Sample records for switching surge generation

  1. Investigation of surge protective devices operation of a wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.; Vasileva, M.


    The interest to the investments in a wind energetics increases in the last years. The wind energetics is the fastest developing direction in the energetics in global scale. The wind energy is more attractive because its prices are lower in comparison of the other technologies for generating energy. The right choice of the surge protective devices has the important meaning on building and exploitation of the wind generators. The aim of this paper is investigation of the surge protective devices operation when they are installation to a wind generator. (authors)

  2. Inspection of the Switching Surge for the Digital-Control-Panel Adjacent to 500kV GIS (United States)

    Sato, Tadashi; Matsushita, Yoshinao; Shinki, Yoriko; Yamaji, Tsutomu; Hamano, Akihiro; Shiraki, Yasuhiro

    Recently digital control panels have been installed for various controls adjacent to GIS. As the distance between the digital control panels and GIS is short, switching surge is transmitted without attenuation. Therefore we developed the digital control panel that implemented surge countermeasure. We verified that the digital control panel adjacent to 500kV GIS did not malfunction for switching surge. Moreover we measured the switching surge at the digital control panel and analyzed the intrusion route of switching surge by EMTP. As a result, we observed that the maximum voltages at a secondary circuit of CT and the maximum voltages at a secondary circuit of VT were 2.4kVp-p and 2.8kVp-p, respectively. The major frequencies of those voltage waveform were distributed almost more than 10MHz. In the EMTP, the intrusion route from the GIS to the secondary circuit of VT was calculated. The voltage waveforms at VT terminal calculated by EMTP agree with measured results in the view point of amplitude, frequency and damping time.

  3. Induced Surge Characteristics on a Control Cable in a Gas-Insulated Substation due to Switching Operation (United States)

    Ametani, Akihiro; Goto, Takahiro; Nagaoka, Naoto; Omura, Hiroshi

    This paper has investigated the basic characteristics of switching surges in a gas-insulated substation and induced surges to a control cable based on EMTP simulations. It has been found that a switching surge voltage on the core conductor of a gas-insulated bus (GIB) tends to increase and the oscillating frequency becomes lower as the number of spacers increases. The maximum switching overvoltages become greater at the nodes nearby an operating disconnector (DS)/circuit breaker (CB) and become smaller at the source side. An induced surge to a control cable tends to increase as the parallel length of the GIB and the control cable increases. However, in the case of an open-circuited GIB, there exists a length which gives the highest voltage. A transient current becomes very large if a voltage transformer (VT) or a spacer is installed right next to an operating CB or DS, although this current does not affect the induced and VT transferred surge to the control cable. Also it is observed that a ramp wave voltage causes polarity reversing of a transient voltage on the GIB tank and the control cable.

  4. Design of a switched reluctance generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, T.; Pyrhoenen, J.


    This report presents the design of a low voltage switched reluctance generator for variable speed applications showing the design of its construction and commutation unit. For the realisation of the control system the control strategy is presented. The principle and the theory of switched reluctance generators are described in this context. Also an overview of existing generator technology for these applications is given. The results gained suggest that switched reluctance machines can also advantageously be used as generators if the generating operation is considered within the design process. Compared with the existing technology a higher output power and efficiency is reached over the whole speed range. (orig.)

  5. A hybrid DEM-SPH model for deformable landslide and its generated surge waves (United States)

    Tan, Hai; Chen, Shenghong


    Reservoir bank landslide and its generated surge waves are catastrophic hazards which may give rise to additional sedimentation, destroy hydraulic structures, and even cause fatalities. Since this process is very complex involving landslide impact, wave generation and propagation, it cannot be well captured with traditional numerical approaches. In this paper, a hybrid DEM-SPH model is presented to simulate landslide and to reproduce its generated surge waves. This model consists of discrete element method (DEM) for solid phase and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) for fluid phase as well as drag force and buoyancy for solid-fluid interaction. Meanwhile, the δ-SPH algorithm is employed to eliminate spurious numerical noise on the pressure field. Submarine rigid block slide is numerically tested to validate the proposed hybrid model, and the computed wave profiles exhibit a satisfactory agreement with the experiment. The hybrid model is further extended towards the submarine granular deformable slide which generates smaller and less violent surge waves. Kinetic and potential energy of both solid and fluid particle system are extracted to throw a light upon the process of landslide water interaction from an energy perspective. Finally, a sensitivity analysis on particle friction coefficient indicates that the lubrication of the solid particles is another important effect influencing the underwater landslide movement in addition to the drag effect.

  6. Switching surge overvoltages on a feeding system of a MAGLEV train; Jiki fujoshiki tetsudo no kidenkei ni okeru kaihei surge kaden`atsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muragishi, H. [Nippon Yusoki Co. Ltd., Kyoto (Japan); Nakamura, Y.; Muraoka, N.; Ametani, A. [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)


    Discussions using simulations were given on surge overvoltages and earth fault surge overvoltage associated with operation of a section switchgear in a feeding system of a MAGLEV train. Results of the discussions may be summarized as follows: throw-in surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear is about 25 kV at maximum on the coil and about 15 kV on the cable sheath. The coil overvoltage increases as the closer to 90 degrees the throw-in phase approaches, and the greater the power supply frequency increases. The cable sheath overvoltage, however, is not affected by these environments. Breaking surge overvoltage caused by the section switchgear reaches 115 kV on the coil and about the same value on the cable sheath when the breaking current is 50 A. Earth fault surge overvoltage due to cable fault is 24 kV at maximum on the coil, while it reaches 32 kV on the cable sheath. The cable sheath overvoltage depends largely on sheath installing conditions. These overvoltages can be suppressed sufficiently lower than insulation levels of each device by installing arresters. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  7. Possibility Of Generating Significant Storm Surge On The Western Seaboard Of Metro Manila, Philippines (United States)

    Suarez, J. K. B.; Santiago, J. T.; Tablazon, J. P.; Dasallas, L. L.; Goting, P. G.; Lagmay, A. M. A.


    The Philippines, located in the Northwestern Pacific Typhoon gateway to Asia, is considered one of the most susceptible to tropical cyclone related hazards. One of the most disastrous effects of tropical cyclones is storm surge. With Metro Manila being a coastal area and the most populous region in the country, with approximately 12.8 million people residing in it, it is of great interest to determine the possibility of generating significant level of storm surge in the country's capital. The necessity to determine the storm surge susceptibility was brought upon by the effect of Typhoon Haiyan on eastern Visayas in 2013, where more than 6,000 people died and resulted to about 2.86 billion dollars' worth of damages. To achieve the objectives, the actual tracks and wind speed of historical typhoon (JMA data since 1951) was mapped for the Philippines. The simulated wind speed map shows that the maximum winds are mostly experienced on the eastern side of the country; with a considerable decrease in wind intensity as the typhoon reaches the western seaboard due to land surface. The Haiyan-strength wind speed is then applied to the actual historical typhoon tracks to determine the hypothetical values of wind speed as a typhoon with Haiyan intensity reached Metro Manila. Results show that, if a typhoon with a Haiyan-like intensity is to traverse tracks like those of Rita 1978, Collen 1992, Sybil 1995, Bebinca 2000 and Xangsane 2000, there is a huge possibility of generating storm surge height of 3.9 to 5.6 m in the western seaboard of Metro Manila, even after considering the diminishing effect of surface friction.

  8. Development of the Second-Generation Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Variable Geometry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Michael [South Dakota School of Mines


    This study investigates the effect of design changes on the hydrodynamics of a novel oscillating surge wave energy converter being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The design utilizes controllable geometry features to shed structural loads while maintaining a rated power over a greater number of sea states. The second-generation design will seek to provide a more refined control of performance because the first-generation design demonstrated performance reductions considered too large for smooth power output. Performance is evaluated using frequency domain analysis with consideration of a nonideal power-take-off system, with respect to power absorption, foundation loads, and power-take-off torque.

  9. Development of the Second-Generation Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter with Variable Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Yi-Hsiang [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Abbas, Nikhar [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Michael [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology


    This study investigates the effect of design changes on the hydrodynamics of a novel oscillating surge wave energy converter being developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The design utilizes controllable geometry features to shed structural loads while maintaining a rated power over a greater number of sea states. The second-generation design will seek to provide a more refined control of performance because the first-generation design demonstrated performance reductions considered too large for smooth power output. Performance is evaluated using frequency domain analysis with consideration of a nonideal power-take-off system, with respect to power absorption, foundation loads, and power-take-off torque.

  10. Advanced Direct-Drive Generator for Improved Availability of Oscillating Wave Surge Converter Power Generation Systems Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englebretson, Steven [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ouyang, Wen [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Tschida, Colin [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Carr, Joseph [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Ramanan, V.R. [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Johnson, Matthew [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Gardner, Matthew [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Toliyat, Hamid [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Staby, Bill [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Chertok, Allan [Resolute Marine Energy, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Hazra, Samir [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States); Bhattacharya, Subhashish [ABB Inc., Cary, NC (United States)


    This report summarizes the activities conducted under the DOE-EERE funded project DE-EE0006400, where ABB Inc. (ABB), in collaboration with Texas A&M’s Advanced Electric Machines & Power Electronics (EMPE) Lab and Resolute Marine Energy (RME) designed, derisked, developed, and demonstrated a novel magnetically geared electrical generator for direct-drive, low-speed, high torque MHK applications The project objective was to investigate a novel and compact direct-drive electric generator and its system aspects that would enable elimination of hydraulic components in the Power Take-Off (PTO) of a Marine and Hydrokinetic (MHK) system with an oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC), thereby improving the availability of the MHK system. The scope of this project was limited to the development and dry lab demonstration of a low speed generator to enable future direct drive MHK systems.

  11. Photoconductive switch enhancements for use in Blumlein pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davanloo, F.; Park, H.; Collins, C. B.; Agee, F. J.


    Stacked Blumlein pulse generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas have produced high-power waveforms with risetimes and repetition rates in the range of 0.2-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap or photoconductive switch. Adaptation of the design has enabled the stacked Blumleins to produce 80 MW, nanosecond pulses with risetimes better than 200 ps into nominally matched loads. The device has a compact line geometry and is commutated by a single GaAs photoconductive switch triggered by a low power laser diode array. Our current investigations involve the switch characteristics that affect the broadening of the current channels in the avalanche, pre-avalanche seedings, the switch lifetime and the durability. This report presents the progress toward improving the GaAs switch operation and lifetime in stacked Blumlein pulsers. Advanced switch treatments including diamond film overcoating are implemented and discussed

  12. Substorm associated radar auroral surges: a statistical study and possible generation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available Substorm-associated radar auroral surges (SARAS are a short lived (15–90 minutes and spatially localised (~5° of latitude perturbation of the plasma convection pattern observed within the auroral E-region. The understanding of such phenomena has important ramifications for the investigation of the larger scale plasma convection and ultimately the coupling of the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere system. A statistical investigation is undertaken of SARAS, observed by the Sweden And Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE, in order to provide a more extensive examination of the local time occurrence and propagation characteristics of the events. The statistical analysis has determined a local time occurrence of observations between 1420 MLT and 2200 MLT with a maximum occurrence centred around 1700 MLT. The propagation velocity of the SARAS feature through the SABRE field of view was found to be predominately L-shell aligned with a velocity centred around 1750 m s–1 and within the range 500 m s–1 and 3500 m s–1. This comprehensive examination of the SARAS provides the opportunity to discuss, qualitatively, a possible generation mechanism for SARAS based on a proposed model for the production of a similar phenomenon referred to as sub-auroral ion drifts (SAIDs. The results of the comparison suggests that SARAS may result from a similar geophysical mechanism to that which produces SAID events, but probably occurs at a different time in the evolution of the event.

    Key words. Substorms · Auroral surges · Plasma con-vection · Sub-auroral ion drifts

  13. The novel control method of switched reluctance generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusz Piotr


    Full Text Available In the paper, a novel control method of a switched reluctance generator was discussed. The presented control method allows a rotor rotating at high speed to enter the continuous-conduction mode which causes an increase of generated output power. A control function of the presented method was given as well as simulation and laboratory tests.

  14. Progress in UWB generation with linear silicon switches (United States)

    Cardwell, Kendall W.; Giorgi, David M.; McIntyre, Iain A.; Solone, Paul J.; Stuurman, K.; Zucker, Oved S. F.


    The use of linear photoconductive switches rather than nonlinear switches for the generation of Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) pulses provides advantages such as jitter-free operation, low losses, and a reduction of the electrical and mechanical stresses in the switch. These advantages lead to the operation of many switches in series and/or parallel, higher average powers and longer lifetimes. Energy Compression Research Corporation (ECR) has demonstrated an advanced UWB source based on light activated silicon switches (LASS). The UWB source consists of a single LASS device mounted on a low impedance (microstrip transmission line and a high fidelity impedance transformer connected to a 50 (Omega) coaxial connection. The voltage was measured at low impedance and 50 (Omega) to verify the efficiency and fidelity of the impedance transformer. After a transformation of 110:1 in impedance, the measurement at the end of the transformer verified that pulse rise-time was less than 100 ps and the overall efficiency was 50%. The system was tested up to 10 kV into 50 (Omega) before connector breakdown limited further increase. Larger powers can be radiated if the transformer is directly connected to the antenna.

  15. Energy Transformations in a Self-Excited Switched Reluctance Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Martinez-Iturbe


    Full Text Available Wind generation systems require mechanisms that allow optimal adaptation of the generator to varying wind speed and to extract maximum energy from the wind. Robust and affordable high-performance methods are also needed for isolated sites. This paper takes this approach, in which an AC switched reluctance generator is used as a generator with a variable rotor speed. Although the voltage obtained is of insufficient quality to connect the generator directly to the power grid, this kind of generator can be used in isolated sites to charge a battery bank with a simple bridge rectifier. Due to the nonlinear behavior of the machine with the position and current, along with the alternating nature of the current that circulates through its phases, the machine experiences cyclical energy transformations of a mechanical, electrical and magnetic nature. This paper analyzes these transformations for the purpose of providing guidelines for machine design and optimization as a wind turbine in isolated sites.

  16. Robust network topologies for generating switch-like cellular responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najaf A Shah


    Full Text Available Signaling networks that convert graded stimuli into binary, all-or-none cellular responses are critical in processes ranging from cell-cycle control to lineage commitment. To exhaustively enumerate topologies that exhibit this switch-like behavior, we simulated all possible two- and three-component networks on random parameter sets, and assessed the resulting response profiles for both steepness (ultrasensitivity and extent of memory (bistability. Simulations were used to study purely enzymatic networks, purely transcriptional networks, and hybrid enzymatic/transcriptional networks, and the topologies in each class were rank ordered by parametric robustness (i.e., the percentage of applied parameter sets exhibiting ultrasensitivity or bistability. Results reveal that the distribution of network robustness is highly skewed, with the most robust topologies clustering into a small number of motifs. Hybrid networks are the most robust in generating ultrasensitivity (up to 28% and bistability (up to 18%; strikingly, a purely transcriptional framework is the most fragile in generating either ultrasensitive (up to 3% or bistable (up to 1% responses. The disparity in robustness among the network classes is due in part to zero-order ultrasensitivity, an enzyme-specific phenomenon, which repeatedly emerges as a particularly robust mechanism for generating nonlinearity and can act as a building block for switch-like responses. We also highlight experimentally studied examples of topologies enabling switching behavior, in both native and synthetic systems, that rank highly in our simulations. This unbiased approach for identifying topologies capable of a given response may be useful in discovering new natural motifs and in designing robust synthetic gene networks.

  17. Soft switching buck-boost converter for photovoltaic power generation; Taiyoko hatsuden no tame no soft switching shokoatsu converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H. [Kyungnam University (Korea, Republic of)


    A soft switching method with small switching loss was proposed for the purpose of increasing the efficiency of a DC-DC boost converter which converted a DC current generated by solar cells to a variable DC current. Existing current converters are supplemented by using a snubber circuit around the switch so as to protect the switch by a hard switching action. However, with an increase of the output current, snubber loss is increased, reducing the efficiency. In order to solve this problem, the partial resonant switch method was applied to the converter; with this method of partially forming a resonant circuit only at the time of turning on/off of the switch, the switching loss was reduced through the soft switching, thereby making the proposed converter operate with high efficiency. Moreover, the resonant element of the partial resonant circuit using a snubber condenser, the energy accumulated in the condenser was regenerated on the power supply side without loss of snubber. With the regenerated energy, the proposed converter was provided with a smaller ratio of switching to use than the conventional converter. 4 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Column Generation for Transmission Switching of Electricity Networks with Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, Andy B.


    This paper presents the problem of finding the minimum cost dispatch and commitment of power generation units in a transmission network with active switching.We use the term active switching to denote the use of switches to optimize network topology in an operational context. We propose a Dantzig......-Wolfe reformulation and a novel column generation framework to solve the problem efficiently. Preliminary results are presented for the IEEE-118 bus network with 19 generator units. Active switching is shown to reduce total cost by up to 15 % for a particular 24-hour period. Furthermore, the need for generator...

  19. Reversible Photochemical Control of Singlet Oxygen Generation Using Diarylethene Photochromic Switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hou, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pijper, Thomas C.; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard


    Reversible noninvasive control over the generation of singlet oxygen is demonstrated in a bicomponent system comprising a diarylethene photochromic switch and a porphyrin photosensitizer by selective irradiation at distinct wavelengths. The efficient generation of singlet oxygen by the

  20. A Study on EMTP-Analysis Model for Switch-Board SPD with Gap and Propagation Characteristics of Lightning Surge on Simple Indoor Distribution Line (United States)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiki; Miyazaki, Teru; Okabe, Shigemitsu

    The numbers of damages of home electric appliances due to lightning surges have recently increased. Installing Surge Protective Devices (SPDs) for indoor distribution line is one of countermeasures against the damages, and is also spreading after an amendment of the regulation on indoor wires in 2005. Past studies have showed that the SPDs installed on the switchboard are effective for protecting all the equipment supplied by indoor distribution lines against lightning strokes. However, it is difficult to evaluate the protective effects of the SPDs against lightning strikes when considering complex indoor wires in houses. Thus, a high-precision analysis method is required to clarify the lightning performance of the SPDs for interior wiring. In this research, experiments were conducted to grasp the protective effects of the SPDs installed on a switchboard against lightning surges invading into a house, and an analysis model by the EMTP was proposed. The calculated results relatively agreed with the experimental results.

  1. A Switched Capacitor Based AC/DC Resonant Converter for High Frequency AC Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuidong Xu


    Full Text Available A switched capacitor based AC-DC resonant power converter is proposed for high frequency power generation output conversion. This converter is suitable for small scale, high frequency wind power generation. It has a high conversion ratio to provide a step down from high voltage to low voltage for easy use. The voltage conversion ratio of conventional switched capacitor power converters is fixed to n, 1/n or −1/n (n is the switched capacitor cell. In this paper, A circuit which can provide n, 1/n and 2n/m of the voltage conversion ratio is presented (n is stepping up the switched capacitor cell, m is stepping down the switching capacitor cell. The conversion ratio can be changed greatly by using only two switches. A resonant tank is used to assist in zero current switching, and hence the current spike, which usually exists in a classical switching switched capacitor converter, can be eliminated. Both easy operation and efficiency are possible. Principles of operation, computer simulations and experimental results of the proposed circuit are presented. General analysis and design methods are given. The experimental result verifies the theoretical analysis of high frequency AC power generation.

  2. Analysis of Switch Performance on the Mercury Pulsed-Power Generator (United States)


    ANALYSIS OF SWITCH PERFORMANCE ON THE MERCURY PULSED- POWER GENERATOR* T. A. Holt†, R. J. Allen, R. C. Fisher†, R. J. Commisso Naval Research...JUN 2005 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Analysis Of Switch Performance On The Mercury Pulsedpower Generator 5a...Work supported by LANL, LLNL, SNL. † Titan Corp., Reston, VA 20190 Abstract Mercury , Figure 1, is a

  3. Inland-directed base surge generated by the explosive interaction of pyroclastic flows and seawater at Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat (United States)

    Edmonds, Marie; Herd, Richard A.


    The largest and most intense lava-dome collapse during the eruption of Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, 1995–2004, occurred 12–13 July 2003. The dome collapse involved around 200 × 106 m3 of material and was associated with a phenomenon previously unknown at this volcano. Large pyroclastic flows at the peak of the dome collapse interacted explosively with seawater at the mouth of the Tar River Valley and generated a hot, dry base surge that flowed 4 km inland and 300 m uphill. The surge was destructive to at least 25 m above the ground and it carbonized vegetation. The resulting two-layer deposits were as much as 0.9 m thick. Although the entire collapse lasted 18 h, the base surge greatly increased the land area affected by the dome collapse in a few minutes at the peak of the event, illustrating the complex nature of the interaction between pyroclastic flows and seawater.

  4. Switching robust control for ozone generators using the attractive ellipsoid method. (United States)

    Poznyak, T; Chairez, I; Perez, C; Poznyak, A


    This paper deals with a switching robust tracking feedback design for a corona-effect ozone generator. The generator is considered as a switched systems in the presence of bounded model uncertainties as well as external perturbations. Three nonlinear dynamic models under arbitrary switching mechanisms are considered assuming that a sample-switching times are known. The stabilization issue is achieved in the sense of a practical stability. We apply the newly elaborated (extended) version of the conventional attractive ellipsoid method (AEM) for this purpose. The same analysis was efficient to obtain the minimal size of region where the tracking error between the trajectories of the ozone generator and reference states converges. The numerically implementable sufficient conditions for the practical stability of systems are derived based on bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs). Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of BJTs as Closing Switch of Miniaturized Marx Generator


    Yamada, Chiemi; Ueno, Takahisa; Namihira, Takao; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; ヤマダ, チエミ; ウエノ, タカヒサ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; サクガワ, タカシ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 山田, 千恵美; 上野, 崇寿; 浪平, 隆男


    The micro plasma technology is used in various fieldssuch as processing or chemical analysis of minutematerial, short-wavelength light source, and plasmafunction device. The plasmas can be generated by anelectric discharge. The miniaturized generator was used toproduce these plasmas in the micro-scale area. For suchbackground, the miniaturized Marx generator which hasBipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs) as closing switcheswas developed to generate micro plasmas. In theminiaturized Marx generat...

  6. Rapid salinization of a karst aquifer after a typhoon-generated storm surge: Hydraulics, geochemistry, and community impact (United States)

    Bennett, P.; Cardenas, M. B.; Zamora, P. B.; Befus, K. M.; Rodolfo, R. S.; Cabria, H. B.; Lapus, M. R.; Muan, M.


    Super Typhoon (STY) Haiyan made landfall in the Philippines with sustained winds of 315 kph producing a 7+ meter storm surge that inundated parts of Leyte and Samar; >8000 died, > 106 homes were destroyed, and thousands of people are still missing. The surge reached 1 km inland and resulted in widespread seawater (SW) contamination of groundwater (GW) resources critical for coastal villages. We conducted field-work in a village of ~2200 residents, inundated by a 5-6 m surge, 2 months and again 8 months after STY Haiyan. The 330+ shallow tube wells (STWs) had been drilled through beach sand into karstic reef carbonates to 5-20m below the water table (WT). Residents reported their STWs salinized immediately after the storm, even the deepest wells, and the only source of fresh water was a karst spring 1 km from the village. 2 months after the storm GW salinity was up to 18% SW. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was used to image salt distribution in the surficial aquifer alongside the developed village. ERT detected an electrically conductive layer ~1m below the WT, and water sampling confirmed that this was due to infiltrated seawater. Variable-density flow and transport models corroborate the ER tomograms and show that the salt is infiltrating through the aquifer and slowly flushing to the ocean. We hypothesize that SW rapidly infiltrated the ~2m sandy unsaturated zone and contaminated the shallow GW over a wide area. This salt layer is slowly sinking and flushing toward the ocean, and flow models show that it might be several years to flush the system. Results from a second ERT survey 6 months later show little change in the ER field, consistent with model predictions. But karst features and the STWs themselves served as preferential paths into the aquifer for SW injection to the deeper zone under the 6m surge potential, salinizing deep wells ahead of the advancing shallow SW layer. These wells have seen substantial decrease in salinity over 6 months, as much

  7. Combined flux compression and plasma opening switch on the Saturn pulsed power generator. (United States)

    Felber, Franklin S; Waisman, Eduardo M; Mazarakis, Michael G


    A wire-array flux-compression cartridge installed on Sandia's Saturn pulsed power generator doubled the current into a 3-nH load to 6 MA and halved its rise time to 100 ns. The current into the load, however, was unexpectedly delayed by almost 1 micros. Estimates of a plasma flow switch acting as a long-conduction-time opening switch are consistent with key features of the power compression. The results suggest that microsecond-conduction-time plasma flow switches can be combined with flux compression both to amplify currents and to sharpen pulse rise times in pulsed power drivers.

  8. Silicon switch development for optical pulse generation in fusion lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.


    We have been developing a silicon photoconductive switch for use as a Pockels cell driver in the pulse generation systems of the fusion lasers Nova and Novette. The objective has been to make 10 kV switches repeatably and which are reliable on an operating system. We found that nonlinear phenomena in nearly intrinsic silicon caused excessive conduction at high voltage resulting in breakdown. Our experiments with doped material show that this problem can be eliminated, resulting in useful devices

  9. Spontaneous class switch recombination in B cell lymphopoiesis generates aberrant switch junctions and is increased after VDJ rearrangement. (United States)

    Edry, Efrat; Koralov, Sergei B; Rajewsky, Klaus; Melamed, Doron


    Mature B cells replace the mu constant region of the H chain with a downstream isotype in a process of class switch recombination (CSR). Studies suggest that CSR induction is limited to activated mature B cells in the periphery. Recently, we have shown that CSR spontaneously occur in B lymphopoiesis. However, the mechanism and regulation of it have not been defined. In this study, we show that spontaneous CSR occurs at all stages of B cell development and generates aberrant joining of the switch junctions as revealed by: 1) increased load of somatic mutations around the CSR break points, 2) reduced sequence overlaps at the junctions, and 3) excessive switch region deletion. In addition, we found that incidence of spontaneous CSR is increased in cells carrying VDJ rearrangements. Our results reveal major differences between spontaneous CSR in developing B cells and CSR induced in mature B cells upon activation. These differences can be explained by deregulated expression or function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase early in B cell development.

  10. A New Switching Impulse Generator Based on Transformer Boosting and Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor Trigger Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ren


    Full Text Available To make the switching impulse (SI generator more compact, portable and feasible in field tests, a new approach based on transformer boosting was developed. To address problems such as triggering synchronization and electromagnetic interference involved with the traditional spark gap, an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT module with drive circuit was employed as the impulse trigger. An optimization design for the component parameters of the primary winding side of the transformer was realized by numerical calculation and error correction. Experiment showed that the waveform parameters of SI and oscillating switching impulse (OSI voltages generated by the new generator were consistent with the numerical calculation and the error correction. The generator was finally built on a removable high voltage transformer with small size. Thus the volume of the generator is significantly reduced. Experiments showed that the waveform parameters of SI and OSI voltages generated by the new generator were basically consistent with the numerical calculation and the error correction.

  11. Analysis of Switching Transient Overvoltages in the Power System of Floating Production Storage and Offloading Vessel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, H.; Popov, M.


    Large transient overvoltages are normally caused by vacuum circuit breaker (VCB) switching operation during disconnection of induction motors. In this paper VCBs, cables, generators, busbars, induction motors and surge arresters are modeled by making use of ATP-EMTP. Switching transient overvoltages

  12. Rotor Position Estimation for Switched Reluctance Wind Generator Using Extreme Learning Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe


    Switched reluctance generator (SRG) is becoming more and more attractive in wind energy applications mainly because of its high fault tolerant ability and high reliability. The position sensor is one of the vulnerable points of the SRG when exposed to harsh environments such as offshore where man...... and rotor poles . The effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed position estimation method are verified by simulation at various operating conditions.......Switched reluctance generator (SRG) is becoming more and more attractive in wind energy applications mainly because of its high fault tolerant ability and high reliability. The position sensor is one of the vulnerable points of the SRG when exposed to harsh environments such as offshore where many...... wind turbines are operating. Fast and accurate rotor position estimation is essential to promote the sensorless control as well as sensor fault tolerant operation of the SRG, which may improve the reliability of the system. This paper presents a rotor position sensorless estimation scheme for Switched...

  13. Generation of high voltages in plasma flow switch experiments at ten megamperes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alme, M.L.; Bird, G.; Boyer, C.; Coffey, S.K.; Conte, D.; Davis, J.F.; Seiler, S.W.; Turchi, P.J.; Baker, W.L.; Degnan, J.H.


    The Plasma Flow Switch utilizes the dynamics of a plasma discharge in vacuum to accumulate magnetic energy in several microseconds and then release this energy to a load region of a new hundred nanoseconds. Experiments have previously been performed using the plasma flow switch on the Shiva Star capacitor bank to drive imploding plasma loads at multimegajoule, multimegampere levels. Recently, experiments have been conducted in which a portion of the switch plasma is used as the current carrying load. These experiments employed the Shiva Star capacitor bank, charged initially to 84 kV (4.6 MJ) to achieve currents in excess of 10 megamperes at the switch region. Comparisons of voltage measurements in the bank transmission line with numerical simulations (MACH2 computer code) indicate that the low density, very high speed flow in the switch supports voltages in excess of 0.5 megavolts at the coaxial gun muzzle. Measurements of hard X-radiation (> 10-100 keV) imply the existence of high energy electrons and are consistent with the generation of high voltages in the plasma flow switch. The relationship of the high voltage pulse and hard X-ray output to the dynamics of the magnetized plasma flow will be discussed

  14. Electrical tuning and switching of an optical frequency comb generated in aluminum nitride microring resonators. (United States)

    Jung, Hojoong; Fong, King Y; Xiong, Chi; Tang, Hong X


    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has been shown to possess both strong Kerr nonlinearity and electro-optic Pockels effect. By combining these two effects, here we demonstrate on-chip reversible on/off switching of the optical frequency comb generated by an AlN microring resonator. We optimize the design of gating electrodes and the underneath resonator structure to effectively apply an electric field without increasing the optical loss. The switching of the comb is monitored by measuring one of the frequency comb peaks while varying the electric field. The controlled comb electro-optic response is investigated for direct comparison with the transient thermal effect.

  15. A polynomial approach for generating a monoparametric family of chaotic attractors via switched linear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre-Hernández, B.; Campos-Cantón, E.; López-Renteria, J.A.; Díaz González, E.C.


    In this paper, we consider characteristic polynomials of n-dimensional systems that determine a segment of polynomials. One parameter is used to characterize this segment of polynomials in order to determine the maximal interval of dissipativity and unstability. Then we apply this result to the generation of a family of attractors based on a class of unstable dissipative systems (UDS) of type affine linear systems. This class of systems is comprised of switched linear systems yielding strange attractors. A family of these chaotic switched systems is determined by the maximal interval of perturbation of the matrix that governs the dynamics for still having scroll attractors

  16. Pressure surge attenuator (United States)

    Christie, Alan M.; Snyder, Kurt I.


    A pressure surge attenuation system for pipes having a fluted region opposite crushable metal foam. As adapted for nuclear reactor vessels and heads, crushable metal foam is disposed to attenuate pressure surges.

  17. Solid State Switch Application for the LHC Extraction Kicker Pulse Generator

    CERN Document Server

    Carlier, E; Jansson, U; Schlaug, M; Schröder, G; Vossenberg, Eugène B


    A semiconductor solid state switch has been constructed and tested in the prototype extraction kicker pulse generator of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) [1]. The switch is made of 10 modified 4.5 kV, 66 mm symmetric GTO's (also called FHCT-Fast High Current Thyristor), connected in series. It holds off a d.c. voltage of 30 kV and conducts a 5 µs half-sine wave current of 20 kA with an initial di/dt of 10 kA/µs. Major advantages of the switch are the extremely low self-firing hazard, no power consumption during the ready-to-go status, instantaneous availability, simple condition control, very low noise emission during soft turn-on switching and easy maintenance. However, the inherent soft, relatively slow turn-on time is a non negligible part of the required rise time and this involves adaptation of generator components. A dynamic current range of 16 is achieved with variations in rise time, which stay within acceptable limits. Important generator improvements have been made with the series diodes and fre...

  18. Field-Distortion Air-Insulated Switches for Next-Generation Pulsed-Power Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisher, Matthew Louis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johns, Owen M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Breden, Eric Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Calhoun, Jacob Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gruner, Frederick Rusticus [Kinetech LLC, Cedar Crest, NM (United States); Hohlfelder, Robert James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mulville, Thomas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muron, David J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stoltzfus, Brian S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stygar, William A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We have developed two advanced designs of a field-distortion air-insulated spark-gap switch that reduce the size of a linear-transformer-driver (LTD) brick. Both designs operate at 200 kV and a peak current of ~50 kA. At these parameters, both achieve a jitter of less than 2 ns and a prefire rate of ~0.1% over 5000 shots. We have reduced the number of switch parts and assembly steps, which has resulted in a more uniform, design-driven assembly process. We will characterize the performance of tungsten-copper and graphite electrodes, and two different electrode geometries. The new switch designs will substantially improve the electrical and operational performance of next-generation pulsed-power accelerators.

  19. Power Electronic Systems for Switched Reluctance Generator based Wind Farms and DC Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo

    . Under these circumstances, research on dc network connection with a novel wind power generator system is presented in this thesis, which mainly consists of two major parts: control of a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) system and development of dc-dc converters for a dc network system in a wind farm...... for generators in wind turbine systems. However, despite all these advantageous features, the SRG has not been widely employed in wind energy applications. The most renowned technical disadvantages of the SRG are its nonlinearity and high torque ripples, which should be overcome to promote the application...... are presented to verify the feasibility and operational principles of the proposed converters. Finally, modelling and control of a dc-grid wind farm using one of the proposed dc-dc converters are presented. An average model provides insight into the overall performance of the system. Meanwhile, a switching...

  20. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Z. L.; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.


    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.

  1. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with experimental results. Keywords. Metal oxide surge arrester models; PSO; ACO; parameter estimation;. EMTP. 1. Introduction. Metal oxide (MO) surge arresters are widely used as protective devices against switching and lightning over-voltages in power systems. The proper nonlinear voltage-current characteristics,. ∗.

  2. Stress waves generated in thin metallic films by a Q-switched ruby laser (United States)

    Yang, L. C.


    Investigation results on stress waves generated by Q-switched ruby laser irradiated thin metal films under confinement, studied over a wide range of film materials and film thicknesses, are reviewed. The results indicate that the dependence on these parameters is much weaker than is predicted by heat transfer estimations commonly used to describe the interaction of laser irradiation with unconfined bulk-solid surfaces.

  3. A Fault Diagnostic Method for Position Sensor of Switched Reluctance Wind Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Liu, Hui


    Fast and accurate fault diagnosis of the position sensor is of great significance to ensure the reliability as well as sensor fault tolerant operation of the Switched Reluctance Wind Generator (SRWG). This paper presents a fault diagnostic scheme for a SRWG based on the residual between the estim...... conditions. The results provide a feasible theoretical and technical basis for the effective condition monitoring and predictive maintenance of SRWG....

  4. The Switching Generator: New Clock-Controlled Generator with Resistance against the Algebraic and Side Channel Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Choi


    Full Text Available Since Advanced Encryption Standard (AES in stream modes, such as counter (CTR, output feedback (OFB and cipher feedback (CFB, can meet most industrial requirements, the range of applications for dedicated stream ciphers is decreasing. There are many attack results using algebraic properties and side channel information against stream ciphers for hardware applications. Al-Hinai et al. presented an algebraic attack approach to a family of irregularly clock-controlled linear feedback shift register systems: the stop and go generator, self-decimated generator and alternating step generator. Other clock-controlled systems, such as shrinking and cascade generators, are indeed vulnerable against side channel attacks. To overcome these threats, new clock-controlled systems were presented, e.g., the generalized alternating step generator, cascade jump-controlled generator and mutual clock-controlled generator. However, the algebraic attack could be applied directly on these new systems. In this paper, we propose a new clock-controlled generator: the switching generator, which has resistance to algebraic and side channel attacks. This generator also preserves both security properties and the efficiency of existing clock-controlled generators.

  5. Rotor Position Estimation for Switched Reluctance Wind Generator Using Extreme Learning Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe


    Switched reluctance generator (SRG) is becoming more and more attractive in wind energy applications mainly because of its high fault tolerant ability and high reliability. The position sensor is one of the vulnerable points of the SRG when exposed to harsh environments such as offshore where many...... Reluctance Wind Generator (SRWG) based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) which could build a nonlinear mapping between flux linkage-current and rotor position. The learning data are derived from magnetization curves of the SRWG which are obtained from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of an SRG with 8/6 stator...

  6. Characteristics Analysis of an Excitation Assistance Switched Reluctance Wind Power Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Wang, Chao; Chen, Zhe


    In order to fully analyze the characteristics of an excitation assistance switched reluctance generator (EASRG) applied in wind power generation, a static model and a dynamic model are proposed. The static model is based on the 3-D finite-element method (FEM), which can be used to obtain the static...... magnetization and torque characteristics. The dynamic model, consisting of two lookup tables to describe the EASRG under different current and rotor positions, is built in Simulink to avoid the long computation time of a 3-D FEM model. The dynamic model is able to provide a more realistic assessment...

  7. A non-unity torque sharing function for torque ripple minimization of switched reluctance generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe


    This paper presents a new torque ripple minimization technique for a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG). Although the SRG has many advantageous characteristics as a generator, it has not been widely employed in the industry. One of the most notorious disadvantages of the SRG is its high torque...... ripple. In this paper, a non-unity Torque Sharing Function (TSF) is proposed to minimize the torque ripple over a wide speed range of operation. Simulation results are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed torque ripple minimization technique....

  8. Development of the RTP crystal applications for Q-switching operation and second harmonics generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alnayli, R.Sh.


    Complete text of publication follows. A dialed theoretical studies on performances of the ideal RTP crystal for the electro optical applications as Q-switching laser operation and for nonlinear optics application as second harmonics generation are accomplished in this paper. Single or pair RTP crystal of excellent quality with dimensions 5 x 5 x 7.5 mm 3 have proposed as element model to combined Q-switching operation and frequency doublers for 1.06 μm wave length laser. In order to get and interpolate the optimum conditions to combined both of these operations by application this RTP model. The main am of this work was investigated the most influent parameters on the performance of the electro optical Q-switching laser operation such as, the voltage requirement, contrast and extinction ratios, the birefringence effective and withstand threshold on the other hand the influences of the ray walk off, thermal effective on the efficiency of the second harmonics generation as well are investigated. The results were satisfied for the goals of this paper.

  9. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex (United States)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G.


    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  10. Gas spark switches with increased operating life for Marx generator of lightning test complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bykov, Yu. A.; Krastelev, E. G., E-mail: [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperature (Russian Federation)


    A new design of gas spark switches with an increased operating life and stable dynamic characteristics for the Marx generator of the lightning test complex has been developed. The switches are characterized by the following parameters in the mode of operation: voltage up to 80 kV, discharge current up to 50 kA, flowing charge up to 3.5 C/pulse. An increased operating life is achieved by using torus-shaped electrodes with increased working surface area and a trigger electrode in the form of a thick disk with a hole located between them. Low breakdown delay time and high stability of breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas preionization in the spark gap using UV radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region.

  11. Dynamics of surges generated by hydrothermal blasts during the 6 August 2012 Te Maari eruption, Mt. Tongariro, New Zealand (United States)

    Lube, Gert; Breard, Eric C. P.; Cronin, Shane J.; Procter, Jonathan N.; Brenna, Marco; Moebis, Anja; Pardo, Natalia; Stewart, Robert B.; Jolly, Arthur; Fournier, Nicolas


    The 6 August 2012 Te Maari eruption produced violent and widespread "cold" Pyroclastic Density Currents (PDCs) following unroofing of the pressurized hydrothermal system. Despite an erupted volume of only ~ 5 × 105 m3, and lacking any juvenile component, the 340,000 m3 of PDCs spread over an area of 6.1 km2 and had mobilities that were on the order of volcanic blasts or blast-like PDCs. This great mobility was due to strong lateral focussing of explosion energy, producing jets with initial velocities > 100 m/s. We present a type-stratigraphy for these hydrothermal-derived low-temperature PDCs that show a tripartite deposit sequence. Each of the deposit units dominates respectively three outward-gradational sedimentary facies, reflecting transitions in the propagating PDC transport and depositional mechanisms. The largest PDCs, directed west and east of the Upper Te Maari area were generated from outer-cone breccias and tuffs that were mostly highly hydrothermally altered. Landsliding and the geometry of the hydrothermal area led to the directed jetting. Initial particle-laden jets laid sheets, grading into lobes of proximal massive sand to gravel-rich facies dominated by unit A and extending up to 1 km from the vents. As the jets were collapsing, a vertically and longitudinally stratified PDC developed within the first few hundred metres from source. Exponential thinning and coarse-tail grading-dominated fining with radial distance of massive unit A resulted from fast deposition and progressive depletion of the most concentrated flow region behind the PDC head. Markedly slower tractional sedimentation from the passing PDC body and tail deposited the highly stratified and ripple-bedded fine-coarse ash of unit B. This formed distinctive dune fields of the medial dune-bedded ash-rich facies. Upwards in depositional sequences the waning of the current can be seen, by replacement of higher-energy bedforms to progressively lower ones. Downstream progressive waning and

  12. A Tesla-pulse forming line-plasma opening switch pulsed power generator (United States)

    Novac, B. M.; Kumar, R.; Smith, I. R.


    A pulsed power generator based on a high-voltage Tesla transformer which charges a 3.85 Ω/55 ns water-filled pulse forming line to 300 kV has been developed at Loughborough University as a training tool for pulsed power students. The generator uses all forms of insulation specific to pulsed power technology, liquid (oil and water), gas (SF6), and magnetic insulation in vacuum, and a number of fast voltage and current sensors are implemented for diagnostic purposes. A miniature (centimeter-size) plasma opening switch has recently been coupled to the output of the pulse forming line, with the overall system comprising the first phase of a program aimed at the development of a novel repetitive, table-top generator capable of producing 15 GW pulses for high power microwave loads. Technical details of all the generator components and the main experimental results obtained during the program and demonstrations of their performance are presented in the paper, together with a description of the various diagnostic tools involved. In particular, it is shown that the miniature plasma opening switch is capable of reducing the rise time of the input current while significantly increasing the load power. Future plans are outlined in the conclusions.

  13. Note: Compact, reusable inductive-storage-cum-opening-switch based 1.5 GW single-shot pulsed power generator (United States)

    Shukla, Rohit; Shyam, Anurag


    The results of a very-compact (Marx generator-cum-inductor confined into 0.20 m cylindrical diameter and 0.75 m length) and light-weight (Marx generator used as primary energy source and opening switch of exploding wire) make device very attractive. Marx generator shape itself provides the desired inductance for the inductive storage.

  14. A Vertical Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Based Oscillating Wave Power Generator with Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zou


    Full Text Available In this paper, an effective low-speed oscillating wave power generator and its energy storage system have been proposed. A vertical flux-switching permanent magnet (PM machine is designed as the generator while supercapacitors and batteries are used to store the energy. First, the overall power generation system is established and principles of the machine are introduced. Second, three modes are proposed for the energy storage system and sliding mode control (SMC is employed to regulate the voltage of the direct current (DC bus, observe the mechanical input, and feedback the status of the storage system. Finally, experiments with load and sinusoidal mechanical inputs are carried out to validate the effectiveness and stability of power generation for wave energy. The results show that the proposed power generation system can be employed in low-speed environment around 1 m/s to absorb random wave power, achieving over 60% power efficiency. The power generation approach can be used to capture wave energy in the future.

  15. High Power, Repetitive, Stacked Blumlein Pulse Generators Commuted by a Single Switching Element (United States)

    Bhawalkar, Jayant Dilip

    In this work, the stacked Blumlein pulsers developed at the University of Texas at Dallas were characterized and shown to be versatile sources of pulse power for a variety of applications. These devices consisted of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines were charged in parallel and synchronously commuted repetitively with a single switching element at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages were multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load without the need for complex Marx bank circuitry. Several pulser parameters such as the number of stacked Blumlein lines, line configuration, type of switching element, and the length of the lines, were varied and the waveform characteristics were observed and analyzed. It was shown that these devices are capable of generating fast rising waveforms with a wide range of peak voltage and current values. The generation of high power waveforms with pulse durations in the range of 80-600 ns was demonstrated without degradation of the voltage gains. The results of this work indicated that unlike generators based on stacked transmission lines, the effects of parasitic modes were not appreciable for the stacked Blumlein pulsers. Opportunities for tactically packaging these pulsers were also investigated and a significant reduction in their size and weight was demonstrated. For this, dielectric lifetime and Blumlein spacing studies were performed on small scale prototypes. In addition to production of intense X-ray pulses, the possible applications for these novel pulsers include driving magnetrons for high power microwave generation, pumping laser media, or powering e-beam diodes. They could also serve as compact, tabletop sources of high power pulses for various research experiments.

  16. Control system of mutually coupled switched reluctance motor drive of mining machines in generator mode (United States)

    Ivanov, A. S.; Kalanchin, I. Yu; Pugacheva, E. E.


    One of the first electric motors, based on the use of electromagnets, was a reluctance motor in the XIX century. Due to the complexities in the implementation of control system the development of switched reluctance electric machines was repeatedly initiated only in 1960 thanks to the development of computers and power electronic devices. The main feature of these machines is the capacity to work both in engine mode and in generator mode. Thanks to a simple and reliable design in which there is no winding of the rotor, commutator, permanent magnets, a reactive gate-inductor electric drive operating in the engine mode is actively being introduced into various areas such as car industry, production of household appliances, wind power engineering, as well as responsible production processes in the oil and mining industries. However, the existing shortcomings of switched reluctance electric machines, such as nonlinear pulsations of electromagnetic moment, the presence of three or four phase supply system and sensor of rotor position prevent wide distribution of this kind of electric machines.

  17. Lower switch rate in depressed patients with bipolar II than bipolar I disorder treated adjunctively with second-generation antidepressants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altshuler, LL; Suppes, T; Nolen, WA; Leverich, G; Keck, PE; Frye, MA; Kupka, R; McElroy, SL; Grunze, H; Kitchen, CMR; Post, R; Black, D.O.

    Objectives: The authors compared the switch rate into hypomania/mania in depressed patients treated with second-generation antidepressants who had either bipolar I or bipolar II disorder. Method: In a 10-week trial, 184 outpatients with bipolar depression (134 with bipolar I disorder, 48 with

  18. Measurement and Evidence of Computer-Based Task Switching and Multitasking by "Net Generation" Students (United States)

    Judd, Terry; Kennedy, Gregor


    Logs of on-campus computer and Internet usage were used to conduct a study of computer-based task switching and multitasking by undergraduate medical students. A detailed analysis of over 6000 individual sessions revealed that while a majority of students engaged in both task switching and multitasking behaviours, they did so less frequently than…

  19. "Smart inhibition": electrophysiological evidence for the suppression of conflict-generating task rules during task switching. (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Chang, Chi-Chih


    A major challenge for task switching is maintaining a balance between high task readiness and effectively ignoring irrelevant task rules. This calls for finely tuned inhibition that targets only the source of interference without adversely influencing other task-related representations. The authors show that irrelevant task rules generating response conflict are inhibited, causing their inefficient execution on the next trial (indicating the presence of competitor rule suppression[CRS];Meiran, Hsieh, & Dimov, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36, 992-1002, 2010). To determine whether CRS influences task rules, rather than target stimuli or responses, the authors focused on the processing of the task cue before the target stimulus was presented and before the response could be chosen. As was predicted, CRS was found in the event-related potentials in two time windows during task cue processing. It was also found in three time windows after target presentation. Source localization analyses suggest the involvement of the right dorsal prefrontal cortex in all five time windows.

  20. Software-Controlled Next Generation Optical Circuit Switching for HPC and Cloud Computing Datacenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the performance of optical circuit switching (OCS systems designed for data center networks by using network-level simulation. Recent proposals have used OCS in data center networks but the relatively slow switching times of OCS-MEMS switches (10–100 ms and the latencies of control planes in these approaches have limited their use to the largest data center networks with workloads that last several seconds. Herein, we extend the applicability and generality of these studies by considering dynamically changing short-lived circuits in software-controlled OCS switches, using the faster switching technologies that are now available. The modelled switch architecture features fast optical switches in a single hop topology with a centralized, software-defined optical control plane. We model different workloads with various traffic aggregation parameters to investigate the performance of such designs across usage patterns. Our results show that, with suitable choices for the OCS system parameters, delay performance comparable to that of electrical data center networks can be obtained.

  1. Positive Surge Propagation in Sloping Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Pietro Viero


    Full Text Available A simplified model for the upstream propagation of a positive surge in a sloping, rectangular channel is presented. The model is based on the assumptions of a flat water surface and negligible energy dissipation downstream of the surge, which is generated by the instantaneous closure of a downstream gate. Under these hypotheses, a set of equations that depends only on time accurately describes the surge wave propagation. When the Froude number of the incoming flow is relatively small, an approximate analytical solution is also proposed. The predictive ability of the model is validated by comparing the model results with the results of an experimental investigation and with the results of a numerical model that solves the full shallow water equations.

  2. Dynamic modeling of wind turbine based axial flux permanent magnetic synchronous generator connected to the grid with switch reduced converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Dehghanzadeh


    Full Text Available This paper studies the power electronic converters for grid connection of axial flux permanent magnetic synchronous generators (AFPMSG based variable speed wind turbine. In this paper, a new variable speed wind turbine with AFPMSG and Z-source inverter is proposed to improve number of switches and topology reliability. Besides, dynamic modeling of AFPMSG is presented to analyze grid connection of the proposed topology. The Z-source inverter controls maximum power point tracking (MPPT and delivering power to the grid. Therefore other DC–DC chopper is not required to control the rectified output voltage of generator in view of MPPT. As a result, the proposed topology requires less power electronic switches and the suggested system is more reliable against short circuit. The ability of proposed energy conversion system with AFPMSG is validated with simulation results and experimental results using PCI-1716 data acquisition system.

