WorldWideScience

Sample records for switzerland

  1. Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavaleri Jørgensen, Sylvie

    2010-01-01

    The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland.......The book answers ten delay-related questions when the FIDIC Red Book (internationally recognized standard construction contract) is subjected to the law of twelve different countries. Sylvie Cavaleri wrote the chapter concerning Switzerland....

  2. Switzerland's electricity supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inwyler, Ch.

    1980-01-01

    After a short description of Switzerland's electricity supply industry, the author comments on the production and consumption of electrical energy as well as on Switzerland's role within the European grid. A brief survey of electricity supply as a service is followed by a discussion of the political tools (such as e.g. the referendum, the hearing procedure etc.), which are an essential clue for understanding the position of the electricity supply industry in Switzerland. (Auth.)

  3. African Journals Online: Switzerland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journals Online: Switzerland. Home > African Journals Online: Switzerland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...

  4. Photovoltaic applications in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordmann, T.

    1993-01-01

    By the year 2000, Switzerland is planning to build a total of 50 MWp of grid-connected PV-installations. This challenging goal was adopted in the context of the Swiss national program 2000. The local/regional utilities are supporting this ambitious objective by reimbursing the marginal costs of the energy supplied and additional accompanying measures. Between 1988 and 1991 Switzerland installed more than 2.1 MWp of grid connected PV-installations. This represents 43% of the total grid connected capacity installed in the US over the same period including all government projects (PV USA)

  5. Cybersecurity in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn Cavelty, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Gives the reader a detailed account of how cyber-security in Switzerland has evolved over the years, using official documents and a considerable amount of inside knowledge. It focuses on key ideas, institutional arrangements, on the publication of strategy papers, and importantly, on processes leading up to these strategy documents. The peculiarities of the Swiss political system, which influence the way cyber-security can be designed and practiced in Switzerland are considered, as well as the bigger, global influences and driving factors that shaped the Swiss approach to cyber-security. It

  6. Countermeasures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggenstos, M.; Brunner, H.

    1995-01-01

    Concerning countermeasures in Switzerland, part of them are tested every year in exercises. An operational emergency management in the EPZ (Emergency Planning Zones) is a condition for operating a NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in Switzerland. The NPP operators have to pay special installations and preparations, automatic monitoring network in the inner EPZ and iodine tablets for the EPZ population. Countermeasures concerning EPZ, sheltering hospitals, farmers are summarized in this document. It also presents the use of iodine tablets based on the ICRP's recommendations (International Commission Radiological Protection), and the implementation of evacuation plans, public information or exercises organised by the EOR (Emergency Organisation Radioactivity). (TEC). 4 refs., 1 fig

  7. [Bluetongue disease reaches Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M; Griot, C; Chaignat, V; Perler, L; Thür, B

    2008-02-01

    Since 2006 bluetongue disease is rapidly spreading across Europe and reached Switzerland in October 2007. In the present article a short overview about the disease and the virus is given, and the first three clinical bluetongue disease cases in cattle, and the respective laboratory findings are presented.

  8. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  9. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  10. HTR development in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.

    1991-01-01

    The new activities in the field of high temperature gas-cooled reactors development in Switzerland, taking into account the general situation for nuclear power in the country, are not specifically tuned to a direct project, but are related to the improvement of the HTGR's safety in general, which will be carried out over the next 2-3 years are reported. The nature of this research and development is dedicated to more basic research where a return of industrial investment cannot be immediately foreseen. The main subjects of this basic research are outlined. Participation of Switzerland in the IAEA coordinated research programme ''Validation of Safety-Related Physics Calculations for Low-Enriched HTGRs'' is also described

  11. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  12. Travel Market Switzerland 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Laesser, Christian; Bieger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Technical Report and Results - In 2007, for the seventeenth time since 1972, a survey on the travel behaviour of the Swiss population was conducted. The database resulting from this project (Travel Market Switzerland 2007) is still the most extensive on private trips by the Swiss resident population. Private trips are defined/ delimited as all journeys by private persons with at least one overnight stay outside their home and their normal life and work environment. They include all types of l...

  13. Switzerland; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2002-01-01

    This paper reviews the trade-offs in Switzerland, focusing on challenges for fiscal policy coordination. It reviews the benefits and costs of a highly decentralized government, describes the Swiss institutional architecture, and analyzes Switzerland’s fiscal performance. It also discusses the specific policy challenges related to population aging, reviews the Swiss National Bank works on government financial assets and liabilities, describes the Swiss, Dutch, and the U.K. pension systems, res...

  14. VEHICLES LICENSED IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays-Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    1.\tVehicle licensinga)\tTime limitsVehicles must have a Swiss registration document and Swiss number plates: -\tif the owner has been residing in Switzerland for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months and has been using it for more than one month on Swiss territory, or -\tif the vehicle itself has been on Swiss territory for more than one year without a break of more than three consecutive months. b)\tTechnical details Vehicles belonging to non-Swiss members of the personnel who hold a carte de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (hereinafter referred to as 'DFAE') and who were not permanently resident in Switzerland before taking up their appointment may be licensed in Switzerland with virtually no restrictions provided that their owner produces: -\tthe vehicle registration document and number plates of the country in which the car was previously registered, or -\ta manufacturer's certi...

  15. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  16. Intolerance toward immigrants in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freitag, Markus; Rapp, Carolin

    2013-01-01

    Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance is neverthel......Intolerance toward immigrants has recently reached noticeable highs in Switzerland. Referring to the conflict theory, the perception of a specific group as a threat tends to lead to intolerance toward that group. The expectation of a negative relationship between threat and tolerance...

  17. Switzerland: the pragmatics of business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bestetti, Gilberto

    2008-01-01

    Switzerland has a population of seven million and approximately 600 medical technology companies are located there. This equates to one company per 12 thousand people and arguably the highest density in the world. The factors that make the country a successful place to do business are outlined in this interview with Professor Bestetti, Head of the CTI Medtech initiative.

  18. Switzerland advances payments to CERN

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    In the picture, Charles Kleiber (third from left) visits the TI8 tunnel with (left to right) Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group, Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council, Guy Hentsch, Personal adviser to the Director-General, Michel Buchs and Frédéric Chavan, representatives of the firm Prader Losinger. The State Secretary for Science and Research in Switzerland, Charles Kleiber, signed an agreement with CERN last week for an advancement of contributions from his country. The Confédération Helvétique will make an advanced payment of 90 million CHF. There will be no interest involved in this payment and the amount of money will be deducted from Switzerland's ordinary contributions to CERN in later years.

  19. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a...

  20. Foreign driving licences in Switzerland

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    1. Persons residing in Switzerland 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" For holders of a B, C, D, E or P-type "carte de légitimation" issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. (see the official news about the new "Carte de légitimation P") If they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant road licensing authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation; for Geneva call + 41 22 388 30 30, website http://www.geneve.ch/san; for Vaud call + 41 21 316 82 10, website http://www.san.vd.ch/index.html) to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence (they must pass a test if they are not citizens of countries with which Switzerland has concluded an agreement on this matter, e.g. Member States of the European Union, the United States and Japan). However, such an exchange is not possible...

  1. Earthquake hazard evaluation for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruettener, E.

    1995-01-01

    Earthquake hazard analysis is of considerable importance for Switzerland, a country with moderate seismic activity but high economic values at risk. The evaluation of earthquake hazard, i.e. the determination of return periods versus ground motion parameters, requires a description of earthquake occurrences in space and time. In this study the seismic hazard for major cities in Switzerland is determined. The seismic hazard analysis is based on historic earthquake records as well as instrumental data. The historic earthquake data show considerable uncertainties concerning epicenter location and epicentral intensity. A specific concept is required, therefore, which permits the description of the uncertainties of each individual earthquake. This is achieved by probability distributions for earthquake size and location. Historical considerations, which indicate changes in public earthquake awareness at various times (mainly due to large historical earthquakes), as well as statistical tests have been used to identify time periods of complete earthquake reporting as a function of intensity. As a result, the catalog is judged to be complete since 1878 for all earthquakes with epicentral intensities greater than IV, since 1750 for intensities greater than VI, since 1600 for intensities greater than VIII, and since 1300 for intensities greater than IX. Instrumental data provide accurate information about the depth distribution of earthquakes in Switzerland. In the Alps, focal depths are restricted to the uppermost 15 km of the crust, whereas below the northern Alpine foreland earthquakes are distributed throughout the entire crust (30 km). This depth distribution is considered in the final hazard analysis by probability distributions. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  2. FOREIGN DRIVING LICENCES IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relatiopns with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    1. PERSONS RESIDING IN SWITZERLAND 1.1 Holders of a B, C, D or E-type carte de légitimation For holders of B, C, D or E-type cartes de légitimation issued by the Swiss Federal Department for Foreign Affairs (Département fédéral suisse des Affaires étrangères, hereinafter called DFAE), current non-Swiss national driving licences are valid in Switzerland. Should they so wish, holders of such driving licences may apply to the relevant roads authority in the canton where they live (Service des Automobiles et de la Navigation ; for Geneva call 022/343 02 00, website: http://www.geneve.ch/san/welcome.html, for Vaud call 021/316 82 10, website: http://www.dse.vd.ch/auto/index.html) in order to exchange their driving licence for an equivalent Swiss licence. However, exchanges are not permitted if the driving licence was issued in a foreign country during a stay there of less than six months' duration while the person concerned was officially...

  3. Switzerland and the Holocaust: Teaching Contested History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schar, Bernhard C.; Sperisen, Vera

    2010-01-01

    This study is about a history textbook which introduces the new transnational master-narrative of Holocaust memory into the classrooms of the German-speaking part of Switzerland. The script of the book entails a replacement of the formerly dominant view of Switzerland as a neutral nation resisting evil in favour of an image that aligns Switzerland…

  4. Counseling in Switzerland: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Roslyn; Henning, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    The authors review counseling in Switzerland and compare it with counseling in the United States. They evaluate the role of professional associations and programs and argue that the evolution of counseling is situated within the history and economic, social, and political systems of Switzerland. Findings suggest that Swiss counselors are ready to…

  5. Biomass in Switzerland. Energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guggisberg, B.

    2006-01-01

    In the long term, biomass could be used for energy production in a three times more intensive way, compared to current figures. A major contribution would be delivered to Switzerland's energy supply. Numerous biomass conversion technologies do exist, for the production of heat, power or vehicle fuel. However, the implementation of such a large-scale utilisation of biomass requires a couple of strategic decisions in order to improve the framework conditions for biomass development and precisely target the supporting measures applicable to both research and pilot plants. In short, a clear and efficient strategy is necessary in what regards biomass, that will be used for the definition of a future catalogue of measures. (author)

  6. Seismic risk maps of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegesser, R.; Rast, B.; Merz, H.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic Risk Maps of Switzerland have been developed under the auspices of the Swiss Federal Division on Nuclear Safety. They are primarily destined for the use of owners of future nuclear power plants. The results will be mandatory for these future sites. The results will be shown as contourmaps of equal intensities for average return periods of 500, 1000, 10 000... years. This general form will not restrict the use of the results to nuclear power plants only, rather allows their applicability to any site or installation of public interest (such as r.a. waste deposits, hydropower plants, etc.). This follows the recommendations of the UNESCO World Conference (Paris, February 1976). In the study MSK 64 INTENSITY was chosen. The detailed scale allowed a precise handling of historical data and separates the results from continuously changing state-of-the-art correlations to acceleration and other input motion parameters. The method used is the probabilistic theory developed by C.A. Cornell and others at MIT in the late 1960's with the program in the version of the US Geological Survey by R. McGuire. In the study, the program was extended for the use of the continuous attenuation law by Sponheuer, azimuth-dependency in the attenuation relation, a quadratic intensity-frequency relation, large number of gross sources and output modifications with respect to the mapping program used. To determine the basic parameters, more than 3000 independent events in an area of approximately 240 000km 2 -Switzerland with its neighbouring parts of Italy, Austria, Germany and France- were systematically classified (and relocated where necessary)

  7. The ‘Indianisation of Switzerland'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    This paper demonstrates how Indian popular cultural expressions (Bollywood films) are transforming sociospatial textures in central Switzerland. Empirical illustrations are derived from various data sources from an ongoing fieldwork conducted in multiple Swiss locations (Interlaken, Luzern...... as promotional material (printed and online). Following a short historical account of Bollywood tourism in Switzerland, an analysis of the recent place promotion and branding campaigns is presented, revealing the interplay between established and emerging (Occidental) imageries of the Alps. Second, Bollywood...

  8. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    As a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organization on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host StatesServicehttp://www.cern.ch/relat...

  9. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    Henceforth only the undermentioned persons shall be authorized by the Advisor for Relations with the Member States and the Advisor for Relations with the non-Member States to sign official letters of invitation and other related documents : James V. ALLABY Lyndon EVANS Cecilia JARLSKOG Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Karl-Heinz SCHINDL. As a precautionary measure, all persons coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed. Any further information required may be obtained from the Swiss and French consulates. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/e/home/e...

  10. VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    2000-01-01

    ReminderAs a precautionary measure, everyone coming to CERN should obtain all the requisite information in good time on entry requirements applying to him or her in Switzerland and France, particularly with regard to visas. The practice is for visas to be issued by the consulate competent for the place of residence, and in some cases a special procedure must be followed.Swiss and French consulates are available for any information required. You may also consult the Web pages of the Swiss Department of Foreign Affairs (at http://194.6.168.115/site/hand/eda/botschaften-text.html) or those of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs (at http://www.diplomatie.fr/venir/visas/index.html). Information is also provided on the Relations with the Host States Service Web pages (at http://www.cern.ch/relations/). The authorities of the Host States have informed the Organisation on several occasions that they require scrupulous observance of the legislation in this field.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern...

  11. Seismic risk maps of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saegesser, R.; Rast, B.; Merz, H.

    1977-01-01

    Seismic Risk Maps of Switzerland have been developed under the auspices of the Swiss Federal Division on Nuclear Safety. They are primarily destined for the use of owners of future nuclear power plants. The results will be mandatory for these future sites. The results will be shown as contourmaps of equal intensities for average return periods of 500, 1 000, 10 000... years. This general form will not restrict the use of the results to nuclear power plants only, rather allows their applicability to any site or installation of public interest (such as r.a. waste deposits, hydropower plants, etc.). This follows the recommendations of the UNESCO World Conference (Paris, February 1976). In the study MSK 64 INTENSITY was chosen. The detailed scale allowed a precise handling of historical data and separates the results from continuously changing state of the art correlations to acceleration and other input motion parameters. The method used is the probabilistic theory developed by C.A. Cornell and others at MIT in the late 1960's with the program in the version of the US Geological Survey by R. McGuire. (Auth.)

  12. Heat pumps in western Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freymond, A.

    2003-01-01

    The past ten years have seen an extraordinary expansion of heat-pump market figures in the western (French speaking) part of Switzerland. Today, more than 14,000 units are in operation. This corresponds to about 18% of all the machines installed in the whole country, compared to only 10 to 12% ten years ago. This success illustrates the considerable know-how accumulated by the leading trade and industry during these years. It is also due to the promotional program 'Energy 2000' of the Swiss Federal Department of Energy that included the heat pump as a renewable energy source. Already in 1986, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne was equipped with a huge heat pump system comprising two electrically driven heat pumps of 3.5 MW thermal power each. The heat source is water drawn from the lake of Geneva at a depth of 70 meters. An annual coefficient of performance of 4.5 has been obtained since the commissioning of the plant. However, most heat pump installations are located in single-family dwellings. The preferred heat source is geothermal heat, using borehole heat exchangers and an intermediate heat transfer fluid. The average coefficient of performance of these installations has been increased from 2.5 in 1995 to 3.1 in 2002

  13. Climate index for Switzerland - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Switzerland. (J.S.)

  14. Seismic activity of northern and central Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deichmann, N.; Ballarin Dolfin, D.; Kastrup, U.

    2000-12-01

    The present report is part of an ongoing study by the Swiss Seismological Service, that was initiated by Nagra almost 20 years ago. It is devoted to the detailed monitoring of the earthquake activity in northern and central Switzerland. The main objective of this study is to provide information about the locations of active deformation and the state of stress in the Earth's crust and to relate these to the geological features visible at the surface. Originally, this seismotectonic investigation was restricted to the northern part of Switzerland; later it was extended also to the central part. Concerning the seismotectonics of northern Switzerland, this report constitutes a continuation of earlier publications. Here we review the seismic activity and earthquake focal mechanisms of the last 10 years and subsequently derive a comprehensive picture of the deformation and stress in the Earth's crust of northern Switzerland, based on all data available up to the end of 1999. Concerning the seismotectonics of central Switzerland, this publication constitutes the first publicly available report. (author) [de

  15. No evidence of bluetongue virus in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, A; Thür, B; Griot, C; Hamblin, C; Stärk, K D C

    2006-08-25

    We report the results of the first survey for antibody against bluetongue virus (BTV) that was conducted in Switzerland in the year 2003. In a nationwide cross-sectional study with partial verification, 2437 cattle sera collected from 507 herds were analysed using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (c-ELISA). To adjust for misclassification, 158 sera, including 86 that were recorded equivocal in Switzerland, were sent to the Office Internationale des Epizooties designated regional reference laboratory in the UK for confirmation. No BTV antibody was detected in any of these samples, confirming the absence of BTV from Switzerland in 2003. The specificity of the c-ELISA used in Switzerland for individual Swiss cattle was calculated to be 96.5%. The mean herd sensitivity achieved in our survey ranged from 78.9% to 98.8% depending on the with-in herd prevalence and test sensitivity used for the calculations. The cumulated confidence level achieved with the survey based on a minimal expected prevalence of 2%, was 99.99% and therefore it was concluded that there was no evidence of BTV circulation in Switzerland in 2003.

  16. Natural gas and its consumption in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baniriah, N.

    1991-01-01

    In this report the worldwide position of natural gas as an important energy of the coming decades and its modest current standing in the Swiss energy balance are highlighted. The relative role and importance of the principal fossil fuels in the energy supply, the average energy prices and taxes, particularly those of gas and fuel oil in the residential sector and the overall statistically related inter-fuel substitution in Switzerland are examined. The role of governments in energy supply in general and with gas utilization in particular is examined. The international trade in gas and its supply infrastructure are reviewed and the advantageous situation of Switzerland in Western Europe and the latter in the World, with respect to present and future gas supplies, are underlined. Considering the current level of gas consumption in Switzerland and its past and projected rates of market penetration, in comparison to other OECD countries, it would appear that Switzerland is not taking full advantage of the situation. The implicit message, even if diffidently conveyed, is intervention by prescription and by proscription. In the absence of such measures, and with the virtual demise of nuclear energy or its expansion, the disproportionate and dominant position of fuel oil in the energy mix, will endure whereas the share of gas grows very slowly remaining at much lower levels than in the neighbouring countries. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  17. Dental tourism from Switzerland to Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Raluca; Zürcher, Andrea; Filippi, Andreas

    In recent years the topic of dental tourism has increasingly come into focus of dentists and patients. In the present study an attempt was made to find out, why patients from a restricted region travel to Germany for dental care. In five German dental clinics located in the border area between Switzerland and Germany, 272 women and 236 men ranging in age from 5 to 94 years, who had undergone at least one dental treatment in Germany, were questioned concerning the reasons for their visits. The interviews took place within a period of 6 months and relied on a questionnaire to collect data regarding sociodemographic features and patient behavior. In comparison to residents of Germany, patients residing in Switzerland took on considerably longer travel distances for the dental visit, in some cases more than 50km (9.7%). For patients residing in Switzerland the technical equipment of the practice was more important (pSwitzerland (95.6%) confirmed that dental treatments in Germany were cheaper and that additional family members also came to Germany for dental care (65.0%).

  18. Bluetongue vector species of Culicoides in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, A; Griot, C; Mellor, P S; Denison, E; Stärk, K D C

    2006-06-01

    Switzerland is historically recognized by the Office Internationale des Epizooties as free from bluetongue disease (BT) because of its latitude and climate. With bluetongue virus (BTV) moving north from the Mediterranean, an entomological survey was conducted in Switzerland in 2003 to assess the potential of the BTV vectors present. A total of 39 cattle farms located in three geographical regions, the Ticino region, the Western region and the region of the Grisons, were monitored during the vector season. Farms were located in areas at high risk of vector introduction and establishment based on the following characteristics: annual average temperature > 12.5 degrees C, average annual humidity >or= 60%, cattle farm. Onderstepoort black light traps were operated at the cattle farms generally for one night in July and one night in September. A total of 56 collections of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) were identified morphologically. Only one single individual of Culicoides (Avaritia) imicola, the major Old World vector of BTV, was found in July 2003 in the Ticino region, one of the southernmost regions of Switzerland. In the absence of further specimens of C. imicola from Switzerland it is suggested that this individual may be a vagrant transported by wind from regions to the south of the country where populations of this species are known to occur. Alternative potential BTV vectors of the Culicoides (Culicoides) pulicaris and Culicoides (Avaritia) obsoletus complexes were abundant in all sampled regions with individual catches exceeding 70 000 midges per trap night.

  19. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  20. [Imported diseases in Switzerland: development and perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrémont, A; Lorenz, N

    1990-10-01

    During the last years, imported diseases have become more frequent in Switzerland. This is easily explained by the enormous increase of tourism to tropical and subtropical countries. Immigration from these countries has equally seen an important augmentation. The principal imported diseases are still malaria and gastrointestinal infections. Viral infections are rarely diagnosed, with the exception of hepatitis and HIV infection. The prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases is most certainly underestimated. The differential diagnosis of imported skin diseases is still difficult. Rare tropical diseases will probably become more frequent in the coming years as travellers leave more and more the traditional tourist paths. Practitioners have to look out for such problems, and continuous training programmes for them will have to take these new problems into account. Referral centres of infectious diseases should be established in all regions of Switzerland. High priority should be given to the prevention of imported diseases.

  1. Federal census of the population in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    A federal census of the 2010 population has been underway since January 2011. The objective is to provide important insights into the composition of the resident population, households and families in Switzerland and identify trends. The census methods have been modernised so that it covers only information that is not already contained in Federal, Cantonal and municipal registries of persons; the information will be gathered via questionnaires issued to approximately 3% of the population residing in Switzerland. In order to obtain representative information about the local population, the Canton of Geneva has requested that questionnaires be issued to international civil servants and members of their families aged 15 and over who live in the Canton. They will be invited to respond to the questionnaire on a strictly voluntary basis. If they choose not to respond to the questionnaire, they will not be contacted again. The Permanent Swiss Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva wishes in advance t...

  2. Energy Sector Liberalisation and Privatisation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlome, J. E.

    2001-01-01

    Due to its geographical situation, Switzerland is important for the transit lines of electricity and gas through the Alps. But Switzerland is not a member of the European Union. Furthermore, Swiss citizens enjoy extended direct-democratic rights. The author presents the story of energy sector liberalisation and privatisation in their three phases: 1. The late nineties: The phase of expectations 2. The phase of legislation: Open electricity market and elements of sustainable development as mitigating factors 3. The new awareness: Public service The Swiss citizens will have to adopt the law installing an open electricity market in June or September 2002. For the case of a (still very possible) rejection of the law, the author presents a no-go-solution and three realistic scenarios.(author)

  3. Biomedical informatics in Switzerland: need for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovis, Christian; Blaser, Jürg

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical informatics (BMI) is an umbrella scientific field that covers many domains, as defined several years ago by the International Medical Informatics Association and the American Medical Informatics Association, two leading players in the field. For example, one of the domains of BMI is clinical informatics, which has been formally recognised as a medical subspecialty by the American Board of Medical Specialty since 2011. Most OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries offer very strong curricula in the field of BMI, strong research and development funding with clear tracks and, for most of them, inclusion of BMI in the curricula of health professionals, but BMI remains only marginally recognised in Switzerland. Recent major changes, however, such as the future federal law on electronic patient records, the personalised health initiative or the growing empowerment of citizens towards their health data, are adding much weight to the need for BMI capacity-building in Switzerland.

  4. Inter-Industry Wage Differentials in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Ferro-Luzzi

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Swiss inter-industry wage structure in the light of the current debate on the efficiency wage hypothesis. Results clearly indicate the presence of an industry component in the determinants of earnings in Switzerland. No definite conclusion emerges though as to the source of wage variation. The stability of the wage structure and the role of tenure point to the existence of "wage rents". However, these results may be severely biased if unobserved ability is used by firm...

  5. Biocrystallography in Switzerland: achievements and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grütter, Markus G

    2014-01-01

    The first protein crystallography group in Switzerland was installed at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel approximately 40 years ago. Since then protein crystallography has grown and matured remarkably and is now established in the molecular biology, biochemistry or biological medicine departments of most major Swiss Universities as well as in the pharmaceutical industry and in biotech startup companies. Swiss X-ray biocrystallography groups have made remarkable contributions from the beginning and have brought Switzerland to the forefront in biostructural research during the last 5 to 10 years. Switzerland has now a leading position in the areas of supramolecular complexes, membrane proteins and structure-based drug design in pharmaceutical and biotech industries. Protein crystallography on the outer membrane protein ompF as well as the development of the lipidic cubic phase crystallization methodology has been pioneered at the Biozentrum. The latter found its somewhat late recognition through the recent explosion in structure determinations of the seven transmembrane helix G-coupled receptors. Highlights from Swiss structural biology groups in the field of supramolecular complexes include the structures of ribosomal particles, of the nucleosome and the pilus assembly complex of uropathogenic E. coli. On the membrane protein side advances in the field of ABC transporters and ion channels are world-recognized achievements of Swiss structural biology. Dedicated laboratories at many academic and industrial institutions, their current research programs, the availability of excellent infrastructure and the continuing efforts to build new facilities such as the SwissFEL indicate an even brighter future for structural biology in Switzerland.

  6. Ten years of integrated care in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Berchtold

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, a growing part of primary care is provided by networks of physicians and health maintenance organizations (HMOs acting on the principles of gatekeeping. To date, an average of one out of eight insured person in Switzerland, and one out of three in the regions in north-eastern Switzerland, opted for the provision of care by general practitioners in one of the 86 physician networks or HMOs. About 50% of all general practitioners and more than 400 other specialists have joined a physician networks. Seventy-three of the 86 networks (84% have contracts with the healthcare insurance companies in which they agree to assume budgetary co-responsibility, i.e. to adhere to set cost targets for particular groups of patients. Within and outside the physician networks, at regional and/or cantonal levels, several initiatives targeting chronic diseases have been developed, such as clinical pathways for heart failure and breast cancer patients or chronic disease management programs for patients with diabetes. The relevance of these developments towards more integration of healthcare as well as their implications for the future are discussed.

  7. Debates about assisted suicide in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Sandra; La Harpe, Romano

    2012-12-01

    Assisted suicide is allowed in 3 states of the United States (Oregon, Washington, Montana) but only if performed by a physician.On the opposite, in Switzerland, at the beginning of the 20th century, the Swiss Penal Code referred to assisted suicide in the context of honor or an unhappy love affair. It was only in 1985 that Exit Deutsche Schweiz (Exit for German-speaking Switzerland) "medically" assisted the first patient to end his life.Even if authorized by the Swiss law upon certain conditions, assisted suicide is subject to debates for ethical reasons. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences described directives to guide physicians on this difficult subject.Different studies showed an increase in the number of medical-assisted suicide in Switzerland since the 1990s. Now, this number seems to be quite stable. Assisted suicide is authorized in a few hospitals under strict conditions (especially when returning home is impossible).Thus, according to the Swiss law, any person could perform assisted suicide; this is essentially performed by 3 main associations, using pentobarbital on medical prescription as lethal substance.Generally speaking, the Swiss population is rather in favor of assisted suicide. Among politics, the debate has been tough until 2010, when the Federal Council decided not to modify the Swiss Penal Code concerning assisted suicide.

  8. Primary care in Switzerland gains strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djalali, Sima; Meier, Tatjana; Hasler, Susann; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan

    2015-06-01

    Although there is widespread agreement on health- and cost-related benefits of strong primary care in health systems, little is known about the development of the primary care status over time in specific countries, especially in countries with a traditionally weak primary care sector such as Switzerland. The aim of our study was to assess the current strength of primary care in the Swiss health care system and to compare it with published results of earlier primary care assessments in Switzerland and other countries. A survey of experts and stakeholders with insights into the Swiss health care system was carried out between February and March 2014. The study was designed as mixed-modes survey with a self-administered questionnaire based on a set of 15 indicators for the assessment of primary care strength. Forty representatives of Swiss primary and secondary care, patient associations, funders, health care authority, policy makers and experts in health services research were addressed. Concordance between the indicators of a strong primary care system and the real situation in Swiss primary care was rated with 0-2 points (low-high concordance). A response rate of 62.5% was achieved. Participants rated concordance with five indicators as 0 (low), with seven indicators as 1 (medium) and with three indicators as 2 (high). In sum, Switzerland achieved 13 of 30 possible points. Low scores were assigned because of the following characteristics of Swiss primary care: inequitable local distribution of medical resources, relatively low earnings of primary care practitioners compared to specialists, low priority of primary care in medical education and training, lack of formal guidelines for information transfer between primary care practitioners and specialists and disregard of clinical routine data in the context of medical service planning. Compared to results of an earlier assessment in Switzerland, an improvement of seven indicators could be stated since 1995. As a

  9. Status of Court Management in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At an international level, and in particular in the Anglo-American region, there is a long tradition of scientific study of court management. Thus in Australia there has for quite some time been the Australasian Institution of Judicial Administration (AIJA, which concerns itself with every aspect of court administration. In the USA too, research and education in the field of court management has been institutionalized for a long time, in particular by the National Center for State Courts (NCSC and the related Institute for Court Management (ICM. In Europe, a working group known as the European Commission for the Efficiency of Justice (CEPEJ deals with issues of court management as part of the activities of the Council of Europe. The fact that court management is also increasingly becoming an important topic in the European area was demonstrated by the establishment, in 2008, of a new professional journal that focuses on court management, the International Journal for Court Administration (IJCA. In Switzerland, the issue of court management was discussed for the first time in the course of the New Public Management (NPM projects in the cantons, but was often limited to the question of whether to include the courts in the relevant cantonal NPM model. Generally speaking, court management was a matter that was only sporadically raised, such as at a symposium of the Swiss Society of Administrative Sciences (SSAS in 2003 or more recently in an article in which theses on good court management are formulated. In Switzerland even today there is a general dearth of empirical and other theoretical findings on the mode of operation of the justice system and its interaction with society, or with specific social target groups. For example, it was only in 2009 that the first indications were obtained of how cases in various categories were handled by the highest administrative and social insurance courts in Switzerland. In the fields of criminal and civil

  10. Photovoltaic (PV) energy in the Netherlands and Switzerland. A comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Loo, F.; Spiessens, P.

    1995-01-01

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) energy in Switzerland and the Netherlands is compared for a number of aspects. The Swiss have realized more PV capacity. Also the economic conditions to develop PV are better in Switzerland than in the Netherlands. In Switzerland the public support is mobilized for solar energy while in the Netherlands a social basis is created for wind energy. 3 ills., 3 tabs

  11. Gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billieux, Joël; Achab, Sophia; Savary, Jean-Félix; Simon, Olivier; Richter, Frédéric; Zullino, Daniele; Khazaal, Yasser

    2016-09-01

    To provide an overview of gambling and problem gambling in Switzerland, including historical aspects, past and current legislation and policies, treatment options and the research base. A literature search was conducted on two databases (PubMed and PsycINFO), and official government and statistical reports selected from the official websites of four sources (Federal Office of Justice; Federal Gambling Board; Federal Office of Statistics; Swiss Lottery and Betting Board). After a history of banning or partial banning, Swiss gambling became regulated at the beginning of the 20th century through successive laws. The current system is characterized by important differences in the law and policies for casinos and lotteries, and contradictions in the regulation of these two areas are still under debate in order to develop new legislation. Gambling is widespread in Switzerland, and the prevalence of problem gambling in this country was comparable to that in other European countries in 2014. Most gambling treatment facilities are integrated into mental health treatment services that have out-patient programmes, and treatment for problem gambling is covered by a universal compulsory Swiss health insurance system. The availability of public funding for gambling research is still limited. Switzerland needs to develop a more coherent regulatory and prevention policy approach to gambling, overcoming conflicts in the current dual system of federal and cantonal regulation. Recent efforts to enhance funding for gambling research are promising, and could lead to a more systematic analysis of the efficacy of prevention and treatment programmes. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. The determinants of early retirement in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, David; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2005-01-01

    In the past decade, Switzerland has experienced a large increase in the number of individuals going into early retirement. This paper examines the determinants of such early retirement using data from the newly implemented social-security module of the 2002 Swiss Labor Force Survey. In the sixteen-month period from January 2001 to April 2002, more than 36,000 older individuals, representing 8% of all workers within nine years of legal retirement age, became early retirees. One of the most imp...

  13. Energy supply and energy policy in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1985-01-01

    The article gives an outline of the problems of energy supply in Switzerland, with some emphasis upon the extent to which Federal and Cantonal constitutions and the functioning of Swiss democracy, notably the relatively frequent recourse to referendums and the strong public interest in conservation and ecology, affect the nature of decisions upon technical matters such as the authorisation and siting of generating plants and the construction of transmission lines. The dominating factor in the energy situation in Switzerland has been and will remain the need to import about 84% of the energy used, mainly in the form of oil, the cost of which is nearly 10% of the total value of all imports. Water power accounts for 13% of the total supply and is approaching the limit of its possible development. The use of energy constantly increases but the political difficulties in the way of providing the consequently necessary resources increase if anything still more rapidly. The resulting difficult situation is discussed in some detail. The author urges the energy industry to view its political difficulties in a positive manner, and to see them rather as a spur to effort than as merely an unwelcome obstacle to private enterprise. (C.J.O.G.)

  14. Strain, Stress and Seismicity pattern in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houlié, Nicolas; Woessner, Jochen; Villiger, Arturo; Deichmann, Nicholas; Rothacher, Markus; Giardini, Domenico; Geiger, Alain

    2013-04-01

    Switzerland lies across one of the most complex plate boundary in the world. With a 100 Ma of deformation history, and a wide diversity of deformation mechanism, it is an ideal place to study the link(s) between small strain rates measured at the surface and stress dissipated at depth. The link is of genuine interest for seismic hazard assessment as it provides an independent estimate for moment release within the seismogenic volume. We use geodetic (GPS velocities, shortening axes, strain maps) and seismic (anisotropy, P-axes, focal mechanisms) datasets in order to assess whether the stress accumulated at depth due to the continental collision reflects the deformation rates measured at the surface and correlates with the seismic activity as well as the stress directions deduced from earthquake focal mechanisms throughout the area - or not. While the deformation amplitudes of the area are small (less than 10-7 yr-1) in some areas of Switzerland, we can relate long- and short-term features of the tectonic processes occurring over the last 10+ Ma. Preliminary results suggest that while deformation rates measured by GPS are large in the Ticino compared to the Valais region - its seismic activity rate is lower. This implies other processes might play important roles in the generation of seismicity.

  15. 78 FR 78899 - Comparability Determination for Switzerland: Certain Entity-Level Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION Comparability Determination for Switzerland: Certain Entity... applicable in Switzerland provide a sufficient basis for an affirmative finding of comparability with respect... the Commission determine that laws and regulations applicable in Switzerland provide a sufficient...

  16. Future of nuclear energy technology in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiberini, A.; Brogli, R.; Jermann, M.; Alder, H.P.; Stratton, R.W.; Troyon, F.

    1988-01-01

    Despite the present gloom surrounding the nuclear option for electricity and heat generation, there are still people in Switzerland in industry, research, banking and even politics willing and capable to think in terms of long-range projections. The basis for these projections is the belief that a well-functioning and prosperous society always needs large and reliable sources of acceptably priced energy, which must be generated with a high respect for the necessity of a clean environment. Being aware of the current low acceptance level of the nuclear option, efforts to keep this option open are directed to achieving the following goals: to maintain and improve the country's capabilities to safely operate the four existing nuclear power plants of Beznau (twin units), Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt; to keep the capability of extending the applications of nuclear energy technology. In practice, this could be in the fields of district heating, fusion, and advanced power reactors

  17. Regime shift of snow days in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marty, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    The number of days with a snow depth above a certain threshold is the key factor for winter tourism in an Alpine country like Switzerland. An investigation of 34 long-term stations between 200 and 1800 m asl (above sea level) going back for at least the last 60 years (1948-2007) shows an unprecedented series of low snow winters in the last 20 years. The signal is uniform despite high regional differences. A shift detection analysis revealed a significant step-like decrease in snow days at the end of the 1980's with no clear trend since then. This abrupt change resulted in a loss of 20% to 60% of the total snow days. The stepwise increase of the mean winter temperature at the end of the 1980's and its close correlation with the snow day anomalies corroborate the sensitivity of the mid-latitude winter to the climate change induced temperature increase.

  18. Small hydropower station in Schluein, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, F.; Thoeny, F.

    2007-04-01

    This preliminary study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project concerning the building of a small-scale hydropower installation in Schluein in the Grisons, Switzerland. The requirements placed on the water intake point in this mountainous region are discussed. The installation includes a 1230 metre long pressurised conduit and uses a multi-jet Pelton turbine to provide 720 kW of electrical power, the hydraulic head amounting to 140 m. The paper discusses the amounts of water available over the year, production costs and the economic feasibility of the project. The power production is estimated to 3,150,000 kWh/y. Environmental aspects are examined and details still to be defined are briefly mentioned.

  19. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN SWITZERLAND - PRACTICAL GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has just published a practical guide to the implementation of the system of privileges and immunities and other facilities on its Web site. The guide is currently available in French only but an English translation is in preparation. Comprising around ten chapters, each dealing with a different subject (insurance, real estate, customs, etc.), the guide is not exhaustive but will be regularly supplemented, expanded and updated. The Mission specifies that the information contained in the document is given only as guide and that it implies no legal commitment on the part of the Host State. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  20. PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES IN SWITZERLAND: PRACTICAL GUIDE

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the "Practical Manual of the regime of privileges and immunities and other facilities" is available on its Web site: - in English (http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide.html); - in French (http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide.html). Comprising around ten chapters, each dealing with a different subject (insurance, real estate, customs, etc.), the guide is not exhaustive but will be regularly supplemented, expanded and updated. The Mission specifies that the information contained in the document is given only as guide and that it implies no legal commitment on the part of the Host State. Relations with the Host States Service http://www.cern.ch/relations/ Tel. 72848

  1. THE CURRENT SITUATION OF FEDERALISM IN SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Fleiner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Swiss Federalism builds on the traditional and to a certain extent also themodern diversities. Since middle age the Swiss confederation has always beenenriched and challenged by economic, religious, cultural and linguistic diversities.Since the foundation of Switzerland as a state of modernity in 1848the constitution has been more than 100 times modified with specific provisions.In addition there have been two total revisions in 1874 and in 1999.With the new constitutionthe federal balance between shared rule and selfrule has slightly been changed. It has centralized some of the powers andcompensatedthe loss of self rule with more shared rule and thus given cantonsmore possibilities to participate within the federal decision making process.With regard to the diversities the new federal constitution has introducedimportant provisions in order to strengthen the federal legitimacy andto provide democratic tools for conflict management.

  2. JOB CENTRE FOR DOMESTIC STAFF IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; http://www.cern.ch/relations/

    2001-01-01

    The Permanent mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that the Geneva Welcome Centre has set up an employment registration desk for the domestic staff of international civil servants. The aim of this pilot project is, on the one hand, to help international civil servants find domestic staff and, on the other hand, to help domestic staff holding an 'F'-type carte de légitimation find employment within 30 days after the expiry of a contract. For more information, please contact the Geneva Welcome Centre, La Pastorale, 106, route de Ferney, Case postale 103, 1211 Genève 20, tel. (+41.22) 918 02 70, fax (+41.22) 918 02 79), http://geneva-international.org/Welcome.E.html.

  3. Exposures to natural radiation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murith, Ch.; Gurtner, A.

    1999-01-01

    The exposure of human beings to ionising radiation from natural sources is a continuing and inescapable feature of life on earth. There are two main sources that contribute to this exposure: high-energy cosmic-ray particles incident to the earth's atmosphere and radioactive nuclides that originated in the earth's crust and are present everywhere in the environment, including human body itself. Both external and internal exposures to humans arise from these sources. Exposures to natural radiation sources in Switzerland and some of their variations are here summarised and the resulting effective doses are compared to those from man-made sources exposures. It results that the natural background exposures are more significant for the population than most exposures to man-made sources. (authors)

  4. Status of burnup credit implementation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    1998-01-01

    Burnup credit is currently not used for the storage of spent fuel in the reactor pools in Switzerland, but credit is taken for integral burnable absorbers. Interest exists to take credit of burnup in future for the storage in a central away-from-reactor facility presently under construction. For spent fuel transports to foreign reprocessing plants the regulations of the receiving countries must be applied in addition to the Swiss licensing criteria. Burnup credit has been applied by one Swiss PWR utility for such transports in a consistent manner with the licensing practice in the receiving countries. Measurements of reactivity worths of small spent fuel samples in a Swiss zero-power research reactor are at an early stage of planning. (author)

  5. Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland; Beratungsstelle Radioaktivitaet Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosimann, N.; Balsiger, B.; Burger, M. [Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (Switzerland). LABOR SPIEZ

    2016-07-01

    The Information Centre Radioactivity Switzerland is meant to assess the radiological condition and serves for psychological-medical care of affected members of the Swiss public following an event of increased radioactivity in the environment. The Centre is structured in a modular way consisting of the following modules: ''Entry Measurement'': The visitors are registered and measured for contamination, ''Decontamination'': Contaminated visitors are decontaminated, ''Additional Measurements'': If required, thyroid and whole body measurements are performed, ''Information'': The visitors are informed about radioactivity, radiation protection, the current situation and their individual next steps, ''Exit'': Administrative release from the Information Centre.

  6. Diffusion of green power products in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuestenhagen, Rolf; Markard, Jochen; Truffer, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    As in many other European countries, green electricity is an emerging product in Switzerland as well. Although the market is yet to be liberalised, more than 100 of the 1200 Swiss electric utilities offer some sort of green electricity product to their customers. Successful companies like the municipal utilities of the cities of Zurich and Berne have reached customer response rates of up to 4%, while still maintaining cost-based pricing, i.e. charging their customers price premiums of 400-700% per kWh. While most of the products still rely on mainly photovoltaics, some utilities have started to introduce mixed green electricity products also including wind power. With a share of 60% in the Swiss generation mix, hydropower's role in the green electricity mix was also an issue to emerge causing controversial debate. While being renewable, hydropower is not considered environmentally benign by all the stakeholders, and unlike new renewables (solar, wind, biomass), there is little room for new hydropower generation facilities in Switzerland. The green electricity labelling scheme 'Naturemade' tackles that issue. The labelling organisation has evolved from a process with broad stakeholder involvement, which included environmental NGOs, scientific institutions, green electricity providers, renewable energy advocates, government bodies and consumer organisations. The analysis in this paper is based on a diffusion theory framework. It identifies and characterises different phases of (past and future) market development, and stresses the importance of eco-labelling as a tool to facilitate the transition from niche to mass market. Finally, we also discuss conclusions that can be drawn from the Swiss case towards market development and labelling on a European level

  7. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Wetter

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers. The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP, and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss, which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local

  8. The potential of historical hydrology in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-11-01

    Historical hydrology is based on data derived from historical written, pictorial and epigraphic documentary sources. It lies at the interface between hydrology and environmental history, using methodologies from both disciplines basically with the goal of significantly extending the instrumental measurement period with experience from the pre-instrumental past. Recently this field of research has gained increased recognition as a tool to improve current flood risk estimations when EU guidelines regulated by law the quantitative consideration of previous floods.1 Awareness to consider pre-instrumental experience in flood risk analysis seems to have risen at the level of local and federal authorities in Switzerland as well. The 2011 Fukushima catastrophe probably fostered this rethinking process, when pressure from the media, society and politics as well as the regulations of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) forced the authorities to reassess the current flood risk analysis for Swiss nuclear power plants. In 2015 a historical hydrological study was commissioned by the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) to assess the magnitudes of pre-instrumental Aare River flood discharges, including the most important tributaries (the Saane, Emme, Reuss and Limmat rivers). The results of the historical hydrological study serve now as the basis for the main study, EXAR (commissioned under the lead of FOEN in cooperation with the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI), the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), the Federal Office for Civil Protection (FOCP), and the Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology (MeteoSwiss)), which combines historical and climatological analysis with statistical approaches and mathematical models with the goal of better understanding the hazards and possible interactions that can be caused by extreme flood events. In a second phase the catchment of the River Rhine will be targeted as well. More recently several local historical

  9. Assessing river health in Europe and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Marianne; Chèvre, Nathalie; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    River conditions and welfare of aquatic ecosystems are threatened by anthropogenic and climatic changes. The release of personal-care products, pharmaceuticals and crop protection products is increasing and climate change is likely to cause significant changes in hydrological regimes affecting water resources' capacity to dissolve pollutants. Assessing river health, i.e. the ability of a river to support and maintain a balanced ecosystem close to the natural habitat, is thus of major concern to ensure the development of ecosystems and to provide enough clean useable water to users. Such studies involve physical, chemical and biological processes and characteristics. In Europe and Switzerland, standardized procedures have been developed to assess the hydromorphological, ecological and toxicological status of rivers. The European Water Framework Directive sets ecological requirements and chemical guidelines while the Swiss Modular Stepwise Procedure suggests methods to apprehend ecological deficits and promote water management plans. In this study, both procedures were applied and compared in order (i) to address their capacity to follow-up the spatial and temporal variability of the river's water quality and (ii) to identify challenges that still need to be addressed to assess river's health. Applied on the Boiron River (canton of Vaud, Switzerland) for a 11-year period (2005-2015), both frameworks highlight that no section of the river currently meets a good environmental state. This river flows through a diversified agricultural area causing a progressive deterioration of its chemical and biological quality. The two methods also identify two periods of time with significant changes of the river's water quality. The 2009-2011 period is characterized by a significant deterioration of the river's ecological and toxicological state due to severe low flows and an increased use of pesticides. However, since 2013, an improvement in water quality is identified in

  10. Switzerland - its position within a liberalised European power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at the situation in Switzerland shortly before parliamentary discussions on the liberalisation of Switzerland's electricity market. In particular the interconnection of Switzerland's electricity supply system with that of the rest of Europe is discussed. The power black-out that occurred in Italy in September 2003 is looked at. In particular, its relevance to power supply infrastructures is discussed and the fast-changing international configurations that are resulting from the liberalisation of electricity markets are looked at. Questions of international power transfer capacities and their allocation are looked at in detail in the light of the occurrences in 2003. The lessons that must be learned from the blackout are discussed and Switzerland's geographical position as an important hub of the European power transfer system are considered

  11. Empirical research in financial accounting in Germany, Austria and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Hans P.

    1984-01-01

    Empirical research in financial accounting in Germany, Austria and Switzerland : a review / Adolf G. Coenenberg ; Peter Möller ; Franz Schmidt. - In: European contributions to accounting research / Anthony G. Hopwood ... (eds.). - Amsterdam : V. U. Uitgeverij, 1984. - S. 61-81

  12. Rock glacier inventory, Hautes Alpes Calcaires, Switzerland, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Hautes Alpes Calcaires is a limestone range in the northern part of the Rhone Valley (Switzerland). It is characterized by a transitional climate between the wet...

  13. Internalisation of external costs in Switzerland and in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauch, U.

    1995-01-01

    Plans and resistance for internalising the external costs are discussed taking the conditions in Switzerland and in other countries of Europe into account. Internalisation is seen as signpost to regressive development. (author) 5 figs., 4 tabs

  14. Is Switzerland suitable for the invasion of Aedes albopictus [corrected]?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020-2049 and 2045-2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020-2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045-2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European countries suggest that the tiger mosquito will colonize new areas in Switzerland

  15. Is Switzerland Suitable for the Invasion of Aedes albopictus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neteler, Markus; Metz, Markus; Rocchini, Duccio; Rizzoli, Annapaola; Flacio, Eleonora; Engeler, Luca; Guidi, Valeria; Lüthy, Peter; Tonolla, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 30 years, the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has rapidly spread around the world. The European distribution comprises the Mediterranean basin with a first appearance in Switzerland in 2003. Early identification of the most suitable areas in Switzerland allowing progressive invasion by this species is considered crucial to suggest adequate surveillance and control plans. Methodology/Principal Findings We identified the most suitable areas for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus in Switzerland. The potential distribution areas linked to the current climatic suitability were assessed using remotely sensed land surface temperature data recorded by the MODIS satellite sensors. Suitable areas for adult survival and overwintering of diapausing eggs were also identified for future climatic conditions, considering two different climate change scenarios (A1B, A2) for the periods 2020–2049 and 2045–2074. At present, the areas around Lake Geneva in western Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for Ae. albopictus. In northern Switzerland, parts of the Rhine valley, around Lake Constance, as well as the surroundings of Lake Neuchâtel, appear to be suitable for the survival at least of adult Ae. albopictus. However, these areas are characterized by winters currently being too cold for survival and development of diapausing eggs. In southern Switzerland, Ae. albopictus is already well-established, especially in the Canton of Ticino. For the years 2020–2049, the predicted possible spread of the tiger mosquito does not differ significantly from its potential current distribution. However, important expansions are obtained if the period is extended to the years 2045–2074, when Ae. albopictus may invade large new areas. Conclusions/Significance Several parts of Switzerland provide suitable climatic conditions for invasion and establishment of Ae. albopictus. The current distribution and rapid spread in other European

  16. Best strategy through Marketing Alliances for Switzerland Tourism North America

    OpenAIRE

    Bourquin, Charlotte; Holleran, James

    2014-01-01

    Having partnerships with Marketing Alliances has been proved to be an effective way for Switzerland Tourism North America to push the Destination promotion and sales as well as increase the awareness of Switzerland with the network. The two existing partnerships are with Virtuoso and Signature Travel Network, both luxury/leisure focused companies. Particularly successful results have been observed with Virtuoso. The process of choosing the right partnership has to be carefully defined ...

  17. The changing international linkages of Switzerland: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Tille, Cédric

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the economic linkages between Switzerland and the rest of the world have been transformed. First, merchanting and the chemical industry account for an increasing share of international trade, with chemicals exports expanding robustly in recent years despite the European crisis and the strong Swiss franc. Second, the nature of international financial integration has changed. While private investors drove Switzerland's financial flows and net foreign assets before the fina...

