Sample records for switching suppression technique

  1. Adaptive Active Noise Suppression Using Multiple Model Switching Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanzhen Huang


    Full Text Available Active noise suppression for applications where the system response varies with time is a difficult problem. The computation burden for the existing control algorithms with online identification is heavy and easy to cause control system instability. A new active noise control algorithm is proposed in this paper by employing multiple model switching strategy for secondary path varying. The computation is significantly reduced. Firstly, a noise control system modeling method is proposed for duct-like applications. Then a multiple model adaptive control algorithm is proposed with a new multiple model switching strategy based on filter-u least mean square (FULMS algorithm. Finally, the proposed algorithm was implemented on Texas Instruments digital signal processor (DSP TMS320F28335 and real time experiments were done to test the proposed algorithm and FULMS algorithm with online identification. Experimental verification tests show that the proposed algorithm is effective with good noise suppression performance.

  2. Synchronization Technique for Random Switching Frequency Pulse-Width Modulation


    Apinan Aurasopon; Worawat Sa-ngiavibool


    This paper proposes a synchronized random switching frequency pulse width modulation (SRSFPWM). In this technique, the clock signal is used to control the random noise frequency which is produced by the feedback voltage of a hysteresis circuit. These make the triangular carrier frequency equaling to the random noise frequency in each switching period with the symmetrical positive and negative slopes of triangular carrier. Therefore, there is no error voltage in PWM signal. The PSpice simulate...

  3. Wettability Switching Techniques on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

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    Verplanck Nicolas


    Full Text Available Abstract The wetting properties of superhydrophobic surfaces have generated worldwide research interest. A water drop on these surfaces forms a nearly perfect spherical pearl. Superhydrophobic materials hold considerable promise for potential applications ranging from self cleaning surfaces, completely water impermeable textiles to low cost energy displacement of liquids in lab-on-chip devices. However, the dynamic modification of the liquid droplets behavior and in particular of their wetting properties on these surfaces is still a challenging issue. In this review, after a brief overview on superhydrophobic states definition, the techniques leading to the modification of wettability behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces under specific conditions: optical, magnetic, mechanical, chemical, thermal are discussed. Finally, a focus on electrowetting is made from historical phenomenon pointed out some decades ago on classical planar hydrophobic surfaces to recent breakthrough obtained on superhydrophobic surfaces.

  4. Leakage Current Suppression with A Novel Six-Switch Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.


    of unmatched inductances. And the stray capacitor voltage of the non-isolated photovoltaic system is free of high frequency ripples. Theoretical analysis and simulation are carried out to verify the proposed topology and its control strategy. Results indicate that the leakage current suppression can......In order to solve the problem of the leakage current in non-isolated photovoltaic (PV) systems, a novel six-switch topology and control strategy are proposed in this paper. The inductor-bypass strategy solves the common-mode voltage limitation of the conventional six-switch topology in case...

  5. Design techniques for switched capacitor adaptive line equlizer


    Nakayama, Kenji; Sato, Yayoi; Kuranishi, Yoshiaki


    This paper describes design techniques for a switched capacitor adaptive line equalizer which is applied to high speed (200 kb/s) digital transmission over analog subscriber loops. An equalizer transfer function is approximated so as to minimize intersymbol interference of an isolated pulse response. Optimum pole-zero location, which is suited to line characteristics in a wide frequency band, is also discussed. In order to attain high accuracy capacitor ratios using a small unit capacitor, ca...

  6. Interferometric crosstalk suppression using polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Xueyan, Zheng; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud


    Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA.......Interferometric crosstalk can be greatly suppressed at 10Gb/s and 20Gb/s by using a gain saturated SOA and a polarization multiplexing technique that eliminates impairments like waveform and extinction ratio degradation from the SOA....

  7. Experimental Results of Network-Assisted Interference Suppression Scheme Using Adaptive Beam-Tilt Switching

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    Tomoki Murakami


    Full Text Available This paper introduces a network-assisted interference suppression scheme using beam-tilt switching per frame for wireless local area network systems and its effectiveness in an actual indoor environment. In the proposed scheme, two access points simultaneously transmit to their own desired station by adjusting angle of beam-tilt including transmit power assisted from network server for the improvement of system throughput. In the conventional researches, it is widely known that beam-tilt is effective for ICI suppression in the outdoor scenario. However, the indoor effectiveness of beam-tilt for ICI suppression has not yet been indicated from the experimental evaluation. Thus, this paper indicates the effectiveness of the proposed scheme by analyzing multiple-input multiple-output channel matrices from experimental measurements in an office environment. The experimental results clearly show that the proposed scheme offers higher system throughput than the conventional scheme using just transmit power control.

  8. Nocturnal to Diurnal Switches with Spontaneous Suppression of Wheel-Running Behavior in a Subterranean Rodent.

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    Patricia Tachinardi

    Full Text Available Several rodent species that are diurnal in the field become nocturnal in the lab. It has been suggested that the use of running-wheels in the lab might contribute to this timing switch. This proposition is based on studies that indicate feed-back of vigorous wheel-running on the period and phase of circadian clocks that time daily activity rhythms. Tuco-tucos (Ctenomys aff. knighti are subterranean rodents that are diurnal in the field but are robustly nocturnal in laboratory, with or without access to running wheels. We assessed their energy metabolism by continuously and simultaneously monitoring rates of oxygen consumption, body temperature, general motor and wheel running activity for several days in the presence and absence of wheels. Surprisingly, some individuals spontaneously suppressed running-wheel activity and switched to diurnality in the respirometry chamber, whereas the remaining animals continued to be nocturnal even after wheel removal. This is the first report of timing switches that occur with spontaneous wheel-running suppression and which are not replicated by removal of the wheel.

  9. Theoretical analysis of highly linear tunable filters using Switched-Resistor techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiraseree-amornkun, Amorn; Jiraseree-Amornkun, A.; Worapishet, Apisak; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram; Surakampontorn, Wanlop


    Abstract—In this paper, an in-depth analysis of switched-resistor (S-R) techniques for implementing low-voltage low-distortion tunable active-RC filters is presented. The S-R techniques make use of switch(es) with duty-cycle-controlled clock(s) to achieve tunability of the effective resistance and,

  10. Fluid Surface Damping: A Technique for Vibration Suppression of Beams

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    Hany Ghoneim


    Full Text Available A fluid surface damping (FSD technique for vibration suppression of beamlikestructures is proposed. The technique is a modification of the surface layer damping method. Two viscoelastic surface layers containing fluid-filled cavities are attached symmetrically to the opposite surfaces of the beam. The cavities on one side are attached to the corresponding cavities on the other side via connection passages. As the beam vibrates, the fluid is pumped back and forth through the connecting passages. Therefore, in addition to the viscoelastic damping provided by the surface layers, the technique offers viscous damping due to the fluid flow through the passage. A mathematical model for the proposed technique is developed, normalized, and solved in the frequency domain to investigate the effect of various parameters on the vibration suppression of a cantilever beam. The steady-state frequency response for a base white-noise excitation is calculated at the beam's free tip and over a frequency range containing the first five resonant frequencies. The parameters investigated are the flow-through passage viscous resistance, the length and location of the layers, the hydraulic capacitance of the fluid-filled cavities, and inertia of the moving fluid (hydraulic inertance. Results indicate that the proposed technique has promising potential in the field of vibration suppression of beamlike structures. With two FSD elements, all peak vibration amplitudes can be well suppressed over the entire frequency spectrum studied.

  11. New hybrid technique for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.; Zeb, A.; Sheikh, S.A.


    In this paper, a new hybrid technique employing RS (Reed Solomon) coding and adaptive filter for impulsive noise suppression in OFDM (Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing) systems is presented. Adaptive filter creates a more accurate estimate of the original OFDM signal after impulsive noise cancellation. The residual impulsive noise is further mitigated by RS decoder in the second stage of proposed technique. Three members of adaptive filters family i.e. NLMS (Normalized Least Mean Square) algorithm, RLS (Recursive Least Square) algorithm and Bhagyashri algorithm are tested with RS decoder in the proposed hybrid technique. Furthermore, the results in terms of steady state MSE (Mean Square Error) reduction, BER (Bit Error Rate) improvement and SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) enhancement confirm the effectiveness of the proposed dual faceted technique when compared with the recently reported techniques in literature. (author)

  12. Novel synchronization technique for two parallel connected sparkgap switches. (United States)

    Kumar, Rohit; Mitra, S; Patel, A; Dwivedi, Rajesh; Kolge, T; Sharma, Ranjeet Archana; Chakravarthy, D P


    In this article a novel way of synchronizing two parallel connected sparkgap switches with accuracies of 1-5 ns for high frequency pulsed power applications is described. The circuit design of a synchronized sparkgap switch circuit is discussed. The circuit uses a combination of one master sparkgap and a set of inductor and capacitors to synchronize two sparkgaps and can be controlled via an IGBT switch. Critical issues for circuit design are presented together with analytical calculations and simulations. Experimental verification of the novel topology is carried out in a prototype experimental setup. Results showing nanosecond level of accuracy in synchronization are reported in this paper along with simulations and analysis.

  13. "Smart inhibition": electrophysiological evidence for the suppression of conflict-generating task rules during task switching. (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Hsieh, Shulan; Chang, Chi-Chih


    A major challenge for task switching is maintaining a balance between high task readiness and effectively ignoring irrelevant task rules. This calls for finely tuned inhibition that targets only the source of interference without adversely influencing other task-related representations. The authors show that irrelevant task rules generating response conflict are inhibited, causing their inefficient execution on the next trial (indicating the presence of competitor rule suppression[CRS];Meiran, Hsieh, & Dimov, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 36, 992-1002, 2010). To determine whether CRS influences task rules, rather than target stimuli or responses, the authors focused on the processing of the task cue before the target stimulus was presented and before the response could be chosen. As was predicted, CRS was found in the event-related potentials in two time windows during task cue processing. It was also found in three time windows after target presentation. Source localization analyses suggest the involvement of the right dorsal prefrontal cortex in all five time windows.

  14. Switching from tenofovir and nucleoside analogue therapy to tenofovir monotherapy in virologically suppressed chronic hepatitis B patients with antiviral resistance. (United States)

    Kim, Dong Yun; Lee, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Eun; Kim, Beom Kyung; Kim, Seung Up; Kim, Do Young; Ahn, Sang Hoon; Han, Kwang-Hyub; Park, Jun Yong


    It is unclear whether chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with antiviral resistance, who achieve a complete virologic response (CVR) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and nucleoside analogue (NUC) combination therapy, maintain CVR if switched to TDF monotherapy. We investigated the persistence of CVR after cessation of NUC in virologically suppressed antiviral resistant CHB patients using TDF+NUC combination therapy. This study recruited 76 antiviral-resistant CHB patients showing CVR on TDF+entecavir (ETV) (n = 52), TDF+lamivudine (LAM; n = 14), and TDF+telbivudine (LdT; n = 10) combination therapy, who were switched to TDF monotherapy as step-down therapy. At baseline, 47 patients were male and the median age was 53.0 years (range: 30-78 years); 72.3% cases were hepatitis B e antigen-positive (HBeAg+) and 23.7% were of liver cirrhosis. The median duration of TDF+NUC combination therapy was 20.8 months (range: 3-46 months). At a median follow-up of 24.7 months (range: 12-48 months) after switching to TDF monotherapy, all 76 patients maintained CVR, regardless of the duration of combination therapy and the type of prior NUC and antiviral resistance. Renal dysfunction was not observed during the treatment period. The step-down strategy of switching from TDF+NUC combination therapy to TDF monotherapy in virologically suppressed CHB patients with antiviral resistance should be considered. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Theoretical and experimental study of fundamental differences in the noise suppression of high-speed SOA-based all-optical switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Mørk, Jesper; Suzuki, R.


    We identify a fundamental difference between the ASE noise filtering properties of different all-optical SOA-based switch configurations, and divide the switches into two classes. An in-band ASE suppression ratio quantifying the difference is derived theoretically and the impact of the ASE...

  16. Novel rotor position estimation technique for switched reluctance motor (SRM) (United States)

    Moradi, Hassan; Afjei, Ebrahim


    This article presents a new and novel method which is designed to detect the rotor position at standstill and at low speeds in switched reluctance motor. Since the inductance parameter plays a significant role both in the steady state and in the dynamic characteristics of an electromagnetic device, the rotor position can be determined using inductance bridge systems to measure unknown inductance and resistance values. In this method we use motor winding in Maxwell-Wien Bridge, with the standard capacitor and the resistor in parallel with it adjusted to achieve balance in an aligned position when the maximum inductance occurs. The supply voltage, in conjunction with the drive transistor, produces short pulses for this AC bridge. The condition of the balanced bridge v 0 = 0 leads to the relation between the impedances of the bridge branches. The phase inductance varies with the rotor position. Therefore the motor goes into an unaligned position and the Maxwell-Wien Bridge goes into an unbalanced condition thus causing variation in the state of the bridge output. It then continues to sense the rotor position with the motor running by applying the same procedure, but only to the un-energised phases winding. The simulation and experimentally obtained results demonstrate the feasibility and practicability of this method.

  17. Switching to emtricitabine, tenofovir and rilpivirine as single tablet regimen in virologically suppressed HIV-1-infected patients: a cohort study. (United States)

    Gantner, P; Reinhart, S; Partisani, M; Baldeyrou, M; Batard, M-L; Bernard-Henry, C; Cheneau, C; de Mautort, E; Priester, M; Fafi-Kremer, S; Muret, P; Rey, D


    Emtricitabine/tenofovir/rilpivirine as a single-tablet regimen (STR) is widely used without licence in treatment-experienced patients. The purpose of this retrospective observational study was to assess viral suppression of ART-experienced patients switching to STR. We assessed 131 pretreated patients switching to STR with HIV RNA E138K pattern. In intent-to-treat analysis, 92% of participants (120 of 131) achieved HIV RNA <40 copies/mL. Only grade 1 to 2 adverse events were observed, mainly consisting of increased liver enzymes (n=33). Systemic exposure to rilpivirine was above the usually observed steady-state levels for the 18 measurements assessed. Efficacy and tolerability are similar to those in treatment-naïve patients. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  18. Brand Switching Pattern Discovery by Data Mining Techniques for the Telecommunication Industry in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Zahidul Islam


    Full Text Available There is more than one mobile-phone subscription per member of the Australian population. The number of complaints against the mobile-phone-service providers is also high. Therefore, the mobile service providers are facing a huge challenge in retaining their customers. There are a number of existing models to analyse customer behaviour and switching patterns. A number of switching models may also exist within a large market. These models are often not useful due to the heterogeneous nature of the market. Therefore, in this study we use data mining techniques to let the data talk to help us discover switching patterns without requiring us to use any models and domain knowledge. We use a variety of decision tree and decision forest techniques on a real mobile-phone-usage dataset in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of data mining techniques in knowledge discovery. We report many interesting patterns, and discuss them from a brand-switching and marketing perspective, through which they are found to be very sensible and interesting.

  19. Voltage switching technique for detecting nuclear spin polarization in a quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Ryo; Kono, Kimitoshi; Tarucha, Seigo; Ono, Keiji


    We have introduced a source-drain voltage switching technique for studying nuclear spins in a vertical double quantum dot. Switching the source-drain voltage between the spin-blockade state and the zero-bias Coulomb blockade state can tune the energy difference between the spin singlet and triplet, and effectively turn on/off the hyperfine interaction. Since the change in the nuclear spin state affects the source-drain current, nuclear spin properties can only be detected by transport measurement. Using this technique, we have succeeded in measuring the timescale of nuclear spin depolarization. Furthermore, combining this technique and an RF ac magnetic field, we successfully detected continuous-wave NMR signals of 75 As, 69 Ga, and 71 Ga, which are contained in a quantum dot. (author)

  20. Population suppression in support of the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangan, R.L.


    Suppression or eradication of insect pest populations by the release of sterile insects is often dependent on supplementary methods of pest reduction to levels where the target pest population can be overflooded with sterile insects. Population suppression activities take place in advance of, or coincide with, the production of sterile insects. Supplementary methods to remove breeding opportunities, or management methods that prevent access of pests to the hosts, may reduce the population or prevent damage. Insecticides have been used widely in direct applications or applied as baits, in traps, or on specific sites where the pest makes contact or reproduces. As sterile insect release does not kill the pest, adult biting pests or fertile mated females of the pests will continue to attack hosts after the release of sterile insects. Thus supplementary pest suppression programmes and quarantine measures are essential to prevent damage or the spread of disease. Eradication or effective pest management requires that the entire population of the pest be treated, or that the programme apply immigration barriers. When supplementary pest control activities benefit the human population in areas being treated, such as in mosquito or screwworm eradication programmes, these activities are usually acceptable to the public, but when the public receives no direct benefit from supplementary control activities such as in fruit fly programmes, social resistance may develop. (author)

  1. Total cellular HIV-1 DNA decreases after switching to raltegravir-based regimens in patients with suppressed HIV-1 RNA. (United States)

    Rossetti, Barbara; Meini, Genny; Bianco, Claudia; Lamonica, Silvia; Mondi, Annalisa; Belmonti, Simone; Fanti, Iuri; Ciccarelli, Nicoletta; Di Giambenedetto, Simona; Zazzi, Maurizio; De Luca, Andrea


    The integrase inhibitor raltegravir has been used to intensify antiretroviral therapy in patients with undetectable plasma HIV-1RNA, resulting in variable perturbation of HIV-1 nucleic acids levels in peripheral blood. We aimed at monitoring residual plasma HIV-1RNA and total cellular HIV-1DNA in virologically suppressed patients switching to raltegravir-based regimens. Fifty-eight subjects on protease inhibitor (PI) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens, with plasma HIV-1RNA levels 200cells/μl for ≥12 months were enrolled. Thirty-four patients were from the treatment simplification RASTA randomized study switching standard therapy to a raltegravir-based regimen (RASTA group), while 24 continued a PI or NNRTI based-regimen (controls). Residual plasma HIV-1RNA (5-40copies/mL) and HIV-1DNA were assessed at 0, 24 and 48 weeks. At week 0 (W0), HIV-1DNA was detected in all patients while at W48 it was detectable in 82.4% of the RASTA group vs 100% of controls (p=0.03). There was a significant decline of HIV-1DNA at W48 in the RASTA group (mean change from baseline -0.21 [95% CI -0.41; -0.01] log 10 copies/10 6 CD4; p=0.03) but not in controls. Ultrasensitive HIV-1RNA was detectable at baseline in 50% of RASTA group vs 67% of controls and at W48 in 32.4% vs 42%, respectively. No differences were found between HIV-1RNA levels at baseline and W48 within and between groups. Switching successful therapy to raltegravir-based regimens may be associated with a decrease of the HIV-1 reservoir, as measured by peripheral blood cellular HIV-1DNA levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic performance of calcification-suppressed coronary CT angiography using rapid kilovolt-switching dual-energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunaga, Hiroto; Ohta, Yasutoshi; Kitao, Shinichiro; Ogawa, Toshihide [Tottori University, Division of Radiology, Department of Pathophysiological Therapeutic Science, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago City, Tottori (Japan); Kaetsu, Yasuhiro [Kakogawa Higashi Hospital, Department of Cardiology, Kakogawa (Japan); Watanabe, Tomomi; Furuse, Yoshiyuki; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro [Tottori University, Division of Cardiology, Department of Molecular Medicine and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, Yonago (Japan)


    Multi-detector-row computed tomography angiography (MDCTA) plays an important role in the assessment of patients with suspected coronary artery disease. However, MDCTA tends to overestimate stenosis in calcified coronary artery lesions. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of calcification-suppressed material density (MD) images produced by using a single-detector single-source dual-energy computed tomography (ssDECT). We enrolled 67 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease who underwent ssDECT with rapid kilovolt-switching (80 and 140 kVp). Coronary artery stenosis was evaluated on the basis of MD images and virtual monochromatic (VM) images. The diagnostic performance of the two methods for detecting coronary artery disease was compared with that of invasive coronary angiography as a reference standard. We evaluated 239 calcified segments. In all the segments, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy for detecting significant stenosis were respectively 88%, 88%, 75%, 95% and 88% for the MD images, 91%, 71%, 56%, 95% and 77% for the VM images. PPV was significantly higher on the MD images than on the VM images (P < 0.0001). Calcification-suppressed MD images improved PPV and diagnostic performance for calcified coronary artery lesions. (orig.)

  3. Motion artifact suppression: a review of post-processing techniques. (United States)

    Hedley, M; Yan, H


    Patient motion during data acquisition in magnetic resonance imaging causes artifacts in the reconstructed image, which for two-dimensional Fourier transform imaging techniques appear as blurring and ghost repetitions of the moving structures. While the problem with intra-view effects has been effectively addressed using gradient moment nulling techniques, there is no corresponding technique for inter-view effects with equal effectiveness and general applicability. A number of techniques have been proposed for correcting the inter-view effects, and these may be divided into those that minimise the corruption of the data, and those that post-process the data to restore the image. The techniques in the former category are briefly reviewed, then those in the latter category are examined in detail. These are analysed in terms of motion model, model parameter estimation, and data correction.

  4. Temperature Control of Gas Chromatograph Based on Switched Delayed System Techniques

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    Xiao-Liang Wang


    Full Text Available We address the temperature control problem of the gas chromatograph. We model the temperature control system of the gas chromatograph into a switched delayed system and analyze the stability by common Lyapunov functional technique. The PI controller parameters can be given based on the proposed linear matrix inequalities (LMIs condition and the designed controller can make the temperature of gas chromatograph track the reference signal asymptotically. An experiment is given to illustrate the effectiveness of the stability criterion.

  5. A fast 8-channel wavelength switching DFB diode laser array based on reconstruction-equivalent-chirp technique (United States)

    Li, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Du, Yinchao; Du, Weikang; Zhao, Guowang; Fang, Tao


    We propose a new method to investigate fast wavelength switching, which consists of control circuit, driving circuit and 8-channel DFB laser array using reconstruction-equivalent-chirp technique. The control circuit is in charge of selecting required lasers to switch wavelength, the driving circuit supply adjustable and stable direct current to the DFB laser arrays. Experimental results show that wavelength switching time of 8 channels is about 500ns and stability of laser output is promised.

  6. Novel technique of suppressing TBBU in high-energy ERLs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko V.


    Energy recovery linacs (ERLs) are an emerging generation of accelerators that promise to revolutionize the fields of high-energy physics and photon sciences. These accelerators combine the advantages of linear accelerators with that of storage rings, and augur the delivery of electron beams of unprecedented power and quality. However, one potential weakness of these devices is transverse beam break-up instability that could severely limit the available beam current. In this paper, I propose a novel method of suppressing these dangerous effects using the chromaticity of the transverse motion. In this short paper I am able only to touch the surface of the method and a complete description of the method with all relevant derivations can be found in [1].

  7. An open-loop RFOG based on harmonic division technique to suppress LD's intensity modulation noise (United States)

    Ying, Diqing; Wang, Zeyu; Mao, Jianmin; Jin, Zhonghe


    A harmonic division technique is proposed for an open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) to suppress semiconductor laser diode's (LD's) intensity modulation noise. The theoretical study indicates the RFOG with this technique is immune to the intensity noise. The simulation and experimental results show this technique would lead to a diminished linear region, which still could be acceptable for an RFOG applied to low rotation rate detection. The tests for the gyro output signal are carried out with/without noise suppressing methods, including the harmonic division technique and previously proposed signal compensation technique. With the harmonic division technique at the rotation rate of 10 deg/s, the stability of gyro output signal is improved from 1.07 deg/s to 0.0361 deg/s, whose noise suppressing ratio is more than 3 times as that of the signal compensation technique. And especially, a 3.12 deg/s signal jump is significantly removed with the harmonic division technique; in contrast, a residual 0.36 deg/s signal jump still exists with the signal compensation technique. It is concluded the harmonic division technique does work in intensity noise suppressing under dynamic condition, and it is superior to the signal compensation technique.

  8. Actin as Deathly Switch? How Auxin Can Suppress Cell-Death Related Defence (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoli; Riemann, Michael; Liu, Qiong; Nick, Peter


    Plant innate immunity is composed of two layers – a basal immunity, and a specific effector-triggered immunity, which is often accompanied by hypersensitive cell death. Initiation of cell death depends on a complex network of signalling pathways. The phytohormone auxin as central regulator of plant growth and development represents an important component for the modulation of plant defence. In our previous work, we showed that cell death is heralded by detachment of actin from the membrane. Both, actin response and cell death, are triggered by the bacterial elicitor harpin in grapevine cells. In this study we investigated, whether harpin-triggered actin bundling is necessary for harpin-triggered cell death. Since actin organisation is dependent upon auxin, we used different auxins to suppress actin bundling. Extracellular alkalinisation and transcription of defence genes as the basal immunity were examined as well as cell death. Furthermore, organisation of actin was observed in response to pharmacological manipulation of reactive oxygen species and phospholipase D. We find that induction of defence genes is independent of auxin. However, auxin can suppress harpin-induced cell death and also counteract actin bundling. We integrate our findings into a model, where harpin interferes with an auxin dependent pathway that sustains dynamic cortical actin through the activity of phospholipase D. The antagonism between growth and defence is explained by mutual competition for signal molecules such as superoxide and phosphatidic acid. Perturbations of the auxin-actin pathway might be used to detect disturbed integrity of the plasma membrane and channel defence signalling towards programmed cell death. PMID:25933033

  9. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique

    KAUST Repository

    Radwan, A.G.