  3. Control of the LH surge mechanism in the female pig. (United States)

    Elsaesser, F; Parvizi, N; Foxcroft, G R


    The functionality of the oestrogen-positive feedback mechanism is the basis for the preovulatory LH surge and thus for regular cyclic activity in the sow. The LH surge mechanism (LH SM) gradually matures as a function of age, immature gilts display delayed, low amplitude LH surges in response to oestradiol benzoate (OB). The maturation of the LH SM apparently is ovarian oestrogen-dependent. Continuous ovarian secretions, probably oestrogens, also appear to be necessary for the final peripubertal maturation of the LH SM and to maintain the functionality of this mechanism in the sexually mature gilt. Superphysiological levels of oestrogens are, however, detrimental to the development of the LH SM. Failure of various infusions of the opioid antagonist naloxone during the surge period to enhance the magnitude of OB-induced LH surges in immature gilts does not support the idea, that central opioidergic systems are of major importance in preventing mature LH surge response at this age. However, opioids could be involved in the termination of the LH surge. Experiments using the opioid agonist morphine and the antagonist naloxone to demonstrate that opioids are involved in the generation of the LH surge in the mature gilt have so far provided equivocal data. Studies using pulsatile infusions of LHRH or of a potent LHRH-agonist during the surge period in OB-treated immature gilts, in which endogenous LHRH release was blocked by methallibure, suggest that oestradiol fails to generate mature LH surges because the gonadotrophs of the immature gilt are unable to respond to enhanced LHRH secretion during the surge period in an adult-like manner. During early lactation the LH SM cannot be activated by OB, while during late lactation a partial recovery of the LH SM occurs. Minor breed differences exist in the functionality of the LH SM during lactation between LW sows and highly fertile Chinese Meishan sows, in which lactational anoestrus is not obligatory.

  4. Generation of an activating Zn(2+) switch in the dopamine transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loland, Claus Juul; Norregaard, Lene; Litman, Thomas


    Binding of Zn(2+) to the endogenous Zn(2+) binding site in the human dopamine transporter leads to potent inhibition of [(3)H]dopamine uptake. Here we show that mutation of an intracellular tyrosine to alanine (Y335A) converts this inhibitory Zn(2+) switch into an activating Zn(2+) switch, allowing......-type levels of surface expression, Y335A displayed a dramatic decrease in [(3)H]dopamine uptake velocity (V(max)) to less than 1% of the wild type. In addition, Y335A showed up to 150-fold decreases in the apparent affinity for cocaine, mazindol, and related inhibitors whereas the apparent affinity...

  5. Q-switched-like soliton bunches and noise-like pulses generation in a partially mode-locked fiber laser. (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-Ge; Zhao, Wenjing; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Shangcheng; Yang, Guang; He, Ruijing


    We report an intermediate regime between c.w. emission and noise-like pulses (NLPs) regime in an Er-doped partially mode-locked fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation. In this regime, the soliton bunches stochastically turn up from a quasi-cw background in the Q-switched-like envelope. The soliton bunches normally last for tens or hundreds of intracavity round-trips. When the soliton bunches vanish, typical NLPs chains are generated sporadically at location where the soliton bunches collapses. These results would be helpful to understand the generation and property of the NLPs regime.

  6. Computational and experimental progress on laser-activated gas avalanche switches for broadband, high-power electromagnetic pulse generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.; Villa, F.


    This paper discusses the gas avalanche switch, a high-voltage, picosecond-speed switch, which has been proposed. The basic switch consists of pulse-charged electrodes, immersed in a high-pressure gas. An avalanche discharge is induced in the gas between the electrodes by ionization from a picosecond-scale laser pulse. The avalanching electrons move toward the anode, causing the applied voltage to collapse in picoseconds. This voltage collapse, if rapid enough, generates electromagnetic waves. A two-dimensional (2D), finite difference computer code solves Maxwell's equations for transverse magnetic modes for rectilinear electrodes between parallel plate conductors, along with electron conservation equations for continuity, momentum, and energy. Collision frequencies for ionization and momentum and energy transfer to neutral molecules are assumed to scale linearly with neutral pressure. Electrode charging and laser-driven electron deposition are assumed to be instantaneous. Code calculations are done for a pulse generator geometry, consisting of an 0.7 mm wide by 0.8 mm high, beveled, rectangular center electrode between grounded parallel plates at 2 mm spacing in air

  7. Energy harvesting from an exercise bike using a switch-mode converter controlled generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Andersen, Thomas


    This paper investigates the feasibility of using an alternator as means of harvesting energy from a stationary exercise bicycle. A switch mode converter was designed to regulate the current in the alternator rotor winding, thus regulating the power required to pedal, and consequently the power...

  8. Self-tuning fuzzy logic control of a switched reluctance generator for wind energy applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe


    determination, self-tuning FLC for speed control, and a current controller. The turn-on and turn-off angle determination, as its name implies, controls the turn-on and turn-off angles of power switches to improve the efficiency and torque regulation of the SRG. The self-tuning FLC is the speed controller which...

  9. Generation of dark and bright pulses in an SOA-based Q-switched fiber laser (United States)

    Pan, Honggang; Zhang, Ailing; Tong, Zhengrong


    Bright and dark pulses in a Q-switched optical fiber laser based on a semiconductor optical amplifier were demonstrated. By changing the setting of the polarization controllers, bright or dark pulses with differing pulse widths and frequency repetition rates can be obtained. The bright pulse and dark pulse are formed mainly by the effect of gain dispersion of the semiconductor optical amplifier.

  10. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.


    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  11. Scenario-based Storm Surge Vulnerability Assessment of Catanduanes (United States)

    Suarez, J. K. B.


    After the devastating storm surge effect of Typhoon Haiyan, the public recognized an improved communication about risks, vulnerabilities and what is threatened by storm surge. This can be provided by vulnerability maps which allow better visual presentations and understanding of the risks and vulnerabilities. Local implementers can direct the resources needed for protection of these areas. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are relevant in all phases of disaster management designed by the National Disaster Risk Reduction Council (NDRRMC) - disaster preparedness, prevention and mitigation and response and recovery and rehabilitation. This paper aims to analyze the vulnerability of Catanduanes, a coastal province in the Philippines, to storm surges in terms of four parameters: population, built environment, natural environment and agricultural production. The vulnerability study relies on the storm surge inundation maps based on the Department of Science and Technology Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards' (DOST-Project NOAH) proposed four Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) scenarios (1-2, 3, 4, and 5 meters) for predicting storm surge heights. To determine total percent affected for each parameter elements, an overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS Desktop. Moreover, vulnerability and hazard maps are generated as a final output and a tool for visualizing the impacts of storm surge event at different surge heights. The result of this study would help the selected province to know their present condition and adapt strategies to strengthen areas where they are found to be most vulnerable in order to prepare better for the future.

  12. Storm Surge and Tide Interaction: A Complete Paradigm (United States)

    Horsburgh, K.


    Estimates show that in 2005, in the largest 136 coastal cities, there were 40 million people and 3,000 billion of assets exposed to 1 in 100 year coastal flood events. Mean sea level rise will increase this exposure to 150 million people and 35,000 billion of assets by 2070. Any further change in the statistics of flood frequency or severity would impact severely on economic and social systems. It is therefore crucial to understand the physical drivers of extreme storm surges, and to have confidence in datasets used for extreme sea level statistics. Much previous research has focussed on the process of tide-surge interaction, and it is now widely accepted that the physical basis of tide-surge interaction is that a phase shift of the tidal signal represents the effect of the surge on the tide. The second aspect of interaction is that shallow water momentum considerations imply that differing tidal states should modulate surge generation: wind stress should have greater surge-generating potential on lower tides. We present results from a storm surge model of the European shelf that demonstrate that tidal range does have an effect on the surges generated. The cycle-integrated effects of wind stress (i.e. the skew surge) are greater when tidal range is low. Our results contradict the absence of any such correlation in tide gauge records. This suggests that whilst the modulating effect of the tide on the skew surge (the time-independent difference between peak prediction and observations) is significant, the difference between individual storms is dominant. This implies that forecasting systems must predict salient detail of the most intense storms. A further implication is that flood forecasting models need to simulate tides with acceptable accuracy at all coastal locations. We extend our model analysis to show that the same modulation of storm surges (by tidal conditions) applies to tropical cyclones. We conduct simulations using a mature operational storm surge model

  13. Optimal design of semiconductor opening switches for use in the inductive stage of high power pulse generators (United States)

    Engelko, A.; Bluhm, H.


    Semiconductor opening switches (SOS) are able to interrupt currents at density levels of up to 10 kA/cm2 in less than 10 ns, operate at repetition rates up to 1 kHz, and possess lifetimes of more than 1011 pulses. If stacked, SOS diodes can hold off voltage levels up to several 100 kV. They are therefore ideal for the design of compact high voltage pulse generators of the GW-class for industrial applications. The aim of this work was to improve our understanding of the opening process in a semiconductor diode of SOS-type with a doping profile of p+pnn+ structure, obtainable through diffusion from the surfaces. To simulate the physical processes inside this diode the code POSEOSS was developed. It contains a detailed physical model of charge carrier transport under the influence of density gradients and electric fields and considers all relevant generation and recombination processes. It possesses a large degree of flexibility and is easy to use, and thus allows to carry out parameter studies to determine the influence of different physical quantities, such as doping and impurity levels, on the performance of the device. When applying the code some interesting results concerning the plasma dynamics during the opening process in the switch have been found. In particular, using realistic values for the charge carrier mobility, it was found that the opening process starts first at the n-n+ boundary. Also it has been possible to derive the physical conditions for the occurrence of the SOS-effect. Based on the simulation results a simplified SOS equivalent circuit model has been developed. This model can be used in the circuit simulation program PSPICE. A pulse generator scheme based on inductive storage is proposed, in which power multiplication is achieved by unloading the inductors, previously charged in series, in parallel. This scheme can be considered as the inductive equivalent of a Marx-generator. PSPICE simulations of such a scheme based on semiconductor opening

  14. Generation of high-voltage pulses with a subnanosecond leading edge in an open discharge. II. Switching mechanism (United States)

    Bokhan, P. A.; Gugin, P. P.; Zakrevskii, D. E.; Lavrukhin, M. A.


    The mechanism of fast switching in open-discharge-based devices is clarified by analyzing the feature of the I-V characteristic of a quasi-stationary open discharge: at a voltage of 3-4 kV, the characteristic sharply rises, obeying the law j ~ U y with y > 10 ( j is the current density). Such a run of the curve is explained by the fact that at U > 3 kV helium atom excitation by fast helium atoms becomes the main reason for VUV radiation. Fast helium atoms result from the resonance charge exchange between He+ ions moving from the anode to the cathode. In the coaxial design and in the sandwich design consisting of two accelerating gaps in which electrons move toward each other, multiple oscillations of electrons take place. This favors the generation of fast atoms and, accordingly, resonance VUV photons. Switching times as short as 0.5 ns are achieved. The minimal switching time estimated from experimental data equals 100 ps.

  15. Q-switching and mode-locking pulse generation with graphene oxide paper-based saturable absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulaiman Wadi Harun


    Full Text Available Q-switched and mode-locked erbium-doped fibre lasers (EDFLs are demonstrated by using non-conductive graphene oxide (GO paper as a saturable absorber (SA. A stable and self-starting Q-switched operation was achieved at 1534.4 nm by using a 0.8 m long erbium-doped fibre (EDF as a gain medium. The pulse repetition rate changed from 14.3 to 31.5 kHz, whereas the corresponding pulse width decreased from 32.8 to 13.8 µs as the pump power increased from 22 to 50.5 mW. A narrow spacing dual-wavelength Q-switched EDFL could also be realised by including a photonics crystal fibre and a tunable Bragg filter in the setup. It can operate at a maximum repetition rate of 31 kHz, with a pulse duration of 7.04 µs and pulse energy of 2.8 nJ. Another GOSA was used to realise mode-locked EDFL in a different cavity consisting of a 1.6 m long EDF in conjunction with 1480 nm pumping. The laser generated a soliton pulse train with a repetition rate of 15.62 MHz and pulse width of 870 fs. It is observed that the proposed fibre lasers have a low pulsing threshold pump power as well as a low damage threshold.

  16. Corona pre-ionized gas switches with an increased lifetime for Marx generator of the lightning test complex (United States)

    Bykov, Yu A.; Krastelev, E. G.


    A new design of triggered spark gas switches with an increased operation life and stable dynamic performances for 2.4 MV, 4 MJ Marx generator of the lightning test complex is developed. An operation mode of switches in the test complex is the following: the total voltage - up to 80 kV, the discharge current - up to 50 kA, the charge flowing - up to 3.5 C/pulse, the working gas - dry air at an atmospheric pressure. An increased operating life is achieved by using the torus-shaped electrodes with an increased working area and by the application of a thick disk with a hole, as a trigger electrode, installed between the two torus-shaped electrodes. A short breakdown time delay and a high stability of the breakdown voltage under dynamic conditions are provided by gas pre-ionization in the spark gap by UV-radiation of an additional corona discharge in the axial region of the switch.

  17. Integrated warning system for tsunami and storm surges in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Huating


    Tsunami and storm surges result in unusual oscillation of seal level, flooding the coastal zones and constitute the major marine disasters in China. Damage by storm surges occurs frequently. According to statistics there are 14 storm surge events exceeding 1 every year on the average. Six of them are typhoon surges and the other eight are extra-tropical surges. In general, in China, there is one severe disaster of storm surge every two years. Monitoring, forecasting and warning for storm surges, including the drop of water level, are the major part of the operational oceanographic services in China. Such a warning system has been set up and is operated by the State Oceanic Administration since 1974. The results of the historical study of tsunami in the last few years pointed out that the anomaly of sea level generated by tele-tsunamis originating in the Pacific Ocean Basin is less than 30 cm on the mainland coast, but local tsunami in the China Seas can be very dangerous. For example, more than 50,000 people were killed by a tsunami in Taiwan and in Taiwan Strait in 1781. It resulted in more deaths than any other tsunami in recorded history. However, the frequency of tsunami disaster is very low for the coast of China, averaging only one every 100 years. It is impossible to set up an independent tsunami warning system in China. It is more practical to set up an integrated warning system on tsunami and on storm surges consisting of: A sea level observing network with real time sea level data acquisition capability; A monitoring system of weather causing the storm surges and of seismic stations monitoring tsunamigenic earthquakes; A tidal prediction scheme for operational use; A forecasting scheme for storm surges and tsunami analysis; The means for warning dissemination. (author). 8 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  18. Electrodynamics properties of auroral surges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, R.M.; Vondrak, R.R.


    The incoherent scatter radar technique provides an excellent means to study the ionization and electric fields associated with auroral precipitation events. One of the most intense and dynamic auroral events is the so-called surge or breakup aurora that accompanies auroral substorms. For their purposes they define a surge as a transient intensification of auroral precipitation that occurs simultaneously with a pronounced negative bay in the ground magnetometer data. They present data obtained during five such events in 1980 and 1981. Prior to the surge, auroral forms move equatorward, develop ray structure, and intensify. The surge is identified by an apparent poleward motion of the aurora producing aurorally associated ionization that extends over several hundred kilometers in latitude. The presurge auroral forms are embedded in a region of northward electric field. The auroral forms that comprise the surge span a region within which the meridional electric field is small and at times southward. A westward electric field is often but not always present within the surge. The behavior of the westward electric field is significantly different from the north-south field, in that sharp spatial gradients are absent even in very disturbed conditions. Although the westward Hall currents are mostly responsible for the negative bays that accompany the surge, at times the westward Pedersen current sustained by the westward electric field can be important. Sudden variations in the H component of the ground magnetogram can be caused by motions of the aurora or by temporal variations in the fields or conductivities. They present a model that simulates the observed changes in electric field and precipitation that accompany surges. The perturbation in the electric field produced by the surge is simulated by adding negative potential in regions of intense precipitation

  19. Assessment of Storm Surge Forecasting Methods Used During Typhoon Haiyan (United States)

    Mahar Francisco Lagmay, Alfredo; Malano, Vicente


    On 8 November 2013, Super Typhoon Haiyan made landfall in the central part of the Philippines. Considered one of the most powerful typhoons ever to make landfall in recorded history with 315 kph one-minute maximum sustained winds according to the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC), Haiyan brought widespread devastation in its path. Strong winds, heavy rainfall, and storm surges caused massive loss of lives and extensive damage to property. Storm surges were primarily responsible for the 6,201 dead, 1,785 missing and 28,626 injured in Haiyan's aftermath. This study documents the Haiyan storm surge simulations which were used as basis for the warnings provided to the public. The storm tide -- storm surge added to astronomical tide levels -- forecasts were made using the Japan Meteorological Agency's (JMA) Storm Surge Model and WXTide software. Storm surge maps for the entire Philippines and time series plots for observation points in areas along the path of the typhoon were produced. Storm tide heights between one and five meters were also predicted for 68 coastal areas two days prior to Haiyan's landfall. A storm surge inundation map showing the extent of coastal flooding for Tacloban City, Leyte, one of the most severely affected areas by the typhoon, was generated using FLO-2D software. This was validated using field data such as high water marks, eyewitness accounts from locals, and information from media coverage. This map can be used as reference to determine danger zones and safe evacuation sites during similar events. Typhoon Haiyan generated one of the biggest and most devastating storm surge events in several decades, exacting a high death toll despite its early prediction. Lessons learned from this calamity and information contained in this work may serve as useful reference to mitigate the heavy impact of future storm surge events in the Philippines and elsewhere.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Comparison Q-Switched Fiber Laser Generation using Graphene as Saturable Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awang Noor Azura


    Full Text Available We demonstrated the comparison experimentally and numerically a compact Q-switched erbium-doped fiber (EDF laser based on graphene as a saturable absorber (SA. By optically driven deposition of graphene on a fiber core, the SA is constructed and inserted into a diode-pumped EDF laser cavity. Lasing in CW region starts at 10 mW, whereas stable self-starting Q-switching with a central wavelength of 1530 nm begins at 18 mW. In this paper, at 35 mW, the maximum pulse energy reaches at 2 μJ with pulse repetition rate of 1 MHz and the narrowest pulse width is around 10 μs is obtained. The stability of the pulse is verified from the radio-frequency (RF spectrum with a measured signal-to-noise ratio (SNR of 48 dB. In this study, the design is compared with the simulation using the Optisystem software. The output power of the experimental study is also compared with the simulation to examine the performance.

  1. Generating high-peak-power structured lights in selectively pumped passively Q-switched lasers with astigmatic mode transformations (United States)

    Chang, C. C.; Hsieh, Y. H.; Lee, C. Y.; Sung, C. L.; Tuan, P. H.; Tung, J. C.; Liang, H. C.; Chen, Y. F.


    Various high-order Hermite–Gaussian (HG) modes with high repetition rates and high peak powers are systematically generated by designing the cavity configuration to satisfy the criterion of the passive Q-switching. For the HG m,0 modes with the order m  =  1–9, the pulse repetition rate can exceed 100 kHz with peak power higher than 0.3 kW. For the HG m,m modes with the order m  =  1–10, the pulse repetition rate can be up to 37 kHz with peak power higher than 0.35 kW. Furthermore, the high-order HG beams is transformed by using an astigmatic mode converter to generate various structured lights with optical vortices. Experimental patterns of the transformed high-order HG beams in the propagation are theoretically analyzed and the phase structures are numerically manifested.

  2. Switch the Channel : A TV Business Model for the Millennial Generation


    Göller, Matthias


    The Millennial Generation, born between 1982 and 2000, are used to the ubiquity of modern devices and are always ‘on’. Therefore, they use and consume media differently than preceding generations. Now that they are ageing and becoming part of the advertising relevant target group, TV executives need to think about how and especially where to reach this target demographic. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to develop a better understanding of how the Millennial Generation is consuming the t...

  3. Generation of switched memory B cells in response to vaccination in Down syndrome children and their siblings. (United States)

    Valentini, Diletta; Marcellini, Valentina; Bianchi, Simona; Villani, Alberto; Facchini, Marzia; Donatelli, Isabella; Castrucci, Maria Rita; Marasco, Emiliano; Farroni, Chiara; Carsetti, Rita


    Immunodeficiency is an integral aspect of Down syndrome, as demonstrated by the increased susceptibility to infection of affected. Mortality is still higher than in general population, with respiratory infections among the major causes of death. As more people with Down syndrome are living today than ever before, it is indispensable to develop strategies to prevent and cure the associated disorders. Vaccination is the most successful instrument of preventive medicine. Special seasonal influenza and pneumococcal vaccination strategies have been designed for individuals with risk conditions of all ages. Down syndrome individuals are not included in the high-risk categories. We enrolled in our study 15 children with Down syndrome and their siblings, vaccinated for the first time with seasonal influenza vaccine and receiving a booster dose of a glyco-conjugated pneumococcal vaccine. We compared the immunological features and response to vaccination measuring serum antibody titers and frequency of specific memory B cells. We confirm that a severe reduction of switched memory B cells is always associated to Down syndrome. After primary vaccination Down syndrome children generate significantly less specific switched memory B cells than their siblings. The response to a booster dose of vaccine is instead comparable in both groups. The production of specific antibodies was equally effective in Down syndrome and controls both after primary and secondary immunization. Down syndrome individuals should be considered a high risk group, because of their increased susceptibility to infection and reduced number of switched memory B cells. Tailored vaccination protocols are needed in order to reduce their burden of infections throughout life. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Ultra-Stable, New Generation Q-Switched Monolithic Laser Cleaners for Fine Art Conservation (United States)

    Brioschi, F.; Salvadeo, P.

    The increasing use of laser cleaners in fine art conservation boosts the demand on improvements of the laser performances. More power and more wavelengths are required by the current applications, while laser should be more reliable, rugged and compact. The characteristics and performances of a new generation of laser cleaners are presented as a result of a dedicated research and development program.

  5. Gain-switched all-fiber lasers and quasi-continuous wave supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper

    The extreme broadening phenomenon of supercontinuum (SC) generation in optical fibers is the basis of SC laser sources. These sources have numerous applications in areas, such as spectroscopy and microscopy due to the unique combination of extremely broad spectral bandwidths, high spectral power ...

  6. Evaluation of the contact switch materials in high voltage power supply for generate of underwater shockwave by electrical discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Higa


    Full Text Available We have developed the high voltage power-supply unit by Cockcroft-Walton circuit for ingenerate high pressure due to underwater shockwave by electrical discharge. This high voltage power supply has the problem of the metal contact switch operation that contact switch stop by melting and bonding due to electrical spark. We have studied the evaluation of materials of contact switch for the reducing electrical energy loss and the problem of contact switch operation. In this research, measurement of discharge voltage and high pressure due to underwater shockwave was carried out using the contact switch made of different materials as brass plate, brass-carbon plate-brass and carbon block. The contact switch made of carbon is effective to reduce energy loss and problem of contactor switch operation.

  7. Impact of timely switching from imatinib to a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor after 12-month complete cytogenetic response failure: a chart review analysis. (United States)

    DeAngelo, Daniel J; Chen, Lei; Guerin, Annie; Styles, Amy; Giguere-Duval, Philippe; Wu, Eric Q


    In this study, cytogenetic response rate after timely switching to a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) was evaluated among patients with CML-CP, after failure to achieve CCyR 1 year after imatinib initiation. An online physician-administered medical chart review was used to retrospectively collect information from 108 US-based hematologists and oncologists on CML-CP patients who initiated imatinib as first-line therapy and failed to achieve CCyR at 12 months after imatinib initiation. Patients who switched to a second-generation TKI within 3 months after the CCyR failure were defined as timely switchers, and those who continued taking imatinib for at least 3 months after the CCyR failure were defined as nonswitchers. CCyR achievement was compared between timely switchers and nonswitchers using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Physicians provided information on 593 patients, with 306 defined as timely switchers and 287 defined as nonswitchers. Among the nonswitchers, 78 switched to a second-generation TKI at a later date. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, timely switchers had statistically significantly greater likelihood of achieving CCyR (hazard ratio, 1.80; P = .002) compared with nonswitchers. Timely switching from imatinib to a second-generation TKI after CCyR failure 1 year after imatinib initiation was associated with a greater likelihood of achieving CCyR compared with delaying the switch or not switching to a second-generation TKI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrafast switching of valence and generation of coherent acoustic phonons in semiconducting rare-earth monosulfides (United States)

    Punpongjareorn, Napat; He, Xing; Tang, Zhongjia; Guloy, Arnold M.; Yang, Ding-Shyue


    We report on the ultrafast carrier dynamics and generation of coherent acoustic phonons in YbS, a semiconducting rare-earth monochalcogenide, using two-color pump-probe reflectivity. Compared to the carrier relaxation processes and lifetimes of conventional semiconductors, recombination of photoexcited electrons with holes in localized f orbitals is found to take place rapidly with a density-independent time constant of properties of YbS including its two-photon absorption and thermooptic coefficients, the period and decay time of the coherent oscillation, and the sound velocity.

  9. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches. (United States)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang


    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed.

  10. Optical parametric generation by a simultaneously Q-switched mode-locked single-oscillator thulium-doped fiber laser in orientation-patterned gallium arsenide. (United States)

    Donelan, Brenda; Kneis, Christian; Scurria, Giuseppe; Cadier, Benoît; Robin, Thierry; Lallier, Eric; Grisard, Arnaud; Gérard, Bruno; Eichhorn, Marc; Kieleck, Christelle


    Optical parametric generation is demonstrated in orientation-patterned gallium arsenide, pumped by a novel single-oscillator simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser, downconverting the pump radiation into the mid-infrared wavelength regime. The maximum output energy reached is greater than 2.0 μJ per pump pulse.

  11. microRNA-155 regulates the generation of immunoglobulin class-switched plasma cells. (United States)

    Vigorito, Elena; Perks, Kerry L; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Bunting, Sam; Xiang, Zou; Kohlhaas, Susan; Das, Partha P; Miska, Eric A; Rodriguez, Antony; Bradley, Allan; Smith, Kenneth G C; Rada, Cristina; Enright, Anton J; Toellner, Kai-Michael; Maclennan, Ian C M; Turner, Martin


    microRNA-155 (miR-155) is expressed by cells of the immune system after activation and has been shown to be required for antibody production after vaccination with attenuated Salmonella. Here we show the intrinsic requirement for miR-155 in B cell responses to thymus-dependent and -independent antigens. B cells lacking miR-155 generated reduced extrafollicular and germinal center responses and failed to produce high-affinity IgG1 antibodies. Gene-expression profiling of activated B cells indicated that miR-155 regulates an array of genes with diverse function, many of which are predicted targets of miR-155. The transcription factor Pu.1 is validated as a direct target of miR155-mediated inhibition. When Pu.1 is overexpressed in wild-type B cells, fewer IgG1 cells are produced, indicating that loss of Pu.1 regulation is a contributing factor to the miR-155-deficient phenotype. Our results implicate post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression for establishing the terminal differentiation program of B cells.

  12. Modelling the 2013 Typhoon Haiyan Storm Surge: Effect of Waves, Offshore Winds, Tide Phase, and Translation Speed (United States)

    Bilgera, P. H. T.; Villanoy, C.; Cabrera, O.


    Super Typhoon Haiyan, with wind speeds exceeding 300 km h-1 (160 knots) generated a storm surge in San Pedro Bay reaching heights of more than 6m in Tacloban City. Delft Dashboard (DDB), an open-source standalone Matlab based graphical user interface linked to the FLOW and WAVE modeling software of Deltares, was used to develop a coupled flow and wave storm surge model to understand the Typhoon Haiyan storm surge development and propagation. Various experiments were designed to determine the effect of waves, the occurrence of offshore winds prior to the surge, tidal phase, and typhoon translation speed on the surge height. Wave coupling decreased the surge height by about 0.5m probably due to energy dissipation from white capping, bottom friction, and depth-induced breaking. Offshore-directed winds before the arrival of the storm eye resulted to receding of the water level in San Pedro and Cancabato Bay, corroborated by eyewitness and tide gauge data. The experiment wherein the offshore winds were removed resulted to no water receding and a surge with a smaller and gentler surge front, pointing to the importance of the initial water level drawdown in contributing to the destructive power of the wave front. With regard to tides, the effect in Tacloban was actually neither linear nor additive to the surge, with higher surge coincident to low tides and lower surge coincident to high tides. Lastly, the model run with typhoon having a slower translation speed than Haiyan was found to generate higher surges.

  13. The simultaneous generation of soliton bunches and Q-switched-like pulses in a partially mode-locked fiber laser with a graphene saturable absorber (United States)

    Wang, Zhenhong; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yan-ge; He, Ruijing; Wang, Guangdou; Yang, Guang; Han, Simeng


    We experimentally report the coexistence of soliton bunches and Q-switched-like pulses in a partially mode-locked fiber laser with a microfiber-based graphene saturable absorber. The soliton bunches, like isolated spikes with extreme amplitude and ultrashort duration, randomly generate in the background of the Q-switched-like pulses. The soliton bunches have some pulse envelopes in which pulses operate at a fundamental repetition rate in the temporal domain. Further investigation shows that the composite pulses are highly correlated with the noise-like pulses. Our work can make a further contribution to enrich the understanding of the nonlinear dynamics in fiber lasers.

  14. Multidecadal Scale Detection Time for Potentially Increasing Atlantic Storm Surges in a Warming Climate (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin Seiyon; Haran, Murali; Keller, Klaus


    Storm surges are key drivers of coastal flooding, which generate considerable risks. Strategies to manage these risks can hinge on the ability to (i) project the return periods of extreme storm surges and (ii) detect potential changes in their statistical properties. There are several lines of evidence linking rising global average temperatures and increasingly frequent extreme storm surges. This conclusion is, however, subject to considerable structural uncertainty. This leads to two main questions: What are projections under various plausible statistical models? How long would it take to distinguish among these plausible statistical models? We address these questions by analyzing observed and simulated storm surge data. We find that (1) there is a positive correlation between global mean temperature rise and increasing frequencies of extreme storm surges; (2) there is considerable uncertainty underlying the strength of this relationship; and (3) if the frequency of storm surges is increasing, this increase can be detected within a multidecadal timescale (≈20 years from now).

  15. Present and Future of Semiconductor Pulsed Power Generator ˜Role of Power Semiconductor Devices in Plasma Research˜ 5.High-Repetition-Rate Marx Generator Using Thyristor Switches (United States)

    Maeyama, Mitsuaki

    The Static Marx Generatoris a high-voltage impulse generator using semiconductor switches that borrow their simple trigger operation from the conventional Marx Generator. This commentary presents the principle of successive trigger operation, the high-speed and high-efficiency charging mechanism used in this Static Marx Generator circuit system, and the typical properties of the voltage amplification ratio, i.e. the rise time and charging efficiency.

  16. Nanosecond pulse generation in a passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at 1331 nm by CVD graphene saturable absorber (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yongjie; Yang, Han; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping


    We report on a nanosecond pulse generation in a diode end-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser at the low-gain transition line of 1331 nm. A three-layer CVD graphene thin film was transferred from Cu foil to a BK7 glass substrate for the use of saturable absorber. A stable Q-switching laser operation was obtained with maximum average output power of 0.69 W and slope efficiency of about 11.0% with respect to the absorbed pump power. The shortest pulse duration and the maximum repetition rate of the pulse trains were registered to be 556 ns and 166.7 kHz with corresponding maximum pulse energy 4.14 μJ and pulse peak power 7.45 W. This is the first demonstration of CVD-graphene-based Q-switched laser operation at 1.3 μm, to the best of our knowledge.

  17. Efficient high-pulse-energy eye-safe laser generated by an intracavity Nd:YLF/KTP optical parametric oscillator: role of thermally induced polarization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y J; Tang, C Y; Huang, Y P; Cho, C Y; Su, K W; Chen, Y F


    A high-pulse-energy eye-safe laser at 1552 nm is effectually generated by an intracavity Nd:YLF/KTP optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with the help of the thermally induced polarization switching. The polarization characteristics of the c-cut Nd:YLF laser at 1053 nm in the continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operation are comprehensively investigated. We experimentally verify the thermally induced birefringence can lead to a polarization switching between the mutually orthogonal components of the fundamental pulses. Consequently, an efficient intracavity nonlinear frequency conversion can be achieved in an optically isotropic laser crystal without any additional polarization control. With this finding, the pulse energy and peak power of the compact Nd:YLF/KTP eye-safe laser under an incident pump power of 12.7 W and a pulse repetition rate of 5 kHz are up to 306 μJ and 4 kW, respectively

  18. The Development of Storm Surge Ensemble Prediction System and Case Study of Typhoon Meranti in 2016 (United States)

    Tsai, Y. L.; Wu, T. R.; Terng, C. T.; Chu, C. H.


    Taiwan is under the threat of storm surge and associated inundation, which is located at a potentially severe storm generation zone. The use of ensemble prediction can help forecasters to know the characteristic of storm surge under the uncertainty of track and intensity. In addition, it can help the deterministic forecasting. In this study, the kernel of ensemble prediction system is based on COMCOT-SURGE (COrnell Multi-grid COupled Tsunami Model - Storm Surge). COMCOT-SURGE solves nonlinear shallow water equations in Open Ocean and coastal regions with the nested-grid scheme and adopts wet-dry-cell treatment to calculate potential inundation area. In order to consider tide-surge interaction, the global TPXO 7.1 tide model provides the tidal boundary conditions. After a series of validations and case studies, COMCOT-SURGE has become an official operating system of Central Weather Bureau (CWB) in Taiwan. In this study, the strongest typhoon in 2016, Typhoon Meranti, is chosen as a case study. We adopt twenty ensemble members from CWB WRF Ensemble Prediction System (CWB WEPS), which differs from parameters of microphysics, boundary layer, cumulus, and surface. From box-and-whisker results, maximum observed storm surges were located in the interval of the first and third quartile at more than 70 % gauge locations, e.g. Toucheng, Chengkung, and Jiangjyun. In conclusion, the ensemble prediction can effectively help forecasters to predict storm surge especially under the uncertainty of storm track and intensity

  19. 1.8 Å bright-state structure of the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein Dronpa guides the generation of fast switching variants (United States)

    Stiel, Andre C.; Trowitzsch, Simon; Weber, Gert; Andresen, Martin; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W.; Jakobs, Stefan; Wahl, Markus C.


    RSFPs (reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins) may be repeatedly converted between a fluorescent and a non-fluorescent state by irradiation and have attracted widespread interest for many new applications. The RSFP Dronpa may be switched with blue light from a fluorescent state into a non-fluorescent state, and back again with UV light. To obtain insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of this switching, we have determined the crystal structure of the fluorescent equilibrium state of Dronpa. Its bicyclic chromophore is formed spontaneously from the Cys62–Tyr63–Gly64 tripeptide. In the fluorescent state, it adopts a slightly non-coplanar cis conformation within the interior of a typical GFP (green fluorescent protein) β-can fold. Dronpa shares some structural features with asFP595, another RSFP whose chromophore has previously been demonstrated to undergo a cis–trans isomerization upon photoswitching. Based on the structural comparison with asFP595, we have generated new Dronpa variants with an up to more than 1000-fold accelerated switching behaviour. The mutations which were introduced at position Val157 or Met159 apparently reduce the steric hindrance for a cis–trans isomerization of the chromophore, thus lowering the energy barrier for the blue light-driven on-to-off transition. The findings reported in the present study support the view that a cis–trans isomerization is one of the key events common to the switching mechanism in RSFPs. PMID:17117927

  20. 1.8 A bright-state structure of the reversibly switchable fluorescent protein Dronpa guides the generation of fast switching variants. (United States)

    Stiel, Andre C; Trowitzsch, Simon; Weber, Gert; Andresen, Martin; Eggeling, Christian; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan; Wahl, Markus C


    RSFPs (reversibly switchable fluorescent proteins) may be repeatedly converted between a fluorescent and a non-fluorescent state by irradiation and have attracted widespread interest for many new applications. The RSFP Dronpa may be switched with blue light from a fluorescent state into a non-fluorescent state, and back again with UV light. To obtain insight into the underlying molecular mechanism of this switching, we have determined the crystal structure of the fluorescent equilibrium state of Dronpa. Its bicyclic chromophore is formed spontaneously from the Cys62-Tyr63-Gly64 tripeptide. In the fluorescent state, it adopts a slightly non-coplanar cis conformation within the interior of a typical GFP (green fluorescent protein) b-can fold. Dronpa shares some structural features with asFP595, another RSFP whose chromophore has previously been demonstrated to undergo a cis-trans isomerization upon photoswitching. Based on the structural comparison with asFP595, we have generated new Dronpa variants with an up to more than 1000-fold accelerated switching behaviour. The mutations which were introduced at position Val157 or Met159 apparently reduce the steric hindrance for a cis-trans isomerization of the chromophore, thus lowering the energy barrier for the blue light-driven on-to-off transition. The findings reported in the present study support the view that a cis-trans isomerization is one of the key events common to the switching mechanism in RSFPs.

  1. Sum frequency generation under conversion of Q-switched cryogenic slab RF discharge CO laser radiation in ZnGeP2 (United States)

    Ionin, A. A.; Kinyaevskiy, I. O.; Klimachev, Yu M.; Kochetkov, Yu V.; Kozlov, A. Yu; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.; Zemtsov, D. S.; Andreev, Yu M.


    For the first time broadband sum frequency generation in ZnGeP2 crystal has been accomplished with a compact cryogenic slab RF discharge CO laser. The spectrum of the CO laser operating in a repetitively pulsed multiline Q-switching mode consisted of ~90 emission lines in the wavelength range of 4.95–6.60 µm. Internal sum frequency generation efficiency was reached up to 8.2%. The resulted spectrum contained ~200 spectral lines in the wavelength range of 2.5–3.2 µm.

  2. Lasers for switched-power linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigio, I.J.


    Laser-switched power surges for particle accelerators, just as with direct laser-driven accelerator schemes, place unique demands on the specifications of the invoked laser systems. We review the laser requirements for switched power sources of the types described in other chapters of this volume. The relative advantages and disadvantages of selected lasers are listed, and the appropriateness and scalability of existing technology is discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Glacier surge triggered by massive rock avalanche: Teleseismic and satellite image study of long-runout landslide onto RGO Glacier, Pamirs (United States)

    Stark, C. P.; Wolovick, M.; Ekstrom, G.


    Glacier surges are thought to result from changes in resistance to sliding at the base of the ice mass. The reasons for such changes in basal conditions are not entirely understood, and this is in part because empirical constraints are severely limited. Recent work in the Karakoram and Pamir mountains, home to the majority of Earth's surging mountain glaciers, has boosted observational data, but has led to diametrically opposed interpretations of their glacier surging mechanics, ranging from thermal to hydrological switching. In this context we describe a surge of the RGO (Russian Geographical Society) Glacier in the Pamirs triggered by a massive rock avalanche off Mt Garmo in 2001. Initial reports pegged the RGO Glacier landslide as having been triggered in 2002 by strong ground motion originating from a nearby tectonic earthquake. We used multitemporal satellite imagery to establish failure must have struck in August-September 2001. This revised date was confirmed by reexamining teleseismic data recorded at stations in central Asia: it became clear that a landslide seismic source of magnitude Msw≈5.4 on 2001/09/02 had been misinterpreted as two tectonic sources located within kilometers of Mt Garmo. Exploiting a new technique we have developed for inverting long-period seismic waveforms, we show that a mass of rock and ice around 2.8×{}1011 kg collapsed to the SSE from an elevation of around 5800m, accelerated to a peak speed of about 60m/s, collided with the valley wall ˜ 2 km to the south and turned east to run out a further 6km over significant fractions of the accumulation and ablation zones of the RGO Glacier. Based on this estimate of landslide mass, we deduce that the supraglacial debris blanket generated by this rock avalanches averaged about 20m in thickness. By this reckoning, the Mt Garmo landslide is one of the largest in the last 33 years. Next we mapped the velocity field of the RGO Glacier over time using multitemporal satellite imagery. We

  4. Reflection and dampening of pressure waves in marine terminal pressure surge analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kossatz, Helmut [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Ladeia, Renata C. da Cunha [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Nucleo de Simulacao Termohidraulica de Dutos (SIMDUT)


    In the analysis of potential surge pressure hazards in marine terminals, the piping system connecting the terminal's tank farm to the oil tanker is commonly composed of a main pipeline ending in reduced diameter devices of relatively short length such as loading arms or cargo hoses, and pressure surges may be generated due sudden closure of the oil tanker's emergency shut down valves, or from closure of valves in quick breakaway couplings. Since velocities in these smaller diameter sections are much higher than in the main pipeline, local pressure peaks may occur which are greater than the surge pressure generated due to flow stoppage in the larger diameter pipe. These local pressure pulses are rapidly damped out due to reflection at the connection with the larger diameter pipeline and are simultaneously transmitted and superposed on the pressure surge generated in the main pipeline. Cargo hoses are more elastic with much lower acoustic speed than in steel pipe, and local pressure surges are therefore smaller than in an equivalent section of steel pipeline. Nevertheless local surge pressures are still capable of being greater than in the main steel pipeline due to higher initial flow velocities. This work analyses these effects and points out the care to be taken in pressure surge simulation in order to obtain reliable results. (author)

  5. Why does substorm-associated auroral surge travel westward? (United States)

    Ebihara, Y.; Tanaka, T.


    A substorm is a long-standing unsolved issue in solar-terrestrial physics. One of the big challenges is to explain reasonably the evolution of the morphological structure of the aurora associated with the substorm. The sudden appearance of a bright aurora and an auroral surge traveling westward (westward traveling surge, WTS) are noticeable features of the aurora during the substorm expansion phase. By using a global magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation, we obtained the following results regarding the WTS. When the interplanetary magnetic field turns southward, a persistent dynamo appears in the cusp/mantle region, driving the two-cell magnetospheric convection. Then, the substorm growth phase begins. When magnetic reconnection takes place in the magnetotail, plasma is accelerated earthward in the plasma sheet, and accelerated toward the equatorial plane in the lobe. The second dynamo appears in the near-Earth region, which is closely associated with the generation of the field-aligned current (FAC) on the nightside. When the FAC reaches the ionosphere, the aurora becomes bright, and the onset of the expansion phase begins. In the ionosphere, the conductivity is intensified in the bright aurora due to the precipitation of accelerated electrons. The conductivity gradient gives rise to the overflow of the Hall current, which acts as the third dynamo. The overflow results in the accumulation of space charge, which causes a divergent electric field. The divergent electric field generates a thin, structured upward FAC adjacent to the bright aurora. The opposite process takes place on the opposite side of the bright aurora. In short, the upward FAC increases (appearance of aurora) at the leading edge of the surge, and decreases (disappearance of aurora) at the trailing edge of the surge. By repeating these processes, the surge seems to travel westward.

  6. Reconnaissance level study Mississippi storm surge barrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Lansen, A.J.; De Ridder, H.A.J.; Edge, B.


    This paper reports a reconnaissance level study of a storm surge barrier in the Mississippi River. Historical hurricanes have shown storm surge of several meters along the Mississippi River levees up to and upstream of New Orleans. Future changes due to sea level rise and subsidence will further

  7. The dynamics of surge in compression systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    47. Figure 4. Time series (a) and corresponding frequency spectra plot (b) indicating surge. of surge, flow visualisation studies, another setup was fabricated with a piston, cylinder configuration, with which volume of the plenum could be changed continuously. Different lengths of compressor duct were used in the study.

  8. The dynamics of surge in compression systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Even though the experimental work of Grietzer (1976) was quite in conformity with his theory, the parameter B,could ... It was reported by Day (1994) that during experimental work on stall and surge, oscillations at the system natural frequency ... In other words, deep surge cycles are similar to relaxation oscillations exhibited ...

  9. Pressurizer with a mechanically attached surge nozzle thermal sleeve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wepfer, Robert M


    A thermal sleeve is mechanically attached to the bore of a surge nozzle of a pressurizer for the primary circuit of a pressurized water reactor steam generating system. The thermal sleeve is attached with a series of keys and slots which maintain the thermal sleeve centered in the nozzle while permitting thermal growth and restricting flow between the sleeve and the interior wall of the nozzle.

  10. Double-negative feedback between S-phase cyclin-CDK and CKI generates abruptness in the G1/S switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainis eVenta


    Full Text Available The G1/S transition is a crucial decision point in the cell cycle. At G1/S, there is an abrupt switch from a state of high CDK inhibitor (CKI levels and low S-phase CDK activity to a state of high S-phase CDK activity and degraded CKI. In budding yeast, this transition is triggered by phosphorylation of the Cdk1 inhibitor Sic1 at multiple sites by G1-phase CDK (Cln1,2-Cdk1 and S-phase CDK (Clb5,6-Cdk1 complexes. Using mathematical modeling we demonstrate that the mechanistic basis for the abruptness and irreversibility of the G1/S transition is the highly specific phosphorylation of Sic1 by S-phase CDK complex. This switch is generated by a double negative feedback loop in which S-CDK1 phosphorylates Sic1, thus targeting it for destruction, and thereby liberating further S-CDK1 from the inhibitory Sic1-S-CDK1 complex. Our model predicts that the abruptness of the switch depends upon a strong binding affinity within the Sic1-S-CDK inhibitory complex. In vitro phosphorylation analysis using purified yeast proteins revealed that free Clb5-Cdk1 can create positive feedback by phosphorylating Sic1 that is bound in the inhibitory complex, and that Sic1 inhibits Clb5-Cdk1 with a sub-nanomolar inhibition constant. Our model also predicts that if the G1-phase CDK complex is too efficient at targeting Sic1 for destruction, then G1/S becomes a smooth and readily reversible transition. We propose that the optimal role for the G1-phase CDK in the switch would not be to act as a kinase activity directly responsible for abrupt degradation of CKI, but rather to act as a priming signal that initiates a positive feedback loop driven by emerging free S-phase CDK.

  11. A reduced switch count UPF power conditioner for grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system employing PM generators: a simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, A.B.; Fernandes, B.G.; Chatterjee, K. [Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering


    In this paper, modelling and simulation of a grid connected variable speed wind energy conversion system (VSWECS) with reduced switch count power converter is presented. The system consists of a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG), two-pulse width modulated B-4 power converters and a maximum power point tracker (MPPT). Mathematical models of each element of the system are developed separately and are then integrated to simulate the whole system for various wind velocities. The complete system is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK and simulation results are presented. (author)

  12. Switching kinetics of a relaxor ferroelectric Sr0.75Ba0.25Nb2O6 observed by the second harmonic generation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volk, Tatyana; Isakov, Dmitry; Belsley, Michael Scott; Ivleva, Lyudmila


    In this work we present a study of the ferroelectric switching kinetic process in strontium-barium niobate (SBN). The kinetics of polarization deduced from the dynamics of the diffuse second harmonic generation is in good qualitative agreement with thekinetics observed by more traditional polarization methods. Our work highlights the specific characteristics of polarization reversal in SBN, which is fundamentally different from that which occurs in model ferroelectrics. The presented optical measurements of the polarization processes provide several experimental advantages over traditional electrical measurements. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Artificial Neural Network forecasting of storm surge water levels at major estuarine ports to supplement national tide-surge models and improve port resilience planning (United States)

    French, Jon; Mawdsley, Robert; Fujiyama, Taku; Achuthan, Kamal


    Effective prediction of tidal storm surge is of considerable importance for operators of major ports, since much of their infrastructure is necessarily located close to sea level. Storm surge inundation can damage critical elements of this infrastructure and significantly disrupt port operations and downstream supply chains. The risk of surge inundation is typically approached using extreme value analysis, while short-term forecasting generally relies on coastal shelf-scale tide and surge models. However, extreme value analysis does not provide information on the duration of a surge event and can be sensitive to the assumptions made and the historic data available. Also, whilst regional tide and surge models perform well along open coasts, their fairly coarse spatial resolution means that they do not always provide accurate predictions for estuarine ports. As part of a NERC Environmental Risks to Infrastructure Innovation Programme project, we have developed a tool that is specifically designed to forecast the North Sea storm surges on major ports along the east coast of the UK. Of particular interest is the Port of Immingham, Humber estuary, which handles the largest volume of bulk cargo in the UK including major flows of coal and biomass for power generation. A tidal surge in December 2013, with an estimated return period of 760 years, partly flooded the port, damaged infrastructure and disrupted operations for several weeks. This and other recent surge events highlight the need for additional tools to supplement the national UK Storm Tide Warning Service. Port operators are also keen to have access to less computationally expensive forecasting tools for scenario planning and to improve their resilience to actual events. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of machine learning methods based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) to generate accurate short-term forecasts of extreme water levels at estuarine North Sea ports such as Immingham. An ANN is

  14. Influence of Surge on Extreme Roll Amplitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidic-Perunovic, Jelena; Rognebakke, Olav; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    on the position of the wave crest relatively to the ship, the ship will be slowed down when she meets the wave. In this paper attempts are made to accurately account for added resistance and additional thrust, applied in order to maintain the ship speed. The surge equilibrium equation has been longitudinally......Interference of the wave-induced ship surge motion with roll dynamics has been studied. The surge motion has been included in a previously derived hydrodynamic roll prediction model in order to account for the ship speed variation due to the longitudinal incident wave pressure force. Depending...

  15. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge. (United States)

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E


    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin-GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge (United States)

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E.


    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin–GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse. PMID:26833836

  17. Asymmetrical Interleaved DC/DC Switching Converters for Photovoltaic and Fuel Cell Applications—Part 1: Circuit Generation, Analysis and Design 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Serna


    Full Text Available A novel asymmetrical interleaved dc/dc switching converters family intended for photovoltaic and fuel cell applications is presented in this paper. The main requirements on such applications are small ripples in the generator and load, as well as high voltage conversion ratio. Therefore, interleaved structures and voltage multiplier cells have been asymmetrically combined to generate new converters, which inherently operate indiscontinuous conduction mode. The novel family is derived from boost, buck-boost and flyback-based structures. This converter family is analyzed to obtain the design equations and synthesize a design process based on the typical requirements of photovoltaic and fuel cell applications. Finally, the experimental results validate the characteristics and usefulness of the asymmetrical interleaved converter family. 