  18. Nuclear safety and radiation protection surveillance in different countries. Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The information and historical review on the Nuclear Surveillance in Switzerland has been presented. Special attention has been paid on: general tasks and responsibility of the Nuclear Surveillance, its organization structures, legal aspects, regulations and recommendations governing all nuclear activities in Switzerland, licensing processes and their procedures, inspections and control functions as well as international cooperation in the field of nuclear safety and environment protection

  19. Experience with the Public in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, Hans

    2008-01-01

    Hans Wanner of HSK, Switzerland, gave account of an empirical research project aimed at exploring public views on nuclear energy and radioactive waste management. He summarised the main results of focus group studies conducted in five Swiss cities in 2006. Most focus groups viewed that absolute safety was not possible, but deep disposal was safer than interim surface storage. Safety was the top priority for participants; therefore it was recommended that the location of the geological disposal facility should be chosen by the best experts. They were of the view that economic factors should not play any role whatsoever, therefore several participants were sceptical regarding the involvement of parliament. Many would welcome public information, but only few would be willing to participate in the site selection process. Once a site is selected, participants would welcome independent investigations by public health or nature protection institutions. Focus group participants agreed that authorities should give public information, transparency and openness a high priority. Based on the results of the study, Mr Wanner concluded that the majority of the population may be more concerned about short-term problems than long-term safety. This is indicated by the fact that for the focus groups, population density was an issue, waste transportation was of high concern, and continuous observation and monitoring were requested. Very long time scales appear to be unimaginable to most participants, and some aired the opinion that long-term predictions cannot be made in a scientifically sound manner

  20. Molten salt reactor related research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, Jiri; Hombourger, Boris; Fiorina, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Switzerland represented by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is a member of the Generation IV International Forum (GIF). In the past, the research at PSI focused mainly on HTR, SFR, and GFR. Currently, a research program was established also for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR). Safety is the key point and main interest of the MSR research at the Nuclear Energy and Safety (NES) department of PSI. However, it cannot be evaluated without knowing the system design, fuel chemistry, salt thermal-hydraulics features, safety and fuel cycle approach, and the relevant material and chemical limits. Accordingly, sufficient knowledge should be acquired in the other individual fields before the safety can be evaluated. The MSR research at NES may be divided into four working packages (WP): WP1: MSR core design and fuel cycle, WP2: MSR fuel behavior at nominal and accidental conditions, WP3: MSR thermal-hydraulics and decay heat removal system, WP4: MSR safety, fuel stream, and relevant limits. The WPs are proposed so that there are research topics which can be independently studied within each of them. The work plan of the four WPs is based on several ongoing or past national and international projects relevant to MSR, where NES/PSI participates. At the current stage, the program focuses on several specific and design independent studies. The safety is the key point and main long-term interest of the MSR research at NES. (author)

  1. Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: Clarifying Liberties and Claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Samia A; Mauron, Alex

    2017-03-01

    Assisting suicide is legal in Switzerland if it is offered without selfish motive to a person with decision-making capacity. Although the 'Swiss model' for suicide assistance has been extensively described in the literature, the formally and informally protected liberties and claims of assistors and recipients of suicide assistance in Switzerland are incompletely captured in the literature. In this article, we describe the package of rights involved in the 'Swiss model' using the framework of Hohfeldian rights as modified by Wenar. After outlining this framework, we dissect the rights involved in suicide assistance in Switzerland, and compare it with the situation in England and Germany. Based on this approach, we conclude that in Switzerland, claim rights exist for those requesting suicide assistance, and for those who are considering providing such assistance, even though no entitlements exist toward suicide assistance. We then describe the implementation of the 'Swiss model' and difficulties arising within it. Clarifying these issues is important to understand the Swiss situation, to evaluate what features of it may or may not be worth correcting or emulating, and to understand how it can impact requests for suicide assistance in other countries due to 'suicide tourism'. It is also important to understand exactly what sets Switzerland apart from other countries with different legislations regarding suicide assistance. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bioindication in Urban Soils in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amossé, J.; Le Bayon, C.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Gobat, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban development leads to profound changes in ecosystem structure (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. ecosystem services). While above-ground diversity is reasonably well studied much less is known about soil diversity, soil processes and more generally soil health in urban settings. Soil invertebrates are key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services. These functions may be even more vital in stressed environments such as urban ecosystems. Despite the general recognition of the importance of soil organisms in ecosystems, soil trophic food webs are still poorly known and this is especially the case in urban settings. As urban soils are characterised by high fragmentation and stress (e.g. drought, pollution) the structure and functioning of soil communities is likely to be markedly different from that of natural soils. It is for example unclear if earthworms, whose roles in organic matter transformation and soil structuration is well documented in natural and semi-natural soils, are also widespread and active in urban soils. Bioindication is a powerful tool to assess the quality of the environment. It is complementary to classical physicochemical soil analysis or can be used as sole diagnostic tool in cases where these analyses cannot be performed. However little is known about the potential use of bioindicators in urban settings and especially it is unclear if methods developped in agriculture can be applied to urban soils. The development of reliable methods for assessing the quality of urban soils has been identified as a priority for policy making and urban management in Switzerland, a high-urbanized country. We therefore initiated a research project (Bioindication in Urban Soil - BUS). The project is organised around four parts: (i) typology of urban soils in a study Region (Neuchâtel), (ii) sampling of soil fauna and analysis of soil physicochemical properties, (iii) comparison of the

  3. Fuel management for the Beznau nuclear power plant in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1988-01-01

    The Beznau nuclear power plant consists of two 350 MW(e) PWRs of Westinghouse design. A number of special features characterize the nuclear industry in Switzerland: there is no fuel cycle industry; nuclear materials must be moved through several countries before they arrive in our country, it is therefore important that agreements are in place between those countries and Switzerland; nearly all of the materials and services required have to be paid in foreign currencies; the interest rate in Switzerland is traditionally low. Aspects of fuel management at the Beznau plant discussed against this background are: the procurement of natural uranium, its conversion and enrichment; fuel fabrication, in-core management, reprocessing and plutonium recycling; and fuel cycle costs. (author)

  4. Energy Perspectives In Switzerland: The Potential Of Nuclear Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foskolos, K.; Hardegger, P.

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, discussions were started in Switzerland concerning future of energy supply, including domestic electricity generation. On behalf of the Federal Office of Energy, PSI undertook a study to evaluate the potential of future nuclear technologies, covering electricity demand, with a time horizon up to 2050. It has been shown that nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the Third Generation, similar to the ones currently under construction in several other countries, built on the existing nuclear sites in Switzerland, have the potential to replace, at competitive costs, the existing nuclear plants, and even to cover (postulated) increases in electricity demand. Because of their late maturity (expected at the earliest around 2030), NPPs of the Fourth Generation, which are currently under development, cannot play a major role in Switzerland, since, with the exception of the Leibstadt NPP, all decisions regarding replacement of the current Swiss NPPs have to be taken before 2030. (author)

  5. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Janet E

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (a) permissive gun laws, (b) widespread gun ownership, (c) and encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters. They cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source material. Swiss and Israeli laws limit firearm ownership and require permit renewal one to four times annually. ICVS analysis finds the United States has more firearms per capita and per household than either country. Switzerland and Israel curtail off-duty soldiers' firearm access to prevent firearm deaths. Suicide among soldiers decreased by 40 per cent after the Israeli army's 2006 reforms. Compared with the United States, Switzerland and Israel have lower gun ownership and stricter gun laws, and their policies discourage personal gun ownership.

  6. Venture Capital Investment in the Life Sciences in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosang, Markus

    2014-12-01

    Innovation is one of the main driving factors for continuous and healthy economic growth and welfare. Switzerland as a resource-poor country is particularly dependent on innovation, and the life sciences, which comprise biotechnologies, (bio)pharmaceuticals, medical technologies and diagnostics, are one of the key areas of innovative strength of Switzerland. Venture capital financing and venture capitalists (frequently called 'VCs') and investors in public equities have played and still play a pivotal role in financing the Swiss biotechnology industry. In the following some general features of venture capital investment in life sciences as well as some opportunities and challenges which venture capital investors in Switzerland are facing are highlighted. In addition certain means to counteract these challenges including the 'Zukunftsfonds Schweiz' are discussed.

  7. Electricity and gas market in Switzerland - concepts and rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, A.

    2003-01-01

    The political process to introduce the opening of the market in Switzerland is slow, but in movement. The preparation allows to participate in the experience of other countries and to adapt the system to the particularities of the industries and the country. The principle of subsidiarity allows the utilities to organise the technical and organisational realisation and to keep the legal rules to a minimum. The high technical integration in the European interconnection network asks for an EU compatible, but not identical, system in Switzerland.(author)

  8. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M.; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano; Hunt, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO 2 -tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  9. POSTGRADUATE EDUCATION FUNCTIONING PATTERNS OF TOURISM SPHERE SPECIALISTS IN SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Закордонець

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functioning patterns of postgraduate education of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been established. The competences of tourism sphere specialist, the formation of which programs of postgraduate education are focused on have been considered. The benefits of educational qualification of Masters in Business Administration with a major specialization in tourism have been outlined. The characteristics of the core curriculum of the Doctor of Management of leading universities in the field of tourism education have been determined. The performance criteria of postgraduate education system functioning of tourism sphere specialists in Switzerland have been revealed.

  10. CENSUS OF THE POPULATION, BUILDINGS AND HOUSING IN SWITZERLAND

    CERN Document Server

    Relation with the Host States Service; Tel. 72848

    2000-01-01

    A census of the population, buildings and housing is to be conducted on the whole territory of the Swiss Confederation on 5 December 2000. For this purpose, those residing in Switzerland will receive a personal questionnaire at their place of residence plus a questionnaire on buildings and housing if they own real estate in Switzerland. The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organizations in Geneva has requested CERN to invite members of its personnel to complete these questionnaires and either to hand them to the census agents when they call at their places of residence on 5 December 2000 or to post them to the address indicated on the questionnaire.

  11. Monitoring and control of occupational radiation exposure in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, M.

    1997-01-01

    Occupational exposure is the most prominent example for the prolonged exposure to low level ionizing radiation characterized by low doses and dose rates. In this paper the occupational exposure in Switzerland is presented and the regulatory control of this exposure in the framework of the new radiation protection regulations is discussed. (author)

  12. Indications of neotectonic crust motion in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldimann, P.

    1987-01-01

    Indications of possible Pleistocene and Holocene tectonic activity in northern Switzerland have been found by an analysis of irregular erosional forms in the subcrop, abnormal gradients of accumulative gravel terraces and particular developments of the river course. (author) 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  13. Comparative Studies of Spinal Celes in Switzerland, Jamaica, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical Methods and Materials: From 1975 to 2008,17 spinal celes (including 2 meningoceles) were routinely repaired in Imo and Ebonyi States of Nigeria, and 5 in Jamaica,the West Indies; none in Basel, Switzerland. All 20 meningomyeloceles were incontinent of urine and faeces, had severe paraparesis to paraplegia, ...

  14. Sociodemographic and Behavioural Determinants of a Healthy Diet in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Waeber, Gérard; Vollenweider, Peter; Bochud, Murielle; Stringhini, Silvia; Guessous, Idris

    2015-01-01

    The determinants of a healthy diet have not been studied in Switzerland. This study aimed at assessing the individual and behavioural factors associated with a healthy diet in a Swiss city. Cross-sectional, population-based study conducted between 2009 and 2013 (n = 4,439, 2,383 women, mean age 57.5 ± 10.3 years) in Lausanne. Food consumption was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Two Mediterranean diet scores (classic score and specific for Switzerland) and the Harvard School of Public Health alternate healthy eating index were computed. For all three dietary scores considered, living in couple or having a high education were associated with a healthier diet. An unhealthy lifestyle (smoking, sedentary behaviour) or a high body mass index were associated with an unhealthier diet. Participants born in Italy, Portugal and Spain had healthier diets than participants born in France or Switzerland. Women and elderly participants had healthier diets than men and young participants according to 2 scores, while no differences were found for the Swiss-specific Mediterranean score. In Switzerland, healthy eating is associated with high education, a healthy lifestyle, marital status and country of origin. The associations with gender and age depend on the dietary score considered. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. A financing system for battery recycling in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordi, H. [BESO, ATAG Ernst and Young, Berne (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The household battery recycling procedures presently in progress in Switzerland are illustrated. Particular attention is devoted to the description of the country`s organizations for providing an efficient battery disposal plan. The financial aspects of this plan are also outlined. (orig.)

  16. From the history of radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poretti, G.

    1991-01-01

    The first part of this contribution describes the development of medical radiation protection in Switzerland, grouped into X-ray diagnostics, radiation therapy, and nuclear medicine. The second part gives a detailed chronology of Swiss radiation protection for nuclear engineering and industry, laws and regulations, authorities and government institutions, and unions and societies. (orig.) [de

  17. Healthcare quality management in Switzerland--a survey among providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, Reto; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Businger, Adrian P

    2012-04-27

    In the last decade assessing the quality of healthcare has become increasingly important across the world. Switzerland lacks a detailed overview of how quality management is implemented and of its effects on medical procedures and patients' concerns. This study aimed to examine the systematics of quality management in Switzerland by assessing the providers and collected parameters of current quality initiatives. In summer 2011 we contacted all of the medical societies in Switzerland, the Federal Office of Public Health, the Swiss Medical Association (FMH) and the head of Swiss medical insurance providers, to obtain detailed information on current quality initiatives. All quality initiatives featuring standardised parameter assessment were included. Of the current 45 initiatives, 19 were powered by medical societies, five by hospitals, 11 by non-medical societies, two by the government, two by insurance companies or related institutions and six by unspecified institutions. In all, 24 medical registers, five seals of quality, five circles of quality, two self-assessment tools, seven superior entities, one checklist and one combined project existed. The cost of treatment was evaluated by four initiatives. A data report was released by 24 quality initiatives. The wide variety and the large number of 45 recorded quality initiatives provides a promising basis for effective healthcare quality management in Switzerland. However, an independent national supervisory authority should be appointed to provide an effective review of all quality initiatives and their transparency and coordination.

  18. The importance of nuclear power to energy supply in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    2001-01-01

    The use of nuclear power is a matter of dispute also in Switzerland. The first opposition to plans for the Kaiseraugst nuclear power station near Basel sprang up in the seventies. In Switzerland, referenda are a popular expression of political disputes. On a federal level, a total of six referenda have been conducted about nuclear power since 1979. As a rule, antinuclear projects were rejected by a slim majority, except for the 1990 moratorium initiative. As a consequence, there was a ten-year ban on the construction of new nuclear power plants. Despite efforts by many parties it was not possible to develop a general consensus on an energy supply strategy. Because of the considerable importance to the power economy, and the economy at large, of nuclear power in Switzerland, where the five nuclear power plants in operation generate approx. 38% of the country's electricity, while 58% is produced in hydroelectric plants, a new Nuclear Power Act was adopted by Parliament in late February 2001. It constitutes the framework for the continued safe operation of nuclear power plants, keeps the nuclear option open for future planning, and handles spent fuel and waste management, final storage, and decommissioning. Also possible international solutions of final storage outside of Switzerland are taken into account. In this way, the Swiss government and parliament have advocated the continued use of nuclear power as one element of energy supply. (orig.) [de

  19. "Ich kam unter die Schweizer": Teaching Switzerland as a Multi-Ethnic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Karin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a five-week module on "Switzerland as a multi-ethnic society" intended to counteract the popular image of Switzerland as a homogenous country concerned mostly with tourism, chocolate, and watches. Instead, the module treats Switzerland through topics such as the definition of identity in a multi-ethnic society, the…

  20. Excess mortality during the warm summer of 2015 in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Ragettli, Martina S; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2016-01-01

    In Switzerland, summer 2015 was the second warmest summer for 150 years (after summer 2003). For summer 2003, a 6.9% excess mortality was estimated for Switzerland, which corresponded to 975 extra deaths. The impact of the heat in summer 2015 in Switzerland has not so far been evaluated. Daily age group-, gender- and region-specific all-cause excess mortality during summer (June-August) 2015 was estimated, based on predictions derived from quasi-Poisson regression models fitted to the daily mortality data for the 10 previous years. Estimates of excess mortality were derived for 1 June to 31 August, at national and regional level, as well as by month and for specific heat episodes identified in summer 2015 by use of seven different definitions. 804 excess deaths (5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0‒7.9%) were estimated for summer 2015 compared with previous summers, with the highest percentage obtained for July (11.6%, 95% CI 3.7‒19.4%). Seventy-seven percent of deaths occurred in people aged 75 years and older. Ticino (10.3%, 95% CI -1.8‒22.4%), Northwestern Switzerland (9.5%, 95% CI 2.7‒16.3%) and Espace Mittelland (8.9%, 95% CI 3.7‒14.1%) showed highest excess mortality during this three-month period, whereas fewer deaths than expected (-3.3%, 95% CI -9.2‒2.6%) were observed in Eastern Switzerland, the coldest region. The largest excess estimate of 23.7% was obtained during days when both maximum apparent and minimum night-time temperature reached extreme values (+32 and +20 °C, respectively), with 31.0% extra deaths for periods of three days or more. Heat during summer 2015 was associated with an increase in mortality in the warmer regions of Switzerland and it mainly affected older people. Estimates for 2015 were only a little lower compared to those of summer 2003, indicating that mitigation measures to prevent heat-related mortality in Switzerland have not become noticeably effective in the last 10 years.

  1. Energy policies of IEA countries - Switzerland. 2007 review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-26

    Switzerland is entering decisive times in its energy policy. In 2008, the country should see remarkable advance in electricity market reform. Support for renewable electricity is set to increase massively. Decisions on post-Kyoto targets are getting closer, and a CO{sub 2} tax will be introduced for heating and process fuels. Plus, new measures to increase energy efficiency and the broader use of renewable energy are high on the political agenda. Since the last in-depth review in 2003, Switzerland has made progress in most areas of energy policy. Still, more work remains to be done. Maintaining sufficient electricity capacity implies even stronger policies to promote energy efficiency and renewable energy sources. At the same time, the country will also need to decide which sources to use for large-scale power supply. High dependency on oil can become a burden in a post-Kyoto world. In particular, Switzerland's climate policy should focus more on reducing emissions from private car use, the largest and fastest-growing emitter. Current measures have not proven effective, and the costs of reducing CO{sub 2} emissions are being distorted across sectors. Switzerland's world-class energy R and D is expected to more than halve energy needs per capita by the second half of this century. This ambitious goal needs to be supported by consistent policies on energy efficiency and climate change. This book takes an in-depth look at the energy challenges facing Switzerland and provides critiques and recommendations for policy improvements. The review guides the country towards a sustainable energy future.

  2. Fuel tourism in border regions: The case of Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banfi, S.; Filippini, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland). Department of Management, Technology and Economics, Centre for Energy Policy and Economics; Universita della Svizzera italiana, Lugano (Switzerland). Istituto di microeconomia e economia Pubblica; Hunt, L.C. [University of Surrey (United Kingdom). Department of Economics, Surrey Energy Economics Centre

    2005-09-01

    This paper explores the issue of 'fuel tourism' in Switzerland. For the period 1985-1997, a panel data model for the border regions of Switzerland, (Italy, France, and Germany) is estimated. The results show a significant impact of the gasoline price differential on demand, suggesting that a decrease of 10% in the Swiss gasoline price leads to an increase in demand in the border areas of nearly 17.5%. It is shown that fuel tourism accounted for about 9% of overall gasoline sales in the three regions during the period 1985-1997 and that the recently proposed Swiss CO{sub 2}-tax might, given current conditions, eliminate net fuel tourism. (author)

  3. Wind power installations in Switzerland - Regional planning basics and impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Kaufmann, Y.; Steiner, P.; Gilgen, K.; Sartoris, A.

    2008-01-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the basics of regional planning and its impact on the construction of wind-energy installations in Switzerland. The authors state that the planning and realisation of wind turbine installations is often time and resource consuming: this document presents and discusses the results obtained in a project that aimed to supply consolidated knowledge on project-relevant basics and their effect with respect to wind-energy installations. Experience gained in Switzerland and in other countries is discussed. This report on the basics of wind-energy planning with its detailed information formed the basis of a checklist described in a further report. In nine chapters, regional planning aspects, environment and landscape-relevant aspects, effects on the national and regional economies and social acceptance factors are discussed. Also, success-factors and possible solutions for the successful realisation of wind-energy projects are looked at.

  4. Electricity market Switzerland/Europe - Going, going, gone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillwicks, T.

    2007-01-01

    This short article takes a look at how, since January 2006, power auctions have been held at the Swiss borders to Germany and Austria. In an interview with Thomas Tillwicks, head of mains economics at the Swiss national electricity network 'swissgrid', topics concerning the functions and mechanisms of bottleneck management in the Swiss national grid are discussed. The auctioning of grid capacities in Switzerland is discussed, in particular for the long-distance, Europe-wide transport of power. The auctioning mechanisms are discussed and the distribution of the returns is looked at. Positive effects on the security of supply are discussed. Effects on prices and the role of Switzerland in European power exchange are looked at. Finally, the question is posed if physical expansion of grid capacity were not a better solution

  5. Energy research in Switzerland; Energieforschung in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchs, M.; Luetolf, I.; Schorer, M

    2002-07-01

    This brochure takes a look at energy research in Switzerland, and contains a foreword from the director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), an interview with the president of the Swiss Energy Research Commission and a total of 12 articles on energy research-related topics. These include the expectations placed on energy research by politics, industry's point of view, figures on energy research in the nineties, financing aspects, international co-operation, solar technology, geothermal energy, fuel cells, sensible building for the future, nuclear fusion and socio-economical fundamentals. Private energy research is also focused on with examples of products produced by innovative small and medium-sized companies in Switzerland.

  6. Regulatory aspects of underground disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luethi, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The management of radioactive waste has become an important problem in Switzerland, and work has now begun on technical investigations and the preparation of a regulatory framework for deep-underground disposal. The law currently in force is the Federal Law on the Peaceful Use of Atomic Energyy and Radiation Protection, under which two licences are required, one for construction and one for operation. An amendment to this Law is envisaged whereby the licensing system will be modified, in particular by requiring an additional licence which will be granted by the Federal Government, with the consent of Parliament, if the safe disposal of waste can be guaranteed. The producers of radioactive waste are primarily responsible for the management thereof, but the National Co-operative Society for the Storage of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) has the task of planning, constructing and operating repositories. The licensing authority in Switzerland is the Federal department of Communications and Energy. (NEA) [fr

  7. Dissecting the compression of mortality in Switzerland, 1876-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siu Lan Karen Cheung

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine changes in common longevity and variability of the adult life span, and attempts to answer whether or not the compression of mortality continues in Switzerland in the years 1876-2005. The results show that the negative relationships between the large increase in the adult modal age at death, observed at least from the 1920s, and the decrease in the standard deviation of the ages at deaths occurring above it, illustrate a significant compression of adult mortality. Typical adult longevity increased by about 10Š during the last fifty years in Switzerland, and adult heterogeneity in the age at death decreased in the same proportion. This analysis has not found any evidence suggesting that we are approaching longevity limits in term of modal or even maximum life spans. It ascertains a slowdown in the reduction of adult heterogeneity in longevity, already observed in Japan and other low mortality countries.

  8. Experience gained with energy taxes in Europe - Lessons for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, M.; Lueckge, H.; Iten, R.; Trageser, J.; Goerlach, B.; Blobel, D.; Kraemer, A.

    2007-12-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at experience gained with energy taxes in Europe and the lessons that can be learned for Switzerland. The variety of energy and CO 2 taxes that have been introduced in Europe since the early 1990s is reviewed. These are intended to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions and complement conventional mineral oil taxes. Some of these non-fiscal energy and CO 2 taxes that have been created within the scope of the EU directive on energy taxation are examined and commented on, as is their impact on energy consumption. The situation in EU member states is described and commented on. Success-factors and general conditions are examined and conclusions that can be drawn for Switzerland are examined.

  9. Competitiveness in tourism: A comparison between Brazil and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Gabriela Montanari; Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the unstable global situation and the crisis in the euro area, world tourism has remained strong and with a positive growth in the last years. Besides, this activity has a great economic and social importance which is reflected in its ability to generate jobs and income. Thus, this article aims to analyze the competitiveness of the tourism sector in Brazil and Switzerland, comparing the two countries through competitive factors identified by the World Competitiveness Index in Tourism ...

  10. The Impact of Trade Policy on Industry Concentration in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Burghardt, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of trade policy on industry concentration. Based on the Swiss Business Census, concentration levels for all four-digit manufacturing industries in Switzerland are calculated. Then the effect of a bilateral reduction in technical barriers to trade with the European Union is estimated. Adopting a difference-in-differences approach, it turns out that concentration in affected industries with low R&D intensity increased significantly following the policy change. This...

  11. [Treatment Methods for Patients with Dupuytren's Disease in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, M; Krefter, C; Herren, D B

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate what treatment options are currently used in Switzerland for Dupuytren's disease. Furthermore, regional preferences and treatment differences based on surgeon experience were analysed. In this survey, an electronic questionnaire was sent to all members of the Swiss Society for Hand Surgery. Participants were asked to indicate their current treatment methods for Dupuytren's disease. In addition, 8 standard patient cases were presented to identify the preferred treatment option. Furthermore, sociodemographic data of the participants were gathered. In total, 70 questionnaires were completed, corresponding to a response rate of 34%. Fasciectomy is performed by 94% of participants, while 59% inject collagenase in certain cases, 40% perform open fasciotomy, and 24% carry out percutaneous needle aponeurotomy if the indication is given. 20% of responders offer one of these techniques, 50% offer 2, 23% offer 3, and 7% offer all 4 treatment techniques. In the case of isolated metacarpophalangeal joint contracture, 51% of participants inject collagenase, whereas fasciectomy is preferred for the treatment of proximal interphalangeal joint contractures or in cases of recurrence. In German-speaking Switzerland, the treatment strategy has changed towards applying collagenase injections in the past 5 years. In this part of the country, 83% of surgeons now use more collagenase than 5 years ago, whereas only 33% of surgeons in French-speaking Switzerland have changed their treatment strategy in favour of collagenase injections (p=0.027). Surgeons with less than 10 years of experience apply more collagenase than their more experienced colleagues (79 vs. 54%, p=0.131). In Switzerland, fasciectomy is the preferred option for treating patients with Dupuytren's disease. In recent years, however, collagenase injection has become more and more popular. More research is needed to define guidelines for the treatment of patients with Dupuytren

  12. Quality assurance of medical education: a case study from Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirlo, Christian; Heusser, Rolf

    2010-01-01

    In the light of ongoing changes and challenges in the European health systems which also have significant implications for undergraduate medical education, the present paper describes the accreditation of medical education programmes in Switzerland focussing on undergraduate medical education. A summary of the methodology used is provided and first experiences as well as future perspectives are discussed in the light of the aim to achieve continuous quality assurance and improvement in medical education. PMID:21818193

  13. Market segmentation by motivation: The case of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bieger, Thomas; Laesser, Christian

    2002-01-01

    This contribution is about the segmentation of mature travel markets, as exemplified by Switzerland. Based on an extensive and representative travel survey covering 2,000 households and more than 11,000 trips, a situational, motivation-based travel market segmentation is proposed. The clustering of motivations proves to be a valuable means to segment markets. The results reveal a diminishing role of socio-demographic segment descriptors. It is more the (anticipated) travel profile and the att...

  14. Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland is seen here (seventh from right) visiting the assembly hall for the ATLAS experiment during his recent visit to CERN. To his right is Dr. Peter Jenni (blue shirt), spokesperson for the ATLAS Collaboration. The horizontal metal cylinder behind the group is one of the eight vacuum vessels for the superconducting coils of the ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system.

  15. Utopia Switzerland (2) - A Country Without CO2 Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco

    2008-01-01

    Global warming and climate change are major themes in the today's energy policy discussion. Awarding Al Gore and the IPCC with the Nobel price in 2007 shows the importance of the climate change for the whole world. That we are running into climatic problems is already known since several decades and possibilities to solve the CO 2 emissions were proposed and discussed since years, but a reduction in the CO 2 emissions is not detectable. This might be due to the fact, that the major part of CO 2 production (traffic and heating) is not consequently touched. It seems to be easier to discuss about renewable energies in the electricity market than in other areas. And the consequences of discussing stepping out of nuclear all over the world, has enforced the problem. Although the renaissance of nuclear has started and the known positive impact to the climate from this energy source, it is not forced to be the solution for the biggest problem of the near future. There are only a few countries worldwide which produce electricity without or with only small amounts of CO 2 emissions like Norway or Switzerland. Those countries could be demonstration countries to show the possibilities for reducing and avoiding CO 2 emissions. Would it be possible to replace all fossil energy sources during a reasonable period of time by using nuclear energy and hydrogen as an energy storage system? Is this scenario technical feasible and of economic interest for a small, developed country like Switzerland? If yes, Switzerland might be a good candidate to establish the first CO 2 -free industrial developed state in the world. Looking much more ahead this study will discuss a simple but might be effective scenario for Switzerland. The study is based on a paper presented at IYNC 2006 and will update the used data as well as going in more details. (authors)

  16. Travel Market Switzerland 2012 : Basic Report and Database Specification

    OpenAIRE

    Laesser, Christian; Riegler, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, for the eighth time since 1972, a survey on the travel behavior of the Swiss population was conducted. The database resulting from this project (Travel Market Switzerland 2012) is still the most extensive on private trips by the Swiss resident population. Private trips are defined/ delimited as all journeys by private persons with at least one overnight stay outside their home and their normal life and work environment. They include all types of leisure motivations, but no busines...

  17. Gun utopias? Firearm access and ownership in Israel and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Janet

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 attempted assassination of a US representative renewed the national gun control debate. Gun advocates claim that mass-casualty events are mitigated and deterred with three policies: (1) permissive gun laws, (2) widespread gun ownership, (3) encouragement of armed civilians who can intercept shooters, and cite Switzerland and Israel as exemplars. We evaluate these claims with analysis of International Crime Victimization Survey (ICVS) data and translation of laws and original source m...

  18. Intercultural Education in Spain and Switzerland: a Comparative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferran Ferrer

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural education during the last two decades in Spain and Switzerland can be understood as balancing acts because policymakers in both countries saw their school systems enrolling a growing number of immigrant and minority students. While solutions were formulated and adopted in response to each country's unique problems and political tradition, they were also driven by forces that fostered a restrictive immigration policy toward immigrants from third world countries. This article examines the emergence of intercultural education and compares diverse practices linked to this process. Some similarities were found in both socio-cultural contexts. The use of compensatory education with culturally diverse children contributes to school segregation. Although cultural and linguistic diversity is a structural and historical component of Spanish and Swiss identities, there is a clear separation between "internal" and "external" diversity in educational policy. It is interesting, for instance, to observe that the concept used in addressing regional identities in Spain and Switzerland is "bilingual education" while the theme used for immigrants is "intercultural education". We also identified some important differences between the two contexts. The number of immigrant youth is much more important in Switzerland. On the other hand, the presence of Gypsy students is a central issue of cultural diversity in Spain. The paper also reports on the general lack of teacher education departments to prepare their pre-service students for diverse schools. Most teacher education programs acknowledge in principle the importance of pluralistic preparation of teachers. In practice, however, most teacher education programs actually represent a monocultural approach. Continuing education in the field of intercultural education is linked to individual initiatives rather than to an institutional awareness of the importance of cross-cultural training. In order to

  19. The legal basis for nuclear waste disposal in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egloff, V.

    1981-10-01

    The legal authority for the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Switzerland is laid down in the Federal Act of 1959 on the peaceful uses of atomic energy and on protection against radiation, revised in 1978. With this revision the further development on nuclear energy has thus become dependent on fulfilment of the legal request for proof of safe and final disposal of nuclear wastes. This paper discusses in particular the obligations of nuclear waste producers in this respect. (NEA) [fr

  20. Flood damage claims reveal insights about surface runoff in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernet, D. B.; Prasuhn, V.; Weingartner, R.

    2015-12-01

    A few case studies in Switzerland exemplify that not only overtopping water bodies frequently cause damages to buildings. Reportedly, a large share of the total loss due to flooding in Switzerland goes back to surface runoff that is formed and is propagating outside of regular watercourses. Nevertheless, little is known about when, where and why such surface runoff occurs. The described process encompasses surface runoff formation, followed by unchannelised overland flow until a water body is reached. It is understood as a type of flash flood, has short response times and occurs diffusely in the landscape. Thus, the process is difficult to observe and study directly. A promising source indicating surface runoff indirectly are houseowners' damage claims recorded by Swiss Public Insurance Companies for Buildings (PICB). In most of Switzerland, PICB hold a monopoly position and insure (almost) every building. Consequently, PICB generally register all damages to buildings caused by an insured natural hazard (including surface runoff) within the respective zones. We have gathered gapless flood related claim records of most of all Swiss PICB covering more than the last two decades on average. Based on a subset, we have developed a methodology to differentiate claims related to surface runoff from other causes. This allows us to assess the number of claims as well as total loss related to surface runoff and compare these to the numbers of overtopping watercourses. Furthermore, with the good data coverage, we are able to analyze surface runoff related claims in space and time, from which we can infer spatial and temporal characteristics of surface runoff. Although the delivered data of PICB are heterogeneous and, consequently, time-consuming to harmonize, our first results show that exploiting these damage claim records is feasible and worthwhile to learn more about surface runoff in Switzerland.

  1. Current Account Surpluses and the Interest Rate Island in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Mauro

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some long-run aspects of the Swiss balance of payments, highlighting two macroeconomic phenomena that make Switzerland stand out among other countries: first, it has had a persistent current account surplus and the largest ratio of net foreign assets to GDP in the world; second, its real interest rates have been significantly lower than those of most other industrialized countries, earning it the label “interest rate island”. These two distinctive features may be related,...

  2. Mr. Charles Kleiber, State Secretary for Science and Research, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01 : Mr Charles Kleiber, State Secretary for Science and Research, Switzerland visiting the TI8 tunnel. From l to r: Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Mr Guy Hentsch, Chef de Cabinet, Mr Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group, Mr Charles Kleiber, State Secretary for Science and Research, Switzerland and Mr Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council. Photo 02 : Visit to the TI8 tunnel by Mr Charles Kleiber, State Secretary for Science and Research, Switzerland (third from left) with l. to r. Mr Jean-Luc Baldy, Head of the LHC civil engineering group; Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General; Dr Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN Council; Dr Guy Hentsch, Chef de Cabinet; Mr Michel Buchs and Mr Frédéric Chavan, representatives of the firm Prader Losinger, Groupement ATIC responsible for the civil engineering work. Photo 03: From l to r: Mr Jean-Pierre Ruder, Swiss Delegate to CERN, Prof. Luciano Maiani, CERN Director-General, Mr Charles Kleiber, State Secretar...

  3. [Uroliths of cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, B; Brandenberger-Schenk, F; Rothenanger, E; Müller, C

    2016-10-01

    In this study data on composition of uroliths collected from cats and epidemiologic data of affected cats in Switzerland from 2002 to 2009 are summarised. Of 884 stones analysed 50% (n=441) were composed of calcium oxalate, 45% (n=398) of struvite, 3% (n=18) of ammonium urate, 1% (n=12) were mixed stones, 1% (n=9) were composed of silica, 3 stones were solidified blood, 2 consisted of cystine and 1of xanthine. 40% of the ureteral stones were composed of struvite. Domestic cats had significantly less calcium oxalate stones compared to British Shorthair or Persian cats. Cats with calcium oxalate stones were older and cats with struvite stones were younger than other affected cats. Female and male cats were equally affected with stones. Compared to studies from other countries, in Switzerland silica stones occurred more often and ureteral stones were more often composed of Struvite. The present study shows that occurrence and prevalence of urinary calculi of cats from Switzerland exhibited only slight differences to studies from other countries.

  4. Dietary proteins in humans: basic aspects and consumption in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigoz, Yves

    2011-03-01

    This introductory review gives an overview on protein metabolism, and discusses protein quality, sources, and requirements as well as the results from recent studies on Swiss spontaneous protein consumption. To assess protein quality in protein mixes and foods, the "protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score" (PDCAAS) is presented as a valuable tool in addition to the biological value (BV). Considering protein intake recommendations, the lower limit recommended has been defined according to the minimal amount needed to maintain short-term nitrogen balance in healthy people with moderate activity. Evaluation of intakes in Switzerland from food consumption data is about 90 g/day of protein per person. Two-thirds of proteins consumed in Switzerland are animal proteins with high biological value [meat and meat products (28 %), milk and dairy products (28 %), fish (3 %), and eggs (3 %)] and about 1/3 of proteins are of plant origin (25 % of cereals, 3 - 4 % of vegetables). Actual spontaneous protein consumption in Switzerland by specific groups of subjects is well within the actual recommendations (10 - 20 % of energy) with only the frail elderly being at risk of not covering their requirements for protein.

  5. Educating teachers in Switzerland – reform and current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Wiśniewska-Paź

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Educating teachers in the scope of higher (non-academic education sector has been a relatively new phenomenon in Switzerland. Until the end of the 90's, when Higher Pedagogical Schools were established, teachers had been educated at teaching seminars.Establishment of Higher Pedagogical Schools gave rise to a thorough reform in educating teachers in Switzerland, which aimed at improving the quality of work and professionalism of the teachers through science-oriented education (similar to the university education, and at establishing international and all-Swiss system of acknowledging diplomas received in particular canton institutions of higher education. This system makes it possible for the graduates to commence work at schools/ kindergarten departments not only in a canton of their choice, but also in a country chosen by them. At present, 12 000 students study in higher pedagogical schools, which constitutes 7% of all students in both (academic and non-academic sectors of higher education. This article describes current situation of this type of universities in Switzerland, their location, specializations, availability issues, duration of the studies and also the number of students (including percentage of foreigners, as well as the issues of prestige of the profession of a teacher, average age of the personnel in relation to education levels, degree of feminization of the profession and the demands.

  6. Local acceptance of existing biogas plants in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soland, Martin; Steimer, Nora; Walter, Götz

    2013-01-01

    After the Swiss government's decision to decommission its five nuclear power plants by 2035, energy production from wind, biomass, biogas and photovoltaic is expected to increase significantly. Due to its many aspects of a direct democracy, high levels of public acceptance are necessary if a substantial increase in new renewable energy power plants is to be achieved in Switzerland. A survey of 502 citizens living near 19 biogas plants was conducted as the basis for using structural equation modeling to measure the effects of perceived benefits, perceived costs, trust towards the plant operator, perceived smell, information received and participation options on citizens’ acceptance of “their” biogas plant. Results show that local acceptance towards existing biogas power plants is relatively high in Switzerland. Perceived benefits and costs as well as trust towards the plant operator are highly correlated and have a significant effect on local acceptance. While smell perception and information received had a significant effect on local acceptance as well, no such effect was found for participation options. Reasons for the non-impact of participation options on local acceptance are discussed, and pathways for future research are presented. - Highlights: • Acceptance of biogas plants by local residents in Switzerland is relatively high. • Local acceptance is highly affected by perceived outcomes and citizens’ trust. • Smell perception increases perceived costs and reduces perceived benefits and trust. • Information offers reduce perceived costs and increase trust and perceived benefits. • Participation offers do not have any effect on local acceptance

  7. A national survey on radon remediation in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazza, Fabio Daniel; Murith, Christophe; Palacios, Martha; Gfeller, Walther; Christen, Emanuel

    2017-11-02

    We present and discuss the results of a national survey on radon remediation. The main purpose of the survey was the evaluation of the rate of radon remediation in Switzerland and to identify the main reasons for not taking action in cases of high radon levels. Switzerland is strongly affected by the radon problem and extensive efforts have been made to map the radon potential and to investigate the most effective methods to reduce radon levels in different buildings. However, since the radon remediation of buildings has been given over to experts in the private sector and since there is no obligation to report a finished remediation to the authorities, it is difficult for the Federal Office for Public Health (FOPH) to track the activities in this field. In order to improve this situation, the FOPH has launched a survey. We find a rate of radon remediation of 46%. The most often applied method is the aeration of the cellar and the improvement of the tightness of the floor slab. The respondents indicate that the most important reason for not taking action is the concern about the financial and/or invasive magnitude of the work. We discuss the different outcomes of the survey in the three linguistic regions in Switzerland and identify aspects of our communication with the public, which should be improved in view of our findings. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  8. Epidemiological study of pestiviruses in South American camelids in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudry, M; Meylan, M; Regula, G; Steiner, A; Zanoni, R; Zanolari, P

    2010-01-01

    In the context of the ongoing eradication campaign for bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in cattle in Switzerland, the role of South American camelids (SAC) as a possible virus reservoir needed to be evaluated. To assess and characterize the prevalence of pestivirus infections in SAC in Switzerland. Serum samples collected from 348 animals (40 herds) in 2008 and from 248 animals (39 herds) in 2000 were examined for antibodies against pestiviruses and for the presence of BVDV viral RNA. Cross-sectional study using stratified, representative herd sampling. An indirect BVDV-ELISA was used to analyze serum samples for pestivirus antibodies, and positive samples underwent a serum neutralization test (SNT). Real-time RT-PCR to detect pestiviral RNA was carried out in all animals from herds with at least 1 seropositive animal. In 2008, the overall prevalence of animals positive for antibodies (ELISA) and pestiviral RNA or was 5.75 and 0%, respectively. In 2000, the corresponding prevalences were 3.63 and 0%, respectively. The seroprevalences (SNT) for BVDV, border disease virus or undetermined pestiviruses were estimated to be 0, 1.73, and 4.02% in 2008, and 0.40, 1.21, and 2.02% in 2000, respectively. At the present time, SAC appear to represent a negligible risk of re-infection for the BVDV eradication program in cattle in Switzerland. Copyright © 2010 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  9. National Report Switzerland: Sounding Rocket and Balloon Activities and Related Research in Switzerland 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    During the period from 2013 to 2015, many Swiss researchers conducted studies on research platforms such as balloons or sounding rockets, or at the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat. Researchers ‘ increased interest in sounding rockets during the two-year period is especially noteworthy. The use of the high altitude research stations, in contrast, has a long tradition in Switzerland and is, thus, frequently occupied by scientists. An advantage of these stations is the ideal set-up for researchers interested in the long-term measurement of the upper atmosphere, for example. Therefore, numcrous experiments in this particular research field were conducted and published in scientific journals. After a pause, several Swiss scientists became engaged in sounding rocket experiments. RUAG Space in Nyon, for instance, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and University of Freiburg, is focusing on the effect of gravity on plant roots. In order to investigate a gravity-dependent influence, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings are being planned for execution during the upcoming MASTER 1 3 campaign. A team of students from HES-SO Geneva were chosen to participate in the REXUS program with their experiment called CAESAR. A new concept of a propellant management device for space vehicles was introduced and tested on the REXUS 14 rocket by the team from Geneva in the spring of 20 1 3 . Last year, another student team, now from the Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, was selected to fly their experiment on another REXUS rocket. Their proposed biological study is called CEMIOS and pertains to biochemical properties of the cell membrane. Once more the high altitude research stations of Jungfraujoch and Gornergrat welcomed many national—as well as international—scientists in the past two years. The hours that the researchers spent in either station reached a record high despite the poor weather conditions

  10. Tinnitus functional index: validation of the German version for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicole; Kleinjung, Tobias; Jeker, Raphael; Meyer, Martin; Klaghofer, Richard; Weidt, Steffi

    2017-05-05

    Different standardized questionnaires are used to assess tinnitus severity, making comparisons across studies difficult. These questionnaires are also used to measure treatment-related changes in tinnitus although they were not designed for this purpose. To solve these problems, a new questionnaire - the Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) - has been established. The TFI is highly responsive to treatment-related change and promises to be the new gold standard in tinnitus evaluation. The aim of the current study was to validate a German version of the TFI for a German-speaking population in Switzerland. At the ENT department of the University Hospital Zurich, 264 subjects completed an online survey including the German version for Switzerland of TFI, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and sociodemographic variables. Internal consistency of the TFI was calculated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Pearson correlation coefficients were used for the test-retest reliability of the TFI and to investigate convergent and discriminant validity between the THI and the BDI and BAI, respectively. Factor analysis was assessed using a principal component analysis with oblique rotation. The different factors extracted were then compared with the original questionnaire. The German version of the TFI for Switzerland showed an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.97) and an excellent test-retest reliability of 0.91. The convergent validity with THI was high (r = 0.86). The discriminant validity with BAI and BDI showed moderate results (BAI: r = 0.60 and BDI: r = 0.65). In the factor analysis only five factors with one main factor could be extracted instead of eight factors as described in the original version. Nevertheless, relations to the original eight subscales could be demonstrated. The German version of the TFI for Switzerland is a suitable instrument for measuring the impact of tinnitus

  11. Commodities and Switzerland: Development Policy Challenges and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Thut

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EDITOR’S NOTEThis paper, written in December 2012, is a contribution to the ‘Policy Debate’ section of the International Development Policy. In this section, academics, policy makers and practitioners engage in a dialogue on global development challenges. Papers are copy-edited but not peer-reviewed. Instead, an initial thematic contribution is followed by critical comments and reactions from different stakeholders. This paper by Werner Thut is followed by reactions and analysis from a non-profit policy institute (Alexandra Gillies, Revenue Watch Institute, New York, ‘Crafting a Strategic Response to the Commodity-Development Conundrum’, a Southern scholar (Prof. Humberto Campodonico, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima ‘Going Beyond Transparency and Good Governance’ | ‘Más allá de la transparencia y una buena gobernanza’ and a representative of the trading sector (Stéphane Graber, Secretary General of Geneva Trading & Shipping Association – ‘Reassessing the Merchants’ Role in a Globalized Economy’.PAPER’S ABSTRACTSwitzerland is one of the world’s largest commodity trading hub. The author, senior policy adviser at the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC, reviews experiences and policy options related to commodity trading from a development policy perspective. While this sector has become of strategic importance to Switzerland’s economy, it also entails a number of risks. On the other hand, Swiss development cooperation efforts focus on several resource-rich countries, whose mineral and agricultural commodities are traded via Switzerland. How can Switzerland assist these countries to reap the benefits of their natural resource wealth? This paper looks at development policy aspects of commodity trading in relation to Swiss foreign and domestic policy. It examines ongoing policy debates in Switzerland and discusses development policy options.

  12. Impact of HPV vaccination with Gardasil® in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacot-Guillarmod, Martine; Pasquier, Jérôme; Greub, Gilbert; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Achtari, Chahin; Sahli, Roland

    2017-12-22

    Gardasil®, a quadrivalent vaccine targeting low-risk (6, 11) and high-risk (16, 18) human papillomaviruses (HPV), has been offered to 11-14 year-old schoolgirls in Switzerland since 2008. To evaluate its success and its potential impact on cervical cancer screening, HPV genotypes were examined in 18-year-old girls five years later (sub-study 1) and in outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening before and after vaccine implementation (sub-study 2). For sub-study 1, 3726 females aged 18 in 2013 were invited to fill a questionnaire on personal demographics and HPV risk factors and to provide a self-collected cervicovaginal sample for HPV genotyping and Chlamydia trachomatis PCR. Personal data were evaluated by univariable and multivariable statistics. In sub-study 2, the proportion of the vaccine-type HPV among anogenital HPV was examined with archived genotyping data of 8039 outpatients participating to cervical cancer screening from 1999 till 2015. The yearly evolution of this proportion was evaluated by segmented logistic regression. 690 (18.5%) women participated to sub-study 1 and 327 (8.8%) provided a self-collected sample. Prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (4.6%) and demographics confirmed that the subjects were representative of sexually-active Swiss young women. Vaccine (five-year coverage: 77.5%) was preferentially accepted by contraceptive-pill users (P = 0.001) and samples were mainly provided by sexually-active subjects (P Switzerland. Our data suggest that cervical cancer screening is now entering a stage of reduced proportion of HPV16 and/or 18 in samples reported positive by cytology. In view of the high likelihood of reduced clinical specificity of cytology, primary screening modalities involving HPV testing and cytology should now be re-evaluated in Switzerland.

  13. Towards the new CH2018 climate scenarios for Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Schär, Christoph; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Knutti, Reto; Liniger, Mark; Strassmann, Kuno

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing demand for regional assessments of future climate change and its impacts on society and ecosystems to inform and facilitate appropriate adaptation strategies. The basis for such assessments are consistent and up-to-date climate change scenarios on the local to regional scale. In Switzerland, an important step has been accomplished by the release of the climate scenarios in 2011 ("CH2011"). Since then, new climate model simulations have become available and the scientific understanding has improved. It is hence desirable to update these national scenarios. The new CH2018 scenarios are developed in the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS), a network consisting of several federal offices and academic partners. The CH2018 scenarios will build primarily upon the latest Euro-CORDEX regional climate model simulations assuming different pathways of future greenhouse gas concentrations. Compared to CH2011, more emphasis will be put on changes in extremes and in putting the projected changes in the context of observed variability. Results of a recently conducted survey on end-user needs in Switzerland will guide the development process toward the CH2018 scenarios. It ensures that the scenarios are presented and communicated in a user-oriented format and find a wide applicability across different sectors in Switzerland. In the presentation we will show the full methodological setup to generate the CH2018 scenarios and how consistency across the methods and products is maximized. First results on mean changes and selected indices will be presented. In terms of dissemination, the results of the user survey show the necessity to address all different user types of climate scenarios, especially the non-experts. Compared to CH2011, this implies a stronger focus on consulting, condensing complex information and providing tutorials. In the presentation, we will outline our plans on dissemination in order to adequately

  14. Climate change and tourism in the alpine regions of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Bürki, R; Abegg, B; Elsasser, H

    2007-01-01

    For many alpine areas in Switzerland, winter tourism is the most important source of income, and snow-reliability is one of the key elements of the offers made by tourism in the Alps. 85% of Switzerland’s current ski resorts can be designated as snow-reliable. If climate change occurs, the level of snow-reliability will rise from 1200 m up to 1800 m over the next few decades. Only 44% of the ski resorts wouldthen still be snow-reliable. While some regions may be able to maintain their winter ...

  15. Bovine besnoitiosis in Switzerland: imported cases and local transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, Walter; Lesser, Maren; Grimm, Felix; Hilbe, Monika; Sydler, Titus; Trösch, Luzia; Ochs, Hansueli; Braun, Ueli; Deplazes, Peter

    2013-12-06

    Bovine besnoitiosis is an economically important disease of cattle, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Protozoa, Apicomplexa). A considerable spreading of this parasitic infection has been observed in Europe in the last ten years, mainly related to animal trade. In order to investigate the possibility of B. besnoiti being unnoticed introduced and getting established in Switzerland through the import of breeding cattle from France, a total of 767 animals (650 cattle imported from France and 117 cattle that had contact with B. besnoiti positive cattle in Swiss farms) were screened for antibodies against B. besnoiti by both a commercial ELISA and by the indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT). A total of 101 (13.17%) samples showed a positive reaction in ELISA (cut-off: percent of positivity [PP] ≥ 15) and 16 (2.09%) samples had IFAT titers ≥ 1:100. Eight of those samples reacted positive in Western blot (WB), corresponding to five imported Limousin cattle (two cows and one bull from France and two cows from Germany) and to three cattle born in Switzerland (one Limousin heifer born from one of the positive German cows, and two adult Braunvieh cows, that had been in contact with one of the French cows at a Swiss farm). Seven of those animals were subclinically infected and one animal showed only very mild signs. They were subsequently slaughtered, and the serological diagnosis could be confirmed by real-time PCR and/or histopathology in seven animals. The most frequent parasite localizations were the tendons and surrounding connective tissue of the distal limbs and the skin of the head region. Furthermore, B. besnoiti could be successfully isolated in vitro from one French, one German and one Swiss cattle (isolates Bb-IPZ-1-CH, Bb-IPZ-2-CH and Bb-IPZ-3-CH). In the current situation in Switzerland, prophylactic and control measures should include a serological examination of cattle to be imported from endemic areas and the culling of all confirmed positive animals from

  16. Interdisciplinary consensus on management of premenstrual disorders in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra; Bodmer, Christine; Ehlert, Ulrike; Eltbogen, Roger; Ging, Ankica; Streuli, Isabelle; von Wolff, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Premenstrual disorders (PMD) can affect women throughout their entire reproductive years. In 2016, an interdisciplinary expert meeting of general gynecologists, gynecological endocrinologists, psychiatrists and psychologists from Switzerland was held to provide an interdisciplinary algorithm on PMD management taking reproductive stages into account. The Swiss PMD algorithm differentiates between primary and secondary PMD care providers incorporating different levels of diagnostic and treatment. Treatment options include cognitive behavioral therapy, alternative therapy, antidepressants, ovulation suppression and diuretics. Treatment choice depends on prevalent PMD symptoms, (reproductive) age, family planning, cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities, comedication and the woman's preference. Regular follow-ups are mandatory.

  17. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2007. During this period, 531 earthquakes and 92 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, 30 are aftershocks of the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel in December of 2006. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, four of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2007 was far below the average over the previous 32 years. (author)

  18. [European migrant crisis and reemergence of infections in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaton, Laure; Kritikos, Antonios; Bodenmann, Patrick; Greub, Gilbert; Merz, Laurent

    2016-04-13

    Current conflicts in some regions of the world give rise to massive immigration waves. Consequently, some infections that had nearly disappeared in Europe nowadays re-emerge. They are related to the epidemiology of the refugees' origin, but also to the epidemiology of the country crossed during migration. Hygiene conditions, often precarious during the journey, favor their transmission. Thus, cases of louse borne relapsing fever and diphtheria emerge in Europe and in Switzerland since 2074 whereas cutaneous Panton-Valen tine Staphylococcus aureus infection are more commonly observed nowadays.

  19. Radioactive waste management in Switzerland: the legal framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egloff, V.

    1988-01-01

    In Switzerland the legislative and regulatory provisions governing the management of radioactive wastes are contained in the 1959 Atomic Energy Act, the 1978 Ordinance supplementing the Act and the 1984 Atomic Energy Ordinance (definitions and licences). The article briefly reviews this legislation and its historical background and goes on to analyse in depth the relevant provisions and their requirements regarding treatment, storage and disposal of such waste, including the construction of waste repositories. The text of these provisions is reproduced in the Annex. (NEA) [fr

  20. Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voumard, A.

    1992-01-01

    In Switzerland five NPPs are in operation and none is planned or is under construction. The three oldest NPPs are backfitted with an additional safety system. In the field of I and C, efforts are essentially directed to maintaining high performance and to improve the safety of the plants in operation. Three of these plants are about 20 years old and a significant part of their I and C equipment has to be replaced. This is an ongoing process which is carried out stage by stage mostly during the annual shutdown. Measures to avoid or mitigate severe accidents, including core melting, have been taken or are planned. (author). 1 tab

  1. Tuberculosis in early medieval Switzerland--osteological and molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Christine; Fellner, Robert; Heubi, Olivier; Maixner, Frank; Zink, Albert; Lösch, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Lesions consistent with skeletal tuberculosis were found in 13 individuals from an early medieval skeletal sample from Courroux (Switzerland). One case of Pott's disease as well as lytic lesions in vertebrae and joints, rib lesions and endocranial new bone formation were identified. Three individuals with lesions and one without were tested for the presence of Myobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) ancient DNA (aDNA), and in two cases, evidence for MTBC aDNA was detected. Our results suggest the presence of tuberculosis in the analysed material, which is in accordance with other osteological and biomolecular research that reported a high prevalence of tuberculosis in medieval skeletons.