    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters.

  10. Comparative study of fat-suppression techniques for hip arthroplasty MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moliere, Sebastien [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Imaging Department, Strasbourg (France); Dillenseger, Jean-Philippe; Kremer, Stephane; Bierry, Guillaume [University Hospital of Strasbourg, Imaging Department, Strasbourg (France); ICube UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); Ehlinger, Matthieu [ICube UMR 7357, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg (France); University Hospital of Strasbourg, Orthopaedic Department, Strasbourg (France)


    The goal of this study was to evaluate different fat-suppressed fluid-sensitive sequences in association with different metal artifacts reduction techniques (MARS) to determine which combination allows better fat suppression around metallic hip implants. An experimental study using an MRI fat-water phantom quantitatively evaluated contrast shift induced by metallic hip implant for different fat-suppression techniques and MARS. Then a clinical study with patients addressed to MRI unit for painful hip prosthesis compared these techniques in terms of fat suppression quality and diagnosis confidence. Among sequences without MARS, both T2 Dixon and short tau inversion recuperation (STIR) had significantly lower contrast shift (p < 0.05), Dixon offering the best fat suppression. Adding MARS (view-angle tilting or slice-encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC)) to STIR gave better results than Dixon alone, and also better than SPAIR and fat saturation with MARS (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences between STIR with view-angle tilting and STIR with SEMAC in terms of fat suppression quality. STIR sequence is the preferred fluid-sensitive MR sequence in patients with metal implant. In combination with MARS (view-angle tilting or SEMAC), STIR appears to be the best option for high-quality fat suppression. (orig.)

  11. MIMO Techniques for Jamming Threat Suppression in Vehicular Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Kosmanos


    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks have emerged as a promising field of research and development, since they will be able to accommodate a variety of applications, ranging from infotainment to traffic management and road safety. A specific security-related concern that vehicular ad hoc networks face is how to keep communication alive in the presence of radio frequency jamming, especially during emergency situations. Multiple Input Multiple Output techniques are proven to be able to improve some crucial parameters of vehicular communications such as communication range and throughput. In this article, we investigate how Multiple Input Multiple Output techniques can be used in vehicular ad hoc networks as active defense mechanisms in order to avoid jamming threats. For this reason, a variation of spatial multiplexing is proposed, namely, vSP4, which achieves not only high throughput but also a stable diversity gain upon the interference of a malicious jammer.

  12. Design and implementation of sensorless techniques for switched reluctance drive systems (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Hua; Chen, Ching-Guo


    This article proposes two different methods for estimating the shaft position for a switched reluctance motor (SRM). Method 1 uses the self-inductance estimation technique to obtain the rotor position. First, by on-line measuring the slope of the stator current and compensating for the back electromotive force (EMF) effect, the self-inductance of the SRM can be detected. Then, the shaft position of the motor can be estimated according to the self-inductance. Method 2, on the other hand, uses the phase-locked loop technique to generate high-frequency signals. These signals can be used to estimate the shaft position of the SRM. The two proposed methods are compared and discussed in the article. Several experimental results are shown to validate the theoretical analysis. The adjustable speed range of the system is from 10 to 3000 rpm. Additionally, the proposed drive system can automatically start from a standstill to a setting speed.

  13. [Metabolic changes after morbid obesity surgery using the duodenal switch technique. Long term follow-up]. (United States)

    Vázquez Prado, Antonio; Vázquez Tarragón, Antonio; Sancho Moya, Cristina; Ismail Mahmoud, Alí; De Tursi Rispoli, Leonardo; Bruna Esteban, Marcos; Cabrera, Isabel Fabra; Cantos Pallarés, Miriam; Mulas Fernández, Claudia; Puche Plá, José


    The duodenal switch (DS) technique is considered to be complex surgery with a series of metabolic complications due to its malabsorptive character. For these reasons, it has not been extensively used by bariatric surgeons. Despite this, we consider it to be a suitable technique for the grossly obese. A retrospective study was performed on 110 patients with morbid obesity operated on using the DS technique and who were followed up for a minimum period of four years after surgery. We evaluated the weight loss, the outcomes of the comorbidities, and the metabolic complications. The loss of excess weight was greater than 50% in 75% of the patients after 12 months follow up. The comorbidities suffered by 68 patients (75.5%) were completely resolved. The most frequent metabolic complications were iron (Fe) deficiency and an increased parathyroid hormone (PTH). DS is a safe and effective technique for the treatment of morbid obesity, with good weight loss results, a high percentage of remission of the comorbidities, a similar morbidity and mortality to other techniques, and with correctable nutritional changes, and thus acceptable. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. TU-CD-BRA-11: Application of Bone Suppression Technique to Inspiratory/expiratory Chest Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, R; Sanada, S [Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Sakuta, K; Kawashima, H [Kanazawa University Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan); Kishitani, Y [TOYO Corporation, Chuoh-ku, Tokyo (Japan)


    Purpose: The bone suppression technique based on advanced image processing can suppress the conspicuity of bones on chest radiographs, creating soft tissue images normally obtained by the dual-energy subtraction technique. This study was performed to investigate the usefulness of bone suppression technique in quantitative analysis of pulmonary function in inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography. Methods: Commercial bone suppression image processing software (ClearRead; Riverain Technologies) was applied to paired inspiratory/expiratory chest radiographs of 107 patients (normal, 33; abnormal, 74) to create corresponding bone suppression images. The abnormal subjects had been diagnosed with pulmonary diseases, such as pneumothorax, pneumonia, emphysema, asthma, and lung cancer. After recognition of the lung area, the vectors of respiratory displacement were measured in all local lung areas using a cross-correlation technique. The measured displacement in each area was visualized as displacement color maps. The distribution pattern of respiratory displacement was assessed by comparison with the findings of lung scintigraphy. Results: Respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings (soft tissues) was able to be quantified separately from the rib movements on bone suppression images. The resulting displacement map showed a left-right symmetric distribution increasing from the lung apex to the bottom region of the lung in many cases. However, patients with ventilatory impairments showed a nonuniform distribution caused by decreased displacement of pulmonary markings, which were confirmed to correspond to area with ventilatory impairments found on the lung scintigrams. Conclusion: The bone suppression technique was useful for quantitative analysis of respiratory displacement of pulmonary markings without any interruption of the rib shadows. Abnormal areas could be detected as decreased displacement of pulmonary markings. Inspiratory/expiratory chest radiography combined

  15. Switching EKF technique for rotor and stator resistance estimation in speed sensorless control of IMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barut, Murat; Bogosyan, Seta [University of Alaska Fairbanks, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Fairbanks, AK 99775 (United States); Gokasan, Metin [Istanbul Technical University, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty, 34390 Istanbul (Turkey)


    High performance speed sensorless control of induction motors (IMs) calls for estimation and control schemes that offer solutions to parameter uncertainties as well as to difficulties involved with accurate flux/velocity estimation at very low and zero speed. In this study, a new EKF based estimation algorithm is proposed for the solution of both problems and is applied in combination with speed sensorless direct vector control (DVC). The technique is based on the consecutive execution of two EKF algorithms, by switching from one algorithm to another at every n sampling periods. The number of sampling periods, n, is determined based on the desired system performance. The switching EKF approach, thus applied, provides an accurate estimation of an increased number of parameters than would be possible with a single EKF algorithm. The simultaneous and accurate estimation of rotor, R{sub r}{sup '} and stator, R{sub s} resistances, both in the transient and steady state, is an important challenge in speed sensorless IM control and reported studies achieving satisfactory results are few, if any. With the proposed technique in this study, the sensorless estimation of R{sub r}{sup '} and R{sub s} is achieved in transient and steady state and in both high and low speed operation while also estimating the unknown load torque, velocity, flux and current components. The performance demonstrated by the simulation results at zero speed, as well as at low and high speed operation is very promising when compared with individual EKF algorithms performing either R{sub r}{sup '} or R{sub s} estimation or with the few other approaches taken in past studies, which require either signal injection and/or a change of algorithms based on the speed range. The results also motivate utilization of the technique for multiple parameter estimation in a variety of control methods. (author)

  16. An offset cancellation technique in a switched-capacitor comparator for SAR ADCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Xingyuan; Zhu Zhangming; Yang Yintang


    An offset cancellation technique for a SAR (successive approximation register) ADC switched-capacitor comparator is described. The comparator is designed with a pre-amplifying and regenerative latching structure and realized in 0.18 μm CMOS. With the first stage preamplifier offset cancellation and low offset regenerative latching approach, the equivalent offset of the comparator is reduced to < 0.55 mV. By using the pre-amplifying and regenerative latching comparison mode the comparator exhibits low power dissipation. Under a 1.8 V power supply, with a 200 kS/s ADC sampling rate and 3 MHz clock frequency, a 13-bit comparison resolution is reached and less than 0.09 mW power dissipation is consumed. The superiority of this comparator is discussed and proved by the post-simulation and application to a 10 bit 200 kS/s touch screen SAR A/D converter. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  17. Electromagnetic interference modeling and suppression techniques in variable-frequency drive systems (United States)

    Yang, Le; Wang, Shuo; Feng, Jianghua


    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) causes electromechanical damage to the motors and degrades the reliability of variable-frequency drive (VFD) systems. Unlike fundamental frequency components in motor drive systems, high-frequency EMI noise, coupled with the parasitic parameters of the trough system, are difficult to analyze and reduce. In this article, EMI modeling techniques for different function units in a VFD system, including induction motors, motor bearings, and rectifierinverters, are reviewed and evaluated in terms of applied frequency range, model parameterization, and model accuracy. The EMI models for the motors are categorized based on modeling techniques and model topologies. Motor bearing and shaft models are also reviewed, and techniques that are used to eliminate bearing current are evaluated. Modeling techniques for conventional rectifierinverter systems are also summarized. EMI noise suppression techniques, including passive filter, Wheatstone bridge balance, active filter, and optimized modulation, are reviewed and compared based on the VFD system models.

  18. Suppression of interferometric crosstalk and ASE noise using a polarization multiplexing technique and an SOA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai; Wolfson, David


    Noise suppression at 10 Gbit/s and 20 Gbit/s is demonstrated using a gain saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a polarization multiplexing technique, where no impairments like waveform distortion and extinction ratio degradation caused by the gain saturation of the SOA appear....... Moreover, the method is bit rate transparent and the input power dynamic range is very large. Furthermore, the SOA can provide a high gain....

  19. Efficiency of Switch-Mode Power Audio Amplifiers - Test Signals and Measurement Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    Switch-mode technology is greatly used for audio amplification. This is mainly due to the great efficiency this technology offers. Normally the efficiency of a switch-mode audio amplifier is measured using a sine wave input. However this paper shows that sine waves represent real audio very poorly....... An alternative signal is proposed for test purposes. The efficiency of a switch-mode power audio amplifier is modelled and measured with both sine wave and the proposed test signal as inputs. The results show that the choice of switching devices with low on resistances are unfairly favored when measuring...

  20. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; La Rosa, Jorge Antonio Valencia


    BACKGROUND: Use of unboosted atazanavir (ATV400) is approved in the US but not in Europe (1). Due to pharmacokinetic interactions it should not be used with tenofovir but can be used with abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) (1, 2) (3). Effectiveness data of ATV400+ABC/3TC as a switch strategy in clinic...... 50 c/mL is associated with relatively low rates of VF and discontinuation due to adverse events. Use might be considered in those with long-term suppression and without prior PI failure. Larger cohorts are required to further define the appropriate selection criteria....

  1. Suppression of oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta, Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) populations using the sterile insect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genchev, N.


    The Oriental fruit moth (OFM) is a major insect pest of peaches in Bulgaria. Its control usually requires several insecticide treatments per season. This, however, gives rise to serious toxic residue problems. A program for suppression of OFM populations involving the use of sterile-insect technique (SIT) has been developed as an alternative to the chemical methods for OFM. Relevant information regarding laboratory rearing, radiation and basic biology are presented here. Expected effects of some release programs are modelled using appropriate mathematical simulations. Results obtained in a small field experiment showed high efficacy of a program integrating F 1 male sterility technique and classic SIT. (author)

  2. Combination of chemical suppression techniques for dual suppression of fat and silicone at diffusion-weighted MR imaging in women with breast implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Dow-Mu; Hughes, J.; Blackledge, M.; Leach, M.O.; Collins, D.J.; Burns, S.; Stemmer, A.; Kiefer, B.


    Silicone breast prostheses prove technically challenging when performing diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the breasts. We describe a combined fat and chemical suppression scheme to achieve dual suppression of fat and silicone, thereby improving the quality of diffusion-weighted images in women with breast implants. MR imaging was performed at 3.0 and 1.5 T in women with silicone breast implants using short-tau inversion recovery (STIR) fat-suppressed echo-planar (EPI) diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) on its own and combined with the slice-select gradient-reversal (SSGR) technique. Imaging was performed using dedicated breast imaging coils. Complete suppression of the fat and silicone signal was possible at 3.0 T using EPI DWI with STIR and SSGR, evaluated with dedicated breast coils. However, a residual silicone signal was still perceptible at 1.5 T using this combined approach. Nevertheless, a further reduction in silicone signal at 1.5 T could be achieved by employing thinner slice partitions and the addition of the chemical-selective fat-suppression (CHESS) technique. DWI using combined STIR and SSGR chemical suppression techniques is feasible to eliminate or reduce silicone signal from prosthetic breast implants. (orig.)

  3. Switching Control of Wind Turbine Sub-Controllers Based on an Active Disturbance Rejection Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yancai Xiao


    Full Text Available Wind power generation systems require complex control systems with multiple working conditions and multiple controllers. Under different operating conditions, switching without disturbancebetweenthesub-controllersplaysacriticalroleinensuringthestabilityofpowersystems. The sub-controllers of two typical cases in the permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD wind turbine running process are studied, one is the proportional integral (PI controller in the maximum power points tracking (MPPT stage, the other is the fuzzy pitch angle controller in the constant power stage. The switching strategy of the two sub-controllers is the emphasis in this research. Based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC, the switching mode of the sub-controllers is proposed, which can effectively restrain the sudden changes of the rotor current during the switching process, and improve the quality of power generation. The feasibility and effectiveness of the sub-controller switching strategy is verified by Matlab/Simulink simulation for a 2 MW PMDD wind turbine.

  4. MR imaging of the knee using fat suppression technique: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Jin Suck; Kim, Mi Hye; Cho, Jae Hyun; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Yeon Hee; Kim, Yong Soo


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of fat suppression technique for MR imaging of the knee. Twenty-eight knees of 26 patients were imaged at a 1.5 T MR system. Sagittal and coronal T2-weighted spin echo imaged (SET2) and sagittal fat suppression SET2(FSSE) were obtained in all cases. We used a chemical shift imaging method for fat suppression. We compared FSSE with SET2 in terms of the conspicuity of lesions of menisci, cruciate ligaments, cartilage, bone and soft tissue of the knee. Meniscal lesions were detected on FSSE and SET2 as well. FSSE depicted the lesion more conspicuously in 6 cases. For the depiction of ACL tear, SET2 was superior to FSSE in 5 cases. FSSE was better for the visualization of the normal structure of cartilage and it also depicted the cartilaginous lesions more conspicuously in 3 cases. Though bone bruise could be detected on both techniques, FSSE was better. FSSE could provide the improved delineation of menisci, cartilage, bone bruise and other soft tissues except the injuries of anterior cruciate ligament. Although FSSE is a reliable method, it can not replace SET2. It may be used as a complemental method in the imaging of the knee

  5. MR imaging of the knee using fat suppression technique: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jin Suck; Kim, Mi Hye; Cho, Jae Hyun; Park, Chang Yun; Lee, Yeon Hee [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yong Soo [Inje University College of Medicine, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of fat suppression technique for MR imaging of the knee. Twenty-eight knees of 26 patients were imaged at a 1.5 T MR system. Sagittal and coronal T2-weighted spin echo imaged (SET2) and sagittal fat suppression SET2(FSSE) were obtained in all cases. We used a chemical shift imaging method for fat suppression. We compared FSSE with SET2 in terms of the conspicuity of lesions of menisci, cruciate ligaments, cartilage, bone and soft tissue of the knee. Meniscal lesions were detected on FSSE and SET2 as well. FSSE depicted the lesion more conspicuously in 6 cases. For the depiction of ACL tear, SET2 was superior to FSSE in 5 cases. FSSE was better for the visualization of the normal structure of cartilage and it also depicted the cartilaginous lesions more conspicuously in 3 cases. Though bone bruise could be detected on both techniques, FSSE was better. FSSE could provide the improved delineation of menisci, cartilage, bone bruise and other soft tissues except the injuries of anterior cruciate ligament. Although FSSE is a reliable method, it can not replace SET2. It may be used as a complemental method in the imaging of the knee.

  6. Novel Frequency Swapping Technique for Conducted Electromagnetic Interference Suppression in Power Converter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Tse Kuo


    Full Text Available Quasi-resonant flyback (QRF converters have been widely applied as the main circuit topology in power converters because of their low cost and high efficiency. Conventional QRF converters tend to generate higher average conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI in the low-frequency domain due to the switching noise generated by power switches, resulting in the fact they can exceed the EMI standards of the European Standard 55022 Class-B emission requirements. The presented paper develops a novel frequency swapping control method that spreads spectral energy to reduce the amplitude of sub-harmonics, thereby lowering average conducted EMI in the low-frequency domain. The proposed method is implemented in a control chip, which requires no extra circuit components and adds zero cost. The proposed control method is verified using a 24 W QRF converter. Experimental results reveals that conducted EMI has been reduced by approximately 13.24 dBμV at 498 kHz compared with a control method without the novel frequency swapping technique. Thus, the proposed method can effectively improve the flyback system to easily meet the CISPR 22/EN55022 standards.

  7. Mitigation of Rayleigh crosstalk using noise suppression technique in 10-Gb/s REAM-SOA. (United States)

    Jeong, Jong Sool; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Byung-Seok; Kim, Dong Churl; Kim, Ki-Soo; Park, Mi-Ran; Kwon, O-Kyun


    We demonstrate a mitigation of Rayleigh back-scattering (RBS) impact in 10-Gb/s reflective electroabsorption modulator monolithically integrated with semiconductor optical amplifier (REAM-SOA). The technique is based on the intensity-noise suppression of the centralized incoherent seed-light, which enables smooth evolution of deployed DWDM applications. We exhibit the power penalty of less than 1 dB at the large RBS crosstalk value of about 8 dB when the optical power of seed-light is lowered about -10 dBm.

  8. Fuzzy-Based Adaptive Hybrid Burst Assembly Technique for Optical Burst Switched Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar Muhammad Umaru


    Full Text Available The optical burst switching (OBS paradigm is perceived as an intermediate switching technology for future all-optical networks. Burst assembly that is the first process in OBS is the focus of this paper. In this paper, an intelligent hybrid burst assembly algorithm that is based on fuzzy logic is proposed. The new algorithm is evaluated against the traditional hybrid burst assembly algorithm and the fuzzy adaptive threshold (FAT burst assembly algorithm via simulation. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the hybrid and the FAT algorithms in terms of burst end-to-end delay, packet end-to-end delay, and packet loss ratio.

  9. Study on Thrust Improvement and Ripple Suppression of HTS Linear Switched Reluctance Motor with Coreless HTS Excitation Windings (United States)

    Oto, Satoshi; Hirayama, Tadashi; Kawabata, Shuma

    This paper describes a linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM) in which HTS tapes are used for coreless excitation windings in order to reduce the thrust ripple and normal force. This LSRM consists of a mover with saliency structure, coreless HTS coils and a stator back yoke. In this paper, we first describe the operating principle of the HTS-LSRM. Next, we calculate performances of the HTS-LSRM using 3-D FEM analysis. The effects of the motor structure on the thrust characteristic and normal force characteristics are clarified from the numerical results. Furthermore, we investigate the motor structure for thrust improvement, thrust ripple and normal force reduction.

  10. Four-Switch Three-Phase PMSM Converter with Output Voltage Balance and DC-Link Voltage Offset Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadil Hicham


    Full Text Available High power quality, efficiency, complexity, size, cost effectiveness and switching losses of the direct current to alternating current (DC–AC conversion system are crucial aspects in industrial applications. Therefore, the four-switch three-phase inverter (4S3P has been proposed as an innovative inverter design. However, this topology has been known to have many performance limitations in the low-frequency region, because of the generation of an unbalanced voltage leading to an unbalanced current due to the fluctuation and offset of the centre tap voltage of the DC-link capacitors. Those drawbacks are investigated and solved in this paper in order to provide pure sinusoidal output voltages. The generated output voltages are controlled using proportional-integral (PI controllers to follow the desired voltages. Furthermore, the DC-link capacitor voltage offset is mitigated by subtracting the direct component from the control reference voltage using low pass filters, where this direct voltage component provides the direct current component which leads to DC-link capacitor voltage divergence. A simulation model and experimental setup are used to validate the proposed concept. Many simulation and experimental results are carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  11. Energy Saving in Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers Using EI Technique with Adjustable Switching Frequency Scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davari, Pooya; Zare, Firuz; Yang, Yongheng


    A front-end rectifier can significantly impact a power electronics system performance and efficiency for applications such as motor drive where the system commonly operates under partial loading conditions. This paper proposes an adjustable switching frequency scheme using an electronic inductor...

  12. System-level control to optimize glucagon counterregulation by switch-off of α-cell suppressing signals in β-cell deficiency. (United States)

    Farhy, Leon S; McCall, Anthony L


    Glucagon counterregulation (GCR) is a key protection against hypoglycemia that is compromised in diabetes. In β-cell-deficient rats, GCR pulsatility can be amplified if insulin (INS) or somatostatin (SS) are infused in the pancreatic artery and then switched off during hypoglycemia. The data indicate that these signals act by different mechanisms, and here we analyze the differences between the two switch offs (SOs) and predict the GCR-amplifying effect of their individual or combined application. A minimal control network (MCN) of α/δ-cell interactions is approximated by differential equations to explain the GCR response to a SO and test in silico the hypotheses: (i) INS SO suppresses basal and pulsatile, while SS SO blocks only pulsatile glucagon release and (ii) simultaneous application of the two switch offs will augment the individual GCR response. The mechanism postulated in (i) explains the differences in the GCR responses between the SOs. The MCN predicts that simultaneous application of INS and SS decreases basal glucagon but increases post-SO amplitude, thus doubling the response of GCR achieved by each of the individual signals. The current analyses predict that INS and SS SOs improve defective GCR in β-cell deficiency through different but complementary mechanisms and suggest SO strategies to maximally enhance GCR in type 1 diabetes by simultaneous manipulation of the network control. These results are clinically relevant, as they could have application to design of an artificial pancreas by providing ways to augment GCR that would not require glucagon infusion. © Diabetes Technology Society

  13. An Improved Clutter Suppression Method for Weather Radars Using Multiple Pulse Repetition Time Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu


    Full Text Available This paper describes the implementation of an improved clutter suppression method for the multiple pulse repetition time (PRT technique based on simulated radar data. The suppression method is constructed using maximum likelihood methodology in time domain and is called parametric time domain method (PTDM. The procedure relies on the assumption that precipitation and clutter signal spectra follow a Gaussian functional form. The multiple interleaved pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs that are used in this work are set to four PRFs (952, 833, 667, and 513 Hz. Based on radar simulation, it is shown that the new method can provide accurate retrieval of Doppler velocity even in the case of strong clutter contamination. The obtained velocity is nearly unbiased for all the range of Nyquist velocity interval. Also, the performance of the method is illustrated on simulated radar data for plan position indicator (PPI scan. Compared with staggered 2-PRT transmission schemes with PTDM, the proposed method presents better estimation accuracy under certain clutter situations.

  14. Magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirbie, H.C.


    Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  15. Suppression of phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors using an optical phase modulation technique. (United States)

    Chan, Erwin H W


    A technique that can suppress the dominant phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors is presented. It is based on phase modulation of the optical carrier to distribute the phase noise at the information band into a high frequency band which can be filtered out. This technique is suitable for suppressing the phase noise in various delay line structures and for integrating in the conventional fibre optic links. It can also suppress the coherent interference effect at the same time. A model for predicting the amount of phase noise reduction in various delay line structures using the optical phase modulation technique is presented for the first time and is experimentally verified. Experimental results demonstrate the technique can achieve a large phase noise reduction in various fibre optic delay line signal processors.

