultural perspective sketched above some important tendencies in Danish music in the middle of the 20th century can be shown.......Few months after the end of the German occupation of Denmark in 1945, Gunnar Heerup in an essay (“Kulturen er udelelig” [Culture is indivisible], in: Levende musik, september 1945) argued, that Danish musical culture after the war had to aim at versatility and multiplicity. The national Danish...
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Neuro-Oncology Registry (DNOR) was established by the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group as a national clinical database. It was established for the purpose of supporting research and development in adult patients with primary brain tumors in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: DNOR has...... advantage of reporting indicators is the related multidisciplinary discussions giving a better understanding of what actually is going on, thereby facilitating the work on adjusting the national guidelines in the Danish Neuro-Oncology Group. CONCLUSION: The establishment of DNOR has optimized the quality...
Bergholdt, H K M; Larsen, M K; Varbo, A; Nordestgaard, B G; Ellervik, C
Whether a causal relationship exists between milk intake and reduced risk of fractures is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that genetically determined milk intake reduces the risk of fractures and increases bone mineral density (BMD). We investigated the association between milk intake, LCT-13910 C/T (rs4988235), which is associated with lactase persistence (TT/TC) in Northern Europeans, and hip fractures in three Danish prospective studies (N = 97 811, age ≥20 years). We added meta-analyses of LCT-13910 and fractures and BMD from five published Northern European population studies. In the Danish studies, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for hip fracture per one glass per week higher milk intake was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.99-1.01). The per T-allele milk intake was 0.58 (0.49-0.68) glasses per week, but HR was 1.01 (0.94-1.09) for hip fracture. In meta-analyses of Danish studies with published Northern European population studies, the random effects odds ratio for any fracture was 0.86 (0.61-1.21; I 2 = 73%) for TT vs. CC and 0.90 (0.68-1.21; I 2 = 63%) for TC vs. CC. The standardized mean difference in femoral neck BMD was 0.10 (0.02-0.18; I 2 = 0%) g cm -2 for TT vs. CC and 0.06 (-0.04 to 0.17; I 2 = 17%) g cm -2 for TC vs. CC. There were no differences in lumbar spine or total hip BMD comparing TT or TC with CC. Genetically lifelong lactase persistence with high milk intake was not associated with hip fracture in Danish population-based cohorts. A meta-analysis combining Danish studies with published Northern European population studies also showed that lactase persistence was not associated with fracture risk. Genetic lactase persistence was associated with a higher femoral neck BMD, but not lumbar spine or total hip BMD. © 2018 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.
Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede; Østergaard, Poul Alberg
In a normal wind year, Danish wind turbines generate the equivalent of approx. 20 percent of the Danish electricity demand. This paper argues that only approx. 1 percent of the wind power production is exported. The rest is used to meet domestic Danish electricity demands. The cost of wind power...... misleading. The cost of CO2 reduction by use of wind power in the period 2004-2008 was only 20 EUR/ton. Furthermore, the Danish wind turbines are not paid for by energy taxes. Danish wind turbines are given a subsidy via the electricity price which is paid by the electricity consumers. In the recent years...... is paid solely by the electricity consumers and the net influence on consumer prices was as low as 1-3 percent on average in the period 2004-2008. In 2008, the net influence even decreased the average consumer price, although only slightly. In Denmark, 20 percent wind power is integrated by using both...
Jensen, Jesper Ole; Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Nielsen, Susanne Balslev
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to discuss the possible benefits of involving Energy Service Companies (ESCO) in realising energy savings in municipalities, and how ESCO projects can be formulated very differently in the various municipalities, according to building volume, use of technologies...... municipalities see an in-house approach as a better alternative. Approach (Theory/Methodology): Our research is based on literature studies and on qualitative interviews with Danish municipalities carrying out ESCO projects, as well as with ESCO providers. Results: Our studies suggest that different ESCO......, with relatively few buildings, energy retrofitting and low investments, the integrative and strategic approach include a higher degree of partnership, a more ambitious building renovation approach, and more innovative understandings of facilities management. We also compare ESCO with energy retrofitting as an in...
Andryieuski, Andrei; Skryhan, K.; Andryieuskaya, M.
On the basis of our experience of studies and work at Danish universities and Belarusian State University we present a range of methodics that can be easily applied to Belarusian higher school education system to increase its efficiency....
Lone Nikoline Nørgaard
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe early and late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery in relation to time from surgery to conception of pregnancy. METHODS: National cohort study on 387 Danish women, who had laparoscopic or open gastric bypass surgery prior to a singleton pregnancy in which first trimester screening was performed between January 2008 and June 2011. Data were derived from national registers (Danish National Registry of Patients and Danish National Birth Registry, Pregnancy Complications and Abortion-clinical quality database (PreCAb and the Danish Fetal Medicine Database. Main outcome measures were early and late fetal growth in relation to time from bariatric surgery to conception of the pregnancy. Early fetal growth was expressed as "Fetal Growth Index": the ratio between the estimated number of days from first trimester ultrasound to second trimester ultrasound biometries and the actual calender time elapsed in days. Late fetal growth was expressed as the observed versus expected birthweight according to gestational age (GA. RESULTS: The surgery-to-conception interval ranged from 3 to 1851 days with a mean value of 502 (SD, 351 days. The mean "fetal growth index" was 0.99 (SD, 0.02 days/day and thus significantly lower than in the background population (mean, 1.04 (SD, 0.09 days/day, p<0.0001. The proportion of infants being small for gestational age was 18.8% and the proportion of large for gestational age infants was 6.7%. The correlation coefficients between surgery-to-conception time and "fetal growth index" and birthweight according to GA were 0.01 (p = 0.8 and 0.04 (p = 0.4, respectively. CONCLUSION: Fetal growth index was lower than reported in the background population. No correlation was found between the surgery-to-conception interval and early or late fetal growth in pregnancies conceived after gastric bypass surgery.
Thøgersen, Marie Høgh; Morthorst, Britt; Nordentoft, Merete
Assertive community treatment (ACT) has been claimed to be paternalistic and coercive, yet little is known about how patients experience the assertive aspects of ACT. To explore views on--and perceptions of--coercion of patients in Danish assertive community teams. In-depth interviews were...
Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben
We compared the prevalence and types of fractures in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. All participants were screened through the nationwide Danish National Hospital Register. The average observation time was 30.3 years (range 27.3-30.4…
Bergström, Anders; Skov, Thomas Hjort; Bahl, Martin Iain
Fecal samples were obtained from a cohort of 330 healthy Danish infants at 9, 18, and 36 months after birth, enabling characterization of interbacterial relationships by use of quantitative PCR targeting 31 selected bacterial 16S rRNA gene targets representing different phylogenetic levels. Nutri...... discontinuation, and later-life obesity, the corresponding microbial findings seen here warrant attention....
The interaction between real options and financial hedging is analyzed empirically. A majority of Danish non-financial companies either (1) chooses at times not to hedge an exchange rate operating exposure financially due to the possibility of the company to react to changes in exchange rates...
Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen
of 276 persons participated (75%). The Danish 1905 Cohort Survey includes all individuals born in 1905. In total, 225 out of 364 persons who reached the age of 100 in the cohort participated in the most recent 2005 follow-up (62%). In both cohorts, cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental...
Hundrup, Y A; Jacobsen, R K; Andreasen, A H
We evaluated the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) hip fracture risk score in 15,648 postmenopausal Danish nurses. The algorithm was well calibrated for Denmark. However, the sensitivity was poor at common decision making thresholds. Obtaining sensitivity better than 80% led to a low specificity...
Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, Claus F.; Sibolt, Patrik
methods was performed by DTU Nutech at six Danish clinics. The first part of the intercompa-rison regarded the consistency of reference dosimetry. Absorbed dose to water under reference conditions was measured using a Farmer ionization chamber, and was found to agree within 1 % with the daily dose checks......-specific correction factors for non-reference fields....