  2. Natural gas is not electricity. Switzerland is not Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinmann, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    The production and procurement of natural gas and electricity are governed by different criteria. The electricity industry model cannot simply be transposed to the Swiss gas market after liberalization. Moreover, the structure of the Swiss gas industry is not the same as that of the electricity sector. For similar reasons, the privatization model adopted for the United Kingdom gas industry is not applicable to Switzerland. Competition already exists on the heating market, while procurement costs do not vary greatly because of the investments involved. Big price cuts cannot therefore be anticipated when the Swiss gas market is liberalized. (author)

  3. Wind energy: the facts - and how is it in Switzerland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, J.-M.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at European developments in the wind energy sector. Facts presented at a European Wind Energy Conference in Marseille, France, are briefly noted and figures on the development of wind power in Europe are presented. The position of Switzerland in the European context of wind energy use is discussed. Combined with hydropower installations and their pump-storage systems, European wind energy is quoted as having good economic possibilities. The augmentation of transport lines necessary in this respect is noted. Also, the introduction of new control technology in this area is mentioned. Nearing price-parity for wind-generated electricity is noted

  4. Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Dr. David Syz, State Secretary for Economic Affairs, Switzerland, toured the assembly hall of the ATLAS experiment on a recent visit to CERN.Photos 01, 02: Dr. Peter Jenni, spokesperson for the ATLAS experiment (second from left), explains to Dr. David Syz (fourth from left) and accompanying visitors the process of integration of a 26-metre-long coil of the barrel toroid magnet system into its coil casing.Photo 03: Dr. Peter Jenni (extreme right) with Dr. David Syz (front row, fourth from right) behind a stack of 26-metre-long 'racetrack' coils awaiting integration into their coil casings.

  5. NPP accident scenario. Which emergency measures are planned in Switzerland?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a consequence of the reactor accident in Fukushima the Swiss government has ordered an extensive analysis of emergency planning in case of a NPP accident Switzerland. A special working group has analyzed the possible improvements of Swiss emergency planning based on the experiences in Japan. Under the special direction of the Bundesamt fuer Bevoelkerungsschutz (BABS) the agreed improvements were integrated into the emergency concept. The reference scenarios have been re-assessed and the zone concept adapted. The emergency measures include shelter-type rooms (basement or window-less rooms), the preventive distribution of iodine pills, measures concerning agriculture, aquatic systems, preventive evacuation, traffic regulations, and delayed evacuation.

  6. Impacts of the May 2015 bad weather in Western Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Strong precipitations occurred on Western Switzerland in the beginning of May 2015, especially on May 1st. Over 100 mm of rain fell in about 24 hours in some places in Western Switzerland, with a maximum of 130 mm at La Dôle, Canton of Vaud. Those heavy rains caused different damages as debris flow, floods and landslides. Several roads and railway have been closed, preventively or due to tracks obstructions in the Alps, the Jura mountains and in the Swiss Plateau. Two landslides have disrupted two main railway tracks, causing high traffic disturbances due to deviations and affecting the railway traffic during more than one week. In the village of St-Gingolph in the Canton of Valais, the Morge river overflowed two restaurants with debris flows. Their ground floor levels have been totally destroyed. In the town of Monthey, Canton of Valais, about 300 residents along the Viège river have been evacuated during the night because of the high risk of floods. The Arve river -which flows through the Chamonix Valley in the French Alps- has reached a flow rate record with 903 m3/s compared to its standard flow of 77 m3/s at its mouth into the Rhône river in Geneva on 2nd May. Several bridges in the town had to be closed, affecting the urban traffic of the second biggest town of Switzerland. North-east of the Western Switzerland, the lakes of Neuchâtel (Canton of Neuchâtel), Biel (Canton of Bern) and Morat (Canton of Fribourg), overflowed because of the high flow rate of the Aare river. The maximum height of water level has been reached about 8 days after the first heavy rain with a water level increase of 1 meter. A lot of wood has been carried by the rivers to the shores of the lakes. The damages are only material, no injuries were identified. Financial and temporal damages consequences are high for the two destroyed restaurants. The return to normality for river flows and water levels of the lakes took several weeks. The aim of this study is to document the natural

  7. Eco-power from the holiday-corner of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhauesern, A.

    2005-01-01

    This article takes a look at how the Swiss Raetia-Energie group markets ecologically produced power. As opposed to physically delivering the electricity to its eco-customers, Raetia Energie sells certificates for the production of this form of clean power. The price of the certificates reflects the difference between the higher price for the eco-electricity and normal, non-certified power. The article discusses this mechanism, which is successfully used for customers in Switzerland and Germany. Part of the earnings made from the 'Naturemade Star' certified electricity is used to finance ecological projects in the company's area, famous for its tourist attractions

  8. Wood energy in Switzerland - fillet steaks and sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the increasing use of wood energy to help meet Switzerland's energy needs. The increasing interest in wood-fired systems in comparison with fossil fuels is commented on. The article presents figures on energy carriers and the shares of the energy supply they meet as well as the development of wood-fired systems between 1991 and 2003. The influence of Swiss regional identities on the market for wood heating systems is discussed, as are difficulties resulting from stop-and-go governmental promotional funding. The importance of wood-fired energy systems for local authorities with difficulties in selling wood from their communal forestry departments is also discussed

  9. Competitiveness in tourism: A comparison between Brazil and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Montanari

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the unstable global situation and the crisis in the euro area, world tourism has remained strong and with a positive growth in the last years. Besides, this activity has a great economic and social importance which is reflected in its ability to generate jobs and income. Thus, this article aims to analyze the competitiveness of the tourism sector in Brazil and Switzerland, comparing the two countries through competitive factors identified by the World Competitiveness Index in Tourism (Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Index - TTCI. Making this comparison, it was revealed that Switzerland is much more developed than Brazil in this sector and therefore has many more sources of competitive advantages, from which are highlighted sustainability, transportation infrastructure and human and cultural resources. On the other hand, Brazil has a great strength with its natural resources, which is not enough to guarantee a developed tourism sector. Thus, information was obtained that can collaborate with the tourism industry and the governments of both countries to develop strategic actions and for theoretical research in the area.

  10. Metal working fluid exposure and diseases in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koller, Michael F; Pletscher, Claudia; Scholz, Stefan M; Schneuwly, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Exposure to metal working fluids (MWF) is common in machining processes worldwide and may lead to diseases of the skin and the respiratory tract. The aim of the study was to investigate exposure and diseases due to MWF in Switzerland between 2004 and 2013. We performed descriptive statistics including determination of median and 90th percentile values of MWF concentrations listed in a database of Suva. Moreover, we clustered MWF-induced occupational diseases listed in a database from the Swiss Central Office for Statistics in Accident Insurance, and performed linear regression over time to investigate temporal course of the illnesses. The 90th percentile for MWF air concentration was 8.1 mg (aerosol + vapor)/m 3 and 0.9 mg aerosol/m 3 (inhalable fraction). One thousand two hundred and eighty skin diseases and 96 respiratory diseases were observed. This is the first investigation describing exposure to and diseases due to MWF in Switzerland over a timeframe of 10 years. In general, working conditions in the companies of this investigation were acceptable. Most measured MWF concentrations were below both the Swiss and most international occupational exposure limits of 2014. The percentage of workers declared unfit for work was 17% compared to the average of other occupational diseases (12%).

  11. Overview of Nagra's geological investigation programme in Northern Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thury, M.; Diebold, P.

    1987-01-01

    For the assessment of the feasibility and safety of a repository for high level radioactive waste, Nagra (National Cooperative for the Storage of Radioactive Waste) has started in 1980 in central Northern Switzerland an extensive geological investigation program. This overall program contains four field investigation programs and several programs for synthesis work. By the end of 1985, six deep drillings have been completed. The deepest borehole reached 2482 m. All in all, more than 8000 m of cores have been taken and analyzed in detail. In the boreholes, extensive hydrogeological tests have been carried out. Within the regional geophysical investigation program gravimetric, aeromagnetic and magnetotelluric, refraction seismic and reflection seismic surveys have been carried out. Vibroseis lines of 400 km length have been measured. Within the regional hydrogeological program, water samples of more than 100 springs and wells with hydrochemically or thermally abnormal waters have been analyzed in detail for their chemical and isotopic composition. Within the neotectonic program, geomorphologic, tectonic, geodetic and seismic studies and measurements have been carried out. In 1983, a microearthquake survey network was installed. All these data were analyzed in several synthetic programs: Structural geology, hydrochemistry, hydrodynamic modelling and long term stability scenarios. The Nagra program continues. As next, a deep borehole in the Canton of Schaffhausen is planned. Meanwhile all data are analyzed in detail and the understanding of the regional and local geology, geochemistry and hydrogeology of northern Switzerland is improved and refined. (author) 32 refs., 8 figs

  12. Cochlear implantation in children and adults in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Yves; Senn, Pascal; Kompis, Martin; Dillier, Norbert; Allum, John H J

    2014-02-04

    The cochlear implant (CI) is one of the most successful neural prostheses developed to date. It offers artificial hearing to individuals with profound sensorineural hearing loss and with insufficient benefit from conventional hearing aids. The first implants available some 30 years ago provided a limited sensation of sound. The benefit for users of these early systems was mostly a facilitation of lip-reading based communication rather than an understanding of speech. Considerable progress has been made since then. Modern, multichannel implant systems feature complex speech processing strategies, high stimulation rates and multiple sites of stimulation in the cochlea. Equipped with such a state-of-the-art system, the majority of recipients today can communicate orally without visual cues and can even use the telephone. The impact of CIs on deaf individuals and on the deaf community has thus been exceptional. To date, more than 300,000 patients worldwide have received CIs. In Switzerland, the first implantation was performed in 1977 and, as of 2012, over 2,000 systems have been implanted with a current rate of around 150 CIs per year. The primary purpose of this article is to provide a contemporary overview of cochlear implantation, emphasising the situation in Switzerland.

  13. Contracting of energy services in Switzerland. Development, effects, market potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.; Baumgartner, W.; Kohn, L.

    1999-06-01

    The authors of this detailed report first define the contracting of energy services, this new reality of the market place, and analyse its current status in Switzerland. Contracting is mainly to be understood as the delegation of certain energy-related services by a company. The total investment for the operated energy systems considered by the study is about 120 millions USD, with an installed power of 160 MW. This market is highly unhomogeneous and is the answer to various goals. Globally, it brings a more efficient use of energy, including a more frequent involvement of renewable energy sources, along with a lower risk and significant advantages for all contractors. That is the reason for the energy policy authority to recommend contracting. The report goes on with the analysis of the factors leading the chief executives to consider contracting of energy services, or on the contrary to exclude it. The authors estimate the realistic potential market for contracting in Switzerland to 650 millions USD for the period 1999-2004. They conclude by giving recommendations which should result in an acceleration of the contracting's development on the market place

  14. Prevalence of sarcoidosis in Switzerland is associated with environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deubelbeiss, U; Gemperli, A; Schindler, C; Baty, F; Brutsche, M H

    2010-05-01

    The current study aimed to investigate incidence, prevalence and regional distribution of sarcoidosis in Switzerland with respect to environmental exposures. All sarcoidosis patients hospitalised between 2002 and 2005 were identified from the Swiss hospital statistics from the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics (Neuchâtel, Switzerland). Regional exposure characteristics included the regional distribution of different industrial sectors, agriculture and air quality. Co-inertia analysis, as well as a generalised linear model, was applied. The prevalence of "ever-in-life" diagnosed sarcoidosis, currently active sarcoidosis and sarcoidosis requiring hospitalisation was 121 (95% CI 93-149), 44 (95% CI 34-54) and 16 (95% CI 10-22) per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. The mean annual incidence of sarcoidosis was 7 (95% CI 5-11) per 100,000 inhabitants. The regional workforce in the metal industry, water supply, air transport factories and the area of potato production, artificial meadows (grassland) and bread grains were positively associated with the frequency of sarcoidosis. The prevalence of sarcoidosis was higher than assumed based on former international estimates. Higher frequency was found in regions with metal industry and intense agriculture, especially production of potatoes, bread grains and artificial meadows.

  15. Revised regulation on the Hiring of Domestic Staff in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN of the publication of the official translation of the 'Directive on the hiring of private servants by staff members of diplomatic missions, permanent missions, consular posts and international organisations in Switzerland', which came into effect on 1st May 2006. The members of the personnel concerned are reminded that they must comply with the provisions of the revised Directive, which replaces that of 1st May 1998, and present a copy to their domestic staff. The full text of the revised Directive is available on the Swiss Mission's website: http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/f/home/guide/dir.html (original French version); http://www.dfae.admin.ch/geneva_miss/e/home/guide/dir.html (English translation). This notification cancels the information published in document CERN/DSU-DO/RH/9304 on 19 October 1999. Relations with the Host States Service Tel.: 72848 relations.secretariat@cern.ch www.cern.ch/relations

  16. Interoperability prototype between hospitals and general practitioners in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Bruno; Müller, Henning; Schumacher, Michael; Godel, David; Abu Khaled, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Interoperability in data exchange has the potential to improve the care processes and decrease costs of the health care system. Many countries have related eHealth initiatives in preparation or already implemented. In this area, Switzerland has yet to catch up. Its health system is fragmented, because of the federated nature of cantons. It is thus more difficult to coordinate efforts between the existing healthcare actors. In the Medicoordination project a pragmatic approach was selected: integrating several partners in healthcare on a regional scale in French speaking Switzerland. In parallel with the Swiss eHealth strategy, currently being elaborated by the Swiss confederation, particularly medium-sized hospitals and general practitioners were targeted in Medicoordination to implement concrete scenarios of information exchange between hospitals and general practitioners with a high added value. In this paper we focus our attention on a prototype implementation of one chosen scenario: the discharge summary. Although simple in concept, exchanging release letters shows small, hidden difficulties due to the multi-partner nature of the project. The added value of such a prototype is potentially high and it is now important to show that interoperability can work in practice.

  17. The diversity of waste disposal planning in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1989-01-01

    In this overview of radioactive waste disposal planning in Switzerland, emphasis is placed upon describing the diversity of the planning and explaining the strategic thinking which has resulted in this diversity. Although Switzerland is a small country and has only a modest nuclear programme in absolute terms, planning and preparation for final disposal projects has been progressing for the last 10 or more years on a very broad front. The reasons for this breadth of approach are partly technical and partly determined by political and public pressures. Following a summary of the requirements for disposal and of the relevant boundary conditions, the resulting concepts are described and the controversial issue of repository siting is discussed. The current status of projects for disposal of low and intermediate-level wastes (L/ILW) and of high-level wastes (HLW) is noted; we conclude with some remarks on the advantages and disadvantages from the side of the organization responsible for implementation of repository projects of proceeding on such a broad technical front. (aughor). 2 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Hydrochemical synthesis Northern Switzerland: tertiary- and Malm-aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmassmann, H.; Kullin, M.; Wexsteen, P.

    1990-05-01

    This Tertiary-Malm synthesis represents the first part of an overall hydrochemical synthesis of deep groundwaters in Northern Switzerland and adjacent areas. The investigation is mainly based on data from Nagra deep boreholes, from Nagra regional programme as well as from external sources. The first part provides a hydrogeological overview including a brief description of the aquifer rocks. A compilation of all existing hydraulic potential data is given and discussed for Northern Switzerland, Bodensee area and western Swabian Alb. In the Molasse Basin, hydrochemical and isotope analyses allowed a distinction of three main water types positioned one upon another: calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate groundwaters, sodium-bicarbonate and sodium-chloride deep groundwaters. Hydrochemical and isotopegeochemical details of these three water types comprise the major part of this report. Unlike the other two water types, the calcium-magnesium-bicarbonate groundwaters also include shallow waters with considerable tritium activities, indicating a mean residence time of less than 35 years. The spacial distribution of these three water types are demonstrated and different secular flow models in the Tertiary-Malm Aquifer group are discussed. (author) figs., tabs., 194 refs

  19. Congenital Transmission of Chagas Disease in Latin American Immigrants in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, Yves; Myers, Catherine; Diana, Alessandro; Marti, Hans-Peter; Wolff, Hans; Chappuis, Fran?ois; Loutan, Louis; Gervaix, Alain

    2009-01-01

    International migration has changed the epidemiologic patterns of Chagas disease. Recently, 2 cases of Chagas disease transmitted from Latin American women to their newborns were diagnosed in Geneva, Switzerland. A retrospective study to detect Chagas disease showed a prevalence of 9.7% among 72 Latin American women tested during pregnancy in Switzerland.

  20. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  1. Coxiella burnetii Infections in Small Ruminants and Humans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magouras, I; Hunninghaus, J; Scherrer, S; Wittenbrink, M M; Hamburger, A; Stärk, K D C; Schüpbach-Regula, G

    2017-02-01

    The recent Q fever epidemic in the Netherlands raised concerns about the potential risk of outbreaks in other European countries. In Switzerland, the prevalence of Q fever in animals and humans has not been studied in recent years. In this study, we describe the current situation with respect to Coxiella (C.) burnetii infections in small ruminants and humans in Switzerland, as a basis for future epidemiological investigations and public health risk assessments. Specific objectives of this cross-sectional study were to (i) estimate the seroprevalence of C. burnetii in sheep and goats, (ii) quantify the amount of bacteria shed during abortion and (iii) analyse temporal trends in human C. burnetii infections. The seroprevalence of C. burnetii in small ruminants was determined by commercial ELISA from a representative sample of 100 sheep flocks and 72 goat herds. Herd-level seroprevalence was 5.0% (95% CI: 1.6-11.3) for sheep and 11.1% (95% CI: 4.9-20.7) for goats. Animal-level seroprevalence was 1.8% (95% CI: 0.8-3.4) for sheep and 3.4% (95% CI: 1.7-6) for goats. The quantification of C. burnetii in 97 ovine and caprine abortion samples by real-time PCR indicated shedding of >10 4 bacteria/g in 13.4% of all samples tested. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting C. burnetii quantities in a large number of small ruminant abortion samples. Annual human Q fever serology data were provided by five major Swiss laboratories. Overall, seroprevalence in humans ranged between 1.7% and 3.5% from 2007 to 2011, and no temporal trends were observed. Interestingly, the two laboratories with significantly higher seroprevalences are located in the regions with the largest goat populations as well as, for one laboratory, with the highest livestock density in Switzerland. However, a direct link between animal and human infection data could not be established in this study. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Convention on nuclear safety. Questions posted to Switzerland in 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Switzerland signed the Convention on Nuclear Safety (CNS) on 31 October 1995. It ratified the Convention on 12 September 1996, which came into force on 11 December 1996. In accordance with Article 5 of the Convention, Switzerland has prepared and submitted 4 country reports for Review Meetings of Contracting Parties organised in 1999, 2002, 2005 and 2006. These meetings at the IAEA headquarters in Vienna were attended by a Swiss delegation. Most of the requirements of the articles of the Convention were already standard practice in Switzerland. In the last years, all Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) as well as the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) built up documented quality management systems. The independence of HSK from licensing authorities is fulfilled on a technical level. In 2005, a new Nuclear Energy Act came into force requiring formal independence of the supervisory authorities from the licensing authorities. A separate act to legally settle the Inspectorate's fully independent status was adopted by Parliament. HSK participates in international co-operation and is represented in numerous nuclear safety working groups in order to ensure the exchange of scientific, technical and regulatory know-how. The regulatory processes applied to the licensing and safety surveillance of nuclear installations and their operation are up to date with the current state of science and technology. Deterministic and probabilistic safety evaluations guide and prioritise inspections and provide the basis for a graded approach to safety review and assessment. The surveillance of the NPPs' operating, control and safety systems, their component performance and integrity, their organisational and human aspects as well as the management, conditioning and interim storage of radioactive waste are permanent features of the supervisory authority's activities. Within the frame of a new integrated oversight process there is an annual systematic assessment of

  3. User needs for climate change scenarios in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Liniger, Mark; Flückiger Knutti, Jacqueline

    2017-04-01

    In the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS) new climate change scenarios for Switzerland are currently under development that will be released in 2018 ("CH2018 scenarios"). An important component herein is the consideration of user needs in order to ensure that the new scenarios are user tailored and hence find a wide applicability in different sectors in Switzerland. A comprehensive market research was conducted to get a better overview of who the users of climate scenarios are and what they need. The survey targeted the most climate relevant sectors, and involved representatives from administration, research and private companies across Switzerland. The survey comprised several qualitative group interviews with key stakeholders, a written questionaire, answered by more than one hundred users and two specific workshops gathering the needs in dissemination. Additionally, the survey results were consolidated at a national symposium with around 150 participants from research, administration and practice. The results of the survey show the necessity to classify the users of climate scenarios according to their level of usage and according to the different sectors. It turns out that the less intensive the usage of the climate scenarios is, the more important becomes the need of comprehensibility, clarity and support when disseminating new climate scenarios. According to the survey it is especially the non-experts that should be better addressed in the new cycle of national climate scenarios. In terms of content, the survey reveals strongest needs for quantitative information on changes in extremes, an aspect that was handled in a qualitative way only in the predecessor climate scenario suite CH2011. Another cross-sectoral need are physically consistent data in time, space and between several variables. For instance, in agriculture the combination of heat and dryness is an important aspect, while the same is true in the energy

  4. 76 FR 28910 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-19

    ... Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule... products to add Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for... free of or low-risk for CSF. Switzerland and Liechtenstein are not currently listed in these sections...

  5. 76 FR 70037 - Importation of Live Swine, Swine Semen, Pork, and Pork Products From Liechtenstein and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-10

    ... Liechtenstein and Switzerland AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule... Liechtenstein and Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for classical swine fever... Switzerland to the region of Europe that we recognize as low risk for CSF and to add Liechtenstein to the...

  6. A tale of two labs: Batavia, Illinois and Geneva, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The current state of particle physics is reviewed by looking at the biggest particle physics laboratories, Fermilab in Illinois USA and CERN in Switzerland. The equipment, successes, failures, personalities and future of the two laboratories are discussed. The way in which the main facilities (CERN's super proton Synchrotron and Fermilab's Tevatron) can operate to provide information about fundamental particles is explained. The present understanding of quarks and leptons is explained and an indication given of the postulated particles that should be found in the future. The detectors are of vital importance in finding evidence of the new particles and the detection facilities available at Fermilab and CERN are described. The leadership and administration of the laboratories are also compared. (U.K.)

  7. Icing-up map of Switzerland; Vereisungskarte der Schweiz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierer, S.; Cattin, R. [Meteotest, Berne (Switzerland); Steiner, Ph. [Bundesamt fuer Meteorologie und Klimatologie MeteoSchweiz, Zuerich (Switzerland); Gruenewald, T.; Steinkogler, W.; Lehning, M. [WSL-Institut fuer Schnee- und Lawinenforschung SLF, Davos Dorf (Switzerland)

    2010-05-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the preparation of a map of Switzerland which shows the incidence of icing-up on structures. Nationwide information on water vapour in clouds, temperatures and wind data derived from 'MeteoSchweiz''s COSMO-2 operational weather forecasting system were used as input data for an icing-up algorithm which calculated ice-loading on a cylindrical, freely-rotating structure. Icing-up incidence thus calculated was verified using existing measured data for locations in the Swiss Alps and the Jura mountains. Advice is given on the interpretation of the map's data, which is also available on the Internet. Examples of ice formation are presented including hoar frost, clear ice and wet snow. The development of the map is looked at in detail and its evaluation is discussed.

  8. Nuclear Liability and Insurance for nuclear Damage in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    With nuclear power generating 43% of its total electricity production, Switzerland is amongst the states, employing the highest percentage of nuclear electricity. Although, the country has not ratified any of the international Nuclear Liability Conventions, its Nuclear Third Party Liability Act reflects all the principles, underlying those Conventions. The statutory liability of the operator of a Swiss nuclear installation itself being unlimited, the total insurance limit of CHF 770 m. provides the highest private insurance protection worldwide. With the support of its foreign Reinsurance Pools, the capacity for this insurance guarantee has, over more than 40 years, been built up by the Swiss Nuclear Insurance Pool. Apart from Third Party Liability cover, the Pool also provides Property insurance to Swiss nuclear installation operators and reinsurance cover to other nuclear insurers worldwide. (author)

  9. The potential of new renewable energy sources in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, P.; Kaiser, T.; Wokaun, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the results of an evaluation made by the so-called 'Swiss Energy Trialogue' ETS on the potential offered by new renewable energy sources in Switzerland. The evaluation forecasts an important contribution to Swiss energy supply by renewable energy sources by the year 2050. The authors are of the opinion that, in spite of a considerable increase in the offers of renewable energy and the full use of energy saving potential, a discrepancy will exist between estimates of energy needs and the actual energy available from renewable resources if large-scale power generation facilities are not built. Activities proposed by the Swiss government are discussed and analysed. In particular, possible contributions to be made by renewable energy sources are examined. Suggestions made by ETS concerning possible courses of action are discussed

  10. Acceptance of Ambulatory Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in Central Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Sandra P; Fischer, Henning; Brunner, Alexander R; Honigmann, Philipp; Metzger, Jürg

    2017-11-01

    Currently, most patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) in Switzerland are inpatients for 2-3 days. Due to a lack of available hospital beds, we asked whether day-case surgery would be an option for patients in central Switzerland. The questions of acceptability of outpatient LC and factors contributing to the acceptability thus arose. Hundred patients suffering from symptomatic cholecystolithiasis, capable of communicating in German, and between 18 and 65 years old, were included. Patients received a pre-operative questionnaire on medical history and social situation when informed consent on surgery and participation in the study was obtained. Exclusion criteria were patients suffering from acute cholecystitis or any type of cancer; having a BMI >40 kg/m 2 ; needing conversion to open cholecystectomy or an intraoperative drainage; and non-German speakers. Surgery was performed laparoscopically. Both surgeon and patient filled in a postoperative questionnaire. The surgeon's questionnaire listed medical and technical information, and the patients' questionnaire listed medical information, satisfaction with the treatment and willingness to be released on the same day. These data from both questionnaires were grouped into social and medical factors and analysed on their influence upon willingness to accept an ambulatory procedure. No outpatient follow-up apart from checking for readmission to our hospital within 1 month after discharge was performed. Of the 100 participants, one-third was male. More than two-thirds were Swiss citizens. Only one participant was ineligible for rapid release evaluation due to need of a drainage. Among the social factors contributing to the acceptability of ambulatory care, we found nationality to be relevant; Swiss citizens preferred an inpatient procedure, whereas non-Swiss citizens were significantly more willing to return home on the same day. Household size, sex and age did not correlate with a preference for

  11. Regulations relevant to the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, L.

    1996-01-01

    As is the case in many countries, the transport of radioactive materials in Switzerland is primarily regulated by the national regulations for the transport of dangerous goods. Currently these regulations, in the case of radioactive material, incorporate the 1985 IAEA Safety Series 6 Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material (As amended 1990). However, as is also the case in some other countries, consignors, shippers and carriers of radioactive materials must also comply with additional laws when shipping radioactive materials. The most important of these other laws and their accompanying regulations are those concerned with radiation protection (import, export and carriers licences) and nuclear power (import, export, inland transport and transit licences). This paper sets out to describe the collective requirements resulting from all three of these sets of regulations. (Author)

  12. [Classical swine fever in wild boars in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, M A; Thür, B; Vanzetti, T; Schleiss, W; Schmidt, J; Griot, C

    1999-01-01

    In May 1998, wild boars with classical swine fever (CSF) symptoms were detected in the southern part (Canton Ticino) of Switzerland. CSF virus was isolated from the submitted samples and RT-PCR followed by direct nucleotide sequencing of the 5' non-translated region showed that this virus was identical to the isolate previously recognized in wild boars from the area of Varese (Italy). In most animals, antibodies to CSF virus were detected as well. An immediate measurement was taken by limiting the movement of pigs and identifying both risk and surveillance zones. In order not to disturb potentially infected wild boars within their habitat a complete hunting prohibition for 2 months was enforced. The different possibilities of the control of CSF outbreaks in wild boars are discussed.

  13. Isotope study in the Alpine karst region of Rawil (Switzerland)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schotterer, U.; Siegenthaler, U.; Oeschger, H.; Wildberger, A.; Nabholz, W.

    1978-01-01

    An isotope study in the karst of the high Alps in Switzerland is described. From 1973 to 1978 discharge, 3 H, delta 18 O, conductivity and temperature were measured in representative springs. The springs are influenced by snowmelt in late spring and summer, by rain in late summer and autumn, and in the winter period, when infiltration stops, by reservoir water. Since tritium in precipitation in the last years scattered irregularly in time and space, the residence time of winter baseflow (2-4 years) could not be determined very precisely. The pronounced difference in delta 18 O between several springs allowed us to estimate the difference in mean altitude of their recharge areas. (orig.) [de

  14. Small hydropower station in Schluein, Switzerland; Kleinwasserkraftwerk Schluein - Vorstudie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merz, F.; Thoeny, F.

    2007-04-15

    This preliminary study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a project concerning the building of a small-scale hydropower installation in Schluein in the Grisons, Switzerland. The requirements placed on the water intake point in this mountainous region are discussed. The installation includes a 1230 metre long pressurised conduit and uses a multi-jet Pelton turbine to provide 720 kW of electrical power, the hydraulic head amounting to 140 m. The paper discusses the amounts of water available over the year, production costs and the economic feasibility of the project. The power production is estimated to 3,150,000 kWh/y. Environmental aspects are examined and details still to be defined are briefly mentioned.

  15. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huesser, P.; Hostettler, T.

    2007-01-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  16. The 'Pontareuse' small hydropower station in Boudry, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmann, M.

    2007-05-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes work done in 2007 on the preliminary project for a small hydropower project to be realised in Boudry, Switzerland. The goal of this project is to take advantage of the hydro power of the river Areuse using an existing artificial weir which has been built and renovated as part of several river corrections in the past. Three variants for the construction of the proposed hydropower installation with a maximum projected power rating of 391 kilowatts are presented in detail. Options for the realisation of a fish pass to enable fish to pass the weir are also discussed. Figures are presented on the financial viability of the project which, although low, could however become interesting when the expected tariff changes in connection with the new Swiss legislation on electrical energy supply are considered

  17. Vision 2050: sustainable energy supply and use in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, M.; Brodmann, U.; Ott, W.

    2003-01-01

    This executive summary for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE summarises the results of a study carried out on the topic of how long-term strategies for Swiss energy policy. can be developed. A proposed series of studies is examined that is to show how Switzerland can find the way to a sustainable energy supplies and their sustainable use by the year 2050. Research areas are defined, particularly in the technical, behavioural and political sectors. Technical potentials in several areas, strategies and instruments are looked at, as is the social acceptance of proposed measures. Also, models for the analysis of economic effects are examined. Sustainability indicators and targets are reviewed, as are the benefits of developing strategies as early as possible. The report is completed with recommendations for further action

  18. Investor acceptance of wind energy in Switzerland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerer, M. J.

    2009-10-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the views of 17 developers and investors in Switzerland which were collected during two sets of interviews - one in autumn 2008 with 13 developers and investors and one in the first half of 2009 with 15 developers and investors. According to the authors, this report does not present the opinion of specialists, but is rather a compilation and synthesis of the remarks made by several industry practitioners who were interviewed. The authors state that this report covers opinions, not facts. The effects of the financial crisis on wind energy are commented on and strategies that can increase the potential for success are reviewed. Basic recommendations concerning wind energy are made for Swiss policy makers.

  19. Provision of energy in Switzerland - politics, strategy and psychology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachs, W.K.

    1979-01-01

    In this address to the assembled Swiss electricity supply undertakings the author sketches the present and probable future energy situation in Switzerland as part of the World situation and the alternative strategies for dealing with the shortage of energy that is bound to occur in a country that imports 80% of its consumption. He discusses the recent report of the Federal Commission on General Questions of Energy and the public debates on energy and nuclear generation of the last few years. The main part of the address consists of a defence of the price mechanism (higher energy prices) and the operation of private enterprise in the energy field as means of providing the solutions needed by the year 2000. (C.J.D.G.)

  20. A study of fairness judgments in China, Switzerland and Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gao

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compares judgments of the fairness of economic actions among survey populations in Switzerland, and both student and non-student groups in the People's Republic of China, with the earlier Kahneman, Knetsch and Thaler (1986a surveys of Canadians. The findings suggest that fairness concerns matter among all of these groups, and the general patterns of what was and was not considered to be fair were similar. However, there were also some significant differences with the influence of fairness being weaker in the two Chinese samples than in the groups from the Western countries, with the influence being weakest in the Chinese student population for the wage related topics. On the whole, almost no significant gender differences were found in any of the new surveys.

  1. Switzerland's largest wood-pellet factory in Balsthal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stohler, F.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes how a small Swiss electricity utility has broken out of its traditional role in power generation and the distribution of electricity and gone into the production of wood pellets. The pellets, which are made from waste wood (sawdust) available from wood processing companies, are produced on a large scale in one of Europe's largest pellets production facilities. The boom in the use of wood pellets for heating purposes is discussed. The article discusses this unusual approach for a Swiss power utility, which also operates a wood-fired power station and is even involved in an incineration plant for household wastes. The markets being aimed for in Switzerland and in Europe are described, including modern low-energy-consumption housing projects. A further project is described that is to use waste wood available from a large wood processing facility planned in the utility's own region

  2. Organization of nuclear safety and radiation protection in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pretre, S.

    1995-01-01

    In Switzerland an important distinction is made between radiation protection (in charge of the use of ionizing radiations for medical uses or non nuclear industry), and nuclear safety (in charge of nuclear industry, including prevention or limitation of any risk of nuclear accident). In the eighties, it has been decided to make two laws for these two topics. The law for radioprotection, voted in 1991 is enforced since 1994 by OFSP (Office Federal de la Sante Publique). It performs any radiation monitoring outside nuclear industry plants. The law for nuclear safety, that should be enforced by OFEN (Office Federal de l'ENergie), is still not voted. The only existing legislation is the 1959 atomic law. (D.L.). 1 fig., 1 map

  3. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (EP – CMO) Maria BARROSO LOPEZ (IT – DI) Catherine BRANDT (DG – DI) Michelle CONNOR (TH – GS) Gaëlle DUPERRIER (EP – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (EP – ADO) Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) Nathalie GOURIOU (EP – AGS) Nathalie GRÜB (EP – AGS) Laurie HEMERY (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (ATS – DO) Tania PARDO (EP – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) Kate RICHARDSON (EP –  A...

  4. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (EP – CMO) Maite BARROSO LOPEZ (IT – DI) Catherine BRANDT (DG – DI) Michelle CONNOR (TH – GS) Gaëlle DUPERRIER (EP – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (EP – ADO) Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) Nathalie GRÜB (EP – AGS) Laurie HEMERY (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (ATS – DO) Tania PARDO (EP – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) Kate RICHARDSON (EP –  AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (TH – GS)...

  5. CAS course on Power Converters in Baden, Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) recently organised a specialised course on Power Converters, which was held at the Hotel du Parc in Baden, Switzerland from 7 to 14 May 2014.   Photo courtesy of Markus Fischer, Paul Scherrer Institut. Following some recapitulation lectures on accelerators and the requirements on power converters, the course covered a wide range of topics related to the different types of power converters needed for particle accelerators. Topical seminars completed the programme. The course was very successful, attended by 84 students representing 21 nationalities, mostly from European countries but also from America, Brazil, Canada, China, Iran, Jordan and Thailand. Feedback from the participants was very positive, reflecting the high standard of the lectures and teaching. In addition to the academic programme, the participants also had an opportunity to take part in a full-day site visit to ABB and PSI and an excursion to the Rhine Fall...

  6. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA Oliver BRÜNING Inger CARRIERO Michelle CONNOR Lyndon EVANS Nathalie GRUB David JACOBS Tadeusz KURTYKA Jean-Pol MATHEYS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Connie POTTER Jeanne ROSTANT Ulla TIHINEN Emmanuel TSESMELIS Rüdiger VOSS The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisat...

  7. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2011-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS - In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil.  Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tjitske KEHRER (DG-DI) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – A...

  8. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tjitske KEHRER (DG-DI) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Markus NORDBERG (PH – ADO) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – AG...

  9. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2010-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Sylvie DETHURENS FAVEZ (HR – SPS) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRUB (PH – AGS) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Jean-Pol MATHEYS (BE – ASR) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Connie POTTER (PH – AGS) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla...

  10. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. 1. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) 2. Catherine BRANDT (DG – IR) 3. Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) 4. Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) 5. Patrick FASSNACHT (PH – ADO) 6. Fernando FERNANDEZ SAVORGNANO (HR – TA) 7. David FOSTER (IT – DI) 8. Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) 9. Cécile NOELS (DG – DI) 10. Maria QUINTAS (HR – TA) 11. Kate RICHARDSON (PH –  AGS) 12. Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) 13. José SALICIO-DIEZ (...

  11. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the Note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. 1.     Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) 2.     Catherine BRANDT (DG – IR) 3.     Oliver BRÜNING (BE – HDO) 4.     Michelle CONNOR (PH – DI) 5.     Gaëlle DUPERRIER (PH – DI) 6.     Patrick FASSNACHT (PH – ADO) 7.     Fernando FERN...

  12. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply.   Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Conventions d’accueil. Kirsti ASPOLA (PH – CMO) Oliver BRÜNING (BE – ABP) Michelle CONNOR (PH – AGS) Patrick FASSNACHT (PH-ADO) David FOSTER (IT – DI) Nathalie GRÜB (PH – AGS) Tadeusz KURTYKA (DG – PRJ) Markus NORDBERG (PH – ADO) Cécile NOELS (DG – PRJ) Maria QUINTAS (HR – SPS) Kate RICHARDSON (PH-AGS) Jeanne ROSTANT (PH – AGS) José SALICIO-DIEZ (PH – AGS) Ulla TIHINEN (PH – AGS) Emmanuel...

  13. Insurance coverage of pediatric burns: Switzerland versus USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deghayli, Lina; Moufarrij, Sara; Norberg, Michael; Sheridan, Robert; Raffoul, Wassim; de Buys Roessingh, Anthony; Hirt-Burri, Nathalie; Applegate, Lee Ann

    2014-08-01

    Burn care and research have significantly improved over the past years. However, insurance coverage of such treatments does not reflect the improvements in this multi-disciplinary field. Government insurance policies in first world countries renown for burn care treatment, such as Switzerland and the United States, have not adapted to the complexity and longitudinal nature of burn care. Using case studies from both countries, we have analyzed both the institutional and policy approach to pediatric burn treatment coverage. Subsequently, by presenting the Shriners burn care model, we offer a policy recommendation to both the Swiss and the American governments to better their present legislation and infrastructure on pediatric burn coverage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  14. Photovoltaics in Switzerland - Present situation and prospects for further development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.; Gutschner, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the contributions made by Switzerland in the areas of research, innovation and production technologies for photovoltaics. The intensive developments that can be noted in the Swiss photovoltaics area are commented on. Growth rates in the photovoltaics industry are quoted and commented on. The state-of-the-art and present trends are discussed, including organic and inorganic solar cells and concentrating systems. The author comments on the many technologies currently being worked on, with newer technologies catching up with the more traditional crystalline silicon systems. Balance-of-system products, such as inverters, cabling systems and controllers are briefly discussed. Also, increased interest and developments in monitoring systems for the power produced by the solar installations is noted. Swiss research and production facilities are commented on. Price-parity for solar power and its future effect on the European and Swiss solar markets is discussed

  15. Switzerland: current energy and climate policies. Political boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previdoli, P.

    2006-01-01

    End use energy consumption in Switzerland has increased almost ninefold over the past 95 years, amounting to nearly 88 PJ in 2004. This figure breaks down as follows: coal 5%, oil-based fuels 29%, motor fuels 31%, electricity 22%, gas 11%, district heat, solid municipal and industrial waste as well as renewables (excluding electricity) approx. 1%. In 2004 alone, end use energy consumption rose by half a percent, thus reaching a new record high. This development is due, above all, to the population increase and to economic growth. To achieve its goals in energy and climate policies, and to initiate sustainable energy supply, the Swiss federal council in 2001 launched the 'EnergySwitzerland' Program. The new strategy of the Program focuses on these three goals: 'Climate', 'Electricity: Efficiency Goal', and 'Renewable Energies'. On the basis of perspectives of the development of the population and of the economy, the consequences of a number of policy variants for energy supply and demand and for the economy and the environment have been examined. Four scenarios (variants) are to help design energy policy on a medium and long term by showing energy policy options. For the area of electricity supply facing increasing requirements, 4 options and their pros and cons are distinguished: electricity imports, renewable energies, fossil- fired thermal plants (combined-cycle plants), and nuclear power. With a 40% share in domestic production, nuclear power continues to be a pillar of Swiss energy supply. The fundamental question about the future of nuclear power is not a question of technical or economic know-how, but a question of the system of political values. As the current legal system in the field of electricity supply does not meet requirements, it will have to be adapted. (orig.)

  16. Confidence in Alternative Dispute Resolution: Experience from Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Schwenkel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Alternative Dispute Resolution plays a crucial role in the justice system of Switzerland. With the unified Swiss Code of Civil Procedure, it is required that each litigation session shall be preceded by an attempt at conciliation before a conciliation authority. However, there has been little research on conciliation authorities and the public's perception of the authorities. This paper looks at public confidence in conciliation authorities and provides results of a survey conducted with more than 3,400 participants. This study found that public confidence in Swiss conciliation authorities is generally high, exceeds the ratings for confidence in cantonal governments and parliaments, but is lower than confidence in courts.Since the institutional models of the conciliation authorities (meaning the organization of the authorities and the selection of the conciliators differ widely between the 26 Swiss cantons, the influence of the institutional models on public confidence is analyzed. Contrary to assumptions based on New Institutional-ism approaches, this study reports that the institutional models do not impact public confidence. Also, the relationship between a participation in an election of justices of the peace or conciliators and public confidence in these authorities is found to be at most very limited (and negative. Similar to common findings on courts, the results show that general contacts with conciliation authorities decrease public confidence in these institutions whereas a positive experience with a conciliation authority leads to more confidence.The Study was completed as part of the research project 'Basic Research into Court Management in Switzerland', supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF. Christof Schwenkel is a PhD student at the University of Lucerne and a research associate and project manager at Interface Policy Studies. A first version of this article was presented at the 2013 European Group for Public

  17. Physiotherapy Research Priorities in Switzerland: Views of the Various Stakeholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nast, Irina; Tal, Amir; Schmid, Stefan; Schoeb, Veronika; Rau, Barbara; Barbero, Marco; Kool, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Research priorities, defined by multiple stakeholders, can proximally facilitate the coordination of research projects and national and international cooperation and distally further improve the quality of physiotherapy practice. The aim of this study was therefore to establish physiotherapy research priorities in Switzerland considering multiple stakeholders' opinions. A mixed methods design was chosen. For a qualitative identification of physiotherapy research topics, 18 focus group discussions and 23 semi-structured interviews/written commentaries were conducted. For the quantitative analysis, 420 participants prioritized research topics using a two-round Delphi questionnaire survey. The following stakeholder groups were surveyed in the German-speaking, French-speaking and Italian-speaking regions of Switzerland: physiotherapy researchers, practitioners and educators, representatives of patient organizations, public health organizations, health insurers, physicians, nurses, occupational therapists and other health professionals, as well as physical educators. The top five overall physiotherapy research priorities identified were as follows: physiotherapy treatment, physiotherapy assessment and diagnosis, prevention, physiotherapist-patient interaction and physiotherapy professional education at the bachelor level. With regard to diagnostic groups, the highest priorities were placed on musculoskeletal disorders, neurology, orthopaedics, geriatrics and ergonomics/occupational health. Consensus was moderate to high, and only few differences between stakeholder groups were revealed. Research directly related to physiotherapy treatment is of highest priority. It should focus on diagnostic groups related to chronicity in anticipation of demographic changes. Multidisciplinary networks for research and practice, alongside sound coordination of research projects, should increase the impact of physiotherapy research. An accurate dissemination of research priorities

  18. Geophysical investigation program Northern Switzerland: Refraction-seismic measurements 84

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromm, G.; Driessen, L.; Lehnen, I.

    1985-01-01

    Acting on instructions from the SGPK/Nagra working group (Baden, Switzerland), PRAKLA-SEISMOS GmbH, Hanover, planned, processed and interpreted seismic refraction measurements in northern Switzerland; CGG, Massy (France) was responsible for carrying out the field work. The aim of the survey was to investigate the shape and depth of a regional, WSW-ENE striking Permocarboniferous trough which underlays the mesozoic sediments of the Tabular Jura. The crystalline basement surface and possibly other geological boundaries were to be identified on the basis of refractor velocities. The recording arrangement included a 36 km spread in the assumed trough axis and four 12 km long spreads perpendicular to the axis (broad side 'T') which covered the trough edges. The resulting good quality data indicated two refractors: horizon H5 which is attributable to the lower Permocarboniferous could only be detected in the western half of the spread with any certainty. Horizon H6 probably represents the crystalline basement surface. If anisotropy is taken into account, the refractor velocity closely corresponds to the Gneiss of the WEIACH- and the Granite 3 of the BOETTSTEIN-borehole. This horizon was clearly discernible on all recordings and allowed the approximate mapping of the trough's shape. The assumed strike direction and depth was largely confirmed. In the WSW section the trough is more than 3300 m deep, it rises to - 3000 m in the ESE section and shows only in the east of the survey area a tendency towards a narrower width and shallower depth (depth data relate to the seismic reference datum at 500 m above MSL). (author)

  19. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 3 September 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [fr

  20. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 3 September 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006 [es

  1. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a Note Verbale dated 3 September 2007 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with Switzerland's commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2006

  2. Extreme Events: low and high total ozone over Arosa, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, H. E.; Staehelin, J.; Maeder, J. A.; Ribatet, M.; Stübi, R.; Weihs, P.; Holawe, F.; Peter, T.; Davison, A. C.

    2009-04-01

    The frequency distribution of days with extreme low (termed ELOs) and high (termed EHOs) total ozone is analyzed for the world's longest total ozone record (Arosa, Switzerland - for details see Staehelin et al.,1998a,b), with new tools from extreme value theory (e.g. Coles, 2001; Ribatet, 2007). A heavy-tail focused approach is used through the fitting of the Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) to the Arosa time series. Asymptotic arguments (Pickands, 1975) justify the use of the GPD for modeling exceedances over a high (or below a low) enough threshold (Coles, 2001). The analysis shows that the GPD is appropriate for modeling the frequency distribution in total ozone above or below a mathematically well-defined threshold. While previous studies focused on so termed ozone mini-holes and mini-highs (e.g. Bojkov and Balis, 2001, Koch et al., 2005), this study is the first to present a mathematical description of extreme events in low and high total ozone for a northern mid-latitudes site (Rieder et al., 2009). The results show (a) an increase in days with extreme low (ELOs) and (b) a decrease in days with extreme high total ozone (EHOs) during the last decades, (c) that the general trend in total ozone is strongly determined by these extreme events and (d) that fitting the GPD is an appropriate method for the estimation of the frequency distribution of so-called ozone mini-holes. Furthermore, this concept allows one to separate the effect of Arctic ozone depletion from that of in situ mid-latitude ozone loss. As shown by this study, ELOs and EHOs have a strong influence on mean values in total ozone and the "extremes concept" could be further used also for validation of Chemistry-Climate-Models (CCMs) within the scientific community. References: Bojkov, R. D., and Balis, D.S.: Characteristics of episodes with extremely low ozone values in the northern middle latitudes 1975-2000, Ann. Geophys., 19, 797-807, 2001. Coles, S.: An Introduction to Statistical Modeling of

  3. Neotectonic fault structures in the Lake Thun area (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Stefano C.; Herwegh, Marco; Schlunegger, Fritz; Hübscher, Christian; Weiss, Benedikt J.; Schmelzbach, Cédric; Horstmeyer, Heinrich; Merz, Kaspar; Anselmetti, Flavio S.

    2016-04-01

    Strong historic earthquakes (i.e. intensities I0 ≥ V) in Switzerland are well documented by the earthquake catalogue of Switzerland ECOS-09 (e.g. Frutigen, 1729 AD, Mw=5.2, I0=VI). Many of these strong events can be recognized paleoseismically by large subaquatic, earthquake-triggered mass movements that occur frequently in Swiss Lakes. Some of these represent the occasional occurrence of even stronger earthquakes (i.e. Mw ˜6.5) in the Alpine region (Strasser et al., 2013), which are expected to produce noticeable surface ruptures. However, convincing evidence for Quaternary displacements with offset surface expressions have scarcely been found (e.g., Wiemer et al., 2009). Applying a multi-disciplinary approach, this study presents potential candidates for such faults in the larger Lake Thun area at the edge of the Alps. The overdeepened basin of Lake Thun is situated at the northern Alpine front, which extends orthogonally to the general strike direction of the Alpine nappe front. The northern shoreline is predominantly shaped by the front of the Subalpine Molasse, which is in strong contrast to the south western shore built by the structurally higher units of the Middle and Lower Penninic nappes. This pattern with obvious differences of both lake sides suggests a major fault along the lake axis and high tectonic activity during nappe emplacement, i.e. from Eocene times throughout the Late Miocene. The area is dominated today by a strike-slip stress regime with a slight normal faulting component (Kastrup et al., 2004). As part of a multi-disciplinary study, attempting to find potential neotectonically active fault structures in the Lake Thun area, a 2D ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey was conducted. The aim of the GPR survey was to link observations from a multichannel reflection seismic survey and a multibeam bathymetric survey carried out in Lake Thun with findings in a nearby gravel quarry revealing suspicious deformation features such as rotated gravel

  4. Trends of Ozone in Switzerland since 1992 (TROZOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.; Mathis, H.; Furger, M.; Prevot, A.S.H.

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the trends of the daily afternoon (noon to midnight) maximum ozone concentrations at 15 of the 16 stations of the Swiss air quality monitoring network (NABEL) during the period 1992-2002. The use of numerous meteorological parameters and additional data allowed a detailed seasonal analysis of the influence of the weather on the ozone maxima at the different stations. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed separately for each station and season in order to detect the parameters which best explain the variability of the daily ozone maximum concentrations. During the warm seasons (summer and spring) the most explanatory parameters are those related to the ozone production, in particular the afternoon temperature. In winter, the most explanatory variables are the ones influencing the vertical mixing and thus the ozone destruction by titration with NO and dry deposition, like the afternoon global radiation. The trends of both the measured and meteorologically corrected ozone maxima were calculated. The year-to-year variability in the ozone maxima was lowered by a factor of 3 by the meteorological correction. Significantly positive trends of corrected ozone maxima of 0.3 - 1.1 ppb/year were found at the low altitude stations in winter and autumn as well as at Lausanne - urban station - in all the seasons, mainly due to the lower loss of ozone by reaction with NO as a consequence of the decreased emissions of primary pollutants during the 90s. This could be partially confirmed by the lower trends of O X (sum O 3 of and NO 2 ) maxima compared to the trends in ozone maxima. The absence of negative trends of the median or mean ozone maxima north of the Alps in summer suggests that the decrease in the emissions of ozone precursors did not have a strong impact on the afternoon maximum ozone concentrations during the last decade. In contrast to the project TOSS (Trends of Ozone in Southern Switzerland), no significantly negative trends of ozone

  5. A prediction model for assessing residential radon concentration in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauri, Dimitri D.; Huss, Anke; Zimmermann, Frank; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Röösli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon is regularly measured in Switzerland. However, a nationwide model to predict residential radon levels has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to assess indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland. The model was based on 44,631 measurements from the nationwide Swiss radon database collected between 1994 and 2004. Of these, 80% randomly selected measurements were used for model development and the remaining 20% for an independent model validation. A multivariable log-linear regression model was fitted and relevant predictors selected according to evidence from the literature, the adjusted R², the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The prediction model was evaluated by calculating Spearman rank correlation between measured and predicted values. Additionally, the predicted values were categorised into three categories (50th, 50th–90th and 90th percentile) and compared with measured categories using a weighted Kappa statistic. The most relevant predictors for indoor radon levels were tectonic units and year of construction of the building, followed by soil texture, degree of urbanisation, floor of the building where the measurement was taken and housing type (P-values <0.001 for all). Mean predicted radon values (geometric mean) were 66 Bq/m³ (interquartile range 40–111 Bq/m³) in the lowest exposure category, 126 Bq/m³ (69–215 Bq/m³) in the medium category, and 219 Bq/m³ (108–427 Bq/m³) in the highest category. Spearman correlation between predictions and measurements was 0.45 (95%-CI: 0.44; 0.46) for the development dataset and 0.44 (95%-CI: 0.42; 0.46) for the validation dataset. Kappa coefficients were 0.31 for the development and 0.30 for the validation dataset, respectively. The model explained 20% overall variability (adjusted R²). In conclusion, this residential radon prediction model, based on a large number of measurements, was demonstrated to be

  6. Reaching for the Sky: The Growth of Mountain Tourism in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Jennifer Truran

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the beginnings of Swiss tourism, its barriers, and the development and role of transportation in mountain tourism. Considers the environmental problems caused by mountain tourism in Switzerland and provides seven teaching ideas. (CMK)

  7. GPM Ground Validation NASA EPFL-LTE Parsivel DSD Data Lausanne, Switzerland V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation NASA EPFL-LTE Parsivel DSD Data Lausanne, Switzerland dataset consists of a network of 16 Parsivel disdrometers deployed on the Ecole...