  16. Suppression of Spiral Waves by Voltage Clamp Techniques in a Conductance-Based Cardiac Tissue Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian-Chun, Yu; Guo-Yong, Zhang; Yong, Chen; Jun, Ma


    A new control method is proposed to control the spatio-temporal dynamics in excitable media, which is described by the Morris–Lecar cells model. It is confirmed that successful suppression of spiral waves can be obtained by spatially clamping the membrane voltage of the excitable cells. The low voltage clamping induces breakup of spiral waves and the fragments are soon absorbed by low voltage obstacles, whereas the high voltage clamping generates travel waves that annihilate spiral waves through collision with them. However, each method has its shortcomings. Furthermore, a two-step method that combines both low and high voltage clamp techniques is then presented as a possible way of out this predicament. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Tag-to-Tag Interference Suppression Technique Based on Time Division for RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishma Khadka


    Full Text Available Radio-frequency identification (RFID is a tracking technology that enables immediate automatic object identification and rapid data sharing for a wide variety of modern applications using radio waves for data transmission from a tag to a reader. RFID is already well established in technical areas, and many companies have developed corresponding standards and measurement techniques. In the construction industry, effective monitoring of materials and equipment is an important task, and RFID helps to improve monitoring and controlling capabilities, in addition to enabling automation for construction projects. However, on construction sites, there are many tagged objects and multiple RFID tags that may interfere with each other’s communications. This reduces the reliability and efficiency of the RFID system. In this paper, we propose an anti-collision algorithm for communication between multiple tags and a reader. In order to suppress interference signals from multiple neighboring tags, the proposed algorithm employs the time-division (TD technique, where tags in the interrogation zone are assigned a specific time slot so that at every instance in time, a reader communicates with tags using the specific time slot. We present representative computer simulation examples to illustrate the performance of the proposed anti-collision technique for multiple RFID tags.

  18. Effectiveness of a Treatment Switch to Nevirapine plus Tenofovir and Emtricitabine (or Lamivudine) in Adults with HIV-1 Suppressed Viremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Bravo, Isabel; Ornelas, Arelly


    follow-up 23 (6.7%) individuals (17 on lamivudine, 6 on emtricitabine; p = 0.034) developed VF and treatment modification due to toxicity occurred in 36 (10.7%). Factors independently associated with VF in a multivariate analysis were: intravenous drug use (HR 1.51; 95%CI 1.12, 2.04), time......BACKGROUND: Switching subjects with persistently undetectable HIV-1 viremia under antiretroviral treatment (ART) to once-daily tenofovir/emtricitabine (or lamivudine) + nevirapine is a cost-effective and well-tolerated strategy. However, the effectiveness of this approach has not been established...... equalled failure. The main endpoint was plasma HIV-RNA HIV-1 RNA treatment due to toxicity. During the whole...

  19. FxLMS Method for Suppressing In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor Vertical Force Based on Vehicle Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-yang Wang


    Full Text Available The vibration of SRM obtains less attention for in-wheel motor applications according to the present research works. In this paper, the vertical component of SRM unbalanced radial force, which is named as SRM vertical force, is taken into account in suspension performance for in-wheel motor driven electric vehicles (IWM-EV. The analysis results suggest that SRM vertical force has a great effect on suspension performance. The direct cause for this phenomenon is that SRM vertical force is directly exerted on the wheel, which will result in great variation in tyre dynamic load and the tyre will easily jump off the ground. Furthermore, the frequency of SRM vertical force is broad which covers the suspension resonance frequencies. So it is easy to arouse suspension resonance and greatly damage suspension performance. Aiming at the new problem, FxLMS (filtered-X least mean square controller is proposed to improve suspension performance. The FxLMS controller is based on active suspension system which can generate the controllable force to suppress the vibration caused by SRM vertical force. The conclusion shows that it is effective to take advantage of active suspensions to reduce the effect of SRM vertical force on suspension performance.

  20. Impact of moth suppression/eradication programmes using the sterile insect technique or inherited sterility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloem, K.A.; Bloem, S.; Carpenter, J.E.


    Numerous lepidopteran species have been investigated as candidates for control using the sterile insect technique (SIT) or inherited sterility (IS). However to date only two programmes are operational - the pink bollworm containment programme in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, and the codling moth suppression programme in British Columbia, Canada. Both of these programmes have been highly successful in controlling the pest populations, reducing insecticide use, and improving interactions between growers and the general public. However, other benefits, including the positive economic impacts of these programmes, have not been fully quantified. Methods to reduce the cost of lepidopteran programmes might include combining the SIT/IS with other pest control tactics such as mating disruption or the release of natural enemies, the development of genetic sexing strains, or the application of molecular technologies to develop genetic markers and genetic sterility. In future the greatest potential for impact of lepidopteran SIT/IS programmes may be in combating key invasive threats such as the eradication of an outbreak of the painted apple moth in New Zealand. (author)

  1. Switching tenofovir/emtricitabine plus lopinavir/r to raltegravir plus Darunavir/r in patients with suppressed viral load did not result in improvement of renal function but could sustain viral suppression: a randomized multicenter trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nishijima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Whether tenofovir nephrotoxicity is reversible after its withdrawal is unknown. Furthermore, there are no data on the viral efficacy of raltegravir (RAL plus ritonavir-boosted Darunavir (DRV/r in patients with suppressed viral load. METHODS: This multicenter, randomized trial compared renal function and viral efficacy in patients with suppressed viral load treated with RAL+DRV/r and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r plus tenofovir/emtricitabine (TVD, who had been previously on LPV/r+TVD. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with >10% improvement in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR at 48 weeks calculated with Cockcroft-Gault equation. RESULTS: 58 randomized and treatment-exposed patients were analyzed (28 on RAL+DRV/r and 30 on LPV/r+TVD. Greater than 10% improvement in eGFR was noted in 6 (25% out of 24 with RAL+DRV/r and 3 (11% of 28 with LPV/r+TVD, and the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.272, 95% CI -0.067 to 0.354. Sensitivity analyses using three other equations for eGFR showed the same results. Urinary β2 microglobulin, a sensitive marker of tenofovir tubulopathy, significantly improved with RAL+DRV/r than with LPV/r+TVD (-271 versus -64 µg/gCr, p=0.026. Per protocol analysis showed that the HIV-RNA was 10% improvement in renal function among those with relatively preserved eGFR. However, the switch improved urinary β2 microglobulin, suggesting that discontinuation of TDF might be beneficial in the long-term. RAL+DRV/r showed favorable viral efficacy in patients with suppressed viral load. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01294761, Umin Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000005116

  2. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Peng, Fang Z.


    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  3. Proactive Spectrum Sharing for SWIPT in MIMO Cognitive Radio Systems Using Antenna Switching Technique

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma


    In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) for the spectrum sharing (SS) in a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) cognitive radio (CR) network. The secondary transmitter (ST) selects only one antenna which maximizes the received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the secondary receiver (SR) and minimizes the interference induced at the primary receiver (PR). Moreover, PR is an energy harvesting (EH) node using the antenna switching (AS) which assigns a subset of its antennas to harvest the energy and assigns the rest to decode its information data. The objective of this work is to show that the SS is advantageous for both SR and PR sides and leads to a win-win situation. To illustrate the incentive of the SS in CR network, we evaluate the energy and data performance metrics in terms of the average harvested energy, the power outage, and the mutual outage probability (MOP) which declares a data outage event if the PR or SR is in an outage. We present some special cases and asymptotic results of the derived analytic results. Through the simulation results, we show the impact of various simulation parameters and the benefits due to the presence of ST.

  4. Nuisance alarm suppression techniques for fibre-optic intrusion detection systems (United States)

    Mahmoud, Seedahmed S.; Visagathilagar, Yuvaraja; Katsifolis, Jim


    The suppression of nuisance alarms without degrading sensitivity in fibre-optic intrusion detection systems is important for maintaining acceptable performance. Signal processing algorithms that maintain the POD and minimize nuisance alarms are crucial for achieving this. A level crossings algorithm is presented for suppressing torrential rain-induced nuisance alarms in a fibre-optic fence-based perimeter intrusion detection system. Results show that rain-induced nuisance alarms can be suppressed for rainfall rates in excess of 100 mm/hr, and intrusion events can be detected simultaneously during rain periods. The use of a level crossing based detection and novel classification algorithm is also presented demonstrating the suppression of nuisance events and discrimination of nuisance and intrusion events in a buried pipeline fibre-optic intrusion detection system. The sensor employed for both types of systems is a distributed bidirectional fibre-optic Mach Zehnder interferometer.

  5. Collisional-radiative switching - A powerful technique for converging non-LTE calculations (United States)

    Hummer, D. G.; Voels, S. A.


    A very simple technique has been developed to converge statistical equilibrium and model atmospheric calculations in extreme non-LTE conditions when the usual iterative methods fail to converge from an LTE starting model. The proposed technique is based on a smooth transition from a collision-dominated LTE situation to the desired non-LTE conditions in which radiation dominates, at least in the most important transitions. The proposed approach was used to successfully compute stellar models with He abundances of 0.20, 0.30, and 0.50; Teff = 30,000 K, and log g = 2.9.

  6. Comparison of Available Bandwidth Estimation Techniques in Packet-Switched Mobile Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López Villa, Dimas; Ubeda Castellanos, Carlos; Teyeb, Oumer Mohammed


    of information regarding the available bandwidth in the transport network, as it could end up being the bottleneck rather than the air interface. This paper provides a comparative study of three well known available bandwidth estimation techniques, i.e. TOPP, SLoPS and pathChirp, taking into account...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Jayaraj


    Full Text Available A Non-linear adaptive decision based algorithm with robust motion estimation technique is proposed for removal of impulse noise, Gaussian noise and mixed noise (impulse and Gaussian with edge and fine detail preservation in images and videos. The algorithm includes detection of corrupted pixels and the estimation of values for replacing the corrupted pixels. The main advantage of the proposed algorithm is that an appropriate filter is used for replacing the corrupted pixel based on the estimation of the noise variance present in the filtering window. This leads to reduced blurring and better fine detail preservation even at the high mixed noise density. It performs both spatial and temporal filtering for removal of the noises in the filter window of the videos. The Improved Cross Diamond Search Motion Estimation technique uses Least Median Square as a cost function, which shows improved performance than other motion estimation techniques with existing cost functions. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the other algorithms in the visual point of view and in Peak Signal to Noise Ratio, Mean Square Error and Image Enhancement Factor.

  8. Fat suppression at 2D MR imaging of the hands: Dixon method versus CHESS technique and STIR sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirchgesner, Thomas, E-mail:; Perlepe, Vasiliki, E-mail:; Michoux, Nicolas, E-mail:; Larbi, Ahmed, E-mail:; Vande Berg, Bruno, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Dixon yields effective fat suppression at 2D MRI of the hands. • CHESS fat suppression is less effective especially in the coronal plane. • SNR is higher with Dixon than with CHESS at T1-weighted MR imaging. • SNR is higher with CHESS than with Dixon and STIR at T2-weighted MR imaging. - Abstract: Objective: To compare the effectiveness of fat suppression and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the Dixon method with those of the CHESS (Chemical Shift-Selective) technique and STIR (Short Tau Inversion Recovery) sequence in hands of normal subjects at 2D MR imaging. Material and methods: 14 healthy volunteers (mean age of 29.4 years) consented to have both hands prospectively imaged with SE T1 Dixon, T1 CHESS, T2 Dixon, T2 CHESS and STIR sequences in a 1.5T MR scanner. Three radiologists scored the effectiveness of fat suppression in bone marrow (EFS{sup BM}) and soft tissues (EFS{sup ST}) in 20 joints per subject. One radiologist measured the SNR in 10 bones per subject. Statistical analysis used two-way ANOVA with random effects, paired t-test and observed agreement to assess differences in effectiveness of fat suppression, differences in SNR and inter-observer agreement. Results: EFS{sup BM} was statistically significantly higher for T1 Dixon than for T1 CHESS and for T2 Dixon than for T2 CHESS (p < 0.0001). EFS{sup BM} was significantly higher for T2 Dixon than for STIR in the coronal plane (p = 0.0020). The SNR was significantly higher for T1 Dixon than for T1 CHESS and for T2 Dixon than for STIR (p < 0.0001). The SNR was significantly lower for T2 Dixon than for T2 CHESS (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The Dixon method yields more effective fat suppression and higher SNR than the CHESS technique at 2D T1-weighted MR imaging of the hands. At T2-weighted MR imaging, fat suppression is more effective with the Dixon method while SNR is higher with the CHESS technique.

  9. Fat suppression at 2D MR imaging of the hands: Dixon method versus CHESS technique and STIR sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchgesner, Thomas; Perlepe, Vasiliki; Michoux, Nicolas; Larbi, Ahmed; Vande Berg, Bruno


    Highlights: • Dixon yields effective fat suppression at 2D MRI of the hands. • CHESS fat suppression is less effective especially in the coronal plane. • SNR is higher with Dixon than with CHESS at T1-weighted MR imaging. • SNR is higher with CHESS than with Dixon and STIR at T2-weighted MR imaging. - Abstract: Objective: To compare the effectiveness of fat suppression and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the Dixon method with those of the CHESS (Chemical Shift-Selective) technique and STIR (Short Tau Inversion Recovery) sequence in hands of normal subjects at 2D MR imaging. Material and methods: 14 healthy volunteers (mean age of 29.4 years) consented to have both hands prospectively imaged with SE T1 Dixon, T1 CHESS, T2 Dixon, T2 CHESS and STIR sequences in a 1.5T MR scanner. Three radiologists scored the effectiveness of fat suppression in bone marrow (EFS BM ) and soft tissues (EFS ST ) in 20 joints per subject. One radiologist measured the SNR in 10 bones per subject. Statistical analysis used two-way ANOVA with random effects, paired t-test and observed agreement to assess differences in effectiveness of fat suppression, differences in SNR and inter-observer agreement. Results: EFS BM was statistically significantly higher for T1 Dixon than for T1 CHESS and for T2 Dixon than for T2 CHESS (p < 0.0001). EFS BM was significantly higher for T2 Dixon than for STIR in the coronal plane (p = 0.0020). The SNR was significantly higher for T1 Dixon than for T1 CHESS and for T2 Dixon than for STIR (p < 0.0001). The SNR was significantly lower for T2 Dixon than for T2 CHESS (p < 0.0001). Conclusion: The Dixon method yields more effective fat suppression and higher SNR than the CHESS technique at 2D T1-weighted MR imaging of the hands. At T2-weighted MR imaging, fat suppression is more effective with the Dixon method while SNR is higher with the CHESS technique.

  10. Photographic and video techniques used in the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, D.; Lord, D.


    The report provides a description of the techniques and equipment used for the photographic and video recordings of the air test series conducted on the 1/5 scale Mark I boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression experimental facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) between March 4, 1977, and May 12, 1977. Lighting and water filtering are discussed in the photographic system section and are also applicable to the video system. The appendices contain information from the photographic and video camera logs.

  11. Application of small-signal modeling and measurement techniques to the stability analysis of an integrated switching-mode power system. [onboard Dynamics Explorer Satellite (United States)

    Wong, R. C.; Owen, H. A., Jr.; Wilson, T. G.; Rodriguez, G. E.


    Small-signal modeling techniques are used in a system stability analysis of a breadboard version of a complete functional electrical power system. The system consists of a regulated switching dc-to-dc converter, a solar-cell-array simulator, a solar-array EMI filter, battery chargers and linear shunt regulators. Loss mechanisms in the converter power stage, including switching-time effects in the semiconductor elements, are incorporated into the modeling procedure to provide an accurate representation of the system without requiring frequency-domain measurements to determine the damping factor. The small-signal system model is validated by the use of special measurement techniques which are adapted to the poor signal-to-noise ratio encountered in switching-mode systems. The complete electrical power system with the solar-array EMI filter is shown to be stable over the intended range of operation.

  12. Bindi tattoo on forehead: success with modified R-20 technique using low fluence q-switched nd yag laser: a case report. (United States)

    Zawar, Vijay; Sarda, Aarti; De, Abhishek


    Bindi tattoo on the forehead, is one of the cultural practice in Indian women from rural areas. Many patients are not pleased with the appearance of their tattoo and thus seek removal. The development of quality-switched lasers has revolutionized the removal of unwanted tattoos. However, despite multiple treatment sessions, the efficacy is often found to be limited. We herein report a case of green-blue bindi tattoo which failed to clear after 8 sessions of Q-switched Nd YAG laser. The tattoo significantly cleared with R-20 method using low fluence Q-switched Nd YAG Laser. R-20 technique seems to be an effective method of tattoo removal and might be a boon for patients who are reluctant to pursue laser treatment because of fear of expenditure, side effects and uncertainty of result. We report efficacy of R-20 technique for a bindi tattoo on forehead.

  13. Application of the shaped electrode technique to a large area rectangular capacitively coupled plasma reactor to suppress standing wave nonuniformity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansonnens, L.; Schmidt, H.; Howling, A.A.; Hollenstein, Ch.; Ellert, Ch.; Buechel, A.


    The electromagnetic standing wave effect can become the main source of nonuniformity limiting the use of very high frequency in large area reactors exceeding 1 m 2 required for industrial applications. Recently, it has been proposed and shown experimentally in a cylindrical reactor that a shaped electrode in place of the conventional flat electrode can be used in order to suppress the electromagnetic standing wave nonuniformity. In this study, we show experimental measurements demonstrating that the shaped electrode technique can also be applied in large area rectangular reactors. We also present results of electromagnetic screening by a conducting substrate which has important consequences for industrial application of the shaped electrode technique

  14. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented...

  15. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup


    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  16. Soft controller switching technique to minimize the torque and current pulsations of a SCIM during its reswitching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larik, A.S.


    The direct-on-line starting of induction motor draws heavy current and to limit this Inrush current to a safe level normally a star-delta switch is used. However, the switching over from star to delta causes over current transients and this leads to torque pulsations. Therefore, in this paper the current and torque pulsations developed during the switching process are focused and a soft-switched controller is devised to minimize the re-closure transient currents and torque pulsations during star-delta switching of induction motor. The designed system can readily handles the sensing of favorable conditions of re closure of a switched-off running induction motor and it minimizes the inrush current and hence the pulsations of torque of all types of induction motors, whether, single-phase or three phase. An investigation is made into the transient currents and pulsation torques generated due to opening the circuit of a running induction motor and the switching pattern of star-delta switching. The re-switching control scheme for the induction motor is practically tested in the laboratory with and without soft controller. (author)

  17. The sterile insect technique [videorecording]: An environment-friendly method of insect pest suppression and eradication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Using graphic displays and clips of actual laboratory and field activities related to the sterile insect technique (SIT), the video covers various topics on the principles and applications of this technique

  18. Speed control with torque ripple reduction of switched reluctance motor by Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Saha


    Full Text Available This paper presents a control scheme for simultaneous control of the speed of Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM and minimizing the torque ripple employing Hybrid Many Optimizing Liaison Gravitational Search Algorithm (Hybrid MOLGSA technique. The control mechanism includes two controlling loops, the outer loop is governed for speed control and a current controller for the inner loop, intelligent selection of turn on and turn off angle for a 60 KW, 3-phase 6/8 SRM. It is noticed that the torque ripple coefficient, ISE of speed & current are reduced by 12.81%, 38.60%, 16.74% respectively by Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA algorithm. It is also observed that the settling times for the controller using the parameter values for obtaining best values of torque ripple, Integral square error of speed and current are reduced by 51.25%, 58.04% and 59.375% by proposed Hybrid MOLGSA algorithm compared to the GSA algorithm.

  19. Prospects of DUV OoB suppression techniques in EUV lithography (United States)

    Park, Chang-Min; Kim, Insung; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Dong-Wan; Hwang, Myung-Soo; Kang, Soon-Nam; Park, Cheolhong; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Yeo, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Seong-Sue


    Though scaling of source power is still the biggest challenge in EUV lithography (EUVL) technology era, CD and overlay controls for transistor's requirement are also precondition of adopting EUVL in mass production. Two kinds of contributors are identified as risks for CDU and Overlay: Infrared (IR) and deep ultraviolet (DUV) out of band (OOB) radiations from laser produced plasma (LPP) EUV source. IR from plasma generating CO2 laser that causes optics heating and wafer overlay error is well suppressed by introducing grating on collector to diffract IR off the optical axis and is the effect has been confirmed by operation of pre-production tool (NXE3100). EUV and DUV OOB which are reflected from mask black boarder (BB) are root causes of EUV-specific CD error at the boundaries of exposed shots which would result in the problem of CDU out of spec unless sufficiently suppressed. Therefore, control of DUV OOB reflection from the mask BB is one of the key technologies that must be developed prior to EUV mass production. In this paper, quantitative assessment on the advantage and the disadvantage of potential OOB solutions will be discussed. EUV and DUV OOB impacts on wafer CDs are measured from NXE3100 & NXE3300 experiments. Significant increase of DUV OOB impact on CD from NXE3300 compared with NXE3100 is observed. There are three ways of technology being developed to suppress DUV OOB: spectral purity filter (SPF) as a scanner solution, multi-layer etching as a solution on mask, and resist top-coating as a process solution. PROs and CONs of on-scanner, on-mask, and on-resist solution for the mass production of EUV lithography will be discussed.

  20. A miniaturized compact open-loop RFOG with demodulation signal compensation technique to suppress intensity modulation noise (United States)

    Ying, Diqing; Mao, Jianmin; Li, Qiang; Jin, Zhonghe


    A miniaturized compact open-loop resonator fiber optic gyro (RFOG) prototype with main body size of about 10.4 cm×10.4 cm×5.2 cm is reported, and a demodulation signal compensation technique is proposed, aiming to suppress the drift arising from accompanying intensity modulation induced by semiconductor laser diode (LD). The scheme of how to establish this miniaturized RFOG prototype is specifically stated. The linear relationship between the first-harmonic and second-harmonic demodulated signals respectively for the two counter propagating beams in the resonator is verified by theory and experiment, and based on this relationship, the demodulation signal compensation technique by monitoring the second-harmonic demodulated signal is described in detail. With this compensation technique, the gyro output stability under 1°/s rotation rate is effectively improved from 0.12°/s to 0.03°/s, and especially, an about 0.36°/s peak-to-peak fluctuation due to tuning current reset is significantly suppressed. A long term bias stability of about 4.5°/h in 1 h for such a small-sized RFOG prototype is demonstrated, which is of the same magnitude as that of currently reported large-sized RFOG systems utilizing LD as the laser source as well.

  1. An Adaptive Clutter Suppression Technique for Moving Target Detector in Pulse Doppler Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mandal


    Full Text Available An adaptive system performs the processing by using an architecture having time-varying parameters on the received signals which accompanies with clutters. In this paper, an adaptive moving target detector has been designed to meet the challenges of target detection amidst various levels of clutter environments. The approach has been used that is able to overcome the inherent limitations of conventional systems (e.g. Moving Target Indicator, Fast Fourier Transform etc. having predefined coefficients. In this purpose an optimal design of transversal filter is being proposed along with various weight selection Maps to improve probability of detection in ground based surveillance radar. A modified LMS algorithm based adaptive FIR filter has been implemented utilizing modular CORDIC unit as a main processing element for filtering as well as weight updatation to suppress clutter of various intensity. Extensive MATLAB simulations have been done using various levels of clutter input to show the effectiveness of adaptive moving target detector (AMTD.

  2. Time-delayed feedback technique for suppressing instabilities in time-periodic flow (United States)

    Shaabani-Ardali, Léopold; Sipp, Denis; Lesshafft, Lutz


    A numerical method is presented that allows to compute time-periodic flow states, even in the presence of hydrodynamic instabilities. The method is based on filtering nonharmonic components by way of delayed feedback control, as introduced by Pyragas [Phys. Lett. A 170, 421 (1992), 10.1016/0375-9601(92)90745-8]. Its use in flow problems is demonstrated here for the case of a periodically forced laminar jet, subject to a subharmonic instability that gives rise to vortex pairing. The optimal choice of the filter gain, which is a free parameter in the stabilization procedure, is investigated in the context of a low-dimensional model problem, and it is shown that this model predicts well the filter performance in the high-dimensional flow system. Vortex pairing in the jet is efficiently suppressed, so that the unstable periodic flow state in response to harmonic forcing is accurately retrieved. The procedure is straightforward to implement inside any standard flow solver. Memory requirements for the delayed feedback control can be significantly reduced by means of time interpolation between checkpoints. Finally, the method is extended for the treatment of periodic problems where the frequency is not known a priori. This procedure is demonstrated for a three-dimensional cubic lid-driven cavity in supercritical conditions.

  3. Techniques for Clutter Suppression in the Presence of Body Movements during the Detection of Respiratory Activity through UWB Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Lazaro


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the feasibility of tracking the chest wall movement of a human subject during respiration from the waveforms recorded using an impulse-radio (IR ultra-wideband radar. The paper describes the signal processing to estimate sleep apnea detection and breathing rate. Some techniques to solve several problems in these types of measurements, such as the clutter suppression, body movement and body orientation detection are described. Clutter suppression is achieved using a moving averaging filter to dynamically estimate it. The artifacts caused by body movements are removed using a threshold method before analyzing the breathing signal. The motion is detected using the time delay that maximizes the received signal after a clutter removing algorithm is applied. The periods in which the standard deviations of the time delay exceed a threshold are considered macro-movements and they are neglected. The sleep apnea intervals are detected when the breathing signal is below a threshold. The breathing rate is determined from the robust spectrum estimation based on Lomb periodogram algorithm. On the other hand the breathing signal amplitude depends on the body orientation respect to the antennas, and this could be a problem. In this case, in order to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio, multiple sensors are proposed to ensure that the backscattered signal can be detected by at least one sensor, regardless of the direction the human subject is facing. The feasibility of the system is compared with signals recorded by a microphone.