Bergink, V; Pop, V J M; Nielsen, P R; Agerbo, E; Munk-Olsen, T; Liu, X
The postpartum period is well-known risk period for the first onset of autoimmune thyroid disorders (AITDs) as well as first onset of psychiatric disorders. These two disorders are some of the most prevalent medical conditions postpartum, often misdiagnosed and disabling if left untreated. Our study was designed to explore the possible bidirectional association between AITDs and psychiatric disorders during the postpartum period. A population-based cohort study through linkage of Danish national registers, which comprised 312 779 women who gave birth to their first child during 1997-2010. We conducted Poisson regression analysis to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of psychiatric disorders among women with first-onset AITDs, the IRR of AITDs among women with first-onset psychiatric disorders as well as the overlap between these disorders using a comorbidity index. Women with first-onset AITDs postpartum were more likely to have first-onset psychiatric disorders than women who did not have postpartum AITDs (IRR = 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.25-2.81). Women with first-onset postpartum psychiatric disorders had a higher risk of AITDs than women with no psychiatric disorders (IRR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.45-3.20). The comorbidity index 2 years after delivery was 2.26 (95% CI: 1.61-2.90), indicating a comorbidity between first-onset AITDs and psychiatric disorders. First-onset AITDs and psychiatric disorders co-occur in the postpartum period, which has relevance to further studies on the etiologies of these disorders and why childbirth in particular triggers the onset.
Gullander, Maria; Grynderup, Matias; Hansen, Åse Marie; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik Albert; Mors, Ole; Kaerlev, Linda; Bonde, Jens Peter
This study aims to investigate whether incident workplace bullying and its dicontinuance is related to subsequent change in morning and evening saliva cortisol concentrations. Participants came from two Danish cohort studies, the PRISME cohort (n=4489) and the Workplace Bullying and Harassment Cohort (n=3707). At baseline and follow-up exposure to bullying was measured by a single question on bullying (preceded by a definition). Two saliva samples to measure cortisol were collected during a work-day (30 min after awakening and at 8 p.m.). All participants responding to the item on workplace bullying, giving saliva samples and participated at both baseline and follow-up were included. The reference group consisted of non-bullied respondents at both baseline and follow-up. Multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions were used to test for changes in salivary cortisol after newly onset of and discontinuance of workplace bullying. All analyses were adjusted for the potentially confounding effect of differences from baseline to follow-up in education, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index, cohort, sampling waves, time of awakening, and time of sampling. We found no indication of statistically significant difference in saliva cortisol, neither when participants changed their self-labelling from not bullied at baseline to being bullied at follow-up, nor when they at follow-up two years later reported discontinuance of bullying. This longitudinal study on the impact of changes in bullying status on change in cortisol levels showed consistent lack of associations with onset and discontinuance of workplace bullying. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sørensen, Nina Nørgaard; Lassen, Anne Dahl; Løje, Hanne
Objective With political support from the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020, organic public procurement in Denmark is expected to increase. In order to evaluate changes in organic food procurement in Danish public kitchens, reliable methods are needed. The present study aimed to compare organic food...... procurement measurements by two methods and to collect and discuss baseline organic food procurement measurements from public kitchens participating in the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020. Design Comparison study measuring organic food procurement by applying two different methods, one based on the use...... organic food conversion projects funded by the Danish Organic Action Plan 2020 during 2012 and 2013. Subjects Twenty-six public kitchens (comparison study) and 345 public kitchens (baseline organic food procurement status). Results A high significant correlation coefficient was found between the two...
Arboe, Bente; Josefsson, Pär; Jørgensen, Judit
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish National Lymphoma Registry (LYFO) was established in order to monitor and improve the diagnostic evaluation and the quality of treatment of all lymphoma patients in Denmark. STUDY POPULATION: The LYFO database was established in 1982 as a seminational database including...... all lymphoma patients referred to the departments of hematology. The database became nationwide on January 1, 2000. MAIN VARIABLES: The main variables include both clinical and paraclinical variables as well as details of treatment and treatment evaluation. Up to four forms are completed for each......-100 years) and a male/female ratio of 1.23:1. Patients can be registered with any of 42 different subtypes according to the World Health Organization classifications. CONCLUSION: LYFO is a nationwide database for all lymphoma patients in Denmark and includes detailed information. This information is used...
Singla, Rashmi; Sriram, Sujata
This paper explores motivations of Indian partner in mixed Indian-Danish couples living in Denmark. One of the characteristics of modernity is increased movements across borders, leading to increased intimate relationships across national/ethnic borders. The main research question here deals...... with the reasons for couple ‘getting together’. How do motives interplay with the gender- and the family generational, socio -economical categories? The paper draws from an explorative study conducted in Denmark among intermarried couples, consisting of in-depth interviews with ten ‘ordinary’ intermarried couples...... (TEM), transnationalism and a phenomenological approach to sexual desire and love. We find that there are three different pathways, highlighting commonality of work identity, a cosmopolitan identity and academic interests, where differential changing patterns of privileges and power are also evoked...
Poulsen, Mads; Elbro, Carsten; Møller, Helene Lykke
Purpose: Dyslexia is a long lasting problem in learning to decode written words accurately and fluently. This definition suggests that dyslexia remains sufficiently constant to be assessed reliably with just one wide-range test across all educational levels. The current study investigated...... this possibility by asking whether students who receive special support in reading differ from other students on the same scale of decoding across all educational levels. Method: Decoding and spelling measures from a newly developed, web-based Danish dyslexia test were taken from 1564 students from Grade 3...... 9. Measures of decoding difficulties were reliably associated with current practices for referral to special support at all educational levels. On average, students receiving special support performed at the 5th percentile of the unselected groups. The results suggest that a wide-range test...
Videbech, Poul Bror Hemming; Deleuran, Anette
AIM OF DATABASE: The purpose of the Danish Depression Database (DDD) is to monitor and facilitate the improvement of the quality of the treatment of depression in Denmark. Furthermore, the DDD has been designed to facilitate research. STUDY POPULATION: Inpatients as well as outpatients...... with depression, aged above 18 years, and treated in the public psychiatric hospital system were enrolled. MAIN VARIABLES: Variables include whether the patient has been thoroughly somatically examined and has been interviewed about the psychopathology by a specialist in psychiatry. The Hamilton score as well...... as an evaluation of the risk of suicide are measured before and after treatment. Whether psychiatric aftercare has been scheduled for inpatients and the rate of rehospitalization are also registered. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: The database was launched in 2011. Every year since then ~5,500 inpatients and 7,500 outpatients...
Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Lous, Jørgen; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi; Homøe, Preben
Otitis media is the primary cause of antibiotic prescription in children. Two-thirds of all children experience at least one episode of otitis media before the age of 7 years. The aim of this study was to characterise the attributable effect of several modifiable risk exposures on the risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at age 18 months and 7 years within a large prospective national birth cohort. The study used the Danish National Birth Cohort comprising information about otitis media and risk exposures from more than 50,000 mother-child pairs from the period 1996-2002. Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios for the risk factors and to calculate the population attributable fraction. Short time with breastfeeding, early introduction to daycare, cesarean section, and low compliance to the national vaccination program were all associated with an increased risk of >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months of age and at 7 years of age. The fraction of children with otitis media attributed from breastfeeding lasting for less than 6 months was 10%. Introduction to daycare before the age of 12 months attributed with 20% of the cases of >3 episodes of otitis media. Short duration of breastfeeding, early introduction into daycare, cesarean section, and low compliance with the national vaccination program increased the risk of experiencing >3 episodes of otitis media at 18 months, and at 7 years of age. These are factors that all can be modulated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khashan, Ali S
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of prenatal exposure to severe life events on risk of affective disorders in the offspring. METHODS: In a cohort of 1.1 million Danish births from May 1978 until December 1997, mothers were considered exposed if one (or more) of their close relatives died or was diagnosed with serious illness up to 6 months before conception or during pregnancy. Offspring were followed up from their 10th birthday until their death, migration, onset of affective disorder or 31 December 2007; hospital admissions were identified by linkage to the Central Psychiatric Register. Log-linear Poisson regression was used for data analysis. RESULTS: The risk of affective disorders was increased in male offspring whose mothers were exposed to severe life events during the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.55 [95% CI 1.05-2.28]). There was an increased risk of male offspring affective disorders in relation to maternal exposure to death of a relative in the second trimester (adjusted RR 1.74 [95% CI 1.06-2.84]) or serious illness in a relative before pregnancy (adjusted RR 1.44 [95% CI 1.02-2.05]). There was no evidence for an association between prenatal exposure to severe life events and risk of female offspring affective disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Our population-based study suggests that prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events may increase the risk of affective disorders in male offspring. These findings are consistent with studies of populations exposed to famine and earthquake disasters which indicate that prenatal environment may influence the neurodevelopment of the unborn child.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients with advanced chronic kidney disease are referred late to renal units. This is associated with negative aspects. The purpose of the present study was to characterize late versus early referrals for renal replacement therapy including their renal disease, health care contacts and medical treatment before renal replacement therapy (RRT and the consequences for RRT modality and mortality. Methods Nationwide cohort study including 4495 RRT patients identified in the Danish Nephrology Registry 1999–2006. The cohort was followed to end 2007 by linkage to other national registries. Late referral: follow-up ≤16 weeks in renal unit before RRT start. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk of mortality or waiting list status within 365 days in late referrals versus early referrals. Results A total of 1727 (38% incident RRT patients were referred late. Among these, 72% were treated in non-nephrology hospital departments and 91% in general practice 2 years to 16 weeks before RRT start. Fewer late referrals received recommended pre-RRT treatment as judged by renin-angiotensin-system blockade: 32% versus 57% or the D-vitamin analogue alfacalcidol: 5% versus 30% (P Conclusions Late nephrology referrals were well-known to the healthcare system before referral for RRT start and more often had near normal plasma creatinine levels within 2 years before RRT start. They infrequently received available treatment or optimal first RRT modality. An increased effort to identify these patients in the healthcare system in time for proper pre-dialysis care including preparation for RRT is needed.
Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Statnikov, Alexander; Andersen, Søren B; Madsen, Trine; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R
Pre-deployment identification of soldiers at risk for long-term posttraumatic stress psychopathology after home coming is important to guide decisions about deployment. Early post-deployment identification can direct early interventions to those in need and thereby prevents the development of chronic psychopathology. Both hold significant public health benefits given large numbers of deployed soldiers, but has so far not been achieved. Here, we aim to assess the potential for pre- and early post-deployment prediction of resilience or posttraumatic stress development in soldiers by application of machine learning (ML) methods. ML feature selection and prediction algorithms were applied to a prospective cohort of 561 Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 to identify unique risk indicators and forecast long-term posttraumatic stress responses. Robust pre- and early postdeployment risk indicators were identified, and included individual PTSD symptoms as well as total level of PTSD symptoms, previous trauma and treatment, negative emotions, and thought suppression. The predictive performance of these risk indicators combined was assessed by cross-validation. Together, these indicators forecasted long term posttraumatic stress responses with high accuracy (pre-deployment: AUC = 0.84 (95% CI = 0.81-0.87), post-deployment: AUC = 0.88 (95% CI = 0.85-0.91)). This study utilized a previously collected data set and was therefore not designed to exhaust the potential of ML methods. Further, the study relied solely on self-reported measures. Pre-deployment and early post-deployment identification of risk for long-term posttraumatic psychopathology are feasible and could greatly reduce the public health costs of war. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Peter Holmberg Jørgensen,1 Gunnar Schwarz Lausten,2 Alma B Pedersen3 1Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Tumor Section, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, 3Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark Aim: The aim of the database is to gather information about sarcomas treated in Denmark in order to continuously monitor and improve the quality of sarcoma treatment in a local, a national, and an international perspective. Study population: Patients in Denmark diagnosed with a sarcoma, both skeletal and ekstraskeletal, are to be registered since 2009. Main variables: The database contains information about appearance of symptoms; date of receiving referral to a sarcoma center; date of first visit; whether surgery has been performed elsewhere before referral, diagnosis, and treatment; tumor characteristics such as location, size, malignancy grade, and growth pattern; details on treatment (kind of surgery, amount of radiation therapy, type and duration of chemotherapy; complications of treatment; local recurrence and metastases; and comorbidity. In addition, several quality indicators are registered in order to measure the quality of care provided by the hospitals and make comparisons between hospitals and with international standards. Descriptive data: Demographic patient-specific data such as age, sex, region of living, comorbidity, World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases – tenth edition codes and TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours, and date of death (after yearly coupling to the Danish Civil Registration System. Data quality and completeness are currently secured. Conclusion: The Danish Sarcoma Database is population based and includes sarcomas occurring in Denmark since 2009. It is a valuable tool for monitoring sarcoma incidence and quality of treatment and its improvement, postoperative
Pecini, Redi; Cedergreen, Pernille Kallerup; Theilade, Simone
The prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Danish population is not known.......The prevalence of the Brugada-type electrocardiogram (ECG) in the Danish population is not known....
Andersen, Vibeke; Ernst, Anja; Sventoraityte, Jurgita
the combined Baltic, Danish, and Norwegian panel versus the combined German, British, Belgian, and Greek panel (rs7520292 (P = 0.001), rs12518307 (P = 0.007), and rs2395609 (TCP11) (P = 0.01), respectively). No SNP reached genome-wide significance in the combined analyses of all the panels. Conclusions......Background: Differences in the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease between different European countries and ethnicities have previously been reported. In the present study, we wanted to assess the role of 11 newly identified UC risk variants, derived from a recent European UC genome...... wide association study (GWAS) (Franke et al., 2010), for 1) association with UC in the Nordic countries, 2) for population heterogeneity between the Nordic countries and the rest of Europe, and, 3) eventually, to drive some of the previous findings towards overall genome-wide significance. Methods...
Hvolgaard Mikkelsen, Susanne; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, Jørn; Niclasen, Janni; Bech, Bodil Hammer
To examine the association between maternal caffeine consumption from coffee and tea during pregnancy and offspring behavioral disorders. We studied 47 491 children enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Data on maternal coffee and tea consumption was collected at 15 and 30 weeks of gestation. When the child was 11 years old, the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire was filled in by children, parents, and teachers. We estimated risk ratios (RRs) for offspring behavioral disorders. At 15 weeks of gestation 3% and 4% of the pregnant women consumed ≥8 cups/d of coffee or tea, respectively. Maternal coffee consumption ≥8 cups/d at 15 weeks of gestation was associated with increased risk of hyperactivity-inattention disorder (RR 1.47; 95% CI 1.18-1.83), conduct-oppositional disorders (RR 1.22; 95% CI 1.01-1.48), and any psychiatric disorder (RR 1.23; 95% CI 1.08-1.40). Maternal tea consumption ≥8 cups/d at 15 weeks of gestation was associated with increased risk of anxiety-depressive disorders (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.09-1.52) and any psychiatric disorder (RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.11-1.40). An increased risk of hyperactivity-inattention disorder was observed with increasing daily caffeine consumption at 15 weeks of gestation. High maternal caffeine consumption from coffee and tea at 15 weeks of gestation was associated with behavioral disorders in 11-year-old offspring. We hypothesize that caffeine exposure may affect the fetal brain and program for behavioral disorders later in life. The fetal brain seems to be more sensitive to caffeine exposure at 15 weeks of pregnancy compared with 30 weeks of gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background An interrelationship between hypothyroidism and glaucoma, due to a shared autoimmune background or based on deposition of mucopolysaccharides in the trabecular meshwork in the eye, has been suggested but is at present unsubstantiated. Therefore, our objective was to investigate, at a nationwide and population-based level, whether there is such an association. Subjects and methods Observational cohort study using record-linkage data from nationwide Danish health registers. 121,799 individuals diagnosed with a first episode of hypothyroidism were identified and were matched with 4 non-hypothyroid controls according to age and sex. Prevalence of glaucoma was recorded and cases and controls were followed over a mean of 7.1 years (range 0–17). Logistic and Cox regression models were used to assess the risk of glaucoma before and after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, respectively. Results Overall, we found a higher prevalence of glaucoma in subjects with hypothyroidism as compared to controls (4.6% vs. 4.3%, p hypothyroidism, the odds ratio (OR) was significantly increased for glaucoma [1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–1.13]. Based on the Cox regression model, there was no increased risk of glaucoma after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism [hazard ratio (HR) 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96–1.06], and the HR decreased further after adjusting for pre-existing co-morbidity (0.88; 95% CI: 0.84–0.93). Conclusions There was an increased risk of glaucoma before but not after the diagnosis of hypothyroidism, suggesting that screening for glaucoma in hypothyroid individuals is unwarranted. PMID:29444121
Harreby, M; Nygaard, B; Jessen, T; Larsen, E; Storr-Paulsen, A; Lindahl, A; Fisker, I; Laegaard, E
This study was designed as a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of low back pain (LBP) in 13- to 16-year-old Danish school children. The cohort consisted of 671 boys and 718 girls in eighth and ninth grade in 46 municipal schools in three counties of Sealand. All the pupils filled in a questionnaire with LBP as the main topic and were at the same time examined by the school doctors. The first part of the questionnaire contained questions about leisure time sports activity, TV watching, PC use, job in leisure time and smoking. The second part dealt with LBP in relation to frequency and severity, influence on daily living and use of the health system. The school doctor measured body height and weight, (BMI), degree of hypermobility and the tightness of the hamstring muscles. The results showed a cumulative life-time prevalence of LBP of 58.9%, a 1-year prevalence of 50.8% and an increase in LBP prevalence of 6.4% from 14 to 15 years of age, independent of gender. Fourteen percent (141 F, 54 M) fulfilled the criteria for general hypermobility and 12.2% (45 F, 124 M) had tightness of hamstring muscles of more than 40 degrees. Recurrent/continuous LBP in a moderate to severe degree was recorded in 19.4% of children (182 F, 88 M). This was positively correlated to female gender, BMI more than 25 kg/m(2), competitive sport for boys, poor physical fitness, daily smoking, heavy jobs in leisure time, increased use of the health system and reduced life quality. Stepwise logistic regression analysis indicates that female gender, daily smoking and heavy jobs are important associated factors for severe LBP in adolescents, with an observed probability of 46% if all factors are present. We don't know yet whether these factors are of any causal importance in the development of severe LBP.