  8. Establishment of an early warning system against bluetongue virus in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, V; Straver, R; Kuhn, M; Thur, B; Vanzetti, T; Stärk, K D C; Griot, C; Cagienard, A

    2006-11-01

    Bluetongue (BT) is a vector-borne animal disease of economical importance due to the international trade restrictions likely to be put into place in a country once the infection is discovered. The presence of BT and its vectors in countries adjacent to Switzerland stresses the need of implementing a surveillance system and to raise disease awareness among potential stakeholders. A national survey in Switzerland 2003 indicated freedom of Bluetongue virus (BTV), although a single individual of the main BT vector Culicoides imicola was caught in the canton of Ticino. The survey also demonstrated that potential BT vectors, C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris are locally abundant in Switzerland. Therefore, a new surveillance method based on sentinel herds in high risk areas was implemented in 2004 for the early detection of both an incursion of BT vectors into Switzerland, and potential virus circulation among cattle.

  9. Integration through Land Improvement. Internal Colonization in Switzerland During the First Part of the Twentieth Century

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Internal colonization in Switzerland is often seen in connection with the battle for cultivation in the Second World War, but the history of internal colonization in Switzerland is more complex. The food crisis in the First World War formed the horizon of experience for various actors from industry, consumer protection, the urban population and agriculture to start considering practical strategies for managing agricultural production. In this way, traditional spaces, such as rural and urban a...

  10. The retention of clean air concept in Switzerland - aims and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, H.U.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the detectable effects of air pollutants in Switzerland, with a reference to the methods available now for examination of the mostly complex pollutant effects, is given. An assessment of the emission situation in Switzerland based on the criteria given in the environmental protection legislation follows. Finally the aims, measures and time table of the air-clean keeping concept are explained, with references to the energy supply. 27 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  11. Estimating healthcare costs of acute gastroenteritis and human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    SCHMUTZ, C.; M?USEZAHL, D.; BLESS, P. J.; HATZ, C.; SCHWENKGLENKS, M.; URBINELLO, D.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Rising numbers of campylobacteriosis case notifications in Switzerland resulted in an increased attention to acute gastroenteritis (AG) in general. Patients with a laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infection perceive their disease as severe and around 15% of these patients are hospitalized. This study aimed at estimating healthcare costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis in Switzerland. We used official health statistics, data from different studies and expert opinion for estimating i...

  12. Usage, Potentials and Challenges of Building Information Modelling (BIM) in Slovenia, Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Jus, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    In the master’s thesis, the main potentials, challenges and usage of Information Building Modelling (BIM) in Slovenia, Austria, Germany and Switzerland are presented, including its, because BIM is currently the most widely discussed topic in civil engineering. The study was based on a questionnaire that was carefully created at the HSLU (Hochschule Luzern) in Switzerland. We participated in the last phases of its development. With the help of the results of the questionnaire, we evaluated ...

  13. Earthquakes in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baer, M.; Deichmann, N.; Braunmiller, J.; Clinton, J.; Husen, S.; Faeh, D.; Giardini, D.; Kaestli, P.; Kradolfer, U.; Wiemer, S.

    2007-01-01

    This report of the Swiss Seismological Service summarizes the seismic activity in Switzerland and surrounding regions during 2006. During this period, 572 earthquakes and 91 quarry blasts were detected and located in the region under consideration. Of these earthquakes, two occurred in conjunction with the construction of the new Gotthard railway tunnel and 165 were induced artificially by the stimulation of a proposed geothermal reservoir beneath the city of Basel. With 20 events with Μ ι ≥ 2.5, five of which were artificially induced, the seismic activity in the year 2006 was far below the average over the previous 31 years. Nevertheless, six events were felt by the public, most prominently the strongest of the induced Basel events (Μ ι 3.4), which caused some non-structural building damage. Noteworthy are also the two earthquakes near Cortaillod (Μ ι 3.2), on the shore of Lake Neuchatel, and in Val Mora (Μ ι 3.5), between the Engadin and Val Muestair, as well as the 42 aftershocks of the Μ ι 4.9 Vallorcine earthquake, between Martigny and Chamonix, of September 2005. (author)

  14. Regulatory aspects of construction and operation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, Markus

    2014-01-01

    The regulatory mission with respect to radioactive waste disposal in Switzerland consists of the following tasks: to assess proposed solutions and supervise the preparation for geological disposal of radioactive waste, to review the licence applications in accord with the stepwise implementation process; to supervise the transport of radioactive material to and from nuclear installations; to supervise surface facilities and underground installations of deep geological repositories; and to supervise the safety of staff and the public and their protection from radiation. Related nuclear legislation consists of the Nuclear Energy Act, the Radiological Protection Act including the corresponding Ordinances, and the Ordinance on the Decommissioning Fund and the Waste Disposal Fund for Nuclear Installations. Design, construction and operating principles for DGRs and requirements for the safety case have been developed recently by the Swiss regulatory body. The corresponding guideline specifies protection objectives, protection criteria and specific requirements for DGRs, defines the procedure to be followed for demonstrating the safety of a geological repository, and identifies requirements for the operation of facilities and for their closure. The Nuclear Energy Act stipulates a series of licences that must be obtained prior to completion of a DGR - starting with a general licence, followed by the licences for construction and operation, and finally the closure order

  15. A review of fast reactor activities in Switzerland - March 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wydler, P.

    1984-01-01

    As a result of the noncentralized government in Switzerland there is no clear national policy for the future application of nuclear energy. This is reflected in the lack of a generally agreed nuclear energy research policy in the country. Consequently, activities related to several advanced reactor concepts are funded simultaneously at similar, but relatively low levels. The total expenditure of 5.9 million Swiss Francs (approx. 1 SFr per capita) for fast reactor activities in 1983 must be judged in the light of this situation. The funds have been allocated to an LMFBR safety programme (52%) and a fuel development programme (48%). In the field of LMFBR safety analytical work is performed on hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDAs) and on the integrity of components under HCDA loadings with emphasis on the dynamic behaviour of the reactor cover. A considerable effort has recently been devoted to the preparations for the SONACO natural convection experiment. Another relatively new experimental activity, involving small-scale vapour explosions with freon and water, has produced evidence of interesting physical effects which are not in accord with the assumptions of current molten fuel-coolant interaction (MFCI) models. The fuel development programme has continued with the manufacture of spherepac mixed carbide fuel pins for an irradiation experiment in FFTF. However, the time scale of the experiment has suffered a set-back due to an accident in a glove box of the production line

  16. Radioactive materials in scrap metal, the situation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jossen, H.

    2005-01-01

    About 10 years ago, different happenings in the Swiss and international metal scrap recycling scene created a sensibility to unwanted radioactive substances in scrap metal. Italy, one of the main buyers for scrap metals, started at its borders with systematic checks, arranged by authorities. As a consequence, in Switzerland a concept was elaborated under cooperation of the recycling companies, the Italian authorities, the Federal Office of Public Health (BAG), Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) and the Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund (Suva) to fulfil the different requirements. Individual radioprotection, protection of environment, protection of work yard and machinery and the quality assurance of the recycled metals and the resulting products requires adapted solutions with the main issues: training, suitable measuring equipment and an intervention-and waste management. Detected radioactive substances are professionally recovered, stored and submitted to the radioactive waste collection. The investigation of the happenings can lead to useful hints on gaps and on chances for improvements in general radioprotection. (orig.)

  17. An empirical perspective for understanding climate change impacts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henne, Paul; Bigalke, Moritz; Büntgen, Ulf; Colombaroli, Daniele; Conedera, Marco; Feller, Urs; Frank, David; Fuhrer, Jürg; Grosjean, Martin; Heiri, Oliver; Luterbacher, Jürg; Mestrot, Adrien; Rigling, Andreas; Rössler, Ole; Rohr, Christian; Rutishauser, This; Schwikowski, Margit; Stampfli, Andreas; Szidat, Sönke; Theurillat, Jean-Paul; Weingartner, Rolf; Wilcke, Wolfgan; Tinner, Willy

    2018-01-01

    Planning for the future requires a detailed understanding of how climate change affects a wide range of systems at spatial scales that are relevant to humans. Understanding of climate change impacts can be gained from observational and reconstruction approaches and from numerical models that apply existing knowledge to climate change scenarios. Although modeling approaches are prominent in climate change assessments, observations and reconstructions provide insights that cannot be derived from simulations alone, especially at local to regional scales where climate adaptation policies are implemented. Here, we review the wealth of understanding that emerged from observations and reconstructions of ongoing and past climate change impacts in Switzerland, with wider applicability in Europe. We draw examples from hydrological, alpine, forest, and agricultural systems, which are of paramount societal importance, and are projected to undergo important changes by the end of this century. For each system, we review existing model-based projections, present what is known from observations, and discuss how empirical evidence may help improve future projections. A particular focus is given to better understanding thresholds, tipping points and feedbacks that may operate on different time scales. Observational approaches provide the grounding in evidence that is needed to develop local to regional climate adaptation strategies. Our review demonstrates that observational approaches should ideally have a synergistic relationship with modeling in identifying inconsistencies in projections as well as avenues for improvement. They are critical for uncovering unexpected relationships between climate and agricultural, natural, and hydrological systems that will be important to society in the future.

  18. National survey report on PV power applications in Switzerland 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huesser, P. [Nova Energie GmbH, Aarau (Switzerland); Hostettler, T. [Ingenieurbuero Hostettler, Berne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-01

    This annual report was published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) as part of the International Energy Agency's work on the exchange and dissemination of information on photovoltaic power systems (PVPS). The political situation in Switzerland with regard to the promotion of photovoltaics (PV) and new legislation in the energy area is discussed. The report provides information on installed PV power, costs and prices and the Swiss PV industry. Examples of PV applications are presented and data on the cumulative installed PV power in various application sectors is presented and discussed. Highlights, major projects and various demonstration and field-test programmes are dealt with, as are public budgets for market stimulation. Figures on the development, production and prices of PV cells and modules are presented. Swiss balance-of-system products are reviewed, as are PV-related services and the value of the Swiss PV business. A review of non-technical factors and new initiatives completes the report.

  19. Evaluation of the Electricity Saving Fund in Basel, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iten, R.; Vettori, A.; Schmidt, N.; Vaterlaus, S.; Wild, J.

    2003-09-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of an evaluation made concerning the Electricity Saving Fund operated in Basel, Switzerland. The aims of the fund, which is based on the imposition of a steering levy on electricity consumption, are presented and discussed. It is noted that the political policies behind this promotional scheme differ greatly from those of other Swiss Cantons. This study examines the direct and indirect effects of the steering levy and the resulting bonus for energy-saving consumers and takes a look at possibilities for transferring the idea to other Swiss Cantons. Questions asked include the degree to which the aims were fulfilled, were negative side-effects noted, is the implementation efficient, can the know-how gained be transferred to other communities and Cantons and which general experience was gained in the application of steering levies. Details on the implementation of the Electricity Saving Bonus are presented and discussed. Results of a survey on the perception of the scheme both in the commercial and private sectors are discussed. Also, the results of evaluations made concerning the degree to which the scheme's aims were fulfilled and their usefulness from the national economics point of view are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented. The report is concluded with an a selection of annexes on the topics dealt with in the report

  20. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, H.; Gobet, M.

    1995-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1994, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other installations using radionuclides and also miscellaneous radiation sources. With only one exception, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual emission limits in 1994, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with extreme values as high as 100 mSr; 30% may be ascribed to natural radiation, roughly 25% to medical applications of ionising radiation, leaving less than 5% ascribable to man-made sources. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  1. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2004-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Jean BOILLOT Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Steve MYERS Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI Agnita QUERROU Jean-Pierre RIUNAUD We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL" (people who do not hold a contract of employment, association or apprenticeship w...

  2. Biotechnology in Switzerland and a glance at Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiechter, A

    2000-01-01

    The roots of biotechnology go back to classic fermentation processes, which starting from spontaneous reactions were developed by simple means. The discovery of antibiotics made contamination-free bioprocess engineering indispensable, which led to a further step in technology development. On-line analytics and the use of computers were the basis of automation and the increase in quality. On both sides of the Atlantic, molecular biology emerged at the same time, which gave genetic engineering in medicine, agriculture, industry and environment new opportunities. The story of this new advanced technology in Switzerland, with a quick glance at Germany, is followed back to the post-war years. The growth of research and teaching and the foundation of the European Federation of Biotechnology (EFB) are dealt with. The promising phase of the 1960s and 1970s soon had to give way to a restrictive policy of insecurity and anxiousness, which, today, manifests itself in the rather insignificant contributions of many European countries to the new sciences of genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics, as well as in the resistance to the use of transgenic agricultural crops and their products in foods.

  3. Quantifying food losses and the potential for reduction in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Claudio; Stoessel, Franziska; Baier, Urs; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2013-03-01

    A key element in making our food systems more efficient is the reduction of food losses across the entire food value chain. Nevertheless, food losses are often neglected. This paper quantifies food losses in Switzerland at the various stages of the food value chain (agricultural production, postharvest handling and trade, processing, food service industry, retail, and households), identifies hotspots and analyses the reasons for losses. Twenty-two food categories are modelled separately in a mass and energy flow analysis, based on data from 31 companies within the food value chain, and from public institutions, associations, and from the literature. The energy balance shows that 48% of the total calories produced (edible crop yields at harvest time and animal products, including slaughter waste) is lost across the whole food value chain. Half of these losses would be avoidable given appropriate mitigation measures. Most avoidable food losses occur at the household, processing, and agricultural production stage of the food value chain. Households are responsible for almost half of the total avoidable losses (in terms of calorific content). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David

    2013-08-22

    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry.

  5. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and food has been going on in Switzerland since the mid 1950s. This report contains a summary of the values measured in 1993, along with the interpretation of the data and the resultant radiation dose for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other radiation sources. With two exceptions, the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1993, and measurements carried out in the environment revealed no inadmissible radioactivity concentrations or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv. Some 40% of this is due to radon in the home, with a mean of 1.6 mSv and extreme values as high as around 100 mSv; 30% or 1.2 mSv, may be ascribed to natural radiation, leaving less then 0.2 mSv ascribable to man-made sources, excluding medical applications. (author) figs., tabs

  6. Class Councils in Switzerland: Citizenship Education in Classroom Communities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Wyss

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Democracy depends on the participation of citizens. Citizenship educationis taking place in classroom communities to prepare pupils for their role ascitizens. Class councils are participatory forms of citizenship educationguaranteeing the children’s right to form and express their views freely aswritten down in the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Theoreticaldeficiencies and empirical objections have been formulated againstparticipation in the school setting. Despite widespread practices, empiricaldata about class councils in Switzerland barely exists. In our researchproject we video-recorded fourteen class councils in secondary schools, weinterviewed the teacher and four pupils of each class, and all the pupilsfilled in a standardized questionnaire. Class councils are very popular formsof education with pupils although the actual power to influence decisions bydeliberation is doubted to some extent. Quantitative analysis of the videorecordingsshows the wide range of forms of class councils that exist inrespect to the talking time of the pupils. To express one’s own viewpointand to understand the standpoint of other discussants, constructarguments and counterarguments, participate, and lead discussions aredifficult tasks. Based on the empirical research the project describes threeforms of class councils that differ in the degree of favouring thedevelopment of communicative competences as a part of citizenshipeducation.

  7. Association between education and quality of diabetes care in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatz, Aline; Casillas, Alejandra; Stringhini, Silvia; Zuercher, Emilie; Burnand, Bernard; Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status is associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, worse outcomes, and worse quality of care. We explored the relationship between education, as a measure of socioeconomic status, and quality of care in the Swiss context. Data were drawn from a population-based survey of 519 adults with diabetes during fall 2011 and summer 2012 in a canton of Switzerland. We assessed patients and diabetes characteristics. Eleven indicators of quality of care were considered (six of process and five of outcomes of care). After bivariate analyses, regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, and diabetic complications were performed to assess the relationship between education and quality of care. Of 11 quality-of-care indicators, three were significantly associated with education: funduscopy (patients with tertiary versus primary education were more likely to get the exam: odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.004-3.3) and two indicators of health-related quality of life (patients with tertiary versus primary education reported better health-related quality of life: Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life: β=0.6 [95% CI, 0.2-0.97]; SF-12 mean physical component summary score: β=3.6 [95% CI, 0.9-6.4]). Our results suggest the presence of educational inequalities in quality of diabetes care. These findings may help health professionals focus on individuals with increased needs to decrease health inequalities.

  8. Environmental radioactivity and radiation exposure in Switzerland 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, H.; Gobet, M.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland has been performing systematic monitoring of radioactivity in the environment and in food for forty years. This report contains the results of measurements made in the course of 1995 and the consequential radiation doses for the population. The monitoring programme deals with radioactivity in the atmosphere, precipitation, aquatic systems, soil, grass, foodstuffs and the human body, but also includes natural radiation, doses due to radon inside dwellings, emissions from nuclear power stations and other operations using radionuclides, as well as miscellaneous radiation sources. All the nuclear power plants and other facilities licensed to handle radioactive substances remained within their annual release limits in 1995, and environmental measurements revealed no inadmissible immission or dose values. The population's mean annual radiation dose totals 4 mSv, with some 40% of this due to radon in the home (but with extreme values as high as 100 mSv), another 30% coming from natural radiation, a quarter from medical applications and less than 5% from artificial radiation. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  9. The Development of a "Neighborhood in Solidarity" in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwygart, Marion; Plattet, Alain; Ammor, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a case study based on the "Neighborhood in Solidarity" (NS) methodology to illustrate its application in a locality of 8,000 inhabitants in Switzerland. This specific project is proposed to exemplify the global aim of the NS methodology. That aim is to increase the integration of elderly persons in societies in order to improve their quality of life. The case study demonstrates the enhancement of the capacity of the older people to remain actively engaged in their neighborhood. The article focuses on the creation of an autonomous community of empowered older people who can resolve their own problems after a 5-year project. The construction of the local community is presented throughout the six steps of the methodology: (1) preliminary analysis, (2) diagnostic, (3) construction, (4) project design, (5) project implementation, and (6) empowerment and with three degrees of involvement (community, participative, and integrative involvement). Performance and output indicators, quality indicators, and social determinants of health assess the development of the local project. The impacts of the projects which are illustrated in this specific example motivated this publication to inspire practitioners from other countries.

  10. Evaluation of e-bike accidents in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, T; Scaramuzza, G; Schmitt, K-U

    2014-12-01

    The acceptance and usage of electric bicycles has rapidly increased in Switzerland in the last years. Hence this topic has been addressed by policy makers with the aim to facilitate new transport modes and, moreover, to improve their safety. Police-recorded accidents of the years 2011 and 2012 involving a total of 504 e-bikers and 871 bicyclists were analysed. National figures were compared with those of a rural and an urban environment. Most e-bikers who were involved in accidents were 40-65 years old. It was found that most e-bikers sustained single accidents and that helmet usage was higher in the investigated rural environment than in the investigated urban area. The evaluation of the injury severity of e-bikers, particularly compared to bicyclists, lead to diverging results. The findings presented in this study are intended to serve as a benchmark since basic information on characteristics of e-bike accidents is provided. With respect to differences between the injury severity of e-bikers and bicyclists to-date no clear statement can be drawn. It is suggested to regularly evaluate e-bike accidents to show trends and/or identify changes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Case law: France, Germany, India, Switzerland, United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    France: Administrative Court of Appeal of Lyon, 19 June 2012, Judgements Nos. 12LY00233 and 12LY00290 regarding EDF's permit to construct a waste conditioning and storage facility (ICEDA) in the town of Saint-Vulbas; Conseil d'Etat decision regarding Atelier de technologie de plutonium (ATPu) located at the Cadarache site. Germany: Request for arbitration against Germany at the World Bank's International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) because of Germany's legislation leading to the phase-out of nuclear energy. India: Cases related to the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Project (KKNPP). Switzerland: Judgement of the Federal Administrative Court in the matter of Balmer-Schafroth a.o.v. BKW FMB Energy Inc. on the revocation of the operating licence for the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. United States: Judgement of the Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit vacating the NRC's 2010 Waste Confidence Decision and Rule Update; U.S. Supreme Court declines petition for certiorari filed by property owners on Price- Anderson Act claim for damages; Judgement of the NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board finding applicants ineligible to obtain a combined license because they are owned by a U.S. corporation that is 100% owned by a foreign corporation; Judgement of an NRC Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Authorizing Issuance of a license for the construction and operation of a commercial laser enrichment facility

  12. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Olivier BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for perso...

  13. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2005-01-01

    In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories.  Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Olivier BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Monica PEPE-ALTARELLI The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (people who do...

  14. Diffusion experiments at Mont Terri (Switzerland): overview and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoye, S. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN DEI SARG), Lab. d' Etudes des Transferts dans les Sols et le sous-sol, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2006-07-01

    Several diffusion experiments have been performed at the field scale in the underground rock laboratory of Mont Terri (Switzerland) to verify the reliability of diffusion parameters obtained at lab scale. The principle of in situ diffusion experiments is based on the injection, in a packer-off section of a borehole, of a tracer cocktail diffusing into the rock and whose its concentration decrease is monitored by means of a circulation circuit located at the surface. Subsequently, the interval section is over-cored and analysed for the tracer profiles. Overall, the obtained tracer data confirmed that diffusion is the dominant transport process for solutes in Opalinus Clay. The diffusivity and diffusion porosity of anions was found to be lower than tritiated water, indicating anion exclusion effect. Concerning the cations, one observed that when the interaction of these species with clay surface was stronger, their decrease relative to HTO in interval was faster and their penetration depth was lower (max 3 cm after 10 months for Cs{sup +}). Finally, in situ data were found to be consistent with small-scale lab diffusion experiments performed parallel to the bedding plane, suggesting that the up-scaling effects for diffusion are small. (author)

  15. Visas for Switzerland and France - Time needed to process applications

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Please note that any person required to be in possession of a visa in order to take up functions at CERN must start the application process sufficiently early to allow the visa to be issued in time.   The submission of an incomplete application, local circumstances and an increase in applications before the summer holiday period can all result in considerable variation in the time needed to process your application and issue the visa. You are therefore recommended to submit your visa application at least three months, and not later than 21 days, prior to your departure date. We would also like to remind you that the Swiss Consulate in Paris and the French Consulate in Geneva can issue visas exclusively to people resident within their respective spheres of competence (i.e. those who are holders of a French or Swiss residence permit respectively). You must therefore obtain all visas required for stays longer than three months in France or Switzerland from the visa-issuing authority competent for ...

  16. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France - Signature Rights

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with their Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of these procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure, as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Hélène HALLER-MAUGER David JACOBS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO Jeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (people w...

  17. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tVinod CHOHAN •\tLyndon EVANS •\tJohn FERGUSON •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tClaudio PARRINELLO •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation d...

  18. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2006-01-01

    Signature rights In accordance with their Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of these procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure, as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Catherine JONES Nicolas KOULBERG Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that, in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNA...

  19. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel onto their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the "note verbale" procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the "Protocoles d’accueil": •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tInger CARRIERO •\tLyndon EVANS •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tJean-Pol MATHEYS •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or resid...

  20. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization's personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d'accueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON David JACOBS Catherine JONES Hélène HALLER-MAUGER Michelle MAZERAND Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as EXTERNAL' (p...

  1. Procedure for obtaining visas for Switzerland and France

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Signature Rights In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organizations personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles daccueil. Oliver BRÜNING Philip BRYANT Lyndon EVANS John FERGUSON Hélène HALLER-MAUGER David JACOBS Catherine NEDERMAN Chris ONIONS Claudio PARRINELLO Jeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), 'the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence permit) or visa from the Host States for persons registered as E...

  2. PROCEDURE FOR OBTAINING VISAS FOR SWITZERLAND AND FRANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    SIGNATURE RIGHTS In accordance with the Status Agreements with CERN, Switzerland and France facilitate the entry of members of the Organization’s personnel on to their territories. Where relevant, detailed procedures for obtaining visas apply. Within the framework of those procedures, only the following individuals are authorised to initiate the note verbale procedure as well as to sign the Official Invitation Letters and the Protocoles d’accueil. •\tOliver BRÜNING •\tPhilip BRYANT •\tLyndon EVANS •\tJohn FERGUSON •\tHélène HALLER-MAUGER •\tDavid JACOBS •\tPhilippe LEBRUN •\tCatherine NEDERMAN •\tChris ONIONS •\tClaudio PARRINELLO •\tJeanne ROSTANT The French and Swiss Authorities will reject any request signed by a person who is not on this list. We would like to remind you that in accordance with the memorandum of 7 December 2000 issued by the Director of the Administration, (ref. DG/DA/00-119), "the Organization shall not request any legitimisation document (or residence per...

  3. Status of burnup credit implementation and research in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, P.

    2001-01-01

    Burnup credit has recently been approved by the Swiss licensing authority for the spent-fuel storage pool of a PWR plant for fuel exceeding the originally licensed initial enrichment. The criticality safety assessment is based on a configuration consisting of a small number (approximately a reload batch) of fresh assemblies surrounded by assemblies having a burnup corresponding to the minimum value in the top 1 m section after one cycle of irradiation. The allowable initial enrichment in this configuration is about 0.5% higher than for all fresh fuel. A central storage facility for all types of radioactive wastes from Switzerland, including cask storage of spent fuel assemblies is being commissioned presently. The first applications for licenses for casks to be used in this facility have been submitted. Credit for burnup has not been requested in these applications (conforming to the original licenses of the casks in their countries of origin), but utilities are interested in burnup credit for fuel with higher initial enrichments. Reactivity worth measurements as well as chemical assays of spent fuel samples in the LWR-PROTEUS facility at PSI are in detailed planning currently. The experiments, scheduled to start in 2001, will be performed in cooperation with the Swiss utilities and their fuel vendors. Although the focus of interest of these partners is on validation of in-core fuel management tools, the same experiments are also applicable to burnup credit, and contacts with further potential partners interested in this field are underway. (author)

  4. Valuing water resources in Switzerland using a hedonic price model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Diana; Siber, Rosi; Brouwer, Roy; Logar, Ivana; Sanadgol, Dorsa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, linear and spatial hedonic price models are applied to the housing market in Switzerland, covering all 26 cantons in the country over the period 2005-2010. Besides structural house, neighborhood and socioeconomic characteristics, we include a wide variety of new environmental characteristics related to water to examine their role in explaining variation in sales prices. These include water abundance, different types of water bodies, the recreational function of water, and water disamenity. Significant spatial autocorrelation is found in the estimated models, as well as nonlinear effects for distances to the nearest lake and large river. Significant effects are furthermore found for water abundance and the distance to large rivers, but not to small rivers. Although in both linear and spatial models water related variables explain less than 1% of the price variation, the distance to the nearest bathing site has a larger marginal contribution than many neighborhood-related distance variables. The housing market shows to differentiate between different water related resources in terms of relative contribution to house prices, which could help the housing development industry make more geographically targeted planning activities.

  5. Measles epidemic in Switzerland and other parts of Europe

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Commission

    2008-01-01

    There has been a measles epidemic in Switzerland since November 2006. By April 2008 the number of cases had reached almost 2500, with over 1300 since the beginning of the year alone. All cantons are affected but to varying degrees, the largest number of cases occurring in the north and east of the country. In all cases, the low vaccination coverage is responsible for the spread of this highly contagious disease. The contagious period starts 4 days before the rash appears and lasts until 4 days afterwards. In the event of infection, children must be kept away from school and measures must be taken to protect those who come into contact with them, which may include vaccination if the infection is less than 72 hours old. The Swiss and international health authorities recommend the following measures to prevent the spread of the disease: those who have already contracted the disease, received 2 doses of the vaccine (often in the form of the combined MMR - measles, mumps, rubella...

  6. Providing Quality Therapeutics in Switzerland: Role of the Stakeholders and Recent Incentives for Further Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, Marie; Samer, Caroline; Rollason, Victoria; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2015-07-01

    Quality therapeutics play an important role in Switzerland's health care and economy. Switzerland holds a key position in the world of research and development, as well as in drug production. Recently, new emphasis has been placed on promoting clinical research and maintaining Switzerland's position as a center of excellence in the field. Recent revisions to the law regarding medical trials in human research allow for better allocation of regulatory resources and simplified procedures for drugs already authorized in Switzerland. The country has its own regulatory agency, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products (Swissmedic), which is a public institution of the Swiss government. Swissmedic is responsible for ensuring safety in medicines, particularly regarding authorizations and market surveillance in the sector of medicinal products and medical devices. Although the centralized authorization procedure of the European Union for medicines does not apply to Switzerland, there are mutual recognition mechanisms between the Swiss medicine regulatory authority and the European Medicines Agency. Swissmedic is also in charge of postmarketing safety and oversees the national pharmacovigilance center, which collaborates closely with the World Health Organization center in Uppsala. In addition, university hospital-based clinical pharmacologists, who are involved in basic science and clinical research, regulatory affairs, ethics committees, and pharmacovigilance, promote quality therapeutics. This article discusses the role of the various stakeholders and the recent efforts made to provide a better allocation of resources aimed at further improving quality therapeutics in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Time trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring European countries 1996-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feller, Anita; Mark, Michael Thomas; Steiner, Annik; Clough-Gorr, Kerri M

    2015-01-01

    What are the trends in avoidable cancer mortality in Switzerland and neighbouring countries? Mortality data and population estimates 1996-2010 were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office for Switzerland and the World Health Organization Mortality Database (http://www.who.int/healthinfo/mortality_data/en/) for Austria, Germany, France and Italy. Age standardised mortality rates (ASMRs, European standard) per 100 000 person-years were calculated for the population Switzerland and neighbouring countries cancer mortality in persons Switzerland from 16.2 to 20.3 per 100 000 person years, EAPC 2.0 [95% CI 1.4 to 2.6]). Compared with its neighbouring countries, Switzerland showed the lowest rates for all groups of avoidable cancer mortality in males 2008-2010. Overall avoidable cancer mortality decreased, indicating achievements in cancer care and related health policies. However, increasing trends in avoidable cancer mortality through primary prevention for females suggest there is a need in Switzerland and its European neighbouring countries to improve primary prevention.

  8. Stroke in Switzerland: social determinants of treatment access and cost of illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snozzi, Philippe; Blank, Patricia R; Szucs, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Few useful empirical data on stroke are available for Switzerland. The aim of this study was to collect data on the use of medical resources and associated costs among stroke patients. Special attention was paid to possible correlations between epidemiologic indicators, sociodemographic variables, resource use, and costs. We carried out a representative population survey of 19,123 households in the German- and French-speaking parts of Switzerland with computer-assisted telephone interviews in 2005. Detailed sociodemographic data and information on the use of resources were collected from 509 individuals aged 15-75 years who had cared for a stroke patient in the past 1-2 years. In the last 1-2 years, a total of 7.8% of households were affected by stroke in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, whereas only 4.3% of households were affected in the French-speaking part of Switzerland (odds ratio [OR] = 1.89, P Switzerland. Patients with supplementary insurance were treated more frequently as inpatients than patients with statutory insurance (OR: 2.14, P = .014), and patients with a low household income were referred less frequently to an inpatient rehabilitation facility than those with medium or high household income (OR = .58, P Switzerland. Patients without supplementary insurance or with low household income were less likely to receive inpatient treatment. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessement of user needs for climate change scenarios in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andreas; Liniger, Mark; Flückiger-Knutti, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing demand to assess and inform about future climate change and its impacts on society and ecosystems and to deduce appropriate adaptation strategies. The basis for such assessments are reliable and up-to-date climate change scenarios on the local to regional scale. In Switzerland, an important step has been accomplished by the release of the climate scenarios in 2011 ("CH2011"). New climate model simulations, an improved scientific understanding and new statistical downscaling tools make an update of these scenarios necessary. An important component toward the new national scenarios "CH2018" are the consideration of user needs in order to ensure that the new scenarios are user-tailored and hence find a wide applicability. The new CH2018 scenarios are developed in the framework of the recently founded National Center for Climate Services (NCCS). To get a better overview of who the users of climate scenarios are and what they need, a comprehensive market research was undertaken. The survey targeted the most climate-relevant sectors, and considered representatives from administration, research and private companies across Switzerland. The survey comprised several qualitative group interviews with key stakeholders, as well as a written questionaire, answered by more than one hundred users. Additionally, two workshops were organized to gather the needs in dissemination of climate scenarios. The results of the survey show the necessity to classify the user needs according to the level of usage: "intensive users" are mainly researchers who handle large climate scenario data for further use in subsequent impact studies; "extensive users" are usually from administrations or consulting companies and perform simple calculations for specific questions or use provided graphics and tables; "facilitators" are usually from media, NGOs or schools and process and disseminate scenario information for a specific target group. The less intensive the usage of climate

  10. Impact of climate change in Switzerland on socioeconomic snow indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucki, Edgar; Marty, Christoph; Fierz, Charles; Weingartner, Rolf; Lehning, Michael

    2017-02-01

    Snow is a key element for many socioeconomic activities in mountainous regions. Due to the sensitivity of the snow cover to variations of temperature and precipitation, major changes caused by climate change are expected to happen. We analyze the evolution of some key snow indices under future climatic conditions. Ten downscaled and postprocessed climate scenarios from the ENSEMBLES database have been used to feed the physics-based snow model SNOWPACK. The projected snow cover has been calculated for 11 stations representing the diverse climates found in Switzerland. For the first time, such a setup is used to reveal changes in frequently applied snow indices and their implications on various socioeconomic sectors. Toward the end of the twenty-first century, a continuous snow cover is likely only guaranteed at high elevations above 2000 m a.s.l., whereas at mid elevations (1000-1700 m a.s.l.), roughly 50 % of all winters might be characterized by an ephemeral snow cover. Low elevations (below 500 m a.s.l.) are projected to experience only 2 days with snowfall per year and show the strongest relative reductions in mean winter snow depth of around 90 %. The range of the mean relative reductions of the snow indices is dominated by uncertainties from different GCM-RCM projections and amounts to approximately 30 %. Despite these uncertainties, all snow indices show a clear decrease in all scenario periods and the relative reductions increase toward lower elevations. These strong reductions can serve as a basis for policy makers in the fields of tourism, ecology, and hydropower.

  11. Geothermal energy in Switzerland - outline lecture; Uebersichtsvortrag Geothermie Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, M. [Bundesamt fuer Energiewirtschaft, Bern (Switzerland); Gorhan, H.L. [Elektrowatt Engineering AG, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1997-12-01

    CO{sub 2}- emission in Switzerland need to be reduced over the next 50 years. In 1990, a first step towards improvement was taken by the Swiss Feseral Office of Energy by establishing the ``Energy 2000`` action plan. Apart from practical recommendations for general energy saving measures, this programme provides also clear objectives in respect to increased and more effecient utilization of indigenious and renewable energy resources. Geothermal energy is one of these resources. In addition to the amount of geothermal heat delivered in 1990, it is planned to produce a further 170 GWh of geothermal energy by the year 2000. This correesponnds to about 6% of a total of 3000 GWh which, it is envisaged, will be produced by all alternative heat resources together by the year 2000. Today, most geothermal energy is provided by shallow borehole heat exchangers. However, intensive development of wide ranging and innovative geothermal techniques is taking place at present. These R and D activities, as well as projects at present being realised, receive significant support from the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den kommenden 50 Jahren soll und muss CO{sub 2}-Emission in der Sweiz betraechtlich reduziert werden. Einen ersten Schritt dazu bildet das. im Jahre 1990 vom bundesamtes fuer Energiewirtschaft erarbeitete, Programm ``Energie 2000``. Nebst konkreten Vorschlaegen zum allgemeinen Energiesparen wurden in diesem programm auch Zielsetzungen fuer eine vermehrte, innovative und efficiente Nutzung von einheimischen und erneuerbaren Energieressourcen formuliert. Dazu zaelt auch die Geometrie. Zusaetzlich zur bereits im Jahre 1990 produzierten Waerme soll die Geometrie im Jahr 2000 ca. 170 GWh an Waermeenergie lifern. Das entspricht ca.6% der fuer das Jahr 2000 geplanten Gesamtalternativ- Energieproduktion von 3000 GWh. Bei der geothermischen Energieproduktion satmmt bis heute der groesste Anteil von untiefen Erdwaermesonden. Die Anwendung neuer und

  12. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, Corinne; Rösch, Andreas; Stauffacher, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  13. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Corinne, E-mail: corinne.moser@zhaw.ch [Institute of Sustainable Development, School of Engineering, Zurich University of Applied Sciences, Winterthur (Switzerland); Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Rösch, Andreas [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Stauffacher, Michael [Natural and Social Science Interface, Institute for Environmental Decisions, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland); Transdisciplinarity Laboratory, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zürich, Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-16

    Many countries are facing a challenging transition toward more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviors (i.e., sufficiency). While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behavior. This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviors in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N = 150) to examine preferences for behaviors with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating, and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviors, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behavior. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet). Thus, it seems promising to

  14. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels:(1) individually for each system considered, (2) comparison of systems, (3) comparison of supply options. Results are also provided for these three levels.

  15. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. Methods A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Results Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15–16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Discussion Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. Conclusions The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies. PMID:26690625

  16. Exploring Societal Preferences for Energy Sufficiency Measures in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne eMoser

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Many countries are facing a challenging transition towards more sustainable energy systems, which produce more renewables and consume less energy. The latter goal can only be achieved through a combination of efficiency measures and changes in people’s lifestyles and routine behaviours (i.e. sufficiency. While research has shown that acceptance of technical efficiency is relatively high, there is a lack of research on societal preferences for sufficiency measures. However, this is an important prerequisite for designing successful interventions to change behaviour.This paper analyses societal preferences for different energy-related behaviours in Switzerland. We use an online choice-based conjoint analysis (N=150 to examine preferences for behaviours with high technical potentials for energy demand reduction in the following domains: mobility, heating and food. Each domain comprises different attributes across three levels of sufficiency. Respondents were confronted with trade-off situations evoked through different fictional lifestyles that comprised different combinations of attribute levels. Through a series of trade-off decisions, participants were asked to choose their preferred lifestyle. The results revealed that a vegetarian diet was considered the most critical issue that respondents were unwilling to trade off, followed by distance to workplace and means of transportation. The highest willingness to trade off was found for adjustments in room temperature, holiday travel behaviours, and living space. Participants’ preferences for the most energy-sufficient lifestyles were rather low. However, the study showed that there were lifestyles with substantive energy-saving potentials that were well accepted among respondents. Our study results suggest that the success of energy-sufficiency interventions might depend strongly on the targeted behaviour. We speculate that they may face strong resistance (e.g., vegetarian diet. Thus, it seems

  17. Smartphone use and smartphone addiction among young people in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Severin; Castro, Raquel Paz; Kwon, Min; Filler, Andreas; Kowatsch, Tobias; Schaub, Michael P

    2015-12-01

    Smartphone addiction, its association with smartphone use, and its predictors have not yet been studied in a European sample. This study investigated indicators of smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and their associations with demographic and health behaviour-related variables in young people. A convenience sample of 1,519 students from 127 Swiss vocational school classes participated in a survey assessing demographic and health-related characteristics as well as indicators of smartphone use and addiction. Smartphone addiction was assessed using a short version of the Smartphone Addiction Scale for Adolescents (SAS-SV). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to investigate demographic and health-related predictors of smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction occurred in 256 (16.9%) of the 1,519 students. Longer duration of smartphone use on a typical day, a shorter time period until first smartphone use in the morning, and reporting that social networking was the most personally relevant smartphone function were associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone addiction was more prevalent in younger adolescents (15-16 years) compared with young adults (19 years and older), students with both parents born outside Switzerland, persons reporting lower physical activity, and those reporting higher stress. Alcohol and tobacco consumption were unrelated to smartphone addiction. Different indicators of smartphone use are associated with smartphone addiction and subgroups of young people have a higher prevalence of smartphone addiction. The study provides the first insights into smartphone use, smartphone addiction, and predictors of smartphone addiction in young people from a European country, which should be extended in further studies.

  18. Environmental inventories for future electricity supply systems for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Doka, G.; Knoepfel, I.

    1996-02-01

    This report provides the analysis of environmental inventories for selected electricity supply systems considered as possible options to meet the expected electricity demand in Switzerland in year 2030. The work was carried out by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ), and was supported by the Swiss Association of Producers and Distributers of Electricity (VSE). Two possible electricity demand level cases were postulated by VSE, both under the basic assumption of economic growth: a high-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 2% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 1% from year 2010 to year 2030, and a low-growth demand case corresponding to a yearly increase of 1% from year 1995 to year 2010 and 0.5% from year 2010 to year 2030. The base (i.e. secured) supply in year 2030 will be, according to VSE, totally dominated by hydro with rather minor contributions from combined heat-and-power plants, small gas turbines, incinerators and solar photovoltaic plants. Due to decommissioning of the currently operating nuclear power plants and expiration of long-term electricity import contracts there will eventually occur a gap between the postulated electricity demand and the base supply. VSE provided seven options to cover this gap, defined in terms of mixes with different contributions from gas, coal, nuclear and solar chains; in this context a distinction is also made with respect to shares of domestic and imported electricity. The systems considered represent advanced technologies, regarded as either typical or most suitable for the Swiss conditions. System-specific input to the present analysis has been partially generated based on direct contacts with the industry. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) was used to establish environmental inventories for the systems analysed. The analysis has been performed on three levels: 1) individually for each system considered, 2) comparison of systems, 3) comparison of supply

  19. Utilisation of information technologies in ambulatory care in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, Thomas; Marty, Franz; Bhend, Heinz; Wagner, Judith; Brunner, Lorenzo; Zoller, Marco

    2010-09-13

    The importance of electronic medical records for the healthcare system is well documented. IT enables easy storage, communication and decision support and can provide important tools in the care of chronically ill patients in the form of a reminder system. A questionnaire was developed and send out to 1200 physicians extracted from the official data base. After four weeks the non-responders received a written reminder. Data collection started in December 2007 and was completed in February 2008. 719 questionnaires were received back, representing a response rate of 59.9%. The data revealed a significant underuse of electronic medical records (EMRs) and IT compared to other European countries. Smaller practices, older physicians and especially primary care physicians tended to use less EMR. Only 10.2% of all physicians declared an interest in considering investment in IT in the next three years, 66.9% expressly denied wishing to do so. The most important barriers were the costs, the unclear benefit and a feared worsening of the doctor-patient-communication during consultation. IT and especially EMRs are underused in daily ambulatory care in Switzerland. To increase the use of EMRs, several approaches could be helpful. First of all, the benefit of EMRs in daily routine care have to be increased as, for example, by decision support systems, tools to avoid pharmaceutical interactions and reminder systems to enable a proactive treatment of chronically ill patients. Furthermore, adequate approaches to offer appropriate reimbursement for the financial investments have to considered such as an additional payment for electronically generated, evidence based quality indicators.

  20. [Publication performances of university clinics for anesthesiology: Germany, Austria and Switzerland from 2001 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, G; Ausserer, J; Wenzel, V; Pehböck, D; Widmann, T; Lindner, K; Hamm, P; Paal, P

    2014-04-01

    This study assessed the publication performance of university departments of anesthesiology in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. The number of publications, original articles, impact factors and citations were evaluated. A search was performed in PubMed to identify publications related to anesthesiology from 2001 to 2010. All articles from anesthesiology journals listed in the fields of anesthesia/pain therapy, critical care and emergency medicine by the "journal citation report 2013" in Thomson Reuters ISI web of knowledge were included. Articles from non-anaesthesiology journals, where the stem of the word anesthesia (anes*, anaes*, anäst*, anast*) appears in the affiliation field of PubMed, were included as well. The time periods 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 were compared. Articles were allocated to university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland via the affiliation field. A total of 45 university departments in Austria, Germany and Switzerland and 125,979 publications from 2,863 journals (65 anesthesiology journals, 2,798 non-anesthesiology journals) were analyzed. Of the publications 23 % could not be allocated to a given university department of anesthesiology. In the observation period the university department of anesthesiology in Berlin achieved most publications (n = 479) and impact points (1,384), whereas Vienna accumulated most original articles (n = 156). Austria had the most publications per million inhabitants in 2006-2010 (n=50) followed by Switzerland (n=49) and Germany (n=35). The number of publications during the observation period decreased in Germany (0.5 %), Austria (7 %) and Switzerland (8 %). Tables 2 and 4-8 of this article are available at Springer Link under Supplemental. The research performance varied among the university departments of anesthesiology in Germany, Austria and Switzerland whereby larger university departments, such as Berlin or Vienna published most. Publication output in Germany, Austria and

  1. Development of a Historical Hydrological online research and application platform for Switzerland - Historical Hydrological Atlas of Switzerland (HHAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetter, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    It is planned to develop and maintain a historical hydrological online platform for Switzerland, which shall be specially designed for the needs of research and federal, cantonal or private institutions being interested in hydrological risk assessment and protection measures. The aim is on the one hand to facilitate the access to raw data which generally is needed for further historical hydrological reconstruction and quantification, so that future research will be achieved in significantly shorter time. On the other hand, new historical hydrological research results shall be continuously included in order to establish this platform as a useful tool for the assessment of hydrological risk by including the long term experience of reconstructed pre-instrumental hydrological extreme events like floods and droughts. Meteorological parameters that may trigger extreme hydrological events, like monthly or seasonally resolved reconstructions of temperature and precipitation shall be made accessible in this platform as well. The ultimate goal will be to homogenise the reconstructed hydrological extreme events which usually appeared in the pre anthropogenic influence period under different climatological as well as different hydrological regimes and topographical conditions with the present day state. Long term changes of reconstructed small- to extreme flood seasonality, based on municipal accounting records, will be included in the platform as well. This helps - in combination with the before mentioned meteorological parameters - to provide an increased understanding of the major changes in the generally complex overall system that finally causes hydrological extreme events. The goal of my presentation at the Historical Climatology session is to give an overview about the applied historical climatological and historical hydrological methodologies that are applied on the historical raw data (evidence) to reconstruct pre instrumental hydrological events and meteorological

  2. Iron supplementation in Switzerland - A bi-national, descriptive and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biétry, Fabienne A; Hug, Balthasar; Reich, Oliver; Susan, Jick S; Meier, Christoph Rudolf

    2017-07-11

    Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional disorder in the world, and it is the only common nutrient deficiency in industrialised nations. It is thought to be the most common cause of anaemia. Use of iron supplementation in Switzerland has not been previously quantified in detail. We quantified use of iron supplementation from Swiss data and compared it with data from the UK. We assessed the frequency of serum ferritin and haemoglobin tests prior to newly started iron therapy to see whether use was based on documented low iron levels or blood parameters, especially in the case of parenteral iron supplementation. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of prescription iron supplementation use, and compared use of oral or parenteral iron drugs between Switzerland (CH) and the UK. We retrieved Swiss data from the Swiss Health Insurance Helsana Group, and UK data were from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The study period was 2012 to 2014. The 3-year prevalence of iron supplementation was 9.4% in Switzerland and 4.4% in the UK. Iron use increased slightly between 2012 and 2014 in both countries (CH +0.3%, UK +0.2%). Recorded parenteral iron administration was roughly a thousand times higher in Switzerland (1.9%) than in the UK in 2014. In Switzerland, iron supplements were mostly given to patients aged 20 to 49 years or older than of 80 years. In the UK, iron supplementation was less frequent in younger people, but more prevalent in the elderly. Prior to a first iron prescription, ferritin tests were done more frequently in Switzerland (oral 67.2%, parenteral 86.6%) than in the UK (oral 43.3%, parenteral 65.5%). Haemoglobin was measured before a new parenteral iron therapy rarely in Switzerland (oral 14.9%, parenteral 11.7%), but frequently in the UK (oral 77.4%, parenteral 85.6%). Iron supplementation is more common in Switzerland than in the UK, particularly parenteral iron supplementation. Haemoglobin measurements prior to a new parenteral

  3. Cost distribution of bluetongue surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland (2007–2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Loitsch, Angelika; Stockreiter, Simon; Hutter, Sabine; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2018-01-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an emerging transboundary disease in Europe, which can cause significant production losses among ruminants. The analysis presented here assessed the costs of BTV surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland between 2007 and 2016. Costs were compared with respect to time, type of programme, geographical area and who was responsible for payment. The total costs of the BTV vaccination and surveillance programmes in Austria amounted to €23.6 million, whereas total costs in Switzerland were €18.3 million. Our analysis demonstrates that the costs differed between years and geographical areas, both within and between the two countries. Average surveillance costs per animal amounted to approximately €3.20 in Austria compared with €1.30 in Switzerland, whereas the average vaccination costs per animal were €6.20 in Austria and €7.40 in Switzerland. The comparability of the surveillance costs is somewhat limited, however, due to differences in each nation’s surveillance (and sampling) strategy. Given the importance of the export market for cattle production, investments in such programmes are more justified for Austria than for Switzerland. The aim of the retrospective assessment presented here is to assist veterinary authorities in planning and implementing cost-effective and efficient control strategies for emerging livestock diseases. PMID:29363572

  4. Cost distribution of bluetongue surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland (2007-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, Beate; Firth, Clair L; Loitsch, Angelika; Stockreiter, Simon; Hutter, Sabine; Richter, Veronika; Lebl, Karin; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Käsbohrer, Annemarie

    2018-03-03

    Bluetongue virus (BTV) is an emerging transboundary disease in Europe, which can cause significant production losses among ruminants. The analysis presented here assessed the costs of BTV surveillance and vaccination programmes in Austria and Switzerland between 2007 and 2016. Costs were compared with respect to time, type of programme, geographical area and who was responsible for payment. The total costs of the BTV vaccination and surveillance programmes in Austria amounted to €23.6 million, whereas total costs in Switzerland were €18.3 million. Our analysis demonstrates that the costs differed between years and geographical areas, both within and between the two countries. Average surveillance costs per animal amounted to approximately €3.20 in Austria compared with €1.30 in Switzerland, whereas the average vaccination costs per animal were €6.20 in Austria and €7.40 in Switzerland. The comparability of the surveillance costs is somewhat limited, however, due to differences in each nation's surveillance (and sampling) strategy. Given the importance of the export market for cattle production, investments in such programmes are more justified for Austria than for Switzerland. The aim of the retrospective assessment presented here is to assist veterinary authorities in planning and implementing cost-effective and efficient control strategies for emerging livestock diseases. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Homicide-suicide cases in Switzerland and their impact on the Swiss Weapon Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Silke; Johner, Stephan; Dilitz, Carine; Buck, Ursula; Killias, Martin; Mangin, Patrice; Plattner, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the offender is a well-known phenomenon. In most cases, it takes place in the context of the so-called "family tragedies." A recent series of such family tragedies in Switzerland prompted an intensive debate in the media and the Swiss government concerning the Swiss Weapon Law, in particular the requirement to keep personal army weapons at home. The present study of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland, thus focuses on the role played by guns, especially military weapons, in such crimes. We investigated retrospectively 75 cases of Homicide-Suicide, comprising 172 individuals and spanning a period of 23 years in western and central Switzerland. Our results show that if guns were used in 76% of the cases, army weapons were the cause of death in 25% of the total. In 28% of the deaths caused by a gunshot, the exact type of the gun and its origin could not be determined. Thus, the majority of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland involve the use of guns. The exact percentage of cases were military weapons were involved could not be defined. In our opinion, a stricter weapons law, restricting access to firearms, would be a factor of prevention of Homicide- Suicide cases in Switzerland.

  6. Strategy for responding to nuclear, radiological, biological and chemical threats in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Daniel; Kenzelmann, Marc; Cadisch, Marc; Baggenstos, Martin

    2008-01-01

    ABC- Protection in Switzerland was originally set up primarily for protection against military weapons of mass destruction, such as atomic/nuclear or chemical weapons. Protection against biological weapons - at first within the domain of the medical service - was later integrated into AC-Protection, thus leading to ABC-Protection in Switzerland. In some cases the objectives of ABC-Protection with regard to prevention and intervention were defined differently in the military and civil fields. In order to put ABC-Protection in Switzerland on a uniform basis, the Federal Council has instructed the KomABC (Commission for ABC-Protection) to develop a general strategy for 'ABC-Protection in Switzerland'. The following paper describes the objectives as well as the key elements of this general strategy, which should guarantee that all Federal and Cantonal organizations take decisions related to prevention and intervention based on the same principles. The strategy covers the following topics: 1) Reference scenarios for ABC-Protection; 2) Demands related to prevention; 3) Demands related to intervention; 4) Allocation of tasks at the Federal and Cantonal levels. Protective measures for improving ABC-Protection in Switzerland are presented. (author)

  7. Impact of increasing temperature on snowfall in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serquet, G.; Marty, C.; Rebetez, M.