  4. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  5. High level of viral suppression and low switch rate to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected adult patients followed over five years: retrospective analysis of the DART trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cissy Kityo

    Full Text Available In contrast to resource-rich countries, most HIV-infected patients in resource-limited countries receive treatment without virological monitoring. There are few long-term data, in this setting, on rates of viral suppression or switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy. The DART trial compared clinically driven monitoring (CDM versus routine laboratory (CD4/haematology/biochemistry and clinical monitoring (LCM in HIV-infected adults initiating therapy. There was no virological monitoring in either study group during follow-up, but viral load was measured in Ugandan participants at trial closure. Two thousand three hundred and seventeen (2317 participants from this country initiated antiretroviral therapy with zidovudine/lamivudine plus tenofovir (n = 1717, abacavir (n = 300, or nevirapine (n = 300. Of 1896 (81.8% participants who were alive and in follow-up at trial closure (median 5.1 years after therapy initiation, 1507 (79.5% were on first-line and 389 (20.5% on second-line antiretroviral therapy. The overall switch rate after the first year was 5.6 per 100 person-years; the rate was substantially higher in participants with low baseline CD4 counts (<50 cells/mm3. Among 1207 (80.1% first-line participants with viral load measured, HIV RNA was <400 copies/ml in 963 (79.8%, 400-999 copies/ml in 37 (3.1%, 1,000-9,999 copies/ml in 110 (9.1%, and ≥10,000 copies/ml in 97 (8.0%. The proportion with HIV RNA <400 copies/ml was slightly lower (difference 7.1%, 95% CI 2.5 to 11.5% in CDM (76.3% than in LCM (83.4%. Among 252 (64.8% second-line participants with viral load measured (median 2.3 years after switch, HIV RNA was <400 copies/ml in 226 (89.7%, with no difference between monitoring strategies. Low switch rates and high, sustained levels of viral suppression are achievable without viral load or CD4 count monitoring in the context of high-quality clinical care.ISRCTN13968779.

  6. Multiphase soft switched DC/DC converter and active control technique for fuel cell ripple current elimination (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Liu, Changrong; Ridenour, Amy


    DC/DC converter has a transformer having primary coils connected to an input side and secondary coils connected to an output side. Each primary coil connects a full-bridge circuit comprising two switches on two legs, the primary coil being connected between the switches on each leg, each full-bridge circuit being connected in parallel wherein each leg is disposed parallel to one another, and the secondary coils connected to a rectifying circuit. An outer loop control circuit that reduces ripple in a voltage reference has a first resistor connected in series with a second resistor connected in series with a first capacitor which are connected in parallel with a second capacitor. An inner loop control circuit that reduces ripple in a current reference has a third resistor connected in series with a fourth resistor connected in series with a third capacitor which are connected in parallel with a fourth capacitor.

  7. Validation Techniques of network harmonic models based on switching of a series linear component and measuring resultant harmonic increments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiechowski, Wojciech Tomasz; Lykkegaard, Jan; Bak, Claus Leth


    In this paper two methods of validation of transmission network harmonic models are introduced. The methods were developed as a result of the work presented in [1]. The first method allows calculating the transfer harmonic impedance between two nodes of a network. Switching a linear, series network......, as for example a transmission line. Both methods require that harmonic measurements performed at two ends of the disconnected element are precisely synchronized....... are used for calculation of the transfer harmonic impedance between the nodes. The determined transfer harmonic impedance can be used to validate a computer model of the network. The second method is an extension of the fist one. It allows switching a series element that contains a shunt branch...

  8. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah


    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  9. The Small Rho GTPases Rac1 and Rac2 Are Important for T-Cell Independent Antigen Responses and for Suppressing Switching to IgG2b in Mice. (United States)

    Gerasimčik, Natalija; He, Minghui; Dahlberg, Carin I M; Kuznetsov, Nikolai V; Severinson, Eva; Westerberg, Lisa S


    The Rho GTPases Cdc42, Rac1, and Rac2 coordinate receptor signaling to cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Deletion of Rac1 and Rac2 early during B cell development leads to failure in B cell entry into the splenic white pulp. Here, we sought to understand the role of Rac1 and Rac2 in B cell functionality and during the humoral antibody response. To circumvent the migratory deficiency of B cells lacking both Rac1 and Rac2, we took the approach to inducibly delete Rac1 in Rac2 -/- B cells in the spleen (Rac1 B Rac2 -/- B cells). Rac1 B Rac2 -/- mice had normal differentiation of splenic B cell populations, except for a reduction in marginal zone B cells. Rac1 B Rac2 -/- B cells showed normal spreading response on antibody-coated layers, while both Rac2 -/- and Rac1 B Rac2 -/- B cells had reduced homotypic adhesion and decreased proliferative response when compared to wild-type B cells. Upon challenge with the T-cell-independent antigen TNP-conjugated lipopolysaccharide, Rac1 B Rac2 -/- mice showed reduced antibody response. In contrast, in response to the T-cell-dependent antigen sheep red blood cells, Rac1 B Rac2 -/- mice had increased serum titers of IgG1 and IgG2b. During in vitro Ig class switching, Rac1 B Rac2 -/- B cells had elevated germline γ2b transcripts leading to increased Ig class switching to IgG2b. Our data suggest that Rac1 and Rac2 serve an important role in regulation of the B cell humoral immune response and in suppressing Ig class switching to IgG2b.

  10. Switch to maraviroc with darunavir/r, both QD, in patients with suppressed HIV-1 was well tolerated but virologically inferior to standard antiretroviral therapy: 48-week results of a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rossetti

    Full Text Available Primary study outcome was absence of treatment failure (virological failure, VF, or treatment interruption per protocol at week 48.Patients on 3-drug ART with stable HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL and CCR5-tropic virus were randomized 1:1 to maraviroc with darunavir/ritonavir qd (study arm or continue current ART (continuation arm.In June 2015, 115 patients were evaluable for the primary outcome (56 study, 59 continuation arm. The study was discontinued due to excess of VF in the study arm (7 cases, 12.5%, vs 0 in the continuation arm, p = 0.005. The proportion free of treatment failure was 73.2% in the study and 59.3% in the continuation arm. Two participants in the study and 10 in the continuation arm discontinued therapy due to adverse events (p = 0.030. At VF, no emergent drug resistance was detected. Co-receptor tropism switched to non-R5 in one patient. Patients with VF reported lower adherence and had lower plasma drug levels. Femoral bone mineral density was significantly improved in the study arm.Switching to maraviroc with darunavir/ritonavir qd in virologically suppressed patients was associated with improved tolerability but was virologically inferior to 3-drug therapy.

  11. Head and neck paragangliomas: improved tumor detection using contrast-enhanced 3D time-of-flight MR angiography as compared with fat-suppressed MR imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, René; Verbist, Berit M.; Mertens, Bart J. A.; van der Mey, Andel G. L.; van Buchem, Mark A.


    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR imaging techniques have proved their efficacy in imaging the head and neck region. In this study, we compared T1-weighted, dual T2-weighted, and fat-suppressed MR imaging and unenhanced and contrast-enhanced 3D time-of-flight MR angiography sequences for detection of head

  12. A rapid tattoo removal technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol. (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Kochhar, Atul M; Mahajan, Khushbu Goel; Garg, Vijay K


    Tattoo removal has evolved over the years and though Q-switched laser is the 'workhorse' laser, it invariably requires multiple sittings, which are dependent on numerous factors, including the skin colour, location of the tattoo, age of the tattoo, colour of pigment used, associated fibrosis and the kind of tattoo treated. Though ablative lasers, both pulsed CO2 and Er:YAG, have been used for recalcitrant tattoos, very few studies have been done comparing them with pigment-specific lasers. Our study was based on the premise that ablating the epidermis overlying the tattoo pigment with Er:YAG could help in gaining better access to the pigment which would enable the Q-switched laser to work effectively with less beam scattering. A study of rapid tattoo removal (RTR) technique using a combination of pulsed Er:YAG and Q-Switched Nd:YAG in a split lesion protocol. This prospective study was undertaken during 2010-13 at a laser Clinic in the Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi. A total of 10 patients were recruited, 5 of amateur tattoo and 5 of professional tattoo. After informed consent each tattoo was arbitrarily 'split' into two parts. One part was treated with QS Nd:YAG laser(1064 nm) and the other part with Er:YAG laser immediately followed by the QS Nd:YAG. The laser treatments were repeated at 6-week intervals until the tattoo pigment had cleared. On the combination side in subsequent sittings only the QS Nd:YAG was used, to minimize repetitive ablation. To ensure consistency in the intervention methods a trained dermatologist who was independent of the treatment delivery randomly rated 10% of the procedures. The mean improvement achieved by the Q-switched laser (2.93) was less than the combination laser (3.85) side (p = 0.001) and needed more sessions (3.8 vs. 1.6; p = 0.001). There was a statistically significant difference in the improvement on the combination side till the second session. On the combination side patients required a maximum of 2 sessions

  13. An application of DEMATEL technique to find the effect of different factors influencing outsourcing activities in water and switch organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimah Hemati


    Full Text Available Outsourcing plays an important role on reducing unnecessary activities in any organization and helps focus only on value added activities. Water resource organization in each city is responsible to supply fresh and clean water and dispose switch as efficiently as possible and all citizens normally benefit from these organizations. The proposed model of this paper uses DEMATEL to prioritize 14 different factors influencing on outsourcing activities. The survey was performed from October, 2011 to May, 2012 among employees on work for water resource organization in city of Semnan, Iran. The survey chooses a sample of 92 employees out of 120 people who worked for this organization. Cronbach alpha is calculated as 90%, which is well above the minimum acceptable level. The results of the survey indicate that expediting work process is the most important factor while reducing the cost is considered as the least important factors among 14 different items.

  14. Long term effectiveness of once-daily unboosted atazanavir plus abacavir/lamivudine as a switch strategy in subjects with virological suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llibre, Josep M; Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; La Rosa, Jorge Antonio Valencia


    routine however are scant. METHODS: We evaluated treatment outcomes of ATV400+ABC/3TC in pre-treated subjects in the EuroSIDA cohort with undetectable HIV-1 RNA, and previous ABC experience or assumed previous HLA B57*01 testing. We performed a time to loss of virologic response (TLOVR below 50 c....../mL) and a snapshot analysis at 48, 96 and 144 weeks. Virological failure (VF) was defined as a confirmed plasma HIV-1 RNA >50 c/mL. RESULTS: We included 258 subjects: 176 (68%) male, median age 46 (IQR 41, 53) y, 225 (87.2%) white, hepatitis virus co-infection 36%, median baseline CD4 at switch 540 cells (360, 700......, respectively, 89.5 [95% CI 85.1, 92.9]/88 [83.4, 91.7]/86.3% [81.6, 90.4] (TLOVR, composite endpoint failure or stop for any reason) and the risk of VF was 8.3/7.6/7.6%. In the snapshot analysis HIV-RNA was below 50 c/mL in 72.5/65.9/51.6%, respectively, and >50 c/mL in 6.6/5.4/4.3%. Only 0...

  15. MiR-26a contributes to the PDGF-BB-induced phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing Smad1. (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyan; Dong, Mei; Wen, Hao; Liu, Xiaoling; Zhang, Meng; Ma, Lianyue; Zhang, Cheng; Luan, Xiaorong; Lu, Huixia; Zhang, Yun


    The phenotypic switch of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is a key event in the pathogenesis of various vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and post-angioplasty restenosis. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as critical modulators of VSMC function. In the present study, miR-26a was significantly increased in cultured VSMCs stimulated by platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and in arteries with neointimal lesion formation. Moreover, we demonstrated that miR-26a regulates the expression of VSMC differentiation marker genes such as α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), calponin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC) in PDGF-BB-treated VSMCs. We further confirmed that the regulatory effect of miR-26a during the phenotypic transition occurs through its target gene Smad1, which is a critical mediator of the pro-contractile signal transmitted by bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). This discovery proposed a new channel for communication between PDGF and the BMP/TGF-β family. We concluded that miR-26a is an important regulator in the PDGF-BB-mediated VSMC phenotypic transition by targeting Smad1. Interventions aimed at miR-26a may be promising in treating numerous proliferative vascular disorders.

  16. BROOKHAVEN: Switched power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Hosted by Brookhaven's Center for Accelerator Physics, a recent workshop on switched power techniques attracted a group of specialists to Shelter Island, New York, location of several important physics meetings, including the famous 1947 sessions which helped mould modern quantum electrodynamics. The current interest in switched power stemmed from a series of papers by W. Willis of CERN, starting in 1984. The idea is for stored electrical energy to be suddenly switched on to a transmission line, producing a very short (about 10 ps) electromagnetic pulse in a region traversed by a particle beam

  17. Reduced timing Sensitivity in all-optical switching using flat-top control pulses obtained by the optical fourier transform technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen


    into the time domain, referred to as the optical Fourier transform technique. A 3 ps flat-top pulse derived from a 3 nm wide square filter is obtained, and used to gate an all-optical OTDM demultiplexer, yielding an error-free timing jitter tolerance of 3 ps for 80 Gb/s and 160 Gb/s data signals.......For high-speed serial data, timing tolerance is crucial for switching and regeneration. We propose a novel scheme to generate flat-top pulses, for use as gating control pulses. The scheme relies on spectral shaping by a square-shaped filter, followed by a linear transformation of the spectral shape...

  18. RAF-5074: Enhancing Capacity for Detection, Surveillance and Suppression of Exotic and Established Fruit Fly Species through Integration of Sterile Insect Technique with Other Suppression Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musyoki, M.; Kasina, M.


    Fruit flies (Family Tephritidae) is one of the most destructive and economically challenging pest insect of fruits and vegetables. It is responsible for loss of export markets and poor farm gate prices of fruits and vegetables. Fruit flies are insects (Diptera) and undergoes complete metamorphosis: eggs- larva- pupa- adult. Only larva (maggots) are extremely damaging and the Adults in addition cause economic injury through stippling. The purpose of this project is to build capacity of African countries in the management of fruit flies using area wide approach and incorporating sterile insect technique (SIT ). sterile insect technique is a method that uses sterile insects (males) to flood them in the wild, and by so doing they mate with wild fertile individuals, resulting to no progeny. KALRO looking forward to develop mass rearing facility for fruit flies and SIT facility

  19. Progesterone therapy induces an M1 to M2 switch in microglia phenotype and suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome in a cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model. (United States)

    Aryanpour, Roya; Pasbakhsh, Parichehr; Zibara, Kazem; Namjoo, Zeinab; Beigi Boroujeni, Fatemeh; Shahbeigi, Saeed; Kashani, Iraj Ragerdi; Beyer, Cordian; Zendehdel, Adib


    Demyelination of the central nervous system (CNS) has been associated to reactive microglia in neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). The M1 microglia phenotype plays a pro-inflammatory role while M2 is involved in anti-inflammatory processes in the brain. In this study, CPZ-induced demyelination mouse model was used to investigate the effect of progesterone (PRO) therapy on microglia activation and neuro-inflammation. Results showed that progesterone therapy (CPZ+PRO) decreased neurological behavioral deficits, as demonstrated by significantly decreased escape latencies, in comparison to CPZ mice. In addition, CPZ+PRO caused a significant reduction in the mRNA expression levels of M1-markers (iNOS, CD86, MHC-II and TNF-α) in the corpus callosum region, whereas the expression of M2-markers (Trem-2, CD206, Arg-1 and TGF-β) was significantly increased, in comparison to CPZ mice. Moreover, CPZ+PRO resulted in a significant decrease in the number of iNOS + and Iba-1 + /iNOS + cells (M1), whereas TREM-2 + and Iba-1 + /TREM-2 + cells (M2) significantly increased, in comparison to CPZ group. Furthermore, CPZ+PRO caused a significant decrease in mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3 and IL-18 (~2-fold), in comparison to the CPZ group. Finally, CPZ+PRO therapy was accompanied with reduced levels of demyelination, compared to CPZ, as confirmed by immunofluorescence to myelin basic protein (MBP) and Luxol Fast Blue (LFB) staining, as well as transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. In summary, we reported for the first time that PRO therapy causes polarization of M2 microglia, attenuation of M1 phenotype, and suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome in a CPZ-induced demyelination model of MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of a simple column-switching ion chromatography technique for removal of matrix interferences and sensitive fluorescence determination of acidic compounds (pharmaceutical drugs) in complex samples. (United States)

    Muhammad, Nadeem; Subhani, Qamar; Wang, Fenglian; Guo, Dandan; Zhao, Qiming; Wu, Shuchao; Zhu, Yan


    This work illustrates the introduction of a simple, rugged and flexible column-switching ion chromatography (IC) technique for an automated on-line QuEChERS extracted samples extracts washing followed by sensitive fluorescence (FLD) determination of five acidic pharmaceutical drugs namely; clofibric acid (CLO), ibuprofen (IBU), aspirin (ASP), naproxen (NAP) and flurobrofen (FLU) in three complex samples (spinach, apple and hospital sewage sludge). An old anion exchange column IonPac ® AS11-HC was utilized as a pre-treatment column for on-line washing of inorganic and organic interferences followed by isocratic separation of five acidic drugs with another anion exchange IonPac ® AS12A analytical column by exploiting the column-switching technique. This novel method exhibited good linearity with correlation coefficients (r 2 ) for all drugs were in the range 0.976-0.996. The limit of detection and quantification of all five acidic drugs were in the range 0.024μg/kg to 8.70μg/kg and 0.082μg/kg to 0.029mg/kg, respectively, and better recoveries in the range 81.17-112.5% with percentage relative standard deviations (RSDs) less than 17.8% were obtained. This on-line sample pre-treatment method showed minimum matrix effect in the range of 0.87-1.25 except for aspirin. This simple rugged and flexible column-switching system required only 28min for maximum elimination of matrices and interferences in three complex samples extracts, isocratic separation of five acidic drugs and for the continuous regeneration of pre-treatment column prior to every subsequent analysis. Finally, this simple automated IC system was appeared so rugged and flexible, which can eliminate and wash out most of interference, impurities and matrices in complex samples, simply by adjusting the NaOH and acetonitrile concentration in washing mobile phase with maximum recoveries of acidic analytes of interest. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Novel security enhancement technique against eavesdropper for OCDMA system using 2-D modulation format with code switching scheme (United States)

    Singh, Simranjit; Kaur, Ramandeep; Singh, Amanvir; Kaler, R. S.


    In this paper, security of the spectrally encoded-optical code division multiplexed access (OCDMA) system is enhanced by using 2-D (orthogonal) modulation technique. This is an effective approach for simultaneous improvement of the system capacity and security. Also, the results show that the hybrid modulation technique proved to be a better option to enhance the data confidentiality at higher data rates using minimum utilization of bandwidth in a multiuser environment. Further, the proposed system performance is compared with the current state-of-the-art OCDMA schemes.

  2. Analog self-powered harvester achieving switching pause control to increase harvested energy (United States)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Asahina, Kei


    In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog controller circuit to increase the efficiency of electrical energy harvesting from vibrational energy using piezoelectric materials. Although the existing synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is designed to produce efficient harvesting, its switching operation generates a vibration-suppression effect that reduces the harvested levels of electrical energy. To solve this problem, the authors proposed—in a previous paper—a switching method that takes this vibration-suppression effect into account. This method temporarily pauses the switching operation, allowing the recovery of the mechanical displacement and, therefore, of the piezoelectric voltage. In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog circuit to implement this switching control method. Self-powered vibration harvesting is achieved in this study by attaching a newly designed circuit to an existing analog controller for SSHI. This circuit aims to effectively implement the aforementioned new switching control strategy, where switching is paused in some vibration peaks, in order to allow motion recovery and a consequent increase in the harvested energy. Harvesting experiments performed using the proposed circuit reveal that the proposed method can increase the energy stored in the storage capacitor by a factor of 8.5 relative to the conventional SSHI circuit. This proposed technique is useful to increase the harvested energy especially for piezoelectric systems having large coupling factor.

  3. Technology Assessment of Dust Suppression Techniques Applied During Structural Demolition. Topical Report August1, 1995 - October 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudreaux, J.F.; Ebadian, M.A.; Williams, P.T.; Dua, S.K.


    Hanford, Fernald, Savannah River, and other sites are currently reviewing technologies that can be implemented to demolish buildings in a cost-effective manner. In order to demolish a structure properly and, at the same time, minimize the amount of dust generated from a given technology, an evaluation must be conducted to choose the most appropriate dust suppression technology given site-specific conditions. Thus, the purpose of this research, which was carried out at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University, was to conduct an experimental study of dust aerosol abatement (dust suppression) methods as applied to nuclear D and D. This experimental study targeted the problem of dust suppression during the demolition of nuclear facilities. The resulting data were employed to assist in the development of mathematical correlations that can be applied to predict dust generation during structural demolition

  4. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.


    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  5. Fat suppression techniques for obtaining high resolution dynamic contrast enhanced bilateral breast MR images at 7 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Velden, Tijl A; Schmitz, Alexander M Th; Gilhuijs, Kenneth G A


    OBJECTIVES: To compare water selective excitation (WSE) and Dixon fat suppression in the context of high-resolution dynamic contrast enhanced MRI of the breast at 7 tesla. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers and one patient with a malignant breast lesion were scanned at 7 tesla. The MRI protocol...

  6. Switching antidepressants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depressive disorder, with response rates of 50-60%. Switching within or between classes of antidepressants is often required in patients with an insufficient response to SSRIs.12 Because they share a similar mechanism of action, the immediate substitution of one SSRI for another is probably the easiest switching option.

  7. Synthesis of dynamic phase profile by the correlation technique for spatial control of optical beams in multiplexing and switching (United States)

    Bugaychuk, Svitlana A.; Gnatovskyy, Vladimir O.; Sidorenko, Andrey V.; Pryadko, Igor I.; Negriyko, Anatoliy M.


    New approach for the correlation technique, which is based on multiple periodic structures to create a controllable angular spectrum, is proposed and investigated both theoretically and experimentally. The transformation of an initial laser beam occurs due to the actions of consecutive phase periodic structures, which may differ by their parameters. Then, after the Fourier transformation of a complex diffraction field, the output diffraction orders will be changed both by their intensities and by their spatial position. The controllable change of output angular spectrum is carried out by a simple control of the parameters of the periodic structures. We investigate several simple examples of such management.

  8. Diffusion-Weighted Imaging of the Head and Neck: Influence of Fat-Suppression Technique and Multishot 2D Navigated Interleaved Acquisitions. (United States)

    Bae, Y J; Choi, B S; Jeong, H-K; Sunwoo, L; Jung, C; Kim, J H


    DWI of the head and neck can reveal valuable information, but the effects of fat suppression and multishot acquisition on image quality have not been thoroughly investigated. We aimed to comprehensively compare the quality of head and neck DWI at 3T using 2 fat-suppression techniques, STIR, and spectral presaturation with inversion recovery, which were used with both single- and multishot EPI. Sixty-five study participants underwent 3 DWI sequences of single-shot EPI-STIR, single-shot EPI-spectral presaturation with inversion recovery, and multishot EPI-spectral presaturation with inversion recovery of the head and neck. In multiple anatomic regions, 2 independent readers assessed 5-point visual scores for fat-suppression uniformity and image distortion, and 1 reader measured the contrast-to-noise ratio and ADC. The mean visual score for fat-suppression uniformity was higher in single-shot EPI-STIR than in other sequences (all regions except for the orbital region, P < .05). The mean visual score for image distortion was higher in multishot EPI-spectral presaturation with inversion recovery than in single-shot EPI sequences (all regions, P < .001). Contrast-to-noise ratio was mostly lower in single-shot EPI-STIR than in other sequences ( P < .001), and ADC was significantly higher in multishot EPI-spectral presaturation with inversion recovery than in single-shot EPI sequences ( P ≤ .001). Overall, multishot EPI-spectral presaturation with inversion recovery provided the best image quality, with relatively homogeneous fat suppression, less image distortion than single-shot EPI sequences, and higher contrast-to-noise ratio than single-shot EPI-STIR. The measured ADC values can be higher in multishot EPI-spectral presaturation with inversion recovery, which necessitates cautious application of the previously reported ADC values to clinical settings. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  9. Iron deposition in cranial bone marrow with sickle cell disease: MR assessment using a fat suppression technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneko, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)); Humbert, J.H. (Dept. of Pediatrics, Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)); Kogutt, M.S. (Dept. of Radiology, Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)); Robinson, A.E. (Dept. of Radiology, Tulane Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States))


    Thirteen patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing transfusion therapy and 8 control patients were examined by magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate bone marrow change due to iron deposition from hematologic marrow hyperplasia. Using T1-weighted spin echo images, only two subjects showed extremely low signal intensity marrow compatible with iron deposition. However, using T2-weighted fast spin echo images with fat suppression, cranial bone marrow in SCD patients with transfusion therapy showed considerably lower signal than that of controls. The main cause of marrow signal decrease in SCD patients with transfusion therapy was considered to be iron deposition due to repeated transfusion therapy rather than red marrow hyperplasia. (orig.)