Leite, Mimmi; Albieri, Vanna; Kjaer, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan
To examine the association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk for congenital malformations. Population-based prospective cohort study. Denmark. A total of 838 265 singleton liveborn babies delivered in Denmark between 1997 and 2010 and registered in the Danish Medical Birth Register containing detailed information on smoking during pregnancy and congenital malformations. Associations [odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI] between maternal smoking and risk for various groups of congenital malformations, investigated using the generalized estimating equation for binary outcomes, with adjustment for potential confounders. Groups of congenital malformations. Ever smoking during pregnancy did not increase the overall risk for congenital malformations, but increased risks were observed for multiple malformations (i.e. when two or more malformations are diagnosed in a child) (odds ratio 1.06, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.10) and various main groups of congenital malformations including the cardiovascular system (odds ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.19), the respiratory system (odds ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.11-1.41), the digestive system (odds ratio 1.15, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.24) and oral clefts (odds ratio 1.29, 95% confidence interval 1.14-1.46), as well as for some specific congenital malformations including cardiac septal defects, malformations of the pulmonary and tricuspid valves, malformations of the great arteries, pyloric stenosis and clubfoot. Infants of women who quit smoking during the first two trimesters had no increased risk for most groups of congenital malformations. Maternal smoking increases the risk for a number of congenital malformations. Future smoking cessation programs should focus on this adverse health aspect in order to encourage more women to quit smoking before or in early pregnancy. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Schmidt Morgen, C; Andersen, A M N; Due, P; Neelon, S B; Gamborg, M; Sørensen, T I A
Overweight may hinder achievement of gross motor milestones and delayed achievement of milestones may increase the risk of later overweight for reasons involving physical activity and the building of lean body mass. To investigate whether increased birth weight and body mass index (BMI) at 5 months is associated with the achievement of the ability to sit up and walk and whether delayed achievement of these milestones is associated with overweight at age 7 years. We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort on 25,148 children born between 1998 and 2003. Follow-up took place from 2003 to 2010. Mean age at follow-up was 7.04 years. We used logistic and linear regression analyses. Birth weight and BMI at 5 months were marginally associated with earlier achievement of the ability to sit up and walk (regression coefficients between -0.027 months; [CI -0.042; -0.013] and -0.092 months [CI -0.118; -0.066]). Age in months of sitting and walking were not associated with overweight at age 7 years (ORs between 0.97 [CI 0.95-1.00] and 1.00 [CI 0.96-1.04]). Later achievement of sitting and walking predicted lower BMI at age 7 years (ln-BMI -z-scores between -0.023 [CI -0.029; -0.017] and -0.005 [CI -0.015; 0.005)). All observed associations were of negligible magnitude and we conclude that birth weight or BMI at age 5 months and motor milestones appear largely independent of each other and that timing of achievement of motor milestones seems not to be associated with later overweight or increased BMI. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatric Obesity © 2013 International Association for the Study of Obesity.
Hannerz, Harald; Soll-Johanning, Helle
In keeping with the need to protect the safety and health of workers, the EU Working Time Directive stipulates that a worker's average working time for each 7-day period, including overtime, does not exceed 48 h. It has, however, not been settled whether or not the threshold at 48 working hours a week is low enough to protect against excess mortality from long work weeks. The aim of the present study was to examine all-cause mortality in relation to weekly working hours among employees in the general population of Denmark. A special attention was given to mortality rates among employees with moderately long work weeks, 41-48 h. Interview data from cohorts of 20-64 year-old employees were drawn from the Danish Labour Force Survey. The participants (N = 159 933) were followed through national registers from the end of the calendar year of the interview (1999-2013) until the end of 2014. Rate ratios (RRs) for all-cause mortality were estimated as a function of weekly working hours while controlling for age, sex, social class, night-time work and calendar year. We found 3374 deaths during an average follow-up time of 7.7 years. With 32-40 working hours a week as reference, the RRs for all-cause mortality were 0.75 (95% CI: 0.66-0.85) for 41-48 and 0.92 (0.80-1.05) for >48 h. Mortality rates in Denmark are significantly lower among employees with moderately long work weeks than they are among full-time employees without overtime work.
Full Text Available Kristian Antonsen,1 Charlotte Vallentin Rosenstock,2 Lars Hyldborg Lundstrøm2 1Board of Directors, Copenhagen University Hospital, Bispebjerg and Frederiksberg Hospital, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Nordsjællands Hospital-Hillerød, Capital Region of Denmark, Denmark Aim of database: The aim of the Danish Anaesthesia Database (DAD is the nationwide collection of data on all patients undergoing anesthesia. Collected data are used for quality assurance, quality development, and serve as a basis for research projects. Study population: The DAD was founded in 2004 as a part of Danish Clinical Registries (Regionernes Kliniske Kvalitetsudviklings Program [RKKP]. Patients undergoing general anesthesia, regional anesthesia with or without combined general anesthesia as well as patients under sedation are registered. Data are retrieved from public and private anesthesia clinics, single-centers as well as multihospital corporations across Denmark. In 2014 a total of 278,679 unique entries representing a national coverage of ~70% were recorded, data completeness is steadily increasing. Main variable: Records are aggregated for determining 13 defined quality indicators and eleven defined complications all covering the anesthetic process from the preoperative assessment through anesthesia and surgery until the end of the postoperative recovery period. Descriptive data: Registered variables include patients' individual social security number (assigned to all Danes and both direct patient-related lifestyle factors enabling a quantification of patients' comorbidity as well as variables that are strictly related to the type, duration, and safety of the anesthesia. Data and specific data combinations can be extracted within each department in order to monitor patient treatment. In addition, an annual DAD report is a benchmark for departments nationwide. Conclusion: The DAD is covering the
Damstrup, Camilla Vantore
and investigated the patients' medical files with regard to complications. In 29 pleuracentesises and 43 laparocentesises only one pneumothorax was registered (3.4%). This is comparable to previous studies and may suggest that it is safe to perform these procedures bedside in cancer patients with no complications....