    2012-04-01

    The exact impact of changing temperatures on snow amounts is extremely important for mountainous regions, not only for hydrological aspects but also for winter tourism and the leisure industry in winter ski resorts. However, the impact of increasing temperatures on snowfall amounts is difficult to measure because of the large natural variability of precipitation. In addition, the impact of increasing temperatures varies, depending on region and altitude. Moreover, the impact of the observed increasing trend in temperature on snowfall and snow cover has usually been investigated on a seasonal basis only. On a monthly basis, the relationship between this increase in temperature and snowfall is still largely unknown. Of particular concern are the autumn and spring months and variations with altitude. In order to isolate the impact of changing temperatures on snowfall from the impact of changes in the frequency and intensity of total precipitation, we analyzed the proportion of snowfall days compared to precipitation days for each month from November to April in Switzerland. Our analyses concern 52 meteorological stations located between 200 and 2700 m asl over a 48 year time span. Our results show clear decreasing trends in snowfall days relative to precipitation days for all months (November to April) during the study period 1961-2008. Moreover, the present conditions in December, January and February correspond to those measured in the 1960's in November and March. During the whole snow season, the snowfall ratios have been transferred in elevation by at least 300 m from 1961 to 2008. This means that with an expected temperature increase during the coming decades at least similar to the temperature rise of recent decades, we can assume an additional similar altitudinal transfer of the snowfall days relative to precipitation days ratios. The current situation in November and March could thus become the future situation in December, January and February. During the

  8. Boron neutron capture synovectomy at SINQ in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crompton, N.E.A.; Kuehne, G.; Crawford, J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Gay, S.; Pap, T. [Rheumatology Clinic, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2000-10-01

    One percent of the Swiss population suffers from the crippling disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand with associated inflammation of various finger joints. Loss of manual dexterity results in a greatly reduced quality of life, especially in the elderly. Current medical treatment of pharmaceutically unresponsive RA involves either surgery or application of the {beta}-emitters: Yttrium or Erbium. However, both procedures have disadvantages. The small size of the finger joints makes surgery impractical and is therefore not practiced in Switzerland. However, application of Yttrium or Erbium presents a radiation protection problem because the arthritic joint has the potential to leak. For this reason application of {beta}-emitters for RA does not have FDA approval in the US. A promising alternative has recently been under investigation at MIT: Neutron Capture Synovectomy (NCS). Treatment of the arthritic human hand, in particular the metacarpopharangeal and proximal interpharangeal finger joints, involves prior injection of an enriched Boron-10 compound and subsequent irradiation with thermal neutrons. This method avoids the drawbacks of the existing treatments. Introduction of NCS to the SINQ will require preclinical studies to establish the treatment conditions necessary and the effectivity of the planned treatment (Phase 0). The studies will include neutron exposures of cell cultures and joint samples at the new neutron capture radiography facility (NCR) on the cold neutron guide 13. Introduction of NCS will also require construction of a suitable treatment facility for human patients at Sektor 80 of SINQ. Prerequisites which ensure comfortable and expedient treatment of the patient and exposure conditions respecting the demands of radiation protection regulations and the complete safety of the patient must be fulfilled in the construction of the NCS treatment facility. A temporary construction is envisaged for the early clinical trials (Phase I). A more

  9. [Reasons for General Practitioner Shortage – a Comparison Between France and Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, Thomas; Rosemann, Thomas; Tandjung, Ryan; Chmiel, Corinne

    2016-05-25

    Both France and Switzerland face a general practitioner (GP) shortage. What differences or parallels exist between the two countries with regard to the causes for this shortage? What conclusions might be drawn from a systematic comparison? Literature review with qualitative and semi-quantitative content analysis. Parallels exist in the comparing categories work contents, working structure, income and social status, medical school formation, private life, psychological motives. Differences are found in the categories biography and social selection, medical socialisation, residency. In Switzerland, residency is not uniformly structured, rarely institutionally organised and contains only few elements specific to general medicine. In France, medical socialisation not only exalts the specialists, but also strongly devaluates the GPs. By systematic analysis and comparison of both countries' pertinent literature, France and Switzerland can deepen their understanding of GP shortage. This paper identifies possible fields of action from medical school through residency up to workplace conditions that are pivotal in addressing the shortage of GPs.

  10. [How patient safety programmes can be successfully implemented - an example from Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobler, Irene; Mascherek, Anna; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, the implementation of patient safety programmes poses a major challenge. In the first part, we will demonstrate that various measures have been found to be effective in the literature but that they often do not reach the patient because their implementation proves difficult. Difficulties arise from both the complexity of the interventions themselves and from different organisational settings in individual hospitals. The second part specifically describes the implementation of patient safety improvement programmes in Switzerland and discusses measures intended to bridge the gap between the theory and practice of implementation in Switzerland. Then, the national pilot programme to improve patient safety in surgery is presented, which was launched by the federal Swiss government and has been implemented by the patient safety foundation. Procedures, challenges and highlights in implementing the programme in Switzerland on a national level are outlined. Finally, first (preliminary) results are presented and critically discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  11. [Remedy for shortage or risk for national security? The search for oil in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Lea; Gisler, Monika

    2014-03-01

    Over several decades, geologists, entrepreneurs, politicians, and public authorities dealt with a potential petroleum occurrence in Switzerland. They provided scientific expertise, granted concessions, invested capital and sank bore holes. Although the endeavour was never successful economically, it reveals how closely related geopolitical situations and the exploitation of natural resources were. This article investigates the search for crude oil in Switzerland from the 1930s until the 1960s, combining a history of science and technology perspective with a history of the political regulations and economic considerations concerning the extractive industry. It traces the changing fears and hopes about potential oil occurrences in Switzerland: From an investment to overcome future shortages, to the risk of imperial desires if oil would be found in abundance.

  12. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 13 March 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as “Guidelines”) and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2013. In light of the request expressed by Switzerland in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the note verbale of 13 March 2014 and the enclosures therewith are circulated for the information of all Member States [fr

  13. Implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention for children with autism in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Studer, Nadja; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Schenker, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under...... clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. METHODS: The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich. RESULTS: The current situation...... of the implementation of EIBI for children with autism in Switzerland is characterized by marked deficits in its acceptance. Major reasons include insufficient governmental approval and lacking legal and financial support. In addition, ignorance among health care providers and educational professionals has contributed...

  14. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 13 March 2014 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as “Guidelines”) and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2013. In light of the request expressed by Switzerland in its note verbale of 1 December 1997 concerning its policies regarding the management of plutonium (INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998), the note verbale of 13 March 2014 and the enclosures therewith are circulated for the information of all Member States [ru

  15. Switzerland as Europe's ''battery''. Wishful dream or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kammer, Adrian; Zurmuehle, Damian; Salzmann, Michael; Baumgartner, Raphael; Mignone, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    There are plans for Swiss pumped hydrostorage systems to absorb large quantities of excess electricity from European wind and solar power generation. Model-based analyses have shown however that ''Europe's battery'', as Switzerland would like to see itself, will not be needed until the middle of this century. Even if all extension projects currently in progress should be completed, Switzerland will not have sufficient pump capacity or import capacity to absorb large amounts of excess electricity. Furthermore, the primary means of making storage capacity available for import electricity would be to reduce reservoir power plant capacity. In view of all this Switzerland's hopes for a role as a major European electricity storage provider appear somewhat exaggerated even in the long-term perspective.

  16. Attitudes towards morphine use among nurses and physicians working in French-speaking Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira M

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Maria Ferreira,1 Henk Verloo,2 Margarida Maria S Vieira,3 Pedro Marques-Vidal4 1Sion Hospital, Sion, Switzerland; 2Haute École de Santé La Source, Lausanne, Switzerland; 3Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Lisbon, Portugal; 4Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland Abstract: There is little information regarding risk perceptions and attitudes towards morphine use in Switzerland. Thus, we aimed at assessing such attitudes in a sample of health professionals drawn from five nonuniversity hospitals in the French-speaking canton of Valais, Switzerland. The sample included 431 nurses and 40 physicians (age range: 20–63 years, and risk perceptions and attitudes towards morphine use were assessed using a validated questionnaire. More than half of the participants showed a negative attitude regarding most adverse events related to morphine. In bivariate analyses, participants working in geriatrics showed a more negative attitude towards use of morphine than did participants working in medicine and surgery. Compared with Swiss participants, non-Swiss participants also showed a more negative attitude regarding use of morphine. Conversely, no differences were found between the sexes, professions (nurses versus physicians, years of experience (≤14 years versus >14 years, or religions (Catholic versus other/no religion. These findings were further confirmed by multivariate adjustment. Our results indicate that attitudes regarding morphine use are mainly driven by its potential adverse effects and vary according to specialty and nationality. Educational measures directed at health professionals working in geriatrics or coming from abroad might reduce the high morphinophobia levels observed in these groups. Keywords: morphinophobia, cross-sectional study, nurses, physicians, Switzerland

  17. REGISTRATION OF VEHICLES IN SWITZERLAND: MEMBERS OF THE FAMILY OF A MEMBER OF THE PERSONNEL

    CERN Multimedia

    Service des Relations avec les Pays Hôtes

    1999-01-01

    The Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva has informed CERN that members of the family of a member of the personnel who hold a carte delégitimation or a Ci permit may not register a vehicle in Switzerland. Only those members of the family who are of Swiss nationality or hold an ordinary permit (e.g. a 'B' or 'C' permit) may register vehicles in their own names.Relations with the Host States Servicehttp://www.cern.ch/relations/Tel. 72848

  18. Bluetongue surveillance in Switzerland in 2003: a serological and entomological survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, A; Dall'Acqua, F; Thür, B; Mellor, P S; Denison, E; Griot, C; Stärk, K D C

    2004-01-01

    At present, Switzerland is considered officially free from bluetongue (BT) disease. Recently reported outbreaks have recorded BT moving north as far as latitude 44 degrees 30'N in Europe and 49 degrees N in Kazakhstan. The absence of clinical disease does not prove freedom from BT virus (BTV) infection. In addition, the occurrence and distribution of the only known biological vector, certain species of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), is poorly understood for Switzerland. Consequently the Swiss Veterinary Office initiated a project on BT surveillance in April 2003 on cattle farms. The study comprised serological and entomological activities; initial results are presented.

  19. The role of government in supporting the emergence of clean energy venture capital investing in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerer, M.J.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the role of the Swiss government in supporting the provision of venture capital for clean energy projects. Topics examined include the lack of sufficient venture capital investment in clean energy technology, the situation encountered in Switzerland today as far as energy entrepreneurship is concerned, key challenges and cultural, legal and fiscal aspects. Present government support in these areas, the relevance of current Swiss programmes and improvements that are to be made are also discussed. Also, activities in other countries are examined and suggestions are made concerning new activities to improve the situation in Switzerland.

  20. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 24 August 2011 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [fr

  1. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 August 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [fr

  2. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 May 2010 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [fr

  3. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 May 2013 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2012 [es

  4. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 August 2009 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2008 [es

  5. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 24 August 2011 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/5491 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2010 [es

  6. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 2 July 2012 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2011 [es

  7. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 May 2010 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009 [es

  8. Analysis of the revision of the nuclear cooperation agreement between the USA and Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. S.; Lee, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    The US and Switzerland enforced a new nuclear cooperation agreement in June 1998. After extended negotiation for the new nuclear cooperation agreement, Switzerland accomplished to get the advance, long-term consent approach, not to allow the US's prior consent right on the spent fuel used in the US-origin reactors, and to specify conditions for the suspension of advance, long-term consent. This paper analyzes the contents and implications of the revision of the nuclear cooperation agreement between the two countries

  9. Communication Received from Switzerland Concerning its Policies Regarding the Management of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Secretariat has received a note verbale dated 4 May 2010 from the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the IAEA in the enclosures of which the Government of Switzerland, in keeping with its commitment under the Guidelines for the Management of Plutonium (contained in INFCIRC/549 of 16 March 1998 and hereinafter referred to as 'Guidelines') and in accordance with Annexes B and C of the Guidelines, has made available annual figures for its holdings of civil unirradiated plutonium and the estimated amounts of plutonium contained in spent civil reactor fuel as of 31 December 2009

  10. The role of government in supporting the emergence of clean energy venture capital investing in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerer, M.J.; Wuestenhagen, R.

    2005-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the role of the Swiss government in supporting the provision of venture capital for clean energy projects. Topics examined include the lack of sufficient venture capital investment in clean energy technology, the situation encountered in Switzerland today as far as energy entrepreneurship is concerned, key challenges and cultural, legal and fiscal aspects. Present government support in these areas, the relevance of current Swiss programmes and improvements that are to be made are also discussed. Also, activities in other countries are examined and suggestions are made concerning new activities to improve the situation in Switzerland

  11. Life Sciences Start-ups in Switzerland: CTI and its Support for Young Entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Klara

    2014-12-01

    According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2013, perceived opportunities to start a business in Switzerland are high and rank above average compared to other innovation-based countries. 2013 was a record year for start-ups in Switzerland. Around 40,000 new businesses were recorded in the commercial register and the trend is set to continue. There are two main criteria that lead to success, particularly for science- or technology- based start-ups: first of all, it is the business or product idea itself, and secondly it is the entrepreneurial team. CTI is supporting innovation in a manner that responds to a need in the market identified by industry.

  12. Presence of potentially pathogenic Babesia sp. for human in Ixodes ricinus in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, Simona; Sager, Heinz; Gern, Lise; Piffaretti, Jean-Claude

    2006-01-01

    We have designed and performed a new PCR method based on the 18S rRNA in order to individuate the presence and the identity of Babesia parasites. Out of 1159 Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks collected in four areas of Switzerland, nine were found to contain Babesia DNA. Sequencing of the short amplicon obtained (411-452 bp) allowed the identification of three human pathogenic species: Babesia microti, B. divergens, for the first time in Switzerland, Babesia sp. EU1. We also report coinfections with B. sp. EU1-Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Babesia sp. EU1-B. afzelii.

  13. Waste acceptance and impact ON D and D in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxeiner, Harald

    2002-01-01

    Harald Maxeiner described clearance and waste conditioning requirements in Switzerland, and their impacts on decommissioning: Although decommissioning of the first (oldest) reactor will not take place until 2009 at the earliest (hypothetical operating lifetime of 40 years), detailed decommissioning studies have to be carried out today, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the technologies to be used and to determine anticipated costs (for the purpose of calculating financial contributions to a decommissioning fund). The studies are based on waste acceptance criteria and guidelines that apply to waste already in existence. The focus is on preparing inventories of activated and contaminated components and conditioning of these components. The basis for present and future conditioning of radioactive wastes, as well as for their interim storage and final disposal, is provided by the official guideline HSK R-14. According to this guideline, raw waste requires to be solidified (inter alia with cement) and the resulting waste product must: remain intact until final disposal, not be readily dispersible, be resistant to aqueous media, not be readily combustible, not contain any unnecessary voids, contain as little organic material as possible. The waste package containing the waste product must: constitute a further barrier to dispersion, outlast (at least) interim storage, be documented with details of manufacturing, composition, properties, be designed to resist corrosion using suitable materials, be characterised by a quality assurance program for raw waste, waste product and waste package. The only possible reasons for interim storage of waste without solidification are: decay storage followed by conventional waste management, if waste packages fulfil acceptance criteria for the final repository without further treatment, if, in the foreseeable future, an alternative conditioning method can be expected. The guidelines and acceptance criteria mentioned set strict

  14. The crystal structure of (001) twinned xilingolite, Pb3Bi2S6, from Mittal-Hohtenn, Valais, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlepsch, Peter; Armbruster, Thomas; Makovicky, Emil

    2002-01-01

    geology, xilingolite, crystal structure, twinning, lillianite homologue, electron-microprobe analyses, cannizzarite, Bi-containing galena, Mittal-Hohtenn, Valais, Switzerland......geology, xilingolite, crystal structure, twinning, lillianite homologue, electron-microprobe analyses, cannizzarite, Bi-containing galena, Mittal-Hohtenn, Valais, Switzerland...

  15. “Having got Tired of the Storms That Covered Europe, I Retired to Switzerland in Search of the Peace”: F. G. Golovkin in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smekalina Valentina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyses one of the examples of the “Russian” “Swiss myth” in the travel notes of Russian travelers in the late 18th — early 19th centuries. Count FedorGolovkin, issuing from a noble Russian family abroad, left extensive and informative notes and letters about this country in which he spent several years. He writes not only about the beauties of the nature in Switzerland, but also depicts its history, social and political life. Herewith he enriches the “classical” “Swiss myth” with the traits of a “nobleman’s idyl” as a serene and quiet life of a philosopher and an aristocrat. Golovkin is not only attached to Switzerland as a country, but also to his friends there and to the cultural scenery of the “alpine republic”. Basing on the analysis of Golovkins memoires and letters the author reflects on the incorporation of the Russian nobility into the European cultural space, and on the influence of the political changes in Europe on the ideology of the noble Russians abroad. It is characteristic that even in Switzerland Golovkin still was anxios about the massive political changes in Europe, which anticipates the later more tragic perception of Europe by the next generations of Russian travelers.

  16. Incidence of severe anorexia nervosa in Switzerland : 40 years of development (vol 35, pg 250, 2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milos, G; Spindler, A; Schnyder, U; Martz, J; Hoek, HW; Willi, J

    Objective: The current study examined the development of the incidence of severe anorexia nervosa with five sampling periods covering the years 1956-1995 in a geographically defined region of Switzerland. Method: Applying the same methodology as in the earlier sampling periods, the medical records

  17. Petrology of the Northern Adula Region, Switzerland (with particular reference to the Glaucophane-Bearing Rocks)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plas, van der L.

    1959-01-01

    Geological and petrographical investigations were carried out in the northern part of the so-called Adula Nappe, one of the deepest Pennine nappes. The area under consideration lies in the SE of Switzerland, near Vals, S of Ilanz. This area is situated north of the Lepontinic gneiss-region, the

  18. Productivity, quality and sustainability of winter wheat underlong-term conventional and organic management in Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Jochen; Gunst, Lucie; Mäder, Paul

    2015-01-01

    protection as wellas preceding crop effects may modulate system performance with respect to wheat grain yield, qualityand environmental performance of the systems.Our aim was to evaluate data of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) performance from the DOK long-term systems experiment in Switzerland comparing...

  19. The Rise of Work-Based Academic Education in Austria, Germany and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Austria, Germany and Switzerland are renowned for their extensive systems of collective vocational skill formation, which, however, have developed largely in separation from higher education. This divide has become increasingly contested as a result of a variety of socioeconomic factors that have led to an increasing demand for higher level…

  20. More than a Culture Capsule: Teaching Switzerland and Austria in the German Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabisch, Peter Karl

    2012-01-01

    This essay offers some direction for greater integration of Austria and Switzerland into every level of the German language and culture curriculum. By excavating a number of now nearly forgotten intercultural connections between these alpine countries and the U.S., it is possible to present a more complete and complex picture of German-speaking…

  1. Transition Systems and Non-Standard Employment in Early Career: Comparing Japan and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imdorf, Christian; Helbling, Laura Alexandra; Inui, Akio

    2017-01-01

    Even though Japan and Switzerland are characterised by comparatively low youth unemployment rates, non-standard forms of employment are on the rise, posing a risk to the stable integration of young labour market entrants. Drawing on the French approach of societal analysis, this paper investigates how country-specific school-to-work transition…

  2. Gifted Education in Switzerland: Widely Acknowledged, but Obstacles Still Exist in Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Oppliger, Victor

    2014-01-01

    With its strong federalism and direct democracy, as well as the high level of autonomy of its cantons, Switzerland does not have mandatory national policies and regulations on gifted education. Responsibility for the promotion of high-end learners is in the hands of the cantonal boards of education, and depends largely on their current…

  3. Mortality atlas of the main causes of death in Switzerland, 2008-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chammartin, Frédérique; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the spatial distribution of mortality data is important for identification of high-risk areas, which in turn might guide prevention, and modify behaviour and health resources allocation. This study aimed to update the Swiss mortality atlas by analysing recent data using Bayesian statistical methods. We present average pattern for the major causes of death in Switzerland. We analysed Swiss mortality data from death certificates for the period 2008-2012. Bayesian conditional autoregressive models were employed to smooth the standardised mortality rates and assess average patterns. Additionally, we developed models for age- and gender-specific sub-groups that account for urbanisation and linguistic areas in order to assess their effects on the different sub-groups. We describe the spatial pattern of the major causes of death that occurred in Switzerland between 2008 and 2012, namely 4 cardiovascular diseases, 10 different kinds of cancer, 2 external causes of death, as well as chronic respiratory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, influenza and pneumonia, and liver diseases. In-depth analysis of age- and gender-specific mortality rates revealed significant disparities between urbanisation and linguistic areas. We provide a contemporary overview of the spatial distribution of the main causes of death in Switzerland. Our estimates and maps can help future research to deepen our understanding of the spatial variation of major causes of death in Switzerland, which in turn is crucial for targeting preventive measures, changing behaviours and a more cost-effective allocation of health resources.

  4. Tracking an Elusive Population: Family Carers of Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Romandy (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jecker-Parvex, Maurice; Breitenbach, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite a long-standing tradition of institutional placement in Switzerland, many older adults with intellectual disabilities continue to be supported by aging parents and siblings. For various reasons, these carers and the adults concerned have been overlooked up to now. To find out how many such families are providing housing and care of this…

  5. Experiences and Concepts Related to Gifted Education and Talent Development in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller-Oppliger, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a summary of efforts and projects related to the provision of gifted students and talent development in Swiss schools and with partners in the German speaking Central Europe. In the first part, relevant activities about teacher education in Switzerland based on a cooperative arrangement with the University of Connecticut will…

  6. Private Funding and Its Dangers to Academia: An Experience in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugentobler, Manuela; Müller, Markus; Morrissey, Franz Andres

    2017-01-01

    Academic freedom, a deep-rooted right in the Swiss Constitution, is endangered. Private sponsorship agreements, secretly negotiated between university leaders and big companies, become increasingly vital for universities in Switzerland. Swiss authorities are pushing this development: not only are they taking austerity measures, but also rewarding…

  7. Contested Citizenship: Public Schooling and Political Changes in Early Nineteenth Century Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bru¨hwiler, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    This article examines public education and the establishment of the nation-state in the first half of the nineteenth century in Switzerland. Textbooks, governmental decisions, and reports are analyzed in order to better understand how citizenship is depicted in school textbooks and whether (federal) political changes affected the image of the…

  8. Sinnerite, Cu6As4S9, from the Lengenbach Quarry, Binn Valley, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindi, Luca; Makovicky, Emil; Nestola, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    We have characterized the crystal structure of sinnerite, Cu6As4S9, a rare sulfosalt mineral from the ores of the Lengenbach quarry, Binn Valley, Canton Valais, Switzerland, by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. We found sinnerite to be structurally identical to synthetic Cu6As...

  9. The Teaching of Modern Languages in France and Francophone Switzerland (1740-1940): A Historiographical Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extermann, Blaise

    2018-01-01

    This paper has two aims: firstly, it sketches the history of language teaching in France and francophone Switzerland over a period of 200 years, with a particular focus on the teaching of German. Secondly, it seeks to shed light on some of the francophone historiographical approaches which have influenced recent research in this area. Historical…

  10. How much dentists are ethically concerned about overtreatment; a vignette-based survey in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemian, Ali; Berg, Isabelle; Finkel, Christina; Yazdani, Shahram; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Juergens, Philipp; Reiter-Theil, Stella

    2015-06-19

    Overtreatment (or unnecessary treatment) is when medical or dental services are provided with a higher volume or cost than is appropriate. This study aimed to investigate how a group of dentists in Switzerland, a wealthy country known to have high standards of healthcare including dentistry, evaluated the meaning of unnecessary treatments from an ethical perspective and, assessed the expected frequency of different possible behaviors among their peers. A vignette describing a situation that is susceptible for overtreatment of a patient was presented to a group of dentists. The vignette was followed by five options. A questionnaire including the vignette was posted to 2482 dentists in the German-speaking areas of Switzerland. The respondents were asked to rate each option according to their estimation about its prevalence and their judgment about the degree to which the behavior is ethically sound. 732 completed questionnaires were returned. According to the responses, the most ethical and the most unethical options are considered to be the most and the least prevalent behaviors among dentists practicing in Switzerland, respectively. Suggesting unnecessary treatments to patients seems to be an ethically unacceptable conduct in the eyes of a sample of dentists in Switzerland. Although the respondents believed their colleagues were very likely to behave in an ethical way in response to a situation that is susceptible to overtreatment, they still seemed to be concerned about the prevalence of unethical behaviors in this regard.

  11. Competition between Public Supervision and Professional Management: An Ethnographic Study of School Governance Reforms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses insights from an ethnographic study of local governance practices in the Canton of Bern, Switzerland, under changing policy conditions. Recent reforms introduced and strengthened the position of head teachers, enhanced the responsibility of the municipalities and introduced new quality management procedures in local…

  12. Diversity and Distribution of Freshwater Amphipod Species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altermatt, Florian; Alther, Roman; Fišer, Cene; Jokela, Jukka; Konec, Marjeta; Küry, Daniel; Mächler, Elvira; Stucki, Pascal; Westram, Anja Marie

    2014-01-01

    Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe), covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater). We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana) reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems. PMID:25354099

  13. Estimating healthcare costs of acute gastroenteritis and human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C; Mäusezahl, D; Bless, P J; Hatz, C; Schwenkglenks, M; Urbinello, D

    2017-03-01

    Rising numbers of campylobacteriosis case notifications in Switzerland resulted in an increased attention to acute gastroenteritis (AG) in general. Patients with a laboratory-confirmed Campylobacter infection perceive their disease as severe and around 15% of these patients are hospitalized. This study aimed at estimating healthcare costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis in Switzerland. We used official health statistics, data from different studies and expert opinion for estimating individual treatment costs for patients with different illness severity and for extrapolating overall costs due to AG and campylobacteriosis. We estimated that total Swiss healthcare costs resulting from these diseases amount to €29-45 million annually. Data suggest that patients with AG consulting a physician without a stool diagnostic test account for €9·0-24·2 million, patients with a negative stool test result for Campylobacter spp. for €12·3 million, patients testing positive for Campylobacter spp. for €1·8 million and hospitalized campylobacteriosis patients for €6·5 million/year. Healthcare costs of campylobacteriosis are high and most likely increasing in Switzerland considering that campylobacteriosis case notifications steadily increased in the past decade. Costs and potential cost savings for the healthcare system should be considered when designing sectorial and cross-sectorial interventions to reduce the burden of human campylobacteriosis in Switzerland.

  14. Business Students' Perception of Sales Careers: Differences between Students in Switzerland, Turkey, and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakaya, Fahri; Quigley, Charles; Bingham, Frank; Hari, Juerg; Nasir, Aslihan

    2014-01-01

    This research measures perceptual differences between sales and sales careers among business students studying in the United States, Switzerland, and Turkey. Earlier studies indicate that selling and a sales career are not viewed favorably by students in the United States and several other countries. This study expands on prior studies by…

  15. Can "Vocationalisation" of Education Go Too Far? The Case of Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    While countries with predominantly academic school-based upper secondary education have been "discovering" vocational education and training (VET) for some time, countries with "vocationalised" education systems such as Austria, Germany or Switzerland are critically reviewing their own situations. This paper takes up the case…

  16. Pathways Fostering Mobility to Higher Education for Vulnerable Immigrants in France, Switzerland and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Jake; Guégnard, Christine; Koomen, Maarten; Imdorf, Christian; Kamanzi, Canisius; Meyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this article we wish to clarify not only if, but also how--through which institutional settings--higher education (HE) is accessed by students from vulnerable immigrant groups in France, Switzerland and Canada. We are interested in the possible educational mobility that immigrant youths can experience arising from country-specific educational…

  17. Implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention for children with autism in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Nadja; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Schenker, Tanja; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-01-21

    There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich. The current situation of the implementation of EIBI for children with autism in Switzerland is characterized by marked deficits in its acceptance. Major reasons include insufficient governmental approval and lacking legal and financial support. In addition, ignorance among health care providers and educational professionals has contributed to this situation precluding that children with autism receive the most beneficial assistance. The authors have initiated and been working in an intervention centre offering EIBI for a decade and report on their experience with the implementation of EIBI. Based on their clinical practice, they document that EIBI also works efficiently under ordinary mental health service conditions. EIBI needs to be implemented more intensively in Switzerland. Although the effects of EIBI as implemented in Zurich are promising, the results are not as pronounced as under controlled research conditions.

  18. Energy strategy 2050 and its effects on the industrial location Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeder, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    scienceindustries is the Swiss trade association chemical pharmaceuticals biotechnology. The branch comprises around 250 companies in the most intensive value-creating fields chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology. With approx. 70,000 employees in Switzerland and 310,000 in over 80 countries, this sector generates 40 % of the total Swiss exports and contributes 44 % to the private research expenses of Switzerland. At the same time the companies face hard international competition. This lets us recognize immediately just how much the industry in Switzerland depends on good parameters for research, production and export. This value creation could not be achieved without these prerequisites. In Switzerland, besides being a regulatory and internationally outstanding corporate location, this includes, for example, an attractive tax environment or a monetary policy geared to stability. Our companies also require competitive production factors in sufficient amounts to be able to generate their important contribution to the national economy. In this context, electricity is assigned an important role, as a clean, versatile energy source that is available anytime and everywhere. That is why scienceindustries as an industrial association feels more than obliged to declare its position regarding electricity supply unambiguously to the public and politics. For our industry it is simply also a question of economic survival: the macroeconomic contribution of our industry cannot be ensured in future without a sufficient, uninterrupted and competitive electricity supply. (orig.)

  19. Greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland: A grounded look at sector competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mann, S.; Breukers, A.; Schweiger, J.; Mack, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a theory that is sufficiently adapted to sector competitiveness. The case of greenhouse vegetable production in The Netherlands and Switzerland is used to explain differences in sector competitiveness. Design/methodology/approach – Interviews

  20. H.E. Professor Dragoljub Popovic, Ambassador to Switzerland of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2001-01-01

    H. E. Professor Dragoljub Popovic, Ambassador of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia to Switzerland, visiting the ATLAS cavern. From left to right: Dr Torsten Akesson, Deputy Spokesman of the ATLAS experiment; H. E. Professor Dragoljub Popovic; Mrs Simone Hajos, Project Engineer, LHC civil engineering; Dr Peter Adzic, Chairman of the Committee of the Republic of Serbia for relations with CERN.

  1. From Autonomy to Quality Management: NPM Impacts on School Governance in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangartner, Judith; Svaton, Carla Jana

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the impact of discourses on "New Public Management" (NPM) on compulsory schooling in Switzerland during the last two decades and traces its implementation in the Canton of Bern. The analysis suggests that while NPM reformers initially promoted increased school autonomy, the introduction of market elements and school…

  2. Diversity and distribution of freshwater amphipod species in Switzerland (Crustacea: Amphipoda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Altermatt

    Full Text Available Amphipods are key organisms in many freshwater systems and contribute substantially to the diversity and functioning of macroinvertebrate communities. Furthermore, they are commonly used as bioindicators and for ecotoxicological tests. For many areas, however, diversity and distribution of amphipods is inadequately known, which limits their use in ecological and ecotoxicological studies and handicaps conservation initiatives. We studied the diversity and distribution of amphipods in Switzerland (Central Europe, covering four major drainage basins, an altitudinal gradient of>2,500 m, and various habitats (rivers, streams, lakes and groundwater. We provide the first provisional checklist and detailed information on the distribution and diversity of all amphipod species from Switzerland. In total, we found 29 amphipod species. This includes 16 native and 13 non-native species, one of the latter (Orchestia cavimana reported here for the first time for Switzerland. The diversity is compared to neighboring countries. We specifically discuss species of the genus Niphargus, which are often receiving less attention. We also found evidence of an even higher level of hidden diversity, and the potential occurrence of further cryptic species. This diversity reflects the biogeographic past of Switzerland, and suggests that amphipods are ideally suited to address questions on endemism and adaptive radiations, post-glaciation re-colonization and invasion dynamics as well as biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships in aquatic systems.

  3. Energy balance of a glacier surface: analysis of Automatic Weather Station data from the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oerlemans, J.; Klok, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    We describe and analyze a complete 1-yr data set from an automatic weather station (AWS) located on the snout of the Morteratschgletscher, Switzerland. The AWS stands freely on the glacier surface and measures pressure, windspeed, wind direction, air temperature and humidity, incoming and

  4. Smoking and Adolescence: Exploring Tobacco Consumption and Related Attitudes in Three Different Adolescent Groups in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosson, Marlene; Maggiori, Christian; Gygax, Pascal Mark; Gay, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    The present study constitutes an investigation of tobacco consumption, related attitudes and individual differences in smoking or non-smoking behaviors in a sample of adolescents of different ages in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. We investigated three school-age groups (7th-grade, 9th-grade, and the second-year of high school) for…

  5. UC Riverside physicists contribute to state-of-the-art detector installed in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    UC Riverside scientists led by Gail Hanson, a distinguished professor of physics, are part of a collaboration of approximately 2300 international physicists who announced Dec. 19 that the world 's largest silicon tracking detector at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, had been successfully installed

  6. Current Problems of Trade Union-Party Relations in Switzerland: Reorientation Versus Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegenthaler, Jurg K.

    1975-01-01

    The postwar realignment of union-party relations in Switzerland severed old formal ties but left some important links undisturbed; practical and effective cooperation on legislative items supports current informal union-party alliances. Major current problems include the unions' demand for codetermination in industry and the huge numbers of…

  7. Status of development of gas-cooled reactors in Switzerland, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbling, W.; Sarlos, G.

    1988-01-01

    Swiss industrial companies and the Federal Institute for Reactor Research are involved in the framework of German-Swiss cooperation in the HTR-500 project. Another effort in Switzerland is directed to the development of a small heating reactor, in the power range of 10 to 50 MW, for district heating, one of the concepts investigated being an HTR pebble-bed reactor

  8. Morbidity in surgery: impact of the 50-hour work-week limitation in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderli, R; Businger, A; Oesch, A; Stefenelli, U; Laffer, U

    2012-01-24

    Work-hour regulations for residency programmes in Switzerland, including a 50-hour weekly limit, were set in on 1 January 2005. Patient safety was one of the major arguments for the implementation. As the effect of the restriction of residency work hours on patient care in Switzerland has not yet been evaluated on objective data, the aim of the present study was to assess its impact by comparing the patients' morbidity and mortality before (2001-2004) and after (2005-2008) the implementation. Retrospective analysis of records of the Spitalzentrum Biel AG, a large referral center classified according to the Swiss Medical Association, collected in the database of the Association for Quality Assurance in Surgery (AQC), a prospective database of consecutive patients undergoing surgical procedures in Switzerland. A selection of 2,686 patients with common surgeries, operated on by residents, was performed. There were 1,259 (46.9%) patients meeting our inclusion criteria who were admitted during the period before introduction of work-hour limitation and 1,427 (53.1%) patients after introduction. The in-hospital mortality and postoperative surgical complication rate were significantly higher after the reform (p limitation implemented in Switzerland was not associated with surgical patient safety measure improvement for common surgeries (i.e., morbidity and mortality rate). Further research on a nationwide basis is needed to assess the value of the higher surgical complication and mortality rate.

  9. Principals' Views on Civic and Parental Participation in School Governance in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesel, Carsten; Näpfli, Jasmin; Buser, Patricia A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The study is focused on the question of how principals in Swiss compulsory schools evaluate civic and parental participation in education governance. Public management reforms in Switzerland have led to the implementation of semiautonomous school administration and the encouragement of professional leadership. Thus, the traditional role…

  10. Indicators for taxonomic and functional aspects of biodiversity in the vineyard agroecosystem of Southern Switzerland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trivellone, V.; Schoenenberger, N.; Bellosi, B.; Jermini, M.; de Bello, Francesco; Mitchell, E.A.D.; Moretti, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 170, Feb 2014 (2014), s. 103-109 ISSN 0006-3207 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/1296 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : indicator species * Switzerland * vineyard floor vegetation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.762, year: 2014

  11. Petrofabrics, microtextures and dislocation substructures of olivine in a peridotite mylonite (Alpe Arami, Switzerland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiskool Toxopeus, J.M.A.

    1978-01-01

    The development of preferred crystallographic orientation and dimensional fabric of olivine in relation to deformation were investigated in a thin, continuous chlorite peridotite mylonite rim around the garnet peridotite body of Alpe Arami, Ticino, Switzerland. The mylonite is a foliated rock

  12. Second-Generation Turkish Youth in Europe: Explaining the Academic Disadvantage in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examines the role of students' home and school variables in producing the achievement gap between second-generation Turkish students and their native peers in Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. Using the data from PISA 2006, this study supports past findings that both home and school resources affect the educational outcomes of…

  13. Experiential Education Employment Opportunities in Germany, Switzerland, and Austria: Options and Informational Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William

    1995-01-01

    Discusses educational employment (EE) opportunities for students in German-speaking countries, and the implementation of EE programs by American colleges and universities. Also lists internship and EE opportunities administered by colleges, universities, and other organizations in the United States, Austria, Germany, and Switzerland. (six…

  14. Euthanasia and assisted suicide: comparison of legal aspects in Switzerland and other countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, S; La Harpe, R; Harding, T W; Sobel, J

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the legal aspects associated with assisted suicide in Switzerland and compare them with those in other countries. Like euthanasia, assisted suicide is a subject that induces much discussion in many countries. While the law is very liberal in some countries, such as Belgium and the Netherlands (where both euthanasia and assisted suicide take place), these practices are very controversial in other countries, such as France, where they remain taboo subjects. In the United States of America, the laws concerning assisted suicide can differ greatly from one state to another. For example, in Oregon, assisted suicide is allowed if applied by a medical doctor; in others, this act is illegal. In Canada, it is punishable according to the Criminal Code. In Switzerland euthanasia is punishable by law. However, the penal code does not condemn assisted suicide, whether carried out by a medical doctor or another person, provided it is not carried out through selfish motives. The application of these practices has become simplified in recent years and societies for the right to die with dignity based on this principle have come into being (Exit and Dignitas). In the French- and German-speaking parts of Switzerland the association Exit assists individuals living in Switzerland with serious progressive and incurable disease in their engagement to end their life. The association Dignitas, in the German-speaking part of Switzerland, also undertakes--in the same circumstances--to assist individuals coming from foreign countries. Dignitas welcomes several such individuals every year, especially from Germany, where a similar approach does not currently exist.

  15. Perinatal mental health service provision in Switzerland and in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiel Castro, Rita T; Schroeder, Katrin; Pinard, Claudia; Blöchlinger, Patricia; Künzli, Hansjörg; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Kammerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of maternal perinatal-psychiatric disorders as well as their effect on the baby is well recognised. Increasingly well researched specialised treatment methods can reduce maternal morbidity, positively affect mother-baby bonding and empower women's confidence as a mother. Here, we aimed to compare guidelines and the structure of perinatal-psychiatric service delivery in the United Kingdom and in Switzerland from the government's perspective. Swiss cantons provided information regarding guidelines and structure of service delivery in 2000. A subsequent survey using the same questionnaire was carried out in 2007. In the UK, similar information was accessed through published reports from 2000-2012. Guidelines for perinatal psychiatry exist in the UK, whereas in Switzerland in 2000 none of the 26 cantons had guidelines, and in 2007 only one canton did. Joint mother-baby admissions on general psychiatric wards were offered by 92% of the Swiss cantons. In the UK, pregnant women and joint mother-baby admissions are only advised onto specialised perinatal-psychiatric units. In Switzerland, in 2007, three specialised units (max. 24 beds) were in place corresponding to 1 unit per 2.5 million people, while in the UK there were 22 mother-baby units (168 beds) in 2012 (1 unit per 2.8 million). In the UK, less than 50% of trusts provided specialised perinatal-psychiatric health care. The main difference between the UK and Switzerland was the absence of guidelines, regular assessment and plans for future development of perinatal psychiatry in Switzerland. There are still geographical differences in the provision of perinatal-psychiatric services in the UK.

  16. Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths in the young population of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asatryan, Babken; Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Gräni, Christoph; Trachsel, Lukas D; Schmied, Christian M; Saguner, Ardan M; Eser, Prisca; Herzig, David; Bolliger, Stephan; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) is unknown. We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland. We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE), recreational sports (REC), and competitive sports (COMP). Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male); 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI)] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35-0.56)], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89-1.60)] and NONE [2.46 (2.27-2.66)]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD) with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI) was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD. The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection in Switzerland: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirzel, Cédric; Wandeler, Gilles; Owczarek, Marta; Gorgievski-Hrisoho, Meri; Dufour, Jean-Francois; Semmo, Nasser; Zürcher, Samuel

    2015-10-30

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection affects up to 7% of the European population. Specific HBV genotypes are associated with rapid progression to end-stage liver disease and sub-optimal interferon treatment responses. Although the geographic distribution of HBV genotypes differs between regions, it has not been studied in Switzerland, which lies at the crossroads of Europe. In a retrospective analysis of 465 HBV samples collected between 2002 and 2013, we evaluated the HBV genotype distribution and phylogenetic determinants, as well as the prevalence of serological evidence of hepatitis delta, hepatitis C and HIV infections in Switzerland. Baseline characteristics of patients were compared across their region of origin using Fisher's exact test and ANOVA, and risk factors for HBeAg positivity were assessed using logistic regression. The Swiss native population represented 15.7% of HBV-infected patients living in Switzerland. In the overall population, genotype D was most prevalent (58.3%), whereas genotype A (58.9%) was the predominant genotype among the Swiss native population. The prevalence of patients with anti-HDV antibodies was 4.4%. Patients of Swiss origin were most likely to be HBeAg-positive (38.1%). HBV genotypes of patients living in Switzerland but sharing the same original region of origin were consistent with their place of birth. The molecular epidemiology of HBV infection in Switzerland is driven by migration patterns and not by the genotype distribution of the native population. The prevalence of positive anti-HDV antibodies in our cohort was very low.

  18. Regional differences in self-reported screening, prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the screening and management of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs). We thus aimed at assessing geographical levels of CVRFs in Switzerland. Methods Swiss Health Survey for 2007 (N = 17,879). Seven administrative regions were defined: West (Leman), West-Central (Mittelland), Zurich, South (Ticino), North-West, East and Central Switzerland. Obesity, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes prevalence, treatment and screening within the last 12 months were assessed by interview. Results After multivariate adjustment for age, gender, educational level, marital status and Swiss citizenship, no significant differences were found between regions regarding prevalence of obesity or current smoking. Similarly, no differences were found regarding hypertension screening and prevalence. Two thirds of subjects who had been told they had high blood pressure were treated, the lowest treatment rates being found in East Switzerland: odds-ratio and [95% confidence interval] 0.65 [0.50-0.85]. Screening for hypercholesterolemia was more frequently reported in French (Leman) and Italian (Ticino) speaking regions. Four out of ten participants who had been told they had high cholesterol levels were treated and the lowest treatment rates were found in German-speaking regions. Screening for diabetes was higher in Ticino (1.24 [1.09 - 1.42]). Six out of ten participants who had been told they had diabetes were treated, the lowest treatment rates were found for German-speaking regions. Conclusions In Switzerland, cardiovascular risk factor screening and management differ between regions and these differences cannot be accounted for by differences in populations' characteristics. Management of most cardiovascular risk factors could be improved. PMID:22452881

  19. The region makes the difference: disparities in management of acute myocardial infarction within Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insam, Charlène; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    In Switzerland, health policies are decided at the local level, but little is known regarding their impact on the management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In this study, we assessed geographical differences within Switzerland regarding management of AMI. Cross-sectional study. Swiss hospital discharge database for period 2007-2008 (26,204 discharges from AMI). Seven Swiss regions (Leman, Mittelland, Northwest, Zurich, Central, Eastern, and Ticino) were analysed. Almost 53.7% of discharges from AMI were managed in a single hospital, ranging from 62.1% (Leman) to 31.6% (Ticino). The highest intensive care unit admission rate was in Leman (69.4%), the lowest (16.9%) in Ticino (Swiss average: 36.0%). Intracoronary revascularization rates were highest in Leman (51.1%) and lowest (30.9%) in Central Switzerland (average: 41.0%). Bare (non-drug-eluting) stent use was highest in Leman (61.4%) and lowest (16.9%) in Ticino (average: 42.1%), while drug-eluting stent use was highest (83.2%) in Ticino and lowest (38.6%) in Leman (average: 57.9%). Coronary artery bypass graft rates were highest (4.8%) in Ticino and lowest (0.5%) in Eastern Switzerland (average: 2.8%). Mechanical circulatory assistance rates were highest (4.2%) in Zurich and lowest (0.5%) in Ticino (average: 1.8%). The differences remained after adjusting for age, single or multiple hospital management, and gender. In Switzerland, significant geographical differences in management and revascularization procedures for AMI were found.

  20. An investigation on the Culicoides species composition at seven sites in southern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casati, S; Racloz, V; Delécolle, J C; Kuhn, M; Mathis, A; Griot, C; Stärk, K D C; Vanzetti, T

    2009-06-01

    In the past decade, there have been regular outbreaks of bluetongue (BT) in many parts of Europe. Owing to the presence of BT disease and its vectors in countries adjacent to Switzerland, an initial entomological survey was conducted in 2003, which established the presence of several midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Subsequently, a sentinel herd monitoring system was established with the primary entomological aim being the determination and further study of Culicoides population compositions. Insects were collected in 2005 and 2006 at seven sentinel herd sites in the south of Switzerland (canton of Ticino) near the border of Italy, using Onderstepoort-type light traps. This region is botanically and zoologically similar to the Mediterranean and is one of the warmest and most humid areas of the country, hence it is considered a potential access path for BT disease into Switzerland. Collections were made at four cattle farms, two equestrian centres and one goat farm. Sites were sampled four times per month from June to October. Traps were operated from dusk until dawn and samples were collected monthly for analysis through microscopy as well as a Culicoides imicola-specific PCR. Results confirmed the absence of C. imicola (Kieffer) and demonstrated that the potential BT virus vectors are highly abundant, notably: Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen), Culicoides scoticus (Downes & Kettle) and Culicoides dewulfi (Goetghebuer) subgenus Avaritia and Culicoides pulicaris (Linnaeus) subgenus Culicoides. These findings expand the current knowledge of Culicoides population composition in the southern part of the Switzerland. Culicoides cataneii (Clastrier), Culicoides flavipulicaris (Dzhafarov), Culicoides indistinctus (Khalaf), Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) and species of the Grisescens complex were reported for the first time in Switzerland.

  1. Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths in the young population of Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babken Asatryan

    Full Text Available In Switzerland, ECG screening was first recommended for national squad athletes in 1998. Since 2001 it has become mandatory in selected high-risk professional sports. Its impact on the rates of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SCD is unknown.We aimed to study the incidence, causes and time trends of sports-related SCD in comparison to SCD unrelated to exercise in Switzerland.We reviewed all forensic reports of SCDs of the German-speaking region of Switzerland in the age group of 10 to 39 years, occurring between 1999 and 2010. Cases were classified into three categories based on whether or not deaths were associated with sports: no sports (NONE, recreational sports (REC, and competitive sports (COMP.Over the 12-year study period, 349 SCD cases were recorded (mean age 30±7 years, 76.5% male; 297 cases were categorized as NONE, 31 as REC, and 21 as COMP. Incidences of SCD per 100,000 person-years [mean (95% CI] were the lowest in REC [0.43 (0.35-0.56], followed by COMP [1.19 (0.89-1.60] and NONE [2.46 (2.27-2.66]. In all three categories, coronary artery disease (CAD with or without acute myocardial infarction (MI was the most common cause of SCD. Three professional athletes were identified in COMP category which all had SCD due to acute MI. There were no time trends, neither in overall, nor in cause-specific incidences of SCD.The incidence of SCD in young individuals in Switzerland is low, both related and unrelated to sports. In regions, like Switzerland, where CAD is the leading cause of SCD associated with competitions, screening for cardiovascular risk factors in addition to the current PPS recommendations might be indicated to improve detection of silent CAD and further decrease the incidence of SCD.

  2. Emission scenarios 1985-2010: Their influence on ozone in Switzerland - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A

    2005-07-15

    Ozone levels often exceed the ambient air quality standards during summer time. Since 1985, numerous regulations have been enforced or proposed to improve air quality in Europe. In this study we investigated the effect of these measures on ozone. Seven anthropogenic emission scenarios have been selected: scenario 0: emissions as reported for 2000 (base case); scenario 1: emissions as reported for 1985; scenario 2: emissions in 2000, if economy (and emissions) grows without control; scenario 3: emissions in 2010, if the Gothenburg Protocol is in force; scenario 4: emissions in 2010 according to the current legislation; scenario 5: emissions in 2010: 100% and 50% of the Gothenburg target emissions in Europe and in Switzerland, respectively; scenario 6: emissions in 2010: 50% and 50% of the Gothenburg target emissions in Europe and in Switzerland, respectively; scenario 7: zero anthropogenic emissions in Switzerland, base case emissions elsewhere. The 4-day period from 4 to 7 August 2003 was studied by means of the 3-dimensional photochemical model CAMx with 2 nested domains. The coarse domain covered a large part of Europe with a horizontal resolution of 27 km x 27 km. Switzerland and parts of the surrounding countries including the Greater Milan area were covered by the fine domain with resolution of 9 km x 9 km. Gridded meteorological data were obtained from MM5 meteorological model. The emission inventory was prepared by compiling European and Swiss anthropogenic emissions from various sources. Reference year was 2000. Biogenic emissions were calculated with temperature and irradiance dependent algorithms using land use and meteorological data. Initial and boundary conditions were adjusted from the output of the global model MOZART. The model could reproduce peak ozone concentrations around large urban areas. Model results were strongly affected by meteorological parameterization and emissions. Compared to 2000, ozone concentrations in 1985 were about 5% higher in

  3. Emission scenarios 1985-2010: Their influence on ozone in Switzerland - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.; Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Tinguely, M.; Prevot, A.

    2005-07-01

    Ozone levels often exceed the ambient air quality standards during summer time. Since 1985, numerous regulations have been enforced or proposed to improve air quality in Europe. In this study we investigated the effect of these measures on ozone. Seven anthropogenic emission scenarios have been selected: scenario 0: emissions as reported for 2000 (base case); scenario 1: emissions as reported for 1985; scenario 2: emissions in 2000, if economy (and emissions) grows without control; scenario 3: emissions in 2010, if the Gothenburg Protocol is in force; scenario 4: emissions in 2010 according to the current legislation; scenario 5: emissions in 2010: 100% and 50% of the Gothenburg target emissions in Europe and in Switzerland, respectively; scenario 6: emissions in 2010: 50% and 50% of the Gothenburg target emissions in Europe and in Switzerland, respectively; scenario 7: zero anthropogenic emissions in Switzerland, base case emissions elsewhere. The 4-day period from 4 to 7 August 2003 was studied by means of the 3-dimensional photochemical model CAMx with 2 nested domains. The coarse domain covered a large part of Europe with a horizontal resolution of 27 km x 27 km. Switzerland and parts of the surrounding countries including the Greater Milan area were covered by the fine domain with resolution of 9 km x 9 km. Gridded meteorological data were obtained from MM5 meteorological model. The emission inventory was prepared by compiling European and Swiss anthropogenic emissions from various sources. Reference year was 2000. Biogenic emissions were calculated with temperature and irradiance dependent algorithms using land use and meteorological data. Initial and boundary conditions were adjusted from the output of the global model MOZART. The model could reproduce peak ozone concentrations around large urban areas. Model results were strongly affected by meteorological parameterization and emissions. Compared to 2000, ozone concentrations in 1985 were about 5% higher in

  4. Opioid maintenance therapy in Switzerland: an overview of the Swiss IMPROVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, J; Beck, T; Wiesbeck, G; Hämmig, R; Kuntz, A; Abid, S; Stohler, R

    2014-01-01

    Switzerland's drug policy model has always been unique and progressive, but there is a need to reassess this system in a rapidly changing world. The IMPROVE study was conducted to gain understanding of the attitudes and beliefs towards opioid maintenance therapy (OMT) in Switzerland with regards to quality and access to treatment. To obtain a "real-world" view on OMT, the study approached its goals from two different angles: from the perspectives of the OMT patients and of the physicians who treat patients with maintenance therapy. The IMPROVE study collected a large body of data on OMT in Switzerland. This paper presents a small subset of the dataset, focusing on the research design and methodology, the profile of the participants and the responses to several key questions addressed by the questionnaires. IMPROVE was an observational, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study on OMT conducted in Switzerland. Respondents consisted of OMT patients and treating physicians from various regions of the country. Data were collected using questionnaires in German and French. Physicians were interviewed by phone with a computer-based questionnaire. Patients self-completed a paper-based questionnaire at the physicians' offices or OMT treatment centres. A total of 200 physicians and 207 patients participated in the study. Liquid methadone and methadone tablets or capsules were the medications most commonly prescribed by physicians (60% and 20% of patient load, respectively) whereas buprenorphine use was less frequent. Patients (88%) and physicians (83%) were generally satisfied with the OMT currently offered. The current political framework and lack of training or information were cited as determining factors that deter physicians from engaging in OMT. About 31% of OMT physicians interviewed were ≥60 years old, indicating an ageing population. Diversion and misuse were considered a significant problem in Switzerland by 45% of the physicians. The subset of IMPROVE data

  5. Gnomoniopsis castanea is the main agent of chestnut nut rot in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca G. DENNERT

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuts of sweet chestnut have been an important food source for the alpine population in Switzerland since the Middle Ages and are still valued today for the preparation of traditional food commodities. Nut quality is reduced by insect damage and by various pathogenic fungi. In the last few years, producers and consumers perceived an increase of brown nut rot; while the nut rot agent Gnomoniopsis castanea was reported locally in southern Switzerland, its presence has not been investigated over large areas until now. This study assessed the incidence of brown nut rot and identified the causal agent present in Switzerland. Fully ripened nuts were collected from the main sweet chestnut growing areas of Switzerland. A filamentous fungus morphologically identified as G. castanea was isolated from 10 to 91% of the sampled nuts, despite only 3 to 21% of the sampled nuts showing brown rot symptoms. This fungus was isolated from symptomatic chestnuts as well as from apparently healthy chestnuts. Our results suggest a possible endophytic lifestyle in ripened nuts as well as in branches, leaves and unripe nuts as previously found. Species identity of 45 isolates was confirmed by EF-1alpha, beta-tubulin and ITS sequencing. Concatenation of β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences showed that several haplotypes were present at each sampling locality. No other nut rot pathogens could be isolated in this study, suggesting that G. castanea is the main causal agent of nut rot in Switzerland. The presence of this species is reported for the first time in a site in northern Switzerland. Further studies are needed to assess the influence of meteorological conditions and chestnut varieties on the incidence of G. castanea in order to provide prevention strategies for chestnut growers. Normal 0 21 false false false FR-CH X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso

  6. Beyond Watches and Chocolate-Global Mental Health Elective in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneeberger, Andres R; Weiss, Andrea; von Blumenthal, Suzanne; Lang, Undine E; Huber, Christian G; Schwartz, Bruce J

    2016-08-01

    Despite increasing interest in global mental health training opportunities, only a few psychiatry residency programs offer global mental health training experiences in developing countries and even fewer programs offer it in other first-world countries. The authors developed a global mental health elective giving US psychiatry residents the opportunity to visit Switzerland to study and experience the mental health care system in this European country. This elective focuses on four major learning objectives: (1) the system of training and curriculum of postgraduate psychiatry education in Switzerland, (2) clinical and organizational aspects of Swiss mental health, (3) administrative aspects of Swiss mental health care delivery, and (4) scholarly activity. This program was uniquely tailored for psychiatry residents. The preliminary experiences with US psychiatry residents show that they value this learning experience, the opportunity to access a different mental health care system, as well as the potential to build international connections with peers.