  18. Pressure surge generated by start up of pumping equipment in pipes to pressure. Application to a real case; Transitorios hidraulicos generados por arranque de equipo de bombeo en conducciones a presion. Aplicacion a un caso real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona Paredes, L.G.; Carmona Paredes, R.B. [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Water closed conduits are commonly designed with special attention paid to pressure surges due to pumping failures. In some particular cases, such at the Rio Yaqui-Guaymas water pipeline system, pressure surges due to pumping start ups are as high and dangerous as those produced by pumping failures. New subroutines were thus developed and included in the Closed Conduit Flow Transient Model developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. This paper presents the mathematical model and its numerical solution using the Method of Characteristics and the Newton-Raphson Method. With the new modeling system it is possible to evaluate the pressure fluctuation time series due to start up at any pumping system. Using this new system a reliable explanation of bursts at the Rio Yaqui-Guaymas system could be set forth. [Spanish] Al disenar conducciones a presion, es comun que se preste especial atencion a los transitorios hidraulicos generados por paros de emergencia de los equipos de bombeo. En el acueducto rio Yaqui-Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, los transitorios generados al poner en marcha los equipos de bombeo son tan importantes como los producidos por disparo de bombas. En el Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, se desarrollo e implanto en su programa de simulacion de transitorios hidraulicos en tuberias a presion una subrutina para simular el arranque de equipos de bombeo. El modelo matematico esta formado por el conjunto de ecuaciones dinamica y de continuidad, asi como la condicion de frontera que describe el arranque de las bombas. Se reescriben las ecuaciones dinamica y de continuidad, con el metodo de las caracteristicas y se plantea un sistema de ecuaciones no lineales, el cual se resuelve con el metodo de las caracteristicas y se plantea un sistema de ecuaciones no lineales, el cual se resuelve con el metodo de newton-raphson. La simulacion del arranque de las bombas del acueducto en estudio, arroja valores de las cargas

  19. Pressure surges generated by the polling out of pumping equipment in conduction by pressure. Application of a real case; Transitorios hidraulicos generados por arranque de equipos de bombeo en conducciones a presion. Aplicacion a un caso real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona-Perales, L. G.; Carmona-Perales, R. B. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    Water closed conduits are commonly designed with special attention paid to pressure surges due to pumping failures. In some particular cases, such at the Rio Yaque-Guaymas water pipeline system, pressure surges due to pumping start up are as high and dangerous as those produced by pumping failures. New subroutines were thus developed and included in the Closed Conduit Flow Transient Model developed by the Instituto de Ingenieria of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. This paper presents the mathematical model and its numerical solution using the Method of Characteristics and the Newton-Raphson Method. With the new modelling system it is possible to evaluate the pressure fluctuation time series due to start up at any pumping system. Using this new system a reliable explanation of bursts at the Rio Yaqui-Guaymas pipeline system could be set forth. [Spanish] Al disenar conducciones a presion, es comun que se presente especial atencion a los transitorios hidraulicos generados por paros de emergencia de los equipos de bombeo. En el acueducto rio Yaqui-Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, los transitorios generados al poner en marcha los equipos de bombeo son tan importantes como los productos por disparo de bombas. En el Instituto de Ingenieria de la UNAM, se desarrollo e implanto en un programa de simulacion de transitorios hidraulicos en tuberias a presion una subrutina para simular el arranque de equipos de bombeo. El modelo matematico esta formado por el conjunto de ecuaciones dinamica y de continuidad, asi como la condicion de frontera que describe el arranque de las bombas. Se rescriben las ecuaciones dinamicas y de continuidad, con el metodo de las caracteristicas y se plantea un sistema de ecuaciones no lineales, el cual se resuelve con el metodo de Newton-Raphson. La simulacion del arranque de las bombas del acueducto en estudio, arroja valores de las cargas piezom ricas maximas y minimas mayores que la resistencia de la tuberia y menores que la topografia del

  20. Modeling Storm Surges Using Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (United States)


    STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT (maximum 200 words ) Storm surges have a...model. One of the governing systems of equations used to model storm surges’ effects is the Shallow Water Equations (SWE). In this thesis, we solve the...fundamental truth, we found the error norm of the implicit method to be minimal. This study focuses on the impacts of a simulated storm surge in La Push

  1. Coastal ecosystems for protection against storm surge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    reservoirs. Channels, lakes, ponds and marshes distribute flood waters, whereas natural topographic depressions can store large volumes of surge water (Fig.2). Unfortunately, such settings are fast diminishing as structures are being located in reclaimed... Hazards", Spl. Vol. of IGC O.P. Varma, G.V. Rajamanickam & Eugene Wilson (eds.), Ind. Geol. Cong., 2010, pp. 135-145. 9 Coastal Ecosystems for Protection against Storm Surge Antonio Mascarenhas National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula-403004 (Goa...

  2. Comparison of strain generated in bone by "platform-switched" and "non-platform-switched" implants with straight and angulated abutments under vertical and angulated load: A finite element analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Paul


    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the microstrain exhibited by bone around immediately loaded, platform-switched, and non-platform-switched implants under vertical and angled loading using a finite element analysis (FEA and also to evaluate whether platform-switched implants evoke a better response than non-platform-switched implants on a mechanical basis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element study was undertaken to model and analyze an immediate loaded situation. FEA was chosen for this study since it is useful in determining the stress and strain around the dental implant. Bone responses to vertical and angulated loads on straight and angulated abutments (platform-switched and non-platform-switched abutments were evaluated. Results: Non-platform-switched abutments tend to exhibit a lower tensile stress and compressive stress but higher microstrain value (conducive to higher chance of bone resorption than platform-switched abutments. Ideal bone remodeling values of microstrain (50-3000 μϵ were exhibited by platform-switched straight abutments under vertical load and angled load (with an abutment-implant diameter difference of 1 mm. Conclusion: In spite of the obvious advantages, the practice of immediate loading is limited due to apprehension associated with compromised bone response and a higher rate of bone loss around an immediately loaded implant. The mechanical basis for the concept of "platform switching" in immediately loaded situation is analyzed in this context. The results of this limited investigation indicated that the ideal values of microstrain (50-3000 microstrain can be exhibited by platform switching of dental implants (with an abutment-implant diameter difference of 1 mm and can be considered as a better alternative for prevention of crestal bone loss when compared to non-platform-switched implants.

  3. Utility-scale variable-speed wind turbines using a doubly-fed generator with a soft-switching power converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigand, C.H.; Lauw, H.K.; Marckx, D.A. [Electronic Power Conditioning, Inc., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    Utility-scale wind turbines operating at variable RPM have been studied for a considerable period of time. Whereas the increase in energy output originally has been considered the principal benefit of variable-speed operation, the ability to tightly control the drive-train torque by electronic means is becoming another very important cost factor, especially for turbine ratings above 500 kilowatts. This cost benefit becomes even more significant as optimum turbine ratings today are approaching (and surpassing) 1 Megawatt. Having identified the benefits for the turbine, the designer is confronted with the task of finding the most cost-effective variable-speed generation system which allows him to make use of the benefits, yet does not introduce well-known electrical problems associated with state-of-the-art variable-speed generator controls, such as drastically reduced generator winding life, excessive harmonics on the utility, and poor utility power factor. This paper will indicate that for high-power (> 500 kW), utility-scale wind turbines a doubly-fed generator system in connection with a soft-switching resonant power converter is the least-cost variable-speed generation system offering all of the desired benefits, yet avoids the introduction of the potential electrical problems stated above. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. The impact of climate change on storm surges over Irish waters (United States)

    Wang, Shiyu; McGrath, Ray; Hanafin, Jenny; Lynch, Peter; Semmler, Tido; Nolan, Paul

    The Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS) of Rutgers University is used to investigate the influence of anthropogenic climate change on storm surges over Irish waters, particularly on the extreme values. Two experiments were performed to confirm the validity of the approach in the current climate: the first focused on hindcasting the surge generated by a storm in early 2002 while the second provided surge statistics by running the model for the period 1990-2002; in both cases ROMS was driven with ERA-40 forcing fields. The results show that the model is capable of simulating both specific surge events and surge climate statistics with reasonable accuracy (order of 10 cm). Model outputs were also compared spatially against satellite altimetry data, corrected for long wavelength errors, from 1993 to 2001. The ROMS model consistently reproduces the sea level changes in the Irish Sea, and over the waters to the south and west of Ireland. For the investigation of the impact of the climate change on storm surges, the same configuration of ROMS was driven by atmospheric forcing fields downscaled from ECHAM5/OM1 data for the past (1961-1990) and future (2031-2060; SRES A1B greenhouse gas scenario); the downscaled data were produced using the Rossby Centre Regional Atmosphere model (RCA3). The results show an increase in storm surge events around Irish coastal areas in the future projection, except along the south Irish coast; there is also a significant increase in the height of the extreme surges along the west and east coasts, with most of the extreme surges occurring in wintertime.

  5. Nucleus accumbens dopamine/glutamate interaction switches mode to generate desire versus dread: D1 alone for appetitive eating but D1 and D2 together for fear (United States)

    Richard, Jocelyn M.; Berridge, Kent C.


    The medial shell of nucleus accumbens (NAc) and its mesolimbic dopamine inputs mediate forms of fearful as well as of incentive motivation. For example, either appetitive and/or actively fearful behaviors are generated in a keyboard pattern by localized glutamate disruptions in NAc (via microinjection of AMPA receptor antagonist DNQX) at different anatomical locations along a rostrocaudal gradient within medial shell of rats. Rostral glutamate disruptions produce intense increases in eating, but more caudally placed disruptions produce increasingly fearful behaviors: distress vocalizations and escape attempts to human touch, and a spontaneous and directed antipredator response called defensive treading/burying. Local endogenous dopamine is required for either intense motivation to be generated by AMPA disruptions. Here we report that only endogenous local signaling at D1 dopamine receptors is needed for rostral generation of excessive eating, potentially implicating a direct output pathway contribution. By contrast, fear generation at caudal sites requires both D1 and D2 signaling simultaneously, potentially implicating an indirect output pathway contribution. Finally, when motivation valence generated by AMPA disruptions at intermediate sites was flipped by manipulating environmental ambience, from mostly appetitive in a comfortable home environment to mostly fearful in a stressful environment, the roles of local D1 versus D2 signaling in dopamine/glutamate interaction at microinjection sites also switched dynamically to match the motivation valence generated at the moment. Thus, NAc D1 and D2 receptors, and their associated neuronal circuits, play different and dynamic roles in enabling desire and dread to be generated by localized NAc glutamate disruptions in medial shell. PMID:21900565

  6. Nucleus accumbens dopamine/glutamate interaction switches modes to generate desire versus dread: D(1) alone for appetitive eating but D(1) and D(2) together for fear. (United States)

    Richard, Jocelyn M; Berridge, Kent C


    The medial shell of nucleus accumbens (NAc) and its mesolimbic dopamine inputs mediate forms of fearful as well as of incentive motivation. For example, either appetitive and/or actively fearful behaviors are generated in a keyboard pattern by localized glutamate disruptions in NAc (via microinjection of the AMPA receptor antagonist DNQX) at different anatomical locations along a rostrocaudal gradient within the medial shell of rats. Rostral glutamate disruptions produce intense increases in eating, but more caudally placed disruptions produce increasingly fearful behaviors: distress vocalizations and escape attempts to human touch, and a spontaneous and directed antipredator response called defensive treading/burying. Local endogenous dopamine is required for either intense motivation to be generated by AMPA disruptions. Here we report that only endogenous local signaling at D(1) dopamine receptors is needed for rostral generation of excessive eating, potentially implicating a direct output pathway contribution. In contrast, fear generation at caudal sites requires both D(1) and D(2) signaling simultaneously, potentially implicating an indirect output pathway contribution. Finally, when motivation valence generated by AMPA disruptions at intermediate sites was flipped by manipulating environmental ambience, from mostly appetitive in a comfortable home environment to mostly fearful in a stressful environment, the roles of local D(1) and D(2) signaling in dopamine/glutamate interaction at microinjection sites also switched dynamically to match the motivation valence generated at the moment. Thus, NAc D(1) and D(2) receptors, and their associated neuronal circuits, play different and dynamic roles in enabling desire and dread to be generated by localized NAc glutamate disruptions in medial shell.

  7. KNDy neurone activation prior to the LH surge of the ewe is disrupted by LPS. (United States)

    Fergani, C; Routly, J E; Jones, D N; Pickavance, L C; Smith, R F; Dobson, H


    In the ewe, steroid hormones act on the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) to initiate the GnRH/LH surge. Within the ARC, steroid signal transduction may be mediated by estrogen receptive dopamine-, β-endorphin- or neuropeptide Y (NPY)-expressing cells, as well as those co-localising kisspeptin, neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin (termed KNDy). We investigated the time during the follicular phase when these cells become activated (i.e., co-localise c-Fos) relative to the timing of the LH surge onset and may therefore be involved in the surge generating mechanism. Furthermore, we aimed to elucidate whether these activation patterns are altered after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration, which is known to inhibit the LH surge. Follicular phases of ewes were synchronised by progesterone withdrawal and blood samples were collected every 2 h. Hypothalamic tissue was retrieved at various times during the follicular phase with or without the administration of LPS (100 ng/kg). The percentage of activated dopamine cells decreased before the onset of sexual behaviour, whereas activation of β-endorphin decreased and NPY activation tended to increase during the LH surge. These patterns were not disturbed by LPS administration. Maximal co-expression of c-Fos in dynorphin immunoreactive neurons was observed earlier during the follicular phase, compared to kisspeptin and NKB, which were maximally activated during the surge. This indicates a distinct role for ARC dynorphin in the LH surge generation mechanism. Acute LPS decreased the percentage of activated dynorphin and kisspeptin immunoreactive cells. Thus, in the ovary-intact ewe, KNDy neurones are activated prior to the LH surge onset and this pattern is inhibited by the administration of LPS. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  8. Analysis of Storm Surge in Hong Kong (United States)

    Kao, W. H.


    A storm surge is a type of coastal flood that is caused by low-pressure systems such as tropical cyclones. Storm surges caused by tropical cyclones can be very powerful and damaging, as they can flood coastal areas, and even destroy infrastructure in serious cases. Some serious cases of storm surges leading to more than thousands of deaths include Hurricane Katrina (2005) in New Orleans and Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippines. Hong Kong is a coastal city that is prone to tropical cyclones, having an average of 5-6 tropical cyclones entering 500km range of Hong Kong per year. Storm surges have seriously damaged Hong Kong in the past, causing more than 100 deaths by Typhoon Wanda (1962), and leading to serious damage to Tai O and Cheung Chau by Typhoon Hagupit (2008). To prevent economic damage and casualties from storm surges, accurately predicting the height of storm surges and giving timely warnings to citizens is very important. In this project, I will be analyzing how different factors affect the height of storm surge, mainly using data from Hong Kong. These factors include the windspeed in Hong Kong, the atmospheric pressure in Hong Kong, the moon phase, the wind direction, the intensity of the tropical cyclone, distance between the tropical cyclone and Hong Kong, the direction of the tropical cyclone relative to Hong Kong, the speed of movement of the tropical cyclone and more. My findings will also be compared with cases from other places, to see if my findings also apply for other places.

  9. Global mortality from storm surges is decreasing (United States)

    Bouwer, Laurens M.; Jonkman, Sebastiaan N.


    Changes in society’s vulnerability to natural hazards are important to understand, as they determine current and future risks, and the need to improve protection. Very large impacts including high numbers of fatalities occur due to single storm surge flood events. Here, we report on impacts of global coastal storm surge events since the year 1900, based on a compilation of events and data on loss of life. We find that over the past, more than eight thousand people are killed and 1.5 million people are affected annually by storm surges. The occurrence of very substantial loss of life (>10 000 persons) from single events has however decreased over time. Moreover, there is a consistent decrease in event mortality, measured by the fraction of exposed people that are killed, for all global regions, except South East Asia. Average mortality for storm surges is slightly higher than for river floods, but lower than for flash floods. We also find that for the same coastal surge water level, mortality has decreased over time. This indicates that risk reduction efforts have been successful, but need to be continued with projected climate change, increased rates of sea-level rise and urbanisation in coastal zones.

  10. Switching antidepressants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depressive disorder, with response rates of 50-60%. Switching within or between classes of antidepressants is often required in patients with an insufficient response to SSRIs.12 Because they share a similar mechanism of action, the immediate substitution of one SSRI for another is probably the easiest switching option.

  11. Graphene-PVA saturable absorber for generation of a wavelength-tunable passively Q-switched thulium-doped fiber laser in 2.0 µm (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Samion, M. Z.; Sharbirin, A. S.; Norizan, S. F.; Aidit, S. N.; Ismail, M. F.


    Graphene, a 2D material, has been used for generation of pulse lasers due to the presence of its various fascinating optical properties compared to other materials. Hence in this paper, we report the first demonstration of a thulium doped fiber laser with a wavelength-tunable, passive Q-switched output using a graphene-polyvinyl-alcohol composite film for operation in the 2.0 µm region. The proposed laser has a wavelength-tunable output spanning from 1932.0 nm to 1946.0 nm, giving a total tuning range of 14.0 nm. The generated pulse has a maximum repetition rate and average output power of 36.29 kHz and 0.394 mW at the maximum pump power of 130.87 mW, as well as a pulse width of 6.8 µs at this pump power. The generated pulses have a stable output, having a signal-to-noise ratio of 31.75 dB, and the laser output is stable when tested over a period of 60 min. The proposed laser would have multiple applications for operation near the 2.0 micron region, especially for bio-medical applications and range-finding.

  12. Effect of Hydraulic Accumulator on Pressure Surge of a Hydrostatic Transmission System (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Das, Jayanta; Dasgupta, Kabir; Barnwal, Manish Kumar


    Hydraulic power system is generally used in off-road vehicles for power transmission such as Heavy Earth Moving Machineries (HEMM). Their energy efficiency and unsubstantial failure becomes an extensive subject of analysis. Various arrangements in the system are compassed along with the utilization of some appropriate components. Application of a hydraulic accumulator is one among them. Benefits of accumulator is its multi-purpose usages like energy saving and pressure surge damping. This paper deals with the control of pressure surges in the hydraulic system and energy saving from the surges by using accumulator. For this purpose, the simulation of the hydraulic system is done in MATLAB/SimulinkR environment and an external disturbance is introduced to generate the pressure surge. The surge absorptivity of the accumulator is studied for different sizes at different pre-charged conditions of the accumulator. The discharge characteristics of different sized accumulators are also analyzed in this paper. It is observed that the ability to absorb the surge and stabilize the system is high in the smaller capacity accumulator. However the energy delivery time of larger sized accumulator is high.

  13. Modeling and simulation of storm surge on Staten Island to understand inundation mitigation strategies (United States)

    Kress, Michael E.; Benimoff, Alan I.; Fritz, William J.; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Blanton, Brian O.; Dzedzits, Eugene


    Hurricane Sandy made landfall on October 29, 2012, near Brigantine, New Jersey, and had a transformative impact on Staten Island and the New York Metropolitan area. Of the 43 New York City fatalities, 23 occurred on Staten Island. The borough, with a population of approximately 500,000, experienced some of the most devastating impacts of the storm. Since Hurricane Sandy, protective dunes have been constructed on the southeast shore of Staten Island. ADCIRC+SWAN model simulations run on The City University of New York's Cray XE6M, housed at the College of Staten Island, using updated topographic data show that the coast of Staten Island is still susceptible to tidal surge similar to those generated by Hurricane Sandy. Sandy hindcast simulations of storm surges focusing on Staten Island are in good agreement with observed storm tide measurements. Model results calculated from fine-scaled and coarse-scaled computational grids demonstrate that finer grids better resolve small differences in the topography of critical hydraulic control structures, which affect storm surge inundation levels. The storm surge simulations, based on post-storm topography obtained from high-resolution lidar, provide much-needed information to understand Staten Island's changing vulnerability to storm surge inundation. The results of fine-scale storm surge simulations can be used to inform efforts to improve resiliency to future storms. For example, protective barriers contain planned gaps in the dunes to provide for beach access that may inadvertently increase the vulnerability of the area.

  14. Evidence for a luteinizing hormone surge center in the hypothalamus of the pig. (United States)

    Kraeling, R R; Johnson, B; Barb, C R; Rampacek, G B


    Studies were conducted to determine whether there is an LH surge generator in the hypothalamus of the pig. In experiment 1, 157-day-old ovariectomized (OVX) gilts received 1.5 microg estradiol benzoate (EB)/kg BW i.m. every 12 h from 0 through 24, 48, 72, or 96 h. Blood was sampled every 6 h from 3 to 36 h and every 3 h from 36 through 144 h. One of 3, 4 of 4, 4 of 4, and 2 of 3 gilts displayed an LH surge after treatment for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively. With the exception that time to maximum LH concentration was greater in gilts treated for 96 h than in those treated for 72 h (p gilts. In experiment 2a, an Alzet osmotic pump containing EB or vehicle was inserted s.c. behind an ear of 124-day-old OVX gilts, resulting in the following daily doses of EB: 0, 0.75, 1.50, or 3.00 microg/kg BW. Blood was sampled at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h and every 8 h thereafter through 168 h to evaluate surge secretion of LH, and every 15 min for 8 h starting at 168 h to evaluate pulsatile LH secretion. Zero of 3, 0 of 2, 3 of 3, and 3 of 3 gilts displayed an LH surge after 0, 0.75, 1.50, and 3.00 microg EB/kg BW, respectively. Parameters of the surge were similar among gilts. Pulsatile LH secretion, evaluated 7 days after pump insertion, was significantly suppressed for estradiol-treated gilts compared to controls. In experiment 2b, at 182 days of age, 10 gilts used in experiment 2a plus 2 additional gilts in the original group prepared but not used for experiment 2a, were randomly assigned in groups (n=3) to the following daily doses of EB: 0, 0.19, 0.38, or 0.75 microg/kg BW, administered again by osmotic pump. Treatment and blood-sampling schedules were the same as in experiment 2a. Zero, 0, 1, and 2 gilts displayed an LH surge after treatment with 0, 0.19, 0.38, and 0.75 microg EB/kg BW, respectively. Parameters of the surge were similar among gilts that displayed an LH surge. Pulsatile LH secretion was significantly suppressed for estradiol-treated gilts compared to controls

  15. Health systems' "surge capacity": state of the art and priorities for future research. (United States)

    Watson, Samantha K; Rudge, James W; Coker, Richard


    Over the past decade, a number of high-impact natural hazard events, together with the increased recognition of pandemic risks, have intensified interest in health systems' ability to prepare for, and cope with, "surges" (sudden large-scale escalations) in treatment needs. In this article, we identify key concepts and components associated with this emerging research theme. We consider the requirements for a standardized conceptual framework for future research capable of informing policy to reduce the morbidity and mortality impacts of such incidents. Here our objective is to appraise the consistency and utility of existing conceptualizations of health systems' surge capacity and their components, with a view to standardizing concepts and measurements to enable future research to generate a cumulative knowledge base for policy and practice. A systematic review of the literature on concepts of health systems' surge capacity, with a narrative summary of key concepts relevant to public health. The academic literature on surge capacity demonstrates considerable variation in its conceptualization, terms, definitions, and applications. This, together with an absence of detailed and comparable data, has hampered efforts to develop standardized conceptual models, measurements, and metrics. Some degree of consensus is evident for the components of surge capacity, but more work is needed to integrate them. The overwhelming concentration in the United States complicates the generalizability of existing approaches and findings. The concept of surge capacity is a useful addition to the study of health systems' disaster and/or pandemic planning, mitigation, and response, and it has far-reaching policy implications. Even though research in this area has grown quickly, it has yet to fulfill its potential to generate knowledge to inform policy. Work is needed to generate robust conceptual and analytical frameworks, along with innovations in data collection and methodological

  16. Creep Behavior Of Thin Laminates Of Iron-Cobalt Alloys For Use In Switched Reluctance Motors And Generators


    Fingers, Richard Todd


    The United States Air Force is in the process of developing magnetic bearings as well as an aircraft Integrated Power Unit and an Internal Starter/Generator for main propulsion engines. These developments are the driving force behind a new emphasis on high temperature, high strength magnetic materials for power applications. Analytical work, utilizing elasticity theory, in conjunction with design requirements, indicates a need for magnetic materials to have strengths in excess of 80 ksi up ...

  17. Adaptive mesh refinement for storm surge

    KAUST Repository

    Mandli, Kyle T.


    An approach to utilizing adaptive mesh refinement algorithms for storm surge modeling is proposed. Currently numerical models exist that can resolve the details of coastal regions but are often too costly to be run in an ensemble forecasting framework without significant computing resources. The application of adaptive mesh refinement algorithms substantially lowers the computational cost of a storm surge model run while retaining much of the desired coastal resolution. The approach presented is implemented in the GeoClaw framework and compared to ADCIRC for Hurricane Ike along with observed tide gauge data and the computational cost of each model run. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Possibilities for Growing Switch-grass (Panicum virgatum as Second Generation Energy Crop in Dry-subhumid, Semiarid and Arid Regions of the Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia FALASCA


    Full Text Available Panicum virgatum (swich-grass is cultivated in some countries to obtain biomass used in the production of heat, fiber, electricity and second generation ethanol. Currently, in Argentina, this species is used for forage and as an ornamental. The aim of this work was to design an agroclimatic zoning model for swich-grass in Argentina, both for upland and lowland ecotypes, based on its bioclimatic requirements and employing a Geography Information System. The variables taken into consideration were: average temperature during growing period and reproductive period, frost free days and rainfall during growing season. This work demonstrated that an ample region of the country is agro-climatically suitable for the implantation of switch-grass in rainfed conditions or with complementary irrigation. The agroclimatic zoning for the upland ecotype shows that suitability reaches latitudes of up to 46ºS, while the lowland ecotype can be grown up to 40ºS. Thornthwaite's Moisture Index equal to zero was overlapped to the Argentinean agroclimatic zoning for upland and lowland types, to obtain the potential growing areas under dry-subhumid, semiarid to arid climates. The areas where switch-grass should be effectively tested are those categorized as optimal, very suitable, suitable, and very suitable/suitable with irrigation, located to the West of TMI equal to zero, which include dry-subhumid (0

  19. Magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirbie, H.C.


    Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  20. The dynamics of surge in compression systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In air-compression systems, instabilities occur during operation close to their peak pressure-rise capability. However, the peak efficiency of a compression system lies close to this region of instability. A surge is a violent mode of instability where there is total breakdown of flow in the system and pressure-rise capability is lost ...

  1. Positive feedback stabilization of centrifugal compressor surge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Frank; Heemels, W.P.M.H.; de Jager, Bram; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    Stable operation of axial and centrifugal compressors is limited towards low mass flows due to the occurrence of surge. The stable operating region can be enlarged by active control. In this study, we use a control valve which is fully closed in the desired operating point and only opens to

  2. Frequency of ABL gene mutations in chronic myeloid leukemia patients resistant to imatinib and results of treatment switch to second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. (United States)

    Marcé, Silvia; Zamora, Lurdes; Cabezón, Marta; Xicoy, Blanca; Boqué, Concha; Fernández, Cristalina; Grau, Javier; Navarro, José-Tomás; Fernández de Sevilla, Alberto; Ribera, Josep-Maria; Feliu, Evarist; Millá, Fuensanta


    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) have improved the management of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). However, a significant proportion of patients do not achieve the optimal response or are resistant to TKI. ABL kinase domain mutations have been extensively implicated in the pathogenesis of TKI resistance. Treatment with second-generation TKI has produced high rates of hematologic and cytogenetic responses in mutated ABL patients. The aim of this study was to determine the type and frequency of ABL mutations in patients who were resistant to imatinib or had lost the response, and to analyze the effect of second-generation TKI on their outcome. The presence of ABL mutations in 45 CML patients resistant to imatinib was evaluated by direct sequencing and was correlated with the results of the cytogenetic study (performed in 39 cases). The outcome of these patients after therapy with nilotinib or dasatinib was analyzed. ABL mutations were detected in 14 out of 45 resistant patients. Patients with clonal cytogenetic evolution tended to develop mutations more frequently than those without clonal evolution. Nine out of the 15 patients with ABL mutation responded to a treatment switch to nilotinib (n=4), dasatinib (n=2), interferon (n=1) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (n=2). The frequency of ABL mutations in CML patients resistant to imatinib is high and is more frequent among those with clonal cytogenetic evolution. The change to second-generation TKI can overcome imatinib resistance in most of the mutated patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of efficacy and impact on work productivity and attendance after a mandatory switch to generic second-generation antihistamines: results of a patient survey in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ødegård Tone


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2006, the Norwegian Medicines Agency mandated a switch from desloratadine, ebastine, or fexofenadine to cetirizine or loratadine in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR or chronic urticaria (CU. In an online survey, patients whose medication was switched assessed the impact on efficacy, fatigue, and work productivity/attendance. Methods Allergy patients in Norway completed a 25-item online survey. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with AR or CU who were switched to cetirizine or loratadine from desloratadine, ebastine, or fexofenadine were included. Participants rated post-switch efficacy, fatigue, and effect on work productivity/attendance compared with their pre-switch medication. Patients also reported post-switch change in number of doctor visits required, total treatment cost, and whether they had switched or wanted to switch back to their previous medications. Results Of 1920 patients invited, 493 responded and 409 of these were eligible. Previous antihistamines were desloratadine (78.4% of respondents, ebastine (16.0%, and fexofenadine (5.6%. Post-switch, 64.7% received cetirizine and 35.3% loratadine. Compared with previous therapy, cetirizine and loratadine were rated less effective by 46.3% of respondents; 28.7% reported increased fatigue; and 31.6% reported decreased work productivity with the generic agents. At the time of the survey, 26% of respondents had switched back to their previous medication. Conclusions This is the first survey to assess the impact on patient-reported outcomes of a mandated switch from prescription to generic antihistamines in Norway. The findings suggest that patient response to different antihistamines will vary and that treatment decisions should be individualized for optimal results.

  4. Optimal allocation of distributed generation and remote control switches for reliability enhancement of a radial distribution system using oppositional differential search algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saheli Ray


    Full Text Available Reliability enhancement of power distribution system has attained much significance in the present competitive electricity market. Accordingly, methodologies to assess and improve distribution system reliability are also gaining much importance. This study proposes oppositional differential search (ODS algorithm to solve reliability optimisation problem of radial distribution system. The objective of this study is to obtain the optimum number, size and location of distributed generation as well as optimal number and location of remote control switch simultaneously in radial distribution system in order to improve system reliability at a compromised cost. A multi-objective function has been formulated here. Differential search (DS algorithm imitates the seasonal migration behaviour of an organism in search of efficiency of food areas. Opposition-based DS (ODS algorithm has been used here to improve the quality of solution in minimum time. The proposed opposition-based DS (ODS algorithm utilises opposition-based learning for Superorganism initialisation and also for iteration wise update operation. Simulation results obtained by ODS algorithm have been compared with that of DS algorithm and differential evolutionary algorithm. Simulation results reveal that ODS algorithm provides considerably superior performance, in terms of quality of solution obtained and computational efficiency.

  5. High Step-Up 3-Phase Rectifier with Fly-Back Cells and Switched Capacitors for Small-Scaled Wind Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Feng Wang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes and discusses a novel AC/DC converter suitable for small-scaled wind power generation system applications. By introducing flyback cells into the three-phase single-switch Boost circuit, the proposed converter is designed as single-stage and has both rectification and high step-up power conversion functions. It is able to obtain high voltage gain at low input voltage level, and high efficiency, low total harmonic distortion (THD at rated power. The inherent power factor correction (PFC is also determined, and can reach 0.99. Besides, since no electrolytic capacitor is employed and high voltage gain is achieved, the converter can also collect weak power at low input voltage in combination with energy storage devices, and contribute to a better low-wind-speed/low-power performance. Finally, a 400 W prototype is built to verify the theoretical analysis, and its efficiency is 87.6%, while THD is 7.4% at rated power.

  6. Health Systems’ “Surge Capacity”: State of the Art and Priorities for Future Research (United States)

    Watson, Samantha K; Rudge, James W; Coker, Richard


    Context Over the past decade, a number of high-impact natural hazard events, together with the increased recognition of pandemic risks, have intensified interest in health systems’ ability to prepare for, and cope with, “surges” (sudden large-scale escalations) in treatment needs. In this article, we identify key concepts and components associated with this emerging research theme. We consider the requirements for a standardized conceptual framework for future research capable of informing policy to reduce the morbidity and mortality impacts of such incidents. Here our objective is to appraise the consistency and utility of existing conceptualizations of health systems’ surge capacity and their components, with a view to standardizing concepts and measurements to enable future research to generate a cumulative knowledge base for policy and practice. Methods A systematic review of the literature on concepts of health systems’ surge capacity, with a narrative summary of key concepts relevant to public health. Findings The academic literature on surge capacity demonstrates considerable variation in its conceptualization, terms, definitions, and applications. This, together with an absence of detailed and comparable data, has hampered efforts to develop standardized conceptual models, measurements, and metrics. Some degree of consensus is evident for the components of surge capacity, but more work is needed to integrate them. The overwhelming concentration in the United States complicates the generalizability of existing approaches and findings. Conclusions The concept of surge capacity is a useful addition to the study of health systems’ disaster and/or pandemic planning, mitigation, and response, and it has far-reaching policy implications. Even though research in this area has grown quickly, it has yet to fulfill its potential to generate knowledge to inform policy. Work is needed to generate robust conceptual and analytical frameworks, along with

  7. Hindcast and validation of Hurricane Ike waves, forerunner, and storm surge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hope, M.E.; Westerink, J.J.; Kennedy, A.B.; Kerr, P.C.; Dietrich, J.C.; Dawson, C.; Bender, C.J.; Smith, J.M.; Jensen, R.E.; Zijlema, M.; Holthuijsen, L.H.; Luettich, R.A.; Powell, M.D.; Cardone, V.J.; Cox, A.T.; Pourtaheri, H.; Roberts, H.J.; Atkinson, J.H.; Tanaka, S.; Westerink, H.J.; Westerink, L.G.


    Hurricane Ike (2008) made landfall near Galveston, Texas, as a moderate intensity storm. Its large wind field in conjunction with the Louisiana-Texas coastline's broad shelf and large scale concave geometry generated waves and surge that impacted over 1000 km of coastline. Ike's complex and varied

  8. Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for a storm surge and wave model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bastidas


    Full Text Available Development and simulation of synthetic hurricane tracks is a common methodology used to estimate hurricane hazards in the absence of empirical coastal surge and wave observations. Such methods typically rely on numerical models to translate stochastically generated hurricane wind and pressure forcing into coastal surge and wave estimates. The model output uncertainty associated with selection of appropriate model parameters must therefore be addressed. The computational overburden of probabilistic surge hazard estimates is exacerbated by the high dimensionality of numerical surge and wave models. We present a model parameter sensitivity analysis of the Delft3D model for the simulation of hazards posed by Hurricane Bob (1991 utilizing three theoretical wind distributions (NWS23, modified Rankine, and Holland. The sensitive model parameters (of 11 total considered include wind drag, the depth-induced breaking γB, and the bottom roughness. Several parameters show no sensitivity (threshold depth, eddy viscosity, wave triad parameters, and depth-induced breaking αB and can therefore be excluded to reduce the computational overburden of probabilistic surge hazard estimates. The sensitive model parameters also demonstrate a large number of interactions between parameters and a nonlinear model response. While model outputs showed sensitivity to several parameters, the ability of these parameters to act as tuning parameters for calibration is somewhat limited as proper model calibration is strongly reliant on accurate wind and pressure forcing data. A comparison of the model performance with forcings from the different wind models is also presented.

  9. Rapid wave and storm surge warning system for tropical cyclones in Mexico (United States)

    Appendini, C. M.; Rosengaus, M.; Meza, R.; Camacho, V.


    The National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami, is responsible for the forecast of tropical cyclones in the North Atlantic and Eastern North Pacific basins. As such, Mexico, Central America and Caribbean countries depend on the information issued by the NHC related to the characteristics of a particular tropical cyclone and associated watch and warning areas. Despite waves and storm surge are important hazards for marine operations and coastal dwellings, their forecast is not part of the NHC responsibilities. This work presents a rapid wave and storm surge warning system based on 3100 synthetic tropical cyclones doing landfall in Mexico. Hydrodynamic and wave models were driven by the synthetic events to create a robust database composed of maximum envelops of wind speed, significant wave height and storm surge for each event. The results were incorporated into a forecast system that uses the NHC advisory to locate the synthetic events passing inside specified radiuses for the present and forecast position of the real event. Using limited computer resources, the system displays the information meeting the search criteria, and the forecaster can select specific events to generate the desired hazard map (i.e. wind, waves, and storm surge) based on the maximum envelop maps. This system was developed in a limited time frame to be operational in 2015 by the National Hurricane and Severe Storms Unit of the Mexican National Weather Service, and represents a pilot project for other countries in the region not covered by detailed storm surge and waves forecasts.

  10. Surge detection on an automotive turbocharger during transient phases (United States)

    Deligant, M.; Danlos, A.; Podevin, P.; Clenci, A.; Guilain, S.


    The surge limit on automotive turbocharger needs to be avoided to prevent operations with pressure and mass flow oscillations. Mild surge is accompanied by noise which is disturbing. Deep surge can cause significant loss of engine power and severe drivability issues. It is necessary to know the stationary limit in order to match a turbocharger with an engine, ensuring enough surge margin. However, this choice does not guarantee surge free operation during transient functioning. In this paper, the surge onset of a compressor while closing a downstream valve is studied. Various tests have been carried out varying the closing time, the position of the initial operating point and the volume of the circuit. The inlet and outlet signals of physical parameters are analyzed with spectral and temporal methods in order to define the instant of the surge occurrence.

  11. Identification of storm surge vulnerable areas in the Philippines through the simulation of Typhoon Haiyan-induced storm surge levels over historical storm tracks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Lapidez


    Full Text Available Super Typhoon Haiyan entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR on 7 November 2013, causing tremendous damage to infrastructure and loss of lives mainly due to the storm surge and strong winds. Storm surges up to a height of 7 m were reported in the hardest hit areas. The threat imposed by this kind of natural calamity compelled researchers of the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH which is the flagship disaster mitigation program of the Department of Science and Technology (DOST of the Philippine government to undertake a study to determine the vulnerability of all Philippine coastal communities to storm surges of the same magnitude as those generated by Haiyan. This study calculates the maximum probable storm surge height for every coastal locality by running simulations of Haiyan-type conditions but with tracks of tropical cyclones that entered PAR from 1948–2013. One product of this study is a list of the 30 most vulnerable coastal areas that can be used as a basis for choosing priority sites for further studies to implement appropriate site-specific solutions for flood risk management. Another product is the storm tide inundation maps that the local government units can use to develop a risk-sensitive land use plan for identifying appropriate areas to build residential buildings, evacuation sites, and other critical facilities and lifelines. The maps can also be used to develop a disaster response plan and evacuation scheme.

  12. Using wind setdown and storm surge on Lake Erie to calibrate the air-sea drag coefficient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Drews

    Full Text Available The air-sea drag coefficient controls the transfer of momentum from wind to water. In modeling storm surge, this coefficient is a crucial parameter for estimating the surge height. This study uses two strong wind events on Lake Erie to calibrate the drag coefficient using the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Wave Sediment Transport (COAWST modeling system and the the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS. Simulated waves are generated on the lake with Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN. Wind setdown provides the opportunity to eliminate wave setup as a contributing factor, since waves are minimal at the upwind shore. The study finds that model results significantly underestimate wind setdown and storm surge when a typical open-ocean formulation without waves is used for the drag coefficient. The contribution of waves to wind setdown and storm surge is 34.7%. Scattered lake ice also increases the effective drag coefficient by a factor of 1.1.

  13. Typhoon Haiyan-Induced Storm Surge Simulation in Metro Manila Using High-Resolution LiDAR Topographic Data (United States)

    Santiago, J. T.


    Storm surge is the abnormal rise in sea water over and above astronomical tides due to a forthcoming storm. Developing an early warning system for storm surges is vital due to the high level of hazard they might cause. On 08 November 2013, Typhoon Haiyan generated storm surges that killed over 6,000 people in the central part of the Philippines. The Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards under the Department of Science and Technology was tasked to create storm surge hazard maps for the country's coastal areas. The research project aims to generate storm surge hazard maps that can be used for disaster mitigation and planning. As part of the research, the team explored a scenario wherein a tropical cyclone hits the Metro Manila with strength as strong as Typhoon Haiyan. The area was chosen primarily for its political, economic and cultural significance as the country's capital. Using Japan Meteorological Agency Storm Surge model, FLO2D flooding software, LiDAR topographic data, and GIS technology, the effects of a Haiyan-induced tropical cyclone passing through Metro Manila was examined. The population affected, number of affected critical facilities, and potential evacuation sites were identified. The outputs of this study can be used by the authorities as basis for policies that involve disaster risk reduction and management.

  14. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering. (United States)

    Moore, John C; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying


    Devastating floods due to Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However, the frequency of the most intense storms is likely to increase with rises in sea surface temperatures. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulfate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane Main Development Region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may mitigate hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using eight earth system model simulations of climate under the Geoengineering Model Intercomparison Project (GeoMIP) G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those temperature increases in the RCP4.5. However, sulfate injection would have to double (to nearly 10 teragrams of SO2 per year) between 2020 and 2070 to balance the RCP4.5, approximately the equivalent of a 1991 Pinatubo eruption every 2 y, with consequent implications for stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent generalized extreme value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges and observed temperatures since 1923. The number of storm surge events as big as the one caused by the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this reduction is only marginally statistically significant. Nevertheless, when sea level rise differences in 2070 between the RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored into coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5-y events and about halved for 50-y surges.

  15. Atlantic hurricane surge response to geoengineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, John C.; Grinsted, Aslak; Guo, Xiaoran; Yu, Xiaoyong; Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Rinke, Annette; Cui, Xuefeng; Kravitz, Ben; Lenton, Andrew; Watanabe, Shingo; Ji, Duoying


    Devastating Atlantic hurricanes are relatively rare events. However their intensity and frequency in a warming world may rapidly increase by a factor of 2-7 for each degree of increase in mean global temperature. Geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosol injection cools the tropics relative to the polar regions, including the hurricane main development region in the Atlantic, suggesting that geoengineering may be an effective method of controlling hurricanes. We examine this hypothesis using 8 Earth System Model simulations of climate under the GeoMIP G3 and G4 schemes that use stratospheric aerosols to reduce the radiative forcing under the RCP4.5 scenario. Global mean temperature increases are greatly ameliorated by geoengineering, and tropical temperature increases are at most half of those in RCP4.5, but sulphate injection would have to double between 2020 and 2070 to balance RCP 4.5 to nearly 10 Tg SO2 yr-1, with consequent implications for damage to stratospheric ozone. We project changes in storm frequencies using a temperature-dependent Generalized Extreme Value statistical model calibrated by historical storm surges from 1923 and observed temperatures. The numbers of storm surge events as big as the one that caused the 2005 Katrina hurricane are reduced by about 50% compared with no geoengineering, but this is only marginally statistically significant. However, when sea level rise differences at 2070 between RCP4.5 and geoengineering are factored in to coastal flood risk, we find that expected flood levels are reduced by about 40 cm for 5 year events and perhaps halved for 50 year surges.

  16. SURGTANK, Steam Pressure, Saturation Temperature or Reactor Surge Tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, D.J.; Gupta, R.K.


    1 - Description of problem or function: SURGTANK generates the steam pressure, saturation temperature, and ambient temperature history for a nuclear reactor steam surge tank (pressurizer) in a state of thermodynamic equilibrium subjected to a liquid insurge described by a specified time history of liquid levels. It is capable also of providing the pressure and saturation temperature history, starting from thermodynamic equilibrium conditions, for the same tank subjected to an out-surge described by a time history of liquid levels. Both operations are available for light- or heavy- water nuclear reactor systems. The tank is assumed to have perfect thermal insulation on its outer wall surfaces. 2 - Method of solution: Surge tank geometry and initial liquid level and saturation pressure are provided as input for the out-surge problem, along with the prescribed time-sequence level history. SURGTANK assumes a reduced pressure for the end of the first change in liquid level and determines the associated change of entropy for the closed system. The assumed pressure is adjusted and the associated change in entropy recalculated until a pressure is attained for which no change occurs. This pressure is recorded and used as the beginning pressure for the next level increment. The system is then re-defined to exclude the small amount of liquid which has left the tank, and a solution for the pressure at the end of the second level increment is obtained. The procedure is terminated when the pressure at the end of the final increment has been determined. Surge tank geometry, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and density of tank walls, initial liquid level, and saturation pressure are provided as input for the insurge problem, along with the prescribed time-sequence level history. SURGTANK assumes a slightly in- creased pressure for the end of the first level, the inner tank sur- face is assumed to follow saturation temperature, linearly with time, throughout the interval, and

  17. Photonic MEMS switch applications (United States)

    Husain, Anis


    As carriers and service providers continue their quest for profitable network solutions, they have shifted their focus from raw bandwidth to rapid provisioning, delivery and management of revenue generating services. Inherently transparent to data rate the transmission wavelength and data format, MEMS add scalability, reliability, low power and compact size providing flexible solutions to the management and/or fiber channels in long haul, metro, and access networks. MEMS based photonic switches have gone from the lab to commercial availability and are now currently in carrier trials and volume production. 2D MEMS switches offer low up-front deployment costs while remaining scalable to large arrays. They allow for transparent, native protocol transmission. 2D switches enable rapid service turn-up and management for many existing and emerging revenue rich services such as storage connectivity, optical Ethernet, wavelength leasing and optical VPN. As the network services evolve, the larger 3D MEMS switches, which provide greater scalability and flexibility, will become economically viable to serve the ever-increasing needs.

  18. Hospital Bioterrorism Planning and Burn Surge (United States)

    Myers, Brent; Cairns, Charles B.; Rich, Preston B.; Hultman, C. Scott; Charles, Anthony G.; Jones, Samuel W.; Schmits, Grace L.; Skarote, Mary Beth; Holmes, James H.; Cairns, Bruce A.


    On the morning of June 9, 2009, an explosion occurred at a manufacturing plant in Garner, North Carolina. By the end of the day, 68 injured patients had been evaluated at the 3 Level I trauma centers and 3 community hospitals in the Raleigh/Durham metro area (3 people who were buried in the structural collapse died at the scene). Approximately 300 employees were present at the time of the explosion, when natural gas being vented during the repair of a hot water heater ignited. The concussion from the explosion led to structural failure in multiple locations and breached additional natural gas, electrical, and ammonia lines that ran overhead in the 1-story concrete industrial plant. Intent is the major difference between this type of accident and a terrorist using an incendiary device to terrorize a targeted population. But while this disaster lacked intent, the response, rescue, and outcomes were improved as a result of bioterrorism preparedness. This article discusses how bioterrorism hospital preparedness planning, with an all-hazards approach, became the basis for coordinated burn surge disaster preparedness. This real-world disaster challenged a variety of systems, hospitals, and healthcare providers to work efficiently and effectively to manage multiple survivors. Burn-injured patients served as a focus for this work. We describe the response, rescue, and resuscitation provided by first responders and first receivers as well as efforts made to develop burn care capabilities and surge capacity. PMID:24527874

  19. Compressor Surge Control Design Using Linear Matrix Inequality Approach


    Uddin, Nur; Gravdahl, Jan Tommy


    A novel design for active compressor surge control system (ASCS) using linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach is presented and including a case study on piston-actuated active compressor surge control system (PAASCS). The non-linear system dynamics of the PAASCS is transformed into linear parameter varying (LPV) system dynamics. The system parameters are varying as a function of the compressor performance curve slope. A compressor surge stabilization problem is then formulated as a LMI probl...

  20. S-type granite generation and emplacement during a regional switch from extensional to contractional deformation (Central Iberian Zone, Iberian autochthonous domain, Variscan Orogeny) (United States)

    Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Gama, C.; Hofmann, M.; Gärtner, A.; Linnemann, U.


    Zircon grains extracted from S-type granites of the Mêda-Escalhão-Penedono Massif (Central Iberian Zone, Variscan Orogen) constrain the timing of emplacement and provide information about potential magma sources. Simple and composite zircon grains from three samples of S-type granite were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. New U-Pb data indicate that granites crystallized in the Bashkirian (318.7 ± 4.8 Ma) overlapping the proposed age range of ca. 321-317 Ma of the nearby S-type granitic rocks of the Carrazeda de Anciães, Lamego and Ucanha-Vilar massifs. The timing of emplacement of such S-type granites seems to coincide with the waning stages of activity of a D2 extensional shear zone (i.e. Pinhel shear zone) developed in metamorphic conditions that reached partial melting and anatexis (ca. 321-317 Ma). Dykes of two-mica granites (resembling diatexite migmatite) are concordant and discordant to the compositional layering and S2 (main) foliation of the high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Pinhel shear zone. Much of the planar fabric in these dykes was formed during magmatic crystallization and subsequent solid-state deformation. Field relationships suggest contemporaneity between the ca. 319-317 Ma old magmatism of the study area and the switch from late D2 extensional deformation to early D3 contractional deformation. Inherited zircon cores are well preserved in these late D2-early D3 S-type granite plutons. U-Pb ages of inherited zircon cores range from ca. 2576 to ca. 421 Ma. The spectra of inherited cores overlap closely the range of detrital and magmatic zircon grains displayed by the Ediacaran to Silurian metasedimentary and metaigneous rocks of the Iberian autochthonous and parautochthonous domains. This is evidence of a genetic relationship between S-type granites and the host metamorphic rocks. There is no substantial evidence for the addition of mantle-derived material in the genesis of these late D2-early D3 S-type granitic rocks. The ɛNd arrays of heterogeneous

  1. Treatment of resistant tattoos using a new generation Q-switched Nd:YAG laser: influence of beam profile and spot size on clearance success. (United States)

    Karsai, Syrus; Pfirrmann, Gudrun; Hammes, Stefan; Raulin, Christian


    Multiple treatments of resistant tattoos often result in fibrosis and visible textural changes that lessen response to subsequent treatments. The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of beam profile and spot size on clearance rates and side effects in the setting of resistant tattoos. Thirty-six professional, black tattoos (32 patients) were treated unsuccessfully with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (MedLite C3, HoyaConBio Inc., Fremont, CA). Because of therapy resistance all tattoos were re-treated using a new generation Nd:YAG laser (MedLite C6, HoyaConBio Inc.). Maximum energy fluence (E (max)), mean energy fluence, mean spot size, level of clearance, side effects and beam profile (irradiance distribution) of both laser systems were assessed and evaluated in a retrospective study. All tattoos were previously treated with the C3 laser at 1,064 nm using a mean E(max) of 5.8+/-0.8 J/cm(2) (range 3.8-7.5 J/cm(2)) as compared with a mean E(max) of 6.4+/-1.6 J/cm(2) (range 3.2-9.0 J/cm(2)) during the C6 treatment course. Corresponding spot sizes were larger during C6 treatments as compared with C3 (5.0+/-0.9 and 3.6+/-0.2 mm, respectively). The C6 laser had a "flat top" and homogenous profile regardless of the spot size. For the C3 laser the beam shape was "Gaussian," and the homogeneity was reduced by numerous micro-spikes and micro-nadirs. After the C6 treatment course 33.3% of the tattoos showed clearance of grade 1 (0-25%), 16.7% of grade 2 (26-50%), 16.7% of grade 3 (51-75%), 30.5% of grade 4 (76-95%), 2.8% of grade 5 (96-100%). The total rate of side effects due to C6 treatment was 8.3% in all tattoos (hyperpigmentation 5.6%, hypopigmentation 2.7%, textural changes/scars 0%). This clinical study documents for the first time the impact of a 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser with a more homogenous beam profile and a larger spot size on the management of resistant tattoos. Only a few treatment sessions were necessary to achieve an additional clearance with a low rate of

  2. Genital Sensory Stimulation Shifts Estradiol Intraoviductal Signaling from Nongenomic to Genomic Pathways, Independently from Prolactin Surges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Estradiol (E2 accelerates oviductal egg transport through nongenomic pathways involving oviductal protein phosphorylation in non-mated rats, and through genomic pathways in mated rats. Here we investigated the ability of cervico-vaginal stimulation (CVS to switch the mode of action of E2 in the absence of other male-associated components. Pro-estrous rats were subjected to CVS with a glass rod and 12 hours later were injected subcutaneously with E2 and intrabursally with the RNA synthesis inhibitor Actinomycin D or the protein phosphorylation inhibitor H-89. The number of eggs in the oviduct, assessed 24 h later, showed that Actinomycin D, but not H-89 blocked the E2-induced egg transport acceleration. This clearly indicates that CVS alone, without other mating-associated signals, is able to shift E2 signaling from nongenomic to genomic pathways. Since mating and CVS activate a neuroendocrine reflex that causes iterative prolactin (PRL surges, the involvement of PRL pathway in this phenomenon was evaluated. Prolactin receptor mRNA and protein expression in the rat oviduct was demonstrated by RT-PCR and Western blot, but their levels were not different on day 2 of the cycle (C2 or pregnancy (P2. Activated ST AT 5a/b (phosphorylated was detected by Western blot on P2 in the ovary, but not in the oviduct, showing that mating does not stimulate this PRL signalling pathway in the oviduct. Other rats subjected to CVS in the evening of pro-estrus were treated with bromoergocriptine to suppress PRL surges. In these rats, H-89 did not block the E2-induced acceleration of egg transport suggesting that PRL surges are not essential to shift E2 signaling pathways in the oviduct. We conclude that CVS is one of the components of mating that shifts E2 signaling in the oviduct from nongenomic to genomic pathways, and this effect is independent of PRL surges elicited by mating

  3. Impacts of Storm Surge Mitigation Strategies on Aboveground Storage Tank Chemical Spill Transport (United States)

    Do, C.; Bass, B. J.; Bernier, C.; Samii, A.; Dawson, C.; Bedient, P. B.