Østgård, Lene Sofie Granfeldt; Nørgaard, Jan Maxwell; Raaschou-Jensen, Klas Kræsten
AIM OF DATABASE: The main aim of the Danish National Acute Leukemia Registry (DNLR) was to obtain information about the epidemiology of the hematologic cancers acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). STUDY POPULATION: The registry...... was established in January 2000 by the Danish Acute Leukemia Group and has been expanded over the years. It includes adult AML patients diagnosed in Denmark since 2000, ALL patients diagnosed since 2005, and MDS patients diagnosed since 2010. The coverage of leukemia patients exceeds 99%, and the coverage of MDS...... years. To ensure this high coverage, completeness, and quality of data, linkage to the Danish Civil Registration System and the Danish National Registry of Patients, and several programmed data entry checks are used. CONCLUSION: The completeness and positive predictive values of the leukemia data have...
Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten
are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry and this work was recently finished. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study......The implementation of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... total 15 substances) were found in the Danish printing industry. This paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results on preparing for actual substitutions....
Karstad, Kristina; Jørgensen, Anette F B; Greiner, Birgit A; Burdorf, Alex; Søgaard, Karen; Rugulies, Reiner; Holtermann, Andreas
Purpose Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs), sickness absence and premature retirement are highly prevalent among eldercare workers. We conducted a prospective observational workplace study with the main purpose to investigate longitudinal associations between physical and psychosocial working conditions and occurrence of MSD and its consequences (pain-related interference with daily work activities and sickness absence) among Danish eldercare workers. Participants At 20 Danish nursing homes, a total of 941 eldercare workers employed in day and evening shifts were invited to the study. Of those, 553 participated in the baseline measurements, and 441 completed the total period of 12 months follow-up. Findings to date Data were collected from September 2013 to January 2016. Physical and psychosocial working conditions were assessed with multiple methods (observations, accelerometer measurements and work schedules), and multiple levels of information (nursing home, ward, resident and eldercare worker) were incorporated in the data collection. MSD and the consequences hereof were assessed monthly during a 1-year follow-up. Study participants and non-participants were comparable on most of the 27 sociodemographic, health and working condition characteristics at baseline. The exceptions were higher neck–shoulder pain intensity, less sickness absence, more exposure to negative behaviour from residents and a higher percentage of working day shifts and fewer evening shifts among participants compared with non-participants. Future plans The first publications will report on the associations of physical and psychosocial working conditions with occurrence of MSD and its consequences. In addition, the cohort gives the opportunity to investigate the importance of organisational, management and team factors for distribution of physical work demands and development of MSD among the workers. This will provide important knowledge for future workplace interventions to reduce MSD and
Pottegård, Anton; Bjerregaard, B. K.; Kortegaard, L. S.
Knowledge of patterns of treatment discontinuation in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) drug treatment is of importance, for both the clinical practice and the study of long-term treatment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to describe early discontinuation of ADHD drug treatme...
Johansen, Birgitte Schepelern
The academic study of religion at the public university often presents itself as a secular, non-religious, scientific endeavor. The identity of the study is thus firmly rooted within one of the central secular-religious divides, namely that between science and religion. Based on the assumption that such distinctions between religion and the…
Ellervik, Christina; Kvetny, Jan; Christensen, Kaj Sparle
to describe the prevalence of antidepressants received by the respondents in the GESUS study and the correspondence to their subjective well-being on the WHO-5 questionnaire. Methods: To evaluate the validity (scalability) of the MDI and the WHO-5 in the GESUS study we performed the non-parametric Mokken...
secondary schools emphasize such points in their teaching. Thus, 50 randomly selected mathematics teachers are filmed in one grade 8 math lesson and the dialogue investigated. The study identifies large variations and many influential components. There seems to be room for improvement. In order to examine...... possibilities to strengthen the presence and role of mathematical points in teaching two intervention studies are conducted. First a focus group of 5 of the original 50 teachers from each school are offered peer coaching by the researcher. This study indicates that different teachers appreciate peer coaching...... be supported in significant changes to a point-oriented mathematics teaching. The teachers emphasized joint planning of study lessons, and they regarded the peer coaching after each of these lessons as valuable. The studies with the two teacher groups indicate different opportunities and challenges...
Frederiksen, Henrik; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo
Patients with chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms, including essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), are at increased risk of new hematologic malignancies, but their risk of nonhematologic malignancies remains unknown. In the present study, we...
Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Knop, Joachim; Mortensen, Erik Lykke
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine whether preferred type of alcoholic beverage influences the later risk of alcohol-use disorders (AUD). METHOD: A prospective cohort study was used, comprising three updated measures of alcohol intake and covariates, and 26 years of follow-up data...... on 18,146 individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Denmark. The study population was linked to three different registers to detect AUD registrations. RESULTS: For both genders, wine drinking was associated with lower risk of AUD irrespective of the weekly amount of alcohol consumed. Women...... women or men. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals who include wine when they drink alcohol have lower risks of AUD, independent of the total amount of alcohol consumed. The most likely explanation of these results is that lifestyle factors and personal characteristics are associated with beverage preference....
Gudex, Claire; Horsted, Charlotte; Jensen, Anders Møller
Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care.......Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care....
Lund, Thomas; Labriola, Merete; Christensen, Karl B
return to work. A total of 930 (17.4%) employees experienced sickness absence in the 18 months after baseline. During the 12-month follow-up, 856 (92.0%) returned to work, the mean absence period being 6.6 weeks. Prolonged time to first return to work was associated with female gender, increased age......This study investigates the determinants within socio-demography, health behaviour, employer characteristics, and psychosocial and physical work environment for return to work. In 2000, a total of 5357 employees were interviewed regarding age, gender, family status, education, health behaviour......, no post-school education, being employed by a public employer, working at a workplace with 20 or more employees, high emotional demands in work, high job insecurity and sedentary work. There were no associations between health behaviour variables and return to work. The study indicates a potential...
Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng; Rasmussen, Steen; Bangsgaard, Regitze; Fledelius, Hans Callø; Greisen, Gorm; la Cour, Morten
One goal of the study was to identify "new" statistically independent risk factors for treatment-demanding retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Another goal was to evaluate whether any new risk factors could explain the increase in the incidence of treatment-demanding ROP over time in Denmark. A retrospective, register-based cohort study. The study included premature infants (n = 6490) born in Denmark from 1997 to 2008. The study sample and the 31 candidate risk factors were identified in 3 national registers. Data were linked through a unique civil registration number. Each of the 31 candidate risk factors were evaluated in univariate analyses, while adjusted for known risk factors (i.e., gestational age [GA] at delivery, small for gestational age [SGA], multiple births, and male sex). Significant outcomes were analyzed thereafter in a backward selection multiple logistic regression model. Treatment-demanding ROP and its associations to candidate risk factors. Mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 2.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.99-4.08; P large study population, blood transfusion and mechanical ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment-demanding ROP during a recent birth period (2003-2008). Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Soerensen, Mette; Nygaard, Marianne; Dato, Serena
-old Danes (age 92-93) with 4 phenotypes known to predict their survival: cognitive function, hand grip strength, activity of daily living (ADL), and self-rated health. Based on previous studies in humans and foxo animal models, we also explore self-reported diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease......FOXO3A variation has repeatedly been reported to associate with human longevity, yet only few studies have investigated whether FOXO3A variation also associates with aging-related traits. Here, we investigate the association of 15 FOXO3A tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1088 oldest...... borderline significance (P = 0.054), while ADL did not (P = 0.396). Although the single-SNP associations did not formally replicate in another study population of oldest-old Danes (n = 1279, age 94-100), the estimates were of similar direction of effect as observed in the Discovery sample. A pooled analysis...
Osler, M; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke
registers. Data were pooled data from two population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The association between unemployment at parish level and mortality was examined in Cox proportional hazard analysis. A total of 15 980 men and women, aged 20-67 years and employed at 1 January 1980, were studied...... was also a risk factor (hazard ratio(yes/no) 1.38:1.16-1.64). These estimates attenuated somewhat when other social and behavioural covariates were taken into account. The effects were similar in men and women, but the influence of individuals' unemployment experience during one and five years decreased...... gradually with increasing age. CONCLUSION: This prospective study suggests that high local unemployment and individuals' experience of unemployment increase mortality risk, even after adjustment for other social and behavioural factors....