  7. An Analysis of the Tourist Competitiveness in Switzerland, the United States and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Daniela BĂDICU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a social phenomenon specific of man, known even since times out of mind, and it has recorded a rapid growth lately. At present, tourist products are designed to be able to meet every need and desire of all the consumers from everywhere. The present paper, “An analysis of the tourist competitiveness in Switzerland, the United States and Romania”, is trying to highlight the similarities and the differences of tourist potential between the three countries under analysis: Switzerland, the United States of America and Romania, study the tourist competitiveness of the countries mentioned, and analyze a series of indicators pertaining to the three forms of tourist circulation: international inbound tourism, internal tourism and international outbound tourism.

  8. Main karst and caves of Switzerland; El karst y las cuevas mas importantes de Suiza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeannin, P. Y.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main karst areas and cave systems in Switzerland. The first part encloses descriptions of the main geological units that hold karst and caves in the country and summarizes a brief history of research and protection of the cave environments. The second part presents three regions enclosing large cave systems. Two regions in the Alps enclose some of the largest limestone caves in Europe: Siebenhengste (Siebenhengste cave system with ∼160 km and Barenschacht with 70 km) and Bodmeren-Silberen (Holloch cave system with 200 km and Silberen System with 39 km). These systems are also among the deepest with depths ranging between 880 and 1340 m. The third example is from the Jura Mountains (northern Switzerland). (Author)

  9. [Vaccination as a supporting measure to control animal disease outbreaks in Europe: Findings for Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Labio, E; Perler, L

    2010-09-01

    Switzerland and the European Union have a non-vaccination policy for many animal diseases relevant for trade. Because of the relatively low animal density, disease control measures in Switzerland focus on the immediate culling of infected animals. However, the use of vaccines as a supporting measure can represent an effective option to promptly contain an epidemic and to reduce the number of animals to be killed. A prerequisite for the success of vaccination is its early, rapid and purposeful implementation. Vaccinations can be cost-intensive and can entail restrictions in international trade. For the choice of the appropriate control measure it is therefore important to thoroughly assess the epidemiology, the economic consequences of the control measures and the acceptance of these measures by the environment. Because of their special epidemiology, vaccination has clear advantages as a preventive measure for vector-borne diseases.

  10. As US breathes new life into nuclear, Switzerland says adieu, Japan hello again

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, John

    2017-01-01

    The US has given its strongest signal to date, since President Donald Trump moved into the Oval office at the start of the year, that nuclear will have a strong role to play in the administration's energy policy. In May, Switzerland confirmed that it would follow the lead of neighbouring Germany in beginning a phase-out of nuclear power as part of a revised energy strategy. Japan's actual actions stand in marked contrast to those of Switzerland - and Germany. Instead of turning its back on nuclear, Japan took a sensible, long-term pragmatic view of its energy needs into the future with restarts of nuclear power plants.

  11. As US breathes new life into nuclear, Switzerland says adieu, Japan hello again

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, John [nuclear 24, St. George' s Redditch (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-15

    The US has given its strongest signal to date, since President Donald Trump moved into the Oval office at the start of the year, that nuclear will have a strong role to play in the administration's energy policy. In May, Switzerland confirmed that it would follow the lead of neighbouring Germany in beginning a phase-out of nuclear power as part of a revised energy strategy. Japan's actual actions stand in marked contrast to those of Switzerland - and Germany. Instead of turning its back on nuclear, Japan took a sensible, long-term pragmatic view of its energy needs into the future with restarts of nuclear power plants.

  12. Deep geological disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland - Overview and outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnellmann, M.; Zuidema, P.; Gautschi, A.

    2015-07-01

    This article reviews the situation in Switzerland regarding the disposal of radioactive wastes. The development of the Swiss concept for wastes with high, medium and low levels of activity is reviewed, as detailed in the Sectorial Plan for Deep Geological Repositories published in 2008. The three stages involved are described in detail. Further investigations carried out in the Grimsel and Mont Terri underground laboratories are reported on. The state of current work is reviewed. A map is provided of the areas in northern Switzerland which have been selected for further, more intensive research, along with a review of the possible rock formations to be investigated. Data already obtained are reviewed and proposals for further investigations are discussed. In the upcoming stage 3 of the plan, the selection of one site per repository type will be made, leading to the submission of a general licence application.

  13. Development of natural gas in the French-speaking part of Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defago, E.

    1992-01-01

    Natural gas has known a rapid development in the French-speaking part of Switzerland and this trend is still continuing. Natural gas represents 13% of the overall energy consumption, which lies significantly above the Swiss average and, in the year 2000, it should reach about 20%. In order to meet the expected growth of consumption, Gaznat has already contracted, under long term agreements, large quantities of natural gas from diversified sources. Underground storage capacities in nearby France have been considerably increased and new gas-pipelines are being built. These pipelines will enable to double the supply capacity of the French-speaking part of Switzerland within the next three years. (orig.) [de

  14. Organ Donation in Switzerland - An Analysis of Factors Associated with Consent Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, Isabelle; Immer, Franz F.; Jüni, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim Switzerland has a low post mortem organ donation rate. Here we examine variables that are associated with the consent of the deceased’s next of kin (NOK) for organ donation, which is a prerequisite for donation in Switzerland. Methods and Analysis During one year, we registered information from NOK of all deceased patients in Swiss intensive care units, who were approached for consent to organ donation. We collected data on patient demographics, characteristics of NOK, factors related to the request process and to the clinical setting. We analyzed the association of collected predictors with consent rate using univariable logistic regression models; predictors with p-values donation, and respecting personal values and cultural differences, could be of importance for increasing donation rates. Additional measures are needed to address the pronounced differences in consent rates between language regions. PMID:25208215

  15. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. [Dog population and dog breeds in Switzerland from 1955 to 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Hässig, M; Vogel, R; Salvini, M M; Fabrikant, S; Axhausen, K; Schenker, S N; Erni, D; Guscetti, F

    2013-04-01

    Aim of this study is to present a survey of the dog population and breed distribution in Switzerland from 1955 to 2008 as basis to realize a population based canine cancer register for Switzerland. The number of dogs rose from 309'000 in 1955 to approximately 500'000 in 2008 correlating with a parallel increase of human population. The ratio of dogs per 100 inhabitants remains stable. This ratio is lower in German speaking compared to French or Italian speaking Cantons. The variety and popularity of breeds changed from 1955 to 2008, "winners" are Labrador and Golden Retrievers, Yorkshire and Jack Russel Terriers. Less popular breeds over the years are German Sheherd dogs and Poodles.

  17. Requirements for Clinical Trials with Gene Therapy and Transplant Products in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This chapter aims to describe and summarize the regulation of gene and cell therapy products in Switzerland and its legal basis. Product types are briefly described, as are Swiss-specific terminologies such as the term "transplant product," which means products manufactured from cells, tissues, or even whole organs. Although some parts of this chapter may show a guideline character, they are not legally binding, but represent the current thinking of Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products. As so far the experience with marketing approval of gene therapy and cell therapy products in Switzerland is limited, this chapter focuses on the regulation of clinical trials conducted with these products. Quality, nonclinical, and clinical aspects are summarized separately for gene therapy products and transplant products.

  18. Household Role in Coping with Precarious Work. Evidence from Qualitative Research in Urban Romania and Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preoteasa Ana Maria D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a qualitative comparative study that looked at the meaning of ‘precarious work’ in households situated in the position of ‘precarious prosperity’ in Switzerland and Romania in 2013. The aim of this research is to explore the experiences of individuals with precarious work and to embed them into their household and national structural contexts. Employment patterns in the two countries are similar in terms of uncertainty and instability, yet vary in many other aspects. While in Romania insecurity is due mainly to the very low incomes, in Switzerland it stems from nonstandard contracts. The research shows that for households of precarious prosperity, precarious work is both a strategy to cope with uncertainty and instability and a circumstance leading to precariousness. The analysis explores qualitatively the meaning that individuals living in households of precarious prosperity attribute to their employment situation as contextualized by the interplay between household and individual situation.

  19. An economic analysis of payment for health care services: the United States and Switzerland compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweifel, Peter; Tai-Seale, Ming

    2009-06-01

    This article seeks to assess whether physician payment reforms in the United States and Switzerland were likely to attain their objectives. We first introduce basic contract theory, with the organizing principle being the degree of information asymmetry between the patient and the health care provider. Depending on the degree of information asymmetry, different forms of payment induce "appropriate" behavior. These theoretical results are then pitted against the RBRVS of the United States to find that a number of its aspects are not optimal. We then turn to Switzerland's Tarmed and find that it fails to conform with the prescriptions of economic contract theory as well. The article closes with a review of possible reforms that could do away with uniform fee schedules to improve the performance of the health care system.

  20. Comparative proteomics and activity of a green sulfur bacterium across the water column of Lake Cadagno, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habicht, Kirsten S.; Miller, Mette; Cox, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Primary production in the meromictic Lake Cadagno, Switzerland, is dominated by anoxygenic photosynthesis. The green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium clathratiforme is the dominant phototrophic organism in the lake, comprising more than half of the bacterial population, and its biomass increases 3...

  1. 40 years of progress in female cancer death risk: a Bayesian spatio-temporal mapping analysis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Christian; Ess, Silvia; Thürlimann, Beat; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-10-09

    In the past decades, mortality of female gender related cancers declined in Switzerland and other developed countries. Differences in the decrease and in spatial patterns within Switzerland have been reported according to urbanisation and language region, and remain controversial. We aimed to investigate geographical and temporal trends of breast, ovarian, cervical and uterine cancer mortality, assess whether differential trends exist and to provide updated results until 2011. Breast, ovarian, cervical and uterine cancer mortality and population data for Switzerland in the period 1969-2011 was retrieved from the Swiss Federal Statistical office (FSO). Cases were grouped into Switzerland since 1990. Geographical differences are small, present on a regional or canton-overspanning level, and different for each cancer site and age group. No general significant association with cantonal or language region borders could be observed.

  2. Visit of the Honorable Madeleine M. Kunin, Ambassador of the United States to Switzerland and Mr. David Jaberg, Political Officer

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    1998-01-01

    Photo 01 : The Honorable M. Kunin, Ambassador of the United States of Switzerland signs the Guest Book with the Director General C.H. Llewellyn Smith. Photo 03 : with M. Michel Della Negra. Photo 07 : with Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman.

  3. Nigel Griffiths flies the flag for UK excellence; First visit to Switzerland by a trade minister for three years

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The DTI minister, Nigel Griffiths, is to make a three-day trade visit to Switzerland. As well as talking with various Swiss ministers and officials he will open the 'Britain at CERN' exhibition (1 page).

  4. Selection of intense rainfall events based on intensity thresholds and lightning data in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    L. Gaal; P. Molnar; J. Szolgay

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a method to identify intense warm season storms of convective character based on intensity thresholds and lightning, and analyzes their statistical properties. Long records of precipitation and lightning data at 4 stations and 10 min resolution in different climatological regions in Switzerland are used. Our premise is that thunderstorms associated with lightning generate bursts of high rainfall intensity. We divided all storms into those...

  5. Switzerland; Financial Sector Assessment Program: Factual Update: Insurance Sector Market and Regulatory Developments

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a factual update of the Insurance Core Principles including insurance sector market and regulatory developments for Switzerland. Regulatory reforms since 2003 have updated Switzerland’s regulatory and supervisory regime for the insurance industry to bring it in line with international best practices. The Insurance Supervision Law (ISL) has reoriented the regulatory focus and expanded the regulatory scope to include group/conglomerate supervision, corporate governance, risk...

  6. Transition and worker mobility behaviour of tourism alumni: The case of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Heller, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    The research paper investigates the behaviour of tourism alumni at the transition from tourism education market to tourism labour market and from tourism labour market to other labour markets. The paper focuses especially on the decisions of tourism graduates to enter in the tourism labour market as "stayer" or to exit the tourism industry as "mover". The first part commences with some facts and figures from the hotel and restaurant industry of Switzerland regarding the mover issue. The secon...

  7. Impact of policies regulating foreign physician migration to Switzerland: a modelling case study in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Guy; Combescure, Christophe; Mamie, Chantal; Zoccatelli, Davide; Clergue, François

    2015-05-22

    Several countries have developed policies that restrict or limit duration of stay, clinical privileges or the number of residency permits allocated to migrating physicians. Switzerland is currently preparing a new law limiting overall foreign immigration. The impact of such restrictive policies is currently unknown. In a case study of anaesthesia care in Switzerland we modelled, trends in the size of physicians' workforce until 2024, following the implementation of a strict quota policy for foreign medical trainees. We developed a computer-based Markov model with Monte-Carlo simulations to project, in the context of a strict quota policy for foreign trainees, supply and demand for anaesthesia positions until 2024. We used data from a cross-sectional study performed in the French- and Italian-speaking cantons of Switzerland and the Health dataset from the OECD. With 8 to 12 (95% CI 4-20) anaesthetists retiring per year, the implementation of strict quotas of foreign graduates would result in a 38% decrease in the number of anaesthetists in intermediary (senior registrars) positions by 2024. This decrease would be particularly important in district hospitals where nearly half (49%) of the non-Swiss anaesthetists are practising. Swiss graduates are unlikely to balance the shortage. Despite efforts by Swiss universities to increase the number of medical graduates, their number has dropped from 10.5 to 9.7/100 000 inhabitants between 2000 and 2012, due to the growth of the population. This case study in Latin Switzerland shows that a restrictive policy limiting foreign immigration of trainees would result in a major deficit in the number of anaesthetists available to meet population needs. These aspects should be carefully considered when countries develop restrictions and limitations of foreign immigration.

  8. The shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in Switzerland - A first assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leu, W.; Gautschi, A.

    2014-01-01

    There has been recent interest in the shale gas potential of the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale (Middle and Lower Jurassic) below the Swiss Molasse Basin in the light of the future role of domestic gas production within the expected future energy shift of Switzerland and possible conflicts in underground use. The Opalinus Clay of northern Switzerland is a potential host rock for repositories of both high-level and low-to-intermediate level radioactive waste and the exploitation of shale gas resources within or below this formation would represent a serious conflict of use. Well data from northern Switzerland shows that these two formations are unsuitable for future shale gas recovery. They never reached the gas window during their burial history (maturity values are ≤ 0.6% R o ) and as a consequence never generated significant quantities of thermogenic gas. Geochemical data further shows that the average TOC values are in the range of 0.7%, i.e. clearly below accepted values of more than 1.5% for prospective shales. A review of available exploration data for the Opalinus Clay and Posidonia Shale in the deeper and western part of the Swiss Molasse Basin indicate that their shale gas potential may be substantial. The gross Posidonia Shale thickness increases from central Switzerland from less than 10 m to over 100 m in the Yverdon-Geneva area and is characterised by numerous bituminous intervals. A simplified shale gas resource calculation results for a geologically likely scenario in a technically recoverable gas volume of ∼120 billions m 3 . The current database for such estimates is small and as a consequence, the uncertainties are large. However, these first encouraging results support a more detailed exploration phase with specific geochemical and petrophysical analysis of existing rock and well log data. (authors)

  9. Heterogeneity in testing practices for infections during pregnancy: national survey across Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi-Popp, Karoline; Kahlert, Christian; Rauch, Andri; Mosimann, Beatrice; Baud, David; Low, Nicola; Surbek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Detection and treatment of infections during pregnancy are important for both maternal and child health. The objective of this study was to describe testing practices and adherence to current national guidelines in Switzerland. We invited all registered practicing obstetricians and gynaecologists in Switzerland to complete an anonymous web-based questionnaire about strategies for testing for 14 infections during pregnancy. We conducted a descriptive analysis according to demographic characteristics. Of 1138 invited clinicians, 537 (47.2%) responded and 520 (45.6%) were eligible as they are currently caring for pregnant women. Nearly all eligible respondents tested all pregnant women for group B streptococcus (98.0%), hepatitis B virus (HBV) (96.5%) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (94.7%), in accordance with national guidelines. Although testing for toxoplasmosis is not recommended, 24.1% of respondents tested all women and 32.9% tested at the request of the patient. Hospital doctors were more likely not to test for toxoplasmosis than doctors working in private practice (odds ratio [OR] 2.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-6.13, p = 0.04). Only 80.4% of respondents tested all women for syphilis. There were regional differences in testing for some infections. The proportion of clinicians testing all women for HIV, HBV and syphilis was lower in Eastern Switzerland and the Zurich region (69.4% and 61.2%, respectively) than in other regions (range 77.1-88.1%, p Switzerland. More extensive national guidelines could improve consistency of testing practices.

  10. Economic comparison of the monitoring programmes for bluetongue vectors in Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinior, B; Brugger, K; Köfer, J; Schwermer, H; Stockreiter, S; Loitsch, A; Rubel, F

    2015-05-02

    With the bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) outbreak in 2006, vector monitoring programmes (according to EU regulation 1266/2007) were implemented by European countries to obtain information on the spatial distribution of vectors and the vector-free period. This study investigates the vector monitoring programmes in Austria and Switzerland by performing a retrospective cost analysis for the period 2006-2010. Two types of costs were distinguished: costs financed directly via the national bluetongue programmes and costs contributed in-kind by the responsible institutions and agricultural holdings. The total net costs of the monitoring programme in Austria amounted to €1,415,000, whereby in Switzerland the costs were valued at €94,000. Both countries followed the legislation complying with requirements, but differed in regard to sampling frequency, number of trap sites and sampling strategy. Furthermore, the surface area of Austria is twice the area of Switzerland although the number of ruminants is almost the same in both countries. Thus, for comparison, the costs were normalised with regard to the sampling frequency and the number of trap sites. Resulting costs per trap sample comprised €164 for Austria and €48 for Switzerland. In both countries, around 50 per cent of the total costs can be attributed to payments in-kind. The benefit of this study is twofold: first, veterinary authorities may use the results to improve the economic efficiency of future vector monitoring programmes. Second, the analysis of the payment in-kind contribution is of great importance to public authorities as it makes the available resources visible and demonstrates how they have been used. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Screening for tuberculosis in an urban shelter for homeless in Switzerland: a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Janssens, Jean-Paul; Wuillemin, Timothee; Adler, Dan; Jackson, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Background Whereas high risk groups such as asylum seekers are systematically screened for active tuberculosis (TB) upon entry in Switzerland, this strategy does not apply to homeless persons despite a reported high risk. Geneva health and social authorities implemented an intersectoral project to screen for active TB in homeless persons. We aimed to assess acceptability of this program and prevalence of active TB in this group. Methods This prospective study targeted all homeless adults regi...

  12. Notes on species of the genus Brachyptera newport (Plecoptera) from the Netherlands and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Tol, van, J.

    1985-01-01

    A re-examination of the Dutch material of the stonefly genus Brachyptera resulted in the establishment of B. braueri (Klapálek, 1900) (new to the Netherlands) and B. risi (Morton, 1896) as indigenous species, although both are now locally extinct. The occurrence of B. trifasciata (Pictet) in this country could not be confirmed. B. braueri is also recorded from Switzerland for the first time.

  13. Changing Religiosity, Changing Politics? The Influence of "Belonging” and "Believing” on Political Attitudes in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolet, Sarah; Tresch, Anke

    2017-01-01

    Starting from theories of secularization and of religious individualization, we propose a two-dimensional typology of religiosity and test its impact on political attitudes. Unlike classic conceptions of religiosity used in political studies, our typology simultaneously accounts for an individual's sense of belonging to the church (institutional dimension) and his/her personal religious beliefs (spiritual dimension). Our analysis, based on data from the World Values Survey in Switzerland (198...

  14. Primary care physician supply and other key determinants of health care utilisation: the case of Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Beat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Swiss government decided to freeze new accreditations for physicians in private practice in Switzerland based on the assumption that demand-induced health care spending may be cut by limiting care offers. This legislation initiated an ongoing controversial public debate in Switzerland. The aim of this study is therefore the determination of socio-demographic and health system-related factors of per capita consultation rates with primary care physicians in the multicultural population of Switzerland. Methods The data were derived from the complete claims data of Swiss health insurers for 2004 and included 21.4 million consultations provided by 6564 Swiss primary care physicians on a fee-for-service basis. Socio-demographic data were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Utilisation-based health service areas were created and were used as observational units for statistical procedures. Multivariate and hierarchical models were applied to analyze the data. Results Models within the study allowed the definition of 1018 primary care service areas with a median population of 3754 and an average per capita consultation rate of 2.95 per year. Statistical models yielded significant effects for various geographical, socio-demographic and cultural factors. The regional density of physicians in independent practice was also significantly associated with annual consultation rates and indicated an associated increase 0.10 for each additional primary care physician in a population of 10,000 inhabitants. Considerable differences across Swiss language regions were observed with reference to the supply of ambulatory health resources provided either by primary care physicians, specialists, or hospital-based ambulatory care. Conclusion The study documents a large small-area variation in utilisation and provision of health care resources in Switzerland. Effects of physician density appeared to be strongly related to Swiss

  15. Consulting services in the area of nuclear treatments of waste water in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groneman, A.F.

    1975-06-01

    There is a growing international interest by industry in the use of gamma irradiation for the disinfection of waste water sludges since these sludges are redistributed for use in agriculture after treatment. A Swiss waste water treatment plant was converted and an irradiation unit installed. The establishment of a coordinated research programme between ITAL in the Netherlands, the plant in Switzerland and the plant manufacturer in Germany is reported

  16. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovský, Martin; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. V.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2012), s. 33-47 ISSN 2190-4979 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300420806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Climate change * downscaling * weather generator * pest and disease modelling * Switzerland Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology http://www.earth-syst-dynam.net/3/33/2012/esd-3-33-2012.pdf

  17. Professional drone usage in Switzerland : results of a quantitative survey of public and private drone users

    OpenAIRE

    Klauser, Francisco; Pauschinger, Dennis; Pedrozo, Silvana; Stuber, Lea; Placì, Rahel

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, drones have become much more accessible as professional tools for public and private actors. The technology has been integrated into everyday working routines and has created new professional fields. These developments have sparked increased media attention and socio-political debate regarding the opportunities and risks of drone use, and the necessary regulatory response. However, in Switzerland as elsewhere, no detailed study has explored who uses drones, when, where and fo...

  18. Utopia Switzerland (2) - A Country Without CO{sub 2} Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, Marco [Aare-Tessin Ltd for Electricity, Bahnhofquai 12, 4601 Olten (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Global warming and climate change are major themes in the today's energy policy discussion. Awarding Al Gore and the IPCC with the Nobel price in 2007 shows the importance of the climate change for the whole world. That we are running into climatic problems is already known since several decades and possibilities to solve the CO{sub 2} emissions were proposed and discussed since years, but a reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions is not detectable. This might be due to the fact, that the major part of CO{sub 2} production (traffic and heating) is not consequently touched. It seems to be easier to discuss about renewable energies in the electricity market than in other areas. And the consequences of discussing stepping out of nuclear all over the world, has enforced the problem. Although the renaissance of nuclear has started and the known positive impact to the climate from this energy source, it is not forced to be the solution for the biggest problem of the near future. There are only a few countries worldwide which produce electricity without or with only small amounts of CO{sub 2} emissions like Norway or Switzerland. Those countries could be demonstration countries to show the possibilities for reducing and avoiding CO{sub 2} emissions. Would it be possible to replace all fossil energy sources during a reasonable period of time by using nuclear energy and hydrogen as an energy storage system? Is this scenario technical feasible and of economic interest for a small, developed country like Switzerland? If yes, Switzerland might be a good candidate to establish the first CO{sub 2}-free industrial developed state in the world. Looking much more ahead this study will discuss a simple but might be effective scenario for Switzerland. The study is based on a paper presented at IYNC 2006 and will update the used data as well as going in more details. (authors)

  19. Towards ICF implementation in menopause healthcare: a systematic review of ICF application in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Zangger, Martina; Poethig, Dagmar; Meissner, Florian; von Wolff, Michael; Stute, Petra

    2017-01-01

    AIMS OF THE STUDY To present a systematic literature review on the application and degree of implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) across different health conditions and regions in Switzerland in order to develop an ICF classification of the climacteric syndrome in the medium term. METHODS A systematic literature search was conducted through Embase and Medline covering the period between 2011 and August 2016. Inclusion crite...

  20. Linx individual B132 from north-eastern Switzerland sighted in Trentino (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A subadult lynx was caught in February 2008 in the Swiss National Park, fitted with a Gps-Gsm radio-collar and later genetically identified as B132 - i.e., a male born in 2006 in North-Eastern Switzerland -. B132 is at present located in the western Trentino region, more than 200 km away from his mother's home range. This is the furthest dispersal ever documented outside of Scandinavia for a Eurasian lynx.

  1. Profiles of international archives: Les archives Jean Piaget, University of Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burman, Jeremy Trevelyan

    2013-05-01

    This research report provides a look behind closed doors at the Jean Piaget Archives in Geneva, Switzerland. It situates the potential visitor, contextualizes the Archives in its own history, and then describes what scholars can expect to find. New details about Piaget's views on Equal Rights and Equal Pay are also provided, including a look at how they affected the women who worked his factory (esp. Bärbel Inhelder). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Coherence between institutions and technologies - The case of mini hydropower in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Crettenand, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Switzerland, with the forecasted electricity gap between domestic production and demand, aims to significantly increase renewable energy sources including hydropower. Mini hydropower (below 1MW) currently has considerable unused technical potential. As a renewable energy source (RES) it can contribute to climate change mitigation. CO2-taxes or emission trading systems (ETS) for planned thermal power plants could help facilitate mini hydropower (MHP). The technology is mature, but requires ade...

  3. Incorporation monitoring with triage measurements in Switzerland; Inkorporationsueberwachung mit Triagemessungen in der Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmiger, Raphael [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit BAG, Liebefeld (Switzerland). Abteilung Strahlenschutz

    2017-08-01

    The actual valid concept of incorporation monitoring in Switzerland was implemented in 1999 with the regulation on personal dosimetry based on the recommendations of an expert group for dosimetry of the Helvetian commission for radiation protection (KSR). IN the sense of an uncomplicated and practical solution for the respective companies it is a two-step monitoring using two different measuring methods: a simplified triage measurement performed by the company and the incorporation measurement by an authorized dosimetry station.

  4. UC Riverside physicists contribute to state-of-the-art detector installed in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    UC Riverside scientists led by Gail Hanson, a distinguished professor of physics, are part of a collaboration of approximately 2300 international physicists who announced Dec. 19 that the world's largest silicon tracking detector at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, had been successfully installed (see also ). Called the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) Silicon Strip Tracking Detector, the six-ton instrument has a total surface area of 205 square meters, about the same as a singles tennis court.

  5. Resurgence of HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Switzerland: mathematical modelling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ard van Sighem

    Full Text Available New HIV infections in men who have sex with men (MSM have increased in Switzerland since 2000 despite combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. The objectives of this mathematical modelling study were: to describe the dynamics of the HIV epidemic in MSM in Switzerland using national data; to explore the effects of hypothetical prevention scenarios; and to conduct a multivariate sensitivity analysis.The model describes HIV transmission, progression and the effects of cART using differential equations. The model was fitted to Swiss HIV and AIDS surveillance data and twelve unknown parameters were estimated. Predicted numbers of diagnosed HIV infections and AIDS cases fitted the observed data well. By the end of 2010, an estimated 13.5% (95% CI 12.5, 14.6% of all HIV-infected MSM were undiagnosed and accounted for 81.8% (95% CI 81.1, 82.4% of new HIV infections. The transmission rate was at its lowest from 1995-1999, with a nadir of 46 incident HIV infections in 1999, but increased from 2000. The estimated number of new infections continued to increase to more than 250 in 2010, although the reproduction number was still below the epidemic threshold. Prevention scenarios included temporary reductions in risk behaviour, annual test and treat, and reduction in risk behaviour to levels observed earlier in the epidemic. These led to predicted reductions in new infections from 2 to 26% by 2020. Parameters related to disease progression and relative infectiousness at different HIV stages had the greatest influence on estimates of the net transmission rate.The model outputs suggest that the increase in HIV transmission amongst MSM in Switzerland is the result of continuing risky sexual behaviour, particularly by those unaware of their infection status. Long term reductions in the incidence of HIV infection in MSM in Switzerland will require increased and sustained uptake of effective interventions.

  6. Exchange rate pass-through in Switzerland: Evidence from vector autoregressions

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Stulz

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the pass-through of exchange rate and import price shocks to different aggregated prices in Switzerland. The baseline analysis is carried out with recursively identified vector autoregressive (VAR) models. The data set comprises monthly observations, and pass-through effects are quantified by means of impulse response functions. Evidence shows that the exchange rate pass-through to import prices is substantial (although incomplete), but only moderate to total consumer ...

  7. Wind turbines in Switzerland - Bat mortality; Eoliennes en Suisse - Mortalite de chauves-souris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuzinger, Y.; Lugon, A.; Bontadina, F.

    2008-03-15

    There are growing concerns about possible negative impact of wind turbines on bats. In this study we evaluated the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. From about 20 existing wind turbines in year 2007 we selected five medium to large sized turbines in two hilly regions of Switzerland. Between June and October we searched 10 times in regular intervals for carcasses on the ground (total 50 controls) in a circle of up to 40 m distance to the tower. We measured detectability and bait removal rates by experiments at every site (using 12 dummy bats and 10 dead mice per site, respectively). Two bat carcasses were found at two sites, one of the migrating species N. leisleri in August, another in September, belonging to the non-migrating species P. pipistrellus. The detectability was 74 {+-} 13% (mean {+-} standard deviation). The removal rate was 72 {+-} 25% in the first 2-3 days and an average of 91% in the control intervals of 15 days. Estimates of seasonal bat mortality, corrected for season, detectability and removal rate, revealed an average of 8.2 (range 4.9 - 11.4) dead bats per turbine and season. This study demonstrates the occurrence of bat mortality caused by wind turbines in Switzerland. However, the estimated mortality per season remains in international comparisons small to medium at the studied sites. The mortality of individuals of endangered and protected species is a serious issue, but most important, the long-term effect on populations is difficult to assess. In the case of the investigated wind turbines the negative impact on bats does not generally preclude the development of wind energy sites in Switzerland. We recommend avoiding sites in and near woodlands. The abundance of local and migratory bats at planned sites should be evaluated, obligatory in the case of larger wind parks and at exposed sites (ridge tops, mountain passes, river valleys), in order to consider adequately bat conservation. (author)

  8. Private Banking in Switzerland - Quo Vadis? : Joint Publication of KPMG and University of St. Gallen

    OpenAIRE

    Lechner, Christoph; Kreutzer, Markus; Albert, Daniel; Boppel, Michael; Oh, Lyndon; Hempel, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    A study carried out by the University of St.Gallen and KPMG shows that private banking in Switzerland faces fundamental change. However, in the view of 30 leading private banks, the sector has really only just begun to analyze the situation and not yet launched the process of making adjustments to their business strategy. Growth will occur primarily abroad and there is a question if enough Swiss banks in their current form are well positioned to take best advantage of this trend.

  9. Monetary Policy and Real Estate Prices: A Disaggregated Analysis for Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Berlemann, Michael; Freese, Julia

    2010-01-01

    Most empirical studies found that monetary policy has a significant effect on house prices while stock markets remain unaffected by interest rate shocks. In this paper we conduct a more detailed analysis by studying various sub-segments of the real estate market. Em-ploying a new dataset for Switzerland we estimate vector autoregressive models and find substitution effects between house and apartment prices on the one hand and rental prices on the other. Interestingly enough, commercial prope...

  10. The protection of the populations in emergency and post-accidental situations in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murith, C.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper addresses in the first place the general intervention scheme set up in Switzerland in order to tackle a radiological emergency. Thereby only the general lines are presented, without entering into details which are too specific and therefore of little interest in the context of this article. Furthermore some particular problems will be evoked that are associated with the intervention. These have given cause for discussions while implementing the intervention concept. (author)

  11. Mortality in heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland 1994-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Jürgen; Frick, Ulrich; Hartwig, Christina; Gutzwiller, Felix; Gschwend, Patrick; Uchtenhagen, Ambros

    2005-08-01

    A major goal of heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland has been to reduce the drug-related mortality of heroin users. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of deaths under treatment is essential. To assess mortality of participants in heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland over a 7-year period from 1994 to 2000, and to compare this mortality to the general population and to other populations of opioid users, as reported in the literature. Estimation of person years under heroin-assisted treatment from the complete case registry of heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland. Estimation of standardized mortality ratios comparing the population in treatment to the Swiss population (standardized to the year 2000). Over the 7-year period, the crude death rate of patients in heroin-assisted treatment, and including one month after discharge from treatment, was 1% per year. The standardized mortality ratio for the entire observation period was 9.7 (95% C.I. 7.3-12.8), with females having higher standardized mortality ratios (SMR 17.2) than males (SMR 8.4). There was no clear time trend. Mortality in heroin-assisted treatment was low compared to the mortality rate of Swiss opioid users 1990s (estimated to be between 2.5 and 3%). It was also low compared to mortality rates of opioid users in other maintenance treatments in other countries as reported in the literature. The SMR was also lower than that reported in the only meta-analysis in the literature: 13.2 (95% C.I. 12.3-14.1). The low mortality rate is all the more noteworthy as heroin-assisted treatment in Switzerland included only refractory opioid addicts with existing severe somatic and/or mental problems. No conflicts of interest declared.

  12. A new diverse turtle fauna in the late Kimmeridgian of Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Anquetin, Jérémy

    2014-01-01

    Talk given at the 12th Swiss Geoscience Meeting in Fribourg, Switzerland, November 22nd, 2014.   Abstract: During the Kimmeridgian and the Tithonian (Late Jurassic), Europe was the theater of the diversification of numerous coastal eucryptodiran turtles (Plesiochelyidae, Thalassemydidae, and Eurysternidae). Most turtle assemblages were discovered during the 19th century. The best localities and horizons include the Kimmeridge Clay of England, the Turtle Limestone of Solothurn, Switze...

  13. Sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being in adolescence: a longitudinal study in Switzerland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kalak N; Lemola S; Br; S; Holsboer–Trachsler E; Grob A

    2014-01-01

    Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,2 Serge Brand,1,3 Edith Holsboer–Trachsler,1 Alexander Grob21Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorder, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Sport and Health Science, Division of Sport Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Adolescents’ sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being are related...

  14. Sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being in adolescence: a longitudinal study in Switzerland and Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Brand, Serge; Lemola,Sakari; Holsboer-Trachsler,Edith; Grob,Alexander; Kalak,Nadeem

    2014-01-01

    Nadeem Kalak,1 Sakari Lemola,2 Serge Brand,1,3 Edith Holsboer–Trachsler,1 Alexander Grob21Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorder, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, Basel, Switzerland; 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Sport and Health Science, Division of Sport Science, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: Adolescents’ sleep duration and subjective psychological well-being are...

  15. Evolution of trade patterns and economic performance:the case of France and Switzerland during the nineteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Léo CHARLES

    2015-01-01

    Using two original databases, built from external trade statistic of France and Switzerland, this article uses a highly disaggregated product-level to analyze the type, the nature and the dynamic of French and Swiss specialization. Despite of differences between France and Switzerland in terms of economic environment, this article underlines some common trends regarding the three aspects of specialization. For instance, the article shows that intra-industry trade flows were occurring between ...

  16. Integration through Land Improvment – Internal Colonization in Switzerland During the First Part of the 20th Century

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Internal colonization in Switzerland is often seen in connection with the battle for cultivation in the Second World War, but the history of internal colonization in Switzerland is more complex. The food crisis in the First World War formed the horizon of experience for various actors from industry, consumer protection, the urban population and agriculture to start considering practical strategies for managing agricultural production. In this way, traditional spaces, such as rural and urban a...

  17. The emergence of parental and paternity leaves in Switzerland : a challenge to gendered representations and practices of parenthood?

    OpenAIRE

    Valarino, I.

    2014-01-01

    The thesis addresses the issue of parenthood and gender equality in Switzerland through the emergence of parental leave policies. This is an original and relevant research topic, as Switzerland is one of the few industrialized countries that have not yet implemented a parental or paternity leave. I first describe the emergence of parental leave policies in the last ten to fifteen years in the political, media, and labor-market spheres. Secondly, adopting a gender and discursive theoretical ap...

  18. Modeling indoor air pollution of outdoor origin in homes of SAPALDIA subjects in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Reto; Schindler, Christian; Eeftens, Marloes; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Ducret-Stich, Regina E; Ineichen, Alex; Davey, Mark; Phuleria, Harish C; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Künzli, Nino

    2015-09-01

    Given the shrinking spatial contrasts in outdoor air pollution in Switzerland and the trends toward tightly insulated buildings, the Swiss Cohort Study on Air Pollution and Lung and Heart Diseases in Adults (SAPALDIA) needs to understand to what extent outdoor air pollution remains a determinant for residential indoor exposure. The objectives of this paper are to identify determining factors for indoor air pollution concentrations of particulate matter (PM), ultrafine particles in the size range from 15 to 300nm, black smoke measured as light absorbance of PM (PMabsorbance) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and to develop predictive indoor models for SAPALDIA. Multivariable regression models were developed based on indoor and outdoor measurements among homes of selected SAPALDIA participants in three urban (Basel, Geneva, Lugano) and one rural region (Wald ZH) in Switzerland, various home characteristics and reported indoor sources such as cooking. Outdoor levels of air pollutants were important predictors for indoor air pollutants, except for the coarse particle fraction. The fractions of outdoor concentrations infiltrating indoors were between 30% and 66%, the highest one was observed for PMabsorbance. A modifying effect of open windows was found for NO2 and the ultrafine particle number concentration. Cooking was associated with increased particle and NO2 levels. This study shows that outdoor air pollution remains an important determinant of residential indoor air pollution in Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiocarbon ages of soil charcoals from the southern Alps, Ticino, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajdas, Irka; Schlumpf, Nadia; Minikus-Stary, Nicole; Hagedorn, Frank; Eckmeier, Eileen; Schoch, Werner; Burga, Conradin; Bonani, Georges; Schmidt, Michael W.I.; Cherubini, Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of macroscopic charcoal is a useful tool for paleoclimatic and paleoecologic reconstructions. Here we present results of 14 C dating of charcoals found in charcoal-rich soils of Ticino and the Misox Valley (southern Switzerland) which indicate that the Late Glacial and early Holocene fires coincided with warm phases in the North Atlantic region and low lake levels in the Central Europe. Late Holocene charcoals found in these soils document an earlier than believed presence of sweet chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) in southern Switzerland. Sweet chestnut trees play a key role in Mediterranean woodlands, and for longer than two millennia have been used as a food source. Based on palynological evidence it is commonly believed that in southern Switzerland C. sativa was first introduced 2000 years ago by the Romans, who cultivated it for wood and fruit production. Our results indicate that this tree species was present on the southern slopes of the Alps ∼1500 years earlier than previously assumed, and therefore was likely introduced independently from cultivation by the Romans

  20. Seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burri, C; Vial, F; Ryser-Degiorgis, M-P; Schwermer, H; Darling, K; Reist, M; Wu, N; Beerli, O; Schöning, J; Cavassini, M; Waldvogel, A

    2014-12-01

    Hepatitis E is considered an emerging human viral disease in industrialized countries. Studies from Switzerland report a human seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) of 2.6-21%, a range lower than in adjacent European countries. The aim of this study was to determine whether HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars is also lower in Switzerland and whether it is increasing and thus indicating that this zoonotic viral infection is emerging. Serum samples collected from 2,001 pigs in 2006 and 2011 and from 303 wild boars from 2008 to 2012 were analysed by ELISA for the presence of HEV-specific antibodies. Overall HEV seroprevalence was 58.1% in domestic pigs and 12.5% in wild boars. Prevalence in domestic pigs was significantly higher in 2006 than in 2011. In conclusion, HEV seroprevalence in domestic pigs and wild boars in Switzerland is comparable with the seroprevalence in other countries and not increasing. Therefore, prevalence of HEV in humans must be related to other factors than prevalence in pigs or wild boars. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Back to "once a caesarean: always a caesarean"? A trend analysis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christmann-Schmid, Corina; Raio, Luigi; Scheibner, Katrin; Müller, Martin; Surbek, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Caesarean sections (CS) have significantly increased worldwide and a previous CS is nowadays an important and increasingly reported indication to perform a repeat CS. There is a paucity of information in Switzerland on the incidence of repeat CS after previous CS and relationship between the rates of vaginal birth after CS (VBAC). The aim of this study was to analyse the actual trend in VBAC in Switzerland. We performed a retrospective cohort study to analyse the proportion of VBAC among all pregnant women with previous sections which give birth during two time periods (group 1:1998/1999 vs. group 2:2004/2005) in our tertiary care referral hospital and in the annual statistics of Swiss Women's Hospitals (ASF-Statistics). In addition, the proportion of induction of labour after a previous caesarean and its success was analysed. In both cohorts studied, we found a significant decrease of vaginal births (p Switzerland. There was no significant change in labour induction during the study period. While this trend might reflect an increasing demand for safety in pregnancy and childbirth, it concomitantly increases maternal risks of further pregnancies, and women need to be appropriately informed about long-term risks.

  2. Burial duration, depth and air pocket explain avalanche survival patterns in Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procter, Emily; Strapazzon, Giacomo; Dal Cappello, Tomas; Zweifel, Benjamin; Würtele, Andreas; Renner, Andreas; Falk, Markus; Brugger, Hermann

    2016-08-01

    To calculate the first Austrian avalanche survival curve and update a Swiss survival curve to explore survival patterns in the Alps. Avalanche accidents occurring between 2005/06 and 2012/13 in Austria and Switzerland were collected. Completely buried victims (i.e. burial of the head and chest) in open terrain with known outcome (survived or not survived) were included in the analysis. Extrication and survival curves were calculated using the Turnbull algorithm, as in previous studies. 633 of the 796 completely buried victims were included (Austria n=333, Switzerland n=300). Overall survival was 56% (Austria 59%; Switzerland 52%; p=0.065). Time to extrication was shorter in Austria for victims buried ≤60min (p15min. The survival curves resembled those previously published and support the idea that underlying survival patterns are reproducible. The results are in accordance with current recommendations for management of avalanche victims and serve as a reminder that expedient companion rescue within a few minutes is critical for survival. An air pocket was shown to be a positive prognostic factor for survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Clinical Pharmacy in Switzerland: Involvement of Community Pharmacists in Care for Older Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersberger, Kurt E; Messerli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    The role of the community pharmacist in primary care has been undergoing change in Switzerland in parallel to international developments: it has become more clinically and patient oriented. Special services of community pharmacists to older patients taking long-term or multiple medications, discharged from hospitals or experiencing cognitive impairment or disability have been developed. These services require more clinical knowledge and skills from community pharmacists and are based on, for example, 'simple or intermediate medication reviews' focused primarily to improve medication adherence and rational drug use by a patient. Reflecting the new role of community pharmacies, this article describes the current services provided by community pharmacies in Switzerland, e.g., 'polymedication check', 'weekly pill organizer', and 'services for chronic patients', as well as new Swiss educational and reimbursement systems supporting development of these services. In the international context, involvement of community pharmacists in patient-oriented care is growing. This review summarizes positive and negative experiences from implementation of community pharmacy services in Switzerland and provides examples for the development of such services in other countries.

  4. Obesity framing for health policy development in Australia, France and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchett, Annabelle D; Yeatman, Heather R; Johnson, Keryn M

    2016-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is a consequence of the interaction of cultural, environmental, genetic and behavioural factors; framing the issue is central to determining appropriate solutions. This study used content and thematic framing analysis to explore portrayal of responsibility for obesity in policy documents in Australia, France and Switzerland. For Australia and France, obesity causality was a combination of individual and environmental factors, but for Switzerland, it was predominantly individual. The primary solutions for all countries were health promotion strategies and children's education. Industry groups proposed more school education while health advocates advised government intervention. Where France emphasized cultural attitudes towards taste, Australia focused on sport. The French were most keen on legislating against unhealthy foods compared with Switzerland where there was opposition towards regulation of individual's choices. To curb the increasing prevalence of obesity, allocation of responsibility needs to be considered and initiatives enacted accordingly. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Patient doses in CT examinations in Switzerland: Implementation of national diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, R.; Aroua, A.; Verdun, F. R.; Samara, E.; Stuessi, A.; Trueb, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were established for 21 indication-based CT examinations for adults in Switzerland. One hundred and seventy-nine of 225 computed tomography (CT) scanners operated in hospitals and private radiology institutes were audited on-site and patient doses were collected. For each CT scanner, a correction factor was calculated expressing the deviation of the measured weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI) to the nominal weighted CTDI as displayed on the workstation. Patient doses were corrected by this factor providing a realistic basis for establishing national DRLs. Results showed large variations in doses between different radiology departments in Switzerland, especially for examinations of the petrous bone, pelvis, lower limbs and heart. This indicates that the concept of DRLs has not yet been correctly applied for CT examinations in clinical routine. A close collaboration of all stakeholders is mandatory to assure an effective radiation protection of patients. On-site audits will be intensified to further establish the concept of DRLs in Switzerland. (authors)

  6. Portuguese migrants in Switzerland: healthcare and health status compared to Portuguese residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Luís; Azevedo, Ana; Barros, Henrique; Paccaud, Fred; Marques-Vidal, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Most migrant studies have compared health characteristics between migrants and nationals of the host country. We aimed at comparing health characteristics of migrants with nationals from their home country. Portuguese national health survey (2005-6; 30,173 participants aged 18-75 years) and four national health surveys conducted in Switzerland (2002, 2004, 2007 and 2011, totalling 1,170 Portuguese migrants of the same age range). Self-reported data on length of stay, cardiovascular risk factors, healthcare use and health status were collected. Resident Portuguese were significantly older and more educated than migrants. Resident Portuguese had a higher mean BMI and prevalence of obesity than migrants. Resident Portuguese also reported more frequently being hypertensive and having their blood pressure screened within the last year. On the contrary, migrant Portuguese were more frequently smokers, had a medical visit in the previous year more frequently and self-rated their health higher than resident Portuguese. After adjustment for age, gender, marital status and education, migrants had a higher likelihood of smoking, of having a medical visit the previous year, and of self-rating their current health as good or very good than resident Portuguese. Compared to Portuguese residents, cholesterol screening in the previous year was more common only among migrants living in Switzerland for more than 17 years. Portuguese migrants in Switzerland do not differ substantially from resident Portuguese regarding most cardiovascular risk factors. Migrants consider themselves healthier than Portuguese residents and more often had a recent medical visit.

  7. Health problems among detainees in Switzerland: a study using the ICPC-2 classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand Dominique

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the health status of prisoners in Switzerland. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed description of the health problems presented by detainees in Switzerland's largest remand prison. Methods In this retrospective cross-sectional study we reviewed the health records of all detainees leaving Switzerland's largest remand prison in 2007. The health problems were coded using the International Classification for Primary Care (ICPC-2. Analyses were descriptive, stratified by gender. Results A total of 2195 health records were reviewed. Mean age was 29.5 years (SD 9.5; 95% were male; 87.8% were migrants. Mean length of stay was 80 days (SD 160. Illicit drug use (40.2% and mental health problems (32.6% were frequent, but most of these detainees (57.6% had more generic primary care problems, such as skin (27.0%, infectious diseases (23.5%, musculoskeletal (19.2%, injury related (18.3%, digestive (15.0% or respiratory problems (14.0%. Furthermore, 7.9% reported exposure to violence during arrest by the police. Conclusion Morbidity is high in this young, predominantly male population of detainees, in particular in relation to substance abuse. Other health problems more commonly seen in general practice are also frequent. These findings support the further development of coordinated primary care and mental health services within detention centers.

  8. In Their Own Words: The Health and Sexuality of Immigrant Women with Infibulation Living in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Villani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is a significant public health problem. It is estimated that around 14,700 women affected by FGM live in Switzerland, primarily among women with a history of migration. Our qualitative research investigated the sexual health of immigrant women living with FGM in Switzerland, describing their own perception of health, reproductive life and sexuality. We conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews with a group of eight immigrant women of sub-Saharan origin living in Switzerland with Type III FGM (infibulation. Seven of the women were from Somalia and one was from the Ivory Coast. All of the Somali women were mothers and married (two separated, and the Ivorian woman was a single mother. The women in our study reported a low level of sexual satisfaction and reproductive health. They affirmed their desire to improve, or at least change, their condition. Although they rarely talk with their husbands about sexual subject matter, they would like to include them more and improve dialogue. Specific socio-sexual management is recommended when caring for immigrant women living with FGM in order to respond to their specific health care needs. Multidisciplinary approaches may be able to offer more comprehensive health care, including facilitated communication to improve dialogue between women and health care professionals, and eventually between women and their husbands in discussing sexual subject matter.

  9. An Investigation of Factors Motivating Student’s Study at The International Hotel Management Institute Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengky Efendy

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in this era of globalisation the hospitality industry needs well educated employees. Therefore the hotel school has to provide human resources to fit any position in the hospitality industry. The author chose the International Hotel Management Institute (IMI-Switzerland for research too specifically investigates factors affecting students’ motivations to study. The author’s experience was that many students of hospitality are not very motivated to study hotel management. Students get bored while having lectures, are not motivated to go to the library to research, and yet to be educated is the main reasons that students come to IMI to study hospitality. The author has set several objectives in chapter two to ensure the flow of this research. The literature review will be covered in motivating of students study for hotel school education.Literature review which is critically analysed by the author was chosen by the author according the field of study. The sample chosen for this research was motivation students study from first, second, third and fourth year students in IMI- Switzerland Several motivation of this research was the reference book of this field study, and the length of time for making this dissertation. After the primary data were collected and analysed, it was discovered that most of all students in IMI-Switzerland is to have a better chance of getting a job after finishing the course. 