    The Houston Ship Channel (HSC), located in the hurricane-prone Houston-Galveston region of the upper Texas Coast, is one of the busiest waterways in the United States and is home to one of the largest petrochemical complexes in the world. Due to the proximity of the HSC to Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico, chemical spills resulting from storm surge damage to aboveground storage tanks (ASTs) pose serious threats to the environment, residential communities, and national/international markets whose activities in the HSC generate billions of dollars annually. In an effort to develop a comprehensive storm surge mitigation strategy for Galveston Bay and its constituents, Rice University's Severe Storm Prediction, Education, and Evacuation from Disasters Center proposed two structural storm surge mitigation concepts, the Mid Bay Structure (MBS) and the Lower Bay Structure (LBS) as components of the Houston-Galveston Area Protection System (H-GAPS) project. The MBS consists of levees along the HSC and a navigational gate across the channel, and the LBS consists of a navigation gate and environmental gates across Bolivar Road. The impacts of these two barrier systems on the fate of AST chemical spills in the HSC have previously been unknown. This study applies the coupled 2D SWAN+ADCIRC model to simulate hurricane storm surge circulation within the Gulf of Mexico and Galveston Bay due to a synthetic storm which results in approximately 250-year surge levels in Galveston Bay. The SWAN+ADCIRC model is run using high-resolution computational meshes that incorporate the MBS and LBS scenarios, separately. The resulting wind and water velocities are then fed into a Lagrangian particle transport model to simulate the spill trajectories of the ASTs most likely to fail during the 250-year proxy storm. Results from this study illustrate how each storm surge mitigation strategy impacts the transport of chemical spills (modeled as Lagrangian particles) during storm surge as

  4. Comparison of a state of the art Si IGBT and next generation fast switching devices in a 4 kW boost converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper gives a comprehensive comparison of two promising silicon carbide (SiC) switching devices, i.e. normally-off SiC MOSFET and a normally-on SiC JFET, as alternatives to a conventional state of the art Si IGBT. The comparison uses datasheet information to determine conduction losses...

  5. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang L. Wang


    Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device

  6. Rapid assessment tool for tropical cyclone waves and storm surge hazards in Mexico (United States)

    Appendini, Christian M.; Rosengaus, Michel; Meza-Padilla, Rafael; Camacho-Magaña, Victor


    Mexico is under the constant threat of tropical cyclones generated in the Atlantic and the Eastern Pacific oceans. While the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in Miami is responsible for the forecast of tropical cyclones in both basins and providing watch and warning areas information for Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean, they are not responsible to issue waves and storm surge hazards. This work presents a quick assessment tool for waves and storm surge hazards developed under conditions that are common to developing countries: tight budget and time constraints, as well as limited numerical modeling capabilities. The system is based on 3100 synthetic tropical cyclones doing landfall in Mexico. Hydrodynamic and wave models were driven by the synthetic events to create a robust database composed of maximum envelops of wind speed, significant wave height and storm surge for each event. The results were incorporated into a forecast system that uses the NHC advisory to locate the synthetic events passing inside specified radiuses for the present and forecast position of the real event. Using limited computer resources, the system displays the information meeting the search criteria, and the forecaster can select specific events to generate the desired hazard map (i.e. wind, waves, and storm surge) based on the maximum envelop maps. This system was developed in a limited time frame to be operational in 2015 by the Hurricane and Severe Storms Unit of the Mexican National Weather Service, and represents a pilot project for other countries in the region not covered by detailed storm surge and waves forecasts.

  7. Tide-surge interaction in the English Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Idier


    Full Text Available The English Channel is characterised by strong tidal currents and a wide tidal range, such that their influence on surges is expected to be non-negligible. In order to better assess storm surges in this zone, tide-surge interactions are investigated. A preliminary data analysis on hourly surges indicates some preferential times of occurrence of large storm surges at rising tide, especially in Dunkerque. To examine this further, a numerical modelling approach is chosen, based on the 2DH shallow-water model (MARS. The surges are computed both with and without tide interaction. For the two selected events (the November 2007 North Sea and March 2008 Atlantic storms, it appears that the instantaneous tide-surge interaction is seen to be non-negligible in the eastern half of the English Channel, reaching values of 74 cm (i.e. 50% of the same event maximal storm surge in the Dover Strait for the studied cases. This interaction decreases in westerly direction. In the risk-analysis community in France, extreme water levels have been determined assuming skew surges and tide as independent. The same hydrodynamic model is used to investigate this dependence in the English Channel. Simple computations are performed with the same meteorological forcing, while varying the tidal amplitude, and the skew surge differences DSS are analysed. Skew surges appear to be tide-dependent, with negligible values of DSS (<0.05 m over a large portion of the English Channel, although reaching several tens of centimetres in some locations (e.g. the Isle of Wight and Dover Strait.

  8. Will oscillating wave surge converters survive tsunamis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. O’Brien


    Full Text Available With an increasing emphasis on renewable energy resources, wave power technology is becoming one of the realistic solutions. However, the 2011 tsunami in Japan was a harsh reminder of the ferocity of the ocean. It is known that tsunamis are nearly undetectable in the open ocean but as the wave approaches the shore its energy is compressed, creating large destructive waves. The question posed here is whether an oscillating wave surge converter (OWSC could withstand the force of an incoming tsunami. Several tools are used to provide an answer: an analytical 3D model developed within the framework of linear theory, a numerical model based on the non-linear shallow water equations and empirical formulas. Numerical results show that run-up and draw-down can be amplified under some circumstances, leading to an OWSC lying on dry ground!

  9. Simulating storm surge inundation and damage potential within complex port facilities (United States)

    Mawdsley, Robert; French, Jon; Fujiyama, Taku; Achutan, Kamalasudhan


    Storm surge inundation of port facilities can cause damage to critical elements of infrastructure, significantly disrupt port operations and cause downstream impacts on vital supply chains. A tidal surge in December 2013 in the North Sea partly flooded the Port of Immingham, which handles the largest volume of bulk cargo in the UK including major flows of coal and biomass for power generation. This flooding caused damage to port and rail transport infrastructure and disrupted operations for several weeks. This research aims to improve resilience to storm surges using hydrodynamic modelling coupled to an agent-based model of port operations. Using the December 2013 event to validate flood extent, depth and duration, we ran a high resolution hydrodynamic simulation using the open source Telemac 2D finite element code. The underlying Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was derived from Environment Agency LiDAR data, with ground truthing of the flood defences along the port frontage. Major infrastructure and buildings are explicitly resolved with varying degrees of permeability. Telemac2D simulations are run in parallel and take only minutes on a single 16 cpu compute node. Inundation characteristics predicted using Telemac 2D differ from a simple Geographical Information System 'bath-tub' analysis of the DEM based upon horizontal application of the maximum water level across the port topography. The hydrodynamic simulation predicts less extensive flooding and more closely matches observed flood extent. It also provides more precise depth and duration curves. Detailed spatial flood depth and duration maps were generated for a range of tide and surge scenarios coupled to mean sea-level rise projections. These inundation scenarios can then be integrated with critical asset databases and an agent-based model of port operation (MARS) that is capable of simulating storm surge disruption along wider supply chains. Port operators are able to act on information from a particular

  10. Simulation Analysis of DC and Switching Impulse Superposition Circuit (United States)

    Zhang, Chenmeng; Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Yu; Mao, Yuxiang


    Surge capacitors running between the natural bus and the ground are affected by DC and impulse superposition voltage during operation in the converter station. This paper analyses the simulation aging circuit of surge capacitors by PSCAD electromagnetic transient simulation software. This paper also analyses the effect of the DC voltage to the waveform of the impulse voltage generation. The effect of coupling capacitor to the test voltage waveform is also studied. Testing results prove that the DC voltage has little effect on the waveform of the output of the surge voltage generator, and the value of the coupling capacitor has little effect on the voltage waveform of the sample. Simulation results show that surge capacitor DC and impulse superimposed aging test is feasible.

  11. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent Afr J Surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patient Saf Surg. 2011;5:27-30. 8. Ajape AA, Obiano SK, Ibrahim A. Enterocutaneous fistula: An usual complication of suprapubic cystostomy. Niger J Surg Res. 2005;7:199–203. 9. Islam S, Barai KP. Suprapubic catheterisation complicated by iatrogenic enterocutaneous fistula. Cases J. 2009;2:9311-9315. 10. Levrant SG ...

  12. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    45 and 60μs, is 2–4% lower than that of a 8μs current impulse (Martinez & Durbak 2005). In order to reproduce the MO surge arrester dynamic characteristics mentioned previously, a lot of researches have been done on modelling and simulation of MO surge arresters (Martinez. & Durbak 2005). A dynamic model has been ...

  13. Uncertainties in storm surge and coastal inundation modeling (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Morey, S. L.


    Storm surge modeling has developed noticeably over the past two decades marching from relatively simple two-dimensional models with simplified physics and coarse computational grid to three-dimensional complex modeling systems with wetting and drying capabilities and high-resolution grids. Although the physics of a storm surge is conceptually straight forward, it is still a challenge to provide an accurate numerical forecast of a storm surge. The presentation will focus on sources of uncertainties in storm surge modeling based on several real-case simulations of the storm surge in the Gulf of Mexico. An ongoing study on estimating the likelihood of coastal inundation along the U.S. Gulf coast will be presented.

  14. A 12-month, randomized, controlled study to evaluate exposure and cardiovascular risk factors in adult smokers switching from conventional cigarettes to a second-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system. (United States)

    Roethig, Hans J; Feng, Shixia; Liang, Qiwei; Liu, Jianmin; Rees, William A; Zedler, Barbara K


    This randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group study in 97 adult male and female smokers of conventional cigarettes evaluated biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular risk factors. After baseline measurements, smokers were either switched to a second-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) or continued smoking conventional cigarettes for 12 months. Biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular risk factors were measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months. There was a rapid and sustained reduction in all biomarkers of exposure after switching to the EHCSS, with statistically significant reductions from baseline in nicotine equivalents (-18%), plasma cotinine (-16%), total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (-73%), total 1-hydroxypyrene (-53%), urine mutagenicity (-52%), 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adducts (-43%), carboxyhemoglobin AUC7-23 h (-80%), and 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (-35%). These reductions in exposure in the EHCSS group were associated with statistically significant and pathophysiologically favorable changes in several cardiovascular risk factors, including white blood cell count (-0.78 x 10(3)/microL), hemoglobin (-0.16 g/dL), hematocrit (-0.44%), urine 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (-374 ng/24 h), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5 mg/dL).

  15. Neurosteroids, trigger of the LH surge (United States)

    Kuo, John; Micevych, Paul


    Recent experiments from our laboratory are consistent with the idea that hypothalamic astrocytes are critical components of the central nervous system (CNS) mediated estrogen positive feedback mechanism. The “astrocrine hypothesis” maintains that ovarian estradiol rapidly increases free cytoplasmic calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) that facilitate progesterone synthesis in astrocytes. This hypothalamic neuroprogesterone along with the elevated estrogen from the ovaries allows for the surge release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) that triggers the pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. A narrow range of estradiol stimulated progesterone production supports an “off-on-off” mechanism regulating the transition from estrogen negative feedback to estrogen positive feedback, and back again. The rapidity of the [Ca2+]i response and progesterone synthesis support a non-genomic, membrane-initiated signaling mechanism. In hypothalamic astrocytes, membrane-associated estrogen receptors (mERs) signal through transactivation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1a (mGluR1a), implying that astrocytic function is influenced by surrounding glutamatergic nerve terminals. Although other putative mERs, such as mERβ, STX-activated mER-Gαq, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 (GPR30), are present and participate in membrane-mediated signaling, their influence in reproduction is still obscure since female reproduction be it estrogen positive feedback or lordosis behavior requires mERα. The astrocrine hypothesis is also consistent with the well-known sexual dimorphism of estrogen positive feedback. In rodents, only post-pubertal females exhibit this positive feedback. Hypothalamic astrocytes cultured from females, but not males, responded to estradiol by increasing progesterone synthesis. Estrogen autoregulates its own signaling by regulating levels of mERα in the plasma membrane of female astrocytes. In male astrocytes, the estradiol-induced increase in m

  16. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia


    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  17. Surge dynamics on Bering Glacier, Alaska, in 2008–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Braun


    Full Text Available A surge cycle of the Bering Glacier system, Alaska, is examined using observations of surface velocity obtained using synthetic aperture radar (SAR offset tracking, and elevation data obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks LiDAR altimetry program. After 13 yr of quiescence, the Bering Glacier system began to surge in May 2008 and had two stages of accelerated flow. During the first stage, flow accelerated progressively for at least 10 months and reached peak observed velocities of ~ 7 m d−1. The second stage likely began in 2010. By 2011 velocities exceeded 9 m d−1 or ~ 18 times quiescent velocities. Fast flow continued into July 2011. Surface morphology indicated slowing by fall 2011; however, it is not entirely clear if the surge is yet over. The quiescent phase was characterized by small-scale acceleration events that increased driving stresses up to 70%. When the surge initiated, synchronous acceleration occurred throughout much of the glacier length. Results suggest that downstream propagation of the surge is closely linked to the evolution of the driving stress during the surge, because driving stress appears to be tied to the amount of resistive stress provided by the bed. In contrast, upstream acceleration and upstream surge propagation is not dependent on driving stress evolution.

  18. China's electric car surge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yunshi; Sperling, Daniel; Tal, Gil; Fang, Haifeng


    China's plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales, comprising both battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles, surged 343% in 2015, and are expected to reach 2 million by 2020. Two factors are crucial to this sudden transformation: 1) massive central and local government subsidies, and 2) huge non-monetary incentives via exemptions from restrictions on vehicle ownership in Beijing, Shanghai, and elsewhere. Innovative business models and greatly expanded vehicle offerings, especially by local Chinese manufacturers, also helped accelerate PEV sales and infrastructure deployment. However, continued sales growth is threatened by persistent regional protectionism, the unsustainability of these large subsidies, and widely reported cheating by some automakers. We suggest some innovative policies that China might pioneer and transfer elsewhere. - Highlights: • The rapid growth was a result of massive central and local government subsidies. • Exemptions from restrictions on vehicle ownership play even more important role. • A comparative case study of Beijing and Shanghai. • Persistent regional protectionism impedes the development of China's PEV industry. • Focusing on the use of PEVs is a better way to achieve eVMT.

  19. FY1995 next generation highly parallel database / dataminig server using 100 PC's and ATM switch; 1995 nendo tasudai no pasokon wo ATM ketsugoshita jisedai choheiretsu database mining server no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The objective of the research is first to build a highly parallel processing system using 100 personal computers and an ATM switch. The former is a commodity for computer, while the latter can be regarded as a commodity for future communication systems. Second is to implement parallel relational database management system and parallel data mining system over the 100-PC cluster system. Third is to run decision-support queries typicalto data warehouses, to run association rule mining, and to prove the effectiveness of the proposed architecture as a next generation parallel database/datamining server. Performance/cost ratio of PC is significantly improved compared with workstations and proprietry systems due to its mass production. The cost of ATM switch is also considerably decreasing since ATM is being widely accepted as a communication-on infrastructure. By combining 100 PCs as computing commodities and ATM switch as a communication commodity, we built large sca-le parallel processing system inexpensively. Each mode employs the Pentium Pro CPU and the communication badwidth between PC's is more than 120Mbits/sec. A new parallel relational DBMS is design-ed and implemented. TPC-D, which is a standard benchmark for decision support applicants (100GBytes) is executed. Our system attained much higher performance than current commercial systems which are also much more expensive than ours. In addition, we developed a novel parallel data mining algorithm to extract associate rules. We implemented it in our system and succeeded toattain high performance. Thus it is verified that ATM connected PC cluster is very promising as a next generation platform for large scale database/dataminig server. (NEDO)

  20. Pressure-surge mitigation methods in fluid-conveying piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Youngdahl, C.K.; Wiedermann, A.H.


    Pressure surges in the heat transport system of nuclear reactor plants can affect the safety and reliability of the plants. Hence the pressure surges must be considered in the design, operation, and maintenance of the plants in order to minimize their occurrence and impacts. The objectives of this paper are to review various methods to control or mitigate the pressure surges, to analyze these methods to gain understanding of the mitigation mechanisms, and examine applicability of the methods to nuclear power plants. 6 refs., 13 figs

  1. Photonic crystal Fano lasers and Fano switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Yu, Yi; Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu


    We show that Fano resonances can be realized in photonic crystal membrane structures by coupling line-defect waveguides and point-defect nanocavities. The Fano resonance can be exploited to realize optical switches with very small switching energy, as well as Fano lasers, that can generate short...

  2. Global but not gonadotrope-specific disruption of Bmal1 abolishes the luteinizing hormone surge without affecting ovulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chu, Adrienne; Zhu, Lei; Blum, Ian D


    pituitaries rhythmically express clock components throughout all cycle-stages. To determine the role of the gonadotrope clock in the preovulatory LH and FSH surge process, we generated mice that specifically lack BMAL1 in gonadotropes (GBmal1KO). GBmal1KO females exhibited a modest elevation in both proestrus...... and baseline LH levels across all estrous stages. BMAL1 elimination from gonadotropes also led to increased variability in estrous cycle length, yet GBmal1KO animals were otherwise reproductively normal. Together our data suggest that the intrinsic clock in gonadotropes is dispensable for LH surge regulation...

  3. Investigation of Overvoltage Phenomena due to Lightning Surge in Low Voltage Wiring (United States)

    Tan, Akiyoshi; Koga, Soichi; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Hosokawa, Takeshi; Sawabe, Kimihide; Yoshioka, Tetsuo; Soeda, Masahiro

    In order to understand overvoltage phenomena due to the lightning surge in a low voltage wiring on a scale model of a structure, the load circuit of electrical appliances at the end of cable with circuit elements, such as resistors, capacitors and inductors, was simulated and the response at the end of cable was studied. Furthermore experimental results were compared with those of the digital simulation using EMTP (Electro-Magnetic Transients Program). The variation in the voltage waveform generated at the end of cable according to the state of the load of an electrical equipment was confirmed based on experiments and simulations. However, when a varistor (Surge Protective Device) was inserted at the end of cable, the voltage amplitude was clamped by the varistor irrespective of the load circuit.

  4. Adenylyl cyclase-5 in the dorsal striatum function as a molecular switch for the generation of behavioral preferences for cue-directed food choices. (United States)

    Kim, Hannah; Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Yunjin; Kang, Minkyung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Han, Pyung-Lim


    that the preferred food choices were switched on when either the mGluR3-AC5 pathway was inactive or the mGluR1 pathway was active, whereas the preferred food-choices were switched off when mGluR1 or its downstream pathway was suppressed. These results identify the AC5 and mGluR system in the dorsal striatum as molecular on/off switches to direct decisions on behavioral preferences for cue-oriented options.

  5. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  6. Storm surge model based on variational data assimilation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-li Huang


    Full Text Available By combining computation and observation information, the variational data assimilation method has the ability to eliminate errors caused by the uncertainty of parameters in practical forecasting. It was applied to a storm surge model based on unstructured grids with high spatial resolution meant for improving the forecasting accuracy of the storm surge. By controlling the wind stress drag coefficient, the variation-based model was developed and validated through data assimilation tests in an actual storm surge induced by a typhoon. In the data assimilation tests, the model accurately identified the wind stress drag coefficient and obtained results close to the true state. Then, the actual storm surge induced by Typhoon 0515 was forecast by the developed model, and the results demonstrate its efficiency in practical application.

  7. [Early morning hypertension/morning blood pressure surge]. (United States)

    Hoshide, Satoshi; Kario, Kazuomi


    Early morning hypertension and morning blood pressure surge have been reported to be associated with organ damage and cardiovascular events. The concept of early morning hypertension and morning blood pressure surge is sometimes discussed in the same arena, and provides partly overlapping information concerning their mechanism or risk profile. However, what is different between groups is as follows. First, early morning hypertension is blood pressure level, while morning blood pressure surge is variability of blood pressure. Second, the intervention of early morning hypertension is available, which lead to prevent the progression of organ damage or cardiovascular event, but there is not enough evidence whether the reduction of morning blood pressure surge would reduce cardiovascular outcome.

  8. Active surge control for variable speed axial compressors. (United States)

    Lin, Shu; Yang, Chunjie; Wu, Ping; Song, Zhihuan


    This paper discusses active surge control in variable speed axial compressors. A compression system equipped with a variable area throttle is investigated. Based on a given compressor model, a fuzzy logic controller is designed for surge control and a proportional speed controller is used for speed control. The fuzzy controller uses measurements of the change of pressure rise as well as the change of mass flow to determine the throttle opening. The presented approach does not require the knowledge of system equilibrium or the surge line. Numerical simulations show promising results. The proposed fuzzy logic controller performs better than a backstepping controller and is capable to suppress surge at different operating points. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficient high-energy pulse generation from a diode-side-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser and application for optical parametric oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y P; Huang, Y J; Cho, C Y


    We employ a convex–concave resonator to develop a high-pulse-energy diode-side-pumped passively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with high extraction efficiency. At a diode pump energy of 227 mJ, the output laser pulse reaches 30 mJ with a pulse width of 6 ns at a repetition rate of 20 Hz. The optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is up to 13.2%. Based on the developed Nd:YAG laser oscillator, we further employ a monolithic KTP crystal to perform the optical parametric oscillator (OPO). With the 1064 nm input energy of 30 mJ, the OPO energy at 1573 nm is found to be 13.3 mJ, corresponding to an OPO conversion efficiency as high as 44.3%. (letters)

  10. Evaluation of lightning performance of transmission lines protected by metal oxide surge arresters using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Perantzakis, G. [Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Lamia, Department of Electrical Engineering, Lamia (Greece); Spanakis, G.E. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece); Karampelas, P. [Hellenic American University, Manchester, NH (United States)


    Lightning and switching overvoltages are the main causes for faults in electrical networks. In the last decades, several different conventional methodologies have been used for the adjustment of the lightning performance of high voltage transmission lines, which are protected against lightning using overhead ground wires and surge arresters. The current paper proposes a new developed Artificial Neural Network (ANN), based on the Q-learning algorithm, in order to estimate the lightning failure rate of lines of the Hellenic system. The results obtained by the ANN model exhibit a satisfactory correlation in comparison with the real recorded data or the simulations results taken from a conventional method. (orig.)

  11. Experimental Study on Noise Characteristic of Centrifugal Compressor Surge


    Yang, Qichao; Zhao, Yuanyang; SHU, Yue; LI, Xiaosa; LI, Liansheng


    The centrifugal air compressor test rig is was designed and established. The experimental study was carried out on the surge characteristics of centrifugal compressor including the pressure in the pipe and the noise characteristics under different rotation speed. The tested results showed that both the suction pressure and discharge pressure fluctuation increase under surge condition and the amplitude of discharge pressure fluctuation is significantly higher than that of suction pressure. In ...

  12. Investigation of turbocharger compressor surge inception by means of an acoustic two-port model (United States)

    Kabral, R.; Åbom, M.


    The use of centrifugal compressors have increased tremendously in the last decade being implemented in the modern IC engine design as a key component. However, an efficient implementation is restricted by the compression system surge phenomenon. The focus in the investigation of surge inception have mainly been on the aerodynamic field while neglecting the acoustic field. In the present work a new method based on the full acoustic 2-port model is proposed for investigation of centrifugal compressor stall and surge inception. Essentially, the compressor is acoustically decoupled from the compression system, hence enabling the determination of sound generation and the quantification of internal aero-acoustic coupling effects, both independently of the connected pipe system. These frequency dependent quantities are indicating if the compressor is prone to self-sustained oscillations in case of positive feedback when installed in a system. The method is demonstrated on experimentally determined 2-port data of an automotive turbocharger centrifugal compressor under a variety of realistic operating conditions.

  13. The 12 kV, 50 kA Pulse Generator for the SPS MKDH Horizontal Beam Dump Kicker System,equipped with Semiconductor Switches

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Faure, P; Vossenberg, Eugène B; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division


    The high current pulses for the MKDH magnets are generated with capacitor discharge type generators which, combined with a resistive free-wheel diode circuit, deliver a critically damped half-sine current with a rise-time of 25 ms. Each generator consists of two 25 kA units, connected in parallel to a magnet via low inductance transmission lines. They are equipped with a stack of four Fast High Current Thyristors, together with snubber capacitors, a voltage divider and a specially designed trigger transformer.

  14. High power semiconductor switches in the 12 kV, 50 kA pulse generator of the SPS beam dump kicker system

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Faure, P; Vossenberg, Eugène B


    Horizontal deflection of the beam in the dump kicker system of the CERN SPS accelerator is obtained with a series of fast pulsed magnets. The high current pulses of 50 kA per magnet are generated with capacitor discharge type generators which, combined with a resistive free-wheel diode circuit, deliver a critically damped half-sine current with a rise-time of 25 ms. Each generator consists of two 25 kA units, connected in parallel to a magnet via a low inductance transmission line.

  15. Superluminescent high-efficient parametric generation in PPLN crystal with pumping by a Q-switched mode locked Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Donin, V. I.; Yakovin, D. V.; Yakovin, M. D.; Gribanov, A. V.


    We present results on parametric superluminescence in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal pumped by a train of 45 ps pulses using a Q-switched mode locked Nd:YAG laser. The conversion efficiency (with respect to the absorbed power) was ~83%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest efficiency obtained with powerful superluminescent parametric sources. At the average pumping power of the laser of ~0.5 W and repetition rates of 1 and 1.7 kHz, the peak total output powers were as high as 210 and 200 kW, and the powers of the idler wavelength (3.82 µm) were 55 and 50 kW. New lines in the visible and UV spectrum were observed and are explained. The experiments demonstrated that the spectral and angular characteristics of superluminescence are determined by the pumping laser. In particular, the line width of the signal wave was close to that of the pumping line at ~200 GHz, and the divergence of the signal and idler waves depended only on the convergence (divergence) angle of the pumping radiation (30 mrad) and was independent of the wavelength.

  16. Developments in Surge Research Priorities: A Systematic Review of the Literature Following the Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, 2007-2015. (United States)

    Morton, Melinda J; DeAugustinis, Matthew L; Velasquez, Christina A; Singh, Sonal; Kelen, Gabor D


    -based tools for forecasting of hospital and regional demand during disasters, effectiveness of reverse triage approaches, development of new disaster surge metrics, validation of mass critical care approaches (altered standards of care), use of telemedicine, and predictions of optimal hospital staffing levels for disaster surge events. Simulation tools appeared to provide some of the highest quality research. Disaster simulation studies have arguably revolutionized the study of disaster surge in the intervening years since the 2006 AEM Science of Surge conference, helping to validate some previously known disaster surge benchmarks and to generate new surge metrics. Use of reverse triage approaches and altered standards of care, as well as Internet-based tools such as Google Flu Trends, have also proven effective. However, there remains significant work to be done toward standardizing research methodologies and outcomes, as well as validating disaster surge metrics. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  17. Simulation and Validation of a Storm Surge in Bays and Estuaries With Complex Coastline Geometry (United States)

    Dukhovskoy, D. S.; Morey, S. L.


    Simulation of nearshore ocean dynamics in a region with a complex coastline, commonly found along bays and estuaries, has been a challenging task for modelers. Over the last decade, unstructured grid models based on finite-element and finite-volume methods have been gaining popularity within the ocean modeling community. Application of this type of model facilitates accurate representation of the nearshore processes in model domains with bays, estuaries, and river channels. This study demonstrates the utility of applying an unstructured grid model for simulation and analysis of a storm surge in such a region. A high-resolution storm surge model of Apalachee Bay in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico is developed using an unstructured grid Finite-Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) with wetting and drying capabilities. The model is applied to the case of Hurricane Dennis (July 2005). This storm caused underpredicted severe flooding of the Apalachee Bay coastal area and communities located inland up rivers that has yet to be adequately explained. Accurate resolution of the complicated geometry of the coastal region and waterways in the model reveals substantial spatial variability in the amplitude and timing of the maximum water level and processes responsible for the unanticipated high storm tide in the area. In this study, a methodology of validating a storm surge simulations using high-water marks is illustrated. Model experiments suggest that excessive flooding in the coastal zone during Dennis was caused by additive effects of coincident high tides, wave setup, and a propagating shelf wave that added to the locally wind generated surge.

  18. Storm surge modeling of Superstorm Sandy in the New York City Metropolitan area (United States)

    Benimoff, A. I.; Blanton, B. O.; Dzedzits, E.; Fritz, W. J.; Kress, M.; Muzio, P.; Sela, L.


    Even though the New York/New Jersey area does not lie within the typical 'hurricane belt', recent events and the historical record indicate that large infrequent tropical storms have had direct hits on the region, with impacts being amplified due to the nearly right angle bend in the coastline. The recent plan unveiled by New York City's Mayor Bloomberg lays out mitigation strategies to protect the region's communities, infrastructure, and assets from future storms, and numerical simulation of storm surge and wave hazards driven by potential hurricanes plays a central role in developing and evaluating these strategies. To assist in local planning, recovery, and decision-making, we have used the tide, storm surge, and wind wave model ADCIRC+SWAN to simulate storm surge in one of the most populated areas of the United States: the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. We have generated a new high-resolution triangular finite-element model grid for the region from recent USGS data as well as recent city topographic maps at 2-foot (0.6m) contour intervals, nautical charts, and details of shipping channels. Our hindcast simulations are compared against Superstorm Sandy. We used the City University of New York High Performance Computing Center's Cray XE6tm at the College of Staten Island for these simulations. Hindcasting and analysis of the Superstorm Sandy storm surge and waves indicates that our simulations produce a reasonable representation of actual events. The grid will be used in an ADCIRC-based forecasting system implementation for the region.

  19. Surge-like Oscillations above Sunspot Light Bridges Driven by Magnetoacoustic Shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingwen; Tian, Hui; He, Jiansen; Wang, Linghua, E-mail: [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, 100871 Beijing (China)


    High-resolution observations of the solar chromosphere and transition region often reveal surge-like oscillatory activities above sunspot light bridges (LBs). These oscillations are often interpreted as intermittent plasma jets produced by quasi-periodic magnetic reconnection. We have analyzed the oscillations above an LB in a sunspot using data taken by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph . The chromospheric 2796 Å images show surge-like activities above the entire LB at any time, forming an oscillating wall. Within the wall we often see that the core of the Mg ii k 2796.35 Å line first experiences a large blueshift, and then gradually decreases to zero shift before increasing to a redshift of comparable magnitude. Such a behavior suggests that the oscillations are highly nonlinear and likely related to shocks. In the 1400 Å passband, which samples emission mainly from the Si iv ion, the most prominent feature is a bright oscillatory front ahead of the surges. We find a positive correlation between the acceleration and maximum velocity of the moving front, which is consistent with numerical simulations of upward propagating slow-mode shock waves. The Si iv 1402.77 Å line profile is generally enhanced and broadened in the bright front, which might be caused by turbulence generated through compression or by the shocks. These results, together with the fact that the oscillation period stays almost unchanged over a long duration, lead us to propose that the surge-like oscillations above LBs are caused by shocked p-mode waves leaked from the underlying photosphere.

  20. Photonics in switching: enabling technologies and subsystem design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, K.; Raffaelli, C.; Aleksic, S.


    This paper describes recent research activities and results in the area of photonic switching carried out within the framework of the EU-funded e-Photon/ONe + network of excellence, Virtual Department on Optical Switching. Technology aspects of photonics in switching and, in particular, recent...... advances in wavelength conversion, ring resonators, and packet switching and processing subsystems are presented as the building blocks for the implementation of a high-performance router for the next-generation Internet....

  1. Controller Architectures for Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    This paper investigate different controller architectures in connection with controller switching. The controller switching is derived by using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. A number of different architectures for the implementation of the YJBK parameterization...... are described and applied in connection with controller switching. An architecture that does not include inversion of the coprime factors is introduced. This architecture will make controller switching particular simple....

  2. Methodology for surge pressure evaluation in a water injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meliande, Patricia; Nascimento, Elson A. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil; Mascarenhas, Flavio C.B. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica Computacional; Dandoulakis, Joao P. [SHELL of Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Predicting transient effects, known as surge pressures, is of high importance for offshore industry. It involves detailed computer modeling that attempts to simulate the complex interaction between flow line and fluid in order to ensure efficient system integrity. Platform process operators normally raise concerns whether the water injection system is adequately designed or not to be protected against possible surge pressures during sudden valve closure. This report aims to evaluate the surge pressures in Bijupira and Salema water injection systems due to valve closure, through a computer model simulation. Comparisons among the results from empirical formulations are discussed and supplementary analysis for Salema system were performed in order to define the maximum volumetric flow rate for which the design pressure was able to withstand. Maximum surge pressure values of 287.76 bar and 318.58 bar, obtained in Salema and Bijupira respectively, using empirical formulations have surpassed the operating pressure design, while the computer model results have pointed the greatest surge pressure value of 282 bar in Salema system. (author)

  3. Surge recovery techniques for the Tevatron cold compressors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Klebaner, A.L.; Makara, J.N.; Theilacker, J.C.; Fermilab


    The Fermilab Tevatron cryogenic system utilizes high-speed centrifugal cold compressors, made by Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd. (IHI), for high-energy operations [1]. The compressor is designed to pump 60 g/s of 3.6 K saturated helium vapor at a pressure ratio of 2.8, with an off-design range of 40 to 70 g/s and operating speeds between 40 and 95 krpm. Since initial commissioning in 1993, Tevatron transient conditions such as quench recovery have led to multiple-location machine trips as a result of the cold compressors entering the surge regime. Historically, compressors operating at lower inlet pressures and higher speeds have been especially susceptible to these machine trips and it was not uncommon to have multiple compressor trips during large multiple-house quenches. In order to cope with these events and limit accelerator down time, surge recovery techniques have been implemented in an attempt to prevent the compressors from tripping once the machine entered this surge regime. This paper discusses the different methods of surge recovery that have been employed. Data from tests performed at the Cryogenic Test Facility at Fermilab as well as actual Tevatron operational data were utilized. In order to aid in the determination of the surge region, a full mapping study was undertaken to characterize the entire pressure field of the cold compressor. These techniques were then implemented and tested at several locations in the Tevatron with some success

  4. An European historical reconstruction of sea surface dynamics (waves and storm surge) for coastal impact studies (United States)

    Menendez, Melisa; Perez, Jorge; Cid, Alba; Castanedo, Sonia; Losada, Inigo; Medina, Raul; Mendez, Fernando


    Despite their outstanding relevance in coastal processes, a study of the sea surface dynamics due to atmospheric wind and pressure variations are rather limited in comparison with the mean sea level rise. Data of waves and surges along the European region are scarce and in-homogeneous, not only in terms of spatial coverage but also in terms of temporal coverage. This study presents two databases focused on a historical reconstruction of: (i) the wind-generated waves (GOW) and (ii) the meteorological sea level component (GOS). The GOW and GOS datasets cover the whole European coast (North Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic Sea, Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea) at high-spatial resolution from 1979 to present. The meteorological sea level component (storm surge) has been generated by the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). To take into account non-linear interactions between tides and surges, both dynamics were simulated jointly. Final results of meteorological component of sea level were obtained by subtracting the astronomical tide from the simulated sea surface. The model was set-up for Europe using an orthogonal grid, with a horizontal resolution ranging between 3.5 to 11 km. A spatial domain of approximately 5 km was used for the Black Sea. Local coastal waves can be the integrated result of the ocean surface over a large region of influence. GOW-Europe is designed from a multigrid approach based on the overlapping of two-way nested domains. The coarser spatial resolution along the European coast of GOW is 15 km. The generation and propagation of the sea surface waves of GOW-Europe are simulated with the model WAVEWATCH III v4.18. Effects of non-linear wave-wave interactions, whitecapping and depth-induced refraction are considered in the propagation model. In order to validate GOW and GOS over Europe with available observations, an exhaustive comparison with in-situ and remote measurements was developed. In-situ buoys and tide-gauges are used to compare hourly time

  5. Analysis of Acoustic Cavitation Surge in a Rocket Engine Turbopump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Nanri


    Full Text Available In a liquid rocket engine, cavitation in an inducer of a turbopump sometimes causes instability phenomena when the inducer is operated at low inlet pressure. Cavitation surge (auto-oscillation, one such instability phenomenon, has been discussed mainly based on an inertia model assuming incompressible flow. When this model is used, the frequency of the cavitation surge decreases continuously as the inlet pressure of the turbopump decreases. However, we obtained an interesting experimental result in which the frequency of cavitation surge varied discontinuously. Therefore, we employed one-dimensional analysis based on an acoustic model in which the fluid is assumed to be compressible. The analytical result qualitatively corresponded with the experimental result.

  6. Electromagnetic computation methods for lightning surge protection studies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Yoshihiro


    This book is the first to consolidate current research and to examine the theories of electromagnetic computation methods in relation to lightning surge protection. The authors introduce and compare existing electromagnetic computation methods such as the method of moments (MOM), the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC), the finite element method (FEM), the transmission-line modeling (TLM) method, and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The application of FDTD method to lightning protection studies is a topic that has matured through many practical applications in the past decade, and the authors explain the derivation of Maxwell's equations required by the FDTD, and modeling of various electrical components needed in computing lightning electromagnetic fields and surges with the FDTD method. The book describes the application of FDTD method to current and emerging problems of lightning surge protection of continuously more complex installations, particularly in critical infrastructures of e...

  7. Storm surges in the Western Black Sea. Operational forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The frequency of the storm surges in the Black Sea is lower than that in other regions of the World Ocean but they cause significant damages as the magnitude of the sea level set-up is up to 7-8 times greater than that of other sea level variations. New methods and systems for storm surge forecasting and studying their statistical characteristics are absolutely necessary for the purposes of the coastal zone management. The operational forecasting storm surge model of Meteo-France was adopted for the Black Sea in accordance with the bilateral agreement between Meteo-France and NINMH. The model was verified using tide-gauge observations for the strongest storms observed along the Bulgarian coast over the last 10 years.

  8. Community health facility preparedness for a cholera surge in Haiti. (United States)

    Mobula, Linda Meta; Jacquet, Gabrielle A; Weinhauer, Kristin; Alcidas, Gladys; Thomas, Hans-Muller; Burnham, Gilbert


    With increasing population displacement and worsening water insecurity after the 2010 earthquake, Haiti experienced a large cholera outbreak. Our goal was to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of seven community health facilities' ability to respond to a surge in cholera cases. Since 2010, Catholic Relief Services (CRS) with a number of public and private donors has been working with seven health facilities in an effort to reduce morbidity and mortality from cholera infection. In November 2012, CRS through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)'s support, asked the Johns Hopkins Center for Refugee and Disaster Response to conduct a cholera surge simulation tabletop exercise at these health facilities to improve each facility's response in the event of a cholera surge. Using simulation development guidelines from the Pan American Health Organization and others, a simulation scenario script was produced that included situations of differing severity, supply chain, as well as a surge of patients. A total of 119 hospital staff from seven sites participated in the simulation exercise including community health workers, clinicians, managers, pharmacists, cleaners, and security guards. Clinics that had challenges during the simulated clinical care of patients were those that did not appropriately treat all cholera patients according to protocol, particularly those that were vulnerable, those that would need additional staff to properly treat patients during a surge of cholera, and those that required a better inventory of supplies. Simulation-based activities have the potential to identify healthcare delivery system vulnerabilities that are amenable to intervention prior to a cholera surge.

  9. Effect of azilsartan versus candesartan on morning blood pressure surges in Japanese patients with essential hypertension. (United States)

    Rakugi, Hiromi; Kario, Kazuomi; Enya, Kazuaki; Sugiura, Kenkichi; Ikeda, Yoshinori


    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is reported as a risk factor for cardiovascular events and end-organ damage independent of the 24-h BP level. Controlling morning BP surge is therefore important to help prevent onset of cardiovascular disease. We compared the efficacy of azilsartan and candesartan in controlling morning systolic BP (SBP) surges by analyzing relevant ambulatory BP monitoring data in patients with/without baseline BP surges. As part of a 16-week randomized, double-blind study of azilsartan (20-40 mg once daily) and candesartan (8-12 mg once daily) in Japanese patients with essential hypertension, an exploratory analysis was carried out using ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline and week 14. The effects of study drugs on morning BP surges, including sleep trough surge (early morning SBP minus the lowest night-time SBP) and prewaking surge (early morning SBP minus SBP before awakening), were evaluated. Patients with sleep trough surge of at least 35 mmHg were defined by the presence of a morning BP surge (the 'surge group'). Sleep trough surge and prewaking surge data were available at both baseline and week 14 in 548 patients, 147 of whom (azilsartan 76; candesartan 71) had a baseline morning BP surge. In surge group patients, azilsartan significantly reduced both the sleep trough surge and the prewaking surge at week 14 compared with candesartan (least squares means of the between-group differences -5.8 mmHg, P=0.0395; and -5.7 mmHg, P=0.0228, respectively). Once-daily azilsartan improved sleep trough surge and prewaking surge to a greater extent than candesartan in Japanese patients with grade I-II essential hypertension.

  10. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.


    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting

  11. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches (United States)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  12. Effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge in the Taiwan Strait: Insights from Typhoon Morakot (United States)

    Yu, Xiaolong; Pan, Weiran; Zheng, Xiangjing; Zhou, Shenjie; Tao, Xiaoqin


    The effects of wave-current interaction on storm surge are investigated by a two-dimensional wave-current coupling model through simulations of Typhoon Morakot in the Taiwan Strait. The results show that wind wave and slope of sea floor govern wave setup modulations within the nearshore surf zone. Wave setup during Morakot can contribute up to 24% of the total storm surge with a maximum value of 0.28 m. The large wave setup commonly coincides with enhanced radiation stress gradient, which is itself associated with transfer of wave momentum flux. Water levels are to leading order in modulating significant wave height inside the estuary. High water levels due to tidal change and storm surge stabilize the wind wave and decay wave breaking. Outside of the estuary, waves are mainly affected by the current-induced modification of wind energy input to the wave generation. By comparing the observed significant wave height and water level with the results from uncoupled and coupled simulations, the latter shows a better agreement with the observations. It suggests that wave-current interaction plays an important role in determining the extreme storm surge and wave height in the study area and should not be neglected in a typhoon forecast.

  13. Multistage switching hardware and software implementations for student experiment purpose (United States)

    Sani, A.; Suherman


    Current communication and internet networks are underpinned by the switching technologies that interconnect one network to the others. Students’ understanding on networks rely on how they conver the theories. However, understanding theories without touching the reality may exert spots in the overall knowledge. This paper reports the progress of the multistage switching design and implementation for student laboratory activities. The hardware and software designs are based on three stages clos switching architecture with modular 2x2 switches, controlled by an arduino microcontroller. The designed modules can also be extended for batcher and bayan switch, and working on circuit and packet switching systems. The circuit analysis and simulation show that the blocking probability for each switch combinations can be obtained by generating random or patterned traffics. The mathematic model and simulation analysis shows 16.4% blocking probability differences as the traffic generation is uniform. The circuits design components and interfacing solution have been identified to allow next step implementation.

  14. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M


    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  15. A Surge of Interest in Uganda's Art Deco | Craddock Williams ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Surge of Interest in Uganda's Art Deco. Vivian Craddock Williams. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  16. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    Koura A, Ogouyemi A, Hounnou GM, Agoussou Voyeme A, Goudote E. Les hernies ombilicales étranglées chez lsenfant au cNHU de cotonou : A propos de 111 cas. Med Afr Noire 1996; 43: 638. 41. 12. Keshtgar AS, Griffiths M. Incarceration of umbilical hernia in children: Is the trend increasing? Eur J PediatrSurg 2003; 13: ...

  17. Into the Surge of Network-driven Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Claus Møller; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank


    this is examined from the 1880’s up until today. The contribution of the paper is a societal perspective on innovation, where the difference between industrial society and knowledge society leads into the surge of network-driven innovation. Network-driven innovation is unfolded on top of the known cost- driven...

  18. Study of surge current effects on solid tantalum capacitors (United States)


    Results are presented of a 2,000 hour cycled life test program conducted to determine the effect of short term surge current screening on approximately 47 micron f/volt solid tantalum capacitors. The format provides average values and standard deviations of the parameters, capacitance, dissipation factor, and equivalent series resistance at 120 Hz, 1KHz, abd 40 KHz.

  19. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    148. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg. COSECSA/ASEA Publication -East & Central African Journal of Surgery. March/April 2016 Volume 21 (1). Urological injuries following Obstetricaland Gynecological Surgeries. H.R. Sebukoto¹, E. Semwaga², R.A. Rugakingila³. 1Kilimanjaro Christian Medical University College.

  20. 14 CFR 33.65 - Surge and stall characteristics. (United States)


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surge and stall characteristics. 33.65 Section 33.65 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... stall characteristics. When the engine is operated in accordance with operating instructions required by...

  1. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M.; Carroll, D.P.


    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters

  2. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent Afr J Surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent Afr J Surg. 57 COSECSA/ASEA Publication -- East & Central African Journal of Surgery 2017; Vol. ... period at a trauma centre in Nigeria. Methods: This was a retrospective review of in-hospital trauma deaths during the period of ..... haematoma evacuation. Four patients underwent laparotomy for ...

  3. Multidimensional Numerical Modeling of Surges Over Initially Dry Land

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berger, R


    .... The first test case is for a straight flume and the second contains a reservoir and a horseshoe channel section. It is important that the model match the timing of the surge as well as the height In both cases the ADH compared closely with the flume results.

  4. Aging assessment of surge protective devices in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, J.F.; Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)


    An assessment was performed to determine the effects of aging on the performance and availability of surge protective devices (SPDs), used in electrical power and control systems in nuclear power plants. Although SPDs have not been classified as safety-related, they are risk-important because they can minimize the initiating event frequencies associated with loss of offsite power and reactor trips. Conversely, their failure due to age might cause some of those initiating events, e.g., through short circuit failure modes, or by allowing deterioration of the safety-related component(s) they are protecting from overvoltages, perhaps preventing a reactor trip, from an open circuit failure mode. From the data evaluated during 1980--1994, it was found that failures of surge arresters and suppressers by short circuits were neither a significant risk nor safety concern, and there were no failures of surge suppressers preventing a reactor trip. Simulations, using the ElectroMagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were performed to determine the adequacy of high voltage surge arresters.

  5. A novel parameter estimation method for metal oxide surge arrester ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accurate modelling and exact determination of Metal Oxide (MO) surge arrester parameters are very important for arrester allocation, insulation coordination studies and systems reliability calculations. In this paper, a new technique, which is the combination of Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (APSO) and Ant Colony ...

  6. Tide Gauge and Satellite Altimetry Integration for Storm Surge Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Deng, X.


    Integrating coarse temporal sampling by the satellite altimeter in the deep ocean with the high temporal sampling at tide gauges in sparse location along the coast has been used to improve the forecast of high water in the North Sea along the Danish Coast and storm surges along the Northeast coas...

  7. Increasing the highest storm surge in Busan harbor (United States)

    Oh, Sang Myeong; Moon, Il-Ju; Kwon, Suk Jae


    One of the most pronounced effects of climate change in coastal regions is sea level rise and storm surges. Busan in particular, the fifth largest container handling port in the world, has suffered from serious storm surges and experienced a remarkable mean sea level (MSL) rise. This study investigates a long-term variation of annual maximum surge height (AMSH) using sea level data observed in Busan over 53 years (1962 2014). The decomposition of astronomical tides and surge components shows that the AMSH has increased 18 cm over 53 years (i.e., 3.5 mm/year), which is much larger than the MSL trend (2.5 mm/year) in Busan. This significant increase in AMSH is mostly explained by the increased intensity of landfall typhoons over the Korean peninsula (KP), which is associated with the increase of sea surface temperature and the decrease of vertical wind shear at mid-latitudes of the western North Pacific. In a projected future warming environment, the combination of an increasing MSL and AMSH will accelerate the occurrence of record-breaking extreme sea levels, which will be a potential threat in Busan harbor.

  8. Model simulation of storm surge potential for Andaman islands

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, V.S.; RameshBabu, V.; Babu, M.T.; Dhinakaran, G.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    The Andaman Islands face the surge disaster threat as their north-south orientation comes across the eastward path of severe cyclones moving from the Andaman sea known for the genesis of many severe cyclones that traverse the Bay of Bengal regularly...