Tiedemann Svendsen, Mathias; Henningsen, Emil; Hertz, Jens Michael; Vestergaard Grejsen, Dorthe; Bygum, Anette
Ectodermal dysplasias form a complex, nosologic group of diseases with defects in at least 2 ectodermal structures. A retrospective study of patients with ectodermal dysplasia seen at our department over a period of 19 years (1994-2013) was performed. The study population consisted of 67 patients covering 17 different diagnoses. Forty-five families were identified of which 26 were sporadic cases with no affected family members. In 27 tested families a disease-causing mutation was identified in 23 families. Eleven mutations were novel mutations. To our knowledge, we present the first large ectodermal dysplasia cohort focusing on clinical manifestations in combination with mutational analysis. We recommend a nationwide study to estimate the prevalence of the ectodermal dysplasia and to ensure relevant molecular genetic testing which may form the basis of a national ectodermal dysplasia database.
Suárez-Varela, María M Morales; Kaerlev, Linda; Zhu, Jin Liang
In hospitals, women of reproductive age do a range of work tasks, some of which are known to carry potential risks. Tasks such as working with radiation, chemicals, and infectious agents, as well as performing heavy lifting or tasks requiring erratic sleep patterns have been reported to increase...... the risk of reproductive failures. Our aim was to study pregnancy outcomes in female hospital workers in Denmark. We performed a cohort study of 5976 female hospital workers and used as a reference group 60,890 women employed outside of hospitals. The reproductive health of hospital workers working during...... pregnancy is comparable to those of non-hospital workers for the majority of reproductive failures studied. However, an increased prevalence of congenital abnormalities was noted in some subgroups of hospital workers, which may indicate that some hospital work still entails fetotoxic hazards....
Enemark, Heidi L.; Enemark, J. M.D.
. auburnensis was in several cases correlated to diarrhea. These cases however were not diagnosed as coccidiosis. The results warrants further pathogenicity studies of the different Eimeria spp. In addition, it was shown that correct diagnosis of coccidiosis is a challenge and knowledge of the management system......Contrary to the majority of European countries, antiparasiticides are on prescription only in Denmark, thus treatment requires a proper diagnosis made by a veterinarian, and therefore relies on adequate diagnostic procedures. This study was performed to obtain information about presence of Eimeria...... identified so far. Of the faecal samples included in the study 7% had a firm/ normal consistency, 81% were soft to liquid, and 12 % were watery with blood and/or mucus. Oocyst excretion above 5000 oocysts per gram (OPG) was found in 6.5% of the calves, whereas 12.0% excreted 500-5000 OPG. Clinical...
This paper contributes to the growing literature on the gender gap in computer science education by focusing on an exploratory case study conducted at the IT University of Copenhagen (ITU), Denmark. The specific objective of this study was to draw on existing research in order to empirically...... investigate the main sociocultural barriers to female participation in the bachelor of Software Development at ITU, and to generate insights that would inform concrete and effective interventions. This investigation takes the form of an exploratory case study, providing insights into influential factors...... such as students’ perceptions, attitudes and behavior towards software development education and gender differences in pre-university coding skills. Empirical evidence has been collected through semi-structured interviews with 38 students (undergraduate and high school) and surveys with 395 students (undergraduate...
Haerskjold, Ann; Henriksen, Lonny; Way, Susanne
BACKGROUND: National prescription databases are important tools in pharmacoepidemiological studies investigating potential long-term adverse events after drug use. Palivizumab is a biological pharmaceutical used as passive prophylaxis against severe infection with respiratory syncytial virus...... of palivizumab exposure in the DNPR between 1999 and 2010 was compared to two external data sources: registration of palivizumab exposure in medical records, and palivizumab reimbursement data. RESULTS: During the study period, 182 children with palivizumab exposure were registered in the DNPR. A total of 207...... slightly increased the sensitivity of palivizumab registration in the DNPR. Our findings underline the need to improve DNPR information concerning drugs administered in hospitals....
Ingerslev, Morten; Skov, Simon; Sevel, Lisbeth
Harvest of forest biomass for energy production may lead to a significant export of nutrients from the forest. Ash spreading and recycling of nutrients from wood chip combustion to the forest has come into focus as a means for counteracting the nutrient export. This study was carried out to examine...... the retention of various elements in the different ash fractions and utilise the nutrient recovery to evaluate the fertiliser quality of the examined ash. The mass and element flux of wood chips, bottom ash, cyclone fly ash and condensation sludge at Ebeltoft central heating plant was studied over a four day...
Hoffmann, Thomas; Iturriza, Miren; Faaborg-Andersen, Jens
This was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at both hospital and general physician (GP) clinics in Denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (RV) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (GE) among children......This was the first study to characterize the total burden of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) at both hospital and general physician (GP) clinics in Denmark, and also the first to confirm rotavirus (RV) as the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis (GE) among children...
Abdallah, Morsi; Larsen, Nanna Brink; Grove, Jakob
Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls.......Elevated levels of chemokines have been reported in plasma and brain tissue of individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The aim of this study was to examine chemokine levels in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of individuals diagnosed with ASD and their controls....
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonveterans...... and nonveterans in the incidence rate of long-term sickness absence. After an initial short period (3 months) with elevated incidence rate of long-term absence from work among veterans, there was no difference between the cohorts. CONCLUSION: Among Danish Gulf War Veterans, no postdeployment increased risk...... outcomes and information on deployment history was studied using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until April 27, 2014. RESULTS: As the main finding, no difference was found between veterans...
Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.
Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring...
Review of current Danish research and development on energy, with the main weight laid on public financing. Based on this review, a proposal is presented for extended research and development i Denmark. (B.P.)
Sørensen, Sarah Mejer; Bjørn, Signe Frahm; Jochumsen, Kirsten Marie
AIM OF DATABASE: The Danish Gynecological Cancer Database (DGCD) is a nationwide clinical cancer database and its aim is to monitor the treatment quality of Danish gynecological cancer patients, and to generate data for scientific purposes. DGCD also records detailed data on the diagnostic measures...... data forms as follows: clinical data, surgery, pathology, pre- and postoperative care, complications, follow-up visits, and final quality check. DGCD is linked with additional data from the Danish "Pathology Registry", the "National Patient Registry", and the "Cause of Death Registry" using the unique...... Danish personal identification number (CPR number). DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Data from DGCD and registers are available online in the Statistical Analysis Software portal. The DGCD forms cover almost all possible clinical variables used to describe gynecological cancer courses. The only limitation...
Hertel, Ole; Geels, Camilla; Frohn, Lise
and ammonium (reaction products of nitrogen oxides and ammonia), but also dry deposition of other reactive nitrogen compounds (mainly nitrogen oxides in the form of gas phase nitric acid and nitrogen dioxide). In Denmark's environmental management of the sensitive terrestrial ecosystems modelling tools...... are required that account for both the local and the long-range transported contributions. This motivated development of the Danish Ammonia MOdelling System (DAMOS) that has been successfully applied to the assessment of atmospheric nitrogen loadings to sensitive Danish ecosystems. We present here three...... different examples of such assessments. Our results show that ecosystems located in Western Denmark (Case 1) receive the highest loads of atmospheric nitrogen depositions which generally exceed the critical load. This part of the country has the highest livestock density. In the Eastern part of the country...
Pedersen, Susanne S; Mathiasen, Kim; Christensen, Karl Bang
OBJECTIVE: To assess the psychometric properties of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), a measure of depressive symptoms, in a large Danish national cohort of patients with heart disease, implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), using item response theory. METHODS: A ...... of nine items for the partial credit model and five of nine items for the generalized partial credit model, indicating that respondents have difficulty discriminating between response options. When collapsing response options 2 and 3, the rescored PHQ-9 had a better fit to both models....... Three items did not fit the partial credit model, but the generalized partial credit model could be fitted to the full item set. CONCLUSION: The unidimensionality and reliability of the Danish version of the PHQ-9 were confirmed. However, the associated consequences of the number of response options (3...
Sørensen, Johanne Korsdal; Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Bruun, Niels Henrik
Dette studie undersøger danske lægers forbrug af alkohol og stoffer/medicin [substansforbrug], herunder deres selv-rapporterede bedømmelse af eget forbrug og håndtering af lægefaglige kollegers substansforbrug. Resultaterne viser, at 19 procent af deltagerne har et ”risikobetonet” (potentielt ska...