  10. Towards ICF implementation in menopause healthcare: a systematic review of ICF application in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangger, Martina; Poethig, Dagmar; Meissner, Florian; von Wolff, Michael; Stute, Petra

    2017-12-28

    To present a systematic literature review on the application and degree of implementation of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) across different health conditions and regions in Switzerland in order to develop an ICF classification of the climacteric syndrome in the medium term. A systematic literature search was conducted through Embase and Medline covering the period between 2011 and August 2016. Inclusion criteria were the term ICF in title or abstract and Switzerland as the workplace of the first author. Identified publications were analysed as descriptive statistics. A total of 83 articles were included in the analysis. Forty-seven different first authors from 24 different institutions were identified. The majority of publications were from Swiss Paraplegic Research (68.7%) and focused on neurology (31.3%). Forty-six cohort studies were identified. In most of them, the ICF was used to set up a general language for comparing patients' information (82.9%). Only one paper from the medical specialty gynaecology was identified; this was on breast cancer. No paper on the menopause was found. In Switzerland, the ICF is actively used in various areas of healthcare, especially in the field of neurology and rehabilitation. There is a need for ICF core sets in other medical fields, such as menopause healthcare, in order to accomplish the goal of the European Menopause and Andropause Society, which is a healthcare model for healthy menopause and aging.

  11. Environmental research programme for Switzerland in the period 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This is the Environmental Research Programme for Switzerland worked out by the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forestry and Landscape. The document reviews the present status with emphasis on the current main projects, the institutions involved, the financing available for them and the organisations and institutions in charge of research coordination and controlling. In a second part, the report defines the goals for the period 2000-2003. In particular, more interdisciplinary projects shall be conducted in co-operation with human sciences and future potential users of the research results, so that their introduction into practice is accelerated. The subjects to be dealt with regard both the global environmental destructions and the current acute issues for Switzerland. There are four topics of high priority: (i) conservation and sustainable usage of the biological and landscape diversity; (ii) mankind and environment protection from pollutants and dangerous organisms; (iii) human behaviours, economical incentives and education systems; (iv) the objectives of international agreements on environmental issues and the instruments they need to be applied. The authors assume that public support for environmental research in Switzerland will be around 850 millions USD for the four-years period considered in this document

  12. Complementing hydropower with PV and wind: optimal energy mix in a fully renewable Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Jérôme; Kahl, Annelen; Kruyt, Bert; Lehning, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Like several other countries, Switzerland plans to phase out its nuclear power production and will replace most or all of it by renewables. Switzerland has the chance to benefit from a large hydropower potential and has already exploited almost all of it. Currently about 60% of the Swiss electricity consumption is covered by hydropower, which will eventually leave a gap of about 40% to the other renewables mainly composed of photovoltaics (PV) and wind. With its high flexibility, storage hydropower will play a major role in the future energy mix, providing valuable power and energy balance. Our work focuses on the interplay between PV, wind and storage hydropower, to analyze the dynamics of this complex system and to identify the best PV-wind mixing ratio. Given the current electricity consumption and the currently installed pumping capacity of the storage hydropower plants, it appears that the Swiss hydropower system can completely alleviate the intermittency of PV and wind. However, some seasonal mismatch between production and demand will remain, but we show that oversizing the production from PV and wind or enlarging the reservoir capacity can be a solution to keep it to an acceptable level or even eliminate it. We found that PV, wind and hydropower performs the best together when the share of PV in the solar - wind mix is between 20 and 60%. These findings are quantitatively specific for Switzerland but qualitatively transferable to similar mountainous environments with abundant hydropower resources.

  13. Environmental research programme for Switzerland in the period 2000-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This is the Environmental Research Programme for Switzerland worked out by the Swiss Agency for the Environment, Forestry and Landscape. The document reviews the present status with emphasis on the current main projects, the institutions involved, the financing available for them and the organisations and institutions in charge of research coordination and controlling. In a second part, the report defines the goals for the period 2000-2003. In particular, more interdisciplinary projects shall be conducted in co-operation with human sciences and future potential users of the research results, so that their introduction into practice is accelerated. The subjects to be dealt with regard both the global environmental destructions and the current acute issues for Switzerland. There are four topics of high priority: (i) conservation and sustainable usage of the biological and landscape diversity; (ii) mankind and environment protection from pollutants and dangerous organisms; (iii) human behaviours, economical incentives and education systems; (iv) the objectives of international agreements on environmental issues and the instruments they need to be applied. The authors assume that public support for environmental research in Switzerland will be around 850 millions USD for the four-years period considered in this document [fr

  14. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco; Bichsel, Thomas; Fassbender, Andre; Horvath, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely there will

  15. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter storms in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Brönnimann, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Windstorms can cause significant financial damage and they rank among the most hazardous meteorological hazards in Switzerland. Risk associated with windstorms involves the combination of hazardous weather conditions, such as high wind gust speeds, and socio-economic factors, such as the distribution of assets as well as their susceptibilities to damage. A sophisticated risk assessment is important in a wide range of areas and has benefits for e.g. the insurance industry. However, a sophisticated risk assessment needs a large sample of storm events for which high-resolution, quantitative meteorological and/or loss data are available. Latter is typically an aggravating factor. For present-day windstorms in Switzerland, the data basis is generally sufficient to describe the meteorological development and wind forces as well as the associated impacts. In contrast, historic windstorms are usually described by graphical depictions of the event and/or by weather and loss reports. The information on historic weather events is overall sparse and the available historic weather and loss reports mostly do not provide quantitative information. It has primarily been the field of activity of environmental historians to study historic weather extremes and their impacts. Furthermore, the scarce availability of atmospheric datasets reaching back sufficiently in time has so far limited the analysis of historic weather events. The Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble dataset, a global atmospheric reanalysis currently spanning 1871 to 2012, offers potentially a very valuable resource for the analysis of historic weather events. However, the 2°×2° latitude-longitude grid of the 20CR is too coarse to realistically represent the complex orography of Switzerland, which has considerable ramifications for the representation of smaller-scale features of the surface wind field influenced by the local orography. Using the 20CR as a starting point, this study illustrates a method to

  16. Modelling the energy future of Switzerland after the phase out of nuclear power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Paula; Van Vliet, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In September 2013, the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) published the final report of the proposed measures in the context of the Energy Strategy 2050 (ES2050). The ES2050 draws an energy scenario where the nuclear must be substituted by alternative sources. This implies a fundamental change in the energy system that has already been questioned by experts, e.g. [Piot, 2014]. Therefore, we must analyse in depth the technical implications of change in the Swiss energy mix from a robust baseload power such as nuclear, to an electricity mix where intermittent sources account for higher rates. Accomplishing the ES2050 imply difficult challenges, since nowadays nuclear power is the second most consumed energy source in Switzerland. According to the SFOE, nuclear accounts for a 23.3% of the gross production, only surpassed by crude oil products (43.3%). Hydropower is the third source more consumed, representing approximately the half of the nuclear (12.2%). Considering that Switzerland has almost reached the maximum of its hydropower capacity, renewables are more likely to be the alternative when the nuclear phase out takes place. Hence, solar and wind power will play an important role in the future Swiss energy mix, even though currently new renewables account for only 1.9% of the gross energy consumption. In this study we look for realistic and efficient combinations of energy resources to substitute nuclear power. Energy modelling is a powerful tool to design an energy system with high energy security that avoids problems of intermittency [Mathiesen & Lund, 2009]. In Switzerland, energy modelling has been used by the government [Abt et. al., 2012] and also has significant relevance in academia [Mathys, 2012]. Nevertheless, we detected a gap in the study of the security in energy scenarios [Busser, 2013]. This study examines the future electricity production of Switzerland using Calliope, a multi-scale energy systems model, developed at Imperial College, London and

  17. Clinical and molecular investigation of a canine distemper outbreak and vector-borne infections in a group of rescue dogs imported from Hungary to Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Willi, Barbara; Spiri, A M; Meli, Marina L; Grimm, Felix; Beatrice, Laura; Riond, Barbara; Bley, T; Jordi, R; Dennler, Matthias; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen of dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. In Switzerland, distemper in domestic dogs is rarely reported. In recent years, the import of dogs from Eastern Europe to Switzerland has steadily increased. In the present study, we describe a distemper outbreak in 15 rescue dogs that were imported from Hungary to Switzerland by an animal welfare organisation. The data on vaccination and medical history were recorded (14 dogs), and the samples...

  18. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O. [Paul Scherrer Inst., CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Frei, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL) and Paul Scherrer Inst. (Switzerland)

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO{sub 2} emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve

  19. GEM-E3: A computable general equilibrium model applied for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, O.; Frei, C.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of the European Research Project GEM-E3-ELITE, funded by the European Commission and coordinated by the Centre for European Economic Research (Germany), were to further develop the general equilibrium model GEM-E3 (Capros et al., 1995, 1997) and to conduct policy analysis through case studies. GEM-E3 is an applied general equilibrium model that analyses the macro-economy and its interaction with the energy system and the environment through the balancing of energy supply and demand, atmospheric emissions and pollution control, together with the fulfillment of overall equilibrium conditions. PSI's research objectives within GEM-E3-ELITE were to implement and apply GEM-E3 for Switzerland. The first objective required in particular the development of a Swiss database for each of GEM-E3 modules (economic module and environmental module). For the second objective, strategies to reduce CO 2 emissions were evaluated for Switzerland. In order to develop the economic, PSI collaborated with the Laboratory of Applied Economics (LEA) of the University of Geneva and the Laboratory of Energy Systems (LASEN) of the Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL). The Swiss Federal Statistical Office (SFSO) and the Institute for Business Cycle Research (KOF) of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH Zurich) contributed also data. The Swiss environmental database consists mainly of an Energy Balance Table and of an Emission Coefficients Table. Both were designed using national and international official statistics. The Emission Coefficients Table is furthermore based on know-how of the PSI GaBE Project. Using GEM-E3 Switzerland, two strategies to reduce the Swiss CO 2 emissions were evaluated: a carbon tax ('tax only' strategy), and the combination of a carbon tax with the buying of CO 2 emission permits ('permits and tax' strategy). In the first strategy, Switzerland would impose the necessary carbon tax to achieve the reduction target, and use the tax

  20. His Excellency Mr Ali Naci Koru Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Turkey to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Bennett, Sophia Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    His Excellency Mr Ali Naci Koru Ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Turkey to the United Nations Office at Geneva and other international organisations in Switzerland

  1. Import, use, and emissions of PCBs in Switzerland from 1930 to 2100.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Glüge

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are persistent organic compounds that are ubiquitously found in the environment. Their use and manufacture were restricted or banned in many countries in the 1970-1980s, however, they still persist in the antroposphere, the environment and in biota worldwide today. Conventions like the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution encourage or bind the member parties to annually submit emission inventories of regulated air pollutants. Unfortunately, several member states have not yet reported PCB emissions. The identification and quantification of stocks and emissions sources is, however, an important precondition to handle and remove the remaining reservoirs of PCBs and, thus, to be able to reduce emissions and subsequently environmental exposure. Here, we estimate past, present, and future emissions of PCBs to air in Switzerland and provide emission factors for all relevant emission categories. Switzerland hereby represents a typical developed industrial country, and most of the assumptions and parameters presented here can be used to calculate PCB emission also for other countries. PCB emissions to air are calculated using a dynamic mass flow and emissions model for Switzerland, which is run for the years 1930-2100. The results point out the importance of the use of PCBs in open applications, which have largely been previously overlooked. Additionally, we show that PCBs will persist in applications during the coming decades with ongoing emissions. Especially the use of PCBs in open applications will cause Swiss emissions to remain above 100 kg PCB per year, even after the year 2030. Our developed model is available in Excel/VBA and can be downloaded with this article.

  2. Education for specialization in prosthodontics in Switzerland and the role of EPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mericske-Stern, Regina

    2014-07-01

    Advertisement for any dental treatment was rare in Switzerland. Then the use of digital media became popular, particularly in the field of implant- and esthetic-dentistry. In parallel to the dental schools of public universities, private universities and companies built up centers for continuing education that issue specialists diplomas and M.Sc. degrees. Prosthodontics itself is characterized by many sub-disciplines that incorporated their own associations. These also offer graduate training curricula which diminish the significance of specialization in prosthodontics. Specialized prosthodontists do not have a financial benefit in Switzerland where dentistry is not supported by any insurance. In other European countries funding of prosthodontic treatment depends on their healthcare systems. There are four specialties in Dentistry recognized by the European Union (EU). Specialization in prosthodontics was introduced in Sweden already in 1982 and today it is declared in about 20 European countries, while for others no recognized program exists. Thus there are great variations with more recognized specialists in former east European countries. In Switzerland the prosthodontic specialization curriculum was developed and guided by the Swiss Society for Reconstructive Dentistry, and only in 2001 it became fully acknowledged by the Federal Department of Health. The four Swiss Universities offer the 3-year program under the supervision of the society, while the government remains the executive body. In 2003 EPA tried to set up guidelines and quality standards for an EPA recognized specialization. In spite of these attempts and the Bologna Reform in Europe, it appears that the quality standards and the level of education still may differ significantly among European countries. Copyright © 2014 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Import, use, and emissions of PCBs in Switzerland from 1930 to 2100.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüge, Juliane; Steinlin, Christine; Schalles, Simone; Wegmann, Lukas; Tremp, Josef; Breivik, Knut; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent organic compounds that are ubiquitously found in the environment. Their use and manufacture were restricted or banned in many countries in the 1970-1980s, however, they still persist in the antroposphere, the environment and in biota worldwide today. Conventions like the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution encourage or bind the member parties to annually submit emission inventories of regulated air pollutants. Unfortunately, several member states have not yet reported PCB emissions. The identification and quantification of stocks and emissions sources is, however, an important precondition to handle and remove the remaining reservoirs of PCBs and, thus, to be able to reduce emissions and subsequently environmental exposure. Here, we estimate past, present, and future emissions of PCBs to air in Switzerland and provide emission factors for all relevant emission categories. Switzerland hereby represents a typical developed industrial country, and most of the assumptions and parameters presented here can be used to calculate PCB emission also for other countries. PCB emissions to air are calculated using a dynamic mass flow and emissions model for Switzerland, which is run for the years 1930-2100. The results point out the importance of the use of PCBs in open applications, which have largely been previously overlooked. Additionally, we show that PCBs will persist in applications during the coming decades with ongoing emissions. Especially the use of PCBs in open applications will cause Swiss emissions to remain above 100 kg PCB per year, even after the year 2030. Our developed model is available in Excel/VBA and can be downloaded with this article.

  4. Genotypic Resistance Tests Sequences Reveal the Role of Marginalized Populations in HIV-1 Transmission in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilaih, Mohaned; Marzel, Alex; Yang, Wan Lin; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Schüpbach, Jörg; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Hirsch, Hans H; Aubert, Vincent; Cavassini, Matthias; Klimkait, Thomas; Vernazza, Pietro L; Bernasconi, Enos; Furrer, Hansjakob; Günthard, Huldrych F; Kouyos, Roger

    2016-06-14

    Targeting hard-to-reach/marginalized populations is essential for preventing HIV-transmission. A unique opportunity to identify such populations in Switzerland is provided by a database of all genotypic-resistance-tests from Switzerland, including both sequences from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) and non-cohort sequences. A phylogenetic tree was built using 11,127 SHCS and 2,875 Swiss non-SHCS sequences. Demographics were imputed for non-SHCS patients using a phylogenetic proximity approach. Factors associated with non-cohort outbreaks were determined using logistic regression. Non-B subtype (univariable odds-ratio (OR): 1.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.8-2.1), female gender (OR: 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-1.7), black ethnicity (OR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.7-2.1) and heterosexual transmission group (OR:1.8; 95% CI: 1.6-2.0), were all associated with underrepresentation in the SHCS. We found 344 purely non-SHCS transmission clusters, however, these outbreaks were small (median 2, maximum 7 patients) with a strong overlap with the SHCS'. 65% of non-SHCS sequences were part of clusters composed of >= 50% SHCS sequences. Our data suggests that marginalized-populations are underrepresented in the SHCS. However, the limited size of outbreaks among non-SHCS patients in-care implies that no major HIV outbreak in Switzerland was missed by the SHCS surveillance. This study demonstrates the potential of sequence data to assess and extend the scope of infectious-disease surveillance.

  5. Childhood cancer survival in Switzerland (1976-2013): Time-trends and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Belle, Fabiën N; Grotzer, Michael A; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Population-based studies on childhood cancer survival are key to monitor progress against cancer and to detect potential differences between regions and other subgroups in the population. We investigated time trends and factors associated with childhood cancer survival on a national level in Switzerland, from 1976 to 2013. We extracted data from the population-based Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry of 5,776 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer from 1985 to 2014 in Switzerland. We calculated age-adjusted 5-year survival, defined the annual reduction in risk of death (ARR), and explored associations of survival with clinical and demographic factors. Overall, 5-year survival improved significantly, from 64% in 1976-1983 to 88% in 2004-2013. ARR over the whole period was 4% for all diagnostic groups, greatest for Hodgkin lymphomas (8%), ependymomas (6%), Burkitt's lymphomas (6%) and germ cell tumours (6%). Children treated in hospitals without specialised paediatric cancer centre for leukaemia (HR 12.9), lymphoma (HR 5.0) and neuroblastoma (HR 3.7) were at higher risk of death. In French-speaking Switzerland, risk of death was lower for lymphoma (HR 0.6), CNS tumours (HR 0.7) and neuroblastoma (HR 0.5). Children with migration background had a higher risk of death from all tumours except bone tumours. Childhood cancer survival significantly improved from 1976 to 2013, but there is room for further improvement. Survival rates varied by type of clinical treatment, language region and nationality. All paediatric cancer patients should be referred to a specialised paediatric cancer centre. Further research is needed to intervene and completely eliminate inequalities in survival. © 2016 UICC.

  6. Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow associated with human infections in Switzerland: 2004-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adank Luzius

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Salmonellosis is one of the most important foodborne diseases and a major threat to public health. Salmonella serotype Virchow ranks among the top five serovars in Europe. Method A total of 153 strains isolated from different patients from 2004 through 2009 in Switzerland were further characterized by (i assessing phenotypic antibiotic resistance profiles using the disk diffusion method and (ii by genotyping using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE after macrorestriction with XbaI in order to evaluate strain relationship. Results The relative frequency of S. Virchow among other Salmonella serovars varied between 4th to 8th rank. The annual incidence ranged from 0.45/100'000 in 2004 to 0.40/100'000 in 2009. A total of 48 strains (32% were resistant to one to 3 antimicrobials, 54 strains (36% displayed resistance patterns to more than three antibiotics. No trend was identifiable over the years 2004 to 2009. We found a high prevalence (62% of nalidixic acid resistant strains, suggesting an equally high rate of decreased fluoroqionolone susceptibility, whereas intermediate resistance to ciprofloxacin was negligible. Two strains were extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producers. Analysis of PFGE patterns uncovered a predominant cluster (similarity coefficient above 80% consisting of 104 of the 153 strains. Conclusion The worldwide increase of antibiotic resistances in Salmonella is an emerging public health problem. For Switzerland, no clear trend is identifiable over the years 2004 to 2009 for S. Virchow. Antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance profiles varied considerably within this period. Nevertheless, the situation in Switzerland coincided with findings in other European countries. Genotyping results of this strain collection revealed no evidence for an undetected outbreak within this time period.

  7. Opinions and social values related to the disposal of nuclear waste in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Roman; Stefanelli, Annalisa [ETH Zurich (Switzerland). Inst. for Environmental Decisions

    2015-07-01

    Discourse in media and politics about nuclear waste and its disposal in so-called ''Endlager'' (Germany) or ''Tiefenlager'' (geological deep ground repositories; Switzerland) often consider positions and arguments of diverse interest groups. Mostly polarized discussions are in the focus. However, we find a temporally consistent pattern of four opinion clusters in German speaking communities in Switzerland: one cluster in favor of a repository (perceiving mostly benefits) and one cluster with high-risk ratings opposing a repository; a third cluster of moderate opposition is ambivalent regarding risks and benefits, whereas a fourth cluster seems indifferent. Moreover, in qualitative interviews we found high importance of the development of the participatory process. Participants were sensitive to value related issues such as absence of political influence, transparency, comprehensive and independent information. Important to note is the problem that some of these values can be used as pro- or con-argument regarding a repository by different individuals. For instance, all agree that safety is essential - but both conclusions, to be for or against a repository, are possible. A recent study focused on the arguments, underlying people's opinions. The salient arguments that participants report are related to the sense of responsibility for the country to store safely the nuclear waste and to avoid its export. Moreover, people recognize the necessity of a safe solution for the storage in order to preserve future generations from the risks of nuclear waste. These arguments may be relevant for the fact that participants, on average, have a favorable position regarding a deep ground repository in Switzerland.

  8. Opinions and social values related to the disposal of nuclear waste in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Roman; Stefanelli, Annalisa

    2015-01-01

    Discourse in media and politics about nuclear waste and its disposal in so-called ''Endlager'' (Germany) or ''Tiefenlager'' (geological deep ground repositories; Switzerland) often consider positions and arguments of diverse interest groups. Mostly polarized discussions are in the focus. However, we find a temporally consistent pattern of four opinion clusters in German speaking communities in Switzerland: one cluster in favor of a repository (perceiving mostly benefits) and one cluster with high-risk ratings opposing a repository; a third cluster of moderate opposition is ambivalent regarding risks and benefits, whereas a fourth cluster seems indifferent. Moreover, in qualitative interviews we found high importance of the development of the participatory process. Participants were sensitive to value related issues such as absence of political influence, transparency, comprehensive and independent information. Important to note is the problem that some of these values can be used as pro- or con-argument regarding a repository by different individuals. For instance, all agree that safety is essential - but both conclusions, to be for or against a repository, are possible. A recent study focused on the arguments, underlying people's opinions. The salient arguments that participants report are related to the sense of responsibility for the country to store safely the nuclear waste and to avoid its export. Moreover, people recognize the necessity of a safe solution for the storage in order to preserve future generations from the risks of nuclear waste. These arguments may be relevant for the fact that participants, on average, have a favorable position regarding a deep ground repository in Switzerland.

  9. Paleotemperature reconstructions from speleothem fluid inclusions between 14 - 10 ka BP in Milandre cave (NW Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Häuselmann, Anamaria; Fleitmann, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-04-01

    In cave environments, speleothems constitute a well preserved and precisely dated continental climate archive that record past environmental changes such as paleotemperature or moisture source, namely through oxygen and hydrogen isotopes variations. Fluid inclusions are common in speleothems and they correspond to micrometric voids that often contain fossil liquid water representing past precipitation falling above the cave nearly at the time the inclusions were sealed. To measure the δD and δ18O isotopic composition of speleothem fluid inclusions, we extracted submicrolitre amounts of water from stalagmites (old and recent) coming from Milandre cave (Switzerland) using a new online method developed at the University of Bern (Affolter et al., 2014). The released water is then flushed directly to a Picarro L1102-i or L2140-i laser based instrument that allows to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. At Milandre cave site, a two year isotope monitoring campaign has confirmed that isotopes in precipitation for northwestern Switzerland are principally controlled by air temperature (Affolter et al., 2015). Therefore, when combined with calcite δ18O, the fluid inclusion water isotopes can be used to calculate paleotemperatures. We reconstructed a cold season biased (roughly autumn - winter - spring) paleotemperature trend for the time interval covering the Allerød, the Younger Dryas cold interval and the early Holocene (13'900 - 9'900 BP). References: Affolter S., Fleitmann D., and Leuenberger M.: New online method for water isotope analysis of speleothem fluid inclusions using laser absorption spectroscopy (WS-CRDS), Clim. Past, 10, 1291-1304, doi:10.5194/cp-10-1291-2014, 2014. Affolter S., Häuselmann A.D., Fleitmann D., Häuselmann P., Leuenberger M.: Triple isotope (δD, δ17O, δ18O) study on precipitation, drip water and speleothem fluid inclusions for a Western Central European cave (NW Switzerland), Quat. Sci. Rev., 127, pp. 73-89, 2015.

  10. Does price matter? The effect of decreased price on spirits consumption in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Meichun; Heeb, Jean-Luc; Gmel, Gerhard; Rehm, Jürgen

    2003-04-01

    On July 1st, 1999, the spirits market in Switzerland was reformed based on the World Trade Organization (WTO) agreement. The tax reform, in addition to increased competition, has resulted in a 30-50% decrease in price for foreign spirits (liquor). The purpose of the present study is to examine whether decreased prices due to the tax reform and the liberalized spirits market in Switzerland have had an effect on spirits consumption, and whether the effect differs by demographic and other correlates. The present study uses data from a longitudinal study on changes in alcohol consumption in Switzerland's resident population. The baseline survey was conducted 3 months before the tax reform and the follow-up was conducted 28 months after the tax reform. A randomly selected sample of 4007 residents aged 15 years or older participated in the baseline survey and 73% in the follow-up survey. The data were obtained by computer-assisted telephone interview, including detailed questions on alcohol consumption, drinking habits, problem drinking, purchase of spirits and socio-demographic characteristics. Consumption of spirits increased after the price of spirits decreased. The increase in spirits consumption was consistent across subgroups, with the exception of the group aged 60 or older. Moreover, the increase in spirits consumption persisted even after adjustment for significant correlates of spirits consumption. Apart from age, there was no evidence that the increase in spirits consumption differed between subgroups as defined by sex, region, working status, education, smoking, drinking frequency, or average number of drinks. The findings demonstrate that younger people are more affected by price than older persons. This study demonstrated that price should be considered an effective policy to reduce alcohol misuse and alcohol-related problems, especially among the younger population.

  11. A tradition and an epidemic: determinants of the campylobacteriosis winter peak in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bless, Philipp Justus; Schmutz, Claudia; Suter, Kathrin; Jost, Marianne; Hattendorf, Jan; Mäusezahl-Feuz, Mirjam; Mäusezahl, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Campylobacteriosis is the most frequently reported food borne infection in Switzerland. We investigated determinants of infections and illness experience in wintertime. A case-control study was conducted in Switzerland between December 2012 and February 2013. Cases were recruited among laboratory-confirmed campylobacteriosis patients. Population-based controls were matched according to age group, sex and canton of residence. We determined risk factors associated with campylobacteriosis, and help seeking behaviour and illness perception. The multivariable analysis identified two factors associated with an increased risk for campylobacteriosis: consumption of meat fondue (matched odds ratio [mOR] 4.0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-7.1) and travelling abroad (mOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.1-6.4). Univariable analysis among meat fondue consumers revealed chicken as the type of meat with the highest risk of disease (mOR 3.8, 95% CI 1.1-13.5). Most frequently reported signs and symptoms among patients were diarrhoea (98%), abdominal pain (81%), fever (66%), nausea (44%) and vomiting (34%). The median perceived disease severity was 8 on a 1-to-10 rating scale. Patients reported a median duration of illness of 7 days and 14% were hospitalised. Meat fondues, mostly "Fondue chinoise", traditionally consumed during the festive season in Switzerland, are the major driver of the epidemic campylobacteriosis peak in wintertime. At these meals, individual handling and consumption of chicken meat may play an important role in disease transmission. Laboratory-confirmed patients are severely ill and hospitalisation rate is considerable. Public health measures such as decontamination of chicken meat and improved food handling behaviour at the individual level are urgently needed.

  12. Prostate biopsy in Switzerland: a representative survey on how Swiss urologists do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leippold, Thomas; Preusser, Stefan; Engeler, Daniel; Inhelder, Fabienne; Schmid, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    The procedure of prostate biopsy is often performed but has not been standardized. Therefore, a survey of all urologists in Switzerland was carried out to investigate indications, patient preparation and technique with regard to transrectal prostate biopsy. A questionnaire was mailed to all 178 urologists working in Switzerland, either as self-employed urologists (SEUs) or as employed urologists at a hospital (EUHs), i.e. a teaching centre. The questionnaire was returned by 133 urologists (75%). Eighty-seven of the respondents (65%) are SEUs and 46 (35%) work as EUHs. If digital rectal examination (DRE) raises suspicion of cancer, 129 urologists perform a biopsy. A serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 4 ng/ml is used as a cut-off value by 84% of respondents (SEUs 83%, EUHs 87%). A fluoroquinolone antibiotic is prescribed by 126 of the respondents. Fifty-nine percent of respondents (SEUs 52%, EUHs 72%) are offering periprostatic injection of a local anaesthetic drug. At the initial biopsy, 24% of respondents (SEUs 30%, EUHs 13%) obtain six cores, 45% (SEUs 37%, EUHs 61%) 8-10 and 17% (SEUs 18%, EUHs 15%) > or =12. The subsequent procedure performed after two negative biopsy sessions varies considerably. This survey provides an insight into the practice pattern of urologists in Switzerland concerning prostate biopsy. For almost all urologists, a positive DRE is an indication for prostate biopsy. The majority use a serum PSA level of 4 ng/ml as a cut-off value. A fluoroquinolone is the antibiotic of choice. Periprostatic nerve block is the commonest form of anaesthesia. Most urologists take 8-10 cores per biopsy.

  13. Family Caregivers' Reflections on Experiences of Assisted Suicide in Switzerland: A Qualitative Interview Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamondi, C; Pott, Murielle; Preston, Nancy; Payne, Sheila

    2018-04-01

    Thousands of family members worldwide are annually involved in assisted dying. Family participation in assisted dying has rarely been investigated and families' needs typically are not considered in assisted dying legislation and clinical guidelines. To explore family caregivers' reflections on experiences of assisted suicide in Switzerland. A cross-sectional qualitative interview study conducted in the Italian- and French-speaking regions of Switzerland. Interpretation and analysis were performed using qualitative content analysis. Twenty-eight close relatives and family carers of 18 patients who died by assisted suicide in Switzerland were interviewed. Family members perceived their involvement in assisted suicide as characterized by five phases; 1) contemplation, 2) gaining acceptance, 3) gaining permission, 4) organization, and 5) aftermath. Families can participate in these phases at diverse levels and with varying degrees of involvement. Important triggers for families and patients for transition between phases include patients' experiences of their life-threatening illnesses and related treatments, their increasing awareness of approaching death, and family member recognition of their loved one's unbearable suffering. Participating in assisted suicide created further demanding tasks for families in addition to their role of caregivers. Families appeared to be involved in the preparation of assisted suicide along with patients, irrespective of their personal values regarding assisted dying. Support for family members is essential if they are involved in tasks preparatory to assisted suicide. Clinical guidelines and policies concerning assisted dying should acknowledge and address family needs. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exploring the experiences of bereaved families involved in assisted suicide in Southern Switzerland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamondi, Claudia; Pott, Murielle; Forbes, Karen; Payne, Sheila

    2015-06-01

    In Switzerland, helping with assisted suicide under certain conditions is not prosecuted. With approximately 300 cases annually, this leaves behind a large group of bereaved people where its consequences are mostly unknown. The study aimed to explore family involvement in decision making prior to assisted suicide, and to examine their ways of coping during the bereavement period. A qualitative interview study used the principles of Grounded Theory analysis. Eleven relatives of eight patients, who died in Southern Switzerland after assisted suicide, participated in semistructured interviews. The large majority of family members faced moral dilemmas during the decision-making phase. Their respect for patient's autonomy was a key justification to resolve dilemmas. Two types of involvement were identified: categorised as 'passive' when the decision making was located with the patient, and 'active' when assisted suicide was proposed by the family member and/or the relative was involved in some way. The relatives reported feelings of isolation during and after assisted suicide. Family members reported fear of social stigma and did not openly disclose assisted suicide as the cause of death. None of those interviewed received formal psychological support. Bereaved families express moral dilemmas, feelings of isolation and secrecy in the management of assisted suicide in Southern Switzerland. These features seem underestimated and not sufficiently recognised by the healthcare professionals. Management of assisted suicide requests should include consideration of family members' needs, in addition to those of the patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee's report on radioactive waste management practices in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (RWMAC) is the independent body that advises the Secretary of State for the Environment, Transport and the Regions and the Secretaries of State for Scotland and for Wales on issues relating to radioactive waste management. The terms of reference of the RWMAC, and a list of its Members, are given in Annex 1 to this Report. A group of 16 RWMAC Members examined the management of radioactive waste in Switzerland during a study visit to that country made between 8 and 12 October 1996. The aim of the visit was to acquire first hand knowledge of a set of practices adopted outside the United Kingdom by visiting radioactive waste management facilities and holding discussions with those involved, whether as operators, regulators or advisors to Government. This Report describes what the group saw, records the information collected, and sets out its findings. Switzerland's political system, with the emphasis placed on referenda, encourages popular participation in the democratic process. This may appear to have slowed down the provision of management facilities for radioactive wastes. From a longer term perspective, however, it is clear that such facilities may only really be viable in locations where there is sufficient local support. The quality of the arguments, from both supporters and opponents of nuclear power, is clear evidence of the importance which needs to be attached to the views of those affected. In order to build on what has already been achieved, notably in storage and research, those concerned with radioactive waste management in Switzerland continue to recognise this underlying principle

  16. Surgical Treatment of Severe Traumatic Brain Injury in Switzerland: Results from a Multicenter Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi-Mossuti, Frédéric; Fisch, Urs; Schoettker, Patrick; Gugliotta, Marinella; Morard, Marc; Schucht, Philippe; Schatlo, Bawarjan; Levivier, Marc; Walder, Bernhard; Fandino, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of modern surgical techniques and monitoring tools for the treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Switzerland, standardized nationwide operative procedures are still lacking. This study aimed to assess surgical management and monitoring strategies in patients admitted throughout Switzerland with severe TBI. Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data from a prospective national cohort study on severe brain-injured patients (Patient-relevant Endpoints after Brain Injury from Traumatic Accidents [PEBITA]) were collected during a 3-year period. This study evaluated patients admitted to 7 of the 11 trauma centers included in PEBITA. We retrospectively analyzed surgery-related computed tomography (CT) findings prior to and after treatment, intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring, size and technical features of craniotomy, as well as surgical complications. ResULTS: This study included 353 of the 921 patients enrolled in PEBITA who underwent surgical treatment for severe TBI. At admission, acute subdural hematoma was the most frequent focal lesion diagnosed (n = 154 [44%]), followed by epidural hematoma (n = 96 [27%]) and intracerebral hematoma (n = 84 [24%]). A total of 198 patients (61%) presented with midline shift. Clinical deterioration in terms of Glasgow Coma Scale scores or intractable ICP values as an indication for surgical evacuation or decompression were documented in 20% and 6%, respectively. A total of 97 (27.5%) only received a catheter/probe for ICP monitoring. Surgical procedures to treat a focal lesion or decompress the cerebrum were performed in 256 patients (72.5%). Of the 290 surgical procedures (excluding ICP probe implantation), craniotomy (137 [47.2%]) or decompressive craniectomy (133 [45.9%]) were performed most frequently. The mean size of craniectomy in terms of maximal linear width on the CT axial slice was 8.4 ± 2.9 cm. Intraoperative ICP monitoring was reported in 61% of the interventions. Significant

  17. Planning, conduct and principal features of NPP emergency exercises in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggenstos, M.

    1993-01-01

    Emergency exercises for each NPP are required on a regular basis by the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. The purpose of such exercises is to train the NPP staff and the on-site emergency organization in the application of the emergency procedures and the cooperation with off-site emergency teams and public authorities. The paper discusses the purpose of the emergency exercises and experiences made especially with bilateral exercises. The responsibilities for the preparation and execution of the different emergency exercises in Switzerland are explained

  18. Transport-related measures to mitigate climate change in Basel, Switzerland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, L.; Trüeb, S.; Cowie, H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Local strategies to reduce green-house gases (GHG) imply changes of non-climatic exposure patterns. Objective: To assess the health impacts of locally relevant transport-related climate change policies in Basel, Switzerland. Methods: We modelled change in mortality and morbidity...... as status quo. The changes in non-climatic population exposure included ambient air pollution, physical activity, and noise. As secondary outcome, changes in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) were put into perspective with predicted changes of CO2 emissions and fuel consumption. Results...

  19. Comparative studies of spinal celes in Switzerland, Jamaica, and Nigeria, and possible relationship with environmental pollution

    OpenAIRE

    M.O.N. Ibe

    2009-01-01

    Objective and Background:The need to sanitize our environment from elements hazardous to life on earth is hereby high-lighted, as well as a properly organized and efficiently run prenatal health care system. Clinical Methods and Materials:From 1975 to 2004,17 spinal celes (including 2 meningoceles) were routinely repaired in Imo and Ebonyi States of Nigeria, and 5 in Jam aica,the West Indies; none in Easel, Switzerland. All 20 meningomyeloceles were incontinent of urine and faeces, had se...

  20. Memo concerning the concept proposed by Swissnuclear for the external storage facility in Reitnau, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This memo issued by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate ENSI concerns the evaluation of the concept presented by Swissnuclear for the external equipment storage facility in Reitnau, Switzerland. The facility is to store equipment and materials that can be used in the case of a nuclear accident. The memo deals with the basic proposals for accident management, both at the sites of nuclear installations as well as at the external materials storage facility. The materials to be stored are listed and the concept for their storage, maintenance and use is discussed. The personnel required and their training is also discussed. Requirements placed by ENSI are described

  1. Extremely low-energy-consumption apartments in Staefa, Switzerland; Wohnueberbauung NiedrigstEnergieHaeuser in Staefa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kissling, R. [Haering und Co. AG, Innovative Bausyteme, Prattlen (Switzerland); Heyer, R. [HFF, Haering Fenster und Fassaden AG, Niederdorf (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with thermally optimised substructures for rear-ventilated building facades. The objects considered are three apartment blocks in Staefa, Switzerland. Details of the buildings, the statics of their construction and structural-physical data are presented and discussed. Materials and technologies used in the construction of the apartment blocks are described. In particular the materials used, the insulation concept and construction details are presented and discussed. The report is completed with illustrations and plans.

  2. Contribution of road traffic to ambient fine particle concentrations (PM{sub 10}) in Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hueglin, Ch.; Devos, W.; Gehrig, R.; Hofer, P.; Kobler, J. [Swiss Federal Laboratoires for Materials Testing and Research, EMPA, Dubendorf (Switzerland); Stahel, W.A. [Seminar for Statistics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Baltensperger, U. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Monn, Ch. [Institute for Hygiene and Applied Physiology, ETH Zurich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    A multivariate receptor model was applied to estimate the contribution of road traffic to ambient levels of fine particles (PM{sub 10}) at different locations in Switzerland. At two roadside sites with heavy local traffic, the road traffic was found to account for 46% and 64% of PM{sub 10}. At an urban background site, the estimated average road traffic contribution was 34%, whereas a slightly higher value was obtained at a suburban site (36%). This results are in good agreement with the findings of a recent study, where a conceptually different approach (dispersion modelling) was applied. (authors)

  3. Population protection in case of emergency and in a post-accidental situation in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murith, Ch.

    2010-01-01

    This report first briefly gives an overview of the general intervention scheme which has been developed in Switzerland to face radiological emergencies: involved public bodies, protection measures with respect to dose level, accident scenarios for power plants, and surveillance network. It also describes some specific aspects: modelling of dispersion in case of accident in a nuclear power plant, decision criteria and threshold values, horizontal rather than vertical evacuation, harvesting and grazing interdiction; quick assessment of consequences of a radiological accident in a nuclear power plant, preparation review. Some general comments are proposed about intervention preparedness

  4. The radiation protection in Switzerland: history, outstanding facts and public information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, B.; Murith, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    The actions of O.F.S.P. (Federal office of public health) centre around the fundamental principles of radiation protection: justification of practices, limitation of radiation exposure and radiation protection optimization. The O.F.S.P. is the authority entitled to recognize the training in radiation protection in the medical sector, the environmental surveillance and the appreciation in health point of view. The Switzerland favours the public health aspect face to the purely scientific aspect, it follows an easier communication, fit to reinforce the public relation and the confidence toward authorities. (N.C.)

  5. Sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in North-Western Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinau, Daphne; Meier, Christoph; Gerber, Nathalie; Hofbauer, Günther F L; Surber, Christian

    2012-02-24

    The skin cancer incidence in Switzerland is one of the highest in Europe and still on the rise. Sun protection is the main preventive measure and of utmost importance during childhood and adolescence, since sunburns within these early phases of life increase the risk of developing skin cancer in adulthood. The aim of this prospective study, the first of its kind in Switzerland, was to investigate the sun protective behaviour of primary and secondary school students in Basel (North-Western Switzerland) and to test their knowledge about adverse health effects of solar radiation and about protective measures. Between March and April 2010, supervised classroom surveys during regular school lessons were conducted in 13 public schools using a multiple-choice questionnaire. 960 questionnaires were handed out to 48 school classes. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed on the data of 887 (>90%) students from three different grades (3rd, 6th and 9th grade). Sun-related knowledge was high in one third of all respondents only and significantly depended on student's age and educational background. Although the oldest students reached the highest knowledge scores, they protected themselves the least from the sun. Sunscreen was the principal form of sun protection mentioned, but was insufficiently applied. Seeking shade and wearing clothing as protective measures were hardly used. High educational background (i.e., of the parents) was a determinant for routine use of sunscreen but was not associated with following other sun protective measures. The desire for a suntan had no impact on the use of sunscreen, but was a significant predictor for not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts when in the sun. More than half of all study participants experienced at least one sunburn during the year preceding the survey. Fair skin type, higher grade, not seeking shade and wearing shoulderless shirts were directly associated with increased odds of

  6. European School of High-Energy Physics, Beatenberg, Switzerland, 26 August - 8 September 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    The 2001 European School of High-Energy Physics (formerly the CERN-JINR School of Physics) will be organized jointly by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva, Switzerland and the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna, Russia, together with the University of Bern. The basic aim of the School is to teach various aspects of high-energy physics, but especially theoretical physics, to young experimental physicists, mainly from the Member States of CERN and of JINR. The Schools of Physics are designed to give a survey of up-to-date information, rather than to be a training course.

  7. The potential of a wedding planning business start up in Eastern Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Favre, Anya; Scaglione, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Since the rise of the notion of weddings in the middle ages up to today, trends have changed and evolved in this domain, not only trends concerning the meaning of marriage but also trends per county or even per region. The United States of America is the pioneer of wedding planning as a career and people do not shy away from hiring a wedding planner to organize their big day (Weddings for a living, 2016). However, this trend has not yet managed to reach Switzerland the way it has taken o...

  8. The Tobacco Industry's Successful Efforts to Control Tobacco Policy Making in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Chung-Yol MD, MPH; Glantz, Stanton A. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    Cigarette consumption among people 15 years or older peaked in Switzerland in the early 1970’s with 3,700 cigarettes per capita and per year, followed by a decline to 2,800 cigarettes per capita and per year in 1994. After a decline of the proportion of smokers from 37% in 1980 to 31% in 1992, this proportion has increased again to 33% in 1997. Women, particularly the young, and children and adolescents, have shown a continued increase in smoking prevalence, despite the focus of tobacco preve...

  9. Rebuilding the Chalberhoeni small hydro power station in Saanen, Switzerland; Chalberhoeni - Rapport Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavin, G. [Stucky SA, Renens (Switzerland); Wagner, T. [Sigmaplan, Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    These two final illustrated reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deal with various aspects of the Chalberhoeni small hydro project in Saanen, Switzerland. The first report presents data on the catchment area involved, available head, residual water quantities, installed power and annual production figures. Investments and operating costs are looked at. The second report describes the project and discusses regional planning aspects, hydrological basics and environmental issues in connection with the renewal project, including details on invertebrates found in the stream and their relevance to fishing and nature protection issues.

  10. Risk factors for antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter spp. isolated from raw poultry meat in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuser Jürg

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The world-wide increase of foodborne infections with antibiotic resistant pathogens is of growing concern and is designated by the World Health Organization as an emerging public health problem. Thermophilic Campylobacter have been recognised as a major cause of foodborne bacterial gastrointestinal human infections in Switzerland and in many other countries throughout the world. Poultry meat is the most common source for foodborne cases caused by Campylobacter. Because all classes of antibiotics recommended for treatment of human campylobacteriosis are also used in veterinary medicine, in view of food safety, the resistance status of Campylobacter isolated from poultry meat is of special interest. Methods Raw poultry meat samples were collected throughout Switzerland and Liechtenstein at retail level and examined for Campylobacter spp. One strain from each Campylobacter-positive sample was selected for susceptibility testing with the disc diffusion and the E-test method. Risk factors associated with resistance to the tested antibiotics were analysed by multiple logistic regression. Results In total, 91 Campylobacter spp. strains were isolated from 415 raw poultry meat samples. Fifty-one strains (59% were sensitive to all tested antibiotics. Nineteen strains (22% were resistant to a single, nine strains to two antibiotics, and eight strains showed at least three antibiotic resistances. Resistance was observed most frequently to ciprofloxacin (28.7%, tetracycline (12.6%, sulphonamide (11.8%, and ampicillin (10.3%. One multiple resistant strain exhibited resistance to five antibiotics including ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and erythromycin. These are the most important antibiotics for treatment of human campylobacteriosis. A significant risk factor associated with multiple resistance in Campylobacter was foreign meat production compared to Swiss meat production (odds ratio = 5.7. Conclusion Compared to the situation in other

  11. Use of mapping and statistical modelling for the prediction of bluetongue occurrence in Switzerland based on vector biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racloz, Vanessa; Presi, Patrick; Vounatsou, Penelope; Schwermer, Heinzpeter; Casati, Simona; Vanzetti, Tullio; Griot, Christian; Stärk, Katarina D C

    2007-01-01

    Due to the spread of bluetongue (BT) in Europe in the last decade, a sentinel surveillance programme was initiated for Switzerland in 2003, consisting of serological sampling of sentinel cattle tested for BT virus antibodies, as well as entomological trapping of Culicoides midges from June until October. The aim of this study was to create a 'suitability map' of Switzerland, indicating areas of potential disease occurrence based on the biological parameters of Obsoletus Complex habitat. Data on Culicoides catches from insect traps together with various environmental parameters were recorded and analysed. A multiple regression analysis was performed to determine correlation between the environmental conditions and vector abundance. Meteorological data were collected from 50 geo-referenced weather stations across Switzerland and maps of temperature, precipitation and altitude were created. A range of values of temperature, precipitation and altitude influencing vector biology were obtained from the literature. The final combined map highlighted areas in Switzerland which are most suitable for vector presence, hence implying a higher probability of disease occurrence given the presence of susceptible animals. The results confirmed the need for an early warning system for the surveillance of BT disease and its vectors in Switzerland.

  12. Benefits of smoking bans on preterm and early-term births: a natural experimental design in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Dratva, Julia; Röösli, Martin; Perez, Laura

    2016-12-01

    Birth outcomes are relevant for future children's heath. Capitalising on a natural experimental design in Switzerland, we evaluated how regional smoking bans introduced at different time points affected birth outcomes, including preterm and early-term births. We used birth registry data of all singleton neonates born in Switzerland (2007-2012). We developed canton-specific interrupted time-series followed by random meta-analysis to evaluate the benefits of smoking bans on preterm (Switzerland with cantons that adopted more comprehensive smoking bans achieving greater benefits. Early-term births constitute a previously ignored though important group. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  13. Geology of central Northern Switzerland: Overview and some key topics regarding Nagra’s seismic exploration of the region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madritsch, H. [National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA), Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    The article provides a brief overview of the geological evolution of central Northern Switzerland as outlined in an oral presentation given at the 82{sup nd} SASEG annual convention 2015 in Baden. It focuses on an introduction to the Permo-Carboniferous Trough of Northern Switzerland, a brief description of the Mesozoic sedimentary sequences to be found in the region, including the potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal proposed by Nagra, and the Late Cenozoic tectonics of central Northern Switzerland, in particular the formation of the Jura Fold-and-Thrust Belt. These aspects represent some of the key topics regarding Nagra's ongoing seismic exploration of the region that has, and still is, contributing significantly to a better understanding of the region's fascinating geology. (author)

  14. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in Switzerland: a comprehensive quality control report on centre effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passweg, Jakob; Baldomero, Helen; Stern, Martin; Bargetzi, Mario; Ghielmini, Michele; Leibundgut, Kurt; Duchosal, Michel; Hess, Urs; Seger, Reinhard; Buhrfeind, Eva; Schanz, Urs; Gratwohl, Alois

    2010-06-12

    Interest groups advocate centre-specific outcome data as a useful tool for patients in choosing a hospital for their treatment and for decision-making by politicians and the insurance industry. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) requires significant infrastructure and represents a cost-intensive procedure. It therefore qualifies as a prime target for such a policy. We made use of the comprehensive database of the Swiss Blood Stem Cells Transplant Group (SBST) to evaluate potential use of mortality rates. Nine institutions reported a total of 4717 HSCT - 1427 allogeneic (30.3%), 3290 autologous (69.7%) - in 3808 patients between the years 1997 and 2008. Data were analysed for survival- and transplantation-related mortality (TRM) at day 100 and at 5 years. The data showed marked and significant differences between centres in unadjusted analyses. These differences were absent or marginal when the results were adjusted for disease, year of transplant and the EBMT risk score (a score incorporating patient age, disease stage, time interval between diagnosis and transplantation, and, for allogeneic transplants, donor type and donor-recipient gender combination) in a multivariable analysis. These data indicate comparable quality among centres in Switzerland. They show that comparison of crude centre-specific outcome data without adjustment for the patient mix may be misleading. Mandatory data collection and systematic review of all cases within a comprehensive quality management system might, in contrast, serve as a model to ascertain the quality of other cost-intensive therapies in Switzerland.

  15. A new primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches (Middle Eocene, Switzerland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minwer-Barakat, Raef; Marigó, Judit; Becker, Damien; Costeur, Loïc

    2017-12-01

    Primates reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, favored by warm temperatures and by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Here we describe new primate material from La Verrerie de Roches, a Middle Eocene karstic infill situated in the Jura Region (Switzerland), consisting of more than 80 dental remains. The primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches includes five different taxa. The best represented primate is Necrolemur aff. anadoni, similar in size and overall morphology to Necrolemur anadoni but resembling in some features the younger species Necrolemur antiquus. Microchoerines are also represented by two species of Pseudoloris, P. pyrenaicus and Pseudoloris parvulus, constituting the unique joint record of these two species known up to now. Remains of Adapiformes are limited to one isolated tooth of a large anchomomyin and another tooth belonging to the small adapine Microadapis cf. sciureus. The studied primate association allows assigning La Verrerie de Roches to the Robiacian Land Mammal Age. More specifically, this site can be confidently situated between the MP15 and MP16 reference levels, although the primate assemblage probably indicates some degree of temporal mixing. This is the first record of P. pyrenaicus and a form closely related to N. anadoni out of the Iberian Peninsula. The identification of these microchoerines in Switzerland gives further support to the connection of NE Spain and Central Europe during the Middle Eocene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. New insights into the burden and costs of multiple sclerosis in Europe: Results for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrese, Pasquale; Kobelt, Gisela; Berg, Jenny; Capsa, Daniela; Eriksson, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    To estimate the value of interventions in multiple sclerosis (MS) - where lifetime costs and outcomes cannot be observed - outcome data have to be combined with costs. This requires that cost data be regularly updated. This study is part of a cross-sectional retrospective study in 16 countries collecting data on resource consumption and work capacity, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalent symptoms for patients with MS. Descriptive analyses are presented by level of severity, from the societal perspective, in CHF 2015. A total of 721 patients (mean age 48 years) participated in Switzerland; 90% were below retirement age, and of these, 65% were employed. Employment was related to disease severity, and MS affected productivity at work for 69% of patients. Overall, 93% and 64% of patients experienced fatigue and cognition as a problem, respectively. The mean utility and annual costs were 0.799 and 29,600CHF at Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0-3, 0.614 and 66,800CHF at EDSS 4-6.5 and 0.348 and 110,800CHF at EDSS 7-9, respectively. The mean cost of a relapse was estimated at 7600CHF. This study provides current data on MS in Switzerland that are important for development of health policies and to estimate the value of current and future treatments.

  17. Toxigenic Clostridium difficile PCR Ribotypes from Wastewater Treatment Plants in Southern Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Vincenza; Krovacek, Karel; Mauri, Federica; Demarta, Antonella; Dumontet, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of Clostridium difficile in nine wastewater treatment plants in the Ticino Canton (southern Switzerland) was investigated. The samples were collected from raw sewage influents and from treated effluents. Forty-seven out of 55 characterized C. difficile strains belonged to 13 different reference PCR ribotypes (009, 010, 014, 015, 039, 052, 053, 066, 070, 078, 101, 106, and 117), whereas 8 strains did not match any of those available in our libraries. The most frequently isolated ribotype (40%) was 078, isolated from six wastewater treatment plants, whereas ribotype 066, a toxigenic emerging ribotype isolated from patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and Switzerland, was isolated from the outgoing effluent of one plant. The majority of the isolates (85%) were toxigenic. Forty-nine percent of them produced toxin A, toxin B, and the binary toxin (toxigenic profile A+ B+ CDT+), whereas 51% showed the profile A+ B+ CDT−. Interestingly, eight ribotypes (010, 014, 015, 039, 066, 078, 101, and 106) were among the riboprofiles isolated from symptomatic patients admitted to the hospitals of the Ticino Canton in 2010. Despite the limitation of sampling, this study highlights that toxigenic ribotypes of C. difficile involved in human infections may occur in both incoming and outgoing biological wastewater treatment plants. Such a finding raises concern about the possible contamination of water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents and about the safe reuse of treated wastewater. PMID:22798376

  18. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL ESTABLISHMENTS IN THE SPHERE OF TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY IN SWITZERLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталія Закордонець

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the management system of educational establishments in the sphere of tourism and hospitality in Switzerland has been reviewed. It has been noted that the organization of the educational process in educational institutions of the country is determined by the decentralized and federalist structure of the Swiss education system. Management policies at different hierarchical levels have been considered: federal, cantonal and communal. It has been found that the accreditation system of tourism education in Switzerland holds a special significance, since replacing the system of federal control. Much attention has been paid to the Swiss Hotel Schools Association and its role in politics of increasing excellence in tourism education. It has been noted that the modernization of the Swiss system of training of future specialists in tourism is being made by decentralization of education management in tourism and the usage of international accreditation as a means of measuring the quality of tourism education. Examples of the applying of exceptional management practices of Swiss tourism and hospitality management programs in higher education institutions of Ukraine have been verified.