  10. Iron deposition in cranial bone marrow with sickle cell disease: MR assessment using a fat suppression technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.; Humbert, J.H.; Kogutt, M.S.; Robinson, A.E.


    Thirteen patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing transfusion therapy and 8 control patients were examined by magnetic resonance imaging to discriminate bone marrow change due to iron deposition from hematologic marrow hyperplasia. Using T1-weighted spin echo images, only two subjects showed extremely low signal intensity marrow compatible with iron deposition. However, using T2-weighted fast spin echo images with fat suppression, cranial bone marrow in SCD patients with transfusion therapy showed considerably lower signal than that of controls. The main cause of marrow signal decrease in SCD patients with transfusion therapy was considered to be iron deposition due to repeated transfusion therapy rather than red marrow hyperplasia. (orig.)

  11. Comparaison de la souche 7784 hypovirulente de Mycoplasma agalactiae à la souche type virulente PG2 par la technique d'hybridation soustractive suppressive


    Bonnefin, Nathalie


    Mycoplasma agalactiae est l'agent principal responsable de l'agalactie contagieuse des ovins et caprins, un syndrome largement répandu dans le monde et regroupant des atteintes mammaires, articulaires et oculaires. Afin de rechercher les bases moléculaires du pouvoir pathogène de M. agalactiae, la technique d'hybridation soustractive suppressive, qui permet l'identification de séquences présentes dans un génome mais absentes d'un autre, a été utilisée. Deux souches de M. agalactiae ont été co...

  12. Sliding interleaved kY (SLINKY) acquisition: a novel 3D MRA technique with suppressed slab boundary artifact. (United States)

    Liu, K; Rutt, B K


    This work addresses the elimination of the slab boundary artifact (SBA) or venetian blind artifact in three-dimensional multiple overlapped thin slab acquisition (3D MOTSA) for magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Our method uses a sliding-slab, interleaved kY (SLINKY) data acquisition strategy, equalizing flow-related signal intensity weighting across the entire slab dimension. This technique demodulates signal intensity changes along the slab direction and can essentially eliminate the SBA while retaining the same or better imaging time efficiency than that of conventional MOTSA, providing robustness to complicated flow patterns and thereby resulting in more accurate depiction of vascular morphology. In addition, this technique does not need specialized reconstruction and extra computation. The unique penalty of this technique is the sensitivity to phase inconsistency in the data. Both phantom and in vivo experiments verify the clinical significance of the technique. The new MRA images acquired with this imaging technique show highly reliable mapping of vascular morphology without the SBA and reduction of signal voids in complex/slow flow regions.

  13. [Changes in the structure and clinical significance of the positive results of pretransfusion testing during the switching from tube test agglutination to gel microcolumn technique]. (United States)

    Petrusić-Kafedzić, Alma; Ivanković, Zdravko; Ekinović, Sabahudin; Hutinović, Aida; Ibrahimagić-Seper, Lejla


    To investigate the changes in pretransfusion testing during the switch from the agglutination tube test to the gel test. Clinical significance of positive results has been analyzed in 7667 pretransfusion tests (with 16610 cross-matches) performed by the tube test in 2005-2006, and in 7372 pretransfusion tests (with 17294 cross-matches) performed in 2007-2008 by the gel test. In both analyzed periods antibody detection was positive in 1.3% and cross-matching in 0.3% cases. At least one test was positive in 1.4% pretransfusions tested by the tube test and in 1.3% by the gel test, with >75% positive results in women. Analyzing cases with positive cross-matching but negative antibody detection, eight of ten such cases found by the tube test were caused by 'cold antibodies' whereas 'warm non-specific antibodies' caused all three cases found by the gel test. The gel test detected higher proportion of immune antibodies than the tube test (69.8% vs 41.3%, p antibodies. The tube test detected 24 cases of clinically non-significant antibodies, as compared with no cases found by the gel test (p antibodies' more often caused positive cross-matches than antibody detection (42.6% vs. 29.9% by the tube test, 28.9% vs. 18.3% by the gel test). Despite of being close in the detection of irregular antibodies (p=0.062), the difference between the tube and gel test was not significant. 'Non-specific antibodies' were found by both tests more often in women, while clinical departments were of no significance. The gel test has proved to be a more optimal technique of pretransfusion testing. The detection of irregular antibodies is recommended as an obligatory part of pretransfusion testing.

  14. Suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) and macroarray techniques reveal differential gene expression profiles in brain of sea bream infected with nodavirus. (United States)

    Dios, S; Poisa-Beiro, L; Figueras, A; Novoa, B


    Despite of the impact that viruses have on aquatic organisms, relatively little is known on how fish fight against these infections. In this work, the brain gene expression pattern of sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to nodavirus infection was investigated. We used the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) method to generate a subtracted cDNA library enriched with gene transcripts differentially expressed after 1 day post-infection. Some of the ESTs from the infected tissues fell in gene categories related to stress and immune responses. For the reverse library (ESTs expressed in controls compared with infected tissues) the most abundant transcripts were of ribosomal and mitochondrial nature. Several ESTs potentially induced by virus exposure were selected for in vivo expression studies. We observed a clear difference in expression between infected and control samples for two candidate genes, ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 7 interacting protein, which seems to play an important role in apoptosis and the interferon induced protein with helicase C domain 1 (mda-5) that contributes to apoptosis and regulates the type I IFN production, a key molecule of the antiviral innate response in most organisms.

  15. CNS safety at 48-week of switching to ATV/r plus 3TC or two nucleos(t)ides in HIV-suppressed patients on stable ART: the SALT neurocognitive sub-study. (United States)

    Valero, Ignacio Pérez; Pasquau, Juan; Rubio, Rafael; Ribero, Antonio; Santos, Jose; Sanz, Jesus; Mariño, Ana; Crespo, Manel; Hernandez, Jose; Iribarren, Jose Antonio; Gutierrez, Felix; Terron, Alberto; Esteban, Herminia; Pérez-Molina, Jose Antonio


    Due to their low CNS penetrance, there are concerns about the capacity of non-conventional PI-based ART (monotherapy and dual therapies) to preserve neurocognitive performance (NP). We evaluated the NP change of aviremic participants of the SALT clinical trial (1) switching therapy to dual therapy (DT: ATV/r+3TC) or triple therapy (TT: ATV/r+2NRTI) who agreed to perform an NP assessment (NPZ-5) at baseline and W48. Neurocognitive impairment and NP were assessed using AAN-2007 criteria (2) and global deficit scores (GDS) (3). Neurocognitive change (GDS change: W48 - baseline) and the effect of DT on NP evolution crude and adjusted by significant confounders were determined using ANCOVA. A total of 158 patients were included (Table 1). They had shorter times because HIV diagnosis, ART initiation and HIV-suppression and their virologic outcome at W48 by snapshot was higher (79.1% vs 72.7%; p=0.04) compared to the 128 patients not included in the sub-study. By AAN-2007 criteria, 51 patients in each ART group (68% vs 63%) were neurocognitively impaired at baseline (p=0.61). Forty-seven patients were not reassessed at W48: 30 lost of follow-up (16 DT-14 TT) and 17 had non-evaluable data (6 DT-11 TT). Patients retested were more likely to be men (78.9% vs 61.4%) and had neurological cofounders (9.6% vs 0%) than patients non-retested. At W48, 3 out of 16 (5.7%) patients on DT and 6 out of 21 (10.5%) on TT who were non-impaired at baseline became impaired (p=0.49) while 10 out of 37 (18.9%) on DT and 7 out of 36 (12.3%) on TT who were neurocognitively impaired at baseline became non-impaired (p=0.44). Mean GDS changes (95% CI) were: Overall -0.2 (-0.3 to -0.04): DT -0.26 (-0.4 to -0.07) and TT -0.08 (-0.2 to 0.07). NP was similar between DT and TT (0.15). This absence of differences was also observed in all cognitive tests. Effect of DT: -0.16 [-0.38 to 0.06]) (r(2)=0.16) on NP evolution was similar to TT (reference), even after adjusting (DT: -0.11 [-0.33 to 0.1], TT

  16. Comparative Study of two PWM techniques for Three Phase Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter to Suppress Line Current Harmonics




    This paper investigates the performanceand comparison of two pulse-width-modulation (PWM)techniques by employing direct current control strategyapplied to three phase shunt hybrid active power filter(SHAPF). The objective of SHAPF is to eliminate linecurrent harmonics and to incur reactive powercompensation. The direct current control strategy isimplemented using Standard PWM (S-PWM) and aModified PWM (M-WM), in order to compensatecurrent harmonic and reactive power generated bydifferent load...

  17. Model Reduction of Switched Systems Based on Switching Generalized Gramians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Wisniewski, Rafal


    In this paper, a general method for model order reduction of discrete-time switched linear systems is presented. The proposed technique uses switching generalized gramians. It is shown that several classical reduction methods can be developed into the generalized gramian framework for the model...... reduction of linear systems and for the reduction of switched systems. Discrete-time balanced reduction within a specified frequency interval is taken as an example within this framework. To avoid numerical instability and to increase the numerical efficiency, a generalized gramian-based Petrov...

  18. Changes in the structure and clinical significance of the positive results of pretransfusion testing during the switching from tube test agglutination to gel microcolumn technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrušić-Kafedžić Alma


    Full Text Available im To investigate the changes in pretransfusion testing during the switch from the agglutination tube test to the gel test. Methods Clinical significance of positive results has been analyzed in 7667 pretransfusion tests (with 16610 cross-matches performed by the tube test in 2005-2006, and in 7372 pretransfusion tests (with17294 cross-matches performed in 2007-2008 by the gel test. ResultsIn both analyzed periods antibody detection was positive in 1.3% and cross-matching in 0.3% cases. At least one test was positive in 1.4%pretransfusions tested by the tube test and in 1.3% by the gel test,with >75% positive results in women. Analyzing cases with positive cross-matching but negative antibody detection, eight of ten such cases found by the tube test were caused by ‘cold antibodies’whereas‘warm non-specific antibodies’ caused all three cases found by the gel test. The gel test detected higher proportion of immune antibodies than the tube test (69.8% vs 41.3%, p<0.001, with a double increase in anti-K and Rh antibodies. The tube test detected 24 cases of clinically non-significant antibodies, as compared with no cases found by the gel test (p<0,001. ‘Non-specific antibodies’ more often caused positive cross-matches than antibody detection(42.6% vs. 29.9% by the tube test, 28.9% vs. 18.3% by the gel test. Despite of being close in the detection of irregular antibodies (p=0.062, the difference between the tube and gel test was not significant. ‘Non-specific antibodies’ were found by both tests more often in women, while clinical departments were of no significance.Conclusion The gel test has proved to be a more optimal technique of pretransfusion testing. The detection of irregular antibodies isrecommended as an obligatory part of pretransfusion testing.

  19. A pseudo-discrete algebraic reconstruction technique (PDART) prior image-based suppression of high density artifacts in computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pua, Rizza; Park, Miran; Wi, Sunhee; Cho, Seungryong, E-mail:


    We propose a hybrid metal artifact reduction (MAR) approach for computed tomography (CT) that is computationally more efficient than a fully iterative reconstruction method, but at the same time achieves superior image quality to the interpolation-based in-painting techniques. Our proposed MAR method, an image-based artifact subtraction approach, utilizes an intermediate prior image reconstructed via PDART to recover the background information underlying the high density objects. For comparison, prior images generated by total-variation minimization (TVM) algorithm, as a realization of fully iterative approach, were also utilized as intermediate images. From the simulation and real experimental results, it has been shown that PDART drastically accelerates the reconstruction to an acceptable quality of prior images. Incorporating PDART-reconstructed prior images in the proposed MAR scheme achieved higher quality images than those by a conventional in-painting method. Furthermore, the results were comparable to the fully iterative MAR that uses high-quality TVM prior images. - Highlights: • An accelerated reconstruction method, PDART, is proposed for exterior problems. • With a few iterations, soft prior image was reconstructed from the exterior data. • PDART framework has enabled an efficient hybrid metal artifact reduction in CT.

  20. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.


    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  1. "Platform switching": Serendipity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kalavathy


    Full Text Available Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles.

  2. Information Switching Processor (ISP) contention analysis and control (United States)

    Inukai, Thomas


    In designing a satellite system with on-board processing, the selection of a switching architecture is often critical. The on-board switching function can be implemented by circuit switching or packet switching. Destination-directed packet switching has several attractive features, such as self-routing without on-board switch reconfiguration, no switch control memory requirement, efficient bandwidth utilization for packet switched traffic, and accommodation of circuit switched traffic. Destination-directed packet switching, however, has two potential concerns: (1) contention and (2) congestion. And this report specifically deals with the first problem. It includes a description and analysis of various self-routing switch structures, the nature of contention problems, and contention and resolution techniques.

  3. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper


    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  4. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.


    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  5. Green's function for a switched plasma medium and a perturbation technique for the study of wave propagation in a transient plasma with a small rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalluri, D.K.


    The main effect of switching a medium (creating a temporal discontinuity in the properties of a medium) is the splitting of the source (incident) wave into new waves whose frequencies are different. Lightning induced effects in the ionosphere cause a temporary enhancement of ionization. Such transient plasmas have a time-varying plasma frequency ω p (t) with a rise time T r . If the period t 0 of a source wave existing before the transient effect begins is much larger than the rise time, the ionization change may be idealized as a sudden switching of the medium. The solution to this initial value problem with a step-change in the electron density profile is known and this profile will be considered as a reference profile. The topic of this paper is the solution of the initial value problem when t 0 is comparable to the rise time T r . The initial motivation for investigating the problem is given below. There is considerable interest in the ionospheric physics community to investigate the recently discovered Sprites phenomenon which are red emissions in the lower D region induced by the lightning discharges from a cloud to the ground. The preliminary indications are that the Sprite is a plasma with electron density enhanced by about 10 1 to 10 3 /cc in a rise time of about 100 micros

  6. Changes of biophysical properties of the skin measured by non-invasive techniques after Q-switched Nd-YAG laser therapy in patients with nevus of Ota. (United States)

    Kim, S D; Kim, S W; Huh, C H; Suh, D H; Eun, H C


    The aim of the study was to objectify the effect of a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser on Ota's nevus in view of barrier function, surface contour changes, dermal blood flow, surface color changes and sebum production rate. Fifteen Korean patients with nevus of Ota (between 14 and 54 years of age) were enrolled. All the patients were treated by Q-switched Nd-YAG laser and followed up for 12 weeks. A reflectance spectrophotometer, a colorimeter, laser Doppler flowmetry, a Tewameter, a Corneometer and a Sebumeter were used to make measurements. Pvalues of less than 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. In skin reflectance measurements, L* values declined for 4 weeks and increased at 12 weeks, indicating that the brightness of the lesions improved. a* values showed a significant increase at 2 and 4 weeks. On the contrary, b* values decreased at 2 weeks. Transepidermal water loss and dermal blood flux showed identical patterns, showing increases at 2 weeks. The water holding capacity decreased at 2 and 4 weeks, and thereafter showed a delayed recovery. Casual sebum production increased at 4, 8 and 12 weeks. The loss of skin roughness was observed at 4 weeks, recovering at 12 weeks, although statistically insignificant. Reflex spectrophotometry did not reflect the changing properties of the skin. Our data suggest a useful model for evaluating physiologic skin changes after laser surgery in patients with nevus of Ota.

  7. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia


    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...


    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Rahim, Farhan


    MEMS based mechanical switches are seen to be the likely replacements for CMOS based switches due to the several advantages that these mechanical switches have over CMOS switches. Mechanical switches can be used in systems under extreme conditions and also provide more reliability and cause less power loss. A major problem with mechanical switches is bouncing. Bouncing is an undesirable characteristic which increases the switching time and causes damage to the switch structure affecting the overall switch life. This thesis proposes a new switch design that may be used to mitigate bouncing by using two voltage sources using a double electrode configuration. The effect of many switch’s tunable parameters is also discussed and an effective tuning technique is also provided. The results are compared to the current control schemes in literature and show that the double electrode scheme is a viable control option.

  9. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc


    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  10. A new Zero-Voltage-Transition PWM switching cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigore, V. [Electronics and Telecommunications Faculty `Politebuica` University Bucharest (Romania); Kyyrae, J. [Helsinki University of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Institute of Intelligent Power Electronics


    In this paper a new Zero-Voltage-Transition (ZVT) PWM switching cell is presented. The proposed switching cell is composed of the normal hard-switched PWM cell (consisting of one active switch and one passive switch), plus an auxiliary circuit (consisting of one active switch and some reactive components). The auxiliary circuit is inactive during the ON and OFF intervals of the switches in the normal PWM switch. However, the transitions between the two states are controlled by the auxiliary circuit. Prior to turn-on, the voltage across the active switch in the PWM cell is forced to zero, thus the turn-on losses of the active switch are practically eliminated. At turn-off the auxiliary circuit behaves like a non-dissipative passive snubber reducing the turn-off losses to a great extent. Zero-Voltage-Transition switching technique almost eliminates switching losses. The active switch operates under ZVT conditions, the passive switch (diode) has a controlled reverse recovery, and the switch in the auxiliary circuit operates under Zero-Current-Switching (ZCS) conditions. (orig.) 6 refs.

  11. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.


    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  12. Electric field-triggered metal-insulator transition resistive switching of bilayered multiphasic VOx (United States)

    Won, Seokjae; Lee, Sang Yeon; Hwang, Jungyeon; Park, Jucheol; Seo, Hyungtak


    Electric field-triggered Mott transition of VO2 for next-generation memory devices with sharp and fast resistance-switching response is considered to be ideal but the formation of single-phase VO2 by common deposition techniques is very challenging. Here, VOx films with a VO2-dominant phase for a Mott transition-based metal-insulator transition (MIT) switching device were successfully fabricated by the combined process of RF magnetron sputtering of V metal and subsequent O2 annealing to form. By performing various material characterizations, including scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy, the film is determined to have a bilayer structure consisting of a VO2-rich bottom layer acting as the Mott transition switching layer and a V2O5/V2O3 mixed top layer acting as a control layer that suppresses any stray leakage current and improves cyclic performance. This bilayer structure enables excellent electric field-triggered Mott transition-based resistive switching of Pt-VOx-Pt metal-insulator-metal devices with a set/reset current ratio reaching 200, set/reset voltage of less than 2.5 V, and very stable DC cyclic switching upto 120 cycles with a great set/reset current and voltage distribution less than 5% of standard deviation at room temperature, which are specifications applicable for neuromorphic or memory device applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. MEMS switches having non-metallic crossbeams (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximillian C (Inventor)


    A RF MEMS switch comprising a crossbeam of SiC, supported by at least one leg above a substrate and above a plurality of transmission lines forming a CPW. Bias is provided by at least one layer of metal disposed on a top surface of the SiC crossbeam, such as a layer of chromium followed by a layer of gold, and extending beyond the switch to a biasing pad on the substrate. The switch utilizes stress and conductivity-controlled non-metallic thin cantilevers or bridges, thereby improving the RF characteristics and operational reliability of the switch. The switch can be fabricated with conventional silicon integrated circuit (IC) processing techniques. The design of the switch is very versatile and can be implemented in many transmission line mediums.

  14. CMOS integrated switching power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Villar-Pique, Gerard


    This book describes the structured design and optimization of efficient, energy processing integrated circuits. The approach is multidisciplinary, covering the monolithic integration of IC design techniques, power electronics and control theory. In particular, this book enables readers to conceive, synthesize, design and implement integrated circuits with high-density high-efficiency on-chip switching power regulators. Topics covered encompass the structured design of the on-chip power supply, efficiency optimization, IC-compatible power inductors and capacitors, power MOSFET switches and effi

  15. Exercise training inhibits inflammation in adipose tissue via both suppression of macrophage infiltration and acceleration of phenotypic switching from M1 to M2 macrophages in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice. (United States)

    Kawanishi, Noriaki; Yano, Hiromi; Yokogawa, Yuka; Suzuki, Katsuhiko


    Recent studies suggest that exchange of macrophage phenotype (M1/M2) in adipose tissue is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity. M1 macrophages enhance a chronic inflammatory state in adipose tissues, whereas M2 macrophages inhibit it. Although exercise training might inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in adipose tissue, it remains unclear whether exercise training affects the phenotypic switch of macrophage polarization in adipose tissue. Therefore, we inveStigated the effect of exercise training on the macrophage phenotypic switch in adipose tissue in high-fat-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups; normal diet (ND) control (n=7), ND exercise (n=7), high-fat-diet (HFD) control (n=12), and HFD exercise (n=12) groups. All exercised mice ran on a treadmill at 12-20 m/min for 60 min/day for 16 weeks. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, F4/80, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, CXCL14, inter-cellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, vascular-cellular adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1, CD11c, CD163 and toll-like receptor (TLR)4 mRNA expressions in adipose tissue were evaluated by real time-RT-PCR. In HFD mice, exercise training did not induce loss of body or adipose tissue mass, exercise training nevertheless markedly inhibited TNF-alpha and F4/80 mRNA expression in adipose tissue. The exercise training attenuated HFD-induced increase in ICAM-1 mRNA expression, but not MCP-1, CXCL14 and VCAM-1 mRNA expressions. In addition, increased CD11c mRNA expression, which is a M1 macrophage specific marker, with HFD treatment was attenuated by exercise training. In contrast, although the mRNA expression of CD163, a M2 macrophage specific marker, in adipose tissue was significantly decreased by HFD, the exercise training significantly increased its expression. Also, the higher mRNA expression of TLR4, which induces pro-inflammatory cytokine production after fatty acid recognition, was strongly inhibited by

  16. Robust Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Switched Systems with Filippov Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Mohamadreza; Mojallali, Hamed; Wisniewski, Rafal


    This paper addresses the stability problem of a class of nonlinear switched systems with partitioned state-space and state-dependent switching. In lieu of the Caratheodory solutions, the general Filippov solutions are considered. This encapsulates solutions with infinite switching in finite time....... which provides sufficient means to construct the corresponding Lyapunov functions via available semi-definite programming techniques....

  17. Natural IgM and TLR Agonists Switch Murine Splenic Pan-B to “Regulatory” Cells That Suppress Ischemia-Induced Innate Inflammation via Regulating NKT-1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. Lobo


    Full Text Available Natural IgM anti-leukocyte autoantibodies (IgM-ALAs inhibit inflammation by several mechanisms. Here, we show that pan-B cells and bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs are switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with IgM. B cells are also switched to regulatory cells when pretreated ex vivo with CpG but not with LPS. Pre-emptive infusion of such ex vivo induced regulatory cells protects C57BL/6 mice from ischemia-induced acute kidney injury (AKI via regulation of in vivo NKT-1 cells, which normally amplify the innate inflammatory response to DAMPS released after reperfusion of the ischemic kidney. Such ex vivo induced regulatory pan-B cells and BMDC express low CD1d and inhibit inflammation by regulating in vivo NKT-1 in the context of low-lipid antigen presentation and by a mechanism that requires costimulatory molecules, CD1d, PDL1/PD1, and IL10. Second, LPS and CpG have opposite effects on induction of regulatory activity in BMDC and B cells. LPS enhances regulatory activity of IgM-pretreated BMDC but negates the IgM-induced regulatory activity in B cells, while CpG, with or without IgM pretreatment, induces regulatory activity in B cells but not in BMDC. Differences in the response of pan-B and dendritic cells to LPS and CpG, especially in the presence of IgM-ALA, may have relevance during infections and inflammatory disorders where there is an increased IgM-ALA and release of TLRs 4 and 9 ligands. Ex vivo induced regulatory pan-B cells could have therapeutic relevance as these easily available cells can be pre-emptively infused to prevent AKI that can occur during open heart surgery or in transplant recipients receiving deceased donor organs.

  18. Outcomes after corrective surgery for congenital dextro-transposition of the great arteries using the arterial switch technique: a protocol for a scoping systematic review (United States)

    Mbuagbaw, Lawrence; Forlemu-Kamwa, Doris; Chu, Angela; Thabane, Lehana; Dillenberg, Rejane


    Introduction Dextro-transposition of the great arteries (d-TGA) is a life-threatening congenital health defect that requires rapid surgery. The most widely used approach is the arterial switch operation (ASO) developed by Jatene in the 1970s. The first set of children who received this intervention are now adults. The objective of this scoping review of the literature was to document the short-term (less than 1 year), medium-term (1–20 years) and long-term (more than 20 years) outcomes in children who underwent the ASO. Our primary income is survival, but we will explore other secondary surgical, cardiovascular, reproductive and quality-of-life outcomes. Methods and analyses Using a systematic scoping review approach, we will conduct a systematic search of the published literature for experimental and observational studies published on children who received the ASO intervention for classic d-TGA. We will search MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) and Literatura Latino Americana em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) from 1973 (date of the first successful ASO) to February 2014. Identified articles will be screened in duplicate and full text for selected articles will be retrieved. Data extraction will be carried out in duplicate. Discrepancies will be resolved by consensus or by consulting a third author. Where possible, proportions will be pooled using the inverse variance method. Our findings will be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Meta-analysis Of Observational studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Ethics and dissemination The results of this paper will be disseminated as peer-reviewed publications, at conferences and at clinical rounds. Our findings may answer important questions for surgeons who perform the ASO intervention and for clinicians who take care of patients after surgery and throughout their

  19. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  20. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.