  9. ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hp 630 Dual Core

    Afr. J. surg. COSECSA/ASEA Publication - East and Central African Journal of Surgery. December 2016; Vol. 21 No. 3. The Surgical Management of Primary Hyperparathyroidism: The Experience in Tikur nbessa. Specialized Tertiary Referral and Teaching Hospital, ddis baba, Ethiopia. Sahilu Wondimu1, Berhanu Nega2.

  10. Surge of plasma waves in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benhassine, Mohammed


    The first part of this research thesis addresses the propagation of waves in a plasma. It presents the equation of propagation of an electromagnetic wave in a plasma without magnetic field, and analyses the propagation in an inhomogeneous medium. The second part addresses the wave-particle interaction: interaction between electrons and an electromagnetic wave, between electrons and an electrostatic wave (trapping), and between electrons and a localised electric field. The third chapter presents the analytic theory of oscillations of a cold plasma (macroscopic equations in Lagrangian coordinates, analytic solution before surge). The next chapter discusses physical interpretations before the wave surge, after the wave surge, and about energy exchange (within or outside of resonance). Numerical simulations and their results are then reported and discussed. The sixth chapter addresses the case of an electrostatic wave surge in a hot plasma. It notably addresses the following aspects: equivalence between the description of moments and the Waterbag model, interaction between non linearity and thermal effects, variation of electric field amplitude with temperature. Results of numerical simulations are presented, and the last part addresses experimental predictions for microwaves-plasma interaction and laser-matter interaction [fr

  11. Spatial and temporal analysis of extreme sea level and storm surge events around the coastline of the UK. (United States)

    Haigh, Ivan D; Wadey, Matthew P; Wahl, Thomas; Ozsoy, Ozgun; Nicholls, Robert J; Brown, Jennifer M; Horsburgh, Kevin; Gouldby, Ben


    In this paper we analyse the spatial footprint and temporal clustering of extreme sea level and skew surge events around the UK coast over the last 100 years (1915-2014). The vast majority of the extreme sea level events are generated by moderate, rather than extreme skew surges, combined with spring astronomical high tides. We distinguish four broad categories of spatial footprints of events and the distinct storm tracks that generated them. There have been rare events when extreme levels have occurred along two unconnected coastal regions during the same storm. The events that occur in closest succession (sea level events from happening within 4-8 days. Finally, the 2013/14 season was highly unusual in the context of the last 100 years from an extreme sea level perspective.

  12. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah


    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  13. Assessment of water pipes durability under pressure surge (United States)

    Pham Ha, Hai; Minh, Lanh Pham Thi; Tang Van, Lam; Bulgakov, Boris; Bazhenova, Soafia


    Surge phenomenon occurs on the pipeline by the closing valve or pump suddenly lost power. Due to the complexity of the water hammer simulation, previous researches have only considered water hammer on the single pipe or calculation of some positions on water pipe network, it have not been analysis for all of pipe on the water distribution systems. Simulation of water hammer due to closing valve on water distribution system and the influence level of pressure surge is evaluated at the defects on pipe. Water hammer on water supply pipe network are simulated by Water HAMMER software academic version and the capacity of defects are calculated by SINTAP. SINTAP developed from Brite-Euram projects in Brussels-Belgium with the aim to develop a process for assessing the integrity of the structure for the European industry. Based on the principle of mechanical fault, indicating the size of defects in materials affect the load capacity of the product in the course of work, the process has proposed setting up the diagram to fatigue assessment defect (FAD). The methods are applied for water pipe networks of Lien Chieu district, Da Nang city, Viet Nam, the results show the affected area of wave pressure by closing the valve and thereby assess the greatest pressure surge effect to corroded pipe. The SINTAP standard and finite element mesh analysis at the defect during the occurrence of pressure surge which will accurately assess the bearing capacity of the old pipes. This is one of the bases to predict the leakage locations on the water distribution systems. Amount of water hammer when identified on the water supply networks are decreasing due to local losses at the nodes as well as the friction with pipe wall, so this paper adequately simulate water hammer phenomena applying for actual water distribution systems. The research verified that pipe wall with defect is damaged under the pressure surge value.

  14. 3. Pulsed Power Generator with Inductive-Energy Storage Using Semiconductor Opening Switch(Present and Future of Semiconductor Pulsed Power Generator : Role of Power Semiconductor Devices in Plasma Research)


    浪平, 隆男; 佐久川, 貴志; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典; ナミヒラ, タカオ; サクガワ, タカシ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; Namihara, Takao; Sakugawa, Takashi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori


    Pulsed power technology enables the generation of large electrical power of micro to nano second duration by compressing and releasing electrical energy. The pulsed power is utilized in a variety of applications such as large-volume non-thermal plasmas and excimer laser excitation, neither of which could be realized by conventional high-voltage and current technology. Pulsed power has been generated by capacitive energy storage (CES) systems based on the direct discharge of the capacitor. On ...

  15. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Peng, Fang Z.


    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  16. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony


    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  17. Tide-surge historical assessment of extreme water levels for the St. Johns River: 1928-2017 (United States)

    Bacopoulos, Peter


    An historical storm population is developed for the St. Johns River, located in northeast Florida-US east coast, via extreme value assessment of an 89-year-long record of hourly water-level data. Storm surge extrema and the corresponding (independent) storm systems are extracted from the historical record as well as the linear and nonlinear trends of mean sea level. Peaks-over-threshold analysis reveals the top 16 most-impactful (storm surge) systems in the general return-period range of 1-100 years. Hurricane Matthew (2016) broke the record with a new absolute maximum water level of 1.56 m, although the peak surge occurred during slack tide level (0.00 m). Hurricanes and tropical systems contribute to return periods of 10-100 years with water levels in the approximate range of 1.3-1.55 m. Extratropical systems and nor'easters contribute to the historical storm population (in the general return-period range of 1-10 years) and are capable of producing extreme storm surges (in the approximate range of 1.15-1.3 m) on par with those generated by hurricanes and tropical systems. The highest astronomical tide is 1.02 m, which by evaluation of the historical record can contribute as much as 94% to the total storm-tide water level. Statically, a hypothetical scenario of Hurricane Matthew's peak surge coinciding with the highest astronomical tide would yield an overall storm-tide water level of 2.58 m, corresponding to an approximate 1000-year return period by historical comparison. Sea-level trends (linear and nonlinear) impact water-level return periods and constitute additional risk hazard for coastal engineering designs.

  18. Validating the calculated reliability and availability in Dutch storm surge barriers (and other infrastructural works)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn van Willigen, G.K.; Meerveld, H. van


    The reliability and availability of the Dutch storm surge barriers are calculated by probabilistic risk assessment and various underlying risk analysis methods. These calculations, however, focus on the numerical probability of the storm surge barrier functioning adequately, and the implementation

  19. Observing storm surges in the Bay of Bengal from satellite altimetry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Antony, C.; Testut, L.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    . As the repeat period of the orbit is the key factor to increase the probability of observing surges by a satellite, a high repetitive constellation of altimeter satellites can considerably enhance the chances of capturing of surge signals. Classical altimeters...

  20. Solid state pulsed power generator (United States)

    Tao, Fengfeng; Saddoughi, Seyed Gholamali; Herbon, John Thomas


    A power generator includes one or more full bridge inverter modules coupled to a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) through an inductive resonant branch. Each module includes a plurality of switches that are switched in a fashion causing the one or more full bridge inverter modules to drive the semiconductor opening switch SOS through the resonant circuit to generate pulses to a load connected in parallel with the SOS.

  1. Particle in cell simulation of peaking switch for breakdown evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbarkar, Sachin B.; Bindu, S.; Mangalvedekar, H.A.; Saxena, A.; Singh, N.M., E-mail: [Department of Electric Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai (India); Sharma, Archana; Saroj, P.C.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Marx generator connected to peaking capacitor and peaking switch can generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radiation. A new peaking switch is designed for converting the existing nanosecond Marx generator to a UWB source. The paper explains the particle in cell (PIC) simulation for this peaking switch, using MAGIC 3D software. This peaking switch electrode is made up of copper tungsten material and is fixed inside the hermitically sealed derlin material. The switch can withstand a gas pressure up to 13.5 kg/cm{sup 2}. The lower electrode of the switch is connected to the last stage of the Marx generator. Initially Marx generator (without peaking stage) in air; gives the output pulse with peak amplitude of 113.75 kV and pulse rise time of 25 ns. Thus, we design a new peaking switch to improve the rise time of output pulse and to pressurize this peaking switch separately (i.e. Marx and peaking switch is at different pressure). The PIC simulation gives the particle charge density, current density, E counter plot, emitted electron current, and particle energy along the axis of gap between electrodes. The charge injection and electric field dependence on ionic dissociation phenomenon are briefly analyzed using this simulation. The model is simulated with different gases (N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Air) under different pressure (2 kg/cm{sup 2}, 5 kg/cm{sup 2}, 10 kg/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  2. Large aperture optical switching devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.


    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs

  3. Performance Analysis of a Four-Switch Three-Phase Grid-Side Converter with Modulation Simplification in a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Turbine (DFIG-WT with Different External Disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ni


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a fault-tolerant four-switch three-phase (FSTP grid-side converter (GSC in a doubly-fed induction generator-based wind turbine (DFIG-WT. The space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM technique is simplified and unified duty ratios are used for controlling the FSTP GSC. Steady DC-bus voltage, sinusoidal three-phase grid currents and unity power factor are obtained. In addition, the balance of capacitor voltages is accomplished based on the analysis of current flows at the midpoint of DC bus in different operational modes. Besides, external disturbances such as fluctuating wind speed and grid voltage sag are considered to test its fault-tolerant ability. Furthermore, the effects of fluctuating wind speed on the performance of DFIG-WT system are explained according to an approximate expression of the turbine torque. The performance of the proposed FSTP GSC is simulated in Matlab/Simulink 2016a based on a detailed 1.5 MW DFIG-WT Simulink model. Experiments are carried out on a 2 kW platform by using a discrete signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335 controller to validate the reliability of DFIG-WT for the cases with step change of the stator active power and grid voltage sag, respectively.

  4. Plasma erosion switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.; Miller, P.A.


    The plasma erosion switch is a device capable of initially carrying high currents, and then of opening in nanoseconds to stand off high voltages. It depends upon the erosion of a plasma which initially fills the switch. The sheath between the plasma and the cathode behaves as a diode with a rapidly increasing A-K gap. Preliminary tests of the switch on the Proto I accelerator at Sandia will be described. In these tests, the switch consisted of a cylinder of highly ionized plasma four inches in diameter and one-inch thick surrounding a one-inch cathode. The switch shorted out prepulse voltages and allowed energy to be stored in the diode inductance outside the switch until the accelerator current reached 75 kA. The switch impedance then rose rapidly to approximately 100 ω in 5 nanoseconds, whereupon the accelerator current transferred to the cathode. Current rise rates of 3.10 13 A/sec were limited by cathode turn-on. Voltage rise rates of 10 15 V/sec were achieved. The elimination of prepulse and machine turn-on transients allowed A-K gaps of 2 mm to be used with 2.5 MV pulses, yielding average E fields of 12 MV/cm. Staged versions of the device are being built and should improve rise rates. The switch shows promise for use with future, higher power, lower inductance machines

  5. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  6. Monochromatic flash x-ray generator utilizing a disk-cathode silver tube (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf K. F., II; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Sato, Shigehiro; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Onagawa, Jun; Ido, Hideaki


    The high-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -50 to -70 kV by a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an x-ray tube after closing gap switches in the surge generator with a trigger device. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbomolecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Clean silver Kα lines are produced using a 30-μm-thick palladium filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. At a charging voltage of -70 kV, the instantaneous tube voltage and current are 90 kV and 0.8 kA, respectively. The x-ray pulse widths are approximately 80 ns, and the instantaneous number of generator-produced Kα photons is approximately 4×107photons/cm2 per pulse at 0.3 m from the source 3.0 mm in diameter.

  7. Monochromatic flash x-ray generator utilizing disk-cathode silver tube (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf K.; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki


    The high-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -50 to -70 kV by a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an x-ray tube after closing gap switches in the surge generator with a trigger device. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbomolecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Clean silver Kα lines are produced using a 30 μm-thick palladium filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. At a charging voltage of -70 kV, the instantaneous tube voltage and current were 90 kV and 0.8 kA, respectively. The x-ray pulse widths were approximately 80 ns, and the instantaneous number of generator-produced Kα photons was approximately 40 M photons/cm2 per pulse at 0.3 m from the source of 3.0 mm in diameter.

  8. Quasi-Monochromatic Flash X-Ray Generator Utilizing Disk-Cathode Molybdenum Tube (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Tanaka, Etsuro; Hayasi, Yasuomi; Germer, Rudolf; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Sato, Shigehiro; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki


    High-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -40 to -60 kV using a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an X-ray tube after closing the gap switches in the surge generator using a trigger device. The X-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbomolecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Sharp K-series characteristic X-rays of molybdenum are produced without using a monochromatic filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. The peak tube voltage increased with increasing charging voltage and increasing space between the target and cathode electrodes. At a charging voltage of -60 kV and a target-cathode space of 1.0 mm, the peak tube voltage and current were 110 kV and 0.75 kA, respectively. The pulse width ranged from 40 to 100 ns, and the maximum dimension of the X-ray source was 3.0 mm in diameter. The number of generator-produced K photons was approximately 7× 1014 photons/cm2\\cdots at 0.5 m from the source.

  9. Monochromatic flash x-ray generator utilizing copper-target diode (United States)

    Sato, Eiichi; Sagae, Michiaki; Komatsu, Makoto; Germer, Rudolf; Tanaka, Etsuro; Mori, Hidezo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Ichimaru, Toshio; Sato, Shigehiro; Ojima, Hidenori; Takayama, Kazuyoshi; Ido, Hideaki


    High-voltage condensers in a polarity-inversion two-stage Marx surge generator are charged from -50 to -70 kV using a power supply, and the electric charges in the condensers are discharged to an x-ray tube after closing the gap switches in the surge generator using a trigger device. The x-ray tube is a demountable diode, and the turbomolecular pump evacuates air from the tube with a pressure of approximately 1 mPa. Clean copper Kα lines are produced using a 10-μm-thick nickel filter, since the tube utilizes a disk cathode and a rod target, and bremsstrahlung rays are not emitted in the opposite direction to that of electron acceleration. The peak tube voltage increased with increasing charging voltage. At a charging voltage of -70 kV, the peak tube voltage and current were 140 kV and 0.8 kA, respectively. The pulse widths were approximately 30 ns, and the maximum dimension of the x-ray source was 3.0 mm in diameter. The number of generator-produced Kα photons was approximately 2.5x106 photons/cm2 at 0.5 m per pulse.

  10. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W


    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Effect of layout on surge line thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Jianyong; Huang Wei


    In order to analyze and evaluate the effect of layout on the thermal stratification for PWR Pressurizer surge line, numerical simulation by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method is taken on 6 kinds of layout improvement with 2 improvement schemes, i.e., increasing the obliquity of quasi horizontal section and adding a vertical pipe between the quasi horizontal section and next elbow, and the maximum temperature differences of quasi horizontal section of surge line of various layouts under different flowrate are obtained. The comparison shows that, the increasing of the obliquity of quasi horizontal section can mitigate the thermal stratification phenomena but can not eliminate this phenomena, while the adding of a vertical pipe between the quasi horizontal section and next elbow can effectively mitigate and eliminate the thermal stratification phenomena. (authors)

  12. Electric Field Simulation of Surge Capacitors with Typical Defects (United States)

    Zhang, Chenmeng; Mao, Yuxiang; Xie, Shijun; Zhang, Yu


    The electric field of power capacitors with different typical defects in DC working condition and impulse oscillation working condition is studied in this paper. According to the type and location of defects and considering the influence of space charge, two-dimensional models of surge capacitors with different typical defects are simulated based on ANSYS. The distribution of the electric field inside the capacitor is analyzed, and the concentration of electric field and its influence on the insulation performance are obtained. The results show that the type of defects, the location of defects and the space charge all affect the electric field distribution inside the capacitor in varying degrees. Especially the electric field distortion in the local area such as sharp corners and burrs is relatively larger, which increases the probability of partial discharge inside the surge capacitor.

  13. Ensemble projection of the sea level rise impact on storm surge and inundation at the coast of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Jisan


    Full Text Available The hydrodynamic model Delft3D is used to study the impact of sea level rise (SLR on storm surge and inundation in the coastal region of Bangladesh. To study the present-day inundation scenario, the tracks of two known tropical cyclones (TC were used: Aila (Category 1; 2009 and Sidr (Category 5; 2007. Model results were validated with the available observations. Future inundation scenarios were generated by using the strength of TC Sidr, TC Aila and an ensemble of historical TC tracks but incorporating the effect of SLR. Since future change in storm surge inundation under SLR impact is a probabilistic incident, a probable range of future change in the inundated area was calculated by taking into consideration the uncertainties associated with TC tracks, intensities and landfall timing. The model outputs showed that the inundated area for TC Sidr, which was calculated as 1860 km2, would become 31 % larger than the present-day scenario if a SLR of 0.26 m occurred during the mid-21st-century climate scenario. Similarly to that, an increasing trend was found for the end-21st-century climate scenario. It was found that with a SLR of 0.54 m, the inundated area would become 53 % larger than the present-day case. Along with the inundation area, the impact of SLR was examined for changes in future storm surge level. A significant increase of 14 % was found in storm surge level for the case of TC Sidr at Barisal station if a SLR of 0.26 m occurred in the mid-21st century. Similarly to that, an increase of 29 % was found at storm surge level with a SLR of 0.54 m in this location for the end-21st-century climate scenario. Ensemble projections based on uncertainties of future TC events also showed that, for a change of 0.54 m in SLR, the inundated area would range between 3500 and 3750 km2, whereas for present-day SLR simulations it was found within the range of 1000–1250 km2. These results revealed that even if the future

  14. Ensemble projection of the sea level rise impact on storm surge and inundation at the coast of Bangladesh (United States)

    Jisan, Mansur Ali; Bao, Shaowu; Pietrafesa, Leonard J.


    The hydrodynamic model Delft3D is used to study the impact of sea level rise (SLR) on storm surge and inundation in the coastal region of Bangladesh. To study the present-day inundation scenario, the tracks of two known tropical cyclones (TC) were used: Aila (Category 1; 2009) and Sidr (Category 5; 2007). Model results were validated with the available observations. Future inundation scenarios were generated by using the strength of TC Sidr, TC Aila and an ensemble of historical TC tracks but incorporating the effect of SLR. Since future change in storm surge inundation under SLR impact is a probabilistic incident, a probable range of future change in the inundated area was calculated by taking into consideration the uncertainties associated with TC tracks, intensities and landfall timing. The model outputs showed that the inundated area for TC Sidr, which was calculated as 1860 km2, would become 31 % larger than the present-day scenario if a SLR of 0.26 m occurred during the mid-21st-century climate scenario. Similarly to that, an increasing trend was found for the end-21st-century climate scenario. It was found that with a SLR of 0.54 m, the inundated area would become 53 % larger than the present-day case. Along with the inundation area, the impact of SLR was examined for changes in future storm surge level. A significant increase of 14 % was found in storm surge level for the case of TC Sidr at Barisal station if a SLR of 0.26 m occurred in the mid-21st century. Similarly to that, an increase of 29 % was found at storm surge level with a SLR of 0.54 m in this location for the end-21st-century climate scenario. Ensemble projections based on uncertainties of future TC events also showed that, for a change of 0.54 m in SLR, the inundated area would range between 3500 and 3750 km2, whereas for present-day SLR simulations it was found within the range of 1000-1250 km2. These results revealed that even if the future TCs remain at the same strength as at present, the

  15. High voltage measurements on metal-oxide surge arresters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yli-Aeyhoe, S. [Tampere University of Technology (Finland). High Voltage Laboratory


    Metal-oxide surge arresters (MOA) are used to prevent damages caused by overvoltages and currents. Because of the function of MOAs they have to be tested with high voltage and with high current. The aim of this seminar paper is to give some information how MOAs can be tested in laboratory circumstances and on- site. Few new test methods are introduced as well. (orig.)

  16. Open switching of current varying inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, P.I.; Lukyanchikov, L.A.; Ten, K.A.


    The electromotive force of induction occurs in a varying inductance of a current circuit part. It can be used to control and switch the current. The effect, occurring under the forced inductance decrease, is used widely for explosive magnetic generators to produce high currents, to store high-density energy and to generate superhigh magnetic fields. This paper gives an analysis of open switching of the currents by varying inductance in some simple electrotechnical models of circuits used in pulse power engineering to obtain high energies

  17. Hospitals Capability in Response to Disasters Considering Surge Capacity Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademipour


    Full Text Available Background: The man-made and natural disasters have adverse effects with sound, apparent, and unknown consequences. Among various components of disaster management in health sector, the most important role is performed by health-treatment systems, especially hospitals. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the surge capacity of hospitals of Kerman Province in disaster in 2015. Materials and Methods: This is a quantitative study, conducted on private, military, and medical sciences hospitals of Kerman Province. The sampling method was total count and data collection for the research was done by questionnaire. The first section of the questionnaire included demographic information of the studied hospitals and second part examined the hospital capacity in response to disasters in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs. The extracted data were analyzed by descriptive statistics. Results: The mean capability of implementing the surge capacity programs by hospitals of Kerman Province in disasters and in 4 fields of equipment, physical space, human resources, and applied programs was evaluated as 7.33% (weak. The surge capacity capability of state hospitals in disasters was computed as 8% and compared to private hospitals (6.07% had a more suitable condition. Conclusion: Based on the results of study and significance of preparedness of hospitals in response to disasters, it is proposed that managers of studied hospitals take measures to promote the hospital response capacity to disasters based on 4 components of increasing hospital capacity.

  18. Quantification of Sediment Transport During Glacier Surges and its Impact on Landform Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup

    ) for 1945, prior to the last surge in 1964, and for 2003 in order to assess the effect of the surge on the sediment architecture in the forefield. The pre- and post-surge DEMs allow direct quantification of the sediment volumes that were re-distributed in the forefield by the surging ice mass in 1964...... architecture occurs distal to the 1810 ice margin, where the 1890 surge advanced over hitherto undeformed sediments. Proximal to the 1810 ice margin, the landscape have been transgressed by either one or two glaciers (in 1890 and 1964). The most complex landscape architecture is found proximal to the 1964 ice...

  19. Analysis and simulation of propagule dispersal and salinity intrusion from storm surge on the movement of a marsh–mangrove ecotone in South Florida (United States)

    Jiang, Jiang; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Anderson, Gordon H.; Smith, Thomas J.


    Coastal mangrove–freshwater marsh ecotones of the Everglades represent transitions between marine salt-tolerant halophytic and freshwater salt-intolerant glycophytic communities. It is hypothesized here that a self-reinforcing feedback, termed a “vegetation switch,” between vegetation and soil salinity, helps maintain the sharp mangrove–marsh ecotone. A general theoretical implication of the switch mechanism is that the ecotone will be stable to small disturbances but vulnerable to rapid regime shifts from large disturbances, such as storm surges, which could cause large spatial displacements of the ecotone. We develop a simulation model to describe the vegetation switch mechanism. The model couples vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes. The key factors in the model are the amount of salt-water intrusion into the freshwater wetland and the passive transport of mangrove (e.g., Rhizophora mangle) viviparous seeds or propagules. Results from the model simulations indicate that a regime shift from freshwater marsh to mangroves is sensitive to the duration of soil salinization through storm surge overwash and to the density of mangrove propagules or seedlings transported into the marsh. We parameterized our model with empirical hydrologic data collected from the period 2000–2010 at one mangrove–marsh ecotone location in southwestern Florida to forecast possible long-term effects of Hurricane Wilma (24 October 2005). The model indicated that the effects of that storm surge were too weak to trigger a regime shift at the sites we studied, 50 km south of the Hurricane Wilma eyewall, but simulations with more severe artificial disturbances were capable of causing substantial regime shifts.

  20. Development of piping evaluation diagram for LBB application to KNGR surge line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, K. S.; Park, W. B.; Kim, J. M.; Choi, T. S.; Yang, J. S.; Park, C. Y.


    Plant specific data, such as pipe geometry, material properties and pipe loads, are required in order to evaluate Leak-Before-Break (LBB) applicability to piping systems in nuclear power plant under the construction. However, the existing method of LBB evaluation for KSNP's can not be used for newly developed nuclear plants such as Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) which material properties is not available and LBB evaluation is required during design process. In order to solve this problem during developing process for KNGR surge line LBB Piping Evaluation Diagram (PED), which is independent of piping geometry and has a function of the loads applied in piping system, is developed in this paper. Also, in order to evaluate LBB applicability during construction process with only the comparative evaluation of material properties between actually used and expected, the expected changes of material properties are considered in the PED. The PED, therefore, can be used for quick LBB evaluation of KNGR surge line in the process of both design and construction. The benefit obtained by using the PED is : 1) to be able to very quickly confirm LBB applicability without calculating any leakage crack length for all concerned piping locations in the process of both iterative design for optimal routing and construction and 2) to save significantly a lot of computing times required for the corresponding LBB analyses

  1. Design and Analysis for a Floating Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. H.; Li, Y.; Hallett, K.; Hotimsky, C.


    This paper presents a recent study on the design and analysis of an oscillating surge wave energy converter. A successful wave energy conversion design requires the balance between the design performance and cost. The cost of energy is often used as the metric to judge the design of the wave energy conversion system. It is often determined based on the device power performance, the cost for manufacturing, deployment, operation and maintenance, as well as the effort to ensure the environmental compliance. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the importance of a cost driven design strategy and how it can affect a WEC design. Three oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) designs were used as the example. The power generation performance of the design was modeled using a time-domain numerical simulation tool, and the mass properties of the design were determined based on a simple structure analysis. The results of those power performance simulations, the structure analysis and a simple economic assessment were then used to determine the cost-efficiency of selected OSWEC designs. Finally, a discussion on the environmental barrier, integrated design strategy and the key areas that need further investigation is also presented.

  2. Investigation of Random Switching Driven by a Poisson Point Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria; Schiøler, Henrik; Leth, John-Josef


    This paper investigates the switching mechanism of a two-dimensional switched system, when the switching events are generated by a Poisson point process. A model, in the shape of a stochastic process, for such a system is derived and the distribution of the trajectory's position is developed...... together with marginal density functions for the coordinate functions. Furthermore, the joint probability distribution is given explicitly....

  3. Beyond Traditional Extreme Value Theory Through a Metastatistical Approach: Lessons Learned from Precipitation, Hurricanes, and Storm Surges (United States)

    Marani, M.; Zorzetto, E.; Hosseini, S. R.; Miniussi, A.; Scaioni, M.


    The Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) distribution is widely adopted irrespective of the properties of the stochastic process generating the extreme events. However, GEV presents several limitations, both theoretical (asymptotic validity for a large number of events/year or hypothesis of Poisson occurrences of Generalized Pareto events), and practical (fitting uses just yearly maxima or a few values above a high threshold). Here we describe the Metastatistical Extreme Value Distribution (MEVD, Marani & Ignaccolo, 2015), which relaxes asymptotic or Poisson/GPD assumptions and makes use of all available observations. We then illustrate the flexibility of the MEVD by applying it to daily precipitation, hurricane intensity, and storm surge magnitude. Application to daily rainfall from a global raingauge network shows that MEVD estimates are 50% more accurate than those from GEV when the recurrence interval of interest is much greater than the observational period. This makes MEVD suited for application to satellite rainfall observations ( 20 yrs length). Use of MEVD on TRMM data yields extreme event patterns that are in better agreement with surface observations than corresponding GEV estimates.Applied to the HURDAT2 Atlantic hurricane intensity dataset, MEVD significantly outperforms GEV estimates of extreme hurricanes. Interestingly, the Generalized Pareto distribution used for "ordinary" hurricane intensity points to the existence of a maximum limit wind speed that is significantly smaller than corresponding physically-based estimates. Finally, we applied the MEVD approach to water levels generated by tidal fluctuations and storm surges at a set of coastal sites spanning different storm-surge regimes. MEVD yields accurate estimates of large quantiles and inferences on tail thickness (fat vs. thin) of the underlying distribution of "ordinary" surges. In summary, the MEVD approach presents a number of theoretical and practical advantages, and outperforms traditional

  4. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun


    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  5. BROOKHAVEN: Switched power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Hosted by Brookhaven's Center for Accelerator Physics, a recent workshop on switched power techniques attracted a group of specialists to Shelter Island, New York, location of several important physics meetings, including the famous 1947 sessions which helped mould modern quantum electrodynamics. The current interest in switched power stemmed from a series of papers by W. Willis of CERN, starting in 1984. The idea is for stored electrical energy to be suddenly switched on to a transmission line, producing a very short (about 10 ps) electromagnetic pulse in a region traversed by a particle beam

  6. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)


    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  7. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem


    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained

  8. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry


    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  9. Influence of dynorphin on estradiol- and cervical stimulation-induced prolactin surges in ovariectomized rats. (United States)

    Stathopoulos, Andrea M; Helena, Cleyde V; Cristancho-Gordo, Ruth; Gonzalez-Iglesias, Arturo E; Bertram, Richard


    Prolactin is an anterior pituitary hormone necessary for fertility, pregnancy maintenance, lactation, and aspects of maternal behavior. In rodents, there is a surge of prolactin on the afternoon of proestrus, and a semi-circadian pattern of prolactin surges during early pregnancy, with a diurnal and nocturnal surge every day. Both of these patterns can be replicated in ovariectomized rats. A prior study demonstrated that central antagonism of κ-opioid receptors, the target of dynorphin, largely abolished the nocturnal prolactin surge in pregnant rats. We build on this to determine whether dynorphin, perhaps from the arcuate population that co-express kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy neurons), also contributes to the estradiol- or cervical stimulation-induced surges in ovariectomized rats. Ovariectomized rats were treated with either estradiol or cervical stimulation to induce prolactin surge(s). Blood samples were taken around the expected surge time to determine the effect of either acute κ-opioid receptor antagonism or previous chemical ablation of the KNDy population on prolactin levels. Dynorphin antagonism does significantly disrupt the nocturnal prolactin surge, but it does not contribute to the estradiol-induced surge. Chemical ablation of KNDy neurons had opposite effects; ablation of 40 % of the KNDy neurons had no impact on the nocturnal prolactin surge, while a somewhat larger ablation significantly reduced the size of the estradiol-induced surge. We conclude that dynorphin is likely a controlling factor for the nocturnal surge induced by cervical stimulation, and that other KNDy neuron products must play a role in the estradiol-induced surge.

  10. uv preilluminated gas switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.


    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

  11. Switching power supply filter (United States)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)


    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  12. uv preilluminated gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.


    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10 12 amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters

  13. Photonics in switching

    CERN Document Server

    Midwinter, John E; Kelley, Paul


    Photonics in Switching provides a broad, balanced overview of the use of optics or photonics in switching, from materials and devices to system architecture. The chapters, each written by an expert in the field, survey the key technologies, setting them in context and highlighting their benefits and possible applications. This book is a valuable resource for those working in the communications industry, either at the professional or student level, who do not have extensive background knowledge or the underlying physics of the technology.

  14. Helical EMG module with explosive current opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Vakhrushev, V.V.; Volkov, G.I.; Ivanov, V.A.; Fetisov, I.K.


    To carry out the experimental work to study plasma properties, electromagnetic sources with 10 6 to 10 8 J of stored energy delivered to the load in microsecond time, are required. Among the current electromagnetic storage devices, the explosive magnetic generators (EMG) are of the largest energy capacity. The disadvantages of this type of generators is relatively long time (ten of microseconds) of electromagnetic energy cumulation in the deformable circuit. To reduce the time of energy transfer to the load to a microsecond range the switching scheme is generally used, where the cumulation circuit and that of the load are separated and connected in parallel via a switching element (opening switch) providing generation of desired power. In this paper, some ways and means of designing opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches which operation is based on mechanic destruction of the conductor using high explosive, have the highest and most reliable performance. The authors have explored the mechanic disruption of a thin conductor (foil), the technique based on throwing the foil at the ribbed barrier of electric insulator material. The report presents the data obtained in studying the operation of this type of opening switch having cylindrical shape, 200 mm in diameter and 200 mm long, designed for generation of 5.5 MA current pulse in the load

  15. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian


    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  16. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.


    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  17. Direct Surge Margin Control for Aeroengines Based on Improved SVR Machine and LQR Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Zhang


    Full Text Available A novel scheme of high stability engine control (HISTEC on the basis of an improved linear quadratic regulator (ILQR, called direct surge margin control, is derived for super-maneuver flights. Direct surge margin control, which is different from conventional control scheme, puts surge margin into the engine closed-loop system and takes surge margin as controlled variable directly. In this way, direct surge margin control can exploit potential performance of engine more effectively with a decrease of engine stability margin which usually happened in super-maneuver flights. For conquering the difficulty that aeroengine surge margin is undetectable, an approach based on improved support vector regression (SVR machine is proposed to construct a surge margin prediction model. The surge margin modeling contains two parts: a baseline model under no inlet distortion states and the calculation for surge margin loss under supermaneuvering flight conditions. The previous one is developed using neural network method, the inputs of which are selected by a weighted feature selection algorithm. Considering the hysteresis between pilot input and angle of attack output, an online scrolling window least square support vector regression (LSSVR method is employed to firstly estimate inlet distortion index and further compute surge margin loss via some empirical look-up tables.

  18. CO2 laser pulse switching by optically excited semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, V.L. da.


    The construction and the study of a semi-conductor optical switch used for generating short infrared pulses and to analyse the semiconductor characteristics, are presented. The switch response time depends on semiconductor and control laser characteristics. The results obtained using a Ge switch controlled by N 2 , NdYag and Dye lasers are presented. The response time was 50 ns limited by Ge recombination time. The reflectivity increased from 7% to 59% using N 2 laser to control the switch. A simple model for semiconductor optical properties that explain very well the experimental results, is also presented. (author) [pt

  19. Smooth invariant densities for random switching on the torus (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Hurth, Tobias; Lawley, Sean D.; Mattingly, Jonathan C.


    We consider a random dynamical system obtained by switching between the flows generated by two smooth vector fields on the 2d-torus, with the random switchings happening according to a Poisson process. Assuming that the driving vector fields are transversal to each other at all points of the torus and that each of them allows for a smooth invariant density and no periodic orbits, we prove that the switched system also has a smooth invariant density, for every switching rate. Our approach is based on an integration by parts formula inspired by techniques from Malliavin calculus.

  20. Low inductance gas switching.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.


    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  1. Remote Sensing Observations of Advancing and Surging Tidewater Glaciers (United States)

    McNabb, R. W.; Kääb, A.; Nuth, C.; Girod, L.; Truffer, M.; Fahnestock, M. A.


    Progress has been made in understanding the glaciological frontiers of tidewater glacier dynamics and surge dynamics, though many aspects of these topics are not well-understood. Advances in the processing of digital elevation models (DEMs) from ASTER imagery, as well as the increased availability and temporal density of satellite images such as Landsat and the Sentinel missions, provide an unprecedented wealth of satellite data over glaciers, providing new opportunities to learn about these topics. As one of the largest glaciated regions in the world outside of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets, glaciers in Alaska and adjacent regions in Canada have been highlighted for their elevated contributions to global sea level rise, through both high levels of melt and frontal ablation/calving from a large number of tidewater glaciers. The region is also home to a number of surging glaciers. We focus on several tidewater glaciers in the region, including Turner, Tsaa, Harvard, and Meares Glaciers. Turner Glacier is a surge-type tidewater glacier with a surge period of approximately eight years, while Tsaa Glacier is a tidwewater glacier that has shown rapid swings in terminus position on the order of a year. Harvard and Meares Glaciers have been steadily advancing since at least the mid-20th century, in contrast with neighboring glaciers that are retreating. Using a combination of ASTER, Landsat, and Sentinel data, we present and examine high-resolution time series of elevation, velocity, and terminus position for these glaciers, as well as updated estimates of volume change and frontal ablation rates, including on sub-annual time scales. Preliminary investigations of elevation change on Turner Glacier show that changes are most pronounced in the lower reaches of the glacier, below a prominent icefall approximately 15km from the head of the glacier. On Harvard and Meares Glaciers, elevation changes in the upper reaches of both glaciers have been generally small or

  2. High Resolution Hurricane Storm Surge and Inundation Modeling (Invited) (United States)

    Luettich, R.; Westerink, J. J.


    Coastal counties are home to nearly 60% of the U.S. population and industry that accounts for over 16 million jobs and 10% of the U.S. annual gross domestic product. However, these areas are susceptible to some of the most destructive forces in nature, including tsunamis, floods, and severe storm-related hazards. Since 1900, tropical cyclones making landfall on the US Gulf of Mexico Coast have caused more than 9,000 deaths; nearly 2,000 deaths have occurred during the past half century. Tropical cyclone-related adjusted, annualized losses in the US have risen from 1.3 billion from 1949-1989, to 10.1 billion from 1990-1995, and $35.8 billion per year for the period 2001-2005. The risk associated with living and doing business in the coastal areas that are most susceptible to tropical cyclones is exacerbated by rising sea level and changes in the characteristics of severe storms associated with global climate change. In the five years since hurricane Katrina devastated the northern Gulf of Mexico Coast, considerable progress has been made in the development and utilization of high resolution coupled storm surge and wave models. Recent progress will be presented with the ADCIRC + SWAN storm surge and wave models. These tightly coupled models use a common unstructured grid in the horizontal that is capable of covering large areas while also providing high resolution (i.e., base resolution down to 20m plus smaller subgrid scale features such as sea walls and levees) in areas that are subject to surge and inundation. Hydrodynamic friction and overland winds are adjusted to account for local land cover. The models scale extremely well on modern high performance computers allowing rapid turnaround on large numbers of compute cores. The models have been adopted for FEMA National Flood Insurance Program studies, hurricane protection system design and risk analysis, and quasi-operational forecast systems for several regions of the country. They are also being evaluated as

  3. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S.


    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters. PMID:26907313

  4. Vulnerability of Coastal Communities from Storm Surge and Flood Disasters. (United States)

    Bathi, Jejal Reddy; Das, Himangshu S


    Disasters in the form of coastal storms and hurricanes can be very destructive. Preparing for anticipated effects of such disasters can help reduce the public health and economic burden. Identifying vulnerable population groups can help prioritize resources for the most needed communities. This paper presents a quantitative framework for vulnerability measurement that incorporates both socioeconomic and flood inundation vulnerability. The approach is demonstrated for three coastal communities in Mississippi with census tracts being the study unit. The vulnerability results are illustrated as thematic maps for easy usage by planners and emergency responders to assist in prioritizing their actions to vulnerable populations during storm surge and flood disasters.

  5. Architectures of electro-optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert


    This thesis focuses on network- andn ode architectuers for electrical and optical packet switched networks. Future packet switched networks could evolve towards many small, distributed units or towards fewer large, centralised switch units. This work assumes the latter evolution scenario and exam......This thesis focuses on network- andn ode architectuers for electrical and optical packet switched networks. Future packet switched networks could evolve towards many small, distributed units or towards fewer large, centralised switch units. This work assumes the latter evolution scenario...... from optics and electronics. An overview of the DAVID network architecture is given, focusing on the MAN and WAN architecture as well as the MPLS based network hierarchy. A statistical model of the optical slot generation process is presented and utilised to evaluate delay vs. efficiency. Furthermore...

  6. A radiation hard vacuum switch (United States)

    Boettcher, G.E.


    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  7. Facilitating Adaptation to Changing Storm Surge Patterns in Western Alaska. (United States)

    Murphy, K. A.; Holman, A.; Reynolds, J.


    Coastal regions of North America are already experiencing the effects of climate change and the consequences of new storm patterns and sea level rise. These climate change effects are even more pronounced in western Alaska where the loss of sea ice in early winter and spring are exposing the coast to powerful winter storms that are visibly altering the landscape, putting coastal communities at risk, and are likely impacting important coastal wildlife habitat in ways we don't yet understand. The Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative has funded a suite of projects to improve the information available to assist managers and communities to adapt changes in coastal storms and their impacts. Projects range from modeling tide, wave and storm surge patters, to ShoreZone and NHD mapping, to bathymetry mapping, community vulnerability assessments and risks to important wildlife habitat. This group of diverse projects has helped stimulate momentum among partners which will lead to better tools for communities to respond to dangerous storms. For example, the State of Alaska and NOAA are working together to compile a series of community-scale maps that utilize best-available datasets to streamline communication about forecasted storm surges, local elevations and potentially impacted infrastructure during storm events that may lead to coastal flooding.

  8. A Comparison of Ensemble Kalman Filters for Storm Surge Assimilation

    KAUST Repository

    Altaf, Muhammad


    This study evaluates and compares the performances of several variants of the popular ensembleKalman filter for the assimilation of storm surge data with the advanced circulation (ADCIRC) model. Using meteorological data from Hurricane Ike to force the ADCIRC model on a domain including the Gulf ofMexico coastline, the authors implement and compare the standard stochastic ensembleKalman filter (EnKF) and three deterministic square root EnKFs: the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF), and the ensemble adjustment Kalman filter (EAKF). Covariance inflation and localization are implemented in all of these filters. The results from twin experiments suggest that the square root ensemble filters could lead to very comparable performances with appropriate tuning of inflation and localization, suggesting that practical implementation details are at least as important as the choice of the square root ensemble filter itself. These filters also perform reasonably well with a relatively small ensemble size, whereas the stochastic EnKF requires larger ensemble sizes to provide similar accuracy for forecasts of storm surge.

  9. Do surges heat the corona. [dense chromospheric ejecta accompanied by X ray bursts (United States)

    Rust, D. M.; Webb, D. F.; Maccombie, W.


    A comparison of X-ray filtergrams obtained during the Skylab mission 8 hr before and within 4 hr following 54 active region surges on the disk revealed only 6 cases of long-enduring, large-scale (exceeding 10,000 km) coronal enhancements that might have been associated with surge activity. It is concluded that there is no evidence for any substantial increase in the temperature or amount of coronal material during reported surges.

  10. Characteristics and possibilities of software tool for metal-oxide surge arresters selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan


    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters based on the instructions given in the Siemens and ABB catalogues, respecting their differences and the characteristics and possibilities of the software tool. The software tool was developed during the preparation of a Master's thesis titled, 'Automation of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters Selection'. An example is presented of the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters using the developed software tool.

  11. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.


    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Submicrosecond Power-Switching Test Circuit (United States)

    Folk, Eric N.


    repetitive waveform from a signal generator, momentary closure of a push-button switch, or closure or opening of a manually operated on/off switch. In the case of a signal generator, one can adjust the frequency and duty cycle as needed to obtain the desired AC power-supply response, which one could display on an oscilloscope. Momentary switch closure could be useful for obtaining (and, if desired, displaying on an oscilloscope set to trigger on an event) the response of a power supply to a single load transient. The on/off switch can be used to switch between load states in which static-load regulation measurements are performed.

  13. Passively synchronized dual-wavelength Q-switched lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp

    We present a simple and efficient way of generating synchronized Q-switched pulses at wavelengths hundreds of nanometers apart. This principle can result in new pulsed all-solid-state light sources at new wavelengths based on SFG....

  14. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM


    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  15. Switching power supply (United States)

    Mihalka, A.M.


    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  16. Optical computer switching network (United States)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.


    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  17. Circuit with a Switch for Charging a Battery in a Battery Capacitor Circuit (United States)

    Stuart, Thomas A. (Inventor); Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (Inventor)


    A circuit for charging a battery combined with a capacitor includes a power supply adapted to be connected to the capacitor, and the battery. The circuit includes an electronic switch connected to the power supply. The electronic switch is responsive to switch between a conducting state to allow current and a non-conducting state to prevent current flow. The circuit includes a control device connected to the switch and is operable to generate a control signal to continuously switch the electronic switch between the conducting and non-conducting states to charge the battery.

  18. Surge protective device response to steep front transient in low voltage circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuz, J.; Binczak, S.; Bilbault, J.M. [Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon (France)], Emails: jerome.marcuz@,,; Girard, F. [ADEE Electronic, Pont de Pany (France)


    Surge propagation on cables of electrical or data lines leads to a major protection problem as the number of equipment based on solid-state circuits or microprocessors increases. Sub-microsecond components of real surge waveform has to be taken into account for a proper protection even in the case of surges caused by indirect lightning effects. The response of a model of transient voltage suppressor diode based surge protection device (SPD) to fast front transient is analytically studied, then compared to simulations, including the lines connected to the SPD and to the protected equipment. (author)

  19. Vulnerability assessment of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Li


    Full Text Available Being bordered by the South China Sea and with long coastline, the coastal zone of Guangdong Province is often under severe risk of storm surges, as one of a few regions in China which is seriously threatened by storm surges. This article systematically analyzes the vulnerability factors of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong (from Yangjing to Shanwei. Five vulnerability assessment indicators of hazard-bearing bodies are proposed, which are social economic index, land use index, eco-environmental index, coastal construction index, and disaster-bearing capability index. Then storm surge vulnerability assessment index system in the coastal area of Guangdong is established. Additionally, the international general mode about coastal vulnerability assessment is improved, and the vulnerability evolution model of storm surges in the coastal area of Guangdong is constructed. Using ArcGIS, the vulnerability zoning map of storm surges in the study region is drawn. Results show that there is the highest degree of storm surge vulnerability in Zhuhai, Panyu, and Taishan; second in Zhongshan, Dongguan, Huiyang, and Haifeng; third in Jiangmen, Shanwei, Yangjiang, and Yangdong; fourth in Baoan, Kaiping, and Enping; and lowest in Guangzhou, Shunde, Shenzhen, and Longgang. This study on the risk of storm surges in these coastal cities can guide the land use of coastal cities in the future, and provide scientific advice for the government to prevent and mitigate the storm surge disasters. It has important theoretical and practical significance.

  20. Evaluation of Loss Due to Storm Surge Disasters in China Based on Econometric Model Groups. (United States)

    Jin, Xue; Shi, Xiaoxia; Gao, Jintian; Xu, Tongbin; Yin, Kedong


    Storm surge has become an important factor restricting the economic and social development of China's coastal regions. In order to improve the scientific judgment of future storm surge damage, a method of model groups is proposed to refine the evaluation of the loss due to storm surges. Due to the relative dispersion and poor regularity of the natural property data (login center air pressure, maximum wind speed, maximum storm water, super warning water level, etc.), storm surge disaster is divided based on eight kinds of storm surge disaster grade division methods combined with storm surge water, hypervigilance tide level, and disaster loss. The storm surge disaster loss measurement model groups consist of eight equations, and six major modules are constructed: storm surge disaster in agricultural loss, fishery loss, human resource loss, engineering facility loss, living facility loss, and direct economic loss. Finally, the support vector machine (SVM) model is used to evaluate the loss and the intra-sample prediction. It is indicated that the equations of the model groups can reflect in detail the relationship between the damage of storm surges and other related variables. Based on a comparison of the original value and the predicted value error, the model groups pass the test, providing scientific support and a decision basis for the early layout of disaster prevention and mitigation.

  1. Numerical modelling of tides and storm surges in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sindhu, B.

    The destruction due to storm surge flooding is a serious concern along the coast of Bay of Bengal. Amongst other natural disasters affecting the coast of India and Bangladesh, storm surges stand out, so far, as the most damaging and as an agent of death... are at higher risks of flooding during cyclonic events. In addition, tidal ranges in the northern Bay of Bengal are very high and the destruction caused by surges can be massive if the surges occur at the time of high tide. Thus real time monitoring...

  2. A prediction of storm surge using the artificial neural networks (ANNs) based on a JTWC best track and tide-surge model (United States)

    Park, Junghyun; Yuk, Jin-Hee; An, Jooneun; Joh, Minsu; Kim, Seung-woo


    There is huge damage caused by tropical typhoons every year in the South Korea. The storm surge due to landing of typhoon leads to severe flooding and casualty damage in coastal areas. Generally, the storm surge height is defined as the difference between the sea levels observed and predicted considering tide only. This advancing surge combines with the normal tides to create the typhoon storm surge height, which can increase the mean water level from only 1 to more than 2 m by the typhoon characteristics in Korea. To efficiently describe the phenomenon of storm surge in the coastal area, many researchers have used the numerical model of fluid dynamics. However, recently, research activities based on not the numerical model but big data have gotten a lot of attention and the Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) among these activities have shown powerful pattern classification and pattern recognition capabilities. The ANNs provide an attractive alternative tool for both forecasting researchers and practitioners. In particular, the ANNs have been widely applied to various areas to overcome the nonlinear natural disaster problems. This paper is aimed to propose the application of the ANNs for prediction of the storm surge. Many storm surge data stored for a long time are required to predict storm surge accurately using ANNs. But, because of the lack of storm surge data in the past years, we calculated storm surges due to 53 typhoons which had affected the South Korea from 1978 to 2014 using a finite element tide-surge model (ADvanced CIRCulation Model) and the typhoon information of JTWC (Joint Typhoon Warning Center). Factors such as the six hourly best track data of typhoon, head direction and velocity of typhoons, maximum sustained wind speed, minimum sea level pressure, radius of the last closed isobar, and radius of max winds were used to test the accuracy of the suggested ANNs model. The normalized root mean squared error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CC

  3. Optical Packet Switching Demostrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert


    In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the m......In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set...

  4. Plasma Switch Development. (United States)


    ACCION NO. 3. RCIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED PLASMA SWITCH DEVELOPMENT Final Report: 02/26/82 thru...with an inductive energy store. At present, the are summarized state-of-he- art of high-power repetitive opening or doming switches is limited to...Alexandria, VA 22304. Figure 7 Is a circuit diagram of the proposed system. The desired load pulse parameters art -100- e References 1. R.D. Ford, 0. Jenkins

  5. Bearingless switched reluctance motor (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)


    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  6. Atomic crystals resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunsen; Zhang David Wei; Zhou Peng


    Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F 2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 10 12 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory. (topical reviews)

  7. Atomic battery with beam switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, E.A.; McKenna, R.P.; Peterick, E.Th. Jr.; Trexler, F.D.


    An electric power generating apparatus that is powered primarily by the emission of electrically charged particles from radio-active materials enclosed in an evacuated vessel of glass or the like. An arrangement of reflecting electrodes causes a beam of particles to switch back and forth at a high frequency between two collecting electrodes that are connected to a resonating tuned primary circuit consisting of an inductor with resonating capacitor. The reflecting electrodes are energized in the proper phase relationship to the collecting electrodes to insure sustained oscillation by means of a secondary winding coupled inductively to the primary winding and connected to the reflecting electrodes. Power may be drawn from the circuit at a stepped down voltage from a power take-off winding that is coupled to the primary winding. The disclosure also describes a collecting electrode arrangement consisting of multiple spatially separated electrodes which together serve to capture a maximum of the available particle energy. A self-starting arrangement for start of oscillations is described. A specially adapted version of the invention utilizes two complementary beams of oppositely charged particles which are switched alternatingly between the collecting electrodes

  8. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.