  19. Moisture fluxes towards Switzerland: investigating future changes in CMIP5 climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazan, Valerie; Martius, Olivia; Martynov, Andrey; Panziera, Luca

    2017-04-01

    High integrated vapor transport (IVT) in the atmosphere directed perpendicular to the orography is an important proxy for flood related precipitation in many mountainous areas around the world. Here we focus on flood related IVT and its changes in a warmer climate in Switzerland, where most high-impact floods events in the past 30 years were connected to exceptional IVT upstream of the mountains. Our study aims at investigating how these critical IVT values are projected to evolve in the future in a changing climate. The IVT is computed from 15 CMIP5 climate models for the past (1950-2005) and the future (2006-2100) under the RCP 8.5 scenario ("business as usual"). In order to check the accuracy of the models and the effect of the varying resolution, present day IVT from the CMIP5 models is compared with the ERA-Interim reanalysis data (period 1979-2015). A quantile mapping technique is then used to correct biases. The same bias corrections are applied to the future (2006-2100) IVT data. Finally, future changes in extreme IVT are investigated. This includes an analysis of changes in the magnitude and direction of the moisture flux in the different seasons for different regions in Switzerland.

  20. A Case of Possible Chagas Transmission by Blood Transfusion in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Judith; Komarek, Adriana; Gottschalk, Jochen; Brand, Birgit; Amsler, Lorenz; Jutzi, Markus; Frey, Beat M

    2016-11-01

    Transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease has been reported from endemic countries in Latin America. Switzerland is a non-endemic country but high prevalence of antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi was found among immigrants. Immigrants may participate in blood donation; therefore, risk-adapted anti- T. cruzi screening for blood donors was implemented in Switzerland in 2013. Between January 2013 and July 2015, 1 out of 1,183 at-risk donors, tested at Blood Transfusion Service Zurich, was found anti- T. cruzi IgG-positive. Out of 54 donations given by the index donor (ID), we identified 77 blood products which were delivered to hospitals. Archived serum samples from the donations given during the prior 5 years were available for retrospective testing. All samples from ID revealed positive findings for anti- T. cruzi IgG. Donor-triggered look-back procedure identified a 70-year-old male recipient of a platelet concentrate (PC) donated by ID. The recipient succumbed of acute T. cruzi infection 2 years after transfusion of the PC.

  1. First description of Onchocerca jakutensis (Nematoda: Filarioidea in red deer (Cervus elaphus in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Bosch

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of the genus Onchocerca (Nematoda; Filarioidea can cause a vector-borne parasitic disease called onchocercosis. Most Onchocerca species infect wild and domestic ungulates or the dog, and one species causes river blindness in humans mainly in tropical Africa. The European red deer (Cervus e. elaphus is host to four species, which are transmitted by blackflies (simuliids or biting midges (ceratopogonids. Two species, Onchocerca flexuosa and Onchocerca jakutensis, produce subcutaneous nodules, whereas Onchocerca skrjabini and Onchocerca garmsi live free in the hypodermal serous membranes. During the hunting season, September 2013, red deer (n = 25, roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus, n = 6 and chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra, n = 7, all shot in the Grisons Region (Switzerland were investigated for the presence of subcutaneous nodules which were enzymatically digested, and the contained Onchocerca worms were identified to species by light and scanning electron microscopy as well as by PCR/sequencing. In addition, microfilariae from skin samples were collected and genetically characterized. Neither nodules nor microfilariae were discovered in the roe deer and chamois. Adult worms were found in 24% of red deer, and all of them were identified as O. jakutensis. Two morphologically different microfilariae were obtained from five red deer, and genetic analysis of a skin sample of one red deer indicated the presence of another Onchocerca species. This is the first report of O. jakutensis in Switzerland with a prevalence in red deer similar to that in neighbouring Germany.

  2. Assessment and evaluation of geothermal potential in Switzerland; Atlas des ressources geothermiques suisses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andenmatten-Berthoud, N. [Geowatt AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kohl, T. [Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Institut de Geophysique, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2003-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the first part of a project that aims at assessing the geothermal energy potential of Switzerland's underground. Due to the presence of the Alps the Swiss underground is highly heterogeneous with numerous geologic faults. Geothermal energy assessment has to be carried out region after region. The first steps consisted in collecting existing geological and hydrogeological data and finding out the best appropriate methodology. Analysis was restricted to the Northwest of Switzerland (Basle-Zurich area), which has a dense population - an important factor for future applications - and is better known than others, thanks to previous studies performed in conjunction with site pre-selection for future radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this area, sandstones and limestones are found on the crystalline bottom rock. Mathematical models and computer codes were developed for interpolation and extrapolation of local and regional data. Three dimensional finite-element techniques were used. The results are presented in diagrams and maps.

  3. Increasing prevalence of infectious diseases in asylum seekers at a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Infanger, Constantine; Bättig, Veronika; Kremo, Jürg; Widmer, Andreas F; Egli, Adrian; Bingisser, Roland; Battegay, Manuel; Erb, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    The increasing number of refugees seeking asylum in Europe in recent years poses new challenges for the healthcare systems in the destination countries. The goal of the study was to describe the evolution of medical problems of asylum seekers at a tertiary care centre in Switzerland. At the University Hospital Basel, we compared all asylum seekers during two 1-year time periods in 2004/05 and 2014/15 concerning demographic characteristics and reasons for referrals and hospitalizations. Hundred ninety five of 2'544 and 516 of 6'243 asylum seekers registered at the national asylum reception and procedure centre Basel were referred to the University Hospital Basel in 2004/05 and 2014/15, and originated mainly from Europe (62.3%, mainly Turkey) and Africa (49.1%, mainly Eritrea), respectively. Median age was similar in both study periods (26.9 and 26.2 years). Infectious diseases in asylum seekers increased from 22.6% to 36.6% (pasylum seekers required isolation precautions with median duration of 6-9.5 days in both study periods. The changing demography of asylum seekers arriving in Switzerland in the current refugee crisis has led to a shift in disease patterns with an increase of infectious diseases and the re-emergence of migration-associated neglected infections. Physicians should be aware of these new challenges.

  4. Inventory and perspectives of chronic disease management programs in Switzerland: an exploratory survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Peytremann-Bridevaux

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe chronic disease management programs active in Switzerland in 2007, using an exploratory survey. Methods: We searched the internet (Swiss official websites and Swiss web-pages, using Google, a medical electronic database (Medline, reference lists of pertinent articles, and contacted key informants. Programs met our operational definition of chronic disease management if their interventions targeted a chronic disease, included a multidisciplinary team (≥2 healthcare professionals, lasted at least six months, and had already been implemented and were active in December 2007. We developed an extraction grid and collected data pertaining to eight domains (patient population, intervention recipient, intervention content, delivery personnel, method of communication, intensity and complexity, environment, clinical outcomes. Results: We identified seven programs fulfilling our operational definition of chronic disease management. Programs targeted patients with diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, obesity, psychosis and breast cancer. Interventions were multifaceted; all included education and half considered planned follow-ups. The recipients of the interventions were patients, and healthcare professionals involved were physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists and case managers of various backgrounds. Conclusions: In Switzerland, a country with universal healthcare insurance coverage and little incentive to develop new healthcare strategies, chronic disease management programs are scarce. For future developments, appropriate evaluations of existing programs, involvement of all healthcare stakeholders, strong leadership and political will are, at least, desirable.

  5. Specialising in radiology in Switzerland: Still attractive for medical school graduates?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, B.; Hoffmann, A.; Christen, S.; Weishaupt, D.; Kubik-Huch, R.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To gain insight into the professional characteristics of radiologists in Switzerland and to determine how to enhance the attractiveness of radiology to medical graduates as a specialty. Materials and methods: Data from 262 members of the Swiss Society of Radiology (m:f = 76:24%) obtained in a questionnaire survey were analysed regarding socio-demographic variables, working status, specialty, main fields of interest, career success, mentoring and reasons for the shortage of radiologists. Results: 35 (56.4%) female and 85 (45.5%) male radiologists were aged ≤45 years. 228 (87%) were board-certified; 44 (17.9%) had completed a sub-specialisation. Men worked part-time mostly just before retirement, while women worked part-time at a younger age. As reasons for specialty choice, the wide range of clinical work and the combination of technology and medicine were ranked highest. Women reported significantly less career success and support. To improve the attractiveness of radiology to graduates, radiology should be visible on medical school curricula. Conclusion: In Switzerland, more female radiologists work part-time than male ones, and there is less career success and support for women. In order to make radiology more attractive to medical graduates as a specialty, structured residency programmes and reliable gender-respecting career support are needed.

  6. Carbon budgets of thirteen years at the FLUXNET cropland site Oensingen, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Carmen; Revill, Andrew; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Eugster, Werner

    2017-04-01

    The FLUXNET cropland site at Oensingen, Switzerland (CH-Oe2) is located on the Swiss Plateau, which is representative for the average domain of agricultural crop production in Switzerland. The site is managed under the low pesticide integrated production (IP) farming protocol and features a crop rotation focusing on winter wheat, but also includes winter barley, rapeseed, peas and potatoes as well as intermediate cover crops. Thirteen years of eddy covariance and meteorological measurements are available for the site. The carbon imports through manure applications and sowing, along with the exports through harvests, were quantified. In this study, we analyze the carbon budgets of all crop types and measurement years. These results will be compared to changes in soil carbon content. We will answer the questions: (1) Has the crop rotation and field management resulted in a net carbon source or sink? (2) To what extent are the different crop types linked to net carbon exchanges? (3) What are the climatic potential drivers for the interannual cropland carbon budget? (4) Is the carbon budget reflected in the changes in soil carbon content?

  7. Change of residence in Switzerland and Swiss "Attestation de départ" (departure certificate)

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    1. Change of residence in Switzerland Members of the personnel residing in Switzerland are advised to notify the competent Swiss authorities in their canton of residence of any change of address. a) Procedure for those residing in the Canton of Geneva: – go in person to the “Accueil” Section of the Office Cantonal de la Population, 88 Route de Chancy, 1213 Onex (open Mondays to Fridays from 9.00 a.m. to 3.30 p.m., tel. 022 546 48 88, http://www.ge.ch/ocp), or – complete the form “Annonce de changement d’adresse” (available at: (http://www.geneve.ch/ocp/formulaires.html) and send it by post to the Office Cantonal de la Population, Service des étrangers et confédérés, case postale 2652, 1211 Genève 2. b) Procedure for those residing in the Canton of Vaud: –\tgo in person to the offices of the Contrôle de l’habitant of your commune of residence. This does not, however, release members of the personnel from the obligation to inform CERN of any change o...

  8. Feeding live prey to zoo animals: response of zoo visitors in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, Lauren; Tamir, Dan; Hyseni, Mimoza; Bühler, Dominique; Lindemann-Matthies, Petra

    2010-01-01

    In summer 2007, with the help of a written questionnaire, the attitudes of more than 400 visitors to the zoological garden of Zurich, Switzerland, toward the idea of feeding live insects to lizards, live fish to otters, and live rabbits to tigers were investigated. The majority of Swiss zoo visitors agreed with the idea of feeding live prey (invertebrates and vertebrates) to zoo animals, both off- and on-exhibit, except in the case of feeding live rabbits to tigers on-exhibit. Women and frequent visitors of the zoo disagreed more often with the on-exhibit feeding of live rabbits to tigers. Study participants with a higher level of education were more likely to agree with the idea of feeding live invertebrates and vertebrates to zoo animals off-exhibit. In comparison to an earlier study undertaken in Scotland, zoo visitors in Switzerland were more often in favor of the live feeding of vertebrates. Feeding live prey can counter the loss of hunting skills of carnivores and improve the animals' well-being. However, feeding enrichments have to strike a balance between optimal living conditions of animals and the quality of visitor experience. Our results show that such a balance can be found, especially when live feeding of mammals is carried out off-exhibit. A good interpretation of food enrichment might help zoos to win more support for the issue, and for re-introduction programs and conservation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Inventory and perspectives of chronic disease management programs in Switzerland: an exploratory survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peytremann-Bridevaux, Isabelle; Burnand, Bernard

    2009-10-07

    To describe chronic disease management programs active in Switzerland in 2007, using an exploratory survey. We searched the internet (Swiss official websites and Swiss web-pages, using Google), a medical electronic database (Medline), reference lists of pertinent articles, and contacted key informants. Programs met our operational definition of chronic disease management if their interventions targeted a chronic disease, included a multidisciplinary team (>/=2 healthcare professionals), lasted at least six months, and had already been implemented and were active in December 2007. We developed an extraction grid and collected data pertaining to eight domains (patient population, intervention recipient, intervention content, delivery personnel, method of communication, intensity and complexity, environment, clinical outcomes). We identified seven programs fulfilling our operational definition of chronic disease management. Programs targeted patients with diabetes, hypertension, heart failure, obesity, psychosis and breast cancer. Interventions were multifaceted; all included education and half considered planned follow-ups. The recipients of the interventions were patients, and healthcare professionals involved were physicians, nurses, social workers, psychologists and case managers of various backgrounds. In Switzerland, a country with universal healthcare insurance coverage and little incentive to develop new healthcare strategies, chronic disease management programs are scarce. For future developments, appropriate evaluations of existing programs, involvement of all healthcare stakeholders, strong leadership and political will are, at least, desirable.

  10. [Evaluation of AIDS-related knowledge and behavior among seasonal workers in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haour-Knipe, M; Ospina, S; Fleury, F; Jeangros, C; Dubois-Arber, F

    1993-01-01

    Although an increasing number of AIDS prevention programmes are addressing migrants and ethnic minorities, few are either solidly research-based or adequately evaluated. Reported on here is a baseline evaluation of a marginal foreign population, Spanish and Portuguese seasonal workers in Switzerland. AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours were assessed with both qualitative and quantitative methods during the winter of 1989-1990. The seasonal workers studied had been reached by prevention programmes both in the host country and in the country of origin, and knowledge was better than expected. Zones of ambiguity, such as confusion between AIDS and treatable STDs, persist however. Legal restrictions which prohibit family reunification affect sexual behavior: respondents report both more abstinence and more transitory sexual relations than the comparison Swiss population. Only about one in five report always using condoms during transitory relations. Qualitative material is used to suggest a relation between attitudes and protective behaviors. HIV/AIDS prevention programmes for Spanish and Portuguese populations in Switzerland are being established on the basis of the research findings.

  11. Double-dividend analysis with SCREEN: an empirical study for Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frei, Christoph W.; Haldi, Pierre-Andre; Sarlos, Gerard

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study that quantifies the effects of an ecological fiscal reform as recently rejected by the Swiss population. The measure aims to encourage employment and, at the same time, to dissuade from an excessive energy use and thereby decrease energy-induced external costs (CO 2 , etc.). The analysis is based on the model SCREEN, a general equilibrium model using the complementarity format for the hybrid description of economy-wide production possibilities where the electricity sector is represented by a bottom-up activity analysis and the other production sectors are characterised by top-down production functions. A dynamic formulation of the activity analysis of technologies allows for the reproduction of endogenous structural change (see Frei, C.W., Haldi, P.-A., Sarlos, G., 2003. Dynamic formulation of a top-down and bottom-up merging energy policy model. Energy Policy 31 (10), 1017-1031.). The labour market is formulated according to the microeconomically founded efficiency wages and calibrated for Switzerland. The study includes the development of a consistent set of top-down, bottom-up and labour data for Switzerland. The collection of bottom-up data on the electricity sector, just before liberalisation, was not easy. The electricity sector characterising data was prepared, based on original statistics about 140 Swiss electricity companies

  12. An empirical investigation of the efficiency effects of integrated care models in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Reich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigates the efficiency gains of integrated care models in Switzerland, since these models are regarded as cost containment options in national social health insurance. These plans generate much lower average health care expenditure than the basic insurance plan. The question is, however, to what extent these total savings are due to the effects of selection and efficiency. Methods: The empirical analysis is based on data from 399,274 Swiss residents that constantly had compulsory health insurance with the Helsana Group, the largest health insurer in Switzerland, covering the years 2006 to 2009. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the different integrated care models, we apply an econometric approach with a mixed-effects model. Results: Our estimations indicate that the efficiency effects of integrated care models on health care expenditure are significant. However, the different insurance plans vary, revealing the following efficiency gains per model: contracted capitated model 21.2%, contracted non-capitated model 15.5% and telemedicine model 3.7%. The remaining 8.5%, 5.6% and 22.5% respectively of the variation in total health care expenditure can be attributed to the effects of selection. Conclusions: Integrated care models have the potential to improve care for patients with chronic diseases and concurrently have a positive impact on health care expenditure. We suggest policy makers improve the incentives for patients with chronic diseases within the existing regulations providing further potential for cost-efficiency of medical care.

  13. An empirical investigation of the efficiency effects of integrated care models in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Reich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study investigates the efficiency gains of integrated care models in Switzerland, since these models are regarded as cost containment options in national social health insurance. These plans generate much lower average health care expenditure than the basic insurance plan. The question is, however, to what extent these total savings are due to the effects of selection and efficiency.Methods: The empirical analysis is based on data from 399,274 Swiss residents that constantly had compulsory health insurance with the Helsana Group, the largest health insurer in Switzerland, covering the years 2006 to 2009. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the different integrated care models, we apply an econometric approach with a mixed-effects model.Results: Our estimations indicate that the efficiency effects of integrated care models on health care expenditure are significant. However, the different insurance plans vary, revealing the following efficiency gains per model: contracted capitated model 21.2%, contracted non-capitated model 15.5% and telemedicine model 3.7%. The remaining 8.5%, 5.6% and 22.5% respectively of the variation in total health care expenditure can be attributed to the effects of selection.Conclusions: Integrated care models have the potential to improve care for patients with chronic diseases and concurrently have a positive impact on health care expenditure. We suggest policy makers improve the incentives for patients with chronic diseases within the existing regulations providing further potential for cost-efficiency of medical care.

  14. The emergence of forensic nursing and advanced nursing practice in Switzerland: an innovative case study consultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain-Glassey, Nathalie; Ninane, Françoise; de Puy, Jacqueline; Abt, Maryline; Mangin, Patrice; Morin, Diane

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this article were to systematically describe and examine the novel roles and responsibilities assumed by nurses in a forensic consultation for victims of violence at a University Hospital in French-speaking Switzerland. Utilizing a case study methodology, information was collected from two main sources: (a) discussion groups with nurses and forensic pathologists and (b) a review of procedures and protocols. Following a critical content analysis, the roles and responsibilities of the forensic nurses were described and compared with the seven core competencies of advanced nursing practice as outlined by Hamric, Spross, and Hanson (2009). Advanced nursing practice competencies noted in the analysis included "direct clinical practice," "coaching and guidance," and "collaboration." The role of the nurse in terms of "consultation," "leadership," "ethics," and "research" was less evident in the analysis. New forms of nursing are indeed practiced in the forensic clinical setting, and our findings suggest that nursing practice in this domain is following the footprints of an advanced nursing practice model. Further reflections are required to determine whether the role of the forensic nurse in Switzerland should be developed as a clinical nurse specialist or that of a nurse practitioner.

  15. Diagnosis of whooping cough in Switzerland: differentiating Bordetella pertussis from Bordetella holmesii by polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittet, Laure F; Emonet, Stéphane; François, Patrice; Bonetti, Eve-Julie; Schrenzel, Jacques; Hug, Melanie; Altwegg, Martin; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Posfay-Barbe, Klara M

    2014-01-01

    Bordetella holmesii, an emerging pathogen, can be misidentified as Bordetella pertussis by routine polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In some reports, up to 29% of the patients diagnosed with pertussis have in fact B. holmesii infection and invasive, non-respiratory B. holmesii infections have been reported worldwide. This misdiagnosis undermines the knowledge of pertussis' epidemiology, and may lead to misconceptions on pertussis vaccine's efficacy. Recently, the number of whooping cough cases has increased significantly in several countries. The aim of this retrospective study was to determine whether B. holmesii was contributing to the increase in laboratory-confirmed cases of B. pertussis in Switzerland. A multiplex species-specific quantitative PCR assay was performed on 196 nasopharyngeal samples from Swiss patients with PCR-confirmed Bordetella infection (median age: 6 years-old, minimum 21 days-old, maximum 86 years-old), formerly diagnosed as Bordetella pertussis (IS481+). No B. holmesii (IS481+, IS1001-, hIS1001+) was identified. We discuss whether laboratories should implement specific PCR to recognize different Bordetella species. We conclude that in Switzerland B. holmesii seems to be circulating less than in neighboring countries and that specific diagnostic procedures are not necessary routinely. However, as the epidemiological situation may change rapidly, periodic reevaluation is suggested.

  16. Influenza Pandemics and Tuberculosis Mortality in 1889 and 1918: Analysis of Historical Data from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zürcher, Kathrin; Zwahlen, Marcel; Ballif, Marie; Rieder, Hans L; Egger, Matthias; Fenner, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) mortality declined in the northern hemisphere over the last 200 years, but peaked during the Russian (1889) and the Spanish (1918) influenza pandemics. We studied the impact of these two pandemics on TB mortality. We retrieved historic data from mortality registers for the city of Bern and countrywide for Switzerland. We used Poisson regression models to quantify the excess pulmonary TB (PTB) mortality attributable to influenza. Yearly PTB mortality rates increased during both influenza pandemics. Monthly influenza and PTB mortality rates peaked during winter and early spring. In Bern, for an increase of 100 influenza deaths (per 100,000 population) monthly PTB mortality rates increased by a factor of 1.5 (95%Cl 1.4-1.6, ppandemic. Nationally, the factor was 2.0 (95%Cl 1.8-2.2, ppandemics. We demonstrate excess PTB mortality during historic influenza pandemics in Switzerland, which supports a role for influenza vaccination in PTB patients in high TB incidence countries.

  17. Influenza Pandemics and Tuberculosis Mortality in 1889 and 1918: Analysis of Historical Data from Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrin Zürcher

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB mortality declined in the northern hemisphere over the last 200 years, but peaked during the Russian (1889 and the Spanish (1918 influenza pandemics. We studied the impact of these two pandemics on TB mortality.We retrieved historic data from mortality registers for the city of Bern and countrywide for Switzerland. We used Poisson regression models to quantify the excess pulmonary TB (PTB mortality attributable to influenza.Yearly PTB mortality rates increased during both influenza pandemics. Monthly influenza and PTB mortality rates peaked during winter and early spring. In Bern, for an increase of 100 influenza deaths (per 100,000 population monthly PTB mortality rates increased by a factor of 1.5 (95%Cl 1.4-1.6, p<0.001 during the Russian, and 3.6 (95%Cl 0.7-18.0, p = 0.13 during the Spanish pandemic. Nationally, the factor was 2.0 (95%Cl 1.8-2.2, p<0.001 and 1.5 (95%Cl 1.1-1.9, p = 0.004, respectively. We did not observe any excess cancer or extrapulmonary TB mortality (as a negative control during the influenza pandemics.We demonstrate excess PTB mortality during historic influenza pandemics in Switzerland, which supports a role for influenza vaccination in PTB patients in high TB incidence countries.

  18. Where are the Sunday babies? II. Declining weekend birth rates in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerchl, Alexander; Reinhard, Sarah C.

    2008-02-01

    Birth dates from almost 3 million babies born between 1969 and 2005 in Switzerland were analyzed for the weekday of birth. As in other countries but with unprecedented amplitude, a very marked non-random distribution was discovered with decreasing numbers of births on weekends, reaching -17.9% in 2005. While most of this weekend births avoidance rate is due to fewer births on Sundays (up to -21.7%), the downward trend is primarily a consequence of decreasing births on Saturdays (up to -14.5%). For 2005, these percentages mean that 3,728 fewer babies are born during weekends than could be expected from equal distribution. Most interestingly and surprisingly, weekend birth-avoiding rates are significantly correlated with birth numbers ( r = 0.86), i.e. the lower the birth number per year, the lower the number of weekend births. The increasing avoidance of births during weekends is discussed as being a consequence of increasing numbers of caesarean sections and elective labor induction, which in Switzerland reach 29.2 and 20.5%, respectively, in 2004. This hypothesis is supported by the observation that both primary and secondary caesarean sections are significantly correlated with weekend birth avoidance rates. It is therefore likely that financial aspects of hospitals are a factor determining the avoidance of weekend births by increasing the numbers of caesarean sections.

  19. Enter FameLab and become the new face of science in Switzerland

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano, FameLab@Cern Project coordinator, Communication Group

    2011-01-01

    Are you 18 to 35 years old and studying or working in science in Switzerland? Are you passionate about your job and keen on exciting public imagination with a vision of the 21st century of science? Then this competition is for you!   FameLab is an international science communication competition for young researchers. It aims to find the new voices of science and engineering across the world. CERN has been chosen as the venue of the regional semi-finals for Switzerland. To compete, all you have to do is prepare a 3-minute talk that is scientifically accurate but also engaging to a non-scientific audience and impress your jury and your audience on Saturday 4 Februrary, 2012 at the Globe of Science and Innovation. Famelab aims to provide new opportunities for scientists to develop their skills as communicators. FameLab was set up in 2005 by Cheltenham Festivals, one of the UK’s premier cultural organisations, in partnership with NESTA (Nat...

  20. Development and Demonstration (RD and D) Plan for the disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-12-01

    This comprehensive brochure published by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (NAGRA) discusses NAGRA’s Research, Development and Demonstration (RD and D) Plan together with its Waste Management Program. The present RD and D Plan is in line with the Swiss Federal Council’s decision and in accordance with the regulatory framework in Switzerland. The two types of repository foreseen, one for low- and intermediate-level waste (L/ILW) and one for vitrified high-level waste are discussed. The overall objectives of this report are stated and the planning premises for implementation of the repositories are discussed, as are the strategic requirements involved and the stages of their implementation. The methodology and the resources available for implementing the RD and D programme are described. The status of the RD and D program is noted and an overview of the technical program for the next 10 years is presented. The report includes many diagrams, illustrations and tables and describes activities at various research installations in Switzerland

  1. Low health literacy and healthcare utilization among immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantwill, Sarah; Schulz, Peter J

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed at investigating the association between functional health literacy and knowledge on when to seek medical help for potentially harmless (overutilization) or serious (underutilization) situations among immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland. Data was collected among three immigrant groups and the native population (N=1146) in the German- and Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. Health literacy was assessed with the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy (S-TOFHLA) and three Brief Health Literacy Screeners. Over- and underutilization of healthcare services was assessed with items asking participants about when to seek medical help for minor, respectively major, physical symptoms. Immigrants were more likely to seek medical help when unwarranted (overutilization). Health literacy, when assessed with the S-TOFHLA, was significantly associated with over- and underutilization. Yet, once controlled for covariates, the association between health literacy and overutilization was negative. Immigration background and micro-cultural differences emerged as important predictors of utilization. Results suggest that functional health literacy is directly related to healthcare utilization. The effects might be amplified by (micro-)cultural differences. Healthcare providers should be aware of differences in health literacy and utilization patterns among different population groups. Communication between patients and providers should be literacy and culturally sensitive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Issues around the Prescription of Half Tablets in Northern Switzerland: The Irrational Case of Quetiapine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allemann, Samuel S.; Bornand, Delia; Hug, Balthasar; Hersberger, Kurt E.; Arnet, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prescription of fragmented tablets is useful for individualisation of dose but includes several drawbacks. Although without score lines, the antipsychotic drug quetiapine was in 2011 the most often prescribed 1/2 tablet in discharge prescriptions at the University Hospital in Basel (USB, 671 beds). We aimed at analysing the prescription patterns of split tablets in general and of quetiapine in particular in Switzerland. Methods. All orders of community pharmacies for unit-of-use soft pouch blisters placed at Medifilm AG, the leader company in Switzerland for repackaging into pouch blisters, were analysed. Results. Out of 4,784,999 tablets that were repacked in 2012 in unit-of-use pouch blisters, 8.5% were fragmented, mostly in half (87.6%), and were predominantly psycholeptics (pipamperone 15.8%). Prescription of half quetiapine appears to be a Basel specificity (highest rates of fragments and half quetiapine). Conclusions. Prescription of fragmented tablet is frequent. It represents a safety issue for the patient, and a pharmaceutical care issue for the pharmacist. In ambulatory care, the patient's cognitive and physical capacities must be clarified, suitability of the splitting of the tablet must be checked, appropriate aids must be offered, like a pill-splitting device in order to improve accuracy, and safe use of the drug must be ensured. PMID:26539514

  3. Issues around the Prescription of Half Tablets in Northern Switzerland: The Irrational Case of Quetiapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel S. Allemann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prescription of fragmented tablets is useful for individualisation of dose but includes several drawbacks. Although without score lines, the antipsychotic drug quetiapine was in 2011 the most often prescribed 1/2 tablet in discharge prescriptions at the University Hospital in Basel (USB, 671 beds. We aimed at analysing the prescription patterns of split tablets in general and of quetiapine in particular in Switzerland. Methods. All orders of community pharmacies for unit-of-use soft pouch blisters placed at Medifilm AG, the leader company in Switzerland for repackaging into pouch blisters, were analysed. Results. Out of 4,784,999 tablets that were repacked in 2012 in unit-of-use pouch blisters, 8.5% were fragmented, mostly in half (87.6%, and were predominantly psycholeptics (pipamperone 15.8%. Prescription of half quetiapine appears to be a Basel specificity (highest rates of fragments and half quetiapine. Conclusions. Prescription of fragmented tablet is frequent. It represents a safety issue for the patient, and a pharmaceutical care issue for the pharmacist. In ambulatory care, the patient’s cognitive and physical capacities must be clarified, suitability of the splitting of the tablet must be checked, appropriate aids must be offered, like a pill-splitting device in order to improve accuracy, and safe use of the drug must be ensured.

  4. Family outbreak of an infection with a recombinant Coxsackie A virus in eastern Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsch, R; Tapparel, C; Keller, P; Herzog, K; Krause, M; Wunderli, W; Kaiser, L; Bossart, W

    2013-02-01

    We report on an unusual familial outbreak of a coxsackie virus infection in Switzerland in which five family members were affected. Most of the patients presented with signs of meningitis, and four were hospitalized. In three individuals, the virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid, pharynx, and stool, respectively. The genome was sequenced in specimens of two patients. The nucleotide sequences of both virus strains were identical. Blast search revealed that the first half of the sequence was 88 % homologous to Enterovirus 75 (EV-75), 87 % with Echovirus 11 (E-11), and 84 % homologous to Coxsackie virus A9 (CV-A9). The second half of the sequence was 77 % homologous to EV-75, 75 % to E-11, and 91 % to CV-A9. We propose that the isolated virus strain is a recombinant strain with a 5' untranslated region and with the start of the VP4 sequence originating from E-11/EV-75 and the rest of the genome originating from CV-A9. Interestingly, this novel virus strain showed an exceptional virulence and rapid spread. Two weeks after the initial outbreak in this family, a similar outbreak was observed in a second geographic area roughly 100 km distant to the primary identification site, and another 2 months later this virus strain was found to circulate in the western part of Switzerland some 250 km distant to the primary locus. These findings suggest that genetic recombination has resulted in a novel enterovirus with features of high virulence, contagiosity, and spreading.

  5. A prototype web-GIS application for risk analysis of natural hazards in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Zar Chi; Nicolet, Pierrick; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri; Gerber, Christian; Lévy, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Following changes in the system of Swiss subsidy in January 2008, the Swiss cantons and the Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) were forced to prioritize different natural hazard protection projects based on their cost-effectiveness, as a response to limited financial resources (Bründl et al., 2009). For this purpose, applications such as EconoMe (OFEV, 2016) and Valdorisk (DGE, 2016) were developed for risk evaluation and prioritization of mitigation projects. These tools serve as a useful decision-making instrument to the community of practitioners and responsible authorities for natural hazard risk management in Switzerland. However, there are several aspects which could be improved, in particular, the integration and visualization of spatial information interactively through a web-GIS interface for better risk planning and evaluation. Therefore, in this study, we aim to develop an interactive web-GIS application based on the risk concepts applied in Switzerland. The purpose of this tool is to provide a rapid evaluation of risk before and after protection measures, and to test the efficiency of measures by using a simplified cost-benefit analysis within the context of different protection projects. This application allows to integrate different layers which are necessary to calculate risk, in particular, hazard intensity (vector) maps for different scenarios (such as 30, 100 and 300 years of return periods based on Swiss guidelines), exposed objects (such as buildings) and vulnerability information of these objects. Based on provided information and additional parameters, risk is calculated automatically and results are visualized within the web-GIS interface of the application. The users can modify these input information and parameters to create different risk scenarios. Based on the resultant risk scenarios, the users can propose and visualize (preliminary) risk reduction measures before realizing the actual design and dimensions of such protective

  6. Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation--Session 2 (Plenary II): May 15-17, 2013--Lausanne, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    On the 15-17th May 2013, the Fourth International Conference on Modern Vaccines/Adjuvants Formulation was organized in Lausanne, Switzerland, and gathered stakeholders from academics and from the industry to discuss several challenges, advances and promises in the field of vaccine adjuvants. Plenary session 2 of the meeting was composed of four different presentations covering: (1) the recent set-up of an adjuvant technology transfer and training platform in Switzerland, (2) the proposition to revisit existing paradigms of modern vaccinology, (3) the properties of polyethyleneimine as potential new vaccine adjuvant, and (4) the progresses in the design of HIV vaccine candidates able to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies.

  7. The Use of Evidence Obtained in US-American Discovery in International Civil Procedure Law and Arbitration in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Chen, Markus

    2009-01-01

    The gathering of evidence is a key element in legal proceedings. Contrary to the regulations in Switzerland, the US legal order allows for pre-trial discovery, i.e. the parties are entrusted with the collecting of evidence at an early stage. This diverging approach becomes relevant in civil proceedings or arbitral proceedings in Switzerland with a linkage to the USA. The question arises if and how parties may profit from the US-American discovery procedure. This paper wants to answer the ques...

  8. Dissemination of the Project's Findings: National Seminar (6th, Montreux, Switzerland, August 22-25, 1988). The CDCC's Project No. 8: "Innovation in Primary Education."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivirine, Jean-Michel

    This report summarizes the proceedings of a seminar held in Switzerland to disseminate the findings of the Council for Cultural Cooperation's (CDCC) project on innovation in primary education. Additional aims were to: (1) compare the CDCC's primary innovation project with five school development projects carried out in Switzerland; (2) test a…

  9. Decadal variations in estimated surface solar radiation over Switzerland since the late 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sanchez-Lorenzo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our knowledge on trends in surface solar radiation (SSR involves uncertainties due to the scarcity of long-term time series of SSR, especially with records before the second half of the 20th century. Here we study the trends of all-sky SSR from 1885 to 2010 in Switzerland, which have been estimated using a homogenous dataset of sunshine duration series. This variable is shown to be a useful proxy data of all-sky SSR, which can help to solve some of the current open issues in the dimming/brightening phenomenon. All-sky SSR has been fairly stable with little variations in the first half of the 20th century, unlike the second half of the 20th century that is characterized also in Switzerland by a dimming from the 1950s to the 1980s and a subsequent brightening. Cloud cover changes seem to explain the major part of the decadal variability observed in all-sky SSR, at least from 1885 to the 1970s; at this point, a discrepancy in the sign of the trend is visible in the all-sky SSR and cloud cover series from the 1970s to the present. Finally, an attempt to estimate SSR series for clear-sky conditions, based also on sunshine duration records since the 1930s, has been made for the first time. The mean clear-sky SSR series shows no relevant changes between the 1930s to the 1950s, then a decrease, smaller than the observed in the all-sky SSR, from the 1960s to 1970s, and ends with a strong increase from the 1980s up to the present. During the three decades from 1981 to 2010 the estimated clear-sky SSR trends reported in this study are in line with previous findings over Switzerland based on direct radiative flux measurements. Moreover, the signal of the El Chichón and Pinatubo volcanic eruption visible in the estimated clear-sky SSR records further demonstrates the potential to infer aerosol-induced radiation changes from sunshine duration observations.

  10. [Silicosis in Switzerland. A half century of observation. The physician's viewpoint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maillard, J M; Zufferey, R; Fellmann, E

    1983-01-01

    In Switzerland, the first cases of silicosis were recorded by Zangger in 1900. Since 1930, patients with silicosis have been provided with certain services by the "Caisse Nationale Suisse d'Assurances" (i.e. Swiss National Insurance Fund), an organization enforcing the Occupational Accidents and Diseases Bill. However, it took another two years before an effectively organized struggle against silicosis was started. Eventually, by 1938, this specific pneumoconiosis was acknowledged as an occupational disease under Swiss Law. Thus, the CNSA has been concerned with this disease for half a century, and it seems relevant now to take stock of the situation. From 1930 to late 1980, 9690 cases of silicosis were accepted by the CNSA. Nearly one half (46%) of these silicotic patients were still alive on December 31, 1980; another third had died of silicosis and the rest of other affections not related The origin of cases has remained remarkably constant over the course of time. Underground working and the stone-working industry account for the majority of cases (70%), followed by smelting works (16%) and the ceramic industry (5%). The remaining 9% are due to various causes. Silicosis hazards have declined but still remain real. In late 1980, 1287 companies in Switzerland were being monitored from this standpoint. More than two-thirds (67%) belong to the stone-working industry (even though only 30% of hazard-exposed workers are employed in this sector), 10% are involved in underground work (10% of hazard-exposed workers), 10% are smelting industries (36% exposed) and 6% belong to the ceramic industry (17% exposed). Since 1950, the number of hazard-exposed people has fluctuated between relatively narrow limits (i.e. 15,000 and 20,000). Corresponding figures for previous periods are not known. Some facts indicate that silicosis is becoming less problematic: a) The annual incidence rate of silicosis in Switzerland has evolved in three distinct phases. From 1930 to 1940 the

  11. Exploring the association between heat and mortality in Switzerland between 1995 and 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S; Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Schindler, Christian; Röösli, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Designing effective public health strategies to prevent adverse health effect of hot weather is crucial in the context of global warming. In Switzerland, the 2003 heat have caused an estimated 7% increase in all-cause mortality. As a consequence, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health developed an information campaign to raise public awareness on heat threats. For a better understanding on how hot weather affects daily mortality in Switzerland, we assessed the effect of heat on daily mortality in eight Swiss cities and population subgroups from 1995 to 2013 using different temperature metrics (daily mean (Tmean), maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and maximum apparent temperature (Tappmax)), and aimed to evaluate variations of the heat effect after 2003 (1995-2002 versus 2004-2013). We applied conditional quasi-Poisson regression models with non-linear distributed lag functions to estimate temperature-mortality associations over all cities (1995-2013) and separately for two time periods (1995-2002, 2004-2013). Relative risks (RR) of daily mortality were estimated for increases in temperature from the median to the 98th percentile of the warm season temperature distribution. Over the whole time period, significant temperature-mortality relationships were found for all temperature indicators (RR (95% confidence interval): Tappmax: 1.12 (1.05; 1.18); Tmax: 1.15 (1.08-1.22); Tmean: 1.16 (1.09-1.23); Tmin 1.23 (1.15-1.32)). Mortality risks were higher at the beginning of the summer, especially for Tmin. In the more recent time period, we observed a non-significant reduction in the effect of high temperatures on mortality, with the age group > 74 years remaining the population at highest risk. High temperatures continue to be a considerable risk factor for human health in Switzerland after 2003. More effective public health measures targeting the elderly should be promoted with increased attention to the first heat events in summer and considering both high day-time and

  12. In-Hospital Disease Burden of Sarcoidosis in Switzerland from 2002 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohle, Susanne; Baty, Florent; Brutsche, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease with an unpredictable and sometimes fatal course while the underlying pathomechanism is still unclear. Reasons of the increasing hospitalization rate and mortality in the United States remain in dispute but incriminated are a number of distinct comorbidities and risk factors as well as the application of more aggressive therapeutic agents. Studies reflecting the recent development in central Europe are lacking. Our aim was to investigate the recent mortality and hospitalization rates as well as the underlying comorbidities of hospitalized sarcoidosis patients in Switzerland. In this longitudinal, nested case-control study, a nation-wide database provided by the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics enclosing every hospital entry covering the years 2002-2012 (n = 15,627,573) was analyzed. There were 8,385 cases with a diagnosis of sarcoidosis representing 0.054% (8,385 / 15,627,573) of all hospitalizations in Switzerland. These cases were compared with age- and sex-matched controls without the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. Hospitalization and mortality rates in Switzerland remained stable over the observed time period. Comorbidity analysis revealed that sarcoidosis patients had significantly higher medication-related comorbidities compared to matched controls, probably due to systemic corticosteroids and immunosuppressive therapy. Sarcoidosis patients were also more frequently re-hospitalized (median annual hospitalization rate 0.28 [IQR 0.15-0.65] vs. 0.19 [IQR 0.13-0.36] per year; p < 0.001), had a longer hospital stay (6 [IQR 2-13] vs. 4 [IQR 1-8] days; p < 0.001), had more comorbidities (4 [IQR 2-7] vs. 2 [IQR 1-5]; p < 0.001), and had a significantly higher in-hospital mortality (2.6% [95% CI 2.3%-2.9%] vs. 1.8% [95% CI 1.5%-2.1%] (p < 0.001). A worse outcome was observed among sarcoidosis patients having co-occurrence of associated respiratory diseases. Moreover, age was an important risk factor for re-hospitalization.

  13. Assessment of the risk of foodborne transmission and burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Alexandra; Collineau, Lucie; Stephan, Roger; Müller, Andrea; Stärk, Katharina D C

    2017-02-02

    The objective of this study was i) to quantify the risk of hepatitis E for Swiss consumers by specified pork products and ii) to estimate the total burden of human food-borne hepatitis E in Switzerland. A quantitative risk assessment from slaughter to consumption was carried out according to the Codex Alimentarius framework. In the hazard characterization, assumptions were made due to the lack of a dose-response relationship for oral exposure to hepatitis E virus (HEV). The prevalence of HEV in 160 pig livers of 40 different Swiss fattening farms was examined and determined to be 1.3% (CI 0.3%; 4.4%). This result was used as input in the risk assessment model, together with data from other published studies. The annual burden of hepatitis E was estimated in terms of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY), using data about hepatitis E cases diagnosed between 2010 and 2015 at two major hospitals located in the canton Ticino. Only the risk of foodborne hepatitis E from products containing pork liver was evaluated, as those containing only pork meat could not be evaluated because of lack of data on HEV load in pork. Assuming that successful oral infection occurs in 1% of servings contaminated with high HEV loads (>10 5 genome copies), and that acute illness develops in 5% of susceptible consumers, the most likely annual number of foodborne hepatitis E cases in Switzerland was estimated to be 1481 (95% CI 552; 4488) if all products containing pork liver were considered. If only high-risk products, such as plain pork liver and liver sausages (e.g. Saucisse au Foie), were considered, the annual number of cases was estimated to be 176 (95% CI 64; 498). We were unable to calculate the total burden of hepatitis E in Switzerland due to lack of data. Yet, for the canton Ticino, it was shown that a significant increase had occurred from 50 DALY per 100,000 inhabitants in 2015. This change could partly be due to an increased reporting and higher awareness among medical

  14. How Deep is Shallow? Improving Absolute and Relative Locations of Upper Crustal Seismicity in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, T.; Kissling, E. H.; Singer, J.; Lee, T.; Clinton, J. F.; Waldhauser, F.; Wiemer, S.

    2017-12-01

    Information on the structure of upper-crustal fault systems and their connection with seismicity is key to the understanding of neotectonic processes. Precisely determined focal depths in combination with structural models can provide important insight into deformation styles of the upper crust (e.g. thin- vs. versus thick-skinned tectonics). Detailed images of seismogenic fault zones in the upper crust, on the other hand, will contribute to the assessment of the hazard related to natural and induced earthquakes, especially in regions targeted for radioactive waste repositories or geothermal energy production. The complex velocity structure of the uppermost crust and unfavorable network geometries, however, often hamper precise locations (i.e. focal depth) of shallow seismicity and therefore limit tectonic interpretations. In this study we present a new high-precision catalog of absolute locations of seismicity in Switzerland. High-quality travel-time data from local and regional earthquakes in the period 2000-2017 are used to solve the coupled hypocenter-velocity structure problem in 1D. For this purpose, the well-known VELEST inversion software was revised and extended to improve the quality assessment of travel-time data and to facilitate the identification of erroneous picks in the bulletin data. Results from the 1D inversion are used as initial parameters for a 3D local earthquake tomography. Well-studied earthquakes and high-quality quarry blasts are used to assess the quality of 1D and 3D relocations. In combination with information available from various controlled-source experiments, borehole data, and geological profiles, focal depths and associated host formations are assessed through comparison with the resolved 3D velocity structure. The new absolute locations and velocity models are used as initial values for relative double-difference relocation of earthquakes in Switzerland. Differential times are calculated from bulletin picks and waveform cross

  15. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-02-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  16. Simulating crop yield losses in Switzerland for historical and present Tambora climate scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flückiger, Simon; Brönnimann, Stefan; Holzkämper, Annelie; Fuhrer, Jürg; Krämer, Daniel; Pfister, Christian; Rohr, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Severe climatic anomalies in summer 1816, partly due to the eruption of Tambora in April 1815, contributed to delayed growth and poor harvests of important crops in Central Europe. Coinciding with adverse socio-economic conditions, this event triggered the last subsistence crisis in the western World. Here, we model reductions in potential crop yields for 1816 and 1817 and address the question, what impact a similar climatic anomaly would have today. We reconstructed daily weather for Switzerland for 1816/17 on a 2 km grid using historical observations and an analogue resampling method. These data were used to simulate potential crop yields for potato, grain maize, and winter barley using the CropSyst model calibrated for current crop cultivars. We also simulated yields for the same weather anomalies, but referenced to a present-day baseline temperature. Results show that reduced temperature delayed growth and harvest considerably, and in combination with reduced solar irradiance led to a substantial reduction (20%-50%) in the potential yield of potato in 1816. Effects on winter barley were smaller. Significant reductions were also modelled for 1817 and were mainly due to a cold late spring. Relative reductions for the present-day scenario for the two crops were almost indistinguishable from the historical ones. An even stronger response was found for maize, which was not yet common in 1816/17. Waterlogging, which we assessed using a stress-day approach, likely added to the simulated reductions. The documented, strong east-west gradient in malnutrition across Switzerland in 1817/18 could not be explained by biophysical yield limitations (though excess-water limitation might have contributed), but rather by economic, political and social factors. This highlights the importance of these factors for a societies’ ability to cope with extreme climate events. While the adaptive capacity of today’s society in Switzerland is much greater than in the early 19th century

  17. Religion and assisted and non-assisted suicide in Switzerland: National Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Adrian; Zwahlen, Marcel; Bopp, Matthias; Gutzwiller, Felix; Egger, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    In the 19th century, eminent French sociologist Emile Durkheim found suicide rates to be higher in the Protestant compared with the Catholic cantons of Switzerland. We examined religious affiliation and suicide in modern Switzerland, where assisted suicide is legal. The 2000 census records of 1,722,456 (46.0%) Catholics, 1,565,452 (41.8%) Protestants and 454,397 (12.2%) individuals with no affiliation were linked to mortality records up to December 2005. The association between religious affiliation and suicide, with the Protestant faith serving as the reference category, was examined in Cox regression models. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for age, marital status, education, type of household, language and degree of urbanization. Suicide rates per 100,000 inhabitants were 19.7 in Catholics (1664 suicides), 28.5 in Protestants (2158 suicides) and 39.0 in those with no affiliation (882 suicides). Associations with religion were modified by age and gender (P suicides were 0.80 (0.73-0.88) in Catholic men and 1.09 (0.98-1.22) in men with no affiliation; and 0.60 (0.53-0.67) and 1.96 (1.69-2.27), respectively, in men aged 65-94 years. Corresponding HRs in women aged 35-64 years were 0.90 (0.80-1.03) and 1.46 (1.25-1.72); and 0.67 (0.59-0.77) and 2.63 (2.22-3.12) in women aged 65-94 years. The association was strongest for suicides by poisoning in the 65-94-year-old age group, the majority of which was assisted: HRs were 0.45 (0.35-0.59) for Catholic men and 3.01 (2.37-3.82) for men with no affiliation; 0.44 (0.36-0.55) for Catholic women and 3.14 (2.51-3.94) for women with no affiliation. In Switzerland, the protective effect of a religious affiliation appears to be stronger in Catholics than in Protestants, stronger in older than in younger people, stronger in women than in men, and particularly strong for assisted suicides.

  18. The impact of pharmaceutical innovation on premature cancer mortality in Switzerland, 1995-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Frank R

    2016-09-01

    The premature cancer mortality rate has been declining in Switzerland, but there has been considerable variation in the rate of decline across cancer sites (e.g., breast or digestive organs). I analyze the effect that pharmaceutical innovation had on premature cancer mortality in Switzerland during the period 1995-2012 by investigating whether the cancer sites that experienced more pharmaceutical innovation had larger declines in premature mortality, controlling for the number of people diagnosed and mean age at diagnosis. Premature cancer mortality before ages 75 and 65 is significantly inversely related to the cumulative number of drugs registered 5, 10, and 15 years earlier. The number of drugs registered during 1980-1997 explains 63 % of the variation across cancer sites in the 1995-2012 log change in the premature (before age 75) mortality rate. Controlling for the cumulative number of drugs, the cumulative number of chemical subgroups does not have a statistically significant effect on premature mortality. This suggests that drugs (chemical substances) within the same class (chemical subgroup) are not "therapeutically equivalent". Over 17,000 life-years before age 75 were gained in 2012 due to drugs registered during 1990-2007. The number of life-years before age 75 gained in 2012 from drugs registered during two earlier periods (1985-2002 and 1980-1997) were more than twice as great. Since mean utilization of new drugs is much lower than mean utilization of older drugs, more recent drug registrations may have a smaller effect on premature mortality than earlier drug registrations even if the average quality of newer drugs is higher. Estimates of the cost per life-year gained before ages 75 and 65 in 2012 from drugs registered during 1990-2007 are $21,228 and $28,673, respectively. These figures are below even the lowest estimates from the value-of-life literature of the value of a quality-adjusted life-year. The estimates indicate that the cost per life

  19. Whole-Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas graminis Strain UASWS1507, a Potential Biological Control Agent and Biofertilizer Isolated in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crovadore, Julien; Calmin, Gautier; Chablais, Romain; Cochard, Bastien; Schulz, Torsten; Lefort, François

    2016-10-06

    We report here the whole-genome shotgun sequence of the strain UASWS1507 of the species Pseudomonas graminis, isolated in Switzerland from an apple tree. This is the first genome registered for this species, which is considered as a potential and valuable resource of biological control agents and biofertilizers for agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Crovadore et al.

  20. The HIV care cascade in Switzerland: reaching the UNAIDS/WHO targets for patients diagnosed with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Philipp; Schmidt, Axel J; Cavassini, Matthias; Furrer, Hansjakob; Calmy, Alexandra; Battegay, Manuel; Bernasconi, Enos; Ledergerber, Bruno; Vernazza, Pietro

    2015-11-28

    To describe the HIV care cascade for Switzerland in the year 2012. Six levels were defined: (i) HIV-infected, (ii) HIV-diagnosed, (iii) linked to care, (iv) retained in care, (v) on antiretroviral treatment (ART), and (vi) with suppressed viral load. We used data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) complemented by a nationwide survey among SHCS physicians to estimate the number of HIV-patients not registered in the cohort. We also used Swiss ART sales data to estimate the number of patients treated outside the SHCS network. Based on the number of patients retained in care, we inferred the estimates for levels (i) to (iii) from previously published data. We estimate that (i) 15 200 HIV-infected individuals lived in Switzerland in 2012 (margins of uncertainty, 13 400-19 300). Of those, (ii) 12 300 (81%) were diagnosed, (iii) 12 200 (80%) linked, and (iv) 11 900 (79%) retained in care. Broadly based on SHCS network data, (v) 10 800 (71%) patients were receiving ART, and (vi) 10 400 (68%) had suppressed (Switzerland is substantially lower than previously reported, halving previous national HIV prevalence estimates to 0.2%. In Switzerland in 2012, 91% of patients in care were receiving ART, and 96% of patients on ART had suppressed viral load, meeting recent UNAIDS/WHO targets.