    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting

  1. Simultaneously suppressing frequency and intensity noise in a Nd:YAG nonplanar ring oscillator by means of the current-lock technique. (United States)

    Heurs, Michèle; Quetschke, Volker M; Willke, Benno; Danzmann, Karsten; Freitag, Ingo


    We show that frequency and intensity noise in a Nd:YAG laser are correlated to a high degree and can be traced to the same underlying cause, namely, power fluctuations of the pump source. Because of this correlation, simultaneous suppression of frequency and intensity noise by 30 dB is achieved by means of a single actuator, the pump power.

  2. Controller Architectures for Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    This paper investigate different controller architectures in connection with controller switching. The controller switching is derived by using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. A number of different architectures for the implementation of the YJBK parameterization...... are described and applied in connection with controller switching. An architecture that does not include inversion of the coprime factors is introduced. This architecture will make controller switching particular simple....

  3. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler


    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  4. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail:; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)


    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  5. Tutorial: Integrated-photonic switching structures (United States)

    Soref, Richard


    Recent developments in waveguided 2 × 2 and N × M photonic switches are reviewed, including both broadband and narrowband resonant devices for the Si, InP, and AlN platforms. Practical actuation of switches by electro-optical and thermo-optical techniques is discussed. Present datacom-and-computing applications are reviewed, and potential applications are proposed for chip-scale photonic and optoelectronic integrated switching networks. Potential is found in the reconfigurable, programmable "mesh" switches that enable a promising group of applications in new areas beyond those in data centers and cloud servers. Many important matrix switches use gated semiconductor optical amplifiers. The family of broadband, directional-coupler 2 × 2 switches featuring two or three side-coupled waveguides deserves future experimentation, including devices that employ phase-change materials. The newer 2 × 2 resonant switches include standing-wave resonators, different from the micro-ring traveling-wave resonators. The resonant devices comprise nanobeam interferometers, complex-Bragg interferometers, and asymmetric contra-directional couplers. Although the fast, resonant devices offer ultralow switching energy, ˜1 fJ/bit, they have limitations. They require several trade-offs when deployed, but they do have practical application.

  6. Switch telomerase to ALT mechanism by inducing telomeric DNA damages and dysfunction of ATRX and DAXX. (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Shi, Guang; Zhang, Laichen; Li, Feng; Jiang, Yuanling; Jiang, Shuai; Ma, Wenbin; Zhao, Yong; Songyang, Zhou; Huang, Junjiu


    Activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) is necessary for tumours to escape from dysfunctional telomere-mediated senescence. Anti-telomerase drugs might be effective in suppressing tumour growth in approximately 85-90% of telomerase-positive cancer cells. However, there are still chances for these cells to bypass drug treatment after switching to the ALT mechanism to maintain their telomere integrity. But the mechanism underlying this switch is unknown. In this study, we used telomerase-positive cancer cells (HTC75) to discover the mechanism of the telomerase-ALT switch by inducing telomere-specific DNA damage, alpha-thalassemia X-linked syndrome protein (ATRX) knockdown and deletion of death associated protein (DAXX). Surprisingly, two important ALT hallmarks in the ALT-like HTC75 cells were observed after treatments: ALT-associated promyelocytic leukaemia bodies (APBs) and extrachromosomal circular DNA of telomeric repeats. Moreover, knocking out hTERT by utilizing the CRISPR/Cas9 technique led to telomere elongation in a telomerase-independent manner in ALT-like HTC75 cells. In summary, this is the first report to show that inducing telomeric DNA damage, disrupting the ATRX/DAXX complex and inhibiting telomerase activity in telomerase-positive cancer cells lead to the ALT switch.

  7. Suppression chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Akio.


    Purpose: To miniaturize the storage tank of condensated water in BWR reactor. Constitution: A diaphragm is provided in a suppression chamber thereby to partition the same into an inner compartment and an outer compartment. In one of said compartments there is stored clean water to be used for feeding at the time of separating the reactor and for the core spray system, and in another compartment there is stored water necessary for accomplishing the depressurization effect at the time of coolant loss accident. To the compartment in which clean water is stored there is connected a water cleaning device for constantly maintaining water in clean state. As this cleaning device an already used fuel pool cleaning device can be utilized. Further, downcomers for accomplishing the depressurization function are provided in both inner compartment and outer compartment. The capacity of the storage tank can be reduced by the capacity of clean water within the suppression chamber. (Ikeda, J.)

  8. An influence coefficient method for the application of the modal technique to wing flutter suppression of the DAST ARW-1 wing (United States)

    Pines, S.


    The methods used to compute the mass, structural stiffness, and aerodynamic forces in the form of influence coefficient matrices as applied to a flutter analysis of the Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Aeroelastic Research Wing. The DAST wing was chosen because wind tunnel flutter test data and zero speed vibration data of the modes and frequencies exist and are available for comparison. A derivation of the equations of motion that can be used to apply the modal method for flutter suppression is included. A comparison of the open loop flutter predictions with both wind tunnel data and other analytical methods is presented.

  9. Glucose Suppresses Biological Ferroelectricity in Aortic Elastin (United States)

    Liu, Yuanming; Wang, Yunjie; Chow, Ming-Jay; Chen, Nataly Q.; Ma, Feiyue; Zhang, Yanhang; Li, Jiangyu


    Elastin is an intriguing extracellular matrix protein present in all connective tissues of vertebrates, rendering essential elasticity to connective tissues subjected to repeated physiological stresses. Using piezoresponse force microscopy, we show that the polarity of aortic elastin is switchable by an electrical field, which may be associated with the recently discovered biological ferroelectricity in the aorta. More interestingly, it is discovered that the switching in aortic elastin is largely suppressed by glucose treatment, which appears to freeze the internal asymmetric polar structures of elastin, making it much harder to switch, or suppressing the switching completely. Such loss of ferroelectricity could have important physiological and pathological implications from aging to arteriosclerosis that are closely related to glycation of elastin.

  10. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel (United States)

    Powell, J.G.


    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  11. Endoleak detection after endovascular aneurysm repair using unenhanced MRI with flow suppression technique: Feasibility study in comparison with contrast-enhanced CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Kensaku; Saida, Tsukasa; Okamoto, Yoshikazu; Nasu, Katsuhiro; Minami, Manabu [University of Tsukuba, Department of Radiology Faculty of Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sato, Fujio [University of Tsukuba, Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Uchikawa, Yoko [Hitachi General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan); Konishi, Takahiro; Ishiguro, Toshitaka; Hiyama, Takashi [University of Tsukuba Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Hoshiai, Sodai [Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kasama, Ibaraki (Japan)


    To evaluate the feasibility of unenhanced motion-sensitized-driven equilibrium (MSDE)-prepared balanced turbo field echo (BTFE) sequences for detecting endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Forty-six patients treated with EVAR for aortic and/or iliac arterial aneurysms underwent contrast-enhanced CT and MSDE-prepared BTFE sequences with and without flow suppression. Two independent observers reviewed these sequences and their subtraction images and assigned confidence levels for detecting endoleaks. Relative contrast values were calculated by dividing signal intensities by those of paraspinal muscles. CT provided the reference standard. CT showed types I and II endoleaks in one and ten patients, respectively. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.92 and 0.97 for observers 1 and 2, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of both observers were 91 (10/11), 91(32/35), 91 (42/46), 77 (10/13) and 97 % (32/33), respectively. Relative contrast values of endoleaks and flowing blood significantly decreased by flow suppression on MSDE-prepared BTFE images (P = 0.002 and P < 0.0001 respectively), and were significantly higher than those of the excluded aneurysms on subtraction images (P = 0.003 and P = 0.001, respectively). Unenhanced MSDE-prepared BTFE sequences are feasible for detecting endoleaks. (orig.)

  12. Comparative study of radiation dose and image noise between single-source fast kilo voltage peak switching technique and conventional mode on abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Xiaozhu; Xu Xueqin; Chen Kemin; Yan Fuhua; Isao Tanaka; Rika Fukui; Haruhiko Machida; Eiko Ueno


    Objective: To investigate the radiation dose and image noise of abdominal CT with spectral imaging and conventional scan mode. Methods: This was a retrospective study. The first part of this study was a phantom study. A standard quality assessment phantom was scanned with gemstone spectral imaging mode and conventional helical mode using 120 kVp with different mAs. A regression function for the mAs between conventional scan mode and spectral imaging mode was obtained. According to the regression function, the mAs on 120 kVp corresponding to different gemstone spectral imaging protocol were calculated. The second part of this study was a clinical study. Twenty-two patients who underwent contrast enhanced abdominal CT scanning were included. The pre-contrast CT was scanned by a conventional mode with automatic exposure control technique. According to the mAs of pre-contrast scan, corresponding spectral imaging parameters were selected for the portal venous phase of post-contrast scan. Five sets of images with 5 mm slice thickness were reconstructed, with 65 keV monochromatic image for spectral imaging and FBP, 20%,40% and 60% ASIR image for conventional imaging respectively. Image noise was measured on hepatic parenchyma and urinary bladder for each set of image. Radiation dose and image noise were compared between CT spectral imaging and conventional imaging with paired t-test. Results: No significant differences were found for the CTDIvol [(13.8 ± 4.8) mGy versus (14.0 ± 7.0) mGy] and DLP [(691.1 ± 274.2) mGy · cm versus (678.8 ± 385.0) mGy · cm] between CT spectral imaging and conventional imaging. Monochromatic image (65 keV) by spectral imaging [(7.6 ± 1.4) HU for hepatic parenchyma and (9.1 ± 1.3) HU for urinary bladder] had equal image noise with 40% ASIR [hepatic parenchyma: (7.8 ±0.7) HU] and 20% ASIR [urinary bladder: (9.2 ± 1.2) HU] and lower image noise than FBP image [(10.4 ± 1.0) HU for hepatic parenchyma and (10.5 ± 1.3) HU for urinary

  13. The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933

    CERN Document Server

    Sjöholm, B


    X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

  14. Recent advances in column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis. (United States)

    Kataoka, Hiroyuki; Saito, Keita


    Column switching techniques, using two or more stationary phase columns, are useful for trace enrichment and online automated sample preparation. Target fractions from the first column are transferred online to a second column with different properties for further separation. Column switching techniques can be used to determine the analytes in a complex matrix by direct sample injection or by simple sample treatment. Online column switching sample preparation is usually performed in combination with HPLC or capillary electrophoresis. SPE or turbulent flow chromatography using a cartridge column and in-tube solid-phase microextraction using a capillary column have been developed for convenient column switching sample preparation. Furthermore, various micro-/nano-sample preparation devices using new polymer-coating materials have been developed to improve extraction efficiency. This review describes current developments and future trends in novel column switching sample preparation in bioanalysis, focusing on innovative column switching techniques using new extraction devices and materials.

  15. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony


    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  16. Efficacy and safety of switching from boosted protease inhibitors plus emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate regimens to single-tablet darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide at 48 weeks in adults with virologically suppressed HIV-1 (EMERALD): a phase 3, randomised, non-inferiority trial. (United States)

    Orkin, Chloe; Molina, Jean-Michel; Negredo, Eugenia; Arribas, José R; Gathe, Joseph; Eron, Joseph J; Van Landuyt, Erika; Lathouwers, Erkki; Hufkens, Veerle; Petrovic, Romana; Vanveggel, Simon; Opsomer, Magda


    Simplified regimens with reduced pill burden and fewer side-effects are desirable for people living with HIV. We investigated the efficacy and safety of switching to a single-tablet regimen of darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide versus continuing a regimen of boosted protease inhibitor, emtricitabine, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. EMERALD was a phase-3, randomised, active-controlled, open-label, international, multicentre trial, done at 106 sites across nine countries in North America and Europe. HIV-1-infected adults were eligible to participate if they were treatment-experienced and virologically suppressed (viral load <50 copies per mL for ≥2 months; one viral load of 50-200 copies per mL was allowed within 12 months before screening), and patients with a history of virological failure on non-darunavir regimens were allowed. Randomisation was by computer-generated interactive web-response system and stratified by boosted protease inhibitor use at baseline. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to switch to the open-label study regimen or continue the control regimen. The study regimen consisted of a fixed-dose tablet containing darunavir 800 mg, cobicistat 150 mg, emtricitabine 200 mg, and tenofovir alafenamide 10 mg, which was taken once per day for 48 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants with virological rebound (confirmed viral load ≥50 copies per mL or premature discontinuations, with last viral load ≥50 copies per mL) cumulative through week 48; we tested non-inferiority (4% margin) of the study regimen versus the control regimen in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with, number NCT02269917. The study began on April 1, 2015, and the cutoff date for the week 48 primary analysis was Feb 24, 2017. Of 1141 patients (763 in the study group and 378 in the control group), 664 (58%) had previously received five or more antiretrovirals, including screening

  17. Low Temperature Resistive Switching Behavior in a Manganite (United States)

    Salvo, Christopher; Lopez, Melinda; Tsui, Stephen


    The development of new nonvolatile memory devices remains an important field of consumer electronics. A possible candidate is bipolar resistive switching, a method by which the resistance of a material changes when a voltage is applied. Although there is a great deal of research on this topic, not much has been done at low temperatures. In this work, we compare the room temperature and low temperature behaviors of switching in a manganite thin film. The data indicates that the switching is suppressed upon cooling to cryogenic temperatures, and the presence of crystalline charge traps is tied to the physical mechanism.

  18. Plasma erosion switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.; Miller, P.A.


    The plasma erosion switch is a device capable of initially carrying high currents, and then of opening in nanoseconds to stand off high voltages. It depends upon the erosion of a plasma which initially fills the switch. The sheath between the plasma and the cathode behaves as a diode with a rapidly increasing A-K gap. Preliminary tests of the switch on the Proto I accelerator at Sandia will be described. In these tests, the switch consisted of a cylinder of highly ionized plasma four inches in diameter and one-inch thick surrounding a one-inch cathode. The switch shorted out prepulse voltages and allowed energy to be stored in the diode inductance outside the switch until the accelerator current reached 75 kA. The switch impedance then rose rapidly to approximately 100 ω in 5 nanoseconds, whereupon the accelerator current transferred to the cathode. Current rise rates of 3.10 13 A/sec were limited by cathode turn-on. Voltage rise rates of 10 15 V/sec were achieved. The elimination of prepulse and machine turn-on transients allowed A-K gaps of 2 mm to be used with 2.5 MV pulses, yielding average E fields of 12 MV/cm. Staged versions of the device are being built and should improve rise rates. The switch shows promise for use with future, higher power, lower inductance machines

  19. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W


    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  20. Analysis of Switched-Rigid Floating Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar R. Marur


    Full Text Available In explicit finite element simulations, a technique called deformable-to-rigid (D2R switching is used routinely to reduce the computation time. Using the D2R option, the deformable parts in the model can be switched to rigid and reverted back to deformable when needed during the analysis. The time of activation of D2R however influences the overall dynamics of the system being analyzed. In this paper, a theoretical basis for the selection of time of rigid switching based on system energy is established. A floating oscillator problem is investigated for this purpose and closed-form analytical expressions are derived for different phases in rigid switching. The analytical expressions are validated by comparing the theoretical results with numerical computations.

  1. The Morrison Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor (United States)

    Wong, David S.


    adjusting the rotor s position more than 300 times per rotation. and vibration-suppression capacity for the switched reluctance motor. Traditional switched reluctance motors possess many positive traits, including It is hoped that this new invention will increase load-carrying capacity, stiffness, and vibration-suppression capacity for the switched reluctance motor.

  2. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun


    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  3. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)


    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  4. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem


    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained

  5. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry


    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  6. uv preilluminated gas switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.


    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

  7. Switching power supply filter (United States)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)


    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  8. uv preilluminated gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.


    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10 12 amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters

  9. Photonics in switching

    CERN Document Server

    Midwinter, John E; Kelley, Paul


    Photonics in Switching provides a broad, balanced overview of the use of optics or photonics in switching, from materials and devices to system architecture. The chapters, each written by an expert in the field, survey the key technologies, setting them in context and highlighting their benefits and possible applications. This book is a valuable resource for those working in the communications industry, either at the professional or student level, who do not have extensive background knowledge or the underlying physics of the technology.

  10. Combining the Sterile Insect Technique with Wolbachia-Based Approaches: II--A Safer Approach to Aedes albopictus Population Suppression Programmes, Designed to Minimize the Consequences of Inadvertent Female Release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjing Zhang

    Full Text Available Due to the absence of a perfect method for mosquito sex separation, the combination of the sterile insect technique and the incompatible insect technique is now being considered as a potentially effective method to control Aedes albopictus. In this present study first we examine the minimum pupal irradiation dose required to induce complete sterility in Wolbachia triple-infected (HC, double-infected (GUA and uninfected (GT female Ae. albopictus. The HC line is a candidate for Ae. albopictus population suppression programmes, but due to the risk of population replacement which characterizes this triple infected line, the individuals to be released need to be additionally irradiated. After determining the minimum irradiation dose required for complete female sterility, we test whether sterilization is sufficient to prevent invasion of the triple infection from the HC females into double-infected (GUA populations. Our results indicate that irradiated Ae. albopictus HC, GUA and GT strain females have decreased fecundity and egg hatch rate when irradiated, inversely proportional to the dose, and the complete sterilization of females can be acquired by pupal irradiation with doses above 28 Gy. PCR-based analysis of F1 and F2 progeny indicate that the irradiated HC females, cannot spread the new Wolbachia wPip strain into a small cage GUA population, released at a 1:5 ratio. Considering the above results, we conclude that irradiation can be used to reduce the risk of population replacement caused by an unintentional release of Wolbachia triple-infected Ae. albopictus HC strain females during male release for population suppression.

  11. Switching Service Providers: Reasons, Service Types, and Sequences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Keaveney.s (1995) landmark study on the reasons for switching service providers, data were gathered using critical incident technique (CIT); here the original findings are tested using survey method. Keaveney.s typology of reasons for switching is supported across a range of categories but, in this new study, the reasons ...

  12. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian


    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  13. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.


    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  14. Smooth invariant densities for random switching on the torus (United States)

    Bakhtin, Yuri; Hurth, Tobias; Lawley, Sean D.; Mattingly, Jonathan C.


    We consider a random dynamical system obtained by switching between the flows generated by two smooth vector fields on the 2d-torus, with the random switchings happening according to a Poisson process. Assuming that the driving vector fields are transversal to each other at all points of the torus and that each of them allows for a smooth invariant density and no periodic orbits, we prove that the switched system also has a smooth invariant density, for every switching rate. Our approach is based on an integration by parts formula inspired by techniques from Malliavin calculus.

  15. Low inductance gas switching.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.


    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  16. Adaptive synchronized switch damping on an inductor: a self-tuning switching law (United States)

    Kelley, Christopher R.; Kauffman, Jeffrey L.


    Synchronized switch damping (SSD) techniques exploit low-power switching between passive circuits connected to piezoelectric material to reduce structural vibration. In the classical implementation of SSD, the piezoelectric material remains in an open circuit for the majority of the vibration cycle and switches briefly to a shunt circuit at every displacement extremum. Recent research indicates that this switch timing is only optimal for excitation exactly at resonance and points to more general optimal switch criteria based on the phase of the displacement and the system parameters. This work proposes a self-tuning approach that implements the more general optimal switch timing for synchronized switch damping on an inductor (SSDI) without needing any knowledge of the system parameters. The law involves a gradient-based search optimization that is robust to noise and uncertainties in the system. Testing of a physical implementation confirms this law successfully adapts to the frequency and parameters of the system. Overall, the adaptive SSDI controller provides better off-resonance steady-state vibration reduction than classical SSDI while matching performance at resonance.

  17. A radiation hard vacuum switch (United States)

    Boettcher, G.E.


    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  18. Unity power factor switching regulator (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)


    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  19. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.


    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Novel DC Bias Suppression Device Based on Adjustable Parallel Resistances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhixun; Xie, Zhicheng; Liu, Chang


    resistances is designed. The mathematical model for global optimal switching of CBDs is established by field-circuit coupling method with the equivalent resistance network of ac system along with the location of substations and ground electrodes. The optimal switching scheme to minimize the global maximum dc...... current is obtained by gravitational search algorithm. Based on the aforementioned work, we propose a suppression strategy considering electro-corrosion of metal pipelines. The effectiveness and superiority of suppression methods are verified by comparative case studies of the Yichang power grid....

  1. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM


    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  2. Switching power supply (United States)

    Mihalka, A.M.


    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  3. Optical computer switching network (United States)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.


    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  4. Ovonic switching in tin selenide thin films. Ph.D. Thesis (United States)

    Baxter, C. R.


    Amorphous tin selenide thin films which possess Ovonic switching properties were fabricated using vacuum deposition techniques. Results obtained indicate that memory type Ovonic switching does occur in these films the energy density required for switching from a high impedance to a low impedance state is dependent on the spacing between the electrodes of the device. The switching is also function of the magnitude of the applied voltage pulse. A completely automated computer controlled testing procedure was developed which allows precise control over the shape of the applied voltage switching pulse. A survey of previous experimental and theoretical work in the area of Ovonic switching is also presented.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Muthu Raja Mathivanan


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Anaesthesia for bronchoscopy poses unique challenges for the pulmonologist. By definition, bronchoscopy is an endoscopic technique to visualise the inside of the airways, it is a pivotal diagnostic and therapeutic tool in Pulmonary Medicine. Rigid bronchoscopy is usually done for diagnosis and treatment of intra and/or extra luminal obstruction in the airway for adults and children. With the development of fibreoptic and advanced electronic technology, the flexible bronchoscope has replaced the rigid bronchoscope for most diagnostic and some therapeutic indications. Rigid bronchoscopy requires general anaesthesia, however, flexible bronchoscopy can be performed with conscious sedation supplemented with local anaesthesia. The aim of the study is to- 1. Assess the effect of local anaesthesia on cough suppression during flexible bronchoscopy, when given by two different methods. 2. Compare the degree of cough and patient comfort while using “10% lignocaine spray + 2% lignocaine as you go technique, versus 4% lignocaine nebulisation + 2% lignocaine as you go technique.” MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a prospective study done on 50 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy from December 2016 to February 2017. The study groups were assembled by block randomisation technique to receive lignocaine (local anaesthesia as either “as you go” and “spray” or “as you go” and “nebulisation”. Institutional Ethics Committee clearance was obtained prior to commencement of the study. RESULTS The study involving 50 patients and statistical analysis illustrated that in 2% lignocaine as you go + 10% lignocaine spray “no cough” and “mild cough” is 18 out of sample 25, which is 72%. Hence, “10% lignocaine spray + 2% lignocaine as you go” is better than “4% lignocaine nebulisation + 2% lignocaine as you go” technique. There was no significant arrhythmias in any of the patients. The dose of lidocaine is

  6. Operation of a homeostatic sleep switch. (United States)

    Pimentel, Diogo; Donlea, Jeffrey M; Talbot, Clifford B; Song, Seoho M; Thurston, Alexander J F; Miesenböck, Gero


    Sleep disconnects animals from the external world, at considerable risks and costs that must be offset by a vital benefit. Insight into this mysterious benefit will come from understanding sleep homeostasis: to monitor sleep need, an internal bookkeeper must track physiological changes that are linked to the core function of sleep. In Drosophila, a crucial component of the machinery for sleep homeostasis is a cluster of neurons innervating the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of the central complex. Artificial activation of these cells induces sleep, whereas reductions in excitability cause insomnia. dFB neurons in sleep-deprived flies tend to be electrically active, with high input resistances and long membrane time constants, while neurons in rested flies tend to be electrically silent. Correlative evidence thus supports the simple view that homeostatic sleep control works by switching sleep-promoting neurons between active and quiescent states. Here we demonstrate state switching by dFB neurons, identify dopamine as a neuromodulator that operates the switch, and delineate the switching mechanism. Arousing dopamine caused transient hyperpolarization of dFB neurons within tens of milliseconds and lasting excitability suppression within minutes. Both effects were transduced by Dop1R2 receptors and mediated by potassium conductances. The switch to electrical silence involved the downregulation of voltage-gated A-type currents carried by Shaker and Shab, and the upregulation of voltage-independent leak currents through a two-pore-domain potassium channel that we term Sandman. Sandman is encoded by the CG8713 gene and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to dopamine. dFB-restricted interference with the expression of Shaker or Sandman decreased or increased sleep, respectively, by slowing the repetitive discharge of dFB neurons in the ON state or blocking their entry into the OFF state. Biophysical changes in a small population of neurons are thus linked to the

  7. Optical Packet Switching Demostrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert


    In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the m......In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set...

  8. Plasma Switch Development. (United States)


    ACCION NO. 3. RCIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED PLASMA SWITCH DEVELOPMENT Final Report: 02/26/82 thru...with an inductive energy store. At present, the are summarized state-of-he- art of high-power repetitive opening or doming switches is limited to...Alexandria, VA 22304. Figure 7 Is a circuit diagram of the proposed system. The desired load pulse parameters art -100- e References 1. R.D. Ford, 0. Jenkins

  9. Bearingless switched reluctance motor (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)


    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  10. Fast-opening vacuum switches for high-power inductive energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooperstein, G.