    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  9. Search and switching costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siekman, Wilhelm Henricus


    This thesis analyses markets with search and with switching costs. It provides insights in several important issues in search markets, including how loss aversion may affect consumer behavior and firm conduct, and how prices, welfare, and profits may change when an intermediating platform orders

  10. The Octopus switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.


    This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital Companion. The approach to build a low-power handheld multimedia computer presented here is to have autonomous, reconfigurable modules such as network, video and audio devices, interconnected by a switch rather than by a

  11. Stochastic Switching Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria

    mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...

  12. Dependence between sea surge, river flow and precipitation in south and west Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Svensson


    Full Text Available Estuaries around Great Britain may be at heightened risk of flooding because of the simultaneous occurrence of extreme sea surge and river flow, both of which may be caused by mid-latitude cyclones. A measure especially suited for extremes was employed to estimate dependence between river flow and sea surge. To assist in the interpretation of why flow-surge dependence occurs in some areas and not in others, the dependence between precipitation and surge and between precipitation and river flow was also studied. Case studies of the meteorological situations leading to high surges and/or river flows were also carried out. The present study concerns catchments draining to the south and west coasts of Great Britain. Statistically significant dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge may be found at catchments spread along most of this coastline. However, higher dependence is generally found in catchments in hilly areas with a southerly to westerly aspect. Here, precipitation in south-westerly airflow, which is generally the quadrant of prevailing winds, will be enhanced orographically as the first higher ground is encountered. The sloping catchments may respond quickly to the abundant rainfall and the flow peak may arrive in the estuary on the same day as a large sea surge is produced by the winds and low atmospheric pressure associated with the cyclone. There are three regions where flow-surge dependence is strong: the western part of the English south coast, southern Wales and around the Solway Firth. To reduce the influence of tide-surge interaction on the dependence analysis, the dependence between river flow and daily maximum surge occurring at high tide was estimated. The general pattern of areas with higher dependence is similar to that using the daily maximum surge. The dependence between river flow and daily maximum sea surge is often strongest when surge and flow occur on the same day. The west coast from Wales and

  13. Spatial and temporal variability and long-term trends in skew surges globally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eMawdsley


    Full Text Available Storm surges and the resulting extreme high sea levels are among the most dangerous natural disasters and are responsible for widespread social, economic and environmental consequences. Using a set of 220 tide gauges, this paper investigates the temporal variations in storm surges around the world and the spatial coherence of its variability. We compare results derived from two parameters used to represent storm surge: skew surge and the more traditional, non-tidal residual. We determine the extent of tide-surge interaction, at each study site, and find statistically significant (95% confidence levels of tide-surge interaction at 59% of sites based on tidal level and 81% of sites based on tidal-phase. The tide-surge interaction was strongest in regions of shallow bathymetry such as the North Sea, north Australia and the Malay Peninsula. At most sites the trends in the skew surge time series were similar to those of non-tidal residuals, but where there were large differences in trends, the sites tended to have a large tidal range. Only 13% of sites had a statistically significant trend in skew surge, and of these approximately equal numbers were positive and negative. However, for trends in the non-tidal residual there are significantly more negative trends. We identified 8 regions where there were strong positive correlations in skew surge variability between sites, which meant that a regional index could be created to represent these groups of sites. Despite, strong correlations between some regional skew surge indices, none are significant at the 95% level, however, at the 80% level there was significant positive correlation between the north-west Atlantic - south and the North Sea. Correlations between the regional skew surge indices and climate indices only became significant at the 80% level, where Nińo 4 was positively correlated with the Gulf of Mexico skew surge index and negatively correlated with the east Australia skew surge index

  14. Increased Level of Morning Surge in Blood Pressure in Normotensives: ACross-Sectional Study from Pakistan. (United States)

    Almas, Aysha; Sultan, Fatehali Tipoo; Kazmi, Khawar


    To determine the mean morning surge (MS) in blood pressure, the frequency of increased morning surge in normotensive subjects, and to compare those with morning surge with those without MS. Across-sectional, comparative study. The Department of Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from April 2011 to March 2012. Adult normotensive healthy volunteers aged 35 to 65 years were inducted. Their ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) was measured over a 24-hour period, using digital ambulatory blood pressure monitors. Morning surge was calculated as the average of four readings after waking minus the lowest three nocturnal readings. Increased morning surge was defined as > 11 mm Hg in systolic (SBP) or > 12 mm Hg in diastolic (DBP). Dipping was defined as > 10% dipping in blood pressure. Eighty-two healthy volunteers were recruited. Their mean age was 36.9 ±1.2 years; 74.4 (61%) were men, and 58.5 (48%) woke up for morning prayers. Mean overall SBPwas 113 ±1.6 mm Hg, overall DBPwas 73.9 ±0.7 mm Hg, and overall heart rate was 75 (10) beats/minute. Mean morning surge was 17.6 ±1.0 mm Hg in SBPand 16.0 ±0.8 mm Hg in DBP. The frequency of increased morning surge was 66 (80.5%) in SBP, and 57 (69%) in DBP. On comparison of participants with normal morning surge and increased morning surge in SBP, there was a significant difference in nondipping status (13.4% in normal vs. 18.3% in increased morning surge, p= 0.001). Mean morning surge in SBPand DBPare relatively higher in this subset population in a tertiary care center in Pakistan. These values are higher than those reported in the literature.

  15. Comparison of two recent storm surge events based on results of field surveys (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Shibayama, Tomoya; Mikami, Takahito; Esteban, Miguel; Takagi, Hiroshi; Maell, Martin; Iwamoto, Takumu


    This paper compares two different types of storm surge disaster based on field surveys. Two cases: a severe storm surge flood with its height of over 5 m due to Typhoon Haiyan (2013) in Philippine, and inundation of storm surge around Nemuro city in Hokkaido of Japan with its maximum surge height of 2.8 m caused by extra-tropical cyclone are taken as examples. For the case of the Typhoon Haiyan, buildings located in coastal region were severely affected due to a rapidly increase in ocean surface. The non-engineering buildings were partially or completely destroyed due to their debris transported to an inner bay region. In fact, several previous reports indicated two unique features, bore-like wave and remarkably high speed currents. These characteristics of the storm surge may contribute to a wide-spread corruption for the buildings around the affected region. Furthermore, in the region where the surge height was nearly 3 m, the wooden houses were completely or partially destroyed. On the other hand, in Nemuro city, a degree of suffering in human and facility caused by the storm surge is minor. There was almost no partially destroyed residential houses even though the height of storm surge reached nearly 2.8 m. An observation in the tide station in Nemuro indicated that this was a usual type of storm surge, which showed a gradual increase of sea level height in several hours without possessing the unique characteristics like Typhoon Haiyan. As a result, not only the height of storm surge but also the robustness of the buildings and characteristics of storm surge, such as bore like wave and strong currents, determined the existent of devastation in coastal regions.

  16. Tide Gauge and Satellite Altimetry Integration for Storm Surge Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Cheng, Yongcun; Deng, X.


    Integrating coarse temporal sampling by the satellite altimeter in the deep ocean with the high temporal sampling at tide gauges in sparse location along the coast has been used to improve the forecast of high water in the North Sea along the Danish Coast and storm surges along the Northeast coast...... gauge recordings and investigated the capability of the satellite altimeters to capture these in the sea surface height. On the European coast we find that when two or more satellites are available we capture more than 90% of the extreme sea level events. In the Great Barrier Reef section...... tide gauges with satellite altimetry for forecasting high water at the city of Townville in North East Australia....

  17. Using satellite altimetry and tide gauges for storm surge warning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O. B.; Cheng, Yongcun; Deng, X.


    The combination of the coarse temporal sampling by satellite altimeters in the deep ocean with the high temporal sampling at sparsely located tide gauges along the coast has been used to improve the forecast of high water for the North Sea along the Danish Coast and for the northeast coast...... selected several representative high water events on the two continents based on tide gauge recordings and investigated the capability of satellite altimetry to capture these events in the sea surface height data. Due to the lack of recent surges in the North Sea we focused on general high water level...... coast in March 2006 and caused both loss of lives as well as huge devastation. Here we demonstrate the importance of integrating tide gauges with satellite altimetry for forecasting high water at the city of Townsville in northeast Australia....

  18. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting


    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  19. Isolated and soft-switched power converter (United States)

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe


    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  20. Giant thermal spin-torque-assisted magnetic tunnel junction switching. (United States)

    Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart S P


    Spin-polarized charge currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin torques (TSTs), have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe.

  1. Bedform reconstruction using Terrestrial Laser Scanning at Hunt's Hole, New Mexico: implications for sediment transport in pyroclastic surge deposits and criteria for their identification on Mars (United States)

    Edgar, L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Ewing, R. C.; Southard, J. B.; Lamb, M. P.


    Pyroclastic surges are dilute flows of gas and rock fragments, typically generated by the interaction of magma and water. Due to their hazardous nature, very little is known about sediment transport during these eruptions. However, the cross-stratified deposits that they leave behind provide an important record of flow conditions, if properly interpreted. In the absence of geologic context (and volcanic indicators such as bombs and lapilli), it may be difficult to distinguish bedforms in pyroclastic surge deposits from those in eolian or fluvial deposits. There has been some debate about the identification of pyroclastic surge deposits on Mars, suggesting a need to establish better criteria for recognizing these deposits in remote sensing applications. The goals of this study are to use physical characteristics to better understand bedform kinematics and gain insight into the flow dynamics of pyroclastic surges, and to establish criteria to distinguish pyroclastic surges from other depositional environments on Mars. Two examples of pyroclastic surge deposits are exposed in Hunt's Hole (HH) and Kilbourne Hole in southern NM. These volcanic craters expose up to 13 m of stratigraphy, dominated by dm-to-m-scale bedforms. The geomorphic pattern around the rim of HH provides 3D exposures at the scale of the bedforms, which enables observations of bedform geometries. We identify several facies, and measure bedform characteristics in the cross-stratified facies. Bedforms range in height from 25-80 cm, and wavelength from 190-460 cm. Stoss slope angles range from 4-11°, and lee slope from 2-18°. Geometries indicate possible bedform merging, as smaller bedforms overtake others to build larger features. Bedform interactions have been described in modern eolian systems, typically in plan-view, but these surge deposits may provide an opportunity to observe them in outcrop in cross-section. We propose that bedforms in pyroclastic surges can be identified by a unique style of

  2. Power gating of VLSI circuits using MEMS switches in low power applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shobak, Hosam


    Power dissipation poses a great challenge for VLSI designers. With the intense down-scaling of technology, the total power consumption of the chip is made up primarily of leakage power dissipation. This paper proposes combining a custom-designed MEMS switch to power gate VLSI circuits, such that leakage power is efficiently reduced while accounting for performance and reliability. The designed MEMS switch is characterized by an 0.1876 ? ON resistance and requires 4.5 V to switch. As a result of implementing this novel power gating technique, a standby leakage power reduction of 99% and energy savings of 33.3% are achieved. Finally the possible effects of surge currents and ground bounce noise are studied. These findings allow longer operation times for battery-operated systems characterized by long standby periods. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Experimental Study on Surge Propagation Characteristics of Rail and Lightning Overvoltages on Level Crossing (United States)

    Arai, Hideki; Matsubara, Hiroji; Miyajima, Kiyotomi; Yokoyama, Shigeru; Sato, Kazutoshi

    Lightning protection measures are required for the railway signalling system because suspension and delays of trains due to lightnings may cause social confusion. Therefore, we carried out experiments on propagation characteristics of lightning surges along a rail, and injected a lightning surge current into the rail or wayside ground to raise their potentials, in order to measure the lightning overvoltages on a level crossing for the insulation design. There are no precedents that have carried out these experiments in the field until now. We could obtain the following results. (1) The surge impedance of the rail is 56Ω and the surge propagation velocity in the rail is 55m/μs. (2) The surge attenuation depends only on the duration of wave tail of the traveling lightning surge along the rail and decreases as the duration of wave tail becomes longer. (3) Flashovers may occur at the terminals in the equipment of the level crossing in case 1) a 2kA lightning surge current is directly injected into the rail, or 2) a 10kA lightning surge current is injected into the wayside ground at a vertical distance of 2m from the rail. (4) We can estimate the lightning overvoltages on the terminals in the equipment of the level crossing according to the vertical distance from the rail of the lighting stroke and the level of the stroke current.

  4. Storm surge in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea: The problem and its prediction

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dube, S.K.; Rao, A.D.; Sinha, P.C.; Murty, T.S.; Bahulayan, N.

    to annual economic losses in these countries. Thus, the real time monitoring and warning of storm surge is of great concern for this region. The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of major aspects of the storm surge problem in the Bay of Bengal...

  5. Review of opening switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, M.; Schoenbach, K.M.; Schaefer, G.


    Review of opening switch technology is given. Classification of open switches applied in pulsed power technology is presented. The most familiar opening switches are fuses. It is shown that a strong oxidizer (H 2 O 2 in water), especially in combination with wires of Al, increases the maximum voltage. Thermally driven opening switches are the result of attempts to achive the speed and economy of fuse opening switches but with added advantage of repetitive operation. The search for coordinate materials for this type of opening switch is in its infancy and it is difficult to predict how successful such a switch may be. Explosive opening switches offer the possibility of precise timing and permit the delay before explosion to be controlled independently of current flowing through the switch. Plasma guns, dense plasma focus and MHD switches are also considered. Diffuse discharge opening switches are attractive for repetitive operation. The plasma erosion switch operates on a very short time scale of 10 ns to 100 ns, both to regard to conduction and opening times

  6. Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch (United States)

    Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog


    This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.

  7. High voltage fast switches for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Lausenaz, Y.; Villard, J.F.; Lafore, D.


    SILVA process consists in a selective ionization of the 235 uranium isotope, using laser beams generated by dye lasers pumped by copper vapour laser (C.V.L.). SILVA involves power electronic for 3 power supplies: - copper vapour laser power supply, - extraction power supply to generate the electric field in the vapour, and - electron beam power supply for vapour generation. This article reviews the main switches that are proposed on the market or are on development and that could be used in SILVA power supplies. The SILVA technical requirements are: high power, high voltage and very short pulses (200 ns width). (A.C.)

  8. Low risk of inhibitor formation in haemophilia A patients following en masse switch in treatment to a third generation full length plasma and albumin-free recombinant factor VIII product (ADVATE®).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bacon, C L


    Previous studies have suggested that development of inhibitors in previously treated patients (PTPs) may be attributable to a switch in factor VIII (FVIII) therapeutic product. Consequently, it is widely recognized that inhibitor development must be assessed in PTPs following the introduction of any new FVIII product. Following a national tender process in 2006, all patients with haemophilia A in Ireland changed their FVIII treatment product en masse to a plasma and albumin-free recombinant full-length FVIII product (ADVATE(®)). In this study, we retrospectively reviewed the case records of Irish PTPs to evaluate risk of inhibitor formation following this treatment switch. One hundred and thirteen patients participated in the study. Most patients (89%) had severe haemophilia. Only one of 96 patients with no inhibitor history developed an inhibitor. Prior to the switch in his recombinant FVIII (rFVIII) treatment of choice, this child had only experienced three exposure days (EDs). Consequently, in total he had only received 6 EDs when his inhibitor was first diagnosed. In keeping with this lack of de novo inhibitor development, we observed no evidence of any recurrent inhibitor formation in any of 16 patients with previously documented inhibitors. Similarly, following a previous en masse switch, we have previously reported that changing from a Chinese hamster ovary cell-produced to a baby hamster kidney cell-produced rFVIII was also associated with a low risk of inhibitor formation in PTPs. Our cumulative findings from these two studies clearly emphasizes that the risk of inhibitor development for PTPs following changes in commercial rFVIII product is low, at least in the Irish population.

  9. Switch on the Learning: Teaching Students with Significant Disabilities to Use Switches (United States)

    Schaefer, John M.; Andzik, Natalie R.


    Students with significant disabilities often struggle to communicate their wants and needs but can be taught widely recognizable communication with the aid of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) supports. Simple speech generating devices (SGDs) such as Step-by-Step switches or GoTalk can be used by students to send specific messages.…

  10. Condition Assessment of Metal Oxide Surge Arrester Based on Multi-Layer SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khodsuz


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the indicators for surge arrester condition assessment based on the leakage current analysis. Maximum amplitude of fundamental harmonic of the resistive leakage current, maximum amplitude of third harmonic of the resistive leakage current and maximum amplitude of fundamental harmonic of the capacitive leakage current were used as indicators for surge arrester condition monitoring. Also, the effects of operating voltage fluctuation, third harmonic of voltage, overvoltage and surge arrester aging on these indicators were studied. Then, obtained data are applied to the multi-layer support vector machine for recognizing of surge arrester conditions. Obtained results show that introduced indicators have the high ability for evaluation of surge arrester conditions.

  11. Local amplification of storm surge by Super Typhoon Haiyan in Leyte Gulf (United States)

    Mori, Nobuhito; Kato, Masaya; Kim, Sooyoul; Mase, Hajime; Shibutani, Yoko; Takemi, Tetsuya; Tsuboki, Kazuhisa; Yasuda, Tomohiro


    Typhoon Haiyan, which struck the Philippines in November 2013, was an extremely intense tropical cyclone that had a catastrophic impact. The minimum central pressure of Typhoon Haiyan was 895 hPa, making it the strongest typhoon to make landfall on a major island in the western North Pacific Ocean. The characteristics of Typhoon Haiyan and its related storm surge are estimated by numerical experiments using numerical weather prediction models and a storm surge model. Based on the analysis of best hindcast results, the storm surge level was 5-6 m and local amplification of water surface elevation due to seiche was found to be significant inside Leyte Gulf. The numerical experiments show the coherent structure of the storm surge profile due to the specific bathymetry of Leyte Gulf and the Philippines Trench as a major contributor to the disaster in Tacloban. The numerical results also indicated the sensitivity of storm surge forecast.

  12. A Lightning Surge Analysis for the Rationalization of the Grounding System in Power Distribution Lines (United States)

    Miyazaki, Teru; Okabe, Shigemitsu; Aiba, Kiyoshi; Hirai, Takao; Yoshinaga, Jun

    The grounding system is one of the most important lightning-protection features of power distribution lines. Based on the statistical distribution of surge currents through lightning arrestors caused by indirect lightning strokes and electrical surges in customers, a rated value of the grounding resistance for lightning arrestors on distribution lines was specified in the 1960's. TEPCO had conducted field research to measure the waveforms of surge voltage and current in order to rationalize the lightning protection design of distribution lines. And the authors proposed a lightning-surges analysis model based on the observation data. In this study, a lightning surge analysis for the rationalization of the grounding system was carried out by means of the EMTP. The calculation conditions were set based on the observation data. The calculated results suggest that a simple grounding design is possible. That can be useful for the Electric Power Companies to manage grounding systems.

  13. The reduction of storm surge by vegetation canopies: Three-dimensional simulations (United States)

    Sheng, Y. Peter; Lapetina, Andrew; Ma, Gangfeng


    Significant buffering of storm surges by vegetation canopies has been suggested by limited observations and simple numerical studies, particularly following recent Hurricanes Katrina, Rita, and Wilma. Here we simulate storm surge and inundation over idealized topographies using a three-dimensional vegetation-resolving storm surge model coupled to a shallow water wave model and show that a sufficiently wide and tall vegetation canopy reduces inundation on land by 5 to 40 percent, depending upon various storm and canopy parameters. Effectiveness of the vegetation in dissipating storm surge and inundation depends on the intensity and forward speed of the hurricane, as well as the density, height, and width of the vegetation canopy. Reducing the threat to coastal vegetation from development, sea level rise, and other anthropogenic factors would help to protect many coastal regions against storm surges.

  14. Determining Storm Surge Return Periods: The Use of Evidence of Historic Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristine S.; Sørensen, Carlo Sass; Schmith, Torben

    Storm surges are a major concern for many coastal communities, and rising levels of surges is a key concern in relation to climate change. The sea level of a statistical 100-year or 1000-year storm surge event and similar statistical measures are used for spatial planning and emergency preparedness....... These statistics are very sensitive to the assessments of past events, and to future sea level change. The probability of a major storm surge from the Baltic Sea hitting the Copenhagen metropolitan area is officially determined by the Danish Coastal Authority based on tide gauge records. We have a long history...... for tide gauge measurements, with 120 years of data available for the calculations. However, the oldest of these tide gauge stations was set up after a major storm surge in 1872, and no events of similar severity have occurred since. Including the evidence of the historic events from the 18th century...

  15. Photonic Switching Devices Using Light Bullets (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M. (Inventor)


    A unique ultra-fast, all-optical switching device or switch is made with readily available, relatively inexpensive, highly nonlinear optical materials. which includes highly nonlinear optical glasses, semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials. At the specified wavelengths. these optical materials have a sufficiently negative group velocity dispersion and high nonlinear index of refraction to support stable light bullets. The light bullets counter-propagate through, and interact within the waveguide to selectively change each others' directions of propagation into predetermined channels. In one embodiment, the switch utilizes a rectangularly planar slab waveguide. and further includes two central channels and a plurality of lateral channels for guiding the light bullets into and out of the waveguide. An advantage of the present all-optical switching device lies in its practical use of light bullets, thus preventing the degeneration of the pulses due to dispersion and diffraction at the front and back of the pulses. Another advantage of the switching device is the relative insensitivity of the collision process to the time difference in which the counter-propagating pulses enter the waveguide. since. contrary to conventional co-propagating spatial solitons, the relative phase of the colliding pulses does not affect the interaction of these pulses. Yet another feature of the present all-optical switching device is the selection of the light pulse parameters which enables the generation of light bullets in nonlinear optical materials. including highly nonlinear optical glasses and semiconductor materials such as semiconductor crystals and/or multiple quantum well semiconductor materials.

  16. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs

  18. Morning blood pressure surge is associated with arterial stiffness and sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity in hypertensive seniors (United States)

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Galbreath, M. Melyn; Shibata, Shigeki; Jarvis, Sara S.; Bivens, Tiffany B.; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen; Levine, Benjamin D.


    Morning blood pressure (BP) surge is considered to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We tested the hypothesis that increased large-artery stiffness and impaired sympathetic baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) contribute to augmented morning surge in elderly hypertensive subjects. Morning surge was assessed as morning systolic BP averaged for 2 h just after waking up minus minimal sleeping systolic BP by using ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) in 40 untreated hypertensive [68 ± 1 (SE) yr] and 30 normotensive (68 ± 1 yr) subjects. Beat-by-beat finger BP and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded in the supine position and at 60° upright tilt. We assessed arterial stiffness with carotid-to-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and sympathetic BRS during spontaneous breathing. Awake and asleep ABPM-BPs and morning surge were higher in hypertensive than normotensive subjects (all P morning surge ≥35 mmHg (median value) had higher cfPWV (11.9 ± 0.5 vs. 9.9 ± 0.4 m/s, P = 0.002) and lower sympathetic BRS (supine: −2.71 ± 0.25 vs. −3.73 ± 0.29, P = 0.011; upright: −2.62 ± 0.22 vs. −3.51 ± 0.35 bursts·100 beats−1·mmHg−1, P = 0.052) than those with morning surge 0.05), while upright total peripheral resistance was higher in hypertensive subjects with greater morning surge than those with lesser morning surge (P = 0.050). Morning surge was correlated positively with cfPWV (r = 0.59, P morning BP surge is associated with arterial stiffness and sympathetic BRS, as well as vasoreactivity during orthostasis in hypertensive seniors. PMID:23832695

  19. Storm surge and wave simulations in the Gulf of Mexico using a consistent drag relation for atmospheric and storm surge models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Vatvani


    Full Text Available To simulate winds and water levels, numerical weather prediction (NWP and storm surge models generally use the traditional bulk relation for wind stress, which is characterized by a wind drag coefficient. A still commonly used drag coefficient in those models, some of them were developed in the past, is based on a relation, according to which the magnitude of the coefficient is either constant or increases monotonically with increasing surface wind speed (Bender, 2007; Kim et al., 2008; Kohno and Higaki, 2006. The NWP and surge models are often tuned independently from each other in order to obtain good results. Observations have indicated that the magnitude of the drag coefficient levels off at a wind speed of about 30 m s−1, and then decreases with further increase of the wind speed. Above a wind speed of approximately 30 m s−1, the stress above the air-sea interface starts to saturate. To represent the reducing and levelling off of the drag coefficient, the original Charnock drag formulation has been extended with a correction term.

    In line with the above, the Delft3D storm surge model is tested using both Charnock's and improved Makin's wind drag parameterization to evaluate the improvements on the storm surge model results, with and without inclusion of the wave effects. The effect of waves on storm surge is included by simultaneously simulating waves with the SWAN model on identical model grids in a coupled mode. However, the results presented here will focus on the storm surge results that include the wave effects.

    The runs were carried out in the Gulf of Mexico for Katrina and Ivan hurricane events. The storm surge model was initially forced with H*wind data (Powell et al., 2010 to test the effect of the Makin's wind drag parameterization on the storm surge model separately. The computed wind, water levels and waves are subsequently compared with observation data. Based on the good

  20. Optical fiber switch (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.


    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  1. Beyond the switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliakseyeu, Dzmitry; Meerbeek, Bernt; Mason, Jon


    The commercial introduction of connected lighting that can be integrated with sensors and other devices is opening up new possibilities in creating responsive and intelligent environments. The role of lighting in such systems goes beyond simply functional illumination. In part due to the large...... is to explore new ways of interacting with light where lighting can not only be switched on or off, but is an intelligent system embedded in the environment capable of creating a variety of effects. The connectivity between multiple systems and other ecosystems, for example when transitioning from your home...... and established lighting network, and with the advent of the LED, new types of lighting output are now possible. However, the current approach for controlling such systems is to simply replace the light switch with a somewhat more sophisticated smartphone-based remote control. The focus of this workshop...

  2. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.


    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  3. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch. (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven


    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  4. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C


    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  5. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  6. Nanomechanics of flexoelectric switching (United States)

    Očenášek, J.; Lu, H.; Bark, C. W.; Eom, C. B.; Alcalá, J.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.


    We examine the phenomenon of flexoelectric switching of polarization in ultrathin films of barium titanate induced by a tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The spatial distribution of the tip-induced flexoelectricity is computationally modeled both for perpendicular mechanical load (point measurements) and for sliding load (scanning measurements), and compared with experiments. We find that (i) perpendicular load does not lead to stable ferroelectric switching in contrast to the load applied in the sliding contact load regime, due to nontrivial differences between the strain distributions in both regimes: ferroelectric switching for the perpendicular load mode is impaired by a strain gradient inversion layer immediately underneath the AFM tip; while for the sliding load regime, domain inversion is unimpaired within a greater material volume subjected to larger values of the mechanically induced electric field that includes the region behind the sliding tip; (ii) beyond a relatively small value of an applied force, increasing mechanical pressure does not increase the flexoelectric field inside the film, but results instead in a growing volume of the region subjected to such field that aids domain nucleation processes; and (iii) the flexoelectric coefficients of the films are of the order of few nC/m, which is much smaller than for bulk BaTi O3 ceramics, indicating that there is a "flexoelectric size effect" that mirrors the ferroelectric one.

  7. "Platform switching": Serendipity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kalavathy


    Full Text Available Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles.

  8. Filamentary model in resistive switching materials (United States)

    Jasmin, Alladin C.


    The need for next generation computer devices is increasing as the demand for efficient data processing increases. The amount of data generated every second also increases which requires large data storage devices. Oxide-based memory devices are being studied to explore new research frontiers thanks to modern advances in nanofabrication. Various oxide materials are studied as active layers for non-volatile memory. This technology has potential application in resistive random-access-memory (ReRAM) and can be easily integrated in CMOS technologies. The long term perspective of this research field is to develop devices which mimic how the brain processes information. To realize such application, a thorough understanding of the charge transport and switching mechanism is important. A new perspective in the multistate resistive switching based on current-induced filament dynamics will be discussed. A simple equivalent circuit of the device gives quantitative information about the nature of the conducting filament at different resistance states.

  9. The relationship between a blunted morning surge and a reversed nocturnal blood pressure dipping or "riser" pattern. (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Tomitani, Naoko; Sato, Keiko; Okura, Ayako; Suzuki, Noriyuki; Kario, Kazuomi


    The authors sought to determine the association between the blunted morning blood pressure (BP) surge and nocturnal BP dipping of the "riser" pattern in 501 patients with hypertension enrolled in the ACHIEVE-ONE (Ambulatory Blood Pressure Control and Home Blood Pressure [Morning and Evening] Lowering by the N-Channel Blocker Cilnidipine) trial. The patients' sleep-trough morning BP surge and prewaking surge were calculated and then classified according to their nocturnal systolic BP reduction pattern as extreme dippers, dippers, nondippers, and risers. The prevalence of the riser pattern was significantly higher in both the lowest sleep-trough morning BP surge decile and the prewaking surge decile (blunted surge group) compared with the remaining deciles (56.0% vs 10.4% [Pmorning BP surge (odds ratio, 73.3; Pmorning BP surges may account for the cardiovascular risk previously reported in such patients. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Storm surges in the White and Barents Seas: formation, statistics, analysis (United States)

    Korablina, Anastasia; Arkhipkin, Victor


    Arctic seas storm surges investigation are high priority in Russia due to the active development of offshore oil and gas, construction of facilities in the coastal zone, as well as for the navigation safety. It is important to study the surges variability, to predict this phenomena and subsequent economic losses, thus including such information into the Russian Arctic Development Program 2020. White and Barents Seas storm surges are caused mainly by deep cyclones of two types: "diving" from the north (88% of all cyclones) and Atlantic from the west. The surge height was defined as the excess of the level that was obtained as the difference between the observed level and subtracting tide level and low-frequency level. The period of low-frequency level oscillation was determined by spectral analysis of the in-situ data. ADCIRC model is used for calculating the storm surge height. We did the calculations on unstructured grid with variable step from 50 to 5000 m. The ADCIRC model was based on the data on wind field, the sea level pressure, the concentration of ice reanalysis CFSR (1979-2010) in increments 0.3°, CFSv2 (2011-2015) in increments 0.2°. On the boundary conditions harmonic constants from Finite Element Solution tide model 2004 (FES2004) in increments 1/8° were set. The following stations on the coast Varandey, Pechora Bay, Chosha Bay, Severodvinsk, Onega, Solovki and other were selected for the storm surges statistical analysis in the period 1979-2015. The number of storm surges (> 0.3 m) long-term variability was obtained, the number of surges at a height (m) range (0.3-0.6, 0.6-0.9, 0.9-1.2, >1.2) was estimated. It shows that 1980 and 1998 are the years with the fewest number storms. For example, the largest number of storm surge (53) was observed in 1995 in Varandey. The height of the surge, possible only once in 100 years, is counted. This maximum height (m) of the surge was noted in Varandey (4.1), Chosha Bay (3.4), Barents Sea, Onega Bay (2

  11. Switched Systems With Multiple Invariant Sets (United States)


    larger superset. We show the effectiveness of the dwell-time conditions by using examples of switching limit cycles commonly found in robotic locomotion ...commonly found in robotic locomotion and apping ight. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report...1 −1 1 −1 ]( x y ) + ( 2 −2 ) . This is a simplified version of (1), a central pattern generator used for control of swimming [12] or flying robots [2

  12. Fast-opening vacuum switches for high-power inductive energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.


    The subject of fast-opening vacuum switches for high-power inductive energy storage is emerging as an exciting new area of plasma science research. This opening switch technology, which generally involves the use of plasmas as the switching medium, is key to the development of inductive energy storage techniques for pulsed power which have a number of advantages over conventional capacitive techniques with regard to cost and size. This paper reviews the state of the art in this area with emphasis on applications to inductive storage pulsed power generators. Discussion focuses on fast-opening vacuum switches capable of operating at high power (≥10 12 W). These include plasma erosion opening switches, ion beam opening switches, plasma filled diodes, reflex diodes, plasma flow switches, and other novel vacuum opening switches

  13. The Morrison Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor (United States)

    Wong, David S.


    Switched reluctance motors typically consist of pairs of poles protruding outward from a central rotor, surrounded by pairs of coils protruding inward from a stator. The pairs of coils, positioned a short distance from opposing sides of the rotor, are connected in series. A current runs through the coils, generating a magnetic flux between the coils. This attracts the protruding poles on the rotor, and just as the poles on the rotor approach the coils, the current to the coils is inverted, repelling the rotor s poles as they pass the coils. This current switching, back and forth, provides a continuous rotational torque to the rotor. reliability, durability, low cost, and operation in adverse environments such as high temperatures, extreme temperature variations, and high rotational speeds. However, because rotors are often manufactured with minute flaws due to imperfections in the machining process, traditional switched reluctance motors often suffer from substantial amounts of vibration. In addition, the current in the coils imparts a strong radial magnetic force on the rotor; the continuous alternating of the direction of this force also causes vibration. As a result, switched reluctance motors require bearings that, run at high speeds, can require lubrication apparatus and are subject to problems with heat and wear. My mentor s recent invention, the "Bearingless" Switched Reluctance Motor, actually uses magnetic bearings instead of traditional physical bearings. Sensors are used to continuously determine the position of the rotor. A computer reads the position sensor input, performs calculations, and outputs a current to a set of extra coils (in addition to the coils rotating the rotor). This current provides a magnetic force that counters and damps the vibration. The sense-calculate-update loop iterates more than thirty thousand times per second. For now, our goal is to have the rotor rotate at about 6000 rprn, and at that speed, the magnetic bearing is

  14. Buck Converter with Soft-Switching Cells for PV Panel Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Tao Tsai


    Full Text Available In power conversion of photovoltaic (PV energy, a hard-switching buck converter always generates some disadvantages. For example, serious electromagnetic interference (EMI, high switching losses, and stresses on an active switch (metal-oxide-semiconductor-field-effect-transistor, MOSFET, and high reverse-recovery losses of a freewheeling diode result in low conversion efficiency. To release these disadvantages, a buck converter with soft-switching cells for PV panel applications is proposed. To create zero-voltage-switching (ZVS features of the active switches, a simple active soft-switching cell with an inductor, a capacitor, and a MOSFET is incorporated into the proposed buck converter. Therefore, the switching losses and stresses of the active switches and EMI can be reduced significantly. To reduce reverse-recovery losses of a freewheeling diode, a simple passive soft-switching cell with a capacitor and two diodes is implemented. To verify the performance and the feasibility of the proposed buck converter with soft-switching cells for PV panel applications, a prototype soft-switching buck converter is built and implemented by using a maximum-power-point-tracking (MPPT method. Simulated and experimental results are presented from a 100 W soft-switching buck converter for PV panel applications.

  15. Predicting Typhoon Induced Storm Surges Using the Operational Ocean Forecast System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hyup You


    Full Text Available This study was performed to compare storm surges simulated by the operational storm surges/tide forecast system (STORM : Storm surges/Tide Operational Model of the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA with observations from 30 coastal tidal stations during nine typhoons that occurred between 2005 and 2007. The results (bias showed that for cases of overestimation (or underestimation, storm surges tended to be overestimated (as well as underestimated at all coastal stations. The maximum positive bias was approximately 6.92 cm for Typhoon Ewiniar (2006, while the maximum negative bias was approximately -12.06 cm for Typhoon Khanun (2005. The maximum and minimum root mean square errors (RMSEs were 14.61 and 6.78 cm, which occurred for Typhoons Khanun (2005 and Usagi (2007, respectively. For all nine typhoons, total averaged RMSE was approximately 10.2 cm. Large differences between modeled and observed storm surges occurred in two cases. In the first, a very weak typhoon, such as Typhoon Khanun (2005, caused low storm surges. In the other, exemplified by Typhoon Nari (2007, there were errors in the predicted typhoon strength used as input data for the storm surge model.

  16. Cold Surge Activity Over the Gulf of Mexico in a Warmer Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Perez Perez


    Full Text Available Cold surges are a dominant feature of midlatitude tropical interaction. During the North Hemisphere (NH winter, midlatitude waves propagating from the Rocky Mountains into the Gulf of Mexico result in cold surges, also known as Nortes or Tehuantepecers, associated with severe weather over the southern part of Mexico. The magnitude of their intense surface winds, precipitation and drops in surface temperature depends on the characteristics of the midlatitude wave propagating into the tropics. The high spatial resolution (20km X 20km version of the TL959L60-AGC Model of the Meteorological Research Institute of Japan is used to examine changes in cold surge activity under the A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario for the 2080 - 2099 period. The model realistically reproduces the spatial and temporal characteristics of cold surges for the 1980 - 1989 control period. The effect of changes in baroclinicity, static stability and mean flow over North America suggest that in a warmer climate, increased cold surge activity over the Gulf of Mexico would occur. However, these systems would have shorter wavelength (higher phase speeds and shorter lifespans that could reduce the total amount of winter precipitation. The increased frequency of cold surges over the Gulf of Mexico would be a consequence of weaker baroclinicity and static stability in the lower troposphere over the cold surge genesis region, along with more dominant westerly winds, resulting from ENSO-like conditions in the atmospheric circulations over North America.

  17. Selection Criteria in Regime Switching Conditional Volatility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Chuffart


    Full Text Available A large number of nonlinear conditional heteroskedastic models have been proposed in the literature. Model selection is crucial to any statistical data analysis. In this article, we investigate whether the most commonly used selection criteria lead to choice of the right specification in a regime switching framework. We focus on two types of models: the Logistic Smooth Transition GARCH and the Markov-Switching GARCH models. Simulation experiments reveal that information criteria and loss functions can lead to misspecification ; BIC sometimes indicates the wrong regime switching framework. Depending on the Data Generating Process used in the experiments, great care is needed when choosing a criterion.

  18. Mapping infectious disease hospital surge threats to lessons learnt in Singapore: a systems analysis and development of a framework to inform how to DECIDE on planning and response strategies. (United States)

    Singh, Shweta R; Coker, Richard; Vrijhoef, Hubertus J-M; Leo, Yee Sin; Chow, Angela; Lim, Poh Lian; Tan, Qinghui; Chen, Mark I-Cheng; Hildon, Zoe Jane-Lara


    Hospital usage and service demand during an Infectious Disease (ID) outbreak can tax the health system in different ways. Herein we conceptualize hospital surge elements, and lessons learnt from such events, to help build appropriately matched responses to future ID surge threats. We used the Interpretive Descriptive qualitative approach. Interviews (n = 35) were conducted with governance and public health specialists; hospital based staff; and General Practitioners. Key policy literature in tandem with the interview data were used to iteratively generate a Hospital ID Surge framework. We anchored our narrative account within this framework, which is used to structure our analysis. A spectrum of surge threats from combinations of capacity (for crowding) and capability (for treatment complexity) demands were identified. Starting with the Pyramid scenario, or an influx of high screening rates flooding Emergency Departments, alongside fewer and manageable admissions; the Reverse-Pyramid occurs when few cases are screened and admitted but those that are, are complex; during a 'Black' scenario, the system is overburdened by both crowding and complexity. The Singapore hospital system is highly adapted to crowding, functioning remarkably well at constant near-full capacity in Peacetime and resilient to Endemic surges. We catalogue 26 strategies from lessons learnt relating to staffing, space, supplies and systems, crystalizing institutional memory. The DECIDE model advocates linking these strategies to types of surge threats and offers a step-by-step guide for coordinating outbreak planning and response. Lack of a shared definition and decision making of surge threats had rendered the procedures somewhat duplicative. This burden was paradoxically exacerbated by a health system that highly prizes planning and forward thinking, but worked largely in silo until an ID crisis hit. Many such lessons can be put into play to further strengthen our current hospital governance

  19. Identification of storm surge events over the German Bight from atmospheric reanalysis and climate model data (United States)

    Befort, D. J.; Fischer, M.; Leckebusch, G. C.; Ulbrich, U.; Ganske, A.; Rosenhagen, G.; Heinrich, H.


    A new procedure for the identification of storm surge situations for the German Bight is developed and applied to reanalysis and global climate model data. This method is based on the empirical approach for estimating storm surge heights using information about wind speed and wind direction. Here, we hypothesize that storm surge events are caused by high wind speeds from north-westerly direction in combination with a large-scale wind storm event affecting the North Sea region. The method is calibrated for ERA-40 data, using the data from the storm surge atlas for Cuxhaven. It is shown that using information of both wind speed and direction as well as large-scale wind storm events improves the identification of storm surge events. To estimate possible future changes of potential storm surge events, we apply the new identification approach to an ensemble of three transient climate change simulations performed with the ECHAM5/MPIOM model under A1B greenhouse gas scenario forcing. We find an increase in the total number of potential storm surge events of about 12 % [(2001-2100)-(1901-2000)], mainly based on changes of moderate events. Yearly numbers of storm surge relevant events show high interannual and decadal variability and only one of three simulations shows a statistical significant increase in the yearly number of potential storm surge events between 1900 and 2100. However, no changes in the maximum intensity and duration of all potential events is determined. Extreme value statistic analysis confirms no frequency change of the most severe events.

  20. Slab entrainment and surge dynamics of the 2015 Valleé de la Sionne avalanches (United States)

    Köhler, Anselm; McElwaine, Jim; Sovilla, Betty


    On 3 February 2015 five avalanches were artificially released at the Valleé de la Sionne test site in the west of Switzerland. The dense parts of the avalanches were tracked by the GEODAR Mark 2 radar system at 111 Hz framerate with 0.75 m down slope resolution. The data show that these avalanche contain several internal surges and that the avalanche front is repeatedly overtaken by some of these surges. We show that these surges exist on different scale. While the major surges originates from secondary triggered slab releases and occur all over the avalanche. The minor surges are only found in the energetic part of a well developed powder snow avalanche. The mass of the major surges can be as huge as the initial released mass, this has a dramatic effect on the mass distribution inside the avalanche and effects the front velocity and run out. Furthermore, the secondary released snow slabs are an important entrainment mechanism and up to 50 percent of the mass entered the avalanche via slab entrainment. We analyse the dynamics of the leading edge and the minor surges in more detail using a simple one dimensional model with frictional resistance and quadratic velocity dependent drag. These models fit the data well for the start and middle of avalanche but cannot capture the slowing and overtaking of the minor surge. We find much higher friction coefficients to describe the surging. We propose that this data can only be explained by changes in the snow surface. These effects are not included in current models yet, but the data presented here will enable the development and verification of such models.

  1. Smart Ultrasound Remote Guidance Experiment (SURGE) Preliminary Findings (United States)

    Hurst, Victor; Dulchavsky, Scott; Garcia, Kathleen; Sargsyan, Ashot; Ebert, Doug


    To date, diagnostic quality ultrasound images were obtained aboard the International Space Station (ISS) using the ultrasound of the Human Research Facility (HRF) rack in the Laboratory module. Through the Advanced Diagnostic Ultrasound in Microgravity (ADUM) and the Braslet-M Occlusion Cuffs (BRASLET SDTO) studies, non-expert ultrasound operators aboard the ISS have performed cardiac, thoracic, abdominal, vascular, ocular, and musculoskeletal ultrasound assessments using remote guidance from ground-based ultrasound experts. With exploration class missions to the lunar and Martian surfaces on the horizon, crew medical officers will necessarily need to operate with greater autonomy given communication delays (round trip times of up to 5 seconds for the Moon and 90 minutes for Mars) and longer periods of communication blackouts (due to orbital constraints of communication assets). The SURGE project explored the feasibility and training requirements of having non-expert ultrasound operators perform autonomous ultrasound assessments in a simulated exploration mission outpost. The project aimed to identify experience, training, and human factors requirements for crew medical officers to perform autonomous ultrasonography. All of these aims pertained to the following risks from the NASA Bioastronautics Road Map: 1) Risk 18: Major Illness and Trauna; 2) Risk 20) Ambulatory Care; 3) Risk 22: Medical Informatics, Technologies, and Support Systems; and 4) Risk 23: Medical Skill Training and Maintenance.

  2. Gain-switched all-fiber laser with narrow bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Giesberts, M.; Nyga, S.


    Gain-switching of a CW fiber laser is a simple and cost-effective approach to generate pulses using an all-fiber system. We report on the construction of a narrow bandwidth (below 0.1 nm) gain-switched fiber laser and optimize the pulse energy and pulse duration under this constraint. The extracted...... the bandwidth below 0.1 nm. This allows frequency doubling in a periodically poled lithium tantalate crystal with a reasonable conversion efficiency....

  3. Magnitude of Morning Surge in Blood Pressure Is Associated with Sympathetic but Not Cardiac Baroreflex Sensitivity. (United States)

    Johnson, Aaron W; Hissen, Sarah L; Macefield, Vaughan G; Brown, Rachael; Taylor, Chloe E


    The ability of the arterial baroreflex to regulate blood pressure may influence the magnitude of the morning surge in blood pressure (MSBP). The aim was to investigate the relationships between sympathetic and cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) and the morning surge. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure was recorded in 14 young individuals. The morning surge was defined via the pre-awakening method, which is calculated as the difference between mean blood pressure values 2 h before and 2 h after rising from sleep. The mean systolic morning surge, diastolic morning surge, and morning surge in mean arterial pressures were 15 ± 2, 13 ± 1, and 11 ± 1 mmHg, respectively. During the laboratory protocol, continuous measurements of blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were made over a 10-min period of rest. Sympathetic BRS was quantified by plotting MSNA burst incidence against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRSinc), and by plotting total MSNA against diastolic pressure (sympathetic BRStotal). Cardiac BRS was quantified using the sequence method. The mean values for sympathetic BRSinc, sympathetic BRStotal and cardiac BRS were -1.26 ± 0.26 bursts/100 hb/mmHg, -1.60 ± 0.37 AU/beat/mmHg, and 13.1 ± 1.5 ms/mmHg respectively. Significant relationships were identified between sympathetic BRSinc and the diastolic morning surge (r = 0.62, p = 0.02) and the morning surge in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.57, p = 0.03). Low sympathetic BRS was associated with a larger morning surge in mean arterial and diastolic blood pressure. Trends for relationships were identified between sympathetic BRStotal and the diastolic morning surge (r = 0.52, p = 0.066) and the morning surge in mean arterial pressure (r = 0.48, p = 0.095) but these did not reach significance. There were no significant relationships between cardiac BRS and the morning surge. These findings indicate that the ability of the baroreflex to buffer increases in blood pressure

  4. Optimization of photovoltaic energy production through an efficient switching matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Romano


    Full Text Available This work presents a preliminary study on the implementation of a new system for power output maximization of photovoltaic generators under non-homogeneous conditions. The study evaluates the performance of an efficient switching matrix and the relevant automatic reconfiguration control algorithms. The switching matrix is installed between the PV generator and the inverter, allowing a large number of possible module configurations. PV generator, switching matrix and the intelligent controller have been simulated in Simulink. The proposed reconfiguration system improved the energy extracted by the PV generator under non-uniform solar irradiation conditions. Short calculation times of the proposed control algorithms allow its use in real time applications even where a higher number of PV modules is required.

  5. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...... plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. It is furthermore shown how to include model uncertainty to robustify the results. By appropriate filtering, it is only necessary to evaluate...

  6. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...... plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. By identifying a filtered closed-loop operator rather than directly identifying the plant, more reliable results are obtained....

  7. Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch Technology for Short Pulse Electromagnetics and Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, Gary J.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; O' Malley, Martin W.; Zutavern, Fred J.


    High gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) are being used to produce high power electromagnetic pulses foc (1) compact, repetitive accelerators, (2) ultra-wide band impulse sources, (3) precision gas switch triggers, (4) optically-activated firesets, and (5) high power optical pulse generation and control. High power, sub-nanosecond optical pulses are used for active optical sensors such as compact optical radars and range-gated hallistic imaging systems. Following a brief introduction to high gain PCSS and its general applications, this paper will focus on PCSS for optical pulse generation and control. PCSS technology can be employed in three distinct approaches to optical pulse generation and control: (1) short pulse carrier injection to induce gain-switching in semiconductor lasers, (2) electro-optical Q-switching, and (3) optically activated Q-switching. The most significant PCSS issues for these applications are switch rise time, jitter, and longevity. This paper will describe both the requirements of these applications and the most recent results from PCSS technology. Experiments to understand and expand the limitations of high gain PCSS will also be described.

  8. Modeling of rf MEMS switches (United States)

    Robertson, Barbara; Ho, Fat D.; Hudson, Tracy D.


    The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch offers many benefits in radio frequency (RF) applications. These benefits include low insertion loss, high quality factor (Q), low power, RF isolation, and low cost. The ability to manufacture mechanical switches on a chip with electronics can lead to higher functionality, such as single-chip arrays, and smart switches. The MEMS switch is also used as a building block in devices such as phase shifters, filters, and switchable antenna elements. The MEMS designer needs models of these basic elements in order to incorporate them into their applications. The objective of this effort is to develop lumped element models for MEMS RF switches, which are incorporated into a CAD software. Tanner Research Inc.'s Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software is being used to develop a suite of mixed-signal RF switch models. The suite will include switches made from cantilever beams and fixed-fixed beams. The switches may be actuated by electrostatic, piezoelectric or electromagnetic forces. The effort presented in this paper concentrates on switches actuated by electrostatic forces. The lumped element models use a current-force electrical-mechanical analogy. Finite element modeling and device testing will be used to verify the Tanner models. The effects of materials, geometries, temperature, fringing fields, and mounting geometries are considered.

  9. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Malone, David


    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  10. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar


    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  11. Influence of a Storm Surge Barrier’s Operation on the Flood Frequency in the Rhine Delta Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhong


    Full Text Available The Rhine River Delta is crucial to the Dutch economy. The Maeslant barrier was built in 1997 to protect the Rhine estuary, with the city and port of Rotterdam, from storm surges. This research takes a simple approach to quantify the influence of the Maeslant storm surge barrier on design water levels behind the barrier. The dikes in the area are supposed to be able to withstand these levels. Equal Level Curves approach is used to calculate the Rotterdam water levels by using Rhine discharges and sea water levels as input. Their joint probability function generates the occurrence frequency of a certain combination that will lead to a certain high water level in Rotterdam. The results show that the flood frequency in Rotterdam is reduced effectively with the controlled barrier in current and in future scenarios influenced by climate change. In addition, an investigation of the sensitivity of the operational parameters suggests that there is a negligible influence on the high water level frequency when the decision closing water level for the barrier is set higher due to the benefits of navigation (but not exceeding the design safety level 4 m MSL.