Lundberg, Kristian; Tarp, Jakob; Vestergaard, Anders Højslet
Our objective was to determine associations between retinal vascular caliber and physical activity (PA) in a school-based child cohort. In a prospective study we created a childhood cumulative average PA-index using objectively measured PA (accelerometry) assessed at four periods between 2009...
Pottegård, Anton; Hallas, J.; Hernandez, Diaz
BackgroundPrevious studies from North America and Iceland have shown that the youngest children within a grade are up to twice as likely to be diagnosed and treated for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared with their older classmates. We aimed to investigate whether younger ag...
Sahm, Laura; Kelly, Maria; McCarthy, Suzanne
AIM: Fever and febrile illness are some of the most common conditions managed by parents. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of parents around fever in children under five years of age. METHODS: Between July and August 2014, a convenience sample of parents...
Sahana, Goutam; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens Sandø
A total of 22 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were detected on 19 chromosomes for direct and maternal calving traits in cattle using a genome-wide association study. Calving performance is affected by the genotypes of both the calf (direct effect) and dam (maternal effect). To identify the QTL cont...
Linneberg, A; Nielsen, N H; Madsen, F
Numerous studies have reported increases in asthma prevalence among children world-wide. Less is known about similar trends in adults. We aimed to investigate whether the prevalence of allergic asthma symptoms had increased in an adult general population. Two cross-sectional surveys using identical......, the prevalence of allergic asthma symptoms increased significantly in this adult general population over a 9-year period....
Quinto Romani, A.; Klausen, T. B.
It has been claimed that physical activity has a positive effect on not only health but also on school performance. Using data from a randomised school-intervention study, this paper investigates whether different interventions promoting physical activity affect school performance in primary school children. The results indicate that on average,…
Pizarro Alonso, Amalia Rosa; Münster, Marie; Petrovic, Stefan
This study addresses the challenge of including geographical information related to waste resources, energy demands and production plants, and transport options in the optimization of waste management. It analyses how waste may serve as an energy source through thermal conversion and anaerobic di...
Munk, Martin D.; Thomsen, Jens Peter
In this paper we use register data to investigate social stratification within fields of study and university institutions in Denmark. We argue firstly, that it is important to utilize a relatively detailed classification of parents’ occupation, in order to single out how students are endowed wit...
Lundgren, Jennifer D; Williams, Karen B; Heitmann, Berit L
The relationship between nocturnal eating, such as that associated with night eating syndrome (NES), and oral health is unknown. This study sought to determine if nocturnal eating is related to tooth loss in a large, epidemiologic sample. Danes (N=2217; age range 30-60 years, M BMI [kg/m(2...
Hamming, Marie B.; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Leth, Torben
-ships/ferries, 11 % from fishing boats and 9 % from supplier ships. Of the 4 minimum demands only anamnesis were documented 100 %. For allergy, previous and actually medicine use information only were present in 20 - 35 % of the cases. The study could not answer the question on differentiated education, as the used...
Christiansen, Lene; Lenart, Adam; Tan, Qihua
included a 10-year longitudinal study of the 86 oldest-old twins (mean age of 86.1 at follow-up), which subsequently were followed for mortality for 8 years. We found that the DNAm age is highly correlated with chronological age across all age groups (r = 0.97), but that the rate of change of DNAm age...
Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Frederiksen, Kirsten
for survivors of cervix cancer, who had an increased risk for divorce, we found that cancer survivors were not at greater risk for divorce than the general population (rate ratios (RR), 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0;1.1 and RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.9;1.0 for women and men, respectively). This finding shows......The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for divorce among cancer survivors. We conducted a nationwide, population-based study of 46,303 persons aged 30-60 years in whom selected cancers were diagnosed in 1981-2000 and 221,028 randomly sampled, cancer-free controls. Information...... that cancer survivors need not have unnecessary fears for their marriage....
Jepsen, Ingrid; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Nøhr, Ellen Ågaard
is essential to women (1, 2, 3) and because evidence shows that continuity of care seems to promote uncomplicated births (4-8). International studies indicate that midwives’ perspectives on caseload midwifery are varied (9-11). Purpose/Objective: The aim of this study is to advance knowledge about the working...... and pressure to perform well and the disadvantages to the midwives’ personal lives are counterbalanced by the feeling of doing a meaningful and important job. Working in caseload midwifery creates a feeling of working in a self-governing model within the public hospital, without losing the technological...... benefits of a modern birth unit. Midwives in caseload midwifery worked on welcoming and including all pregnant women allocated to their care. Discussion: In expanding caseload midwifery, it is necessary to understand that the midwives’ personal lives need to be prepared for this work-form. The number...
Dahl, Marie; Frost, Lars; Søgaard, Rikke
of this study was to investigate the prevalence of CVD and DM as well as the acceptability toward screening and preventive actions. Methods: An observational study was performed among all women born in 1936, 1941, 1946 and 1951 living in Viborg Municipality, Denmark, from October 2011. In total, 1984 were...... and/or CP. Participants with AAA ≥ 50 mm were referred to specialists in vascular surgery. Women with AF or potential familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) were referred to cardiology work-up. Results: Among those invited, 1474 (74.3%) attended screening, but the attendees’ share decreased......Abstract Background: Reducing women’s cardiovascular risk and the economic costs associated with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes (DM) continues to be a challenge. Whether a multifaceted CVD screening programme is beneficial as a preventive strategy in women remains uncertain. The aim...
Madsen, Charlotte Øland
In the paper the methodological challenges of conducting a sensemaking case study will be discussed. Different methods will be evaluated based on theoretical aspects and via a presentation of the preliminary data collected in the research project. The research project is based on some of the deve......In the paper the methodological challenges of conducting a sensemaking case study will be discussed. Different methods will be evaluated based on theoretical aspects and via a presentation of the preliminary data collected in the research project. The research project is based on some...... of the developments in the field of organisation, strategy and IT system research, that draws on the work of social interactionist, social constructivistic, sensemaking and ethnomethodological research (Burell & Morgan. 1979; Schutz, 1953, 1964; Berger & Luckmann, 1966; Weick, 1995). The scope is to follow...
Povlsen, Lene; Olsen, Birthe; Ladelund, Steen
focusing on immigrant families with children with type 1 diabetes is described. The intervention included the development of adapted educational material and guidelines, and a subsequent re-education of children, adolescents and parents from 37 families. The study demonstrated that it was possible......Ethnic minorities may constitute vulnerable groups within Western health care systems as their ability to master severe chronic diseases could be affected by barriers such as different culture and health/illness beliefs, communication problems and limited educational background. An intervention...... to improve health outcome. During the study, the knowledge of diabetes increased, but with considerable differences between the families. HbA(1c) also decreased significantly during the intervention, but increased during follow-up. The paper discusses possible explanations and suggestions for optimising...
Bonde, Jens Peter; Brixen Larsen, S; Abell, Anne Færge
Several reports indicate a secular decline of human sperm counts. It is still not known if these findings are artifacts related to shortcomings in the data and applied methodologies. Even less is known about possible mechanisms, but it has been proposed that potential changes may be related to di...... to disruption of the hormonal regulation of testicular development in prenatal life. The objective of this study was to examine whether sperm count was related to year of birth....
Nørgård, Bente; Hundborg, Heidi H; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius
OBJECTIVES: CD is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, but existing studies have not assessed the impact of disease activity during pregnancy. We examined the impact of disease activity on birth outcomes: LBW, preterm birth, LBW at term, and CAs. METHODS: All births by CD wom...... disease activity). Further research is needed to assess the critical impact of disease activity in larger cohorts of CD women....
This paper explores sort humor ‘black humour’, a key concept in Danish conversational humour. Sort forms part of larger class of Danish synaesthetic humour metaphors that includes other categories such as tør ‘dry’, syg ‘sick’, and fed ‘fat’. Taking an ethnopragmatic perspective on humour discour...... a “pseudo-esoteric” illusion whose main function is to either establish or enhance a feeling of “groupy togetherness”....
la Cour, Lisbeth Funding; Møllgård, Peter
We test econometrically whether the sole Danish producer of cement holds a dominant position in the Danish market for (grey) cement. In import penetration tests, we find that its pricing and quantity decisions are independent of import price and quantity, implying that it can act to a considerable extent independently of its competitors. We also test whether it can act independently of its customers and find that its demand is inelastic with respect to its price. It thus holds a dominant posi...