    The subject of fast-opening vacuum switches for high-power inductive energy storage is emerging as an exciting new area of plasma science research. This opening switch technology, which generally involves the use of plasmas as the switching medium, is key to the development of inductive energy storage techniques for pulsed power which have a number of advantages over conventional capacitive techniques with regard to cost and size. This paper reviews the state of the art in this area with emphasis on applications to inductive storage pulsed power generators. Discussion focuses on fast-opening vacuum switches capable of operating at high power (≥10 12 W). These include plasma erosion opening switches, ion beam opening switches, plasma filled diodes, reflex diodes, plasma flow switches, and other novel vacuum opening switches

  11. Stochastic switching induced adaptation in a starved Escherichia coli population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Shimizu

    Full Text Available Population adaptation can be determined by stochastic switching in living cells. To examine how stochastic switching contributes to the fate decision for a population under severe stress, we constructed an Escherichia coli strain crucially dependent on the expression of a rewired gene. The gene essential for tryptophan biosynthesis, trpC, was removed from the native regulatory unit, the Trp operon, and placed under the extraneous control of the lactose utilisation network. Bistability of the network provided the cells two discrete phenotypes: the induced and suppressed level of trpC. The two phenotypes permitted the cells to grow or not, respectively, under conditions of tryptophan depletion. We found that stochastic switching between the two states allowed the initially suppressed cells to form a new population with induced trpC in response to tryptophan starvation. However, the frequency of the transition from suppressed to induced state dropped off dramatically in the starved population, in comparison to that in the nourished population. This reduced switching rate was compensated by increasing the initial population size, which probably provided the cell population more chances to wait for the rarely appearing fit cells from the unfit cells. Taken together, adaptation of a starved bacterial population because of stochasticity in the gene rewired from the ancient regulon was experimentally confirmed, and the nutritional status and the population size played a great role in stochastic adaptation.

  12. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.


    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  13. Photonic MEMS switch applications (United States)

    Husain, Anis


    As carriers and service providers continue their quest for profitable network solutions, they have shifted their focus from raw bandwidth to rapid provisioning, delivery and management of revenue generating services. Inherently transparent to data rate the transmission wavelength and data format, MEMS add scalability, reliability, low power and compact size providing flexible solutions to the management and/or fiber channels in long haul, metro, and access networks. MEMS based photonic switches have gone from the lab to commercial availability and are now currently in carrier trials and volume production. 2D MEMS switches offer low up-front deployment costs while remaining scalable to large arrays. They allow for transparent, native protocol transmission. 2D switches enable rapid service turn-up and management for many existing and emerging revenue rich services such as storage connectivity, optical Ethernet, wavelength leasing and optical VPN. As the network services evolve, the larger 3D MEMS switches, which provide greater scalability and flexibility, will become economically viable to serve the ever-increasing needs.

  14. Search and switching costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siekman, Wilhelm Henricus


    This thesis analyses markets with search and with switching costs. It provides insights in several important issues in search markets, including how loss aversion may affect consumer behavior and firm conduct, and how prices, welfare, and profits may change when an intermediating platform orders

  15. The Octopus switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.


    This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital Companion. The approach to build a low-power handheld multimedia computer presented here is to have autonomous, reconfigurable modules such as network, video and audio devices, interconnected by a switch rather than by a

  16. Stochastic Switching Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria

    mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...

  17. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang L. Wang


    Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device

  18. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting


    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  19. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene. (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Ma, Yanling; Zhang, Ying-Tao


    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device.

  20. A valley-filtering switch based on strained graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Feng; Ma Yanling; Zhang Yingtao


    We investigate valley-dependent transport through a graphene sheet modulated by both the substrate strain and the fringe field of two parallel ferromagnetic metal (FM) stripes. When the magnetizations of the two FM stripes are switched from the parallel to the antiparallel alignment, the total conductance, valley polarization and valley conductance excess change greatly over a wide range of Fermi energy, which results from the dependence of the valley-related transmission suppression on the polarity configuration of inhomogeneous magnetic fields. Thus the proposed structure exhibits the significant features of a valley-filtering switch and a magnetoresistance device. (paper)

  1. Review of opening switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, M.; Schoenbach, K.M.; Schaefer, G.


    Review of opening switch technology is given. Classification of open switches applied in pulsed power technology is presented. The most familiar opening switches are fuses. It is shown that a strong oxidizer (H 2 O 2 in water), especially in combination with wires of Al, increases the maximum voltage. Thermally driven opening switches are the result of attempts to achive the speed and economy of fuse opening switches but with added advantage of repetitive operation. The search for coordinate materials for this type of opening switch is in its infancy and it is difficult to predict how successful such a switch may be. Explosive opening switches offer the possibility of precise timing and permit the delay before explosion to be controlled independently of current flowing through the switch. Plasma guns, dense plasma focus and MHD switches are also considered. Diffuse discharge opening switches are attractive for repetitive operation. The plasma erosion switch operates on a very short time scale of 10 ns to 100 ns, both to regard to conduction and opening times

  2. Noise Analysis of Switched-Current Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur


    The understanding of noise in analog sampled data systems is vital for the design of high resolution circuitry in the discrete time domain. In this paper a general description of sampled and held noise is presened. The noise calculations are verified by measurements on an analog delay line...... implemented using switched-current (SI) technique. The SI delay line is based on a new topology current copier (CCOP). For the verification of the theory a new measurement technique is used. This technique enables one to measure the power spectral density of sampled and held noise which is below...... the continuous time noise floor....

  3. Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch (United States)

    Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog


    This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.

  4. Optimization of Modulation Waveforms for Improved EMI Attenuation in Switching Frequency Modulated Power Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniss Stepins


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic interference (EMI is one of the major problems of switching power converters. This paper is devoted to switching frequency modulation used for conducted EMI suppression in switching power converters. Comprehensive theoretical analysis of switching power converter conducted EMI spectrum and EMI attenuation due the use of traditional ramp and multislope ramp modulation waveforms is presented. Expressions to calculate EMI spectrum and attenuation are derived. Optimization procedure of the multislope ramp modulation waveform is proposed to get maximum benefits from switching frequency modulation for EMI reduction. Experimental verification is also performed to prove that the optimized multislope ramp modulation waveform is very useful solution for effective EMI reduction in switching power converters.

  5. Optical fiber switch (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.


    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  6. Beyond the switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliakseyeu, Dzmitry; Meerbeek, Bernt; Mason, Jon


    The commercial introduction of connected lighting that can be integrated with sensors and other devices is opening up new possibilities in creating responsive and intelligent environments. The role of lighting in such systems goes beyond simply functional illumination. In part due to the large...... is to explore new ways of interacting with light where lighting can not only be switched on or off, but is an intelligent system embedded in the environment capable of creating a variety of effects. The connectivity between multiple systems and other ecosystems, for example when transitioning from your home...... and established lighting network, and with the advent of the LED, new types of lighting output are now possible. However, the current approach for controlling such systems is to simply replace the light switch with a somewhat more sophisticated smartphone-based remote control. The focus of this workshop...

  7. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.


    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  8. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch. (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven


    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  9. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C


    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  10. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  11. Nanomechanics of flexoelectric switching (United States)

    Očenášek, J.; Lu, H.; Bark, C. W.; Eom, C. B.; Alcalá, J.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.


    We examine the phenomenon of flexoelectric switching of polarization in ultrathin films of barium titanate induced by a tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The spatial distribution of the tip-induced flexoelectricity is computationally modeled both for perpendicular mechanical load (point measurements) and for sliding load (scanning measurements), and compared with experiments. We find that (i) perpendicular load does not lead to stable ferroelectric switching in contrast to the load applied in the sliding contact load regime, due to nontrivial differences between the strain distributions in both regimes: ferroelectric switching for the perpendicular load mode is impaired by a strain gradient inversion layer immediately underneath the AFM tip; while for the sliding load regime, domain inversion is unimpaired within a greater material volume subjected to larger values of the mechanically induced electric field that includes the region behind the sliding tip; (ii) beyond a relatively small value of an applied force, increasing mechanical pressure does not increase the flexoelectric field inside the film, but results instead in a growing volume of the region subjected to such field that aids domain nucleation processes; and (iii) the flexoelectric coefficients of the films are of the order of few nC/m, which is much smaller than for bulk BaTi O3 ceramics, indicating that there is a "flexoelectric size effect" that mirrors the ferroelectric one.

  12. Growth hormone suppression test (United States)

    ... page: // Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  13. Switched-Observer-Based Adaptive Neural Control of MIMO Switched Nonlinear Systems With Unknown Control Gains. (United States)

    Long, Lijun; Zhao, Jun


    In this paper, the problem of adaptive neural output-feedback control is addressed for a class of multi-input multioutput (MIMO) switched uncertain nonlinear systems with unknown control gains. Neural networks (NNs) are used to approximate unknown nonlinear functions. In order to avoid the conservativeness caused by adoption of a common observer for all subsystems, an MIMO NN switched observer is designed to estimate unmeasurable states. A new switched observer-based adaptive neural control technique for the problem studied is then provided by exploiting the classical average dwell time (ADT) method and the backstepping method and the Nussbaum gain technique. It effectively handles the obstacle about the coexistence of multiple Nussbaum-type function terms, and improves the classical ADT method, since the exponential decline property of Lyapunov functions for individual subsystems is no longer satisfied. It is shown that the technique proposed is able to guarantee semiglobal uniformly ultimately boundedness of all the signals in the closed-loop system under a class of switching signals with ADT, and the tracking errors converge to a small neighborhood of the origin. The effectiveness of the approach proposed is illustrated by its application to a two inverted pendulum system.

  14. Analysis of bi-directional piezoelectric-based converters for zero-voltage switching operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi-directional piezoel......This paper deals with a thorough analysis of zerovoltage switching especially for bi-directional, inductorless, piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies with a half-bridge topology. Practically, obtaining zero-voltage switching for all of the switches in a bi......-directional piezoelectric power converter is a difficult task. However, the analysis in this work will be convenient for overcoming this challenge. The analysis defines the zero-voltage region indicating the operating points whether or not soft switching can be met over the switching frequency and load range. For the first...... time, a comprehensive analysis is provided, which can be used as a design guideline for applying control techniques in order to drive switches in piezoelectric transformer-based converters. This study further conveys the proposed method to the region where all the switches can obtain soft switching...

  15. Fat-suppressed, three-dimensional T1-weighted imaging using high-acceleration parallel acquisition and a dual-echo Dixon technique for gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MRI at 3 T. (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Eun Ju; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn


    Parallel imaging (PI) techniques are used for overcoming lower spatial and time resolution for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is clinical need to overcome inevitable noise by decreased voxel size and signal-to-noise issue by using high-acceleration factor (AF). To determine whether the combination of a modified Dixon three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W) gradient echo technique (mDixon-3D-GRE) and high-acceleration ([HA], AF = 5) PI can provide breath-hold (BH) T1W imaging with better image quality than conventional fat-suppressed 3D-T1W-GRE (SPAIR-3D-GRE) for Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR. This retrospective study was approved by our institutional review board and informed consent was waived. There were 138 patients who underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced liver MR at 3 T using either standard SPAIR-3D-GRE sequences with an AF of 2.6 (n = 68, Standard group) or mDixon-3D-GRE with an AF of 5 (n = 70, HA group). In the HA group, hepatobiliary phase was obtained three times using HA-mDixon-3D-GRE (AF = 5), HA-SPAIR-3D-GRE (AF = 5), and standard-SPAIR-3D-GRE (AF = 2.6). Image noise, quality, and anatomic depiction of dynamic phase were compared between standard and HA groups, and those of hepatobiliary phase were compared among the three image sets in HA group. As for dynamic imaging, the HA-mDixon-3D-GRE images showed better anatomic details and overall image quality than standard-SPAIR-3D-GRE sequence (arterial phase: 3.56 ± 0.63 vs. 2.66 ± 0.69, P < 0.001). In the intra-individual comparison, HA-mDixon-3D-GRE provided better orang depiction and overall image quality than standard-SPAIR-3D-GRE (3.99 ± 0.75 vs. 3.0 ± 0.72, P < 0.001) and better fat suppression and significantly less noise than HA-SPAIR-3D-GRE (4.76 ± 0.43 vs. 3.71 ± 0.54, P < 0.001). The combined use of mDixon-3D-GRE sequence and high-acceleration PI provided better quality BH-T1W imaging compared with conventional SPAIR-3D

  16. Evaluation of ADC measurements among solid pancreatic masses by respiratory-triggered diffusion-weighted MR imaging with inversion-recovery fat-suppression technique at 3.0T. (United States)

    Yao, Xiu-Zhong; Yun, Hong; Zeng, Meng-Su; Wang, He; Sun, Fei; Rao, Sheng-Xiang; Ji, Yuan


    The objective of this paper was to investigate the value of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) for differential diagnosis among solid pancreatic masses using respiratory triggered diffusion-weighted MR imaging with inversion-recovery fat-suppression technique (RT-IR-DWI) at 3.0 T. 20 normal volunteers and 72 patients (Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [PDCA, n=30], mass-forming pancreatitis [MFP, n=15], solid pseudopapillary neoplasm [SPN, n=12], and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor[PNET, n=15]) underwent RT-IR-DWI (b values: 0 and 600 s/mm(2)) at 3.0 T. Results were correlated with histopathologic data and follow-up imaging. ADC values among different types of pancreatic tissue were statistically analyzed and compared. Statistical difference was noticed in ADC values among normal pancreas, MFP, PDCA, SPN and PNET by ANOVA (pPDCA, MFP and SPN. There was noticeable statistical difference in ADC values among PDCA, MFP and normal pancreas by Least Significant Difference (LSD) (pPDCA (p=0.0300×10(-4)) and normal pancreas (p=0.0007×10(-4)). ADC of PNET was statistically lower than that of normal pancreas (p=0.0360) and higher than that of MFP (p=9.3000×10(-4)). ADC measurements using RT-IR-DWI at 3.0T may aid to disclose the histopathological pattern of normal pancreas and solid pancreatic masses, which may be helpful in characterizing solid pancreatic lesions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality of service in optical packet switched networks

    CERN Document Server

    Rahbar, Akbar G


    This book is a comprehensive study on OPS networks, its architectures, and developed techniques for improving its quality of switching and managing quality of service.  The book includes: Introduction to OPS networks, OOFDM networks, GMPLS-enabled optical networks, QoS in OPS networks Hybrid contention avoidance/resolution schemes in both long-haul and metro optical networks Hybrid optical switching schemes

  18. Locally-Actuated Graphene-Based Nano-Electro-Mechanical Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Sun


    Full Text Available The graphene nano-electro-mechanical switches are promising components due to their outstanding switching performance. However, most of the reported devices suffered from a large actuation voltages, hindering them from the integration in the conventional complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS circuit. In this work, we demonstrated the graphene nano-electro-mechanical switches with the local actuation electrode via conventional nanofabrication techniques. Both cantilever-type and double-clamped beam switches were fabricated. These devices exhibited the sharp switching, reversible operation cycles, high on/off ratio, and a low actuation voltage of below 5 V, which were compatible with the CMOS circuit requirements.



    R. Vijayabhasker; S. Palaniswami; V. Venkatesa Kumar; M. Newlin Raj Kumar


    An enhanced soft switching technique for an interleaved boost converter with Zero Current Switching (ZCS) and Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS) during OFF and ON conditions of the main switches, that can drive large loads operated in duty cycle greater than 0.5 is proposed in this study. In this topology, auxiliary circuit is composed of resonant tank which is used to decrease the voltage stress on the main switches and a coupling capacitor is added additionally with minimum resonance which in-tur...

  20. 'Switched Biasing' reduces both MOSFET 1/f Noise and Power consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram


    Switched Biasing” is proposed as a new circuit technique that exploits an intriguing physical effect: cycling a MOS transistor between strong inversion and accumulation reduces its intrinsic 1/f noise. The technique is implemented in a 0.8mm CMOS sawtooth oscillator by periodically off-switching of

  1. Reducing MOSFET 1/f Noise and Power Consumption by 'switched biasing'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gierkink, Sander L.J.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Nauta, Bram


    "Switched Biasing" is proposed as a new circuit technique that exploits an intriguing physical effect: cycling a MOS transistor between strong inversion and accumulation reduces its intrinsic 1/f noise. The technique is implemented in a 0.8µm CMOS sawtooth oscillator by periodically off-switching of

  2. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...... plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. It is furthermore shown how to include model uncertainty to robustify the results. By appropriate filtering, it is only necessary to evaluate...

  3. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...... plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. By identifying a filtered closed-loop operator rather than directly identifying the plant, more reliable results are obtained....

  4. Techniques for Wireless Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Gaaloul, Fakhreddine


    Switching techniques have been first proposed as a spacial diversity techniques. These techniques have been shown to reduce considerably the processing load while letting multi-antenna systems achieve a specific target performance. In this thesis, we take a different look at the switching schemes by implementing them for different other wireless applications. More specifically, this thesis consists of three main parts, where the first part considers a multiuser environment and an adaptive scheduling algorithm based on the switching with post-selection scheme for statistically independent but non-identically distributed channel conditions. The performance of this switched based scheduler is investigated and a multitude of performance metrics are presented. In a second part, we propose and analyze the performance of three switched-based algorithms for interference reduction in the downlink of over-loaded femtocells. For instance, performance metrics are derived in closed-form and these metrics are used to compare these three proposed schemes. Finally in a third part, a switch based opportunistic channel access scheme is proposed for a cognitive radio system and its performance is analyzed in terms of two new proposed metrics namely the average cognitive radio access and the waiting time duration.

  5. Practical implementation of piezoelectric energy harvesting synchronized switching schemes (United States)

    Schlichting, Alexander D.; Phadke, Ajay; Garcia, Ephrahim


    Many closed-loop control methods for increasing the power output from piezoelectric energy harvesters have been investigated over the past decade. Initial work started with the application of Maximum Power Point Tracking techniques (MPPT) developed for solar power. More recent schemes have focused on taking advantage of the capacitive nature of piezoelectric harvesters to manipulate the transfer of energy from the piezoelectric to the storage element. There have been a couple of main techniques investigated in the literature: Synchronous Charge Extraction (SCE), Synchronized Switching and Discharging to a Capacitor through an Inductor (SSDCI), Synchronized Switch Harvesting on an Inductor (SSHI), and Piezoelectric Pre-Biasing (PPB). While significant increases in harvested power are seen both theoretically and experimentally using powerful external control systems, the applicability of these methods depends highly on the performance and efficiency of the system which implements the synchronized switching. Many piezoelectric energy harvesting systems are used to power devices controlled by a microcontroller (MCU), making them readily available for switching control methods. This work focuses on the practical questions which dictate the applicability of synchronized switching techniques using MCU-based switching control.

  6. Modeling of rf MEMS switches (United States)

    Robertson, Barbara; Ho, Fat D.; Hudson, Tracy D.


    The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch offers many benefits in radio frequency (RF) applications. These benefits include low insertion loss, high quality factor (Q), low power, RF isolation, and low cost. The ability to manufacture mechanical switches on a chip with electronics can lead to higher functionality, such as single-chip arrays, and smart switches. The MEMS switch is also used as a building block in devices such as phase shifters, filters, and switchable antenna elements. The MEMS designer needs models of these basic elements in order to incorporate them into their applications. The objective of this effort is to develop lumped element models for MEMS RF switches, which are incorporated into a CAD software. Tanner Research Inc.'s Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software is being used to develop a suite of mixed-signal RF switch models. The suite will include switches made from cantilever beams and fixed-fixed beams. The switches may be actuated by electrostatic, piezoelectric or electromagnetic forces. The effort presented in this paper concentrates on switches actuated by electrostatic forces. The lumped element models use a current-force electrical-mechanical analogy. Finite element modeling and device testing will be used to verify the Tanner models. The effects of materials, geometries, temperature, fringing fields, and mounting geometries are considered.

  7. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Malone, David


    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  8. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar


    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  9. Combining SDM-Based Circuit Switching with Packet Switching in a Router for On-Chip Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Kuti Lusala


    Full Text Available A Hybrid router architecture for Networks-on-Chip “NoC” is presented, it combines Spatial Division Multiplexing “SDM” based circuit switching and packet switching in order to efficiently and separately handle both streaming and best-effort traffic generated in real-time applications. Furthermore the SDM technique is combined with Time Division Multiplexing “TDM” technique in the circuit switching part in order to increase path diversity, thus improving throughput while sharing communication resources among multiple connections. Combining these two techniques allows mitigating the poor resource usage inherent to circuit switching. In this way Quality of Service “QoS” is easily provided for the streaming traffic through the circuit-switched sub-router while the packet-switched sub-router handles best-effort traffic. The proposed hybrid router architectures were synthesized, placed and routed on an FPGA. Results show that a practicable Network-on-Chip “NoC” can be built using the proposed router architectures. 7 × 7 mesh NoCs were simulated in SystemC. Simulation results show that the probability of establishing paths through the NoC increases with the number of sub-channels and has its highest value when combining SDM with TDM, thereby significantly reducing contention in the NoC.

  10. Control for a synchronization-desynchronization switch (United States)

    He, Zhiwei; Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Guo-Yong; Zhan, Meng


    How to freely enhance or suppress synchronization of networked dynamical systems is of great importance in many disciplines. A unified precise control method for a synchronization-desynchronization switch, called the pull-push control method, is suggested. Namely, synchronization can be achieved when the original systems are desynchronous by pulling (or protecting) one node or a certain subset of nodes, whereas desynchronization can be accomplished when the systems are already synchronous by pushing (or kicking) one node or a certain subset of nodes. With this method, the controlled nodes should be chosen by the generalized eigenvector centrality of the critical synchronization mode of the Laplacian matrix. Compared with existing control methods for synchronization, it displays high efficiency, flexibility, and precision as well.

  11. Plasma opening switch for long-pulse intense ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, H.A.; Mason, R.J.; Bartsch, R.R.; Greenly, J.B.; Rej, D.J.


    A Plasma Opening Switch (POS) is being developed at Los Alamos, as part of an intense ion beam experiment with special application to materials processing. The switch must conduct up to 100 kA for 400 ns, and open quicky to avoid premature gap closure in the ion beam diode load. Power multiplication is not a necessity, but prepulse suppression is. A positive central polarity is desirable, since with it an ion beam can be conveniently launched beyond the switch from the central anode toward a negatively charged target. Using traditional scaling rules, a POS was designed with a 1.25 cm radius inner anode, and a 5.0 cm radius outer cathode. This has been constructed, and subjected to circuit, and simulational analysis. The computations are being performed with the 2D ANTHEM implicit code. Preliminary results show a marked difference in switching dynamics, when the central positive polarity is used in place of the more conventional opposite choice. Opening is achieved by the fast development of a central anode magnetic layer, rather than by the more conventional slow evolution of a cathode gap. With the central anode, higher fill densities are needed to achieve desired conduction times. This has suggested switch design improvements, which are discussed

  12. Helical EMG module with explosive current opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Vakhrushev, V.V.; Volkov, G.I.; Ivanov, V.A.; Fetisov, I.K.


    To carry out the experimental work to study plasma properties, electromagnetic sources with 10 6 to 10 8 J of stored energy delivered to the load in microsecond time, are required. Among the current electromagnetic storage devices, the explosive magnetic generators (EMG) are of the largest energy capacity. The disadvantages of this type of generators is relatively long time (ten of microseconds) of electromagnetic energy cumulation in the deformable circuit. To reduce the time of energy transfer to the load to a microsecond range the switching scheme is generally used, where the cumulation circuit and that of the load are separated and connected in parallel via a switching element (opening switch) providing generation of desired power. In this paper, some ways and means of designing opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches which operation is based on mechanic destruction of the conductor using high explosive, have the highest and most reliable performance. The authors have explored the mechanic disruption of a thin conductor (foil), the technique based on throwing the foil at the ribbed barrier of electric insulator material. The report presents the data obtained in studying the operation of this type of opening switch having cylindrical shape, 200 mm in diameter and 200 mm long, designed for generation of 5.5 MA current pulse in the load

  13. Speed control of an induction motor by 6-switched 3-level inverter (United States)

    Saygin, Ali; Kerem, Alper


    This paper presents speed control analysis of an induction motor by a 6-switched 3-level inverter. In the analysis of topology, the study used the field oriented control technique which is widely used in the literature, easy and stable for operating systems. The field weaking technique was used for speeds exceeding nominal speed to reduce magnetic saturation and thermal losses. At the end of the process, it was observed to increase motor torque and inverter efficiency. Instead of using 12 switches in conventional 3-level inverters, 6 switches are used in this topology. Reduced number of switches is the greatest contribution of this study.

  14. Phenotypic switching in bacteria (United States)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial

  15. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong


    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  16. Improved Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.


    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a bearingless switched-reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in a prior bearingless switched-reluctance motor, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motor, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation in that it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration-suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that the stator contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. A prototype includes six rotor poles and eight stator poles (see figure). During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative lengths of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to levitation load capacity and stiffness, and vice versa.