  12. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L; Cardone, Vincent J; Cox, Andrew T; Augustus, Ellsworth H; Colonnese, Christopher P


    The long-term goal of this partnership is to establish an operational forecasting system of the wind field and resulting waves and surge impacting the coastline during the approach and landfall of tropical cyclones...

  13. Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) Inundation for Categories 2 and 4 (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The file geodatabase (fgdb) contains the Sea, Lake, and Overland Surge from Hurricanes (SLOSH) Maximum of Maximums (MOM) model for hurricane categories 2 and 4. The...

  14. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L


    The long-term goal of this partnership is to establish an operational forecasting system of the wind field and resulting waves and surge impacting the coastline during the approach and landfall of tropical cyclones...

  15. Real-Time Forecasting System of Winds, Waves and Surge in Tropical Cyclones

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graber, Hans C; Donelan, Mark A; Brown, Michael G; Slinn, Donald N; Hagen, Scott C; Thompson, Donald R; Jensen, Robert E; Black, Peter G; Powell, Mark D; Guiney, John L


    The long-term goal of this partnership is to establish an operational forecasting system of the wind field and resulting waves and surge impacting the coastline during the approach and landfall of tropical cyclones...

  16. Efficiency and safety of percuSurge distal protection device in acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Efficiency and safety of percuSurge distal protection device in acute myocardial infarction during emergent percutaneous coronary intervention treatment. XY Feng, HT Liu, Y Gao, X Gua, RF Xu, HC Wang, CX Li ...

  17. Criteria for the Identification of Pyroclastic Surge Deposits on Mars: Insight from Hunt's Hole, New Mexico (United States)

    Edgar, L. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Southard, J. B.; Ewing, R. C.; Lamb, M. P.


    We combine field observations, Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), and hydrodynamic considerations to understand pyroclastic surge deposits at Hunt’s Hole, New Mexico, and provide criteria for their identification on Mars.

  18. Evaluation of Ferrite Chip Beads as Surge Current Limiters in Circuits with Tantalum Capacitors (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander


    Limiting resistors are currently required to be connected in series with tantalum capacitors to reduce the risk of surge current failures. However, application of limiting resistors decreases substantially the efficiency of the power supply systems. An ideal surge current limiting device should have a negligible resistance for DC currents and high resistance at frequencies corresponding to transients in tantalum capacitors. This work evaluates the possibility of using chip ferrite beads (FB) as such devices. Twelve types of small size FBs from three manufacturers were used to evaluate their robustness under soldering stresses and at high surge current spikes associated with transients in tantalum capacitors. Results show that FBs are capable to withstand current pulses that are substantially greater than the specified current limits. However, due to a sharp decrease of impedance with current, FBs do not reduce surge currents to the required level that can be achieved with regular resistors.

  19. Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressors by Active Magnetic Bearings Theory and Implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Se Young; Allaire, Paul E


    Control of Surge in Centrifugal Compressors by Active Magnetic Bearings sets out the fundamentals of integrating the active magnetic bearing (AMB) rotor suspension technology in compressor systems, and describes how this relatively new bearing technology can be employed in the active control of compressor surge. The authors provide a self-contained and comprehensive review of rotordynamics and the fundamentals of the AMB technology. The active stabilization of compressor surge employing AMBs in a machine is fully explored, from the modeling of the instability and the design of feedback controllers, to the implementation and experimental testing of the control algorithms in a specially-constructed, industrial-size centrifugal compression system. The results of these tests demonstrate the great potential of the new surge control method developed in this text. This book will be useful for engineers in industries that involve turbocompressors and magnetic bearings, as well as for researchers and graduate students...

  20. On the Storm Surge and Sea Level Rise Projections for Infrastructure Risk Analysis and Adaptation (United States)

    Storm surge can cause coastal hydrology changes, flooding, water quality changes, and even inundation of low-lying terrain. Strong wave actions and disruptive winds can damage water infrastructure and other environmental assets (hazardous and solid waste management facilities, w...

  1. Study of a Novel Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom, Nathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Choiniere, Michael [University of Maine; Thiagarajan, Krish P. [University of Maine


    This study investigates the performance of an oscillating surge wave energy converter (OSWEC) that utilizes adjustable geometry as a means of controlling the hydrodynamic coefficients, a concept originally proposed by [1]. The body of the device consists of a bottom-hinged solid rectangular frame with five horizontal flaps spanning the interior of the frame. The flaps can rotate independently about their center of rotation within the frame like a large window shutter. Changing the orientation of the flaps alters the hydrodynamic coefficients and natural frequency of the device as well as the ability to shed or absorb structural loads accordingly. This ability may allow the device to operate in a wider range of sea states than other current wave energy converter designs. This paper presents and compares the results of numerical simulations and experimental testing of the OSWEC's response to regular waves with all five of the horizontal fin configurations sharing the same orientation of 0 degrees (fully closed interior) and 90 degrees (fully open). The numerical simulations were performed using WAMIT, which calculates hydrodynamic coefficients using a boundary element method code to solve the linear potential flow problem, and WEC-Sim, a MATLAB-based tool that simulates multibody devices in the time domain by solving the governing equations of motion. A 1:14 scale model of the device was built for experimental evaluation in an 8-m-long, 1-m wide wave tank, which supports a water depth of 0.7 m. The OSWEC motion in different wave conditions was measured with displacement sensors while nonlinear wave-structure interaction effects like slamming and overtopping were captured using a high-speed camera and used to understand differences between the simulation and experiments.

  2. Reference Model 5 (RM5): Oscillating Surge Wave Energy Converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenne, D. S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Copping, A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Geerlofs, S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hanna, L. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    This report is an addendum to SAND2013-9040: Methodology for Design and Economic Analysis of Marine Energy Conversion (MEC) Technologies. This report describes an Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Converter (OSWEC) reference model design in a complementary manner to Reference Models 1-4 contained in the above report. A conceptual design for a taut moored oscillating surge wave energy converter was developed. The design had an annual electrical power of 108 kilowatts (kW), rated power of 360 kW, and intended deployment at water depths between 50 m and 100 m. The study includes structural analysis, power output estimation, a hydraulic power conversion chain system, and mooring designs. The results were used to estimate device capital cost and annual operation and maintenance costs. The device performance and costs were used for the economic analysis, following the methodology presented in SAND2013-9040 that included costs for designing, manufacturing, deploying, and operating commercial-scale MEC arrays up to 100 devices. The levelized cost of energy estimated for the Reference Model 5 OSWEC, presented in this report, was for a single device and arrays of 10, 50, and 100 units, and it enabled the economic analysis to account for cost reductions associated with economies of scale. The baseline commercial levelized cost of energy estimate for the Reference Model 5 device in an array comprised of 10 units is $1.44/kilowatt-hour (kWh), and the value drops to approximately $0.69/kWh for an array of 100 units.

  3. Core to surge-line energy transport in a severe accident scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzo, M. di; Almenas, K.; Gopalnarayanan, S.


    The analysis of loss of coolant accidents in a nuclear power plant, which progress to the stage where the core is uncovered, poses important safety related questions. One of these concerns the rate of energy transport to metal components of the primary system. An experimental program has been conducted at the Univ. of Maryland test facility which quantifies the rate of energy transfer from an uncovered core in a B ampersand W (once-through type steam generators) plant. SF 6 is used to simulate the natural circulation driving force of the high pressure steam expected at prototypical conditions. A time-dependent scaling methodology is developed to transpose experimental data to prototypical conditions. To achieve this transformation, a nominal fluid temperature increase rate of 1.0 degrees C/s is inferred from available TMI-2 event data. To bracket the range of potential prototypical transient scenarios, temperature ramps of 0.8 degrees C/s and 1.2 degrees C/s are also considered. Repeated tests, covering a range of test facility conditions, lead to estimated failure times at the surge line nozzle of 1.5 to 2 hours after initiation of the natural circulation phase of the transient

  4. Experimental Hydro-Mechanical Characterization of Full Load Pressure Surge in Francis Turbines (United States)

    Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Yamamoto, K.; Avellan, F.


    Full load pressure surge limits the operating range of hydro-electric generating units by causing significant power output swings and by compromising the safety of the plant. It appears during the off-design operation of hydraulic machines, which is increasingly required to regulate the broad integration of volatile renewable energy sources into the existing power network. The underlying causes and governing physical mechanisms of this instability were investigated in the frame of a large European research project and this paper documents the main findings from two experimental campaigns on a reduced scale model of a Francis turbine. The multi-phase flow in the draft tube is characterized by Particle Image Velocimetry, Laser Doppler Velocimetry and high-speed visualizations, along with synchronized measurements of the relevant hydro-mechanical quantities. The final result is a comprehensive overview of how the unsteady draft tube flow and the mechanical torque on the runner shaft behave during one mean period of the pressure oscillation, thus defining the unstable fluid-structure interaction responsible for the power swings. A discussion of the root cause is initiated, based on the state of the art. Finally, the latest results will enable a validation of recent RANS flow simulations used for determining the key parameters of hydro-acoustic stability models.

  5. Assessing economic impact of storm surge under projected sea level rise scenarios (United States)

    Del Angel, D. C.; Yoskowitz, D.


    Global sea level is expected to rise 0.2-2m by the year 2100. Rising sea level is expected to have a number of impacts such as erosion, saltwater intrusion, and decline in coastal wetlands; all which have direct and indirect socio-economic impact to coastal communities. By 2050, 25% of the world's population will reside within flood-prone areas. These statistics raise a concern for the economic cost that sea level and flooding has on the growing coastal communities. Economic cost of storm surge inundation and rising seas may include loss or damage to public facilities and infrastructure that may become temporarily inaccessible, as well as disruptions to business and services. This goal of this project is to assess economic impacts of storms under four SLR scenarios including low, intermediate-low, intermediate-high, and high (0.2m, 0.5m, 1.2m and 2m, respectively) in the Northern Gulf of Mexico region. To assess flooding impact on communities from storm surge, this project utilizes HAZUS-MH software - a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based modeling tool developed by the Federal Emergency Management Agency - to estimate physical, economic, and social impacts of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes and hurricanes. The HAZUS database comes integrated with aggregate and site specific inventory which includes: demographic data, general building stock, agricultural statistics, vehicle inventory, essential facilities, transportation systems, utility systems (among other sensitive facilities). User-defined inundation scenarios will serve to identify assets at risk and damage estimates will be generated using the Depth Damage Function included in the HAZUS software. Results will focus on 3 communities in the Gulf and highlight changes in storm flood impact. This approach not only provides a method for economic impact assessment but also begins to create a link between ecosystem services and natural and nature-based features such as wetlands, beaches and dunes

  6. High voltage generator (United States)

    Schwemin, A. J.


    A generator for producing relatively large currents at high voltages is described. In general, the invention comprises a plurality of capacitors connected in series by a plurality of switches alternately disposed with the capacitors. The above-noted circuit is mounted for movement with respect to contact members and switch closure means so that a load device and power supply are connected across successive numbers of capacitors, while the other capacitors are successively charged with the same power supply.

  7. Radiological analyses of France Telecom surge arresters. Study performed for the CGT FAPT Cantal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This document reports the radiological characterization of various versions of surge arresters used in the past to protect telephone lines against over-voltages. These equipment, which use various radioactive materials, were assessed by gamma radiation flow measurements, alpha-beta-gamma count rate measurements, dose rate measurements, gamma spectrometry analyses, tritium emanation test, radon 222 emanation test, smearing. Recommendations are formulated to manage radioactive surge arresters which are still being operated

  8. Brazilian production development of class 2 polymeric surge arresters for transmission line application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dellallibera, Adriano A. [Industria Eletromecanica Balestro, Mogi Mirim, SP (Brazil)], E-mail:; Andrade, Antonio Donizetti de; Bezerra, Ana Cristina Guara; Duarte, Jose Vicente Pereira; Gois, Paulo Marcio Batista; Markiewicz, Rubens Leopoldo [Companhia Energetica de Minas Gerais (CEMIG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], Emails:,,,,


    This paper shows the steeps of Brazilian class 2 ZnO lightning surge arrester development and production, aiming to attend the goal of CEMIG transmission lines performance improvement against lightning discharges action. The description of CEMIG transmission lines performance, before and after the ZnO lightning arresters installation, the necessity of use of ZnO lightning surge arrester, the prototypes manufacture, tests, problems and solutions are presented. (author)

  9. Data Assimilation within the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC) Modeling Framework for Hurricane Storm Surge Forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Butler, T.


    Accurate, real-time forecasting of coastal inundation due to hurricanes and tropical storms is a challenging computational problem requiring high-fidelity forward models of currents and water levels driven by hurricane-force winds. Despite best efforts in computational modeling there will always be uncertainty in storm surge forecasts. In recent years, there has been significant instrumentation located along the coastal United States for the purpose of collecting data—specifically wind, water levels, and wave heights—during these extreme events. This type of data, if available in real time, could be used in a data assimilation framework to improve hurricane storm surge forecasts. In this paper a data assimilation methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the use of ensemble Kalman filters and the advanced circulation (ADCIRC) storm surge model is described. The singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter has been shown to be effective at producing accurate results for ocean models using small ensemble sizes initialized by an empirical orthogonal function analysis. The SEIK filter is applied to the ADCIRC model to improve storm surge forecasting, particularly in capturing maximum water levels (high water marks) and the timing of the surge. Two test cases of data obtained from hindcast studies of Hurricanes Ike and Katrina are presented. It is shown that a modified SEIK filter with an inflation factor improves the accuracy of coarse-resolution forecasts of storm surge resulting from hurricanes. Furthermore, the SEIK filter requires only modest computational resources to obtain more accurate forecasts of storm surge in a constrained time window where forecasters must interact with emergency responders.

  10. Validation of Delft3D as a Coastal Surge and Inundation Prediction System (United States)


    Islands (USVI) and Punta Santiago, Puerto Rico (PR) before strengthening and approaching the Bahamas. Irene impacted Acklins/Crooked Island of the...H. Liu and M. Peng, 2008. The effect of wave-current interactions on the storm surge and inundation in Charleston Harbor during Hurricane Hugo 1989...A Navy relocatable tide/surge modeling system POM Princeton Ocean Model PR Puerto Rico RMS Root Mean Square RMSE Root Mean Square Error SRTM

  11. The Effect of Coastal Development on Storm Surge Flooding in Biscayne Bay, Florida, USA (Invited) (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Liu, H.; Li, Y.


    Barrier islands and associated bays along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts are a favorite place for both living and visiting. Many of them are vulnerable to storm surge flooding because of low elevations and constantly being subjected to the impacts of storms. The population increase and urban development along the barrier coast have altered the shoreline configuration, resulting in a dramatic change in the coastal flooding pattern in some areas. Here we present such a case based on numerical simulations of storm surge flooding caused by the1926 hurricane in the densely populated area surrounding Biscayne Bay in Miami, Florida. The construction of harbor and navigation channels, and the development of real estate and the roads connecting islands along Biscayne Bay have changed the geometry of Biscayne Bay since 1910s. Storm surge simulations show that the Port of Miami and Dodge Island constructed by human after 1950 play an important role in changing storm surge inundation pattern along Biscayne Bay. Dodge Island enhances storm surge and increases inundation in the area south of the island, especially at the mouth of Miami River (Downtown of Miami), and reduces storm surge flooding in the area north of the island, especially in Miami Beach. If the Hurricane Miami of 1926 happened today, the flooding area would be reduced by 55% and 20% in the Miami Beach and North Miami areas, respectively. Consequently, it would prevent 400 million of property and 10 thousand people from surge flooding according to 2010 U.S census and 2007 property tax data. Meanwhile, storm water would penetrate further inland south of Dodge Island and increase the flooding area by 25% in the Miami River and Downtown Miami areas. As a result, 200 million of property and five thousand people would be impacted by storm surge.

  12. Phenotypic switching in bacteria (United States)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial

  13. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong


    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  14. Modeling Flood Inundation Induced by River Flow and Storm Surges over a River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bo Chen


    Full Text Available Low-lying coastal regions and their populations are at risk during storm surge events and high freshwater discharges from upriver. An integrated storm surge and flood inundation modeling system was used to simulate storm surge and inundation in the Tsengwen River basin and the adjacent coastal area in southern Taiwan. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model with an unstructured grid was used, which was driven by the tidal elevation at the open boundaries and freshwater discharge at the upriver boundary. The model was validated against the observed water levels for three typhoon events. The simulation results for the model were in reasonable agreement with the observational data. The model was then applied to investigate the effects of a storm surge, freshwater discharge, and a storm surge combined with freshwater discharge during an extreme typhoon event. The super Typhoon Haiyan (2013 was artificially shifted to hit Taiwan: the modeling results showed that the inundation area and depth would cause severe overbank flow and coastal flooding for a 200 year return period flow. A high-resolution grid model is essential for the accurate simulation of storm surges and inundation.

  15. Fluid-structure interaction analysis for pressurizer surge line subjected to thermal stratification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dong Gu; Jhung, Myung Jo; Chang, Soon Heung


    Research highlights: → Temperature of surge line due to stratified flow is defined using CFD analysis. → Fluid-structure interaction analysis is performed to investigate the response characteristics due to thermal stress. → Fatigue usage factors due to thermal stratification are relatively low. → Simplifying temperature distribution in surge line is not always conservative. - Abstract: Serious mechanical damages such as cracks and plastic deformations due to excessive thermal stress caused by thermal stratification have been experienced in several nuclear power plants. In particular, the thermal stratification in the pressurizer surge line has been addressed as one of the significant safety and technical issues. In this study, a detailed unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis involving conjugate heat transfer analysis is performed to obtain the transient temperature distributions in the wall of the pressurizer surge line subjected to stratified internal flows either during out-surge or in-surge operation. The thermal loads from CFD calculations are transferred to the structural analysis code which is employed for the thermal stress analysis to investigate the response characteristics, and the fatigue analysis is ultimately performed. In addition, the thermal stress and fatigue analysis results obtained by applying the realistic temperature distributions from CFD calculations are compared with those by assuming the simplified temperature distributions to identify some requirements for a realistic and conservative thermal stress analysis from a safety point of view.

  16. Morning blood pressure surge and arterial stiffness in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. (United States)

    Kıvrak, Ali; Özbiçer, Süleyman; Kalkan, Gülhan Yüksel; Gür, Mustafa


    We aimed to investigate the relationship between the morning blood pressure (BP) surge and arterial stiffness in patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. Three hundred and twenty four (mean age 51.7 ± 11.4 years) patients who had newly diagnosed hypertension with 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring were enrolled. Parameters of arterial stiffness, pulse wave velocity and augmentation index (Aix) were measured by applanation tonometry and aortic distensibility was calculated by echocardiography. Compared with the other groups, pulse wave velocity, day-night systolic BP (SBP) difference (p morning BP surge high group. Aortic distensibility values were significantly lower in morning BP surge high group compared to the other groups (p Morning BP surge was found to be independently associated with pulse wave velocity (β = 0.286, p morning BP surge and arterial stiffness which is a surrogate endpoint for cardiovascular diseases. The inverse relationship between morning BP surge and aortic distensibility and direct relation found in our study is new to the literature.

  17. Storm surge evolution and its relationship to climate oscillations at Duck, NC (United States)

    Munroe, Robert; Curtis, Scott


    Coastal communities experience increased vulnerability during storm surge events through the risk of damage to coastal infrastructure, erosion/deposition, and the endangerment of human life. Policy and planning measures attempt to avoid or mitigate storm surge consequences through building codes and setbacks, beach stabilization, insurance rates, and coastal zoning. The coastal emergency management community and public react and respond on shorter time scales, through temporary protection, emergency stockpiling, and evacuation. This study utilizes time series analysis, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test, Pearson's correlation, and the generalized extreme value (GEV) theorem to make the connection between climate oscillation indices and storm surge characteristics intra-seasonally to inter-annually. Results indicate that an El Niño (+ENSO), negative phase of the NAO, and positive phase of the PNA pattern all support longer duration and hence more powerful surge events, especially in winter. Increased surge duration increases the likelihood of extensive erosion, inland inundation, among other undesirable effects of the surge hazard.

  18. Cortisol Interferes with the Estradiol-Induced Surge of Luteinizing Hormone in the Ewe1 (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Breen, Kellie M.; Oakley, Amy E.; Pierce, Bree N.; Tilbrook, Alan J.; Turner, Anne I.; Karsch, Fred J.


    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that cortisol interferes with the positive feedback action of estradiol that induces the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. Ovariectomized sheep were treated sequentially with progesterone and estradiol to create artificial estrous cycles. Cortisol or vehicle (saline) was infused from 2 h before the estradiol stimulus through the time of the anticipated LH surge in the artificial follicular phase of two successive cycles. The plasma cortisol increment produced by infusion was ∼1.5 times greater than maximal concentrations seen during infusion of endotoxin, which is a model of immune/inflammatory stress. In experiment 1, half of the ewes received vehicle in the first cycle and cortisol in the second; the others were treated in reverse order. All ewes responded with an LH surge. Cortisol delayed the LH surge and reduced its amplitude, but both effects were observed only in the second cycle. Experiment 2 was modified to provide better control for a cycle effect. Four treatment sequences were tested (cycle 1-cycle 2): vehicle-vehicle, cortisol-cortisol, vehicle-cortisol, cortisol-vehicle. Again, cortisol delayed but did not block the LH surge, and this delay occurred in both cycles. Thus, an elevation in plasma cortisol can interfere with the positive feedback action of estradiol by delaying and attenuating the LH surge. PMID:19056703

  19. Cholinergic control of the nocturnal prolactin surge in the pseudopregnant rat. (United States)

    McLean, B K; Nikitovitch-Winer, M B


    The possible involvement of cholinergic mechanisms in the control of rhythmic secretion of prolactin has been examined in the pseudopregnant rat. Baseline data were obtained in decapitated animals in which the diuranl surge was observed in the 1430--2030 h range and the nocturnal surge during the 2330-0530 h interval. Atrial cannulation permitted a faithful reproduction of the prolactin pattern seen in decapitated rats if at least 3 days elapsed between the cannulation operation and bleeding, while cardiac puncture, under light ether anesthesia, appeared to suppress the diurnal surge. This latter observation appeared to depend on the time of sampling in relation to the onset of the dark phase of the daily lighting cycle. Atropine (35 or 70 mg/100 g BW) was found to inhibit the nocturnal surge in animals bled by either the cardiac puncture or cannulation techniques --an effect which was reversed by pretreatment with eserine (50 or 100 mug/100 g BW). Nicotine (0.75 mg/100 g BW) was found to delay, but not completely to inhibit, the nocturnal surge. When evaluated in the light of other available information, these observations suggest that a complex cholinergic mechanism is involved in control of the nocturnal rhythm of prolactin in pseudopregnancy and that the two surges, diurnal and nocturnal, are differentially controlled.

  20. Limiting Parameters of the Plasma Opening Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G. I.; Ushakov, A. G.


    Implementing programs for nuclear fusion research and X-ray generation requires the creation of superpower generators based on plasma opening switches (POSs) capable of commutating currents as high as several tens of megaamperes at output voltages of up to 5 MV and higher. The physical mechanisms limiting the POS voltage are investigated. It is shown that, as the generator voltage U g increases, the voltage multiplication factor k = U POS /U g (where U POS is the POS voltage) decreases. An explanation for such a dependence is proposed, and the maximum value of the POS voltage is estimated. A POS design that enables operating in the above current and voltage ranges is considered. The design is based on applying an external magnetic field to the POS interelectrode gap, increasing the initial generator voltage, and decreasing the linear (along the perimeter of the outer electrode) density of the charge passing through the POS during the conduction phase

  1. A Radical Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport


    Full Text Available Architecture is the most vulnerable part of culture, almost doomed to destruction of its fundamentals, while the rise of its intellectual and creative level is badly needed. However, neither the resort to postmarxist French philosophy nor bringing the results of development of science and technology into architecture, neither computerization nor peculiarities of parametricism and deconstructivism are helpful. It can be stated that in the beginning of the third millennium architecture and architectural education are in stalemate. The way out is in a “radical” switch from comprehension of object space to the time and to the processes of thinking, designing and historical change in professional mentality. The interests must be focused not on the object, but on the process enabling the use of return reflexive strokes as well.

  2. Wireless Chalcogenide Nanoionic-Based Radio-Frequency Switch (United States)

    Nessel, James; Miranda, Felix


    A new nonvolatile nanoionic switch is powered and controlled through wireless radio-frequency (RF) transmission. A thin layer of chalcogenide glass doped with a metal ion, such as silver, comprises the operational portion of the switch. For the switch to function, an oxidizable electrode is made positive (anode) with respect to an opposing electrode (cathode) when sufficient bias, typically on the order of a few tenths of a volt or more, is applied. This action causes the metal ions to flow toward the cathode through a coordinated hopping mechanism. At the cathode, a reduction reaction occurs to form a metal deposit. This metal deposit creates a conductive path that bridges the gap between electrodes to turn the switch on. Once this conductive path is formed, no further power is required to maintain it. To reverse this process, the metal deposit is made positive with respect to the original oxidizable electrode, causing the dissolution of the metal bridge thereby turning the switch off. Once the metal deposit has been completely dissolved, the process self-terminates. This switching process features the following attributes. It requires very little to change states (i.e., on and off). Furthermore, no power is required to maintain the states; hence, the state of the switch is nonvolatile. Because of these attributes the integration of a rectenna to provide the necessary power and control is unique to this embodiment. A rectenna, or rectifying antenna, generates DC power from an incident RF signal. The low voltages and power required for the nanoionic switch control are easily generated from this system and provide the switch with a novel capability to be operated and powered from an external wireless device. In one realization, an RF signal of a specific frequency can be used to set the switch into an off state, while another frequency can be used to set the switch to an on state. The wireless, miniaturized, and nomoving- part features of this switch make it

  3. Battery switch for downhole tools (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.


    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  4. Improved switch-resistor packaging (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.


    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  5. Task Switching: A PDP Model (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Shallice, Tim


    When subjects switch between a pair of stimulus-response tasks, reaction time is slower on trial N if a different task was performed on trial N--1. We present a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that simulates this effect when subjects switch between word reading and color naming in response to Stroop stimuli. Reaction time on "switch…

  6. A CMOS Switched Transconductor Mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Louwsma, S.M.; Wienk, Gerhardus J.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A new CMOS active mixer topology can operate at low supply voltages by the use of switches exclusively connected to the supply voltages. Such switches require less voltage headroom and avoid gate-oxide reliability problems. Mixing is achieved by exploiting two transconductors with cross-coupled

  7. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.


    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Carbon nanotube network-silicon oxide non-volatile switches. (United States)

    Liao, Albert D; Araujo, Paulo T; Xu, Runjie; Dresselhaus, Mildred S


    The integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon is important for their incorporation into next-generation nano-electronics. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile switch that utilizes carbon nanotube networks to electrically contact a conductive nanocrystal silicon filament in silicon dioxide. We form this device by biasing a nanotube network until it physically breaks in vacuum, creating the conductive silicon filament connected across a small nano-gap. From Raman spectroscopy, we observe coalescence of nanotubes during breakdown, which stabilizes the system to form very small gaps in the network~15 nm. We report that carbon nanotubes themselves are involved in switching the device to a high resistive state. Calculations reveal that this switching event occurs at ~600 °C, the temperature associated with the oxidation of nanotubes. Therefore, we propose that, in switching to a resistive state, the nanotube oxidizes by extracting oxygen from the substrate.

  9. Robust filtering and fault detection of switched delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei


    Switched delay systems appear in a wide field of applications including networked control systems, power systems, memristive systems. Though the large amount of ideas with respect to such systems have generated, until now, it still lacks a framework to focus on filter design and fault detection issues which are relevant to life safety and property loss. Beginning with the comprehensive coverage of the new developments in the analysis and control synthesis for switched delay systems, the monograph not only provides a systematic approach to designing the filter and detecting the fault of switched delay systems, but it also covers the model reduction issues. Specific topics covered include: (1) Arbitrary switching signal where delay-independent and delay-dependent conditions are presented by proposing a linearization technique. (2) Average dwell time where a weighted Lyapunov function is come up with dealing with filter design and fault detection issues beside taking model reduction problems. The monograph is in...

  10. Development of Low Surge Vacuum Contact with Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, B. S.; Lee, H. W.; Woo, B. C.; Kim, B. G. [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to develop of low surge Te contact for vacuum circuit breaker. The vacuum circuit breaker have various advantages such that it is free from maintenance, does not bring about public pollution, is excellent in its current breaking property, and so forth, on account of which the extent of its application has become broadened rapidly. For the characteristics of the contact material for the vacuum circuit breaker to satisfy, there may be enumerated: (1)large current breaking capacity; (2)high voltage withstand; (3)small contact resistance; (4)small melt-adhesive force; (5)low chopping current value; (6)good workability; (7)sufficient mechanical strength; and so forth. In this study we used cobalt for based refractory material having high melting temperature and intermetallic material between tellurium and silver to reduce chopping current. The contact materials were produced in accordance with the powder metallurgy using the method of infiltration. Production of the contact material was carried out in such a method that cobalt powder having average particle size of 50{mu}m, pre sintered in H{sub 2} atmosphere, 900 degree C , 2 hour. Ag ingot and Te(Se) were alloyed using high frequency furnaced in vacuum. And then Ag-Te(Se) alloy was infiltrated to Co skeleton in H{sub 2} atmosphere, 1000 degree C , 1 hour. The melting of the alloy to be infiltrated was carried out in a vacuum sealed quartz tube and be analysed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, optical microscope and energy dispersive energy spectrometer. In the alloying of silver and tellurium, tellurium does not exist in single element but Ag{sub 2}Te intermetallic compound. And In Ag and Se, Se does not exist in single element but Ag{sub 2}Se intermetallic compound. We also produced the test vacuum interruptor to evaluate the electrode properties in vacuum atmosphere. The electrical properties of Co-(Ag-Se) electrode have better value than that of Co-(Ag-Te) electrode

  11. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene


    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  12. Model Reduction of Switched Systems Based on Switching Generalized Gramians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Wisniewski, Rafal


    In this paper, a general method for model order reduction of discrete-time switched linear systems is presented. The proposed technique uses switching generalized gramians. It is shown that several classical reduction methods can be developed into the generalized gramian framework for the model...... reduction of linear systems and for the reduction of switched systems. Discrete-time balanced reduction within a specified frequency interval is taken as an example within this framework. To avoid numerical instability and to increase the numerical efficiency, a generalized gramian-based Petrov...

  13. Fault Tolerant Operation of ISOP Multicell Dc-Dc Converter Using Active Gate Controlled SiC Protection Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Hayashi


    Full Text Available An active gate controlled semiconductor protection switch using SiC-MOSFET is proposed to achieve the fault tolerant operation of ISOP (Input Series and Output Parallel connected multicell dc-dc converter. The SiC-MOSFET with high temperature capability simplifies the configuration of the protection circuit, and its on-resistance control by the active gate controller realizes the smooth protection without the voltage and the current surges. The first laboratory prototype of the protection switch is fabricated by using a SiC-MOSFET with a high frequency buck chopper for the active gate controller. The effectiveness of the proposed protection switch is verified, taking the impact of the volume reduction into account.

  14. Modeling the Effects of Storm Surge from Hurricane Jeanne on Saltwater Intrusion into the Surficial Aquifer, East-Central Florida (USA) (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hall, C. R.


    Saltwater intrusion (SWI) that has been widely recognized as a detrimental issue causing the deterioration of coastal aquifer water quality and degradation of coastal ecosystems. While it is widely recognized that SWI is exacerbated worldwide due to global sea-level rise, we show that increased SWI from tropical cyclones under climate change is also a concern. In the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island Complex (CCBIC) located in east-central Florida, the salinity level of the surficial aquifer is of great importance to maintain a bio-diverse ecosystem and to support the survival of various vegetation species. Climate change induced SWI into the surficial aquifer can lead to reduction of freshwater storage and alteration of the distribution and productivity of vegetation communities. In this study, a three-dimensional variable-density SEAWAT model is developed and calibrated to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of salinity level in the surficial aquifer of CCBIC. We link the SEAWAT model to surge model data to examine the effects of storm surge from Hurricane Jeanne. Simulation results indicate that the surficial aquifer salinity level increases significantly right after the occurrence of storm surge because of high aquifer permeability and rapid infiltration and diffusion of the overtopping saltwater, while the surficial aquifer salinity level begins to decrease after the fresh groundwater recharge from the storm's rainfall. The tropical storm precipitation generates an effective hydraulic barrier further impeding SWI and providing seaward freshwater discharge for saltwater dilution and flushing. To counteract the catastrophic effects of storm surge, this natural remediation process may take at least 15-20 years or even several decades. These simulation results contribute to ongoing research focusing on forecasting regional vegetation community responses to climate change, and are expected to provide a useful reference for climate change adaptation planning

  15. Plasma opening switch with extrinsic magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgachev, G; Maslennikov, D


    Summary form only given, as follows. We have demonstrated in series of experiments that plasma opening switch (POS) switching voltage (UPOS) is defined by energy density (w) deposited in the POS plasma. If we then consider a plasma erosion mainly responsible for the effect of POS switching (the erosion effect could be described by Hall or Child-Langmuir models) the energy density (w) could be measured as a function of a system "macro-parameter" such as the initial charging voltage of the capacity storage system (the Marx pulsed voltage generator) UMarx. The POS voltage in this case could be given by UPOS"aw=aUMarx4/7, where a is a constant. This report demonstrates that for the high-impedance POS which has limited charge density transferred through the POS plasma a"2.5 (MV3/7) with no external magnetic field applied. The use of the extrinsic magnetic field allows to increase a up to 3.6 (MV3/7) and to achieve higher voltages at the opening phase - UPOS=3.6UMarx4/7. To verify this approach set of experimental ...

  16. Application of SWAN+ADCIRC to tide-surge and wave simulation in Gulf of Maine during Patriot's Day storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-mei Xie


    Full Text Available The southern coast of the Gulf of Maine in the United States is prone to flooding caused by nor'easters. A state-of-the-art fully-coupled model, the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN model with unstructured grids and the ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC model, was used to study the hydrodynamic response in the Gulf of Maine during the Patriot's Day storm of 2007, a notable example of nor'easters in this area. The model predictions agree well with the observed tide-surges and waves during this storm event. Waves and circulation in the Gulf of Maine were analyzed. The Georges Bank plays an important role in dissipating wave energy through the bottom friction when waves propagate over the bank from offshore to the inner gulf due to its shallow bathymetry. Wave energy dissipation results in decreasing significant wave height (SWH in the cross-bank direction and wave radiation stress gradient, which in turn induces changes in currents. While the tidal currents are dominant over the Georges Bank and in the Bay of Fundy, the residual currents generated by the meteorological forcing and waves are significant over the Georges Bank and in the coastal area and can reach 0.3 m/s and 0.2 m/s, respectively. In the vicinity of the coast, the longshore current generated by the surface wind stress and wave radiation stress acting parallel to the coastline is inversely proportional to the water depth and will eventually be limited by the bottom friction. The storm surge level reaches 0.8 m along the western periphery of the Gulf of Maine while the wave set-up due to radiation stress variation reaches 0.2 m. Therefore, it is significant to coastal flooding.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Budisantoso


    Full Text Available Abstract: Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. This study examines the factors that influence downward auditor switching in five ASEAN countries. Fixed effect logistic regression was used as analytical method. This study found that opinion shopping occurred in ASEAN, especially in distress companies. Companies with complex businesses will retain the Big Four auditors to reduce complexity and audit costs. Audit and public committees serve as guardians of auditor quality. On the other hand, shareholders failed to maintain audit quality. It indicates that there is entrenchment effect in auditor switching.

  18. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers (United States)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)


    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  19. Improvement of Performance Range of Centrifugal Compressors Gas by Surge Line Modification Using Active Controller Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezhman Mohammadi


    Full Text Available In this work, surge of prevention is a critical problem in oil and gas industries, particularly when return gas flow or gas flow reduces in transportation of gas pipelines. This paper is illustrated new results about surge control of centrifugal compressors .surge phenomenon is flow unsteady state in compressors which causes damages seriously in compressor construction. Furthermore, it also demonstrates in comparison with anti surge control ،active surge control expands stability range.Active surge control which based on fuzzy logic،is the main idea that used in this investigation. Using fuzzy controller causes an improvement in compressor's condition and increase performance range of the compressor, in addition to prevention of any instability in compressor. The simulation results is also satisfactory.

  20. InSAR Observations and Finite Element Modeling of Crustal Deformation Around a Surging Glacier, Iceland (United States)

    Spaans, K.; Auriac, A.; Sigmundsson, F.; Hooper, A. J.; Bjornsson, H.; Pálsson, F.; Pinel, V.; Feigl, K. L.


    Icelandic ice caps, covering ~11% of the country, are known to be surging glaciers. Such process implies an important local crustal subsidence due to the large ice mass being transported to the ice edge during the surge in a few months only. In 1993-1995, a glacial surge occurred at four neighboring outlet glaciers in the southwestern part of Vatnajökull ice cap, the largest ice cap in Iceland. We estimated that ~16±1 km3 of ice have been moved during this event while the fronts of some of the outlet glaciers advanced by ~1 km.Surface deformation associated with this surge has been surveyed using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) acquisitions from 1992-2002, providing high resolution ground observations of the study area. The data show about 75 mm subsidence at the ice edge of the outlet glaciers following the transport of the large volume of ice during the surge (Fig. 1). The long time span covered by the InSAR images enabled us to remove ~12 mm/yr of uplift occurring in this area due to glacial isostatic adjustment from the retreat of Vatnajökull ice cap since the end of the Little Ice Age in Iceland. We then used finite element modeling to investigate the elastic Earth response to the surge, as well as confirm that no significant viscoelastic deformation occurred as a consequence of the surge. A statistical approach based on Bayes' rule was used to compare the models to the observations and obtain an estimate of the Young's modulus (E) and Poisson's ratio (v) in Iceland. The best-fitting models are those using a one-kilometer thick top layer with v=0.17 and E between 12.9-15.3 GPa underlain by a layer with v=0.25 and E from 67.3 to 81.9 GPa. Results demonstrate that InSAR data and finite element models can be used successfully to reproduce crustal deformation induced by ice mass variations at Icelandic ice caps.Fig. 1: Interferograms spanning 1993 July 31 to 1995 June 19, showing the surge at Tungnaárjökull (Tu.), Skaftárjökull (Sk.) and S

  1. Assessment of the Temporal Evolution of Storm Surge via Land to Water Isopleths in Coastal Louisiana (United States)

    Siverd, C. G.; Hagen, S. C.; Bilskie, M. V.; Braud, D.; Gao, S.; Peele, H.; Twilley, R.


    The low-lying coastal Louisiana deltaic landscape features an intricate system of fragmented wetlands, natural ridges, man-made navigation canals and flood protection infrastructure. Since 1900 and prior to the landfall of Hurricane Katrina in 2005, Louisiana lost approximately 480,000 ha (1,850 sq mi) of coastal wetlands and an additional 20,000 ha (77 sq mi) due to Katrina. This resulted in a total wetland storm protection value loss of USD 28.3 billion and USD 1.1 billion, respectively (Costanza 2008). To investigate the response of hurricane storm surge (e.g. peak water levels, inundation time and extent) through time due to land loss, hydrodynamic models that represent historical eras of the Louisiana coastal landscape were developed. Land:Water (L:W) isopleths (Gagliano 1970, 1971, Twilley 2016) have been calculated along the coast from the Sabine River to the Pearl River. These isopleths were utilized to create a simplified coastal landscape (bathymetry, topography, bottom roughness) representing circa 2010. Similar methodologies are employed with the objective of developing storm surge models that represent the coastal landscape for past eras. The goal is to temporally examine the evolution of storm surge along coastal Louisiana. The isopleths determined to best represent the Louisiana coast as a result of the methodology devised to develop the simple storm surge model for c.2010 are applied in the development of surge models for historical eras c.1930 and c.1970. The ADvaced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) code (Luettich 2004) is used to perform storm surge simulations with a predetermined suite of hurricane wind and pressure forcings. Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC12) sub-watersheds provide geographical bounds to quantify mean maximum water surface elevations (WSEs), volume of inundation, and area of inundation. HUC12 sub-watersheds also provide a means to compare/contrast these quantified surge parameters on a HUC12-by-HUC12 basis for the c.1930, c.1970 and c.2010

  2. [Analysis of articles published in Chin J Surg since founded in 1951]. (United States)

    Xia, Shuang; Li, Jing


    To discuss the characteristics of the articles published in Chin J Surg from 1951 to 2015. The journals and articles of Acad Surg from 1951 to 1952 and Chin J Surg from 1953 to 2015 were analyzed. The subjects, foundation, basic medical study, international cooperation of the articles were recorded. In 65 years, there were 20 090 academic articles published in Chin J Surg. The proportions of general surgery, orthopedic surgery, thoracocardiac surgery, urology surgery and neurosurgery articles were 34.08%, 17.96%, 13.09%, 11.91% and 5.85%, respectively. There were 14.83% (1 728/11 653) articles receiving foundation, and 9.42% (1 817/19 290) articles reporting basic medical study. There were 14.8% articles from international authors and 119 articles with international cooperation. From 2000 to 2003, 29 articles in original English were published. The coverage of Chin J Surg contains all the fields of surgery. It tends to publish the studies focus on clinical issues.Through reinforcing the content plan and optimizing the show form, the more Chinese surgical research achievements could be shared by the surgeons worldwide.

  3. A new on-line leakage current monitoring system of ZnO surge arresters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Bok-Hee; Kang, Sung-Man


    This paper presents a new on-line leakage current monitoring system of zinc oxide (ZnO) surge arresters. To effectively diagnose the deterioration of ZnO surge arresters, a new algorithm and on-line leakage current detection device, which uses the time-delay addition method, for discriminating the resistive and capacitive currents was developed to use in the aging test and durability evaluation for ZnO arrester blocks. A computer-based measurement system of the resistive leakage current, the on-line monitoring device can detect accurately the leakage currents flowing through ZnO surge arresters for power frequency ac applied voltages. The proposed on-line leakage current monitoring device of ZnO surge arresters is more highly sensitive and gives more linear response than the existing devices using the detection method of the third harmonic leakage currents. Therefore, the proposed leakage current monitoring device can be useful for predicting the defects and performance deterioration of ZnO surge arresters in power system applications

  4. Assessment of surge arrester failure rate and application studies in Hellenic high voltage transmission lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christodoulou, C.A.; Fotis, G.P.; Gonos, I.F.; Stathopulos, I.A. [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, High Voltage Laboratory, 9 Iroon Politechniou St., Zografou Campus, 157 80 Athens (Greece); Ekonomou, L. [A.S.PE.T.E. - School of Pedagogical and Technological Education, Department of Electrical Engineering Educators, N. Heraklion, 141 21 Athens (Greece)


    The use of transmission line surge arresters to improve the lightning performance of transmission lines is becoming more common. Especially in areas with high soil resistivity and ground flash density, surge arresters constitute the most effective protection mean. In this paper a methodology for assessing the surge arrester failure rate based on the electrogeometrical model is presented. Critical currents that exceed arresters rated energy stress were estimated by the use of a simulation tool. The methodology is applied on operating Hellenic transmission lines of 150 kV. Several case studies are analyzed by installing surge arresters on different intervals, in relation to the region's tower footing resistance and the ground flash density. The obtained results are compared with real records of outage rate showing the effectiveness of the surge arresters in the reduction of the recorded failure rate. The presented methodology can be proved valuable to the studies of electric power systems designers intending in a more effective lightning protection, reducing the operational costs and providing continuity of service. (author)

  5. A Novel Single Phase Hybrid Switched Reluctance Motor Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Jianing; Xu, Guoqing; Jian, Linni


    phase boost converter is applied to improve the performance of this motor. It is easy to generate a double dclink voltage and dc-link voltage and switch both of them. The voltage of boost capacitor is self balance, so the protective circuit is not need to consider. The fast excitation mode helps hybrid......In this paper, a novel single phase hybrid switched reluctance motor(SRM) drive system is proposed. It integrated a single phase hybrid SRM and a novel single phase boost converter. This motor can reduce the number of phase switch. And the permanent magnet which is used in the motor can improve...... the performance and efficiency of SR motor. However, the inherent characteristic of this motor is that the negative torque is very sensitive with the excitation current near the turn-on angle. The slow excitation current limits the torque generation region and reduces the average torque. Therefore, a novel single...

  6. Hybrid zero-voltage switching (ZVS) control for power inverters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirahmadi, Ahmadreza; Hu, Haibing; Batarseh, Issa


    A power inverter combination includes a half-bridge power inverter including first and second semiconductor power switches receiving input power having an intermediate node therebetween providing an inductor current through an inductor. A controller includes input comparison circuitry receiving the inductor current having outputs coupled to first inputs of pulse width modulation (PWM) generation circuitry, and a predictive control block having an output coupled to second inputs of the PWM generation circuitry. The predictive control block is coupled to receive a measure of Vin and an output voltage at a grid connection point. A memory stores a current control algorithm configured for resetting a PWM period for a switching signal applied to control nodes of the first and second power switch whenever the inductor current reaches a predetermined upper limit or a predetermined lower limit.

  7. High performance pulse generator (United States)

    Grothaus, Michael G.; Moran, Stuart L.; Hardesty, Leonard W.


    The device is a compact Marx-type generator capable of producing a high-voltage burst of pulses having risetimes less than 10 nanoseconds at repetition rates up to 10 kHz. High-pressure hydrogen switches are used as the switching elements to achieve high rep-rate. A small coaxial design provides low inductance and a fast risetime. The device may be used as a high-rep-rate high-voltage trigger generator, or as a high-voltage pulse source capable of producing up to 1 MV pulses at high repetition rates.

  8. Solid state bistable power switch (United States)

    Bartko, J.; Shulman, H.


    Tin and copper provide high current and switching time capabilities for high-current resettable fuses. They show the best performance for trip current and degree of reliability, and have low coefficients of thermal expansion.

  9. Electron collisions in gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.


    Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  10. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  11. Fuel switching? Demand destruction? Gas market responses to price spikes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippe, D.


    This presentation defined fuel switching and addressed the issue regarding which consumers have the capability to switch fuels. In response to short term price aberrations, consumers with fuel switching capabilities reduce their use of one fuel and increase consumption of an alternative fuel. For example, natural gas consumption by some consumers declines in response to price spikes relative to prices of alternative fuels. This presentation also addressed the issue of differentiating between fuel switching and demand destruction. It also demonstrated how to compare gas prices versus alternative fuel prices and how to determine when consumers will likely switch fuels. Price spikes have implications for long term trends in natural gas demand, supply/demand balances and prices. The power generating sector represents a particular class of gas consumers that reduce operating rates of gas fired plants and increase operating rates of other plants. Some gas consumers even shut down plants until gas prices declines and relative economies improve. Some practical considerations for fuel switching include storage tank capacity, domestic refinery production, winter heating season, and decline in working gas storage. tabs., figs

  12. Parallel Algorithms for Switching Edges in Heterogeneous Graphs. (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Hasanuzzaman; Khan, Maleq; Chen, Jiangzhuo; Marathe, Madhav


    An edge switch is an operation on a graph (or network) where two edges are selected randomly and one of their end vertices are swapped with each other. Edge switch operations have important applications in graph theory and network analysis, such as in generating random networks with a given degree sequence, modeling and analyzing dynamic networks, and in studying various dynamic phenomena over a network. The recent growth of real-world networks motivates the need for efficient parallel algorithms. The dependencies among successive edge switch operations and the requirement to keep the graph simple (i.e., no self-loops or parallel edges) as the edges are switched lead to significant challenges in designing a parallel algorithm. Addressing these challenges requires complex synchronization and communication among the processors leading to difficulties in achieving a good speedup by parallelization. In this paper, we present distributed memory parallel algorithms for switching edges in massive networks. These algorithms provide good speedup and scale well to a large number of processors. A harmonic mean speedup of 73.25 is achieved on eight different networks with 1024 processors. One of the steps in our edge switch algorithms requires the computation of multinomial random variables in parallel. This paper presents the first non-trivial parallel algorithm for the problem, achieving a speedup of 925 using 1024 processors.

  13. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.


    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  14. Risks of Coastal Storm Surge and the Effect of Sea Level Rise in the Red River Delta, Vietnam


    Neumann, James; Ludwig, Lindsay; Verly, Caroleen; Emanuel, Kerry Andrew; Ravela, Srinivas


    This paper considers the impact of sea level rise and storm surge on the Red River delta region of Vietnam an area already known to be highly vulnerable to coastal risks. By combining a range of sea level rise scenarios for 2050 with the simulated storm surge level for the 100-year storm surge, we analyze permanently inundated lands and temporary flood zones. As is well-established in the literature, sea level rise will increase the risk of storms by raising the base sea level from which surg...

  15. Reduction of the visual impact of overhead transmission line systems through utilisation of line surge arresters as lightning protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Kjærsgaard; Holbøll, Joachim


    in line performance and lightning protection of the nearest substations requires thorough modelling of the new line including all electrical parameters necessary for performance evaluation under all conditions. In this paper, explicit use of line surge arresters as lightning protection on the line...... of the line and the required protection level in substations. The use of line surge arresters gives the possibility to decrease the height of towers thereby improving the visual impression of the overhead line transmission systems. However the usage of line surge arresters will, dependent upon line surge...

  16. Hindcasting of Storm Surges, Currents, and Waves at Lower Delaware Bay during Hurricane Isabel (United States)

    Salehi, M.


    Hurricanes are a major threat to coastal communities and infrastructures including nuclear power plants located in low-lying coastal zones. In response, their sensitive elements should be protected by smart design to withstand against drastic impact of such natural phenomena. Accurate and reliable estimate of hurricane attributes is the first step to that effort. Numerical models have extensively grown over the past few years and are effective tools in modeling large scale natural events such as hurricane. The impact of low probability hurricanes on the lower Delaware Bay is investigated using dynamically coupled meteorological, hydrodynamic, and wave components of Delft3D software. Efforts are made to significantly reduce the computational overburden of performing such analysis for the industry, yet keeping the same level of accuracy at the area of study (AOS). The model is comprised of overall and nested domains. The overall model domain includes portion of Atlantic Ocean, Delaware, and Chesapeake bays. The nested model domain includes Delaware Bay, its floodplain, and portion of the continental shelf. This study is portion of a larger modeling effort to study the impact of low probability hurricanes on sensitive infrastructures located at the coastal zones prone to hurricane activity. The AOS is located on the east bank of Delaware Bay almost 16 miles upstream of its mouth. Model generated wind speed, significant wave height, water surface elevation, and current are calibrated for hurricane Isabel (2003). The model calibration results agreed reasonably well with field observations. Furthermore, sensitivity of surge and wave responses to various hurricane parameters was tested. In line with findings from other researchers, accuracy of wind field played a major role in hindcasting the hurricane attributes.