Full Text Available Background. In 1998, Denmark introduced the flex job scheme to ensure employment of people with a permanent reduced work capacity. This study investigated the association between select diagnoses and the risk of disability pension among persons eligible for the scheme. Methods. Using the national DREAM database we identified all persons eligible for the flex job scheme from 2001 to 2008. This information piece was linked to the hospital discharge registry. Selected participants were followed for 5 years. Results. From the 72,629 persons identified, our study included 329 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, 10,120 patients with spine disorders, 2179 patients with ischemic heart disease, and 1765 patients with functional disorders. A reduced risk of disability pension was found in the group with rheumatoid arthritis (hazard ratio = 0.69 (0.53–0.90 compared to the group with spine disorders. No differences were found when comparing ischemic heart disease and functional disorders. Employment during the first 3 months of the flex job scheme increased the degree of employment for all groups. Conclusion. Differences in the risk of disability pension were identified only in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. This study demonstrates the importance of obtaining employment immediately after allocation to the flex job scheme, regardless of diagnosis.
The Commission of the European Communities has asked utilities in the member countries to carry out a coordinated study of the wind energy potential. The main objective is to show the consequences for the future electricity system when integrating wind power production covering 5, 10 or 15% of total demand. In addition to the best estimate scenario believed to be operational, some additional calculations have been carried out: wind power production as a negative load only (not operational for the total system); different levels of investment in wind farms. The methodology is based on the following steps: define a reference scenario for year 2000; define an alternative scenario with a certain amount of wind power production; calculate time-series for electrical load and district heating from combined heat/power production; calculate time-series for wind power production; make economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis; show environmental differences. Incorporation of wind power into the ELSAM power system, with the wind energy meeting, about 5% of demand will give rise to additional control capacity, or call for new contracts with neighbouring countries. The study includes estimated network investments. The simulations have been made with the SIM and SLUMP computer programmes. The economic analyses and the sensitivity analyses have been carried out using spreadsheets. The conclusion concerning profitability - based on the best estimate assumptions - is that the studied wind power scenarios are unprofitable. (EG)
The “Muhammad crisis,” the “Muhammad Cartoon Crisis,” or “The Jyllands-Posten Crisis” are three different headings used for the global, violent reactions that broke out in early 2006. The cartoon crisis was triggered by the publication of 12 cartoons in the largest Danish daily newspaper...... theme in IMER studies, which has consequences for most immigrants of non-Western countries to the Nordic countries....
Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Wu, Chun Sen; Laurberg, Peter
Objectives Pregnancy loss in women suffering from hyperthyroidism has been described in case reports, but the risk of pregnancy loss caused by maternal hyperthyroidism in a population is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the association between maternal hyperthyroidism and pregnancy loss in a population-based cohort study. Study Design All pregnancies in Denmark from 1997 to 2008 leading to hospital visits (n = 1,062,862) were identified in nationwide registers together with information on maternal hyperthyroidism for up to 2 years after the pregnancy [hospital diagnosis/prescription of antithyroid drug (ATD)]. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for spontaneous abortion (gestational age hyperthyroidism was diagnosed before/during the pregnancy (n = 5,229), spontaneous abortion occurred more often both in women treated before the pregnancy alone [aHR 1.28 (95% CI 1.18-1.40)] and in women treated with ATD in early pregnancy [1.18 (1.07-1.31)]. When maternal hyperthyroidism was diagnosed and treated for the first time in the 2-year period after the pregnancy (n = 2,361), there was a high risk that the pregnancy under study had terminated with a stillbirth [2.12 (1.30-3.47)]. Conclusions Both early (spontaneous abortion) and late (stillbirth) pregnancy loss were more common in women suffering from hyperthyroidism. Inadequately treated hyperthyroidism in early pregnancy may have been involved in spontaneous abortion, and undetected high maternal thyroid hormone levels present in late pregnancy may have attributed to an increased risk of stillbirth. PMID:25538898
Anne-Sophie Halkjær Christensen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With high short-term mortality and substantial excess morbidity among survivors, tuberculous meningitis (TBM is the most severe manifestation of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term mortality and causes of death in a TBM patient population compared to the background population. METHODS: A nationwide cohort study was conducted enrolling patients notified with TBM in Denmark from 1972-2008 and alive one year after TBM diagnosis. Data was extracted from national registries. From the background population we identified a control cohort of individuals matched on gender and date of birth. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis were used to estimate mortality rate ratios (MRR and analyse causes of death. FINDINGS: A total of 55 TBM patients and 550 individuals from the background population were included in the study. Eighteen patients (32.7% and 107 population controls (19.5% died during the observation period. The overall MRR was 1.79 (95%CI: 1.09-2.95 for TBM patients compared to the population control cohort. TBM patients in the age group 31-60 years at time of diagnosis had the highest relative risk of death (MRR 2.68; 95%CI 1.34-5.34. The TBM patients had a higher risk of death due to infectious disease, but not from other causes of death. CONCLUSION: Adult TBM patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality and the excess mortality stems from infectious disease related causes of death.
Christensen, K. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)]|[Odense Univ. Medical School (Denmark); Mitchell, L.E. [Aarhus Univ. (Denmark)]|[St. Louis Univ. School of Public Health, MO (United States)
The finding of an association between genetic variation at the transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) locus and nonsyndromic isolated cleft palate (CP) represents a potentially important breakthrough in our understanding of this condition. The present study was undertaken to assess the feasibility of detecting linkage to putative CP-susceptibility loci, such as TGFA. To this end, the familial recurrence pattern for CP was evaluated to determine the most likely mode of inheritance for this condition. The study took advantage of the high ascertainment and uniform registration of CP in Denmark. In addition, the study utilized estimates of familial recurrence that were obtained by register linkage and, hence, were not subject to either recall bias or the potentially biasing influence of nonresponders. The recurrence risks for first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of 1,364 nonsyndromic CP probands were estimated to be 2.74% (72/2,628), 0.28% (3/1,068), and 0.00% (0/360), respectively. These estimates are close to published estimates based on questionnaire and interview data. The population prevalence for nonsyndromic CP was, however, found to be considerable higher than usually reported (0.058% [1,456/2,523,023]). Analyses of these and previously published data, using the method presented by Risch, indicated that major-locus or additive multilocus inheritance of CP is unlikely. The familial recurrence pattern was, however, consistent with CP being determined by several interacting loci. Under such a model, a single locus accounting for more than a sixfold increase in the risk to first-degree relatives of CP probands is unlikely, whereas a single locus accounting for a threefold increase provided a good fit to the data. Such a locus could be detected in a realistic sample of affected sib pairs. 26 refs., 3 tabs.
Laustrup, H; Voss, A; Green, A
In 1995 all systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients in the county of Funen were retrieved from four separate and independent sources as part of an 8-year prospective study to determine the pattern of disease activity and damage accumulation in a community based lupus cohort of predominantly...... Scandinavian ancestry. Incident cases were subsequently identified by surveillance of these sources. Established and new cases underwent annual, structured interviews, clinical examination and blood sampling. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Diseases Activity Index SLEDAI and Systemic Lupus International...
Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten; Kabins, Simon
,followed by transport. The PIPs further revealed that behavioral factors (e.g. different diets, use of cars, household size) affect the profiles. Hence, behavioral changes are one means out of many that humanity will most likely have to rely on during the sustainable development process. The results of this study......Sustainable and informed resource consumption is the key to make everyday living sustainable for entire populations.An intelligent and strategic way of addressing the challenges related with sustainable development of the everyday living of consumers is to identify consumption-determined hotspots...
Kjeldsen, Anette; Aagaard, Katrine Saldern; Tørring, Pernille Mathiesen
in the TGF-β pathway which is responsible for angiogenesis. Modulations of angiogenesis may influence cancer rates. The objective of the study was to evaluate 20-year survival according to HHT subtype, as well as to evaluate differences in causes of death comparing HHT patients and controls. We also wanted......BACKGROUND: Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inheritable disorder, with a wide variety of clinical manifestations due to presence of multiple arteriovenous manifestations. The most common mutations are found in HHT1 (ENG) and HHT2 (ACVRL1) patients, causing alterations...