  17. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry (United States)

    Christiansen, Jens H.; D'Antona, Anthony D.; Shevell, Steven K.


    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses. PMID:28510624

  18. Computer simulation of the behaviour of Julia sets using switching processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negi, Ashish [Department of Computer Science and Engineering, G.B. Pant Engineering College, Pauri Garhwal 246001 (India)], E-mail:; Rani, Mamta [Department of Computer Science, Galgotia College of Engineering and Technology, UP Technical University, Knowledge Park-II, Greater Noida, Gautam Buddha Nagar, UP (India)], E-mail:; Mahanti, P.K. [Department of CSAS, University of New Brunswick, Saint Johhn, New Brunswick, E2L4L5 (Canada)], E-mail:


    Inspired by the study of Julia sets using switched processes by Lakhtakia and generation of new fractals by composite functions by Shirriff, we study the effect of switched processes on superior Julia sets given by Rani and Kumar. Further, symmetry for such processes is also discussed in the paper.

  19. Computer simulation of the behaviour of Julia sets using switching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negi, Ashish; Rani, Mamta; Mahanti, P.K.


    Inspired by the study of Julia sets using switched processes by Lakhtakia and generation of new fractals by composite functions by Shirriff, we study the effect of switched processes on superior Julia sets given by Rani and Kumar. Further, symmetry for such processes is also discussed in the paper

  20. Storm surges-An option for Hamburg, Germany, to mitigate expected future aggravation of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storch, Hans von; Goennert, Gabriele; Meine, Manfred


    Summary: Rising sea level together with regionally increased storm activity, caused by elevated and increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere will in many parts of the world increase the risk of storm surges significantly. Reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere may mitigate the increasing risks somewhat, but the major task for regional and local stakeholders will be to prepare for appropriate adaptation. In most cases, possible strategies include intensification of coastal defense measures, in particular strengthening dykes, and adaptation to intermittent flooding. In case of Hamburg and the tidal Elbe river a third option seems to be available, which aims at mitigating storm surge risks by applying estuary engineering constructions. This option is sketched in this paper. The option has the potential to significantly reduce the expected future increases of local surge heights

  1. An Exploration of Wind Stress Calculation Techniques in Hurricane Storm Surge Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyra M. Bryant


    Full Text Available As hurricanes continue to threaten coastal communities, accurate storm surge forecasting remains a global priority. Achieving a reliable storm surge prediction necessitates accurate hurricane intensity and wind field information. The wind field must be converted to wind stress, which represents the air-sea momentum flux component required in storm surge and other oceanic models. This conversion requires a multiplicative drag coefficient for the air density and wind speed to represent the air-sea momentum exchange at a given location. Air density is a known parameter and wind speed is a forecasted variable, whereas the drag coefficient is calculated using an empirical correlation. The correlation’s accuracy has brewed a controversy of its own for more than half a century. This review paper examines the lineage of drag coefficient correlations and their acceptance among scientists.

  2. Dynamic Model of Centrifugal Compressor for Prediction of Surge Evolution and Performance Variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Mooncheong; Han, Jaeyoung; Yu, Sangseok


    When a control algorithm is developed to protect automotive compressor surges, the simulation model typically selects an empirically determined look-up table. However, it is difficult for a control oriented empirical model to show surge characteristics of the super charger. In this study, a dynamic supercharger model is developed to predict the performance of a centrifugal compressor under dynamic load follow-up. The model is developed using Simulink® environment, and is composed of a compressor, throttle body, valves, and chamber. Greitzer’s compressor model is used, and the geometric parameters are achieved by the actual supercharger. The simulation model is validated with experimental data. It is shown that compressor surge is effectively predicted by this dynamic compressor model under various operating conditions.

  3. Experimental Study on Active Control of Surge in a Centrifugal Compression System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Chaoqun


    Full Text Available An experimental study has been carried out on the active control of surge in a centrifugal compression system. With a computerized on-line control scheme, the surge phenomenon is suppressed and the stable operating range of the system is extended. In order to design the active control scheme and choose the desired parameters of the control system inputs, special emphases have been placed on the development of surge inception and the nonlinear interaction between the system and the actuator. By use of the method designed in the present work, the results of active control onsurge have been demonstrated for the different B parameters, different prescribed criteria and different control frequencies.

  4. On Active Surge Control of Compression Systems via Characteristic Linearization and Model Nonlinearity Cancellation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohannes S.M. Simamora


    Full Text Available A simple approach of active surge control of compression systems is presented. Specifically, nonlinear components of the pressure ratio and rotating speed states of the Moore-Greitzer model are transferred into the input vectors. Subsequently, the compressor characteristic is linearized into two modes, which describe the stable region and the unstable region respectively. As a result, the system’s state and input matrices both appear linear, to which linear realization and analysis are applicable. A linear quadratic regulator plus integrator is then chosen as closed-loop controller. By simulation it was shown that the modified model and characteristics can describe surge behavior, while the closed-loop controller can stabilize the system in the unstable operating region. The last-mentioned was achieved when massflow was 5.38 per cent less than the surge point.

  5. Parameter identification of ZnO surge arrester models based on genetic algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayadi, Abdelhafid [Laboratoire d' Automatique de Setif, Departement d' Electrotechnique, Faculte des Sciences de l' Ingenieur, Universite Ferhat ABBAS de Setif, Route de Bejaia Setif 19000 (Algeria)


    The correct and adequate modelling of ZnO surge arresters characteristics is very important for insulation coordination studies and systems reliability. In this context many researchers addressed considerable efforts to the development of surge arresters models to reproduce the dynamic characteristics observed in their behaviour when subjected to fast front impulse currents. The difficulties with these models reside essentially in the calculation and the adjustment of their parameters. This paper proposes a new technique based on genetic algorithm to obtain the best possible series of parameter values of ZnO surge arresters models. The validity of the predicted parameters is then checked by comparing the predicted results with the experimental results available in the literature. Using the ATP-EMTP package, an application of the arrester model on network system studies is presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Adjusting the Parameters of Metal Oxide Gapless Surge Arresters’ Equivalent Circuits Using the Harmony Search Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Christodoulou


    Full Text Available The appropriate circuit modeling of metal oxide gapless surge arresters is critical for insulation coordination studies. Metal oxide arresters present a dynamic behavior for fast front surges; namely, their residual voltage is dependent on the peak value, as well as the duration of the injected impulse current, and should therefore not only be represented by non-linear elements. The aim of the current work is to adjust the parameters of the most frequently used surge arresters’ circuit models by considering the magnitude of the residual voltage, as well as the dissipated energy for given pulses. In this aim, the harmony search method is implemented to adjust parameter values of the arrester equivalent circuit models. This functions by minimizing a defined objective function that compares the simulation outcomes with the manufacturer’s data and the results obtained from previous methodologies.

  7. Combining SDM-Based Circuit Switching with Packet Switching in a Router for On-Chip Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Kuti Lusala


    Full Text Available A Hybrid router architecture for Networks-on-Chip “NoC” is presented, it combines Spatial Division Multiplexing “SDM” based circuit switching and packet switching in order to efficiently and separately handle both streaming and best-effort traffic generated in real-time applications. Furthermore the SDM technique is combined with Time Division Multiplexing “TDM” technique in the circuit switching part in order to increase path diversity, thus improving throughput while sharing communication resources among multiple connections. Combining these two techniques allows mitigating the poor resource usage inherent to circuit switching. In this way Quality of Service “QoS” is easily provided for the streaming traffic through the circuit-switched sub-router while the packet-switched sub-router handles best-effort traffic. The proposed hybrid router architectures were synthesized, placed and routed on an FPGA. Results show that a practicable Network-on-Chip “NoC” can be built using the proposed router architectures. 7 × 7 mesh NoCs were simulated in SystemC. Simulation results show that the probability of establishing paths through the NoC increases with the number of sub-channels and has its highest value when combining SDM with TDM, thereby significantly reducing contention in the NoC.

  8. Availability of a pediatric trauma center in a disaster surge decreases triage time of the pediatric surge population: a population kinetics model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grikscheit Tracy C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of disaster surge has arisen in recent years to describe the phenomenon of severely increased demands on healthcare systems resulting from catastrophic mass casualty events (MCEs such as natural disasters and terrorist attacks. The major challenge in dealing with a disaster surge is the efficient triage and utilization of the healthcare resources appropriate to the magnitude and character of the affected population in terms of its demographics and the types of injuries that have been sustained. Results In this paper a deterministic population kinetics model is used to predict the effect of the availability of a pediatric trauma center (PTC upon the response to an arbitrary disaster surge as a function of the rates of pediatric patients' admission to adult and pediatric centers and the corresponding discharge rates of these centers. We find that adding a hypothetical pediatric trauma center to the response documented in an historical example (the Israeli Defense Forces field hospital that responded to the Haiti earthquake of 2010 would have allowed for a significant increase in the overall rate of admission of the pediatric surge cohort. This would have reduced the time to treatment in this example by approximately half. The time needed to completely treat all children affected by the disaster would have decreased by slightly more than a third, with the caveat that the PTC would have to have been approximately as fast as the adult center in discharging its patients. Lastly, if disaster death rates from other events reported in the literature are included in the model, availability of a PTC would result in a relative mortality risk reduction of 37%. Conclusions Our model provides a mathematical justification for aggressive inclusion of PTCs in planning for disasters by public health agencies.

  9. A high resolution study of a hurricane storm surge and inundation in Veracruz, Mexico (United States)

    Díaz García, Ovel; Zavala Hidalgo, Jorge; Douillet, Pascal


    Veracruz is the most populated city along the Mexican shoreline of the Gulf of Mexico and also is the country's largest commercial port. In recent years the city has been affected by hurricanes of medium intensity that have provoked human casualties, property damaged and economic loss. Two of the most recent events were hurricane Karl (2010), which caused a storm surge and severe flooding, and hurricane Ernesto (2012). The purpose of this work is to study, based on high-resolution numerical simulations, scenarios of storm surge flooding using state-of-the-art open source numerical models: the Weather, Research and Forecasting (WRF), and the coupled models ADvanced CIRCulation (ADCIRC) and Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) for weather and storm surge hindcast, respectively. We also use topography high resolution data from LIDAR and bathymetry from GEBCO 30", the Mexican Navy and nautical charts from Electrical Federal Commission. We present the validation of the models evaluating several statistical parameters against measurements from Acoustic Data Current Profilers, pressure sensors, tide gauge and meteorological stations for these events. In the case of hurricane Karl, it made landfall 15 km north of Veracruz City, reducing the maximum surge along the city shoreline. The hurricane Ernesto made landfall 200 km southeast of the city, too far to have a significant impact. We did some numerical experiments slightly changing the trajectory, reported by the best track data, for these two hurricanes with the purpose of evaluating storm surge scenarios. The results shows that the worst storm surge cases were when the tracks of this hurricanes made landfall south of the city in the range of 30 to 60 km.

  10. Quantification of Storm Surge Using A Python-based ArcGIS Toolbox (United States)

    Gao, S.; Siverd, C. G.; Bilskie, M. V.; Hagen, S. C.; Alizad, K.


    Geographic Information System (GIS) technology allows the organization, manipulation, analysis, and visualization of spatial data (Fischer, 2010). Although GIS provides some operations for spatial analysis, the methods are often only partially implemented and can be difficult to find and use effectively (Rigol-Sanchez et al., 2015). For coastal researchers, development of automated GIS tools is essential to efficiently analyze coastal flood risk from hurricanes. An adaptive GIS toolbox, Quantitative Surge Analysis Tool (QSAT), was developed and implements ArcGIS software and Python scripts to quantify attributes of hurricane storm surge (e.g., average water surface elevation). The python script provides a way to allow researchers to reduce the amount of time spent developing common solutions (Etherington, 2010) and repeating manual operations. The QSAT contains tools that run in the ArcGIS program. These tools compute average water surface elevation, average inundation depth, inundated area, total surge volume, percent of land inundated, and retention time for a given polygonal area. A new shapefile is created with a detail attribute table containing the various surge quantities. The toolbox is designed to directly read data files produced by an ADCIRC storm surge simulation as well as a polygon shapefile defining the areas of interest. The functionality of the QSAT toolbox was tested using Hydrologic Unit Code 12 (HUC 12) polygons of coastal Louisiana and ADCIRC model results from a simulation of Hurricane Gustav. The QSAT aids a streamlined transition of surge quantities across a local medium (i.e. HUC 12s) to better inform stakeholders and lead to improved regional and local decisions.

  11. Automating Flood Hazard Mapping Methods for Near Real-time Storm Surge Inundation and Vulnerability Assessment (United States)

    Weigel, A. M.; Griffin, R.; Gallagher, D.


    Storm surge has enough destructive power to damage buildings and infrastructure, erode beaches, and threaten human life across large geographic areas, hence posing the greatest threat of all the hurricane hazards. The United States Gulf of Mexico has proven vulnerable to hurricanes as it has been hit by some of the most destructive hurricanes on record. With projected rises in sea level and increases in hurricane activity, there is a need to better understand the associated risks for disaster mitigation, preparedness, and response. GIS has become a critical tool in enhancing disaster planning, risk assessment, and emergency response by communicating spatial information through a multi-layer approach. However, there is a need for a near real-time method of identifying areas with a high risk of being impacted by storm surge. Research was conducted alongside Baron, a private industry weather enterprise, to facilitate automated modeling and visualization of storm surge inundation and vulnerability on a near real-time basis. This research successfully automated current flood hazard mapping techniques using a GIS framework written in a Python programming environment, and displayed resulting data through an Application Program Interface (API). Data used for this methodology included high resolution topography, NOAA Probabilistic Surge model outputs parsed from Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds, and the NOAA Census tract level Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI). The development process required extensive data processing and management to provide high resolution visualizations of potential flooding and population vulnerability in a timely manner. The accuracy of the developed methodology was assessed using Hurricane Isaac as a case study, which through a USGS and NOAA partnership, contained ample data for statistical analysis. This research successfully created a fully automated, near real-time method for mapping high resolution storm surge inundation and vulnerability for the

  12. Magnetic-fluid-based smart centrifugal switch

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, R P


    A new type of centrifugal switch, which we call 'smart centrifugal switch' is designed and developed utilizing the novel properties of magnetic fluid. No mechanical movement is involved in the sensing and switching operations of this centrifugal switch and both these operations are achieved in a smart way. The performance of the switch is studied. This switch has several important advantages over conventional centrifugal switches like smart and non-contact type operation, sparkless and hence explosion proof working and inertia-less simple structure.

  13. Switching between Domestic Market Activity, Export and FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne; Yalcin, Erdal

    -concentration trade-off with a stochastic productivity evolution, we analyze the transition dynamics between domestic market serving, exporting and FDI. We find that a stochastic productivity development generates hysteresis, and thereby confirm a general real option result. Market serving mode switching is driven...

  14. Fluctuation-induced switching and the switching path distribution. (United States)

    Dykman, Mark


    Fluctuation-induced switching is at the root of diverse phenomena currently studied in Josephson junctions, nano-mechanical systems, nano-magnets, and optically trapped atoms. In a fluctuation leading to switching the system must overcome an effective barrier, making switching events rare, for low fluctuation intensity. We will provide an overview of the methods of finding the switching barrier for systems away from thermal equilibrium. Generic features of the barrier, such as scaling with the system parameters, will be discussed. We will also discuss the motion of the system in switching and the ways of controlling it. Two major classes of systems will be considered: dynamical systems, where fluctuations are induced by noise, and birth-death systems. Even though the motion during switching is random, the paths followed in switching form a narrow tube in phase space of the system centered at the most probable path. The paths distribution is generally Gaussian and has specific features, which have been seen in the experiment [1]. Finding the most probable path itself can be reduced to solving a problem of Hamiltonian dynamics of an auxiliary noise-free system. The solution also gives the switching barrier. The barrier can be found explicitly close to parameter values where the number of stable states of the system changes and the dynamics is controlled by a slow variable. The scaling of the barrier height depends on the type of the corresponding bifurcation. We show that, both for birth-death and for Gaussian noise driven systems, the presence of even weak non-Gaussian noise can strongly modify the switching rate. The effect is described in a simple explicit form [2,3]. Weak deviations of the noise statistics from Gaussian can be sensitively detected using balanced dynamical bridge, where this deviation makes the populations of coexisting stable states different from each other; a realization of such a bridge will be discussed. We will also discuss the sharp

  15. Factors guiding tsunami surge at the Nagapattinam–Cuddalore shelf, Tamil Nadu, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murthy, K.S.R.; Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murty, G.P.S.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, K.M.; Rani, P.S.; Anuradha, A.; Adilakshmi, B.; Devi, T.S.

    , India The Tamil Nadu margin, in particular the Nagapatt i- nam ? Cuddalore shelf was the worst affected by the ts u nami surge and inundation caused by the great Sumatra eart h quake of 26 December 2004 ( M w 9.3). Surge heights in this part...., Scientist issue I n- donesia earthquake warning. Nature , 2005, 434 , 291. 3. Satish Singh, Disastrous Sumatra earthquake: Sea monster ? a post - mortem mitigation study for future mega - thrust eart h quake in the Indian Ocean. Paper presented...

  16. Surge voltages and currents into a customer due to nearby lightning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ametani, Akihiro; Matsuoka, Kae [Power System Analysis Laboratory, Doshisha University, Kyo-tanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Omura, Hiroshi; Nagai, Yoshiyuki [Power Engineering R and D Center, Kansai Electric Power Co., Amagasaki, Osaka 661-0794 (Japan)


    This paper presents experimental results of lightning surges incoming into a customer due to lightning to an antenna of the customer, a pole and a ground nearby the customer, and briefly discusses lightning current distribution in the customer, a distribution line and a telephone line. Based on experimental results, modeling of each component is explained, and EMTP simulations are carried out. The ground voltage rise is represented by a mutual resistance between grounding electrodes. EMTP simulation results have been observed to agree qualitatively with the measured results, and it becomes possible to investigate lightning surges and current distribution in a customer by an EMTP simulation. (author)

  17. Principal component analysis of the summertime winds over the Gulf of California: A gulf surge index


    Bordoni, S.; Stevens, B.


    A principal component analysis of the summertime near-surface Quick Scatterometer (QuikSCAT) winds is used to identify the leading mode of synoptic-scale variability of the low-level flow along the Gulf of California during the North American monsoon season. A gulf surge mode emerges from this analysis as the leading EOF, with the corresponding principal component time series interpretable as an objective index for gulf surge occurrence. This index is used as a reference time series for regre...

  18. Evaluation and comparison of the operational Bristol Channel Model storm surge suite


    Williams, J.A.; Horsburgh, K.J.


    Due to its exceptional tidal range, complex geometry, and exposure to flood risk the operational storm surge modelling system for the Bristol Channel (running four times each day as part of the UK Coastal Monitoring and Forecasting service) comprises a number of nested hydrodynamic models. Forecasts for the region are available from the shelf-wide storm surge model, CS3X, as well as from two finer-scale models of the Bristol Channel itself (the Bristol Channel model, BCM, and the Severn River...

  19. A Switch Is Not a Switch: Syntactically-Driven Bilingual Language Control (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew


    The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. "Single-word switches," in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete "whole-language switches," in which…

  20. Switching Activity Estimation of CIC Filter Integrators


    Abbas, Muhammad; Gustafsson, Oscar


    In this work, a method for estimation of the switching activity in integrators is presented. To achieve low power, it is always necessary to develop accurate and efficient methods to estimate the switching activity. The switching activities are then used to estimate the power consumption. In our work, the switching activity is first estimated for the general purpose integrators and then it is extended for the estimation of switching activity in cascaded integrators in CIC filters. ©2010 I...

  1. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C


    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  2. Brief communication: The Khurdopin glacier surge revisited - extreme flow velocities and formation of a dammed lake in 2017 (United States)

    Steiner, Jakob F.; Kraaijenbrink, Philip D. A.; Jiduc, Sergiu G.; Immerzeel, Walter W.


    Glacier surges occur regularly in the Karakoram, but the driving mechanisms, their frequency and its relation to a changing climate remain unclear. In this study, we use digital elevation models and Landsat imagery in combination with high-resolution imagery from the Planet satellite constellation to quantify surface elevation changes and flow velocities during a glacier surge of the Khurdopin Glacier in 2017. Results reveal that an accumulation of ice volume above a clearly defined steep section of the glacier tongue since the last surge in 1999 eventually led to a rapid surge in May 2017 peaking with velocities above 5000 m a-1, which were among the fastest rates globally for a mountain glacier. Our data reveal that velocities on the lower tongue increase steadily during a 4-year build-up phase prior to the actual surge only to then rapidly peak and decrease again within a few months, which confirms earlier observations with a higher frequency of available velocity data. The surge return period between the reported surges remains relatively constant at ca. 20 years. We show the potential of a combination of repeat Planet and ASTER imagery to (a) capture peak surge velocities that are easily missed by less frequent Landsat imagery, (b) observe surface changes that indicate potential drivers of a surge and (c) monitor hazards associated with a surge. At Khurdopin specifically, we observe that the surging glacier blocks the river in the valley and causes a lake to form, which may grow in subsequent years and could pose threats to downstream settlements and infrastructure in the case of a sudden breach.

  3. Improvements of Storm Surge Modelling in the Gulf of Venice with Satellite Data: The ESA Due Esurge-Venice Project (United States)

    De Biasio, F.; Bajo, M.; Vignudelli, S.; Papa, A.; della Valle, A.; Umgiesser, G.; Donlon, C.; Zecchetto, S.


    Among the most detrimental natural phenomena, storm surges heavily endanger the environment, the economy and the everyday life of sea-side countries and coastal zones. Considering that 120.000.000 people live in the Mediterranean area, with additional 200.000.000 presences in Summer for tourism purposes, the correct prediction of storm surges is crucial to avoid fatalities and economic losses. Earth Observation (EO) can play an important role in operational storm surge forecasting, yet it is not widely diffused in the storm surge community. In 2011 the European Space Agency (ESA), through its Data User Element (DUE) programme, financed two projects aimed at encouraging the uptake of EO data in this sector: eSurge and eSurge-Venice (eSV). The former was intended to address the issues of a wider users' community, while the latter was focused on a restricted geographical area: the northern Adriatic Sea and the Gulf of Venice. Among the objectives of the two projects there were a number of storm surge hindcast experiments using satellite data, to demonstrate the improvements on the surge forecast brought by EO. We report here the results of the hindcast experiments of the eSV project. They were aimed to test the sensitivity of a storm surge model to a forcing wind field modified with scatterometer data in order to reduce the bias between simulated and observed winds. Hindcast experiments were also performed to test the response of the storm surge model to the assimilation, with a dual 4D-Var system, of satellite altimetry observations as model errors of the initial state of the sea surface level. Remarkable improvements on the storm surge forecast have been obtained for what concerns the modified model wind forcing. Encouraging results have been obtained also in the assimilation experiments.

  4. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices (United States)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek


    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  5. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge


    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E.


    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generat...

  6. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.


    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  7. Photoresistance switching of plasmonic nanopores. (United States)

    Li, Yi; Nicoli, Francesca; Chen, Chang; Lagae, Liesbet; Groeseneken, Guido; Stakenborg, Tim; Zandbergen, Henny W; Dekker, Cees; Van Dorpe, Pol; Jonsson, Magnus P


    Fast and reversible modulation of ion flow through nanosized apertures is important for many nanofluidic applications, including sensing and separation systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of a reversible plasmon-controlled nanofluidic valve. We show that plasmonic nanopores (solid-state nanopores integrated with metal nanocavities) can be used as a fluidic switch upon optical excitation. We systematically investigate the effects of laser illumination of single plasmonic nanopores and experimentally demonstrate photoresistance switching where fluidic transport and ion flow are switched on or off. This is manifested as a large (∼ 1-2 orders of magnitude) increase in the ionic nanopore resistance and an accompanying current rectification upon illumination at high laser powers (tens of milliwatts). At lower laser powers, the resistance decreases monotonically with increasing power, followed by an abrupt transition to high resistances at a certain threshold power. A similar rapid transition, although at a lower threshold power, is observed when the power is instead swept from high to low power. This hysteretic behavior is found to be dependent on the rate of the power sweep. The photoresistance switching effect is attributed to plasmon-induced formation and growth of nanobubbles that reversibly block the ionic current through the nanopore from one side of the membrane. This explanation is corroborated by finite-element simulations of a nanobubble in the nanopore that show the switching and the rectification.

  8. Multi Carrier Modulator for Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.


    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment, in particular radio receivers. Lowering the EMI of switch......-mode audio power amplifiers while keeping the performance measures to excellent levels is therefore of high general interest. A modulator utilizing multiple carrier signals to generate a two level pulse train will be shown in this paper. The performance of the modulator will be compared in simulation...

  9. Scaling experiments on plasma opening switches for inductive energy storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boller, J.R.; Commisso, R.J.; Cooperstein, G.


    A new type of fast opening switch for use with pulsed power accelerators is examined. This Plasma Opening Switch (POS) utilizes an injected carbon plasma to conduct large currents (circa 1 MA) for up to 100 ns while a vacuum inductor (circa 100 nH) is charged. The switch is then capable of opening on a short (circa 10 ns) timescale and depositing the stored energy into a load impedance. Output pulse widths and power levels are determined by the storage inductance and the load impedance. The switch operation is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Experiments are performed at the 5 kJ stored energy level on the Gamble I generator and at the 50 kJ level on the Gamble II generator. Results of both experiments are reported and the scaling of switch operation is discussed

  10. Switching Control of Wind Turbine Sub-Controllers Based on an Active Disturbance Rejection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancai Xiao


    Full Text Available Wind power generation systems require complex control systems with multiple working conditions and multiple controllers. Under different operating conditions, switching without disturbancebetweenthesub-controllersplaysacriticalroleinensuringthestabilityofpowersystems. The sub-controllers of two typical cases in the permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD wind turbine running process are studied, one is the proportional integral (PI controller in the maximum power points tracking (MPPT stage, the other is the fuzzy pitch angle controller in the constant power stage. The switching strategy of the two sub-controllers is the emphasis in this research. Based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC, the switching mode of the sub-controllers is proposed, which can effectively restrain the sudden changes of the rotor current during the switching process, and improve the quality of power generation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the sub-controller switching strategy is verified by Matlab/Simulink simulation for a 2 MW PMDD wind turbine.

  11. Open-switch fault detection method of an NPC converter for wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, June-Seok; Lee, Kyo-Beum; Blaabjerg, Frede


    In wind turbine generation (WTG) systems, the neutral-point-clamped (NPC) topology is widely used as the part of a back-to-back converter since the three-level NPC topology has more advantages than the conventional two-level inverter especially for high power. There are twelve switches in the NPC...... topology and an open-switch fault of the NPC converter leads to current distortion and the torque ripple in the system. Furthermore, WTG systems can breakdown in the worst case by this ripple. To improve the reliability of WTG systems, an open-switch fault detection method is required. The open......-switch detection method of the NPC converter is different from that of the NPC inverter due to the different current paths of the NPC converter. This paper proposes the open-switch fault detection method of the NPC converter connected the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Moreover, the open...

  12. Impact of multiple glacial surges - a geomorphological map from Brúarjökull, East Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Kurt H.; Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Schomacker, Anders


    Simultaneously with geological field investigations at the surge-type glacier Bruarjokull in August 2003, aerial photographs covering the central part of the glacier including the Kringilsarrani area were recorded with the purpose of mapping glacial landforms. A glacial geomorphological map has...

  13. Hydrodynamic forces and ship motions induced by surges in a navigation lock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkwijk, J.P.T.


    This thesis treats the fluid and ship motion in a navigation lock and their mutual interaction as caused by surges, which occur in the chamber during filling or emptying. The other phenomena, which possibly play a role during these processes are ignored. The considerations of this treatise hold good

  14. Surge of Hispar Glacier, Pakistan, between 2013 and 2017 detected from remote sensing observations (United States)

    Rashid, Irfan; Abdullah, Tariq; Glasser, Neil F.; Naz, Heena; Romshoo, Shakil Ahmad


    This study analyses the behaviour of an actively surging glacier, Hispar, in Pakistan using remote sensing methods. We used 15 m panchromatic band of Landsat 8 OLI from 2013 to 2017 to assess the changes in glacier velocity, glacier geomorphology and supraglacial water bodies. For the velocity estimation, correlation image analysis (CIAS) was used, which is based on normalized cross-correlation (NCC) of satellite data. On-screen digitization was employed to quantify changes in the glacier geomorphology and dynamics of supraglacial water bodies on the glacier. Our velocity estimates indicate that the upper part of the glacier is presently undergoing an active surge which not only affects the debris distribution but also impacts the development of supraglacial water bodies. Velocities in the actively surging part of the main glacier trunk and its three tributaries reach up to 900 m yr- 1. The surge of Hispar also impacts the distribution of supraglacial debris causing folding of the medial moraines features present on the glacier surface. Changes in the number and size of supraglacial lakes and ponds were also observed during the observation period from 2013 to 2017.

  15. Predicting the Storm Surge Threat of Hurricane Sandy with the National Weather Service SLOSH Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Forbes


    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the storm tide that flooded the US Atlantic coastline during Hurricane Sandy (2012 are carried out using the National Weather Service (NWS Sea Lakes and Overland Surges from Hurricanes (SLOSH storm surge prediction model to quantify its ability to replicate the height, timing, evolution and extent of the water that was driven ashore by this large, destructive storm. Recent upgrades to the numerical model, including the incorporation of astronomical tides, are described and simulations with and without these upgrades are contrasted to assess their contributions to the increase in forecast accuracy. It is shown, through comprehensive verifications of SLOSH simulation results against peak water surface elevations measured at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA tide gauge stations, by storm surge sensors deployed and hundreds of high water marks collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS, that the SLOSH-simulated water levels at 71% (89% of the data measurement locations have less than 20% (30% relative error. The RMS error between observed and modeled peak water levels is 0.47 m. In addition, the model’s extreme computational efficiency enables it to run large, automated ensembles of predictions in real-time to account for the high variability that can occur in tropical cyclone forecasts, thus furnishing a range of values for the predicted storm surge and inundation threat.

  16. Methodology for the assessment of possible damages in low voltage equipment due to lightning surges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Nelson M.; Kagan, Nelson [University of Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Emails:,; Domingues, Ivo T. [AES Eletropaulo, SP (Brazil); Jesus, Nelson C. de [AES Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Marcelo H.I. da [Grupo Rede, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Takauti, Edson H. [Bandeirante, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)


    This paper deals with the development of a methodology to assess the possibility of equipment damages in low voltage customers due to lightning surges. The main objective is to incorporate this methodology in a computation system that supports distribution companies to determine the possible causes of equipment damages claimed by customers and to decide whether the claims are to be reimbursed or not. The proposed methodology determines whether a specific customer could be affected by a lightning strike according to his/her location and to the lightning main parameters, by using data from a lightning detection system and from the specific equipment surge withstand capability. A specific study using ATP (Alternative Transients Program) was carried out to assess the propagation of lightning surges in electric power distribution systems and their impact over low voltage customers. On the other hand, the withstand capability of the main household appliances was determined by a series of tests carried out in the University's power quality laboratory. The paper details the modeling used for simulation, such as network configuration, grounding points, and modelling of insulator flashover, distribution transformer, low voltage loads. It also presents some results regarding the evaluation of over voltages in low voltage customers installations. A practical method is proposed for assessing the possibility of equipment damage and describes how the existing uncertainties were handled. Also, some issues regarding the withstand capability of electric household appliances to lightning surges are discussed and some results of the laboratory tests are presented. (author)

  17. Idealised modelling of storm surges in large-scale coastal basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wenlong


    Coastal areas around the world are frequently attacked by various types of storms, threatening human life and property. This study aims to understand storm surge processes in large-scale coastal basins, particularly focusing on the influences of geometry, topography and storm characteristics on the

  18. Improving short-range ensemble Kalman storm surge forecasting using robust adaptive inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altaf, M.U.; Butler, T.; Luo, X.; Dawson, C.; Mayo, T.; Hoteit, I.


    This paper presents a robust ensemble filtering methodology for storm surge forecasting based on the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, which has been implemented in the framework of the H? filter. By design, an H? filter is more robust than the common Kalman filter in the sense

  19. Impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization due to ocean-surge inundation (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Huichen; Yu, Xuan; Graf, Thomas; Michael, Holly A.


    Ocean surges cause seawater inundation of coastal inland areas. Subsequently, seawater infiltrates into coastal aquifers and threatens the fresh groundwater resource. The severity of resulting salinization can be affected by hydrogeological factors including aquifer properties and hydrologic conditions, however, little research has been done to assess these effects. To understand the impacts of hydrogeological factors on groundwater salinization, we numerically simulated an ocean-surge inundation event on a two-dimensional conceptual coastal aquifer using a coupled surface-subsurface approach. We varied model permeability (including anisotropy), inland hydraulic gradient, and recharge rate. Three salinization-assessment indicators were developed, based on flushing time, depth of salt penetration, and a combination of the two, weighted flushing time, with which the impact of hydrogeological factors on groundwater vulnerability to salinization were quantitatively assessed. The vulnerability of coastal aquifers increases with increasing isotropic permeability. Low horizontal permeability (kx) and high vertical permeability (kz) lead to high aquifer vulnerability, and high kx and low kz lead to low aquifer vulnerability. Vulnerability decreases with increasing groundwater hydraulic gradient and increasing recharge rate. Additionally, coastal aquifers with a low recharge rate (R ≤ 300 mm yr-1) may be highly vulnerable to ocean-surge inundation. This study shows how the newly introduced indicators can be used to quantitatively assess coastal aquifer vulnerability. The results are important for global vulnerability assessment of coastal aquifers to ocean-surge inundation.

  20. An Idealized Meteorological-Hydrodynamic Model for Exploring Extreme Storm Surge Statistics in the North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ledden, M.; Van den Berg, N.J.F.; De Jong, M.S.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.; Den Heijer, C.; Vrijling, J.K.; Jonkman, S.N.; Roos, P.C.; Hulscher, S.J.M.H.; Lansen, A.J.


    This paper explores an alternative method to determine extreme surge levels at the Dutch Coast. For this exploration, specific focus is on the extreme water level at Hoek van Holland, The Netherlands. The alternative method has been based on a joint probability model of the storm characteristics at

  1. Prognostic value of the morning blood pressure surge in 5645 subjects from 8 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Hansen, Tine W


    Previous studies on the prognostic significance of the morning blood pressure surge (MS) produced inconsistent results. Using the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcome, we analyzed 5645 subjects (mean age: 53.0 years; 54.0% women) randomly recru...

  2. ISSN 2073 ISSN 2073-9990 East Cent. Afr. J. surg. (Online) 9990 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Kakande

    Afr. J. surg. (Online). COSECSA/ASEA Publication. COSECSA/ASEA Publication -East and Central African Journal of Surgery. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. July/August 2012 Volume 17 (2). July/August 2012 Volume 17 (2) treatment from local drug shops, clinics ...

  3. Control of the Estradiol-Induced Prolactin Surge by the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, Inge F.; van der Beek, Eline M.; Swarts, Hans J. M.; van der Vliet, Jan; Wiegant, Victor M.; Buijs, Ruud M.; Kalsbeek, Andries


    In the present study we investigated how the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) controls the E(2)-induced PRL surge in female rats. First, the role of vasopressin (VP), a SCN transmitter present in medial preoptic area (MPO) projections and rhythmically released by SCN neurons, as a circadian signal for

  4. East China Sea Storm Surge Modeling and Visualization System: The Typhoon Soulik Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengan Deng


    Full Text Available East China Sea (ECS Storm Surge Modeling System (ESSMS is developed based on Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS. Case simulation is performed on the Typhoon Soulik, which landed on the coastal region of Fujian Province, China, at 6 pm of July 13, 2013. Modeling results show that the maximum tide level happened at 6 pm, which was also the landing time of Soulik. This accordance may lead to significant storm surge and water level rise in the coastal region. The water level variation induced by high winds of Soulik ranges from −0.1 to 0.15 m. Water level generally increases near the landing place, in particular on the left hand side of the typhoon track. It is calculated that 0.15 m water level rise in this region can cause a submerge increase of ~0.2 km2, which could be catastrophic to the coastal environment and the living. Additionally, a Globe Visualization System (GVS is realized on the basis of World Wind to better provide users with the typhoon/storm surge information. The main functions of GVS include data indexing, browsing, analyzing, and visualization. GVS is capable of facilitating the precaution and mitigation of typhoon/storm surge in ESC in combination with ESSMS.

  5. Storm surges in the Singapore Strait due to winds in the South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tkalich, P.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Malanotte-Rizzoli, P.

    on the north, Karimata Strait on the south, east cost of Peninsular Malaysia on the west, and break of Sunda Shelf on the east, could experience positive or negative SLAs depending on the wind direction and speed. Strong sea level surges during NE monsoon...

  6. Exploring Water Level Sensitivity for Metropolitan New York during Sandy (2012 Using Ensemble Storm Surge Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Colle


    Full Text Available This paper describes storm surge simulations made for Sandy (2012 for the Metropolitan New York (NYC area using the Advanced Circulation (ADCIRC model forced by the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. The atmospheric forecast uncertainty was quantified using 11-members from an atmospheric Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF system. A control WRF member re-initialized every 24 h demonstrated the capability of the WRF-ADCIRC models to realistically simulate the 2.83 m surge and 4.40 m storm tide (surge + astronomical tide above mean lower low water (MLLW for NYC. Starting about four days before landfall, an ensemble of model runs based on the 11 “best” meteorological predictions illustrate how modest changes in the track (20–100 km and winds (3–5 m s−1 of Sandy approaching the New Jersey coast and NYC can lead to relatively large (0.50–1.50 m storm surge variations. The ensemble also illustrates the extreme importance of the timing of landfall relative to local high tide. The observed coastal flooding was not the worst case for this particular event. Had Sandy made landfall at differing times, locations and stages of the tide, peak water levels could have been up to 0.5 m higher than experienced.

  7. On the effect of pulsating flow on surge margin of small centrifugal compressors for automotive engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galindo, J.; Climent, H.; Guardiola, C.; Tiseira, A. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain); Camino de Vera s/n, E 46022, Valencia (Spain)


    Surge is becoming a limiting factor in the design of boosting systems of downsized diesel engines. Although standard compressor flowcharts are used for the selection of those machines for a given application, on-engine conditions widely differ from steady flow conditions, thus affecting compressor behaviour and consequently surge phenomenon. In this paper the effect of pulsating flow is investigated by means of a steady gas-stand that has been modified to produce engine-like pulsating flow. The effect of pressure pulses' amplitude and frequency on the compressor surge line location has been checked. Results show that pulsating flow in the 40-67 Hz range (corresponding to characteristic pulsation when boosting an internal combustion engine) increases surge margin. This increased margin is similar for all the tested frequencies but depends on pulsation amplitude. In a further step, a non-steady compressor model is used for modelling the tests, thus allowing a deeper analysis of the involved phenomena. Model results widely agree with experimental results. (author)

  8. Electroconvulsive therapy, hypertensive surge, blood-brain barrier breach, and amnesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan; Bolwig, Tom G


    Preclinical and clinical evidence show that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)-induced intraictal surge in blood pressure may result in a small, transient breach in the blood-brain barrier, leading to mild cerebral edema and a possible leach of noxious substances from blood into brain tissues. These...

  9. The Major Cause of Observed Erosion Surge on the Beaches North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Surges in coastal erosion north of Dar es Salaam city have been documented from 1977 to the early 1980s and around 1997/98. Analysis of the wind data shows that the documented increase in coastal erosion coincided with increased wind speeds. Extreme winds in excess of 10-11 m s-1 were experienced during ...

  10. An Investigation of Surge in a High-Speed Centrifugal Compressor Using Digital PIV (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Bright, Michelle M.; Skoch, Gary J.


    Compressor stall is a catastrophic breakdown of the flow in a compressor, which can lead to a loss of engine power, large pressure transients in the inlet/nacelle and engine flameout. The implementation of active or passive strategies for controlling rotating stall and surge can significantly extend the stable operating range of a compressor without substantially sacrificing performance. It is crucial to identify the dynamic changes occurring in the flow field prior to rotating stall and surge in order to successfully control these events. Generally, pressure transducer measurements are made to capture the transient response of a compressor prior to rotating stall. In this investigation, Digital Particle Imaging Velocimetry (DPIV) is used in conjunction with dynamic pressure transducers to simultaneously capture transient velocity and pressure measurements in the non-stationary flow field during compressor surge. DPIV is an instantaneous, planar measurement technique which is ideally suited for studying transient flow phenomena in high speed turbomachinery and has been used previously to successfully map the stable operating point flow field in the diffuser of a high speed centrifugal compressor. Through the acquisition of both DPIV images and transient pressure data, the time evolution of the unsteady flow during surge is revealed.

  11. Switching Fabric Based on Multi-Level LVDS Compatible Interconnect, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Switching fabric (SF) is the key component of the next generation of back plane interconnects. Low power, TID and SEU resistant and high bandwidth upgradeable...

  12. Switching Fabric based on Multi-Level LVDS Compatible Interconnect, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The switching fabric (SF) is a key component of the next generation back plane interconnects. Extremely low-power, radiation-hardened, high-bandwidth upgradeable...

  13. Portable Userspace Virtual Filesystem Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Faber


    Full Text Available Multiple different filesystems — including disk-based, network, distributed, abstract — arean integral part of every operating system. They are usually written as kernel modules and abstracted to the user via a virtual filesystem switch. In this paper we analyse the feasibility of reimplementing the virtual filesystem switch as a userspace daemon and applicability of this approach in real-life usage. Such reimplementation will require a way to virtualise processes behaviour related to filesystem operations. The problem is non-trivial, as we assume limited capabilities of the VFS switch implemented in userspace. We present a layered architecture comprising of a monitoring process, the VFS abstraction and real filesystem implementations. All working in userspace. Then, we evaluate this solution in four areas: portability, feasibility, usability and performance. Our results demonstrate possible gains in using the userspace-based approach with monolithic kernels, but also underline problems that are encountered in this approach.

  14. Giant thermal spin-torque–assisted magnetic tunnel junction switching (United States)

    Pushp, Aakash; Phung, Timothy; Rettner, Charles; Hughes, Brian P.; Yang, See-Hun; Parkin, Stuart S. P.


    Spin-polarized charge currents induce magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) switching by virtue of spin-transfer torque (STT). Recently, by taking advantage of the spin-dependent thermoelectric properties of magnetic materials, novel means of generating spin currents from temperature gradients, and their associated thermal-spin torques (TSTs), have been proposed, but so far these TSTs have not been large enough to influence MTJ switching. Here we demonstrate significant TSTs in MTJs by generating large temperature gradients across ultrathin MgO tunnel barriers that considerably affect the switching fields of the MTJ. We attribute the origin of the TST to an asymmetry of the tunneling conductance across the zero-bias voltage of the MTJ. Remarkably, we estimate through magneto-Seebeck voltage measurements that the charge currents that would be generated due to the temperature gradient would give rise to STT that is a thousand times too small to account for the changes in switching fields that we observe. PMID:25971730

  15. Parp3 Negatively Regulates Immunoglobulin Class Switch Recombination (United States)

    Robert, Isabelle; Gaudot, Léa; Rogier, Mélanie; Heyer, Vincent; Noll, Aurélia; Dantzer, Françoise; Reina-San-Martin, Bernardo


    To generate highly specific and adapted immune responses, B cells diversify their antibody repertoire through mechanisms involving the generation of programmed DNA damage. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) are initiated by the recruitment of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to immunoglobulin loci and by the subsequent generation of DNA lesions, which are differentially processed to mutations during SHM or to double-stranded DNA break intermediates during CSR. The latter activate the DNA damage response and mobilize multiple DNA repair factors, including Parp1 and Parp2, to promote DNA repair and long-range recombination. We examined the contribution of Parp3 in CSR and SHM. We find that deficiency in Parp3 results in enhanced CSR, while SHM remains unaffected. Mechanistically, this is due to increased occupancy of AID at the donor (Sμ) switch region. We also find evidence of increased levels of DNA damage at switch region junctions and a bias towards alternative end joining in the absence of Parp3. We propose that Parp3 plays a CSR-specific role by controlling AID levels at switch regions during CSR. PMID:26000965

  16. Investigation of stability and x-ray spectrum in gas-puff z-pinch plasmas diriven by inductive energy storage pulsed power generator with a plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murayama, K.; Fukudome, I.; Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H.


    Gas-puff z-pinch plasmas are driven by an inductive voltage adder - inductive energy storage pulsed power generator ''ASO-X''. ASO-X has the performance of the maximum output voltage and current are 180 kV and 400 kA respectively and can provide a fast rise time current with operating POS. The stability of the plasma column, spectrum radiated from z-pinch plasmas and the spatial distribution of hot spots are investigated in the case with and without operating POS. By driving ASO-X with operating POS the kink instability is restrained and the stability of plasma column is improved about three times in regard to the average dispersion. Furthermore the duration of soft x-ray radiation is increased and the spatial distribution of hot spots is 50% improved with regard to kurtosis of the intensity profile of pinhole photographs compared to those without operating POS. (author)

  17. Investigation of stability and x-ray spectrum in gas-puff z-pinch plasmas diriven by inductive energy storage pulsed power generator with a plasma opening switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murayama, K.; Fukudome, I. [Yatsushiro National College of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Yatsushiro, Kumamoto (Japan); Teramoto, Y.; Katsuki, S.; Akiyama, H. [Kumamoto Univ., Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kumamoto (Japan)


    Gas-puff z-pinch plasmas are driven by an inductive voltage adder - inductive energy storage pulsed power generator ''ASO-X''. ASO-X has the performance of the maximum output voltage and current are 180 kV and 400 kA respectively and can provide a fast rise time current with operating POS. The stability of the plasma column, spectrum radiated from z-pinch plasmas and the spatial distribution of hot spots are investigated in the case with and without operating POS. By driving ASO-X with operating POS the kink instability is restrained and the stability of plasma column is improved about three times in regard to the average dispersion. Furthermore the duration of soft x-ray radiation is increased and the spatial distribution of hot spots is 50% improved with regard to kurtosis of the intensity profile of pinhole photographs compared to those without operating POS. (author)

  18. Development of Storm Surge Hazard Maps and Advisory System for the Philippines (United States)

    Santiago, Joy; Mahar Francisco Lagymay, Alfredo; Caro, Carl Vincent; Suarez, John Kenneth; Tablazon, Judd; Dasallas, Lea; Garnet Goting, Prince


    The Philippines, located in the most active region of cyclogenesis in the world, experiences an average of 20 tropical cyclones annually. Strong winds brought by tropical cyclones, among other factors, cause storm surges that inundate the coastal areas of the country. As an archipelago with the fourth longest coastline in the world, the country is expose to the threats of storm surges. This was manifested by Typhoon Haiyan on 8 November 2013, which devastated the country and left 6,293 deaths and approximately USD 2 billion worth of damages. To prevent such disaster from happening again, the Nationwide Operational Assessment of Hazards (Project NOAH) developed a Storm Surge Advisory (SSA) that aims to warn communities in coastal areas against impending floods due to storm surges. The Japan Meteorological Agency storm surge model was used to simulate 721 tropical cyclones that entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility from 1951-2013. The resulting storm surge time series from the simulations were added to the maximum tide levels from the WXTide software for the 4,996 observation points placed nearshore in the entire country. The storm tide levels were categorized into four groups based on their peak height to create the SSA - SSA 1 (0.01m to 2m), SSA 2 (2.01m to 3m), SSA 3 (3.01m to 4m), and SSA 4 (4m and above). The time series for each advisory level was used in inundation modelling using FLO-2D, a two-dimensional flood modeling software that uses continuity and dynamic wave momentum equation. The model produced probable extent, depth of inundation, and hazard level for each advisory level. The SSA hazard maps are used as reference to warn communities that are likely to be affected by storm surges. Advisory is released 24 hours in advance and is updated every six hours in the Project NOAH website. It is also being utilized in the pre-disaster risk assessment of the national government agencies and local government units in designing appropriate response to

  19. Effect of Reverse Triage on Creation of Surge Capacity in a Pediatric Hospital. (United States)

    Kelen, Gabor D; Troncoso, Ruben; Trebach, Joshua; Levin, Scott; Cole, Gai; Delaney, Caitlin M; Jenkins, J Lee; Fackler, James; Sauer, Lauren


    The capacity of pediatric hospitals to provide treatment to large numbers of patients during a large-scale disaster remains a concern. Hospitals are expected to function independently for as long as 96 hours. Reverse triage (early discharge), a strategy that creates surge bed capacity while conserving resources, has been modeled for adults but not pediatric patients. To estimate the potential of reverse triage for surge capacity in an academic pediatric hospital. In this retrospective cohort study, a blocked, randomized sampling scheme was used including inpatients from 7 units during 196 mock disaster days distributed across the 1-year period from December 21, 2012, through December 20, 2013. Patients not requiring any critical interventions for 4 successive days were considered to be suitable for low-risk immediate reverse triage. Data were analyzed from November 1, 2014, through November 21, 2016. Proportionate contribution of reverse triage to the creation of surge capacity measured as a percentage of beds newly available in each unit and in aggregate. Of 3996 inpatients, 501 were sampled (268 boys [53.5%] and 233 girls [46.5%]; mean [SD] age, 7.8 [6.6] years), with 10.8% eligible for immediate low-risk reverse triage and 13.2% for discharge by 96 hours. The psychiatry unit had the most patients eligible for immediate reverse triage (72.7%; 95% CI, 59.6%-85.9%), accounting for more than half of the reverse triage effect. The oncology (1.3%; 95% CI, 0.0%-3.9%) and pediatric intensive care (0%) units had the least effect. Gross surge capacity using all strategies (routine patient discharges, full use of staffed and unstaffed licensed beds, and cancellation of elective and transfer admissions) was estimated at 57.7% (95% CI, 38.2%-80.2%) within 24 hours and 84.1% (95% CI, 63.9%-100%) by day 4. Net surge capacity, estimated by adjusting for routine emergency department admissions, was about 50% (range, 49.1%-52.6%) throughout the 96-hour period. By accepting higher

  20. All-fiber polarization switch (United States)

    Knape, Harald; Margulis, Walter


    We report an all-fiber polarization switch made out of silica-based microstructured fiber suitable for Q-switching all-fiber lasers. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses are used to heat and expand an internal electrode to cause λ/2-polarization rotation in less than 10 ns for 1.5 μm light. The 10 cm long component has an experimentally measured optical insertion loss of 0.2 dB and a 0-10 kHz repetition frequency capacity and has been durability tested for more than 109 pulses.