  17. Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor Improved (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.


    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a switched reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in prior bearingless switched-reluctance motors, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motors, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation because it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that it contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. Simultaneous levitation and rotation at 6000 rpm were achieved with a prototype that included six rotor poles and eight stator poles. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative length of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to the levitation

  18. A Radical Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport


    Full Text Available Architecture is the most vulnerable part of culture, almost doomed to destruction of its fundamentals, while the rise of its intellectual and creative level is badly needed. However, neither the resort to postmarxist French philosophy nor bringing the results of development of science and technology into architecture, neither computerization nor peculiarities of parametricism and deconstructivism are helpful. It can be stated that in the beginning of the third millennium architecture and architectural education are in stalemate. The way out is in a “radical” switch from comprehension of object space to the time and to the processes of thinking, designing and historical change in professional mentality. The interests must be focused not on the object, but on the process enabling the use of return reflexive strokes as well.

  19. Design of DC-contact RF MEMS switch with temperature stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Sun


    Full Text Available In order to improve the temperature stability of DC-contact RF MEMS switch, a thermal buckle-beam structure is implemented. The stability of the switch pull-in voltage versus temperature is not only improved, but also the impact of stress and stress gradient on the drive voltage is suppressed. Test results show that the switch pull-in voltage is less sensitive to temperature between -20 °C and 100 °C. The variable rate of pull-in voltage to temperature is about -120 mV/°C. The RF performance of the switch is stable, and the isolation is almost independent of temperature. After being annealed at 280 °C for 12 hours, our switch samples, which are suitable for packaging, have less than 1.5% change in the rate of pull-in voltage.

  20. Battery switch for downhole tools (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.


    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  1. Improved switch-resistor packaging (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.


    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  2. Task Switching: A PDP Model (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Shallice, Tim


    When subjects switch between a pair of stimulus-response tasks, reaction time is slower on trial N if a different task was performed on trial N--1. We present a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that simulates this effect when subjects switch between word reading and color naming in response to Stroop stimuli. Reaction time on "switch…

  3. A CMOS Switched Transconductor Mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Louwsma, S.M.; Wienk, Gerhardus J.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A new CMOS active mixer topology can operate at low supply voltages by the use of switches exclusively connected to the supply voltages. Such switches require less voltage headroom and avoid gate-oxide reliability problems. Mixing is achieved by exploiting two transconductors with cross-coupled

  4. An experimental study of VBR video over various ATM switch architectures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Hsieh, J.; Du, D.H.C. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    One of the most important components of an Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) network is the switch. Switch design is not a part of the ATM standards so vendors use a wide variety of techniques to build their switches. In this paper, the authors present experimental results of switching and multiplexing real-time Variable Bit Rate (VBR) video traffic (JPEG, MPEG-1, and MPEG-2) through two different ATM switch architectures. Real-time VBR traffic, such as digital video, is particularly interesting due to its high demands in terms of bandwidth, real-time delivery and processing requirements. The experiments show that the fastest switches, i.e., lowest latencies, do not necessarily perform better when transmitting VBR video. The impact of the high speed network components; characteristics, such as switch fabric architecture, buffering strategies, and higher layer transport protocols (i.e., UDP, TCP/IP), are illustrated through the experimental results.

  5. A versatile cis-acting inverter module for synthetic translational switches. (United States)

    Endo, Kei; Hayashi, Karin; Inoue, Tan; Saito, Hirohide


    Artificial genetic switches have been designed and tuned individually in living cells. A method to directly invert an existing OFF switch to an ON switch should be highly convenient to construct complex circuits from well-characterized modules, but developing such a technique has remained a challenge. Here we present a cis-acting RNA module to invert the function of a synthetic translational OFF switch to an ON switch in mammalian cells. This inversion maintains the property of the parental switch in response to a particular input signal. In addition, we demonstrate simultaneous and specific expression control of both the OFF and ON switches. The module fits the criteria of universality and expands the versatility of mRNA-based information processing systems developed for artificially controlling mammalian cellular behaviour.

  6. Robust filtering and fault detection of switched delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei


    Switched delay systems appear in a wide field of applications including networked control systems, power systems, memristive systems. Though the large amount of ideas with respect to such systems have generated, until now, it still lacks a framework to focus on filter design and fault detection issues which are relevant to life safety and property loss. Beginning with the comprehensive coverage of the new developments in the analysis and control synthesis for switched delay systems, the monograph not only provides a systematic approach to designing the filter and detecting the fault of switched delay systems, but it also covers the model reduction issues. Specific topics covered include: (1) Arbitrary switching signal where delay-independent and delay-dependent conditions are presented by proposing a linearization technique. (2) Average dwell time where a weighted Lyapunov function is come up with dealing with filter design and fault detection issues beside taking model reduction problems. The monograph is in...

  7. A promising split-lesion technique for rapid tattoo removal using a novel sequential approach of a single sitting of pulsed CO(2) followed by Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm). (United States)

    Sardana, Kabir; Garg, Vijay K; Bansal, Shivani; Goel, Khushbu


    Laser tattoo removal conventionally uses Q-switched (QS) lasers, but they require multiple sittings, and the end results depend largely on the type of tattoo treated. In pigmented skin, due to the competing epidermal pigment results, laser results in tattoo are slow and inadequate. To evaluate the efficacy of a combined use of ultrapulse CO2 and QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser in the treatment of tattoos in Indian skin. A split-lesion trial was carried out in five patients, with the left side of tattoos receiving the QS Nd:YAG (1064 nm) and the right side, a sequential combination of Up CO2 and QS Nd: YAG at 6 weeks interval with a maximum of six sittings. Outcome assessment was carried out by a blinded assessor using standardized photography. An assessment of physician improvement score, side-effects score, and patient satisfaction score was taken during and at the end of the study. There was a statistically significant improvement on the combination side(physician improvement score -3.7 vs. 1.87: P = 0.0019) which occurred earlier with fewer sittings (1.7 vs. 6). There was no statistically significant difference in the side effects. A combination of an Up CO2 laser with QS Nd: YAG laser is a promising tool for rapid and effective removal of blue-black/blue amateur tattoo in pigmented skin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.


    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.


    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  10. Novel approach for all-optical packet switching in wide-area networks (United States)

    Chlamtac, Imrich; Fumagalli, Andrea F.; Wedzinga, Gosse


    All-optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks are believed to be a fundamental component in future high speed backbones. However, while wavelength routing made circuit switching in WDM feasible the reality of extant optical technology does not yet provide the necessary devices to achieve individual optical packet switching. This paper proposes to achieve all-optical packet switching in WDM Wide Area Networks (WANs) via a novel technique, called slot routing. Using slot routing, entire slots, each carrying multiple packets on distinct wavelengths, are switched transparently and individually. As a result packets can be optically transmitted and switched in the network using available fast and wavelength non-sensitive devices. The proposed routing technique leads to an optical packet switching solution, that is simple, practical, and unique as it makes it possible to build a WDM all-optical WAN with optical devices based on proven technologies.

  11. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene


    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  12. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiki, Tadaharu; Funahashi, Toshihiro.


    Purpose: To provide a structure which permits the absorption of shocks and vibratory load produced on the floor of a pressure suppression chamber due to nitrogen gas or the like discharged into pool water in the pressure suppression chamber at the time of a loss-of-coolant accident. Constitution: A pressure suppression chamber accommodating pool water is comprised of a bottom wall and side walls constructed of concrete on the inner side of a liner. By providing concrete on the bottom surface and side wall surfaces of a pressure suppression chamber, it is possible to prevent non-condensing gas and steam exhausted from the vent duct and exhaust duct of a main vapor escapement safety valve exhaust duct from exerting impact forces and vibratory forces upon the bottom and side surfaces of the pressure suppression chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  13. Simulations in generalized ensembles through noninstantaneous switches (United States)

    Giovannelli, Edoardo; Cardini, Gianni; Chelli, Riccardo


    Generalized-ensemble simulations, such as replica exchange and serial generalized-ensemble methods, are powerful simulation tools to enhance sampling of free energy landscapes in systems with high energy barriers. In these methods, sampling is enhanced through instantaneous transitions of replicas, i.e., copies of the system, between different ensembles characterized by some control parameter associated with thermodynamical variables (e.g., temperature or pressure) or collective mechanical variables (e.g., interatomic distances or torsional angles). An interesting evolution of these methodologies has been proposed by replacing the conventional instantaneous (trial) switches of replicas with noninstantaneous switches, realized by varying the control parameter in a finite time and accepting the final replica configuration with a Metropolis-like criterion based on the Crooks nonequilibrium work (CNW) theorem. Here we revise these techniques focusing on their correlation with the CNW theorem in the framework of Markovian processes. An outcome of this report is the derivation of the acceptance probability for noninstantaneous switches in serial generalized-ensemble simulations, where we show that explicit knowledge of the time dependence of the weight factors entering such simulations is not necessary. A generalized relationship of the CNW theorem is also provided in terms of the underlying equilibrium probability distribution at a fixed control parameter. Illustrative calculations on a toy model are performed with serial generalized-ensemble simulations, especially focusing on the different behavior of instantaneous and noninstantaneous replica transition schemes.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Budisantoso


    Full Text Available Abstract: Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. This study examines the factors that influence downward auditor switching in five ASEAN countries. Fixed effect logistic regression was used as analytical method. This study found that opinion shopping occurred in ASEAN, especially in distress companies. Companies with complex businesses will retain the Big Four auditors to reduce complexity and audit costs. Audit and public committees serve as guardians of auditor quality. On the other hand, shareholders failed to maintain audit quality. It indicates that there is entrenchment effect in auditor switching.

  15. Sliding Controller of Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel Ghani AISSAOUI


    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of sliding mode control for switched reluctance motor (SRM speed. The sliding mode technique finds its stronger justification in the utilization of a robust control law to model uncertainties. A sliding mode controller of the motor speed is then designed and simulated. Digital simulation results shows that the designed sliding speed controller realises a good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshoot and a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the sliding mode controller to a SRM give best performances and high robustness than those obtained by the application of a conventional controller (PI.

  16. Understanding the HIV coreceptor switch from a dynamical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamp Christel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entry of HIV into its target cells is facilitated by the prior binding to the cell surface molecule CD4 and a secondary coreceptor, mostly the chemokine receptors CCR5 or CXCR4. In early infection CCR5-using viruses (R5 viruses are mostly dominant while a receptor switch towards CXCR4 occurs in about 50% of the infected individuals (X4 viruses which is associated with a progression of the disease. There are many hypotheses regarding the underlying dynamics without yet a conclusive understanding. Results While it is difficult to isolate key factors in vivo we have developed a minimal in silico model based on the approaches of Nowak and May to investigate the conditions under which the receptor switch occurs. The model allows to investigate the evolution of viral strains within a probabilistic framework along the three stages of disease from primary and latent infection to the onset of AIDS with a a sudden increase in viral load which goes along with the impairment of the immune response. The model is specifically applied to investigate the evolution of the viral quasispecies in terms of R5 and X4 viruses which directly translates into the composition of viral load and consequently the question of the coreceptor switch. Conclusion The model can explain the coreceptor switch as a result of a dynamical change in the underlying environmental conditions in the host. The emergence of X4 strains does not necessarily result in the dominance of X4 viruses in viral load which is more likely to occur in the model after some time of chronic infection. A better understanding of the conditions leading to the coreceptor switch is especially of interest as CCR5 blockers have recently been licensed as drugs which suppress R5 viruses but do not seem to necessarily induce a coreceptor switch.

  17. Solid state bistable power switch (United States)

    Bartko, J.; Shulman, H.


    Tin and copper provide high current and switching time capabilities for high-current resettable fuses. They show the best performance for trip current and degree of reliability, and have low coefficients of thermal expansion.

  18. Electron collisions in gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.


    Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  20. A Comparison Study of Sinusoidal PWM and Space Vector PWM Techniques for Voltage Source Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Türksoy


    Full Text Available In this paper, the methods used to control voltage source inverters which have been intensively investigated in recent years are compared. Although the most efficient result is obtained with the least number of switching elements in the inverter topologies, the method used in the switching is at least as effective as the topology. Besides, the selected switching method to control the inverter will play an effective role in suppressing harmonic components while producing the ideal output voltage. There are many derivatives of pulse width modulation techniques that are commonly used to control voltage source inverters. Some of widespread methods are sinusoidal pulse width modulation and space vector pulse width modulation techniques. These modulation techniques used for generating variable frequency and amplitude output voltage in voltage source inverters, have been simulated by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. And, the total harmonic distortions of the output voltages are compared. As a result of simulation studies, sinusoidal pulse width modulation has been found to have more total harmonic distortion in output voltages of voltage source inverters in the simulation. Space vector pulse width modulation has been shown to produce a more efficient output voltage with less total harmonic distortion.

  1. Menstrual suppression for adolescents. (United States)

    Altshuler, Anna Lea; Hillard, Paula J Adams


    The purpose of this review is to highlight the recent literature and emerging data describing clinical situations in which menstrual suppression may improve symptoms and quality of life for adolescents. A variety of conditions occurring frequently in adolescents and young adults, including heavy menstrual bleeding, and dysmenorrhea as well as gynecologic conditions such as endometriosis and pelvic pain, can safely be improved or alleviated with appropriate menstrual management. Recent publications have highlighted the efficacy and benefit of extended cycle or continuous combined oral contraceptives, the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, and progestin therapies for a variety of medical conditions. This review places menstrual suppression in an historical context, summarizes methods of hormonal therapy that can suppress menses, and reviews clinical conditions for which menstrual suppression may be helpful.

  2. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A proof-of-concept method utilizing a cryogenic fluid for acoustic suppression in rocket engine testing environments will be demonstrated. It is hypothesized that...

  3. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.


    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  4. Low current beam techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint, A.; Laird, J.S.; Bardos, R.A.; Legge, G.J.F. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics; Nishijima, T.; Sekiguchi, H. [Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan).


    Since the development of Scanning Transmission Microscopy (STIM) imaging in 1983 many low current beam techniques have been developed for the scanning (ion) microprobe. These include STIM tomography, Ion Beam Induced Current, Ion Beam Micromachining and Microlithography and Ionoluminense. Most of these techniques utilise beam currents of 10{sup -15} A down to single ions controlled by beam switching techniques This paper will discuss some of the low beam current techniques mentioned above, and indicate, some of their recent applications at MARC. A new STIM technique will be introduced that can be used to obtain Z-contrast with STIM resolution. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry (United States)

    Christiansen, Jens H.; D'Antona, Anthony D.; Shevell, Steven K.


    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses. PMID:28510624

  6. Modeling extreme ultraviolet suppression of electrostatic analyzers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.


    In addition to analyzing energy-per-charge ratios of incident ions, electrostatic analyzers (ESAs) for spaceborne time-of-flight mass spectrometers must also protect detectors from extreme ultraviolet (EUV) photons from the Sun. The required suppression rate often exceeds 1:10 7 and is generally established in tests upon instrument design and integration. This paper describes a novel technique to model the EUV suppression of ESAs using photon ray tracing integrated into SIMION, the most commonly used ion optics design software for such instruments. The paper compares simulation results with measurements taken from the ESA of the Mass instrument flying onboard the Wind spacecraft. This novel technique enables an active inclusion of EUV suppression requirements in the ESA design process. Furthermore, the simulation results also motivate design rules for such instruments.

  7. Dynamic signaling cascades: reversible covalent reaction-coupled molecular switches. (United States)

    Ren, Yulong; You, Lei


    The research of systems chemistry exploring complex mixtures of interacting synthetic molecules has been burgeoning recently. Herein we demonstrate for the first time the coupling of molecular switches with a dynamic covalent reaction (DCR) and the modulation of created chemical cascades with a variety of inputs, thus closely mimicking a biological signaling system. A novel Michael type DCR of 10-methylacridinium perchlorate and monothiols exhibiting excellent regioselectivity and tunable affinity was discovered. A delicate balance between the unique reactivity of the reactant and the stability of the adduct leads to the generation of a strong acid in a thermodynamically controlled system. The dynamic cascade was next created via coupling of the DCR and a protonation-induced configurational switch (E/Z isomerization) through a proton relay. Detailed examination of the interdependence of the equilibrium enabled us to rationally optimize the cascade and also shed light on the possible intermediate of the switching process. Furthermore, relative independence of the coupled reactions was verified by the identification of stimuli that are able to facilitate one reaction but suppress the other. To further enhance systematic complexity, a second DCR of electrophilic aldehydes and thiols was employed for the reversible inhibition of the binary system, thus achieving the interplay of multiple equilibria. Finally, a fluorescence switch was turned on through coupling with the DCR, showcasing the versatility of our strategy. The results described herein should pave the way for the exploitation of multifunctional dynamic covalent cascades.

  8. A Regev-Type Fully Homomorphic Encryption Scheme Using Modulus Switching (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Wang, Jian; Song, Xinxia


    A critical challenge in a fully homomorphic encryption (FHE) scheme is to manage noise. Modulus switching technique is currently the most efficient noise management technique. When using the modulus switching technique to design and implement a FHE scheme, how to choose concrete parameters is an important step, but to our best knowledge, this step has drawn very little attention to the existing FHE researches in the literature. The contributions of this paper are twofold. On one hand, we propose a function of the lower bound of dimension value in the switching techniques depending on the LWE specific security levels. On the other hand, as a case study, we modify the Brakerski FHE scheme (in Crypto 2012) by using the modulus switching technique. We recommend concrete parameter values of our proposed scheme and provide security analysis. Our result shows that the modified FHE scheme is more efficient than the original Brakerski scheme in the same security level. PMID:25093212

  9. Soft switch-avalanche IGBT convertor. [Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (United States)

    Chen, K.; Stuart, T. A.


    A full bridge dc-dc converter using a zero voltage and zero current switching technique is described. This circuit utilizes the characteristics of the IGBT to achieve power and frequency combinations that are much higher than those previously reported for this device. Experimental results are included for a 1.5 kW, 100 kHz converter with 94 percent efficiency.

  10. Ultrafast Terahertz Dynamics and Switching in Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.


    In this Chapter we describe the experimental studies of ultrafast carrier dynamics and all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) using ultrafast terahertz (THz) techniques. In the first part of this chapter we describe the studies of carrier capture into the QDs, and thermionic...

  11. Modifying Antiretroviral Therapy in Virologically Suppressed HIV-1-Infected Patients. (United States)

    Collins, Sean E; Grant, Philip M; Shafer, Robert W


    HIV-1-infected patients with suppressed plasma viral loads often require changes to their antiretroviral (ARV) therapy to manage drug toxicity and intolerance, to improve adherence, and to avoid drug interactions. In patients who have never experienced virologic failure while receiving ARV therapy and who have no evidence of drug resistance, switching to any of the acceptable US Department of Health and Human Services first-line therapies is expected to maintain virologic suppression. However, in virologically suppressed patients with a history of virologic failure or drug resistance, it can be more challenging to change therapy while still maintaining virologic suppression. In these patients, it may be difficult to know whether the discontinuation of one of the ARVs in a suppressive regimen constitutes the removal of a key regimen component that will not be adequately supplanted by one or more substituted ARVs. In this article, we review many of the clinical scenarios requiring ARV therapy modification in patients with stable virologic suppression and outline the strategies for modifying therapy while maintaining long-term virologic suppression.

  12. Magnetic-fluid-based smart centrifugal switch

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, R P


    A new type of centrifugal switch, which we call 'smart centrifugal switch' is designed and developed utilizing the novel properties of magnetic fluid. No mechanical movement is involved in the sensing and switching operations of this centrifugal switch and both these operations are achieved in a smart way. The performance of the switch is studied. This switch has several important advantages over conventional centrifugal switches like smart and non-contact type operation, sparkless and hence explosion proof working and inertia-less simple structure.

  13. Fluctuation-induced switching and the switching path distribution. (United States)

    Dykman, Mark


    Fluctuation-induced switching is at the root of diverse phenomena currently studied in Josephson junctions, nano-mechanical systems, nano-magnets, and optically trapped atoms. In a fluctuation leading to switching the system must overcome an effective barrier, making switching events rare, for low fluctuation intensity. We will provide an overview of the methods of finding the switching barrier for systems away from thermal equilibrium. Generic features of the barrier, such as scaling with the system parameters, will be discussed. We will also discuss the motion of the system in switching and the ways of controlling it. Two major classes of systems will be considered: dynamical systems, where fluctuations are induced by noise, and birth-death systems. Even though the motion during switching is random, the paths followed in switching form a narrow tube in phase space of the system centered at the most probable path. The paths distribution is generally Gaussian and has specific features, which have been seen in the experiment [1]. Finding the most probable path itself can be reduced to solving a problem of Hamiltonian dynamics of an auxiliary noise-free system. The solution also gives the switching barrier. The barrier can be found explicitly close to parameter values where the number of stable states of the system changes and the dynamics is controlled by a slow variable. The scaling of the barrier height depends on the type of the corresponding bifurcation. We show that, both for birth-death and for Gaussian noise driven systems, the presence of even weak non-Gaussian noise can strongly modify the switching rate. The effect is described in a simple explicit form [2,3]. Weak deviations of the noise statistics from Gaussian can be sensitively detected using balanced dynamical bridge, where this deviation makes the populations of coexisting stable states different from each other; a realization of such a bridge will be discussed. We will also discuss the sharp

  14. Suppression of Quantum Corrections by Classical Backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Brouzakis, Nikolaos


    We use heat-kernel techniques in order to compute the one-loop effective action in the cubic Galileon theory for a background that realizes the Vainshtein mechanism. We find that the UV divergences are suppressed relative to the predictions of standard perturbation theory at length scales below the Vainshtein radius.

  15. A Switch Is Not a Switch: Syntactically-Driven Bilingual Language Control (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew


    The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. "Single-word switches," in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete "whole-language switches," in which…

  16. Switching Activity Estimation of CIC Filter Integrators


    Abbas, Muhammad; Gustafsson, Oscar


    In this work, a method for estimation of the switching activity in integrators is presented. To achieve low power, it is always necessary to develop accurate and efficient methods to estimate the switching activity. The switching activities are then used to estimate the power consumption. In our work, the switching activity is first estimated for the general purpose integrators and then it is extended for the estimation of switching activity in cascaded integrators in CIC filters. ©2010 I...

  17. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C


    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  18. Current results and trends in platform switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Salimi


    Full Text Available The platform switching (PLS concept was introduced in the literature in 2005. The biological benefits and clinical effectiveness of the PLS technique have been established by several studies. In this article different aspects of PLS concept are discussed. Crestal bone loss, biologic width, and stress distribution in this concept are comprehensively reviewed. In this article the relative published articles from 1990 to 2011 have been evaluated by electronic search. Because of controversial results especially in immediate loading and animal studies, further modified research is needed to establish the mechanism and effect of the PLS technique. Essential changes in studies including using the control group for accurate interpretation of results and long-term observation, particularly through, randomized, prospective, multicenter trials with large numbers of participants, and implants are necessary.

  19. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition. (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees


    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing.

  20. Bilingual Language Switching: Production vs. Recognition (United States)

    Mosca, Michela; de Bot, Kees


    This study aims at assessing how bilinguals select words in the appropriate language in production and recognition while minimizing interference from the non-appropriate language. Two prominent models are considered which assume that when one language is in use, the other is suppressed. The Inhibitory Control (IC) model suggests that, in both production and recognition, the amount of inhibition on the non-target language is greater for the stronger compared to the weaker language. In contrast, the Bilingual Interactive Activation (BIA) model proposes that, in language recognition, the amount of inhibition on the weaker language is stronger than otherwise. To investigate whether bilingual language production and recognition can be accounted for by a single model of bilingual processing, we tested a group of native speakers of Dutch (L1), advanced speakers of English (L2) in a bilingual recognition and production task. Specifically, language switching costs were measured while participants performed a lexical decision (recognition) and a picture naming (production) task involving language switching. Results suggest that while in language recognition the amount of inhibition applied to the non-appropriate language increases along with its dominance as predicted by the IC model, in production the amount of inhibition applied to the non-relevant language is not related to language dominance, but rather it may be modulated by speakers' unconscious strategies to foster the weaker language. This difference indicates that bilingual language recognition and production might rely on different processing mechanisms and cannot be accounted within one of the existing models of bilingual language processing. PMID:28638361

  1. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices (United States)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek


    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  2. Switching Algorithm for Maglev Train Double-Modular Redundant Positioning Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Xue


    Full Text Available High-resolution positioning for maglev trains is implemented by detecting the tooth-slot structure of the long stator installed along the rail, but there are large joint gaps between long stator sections. When a positioning sensor is below a large joint gap, its positioning signal is invalidated, thus double-modular redundant positioning sensors are introduced into the system. This paper studies switching algorithms for these redundant positioning sensors. At first, adaptive prediction is applied to the sensor signals. The prediction errors are used to trigger sensor switching. In order to enhance the reliability of the switching algorithm, wavelet analysis is introduced to suppress measuring disturbances without weakening the signal characteristics reflecting the stator joint gap based on the correlation between the wavelet coefficients of adjacent scales. The time delay characteristics of the method are analyzed to guide the algorithm simplification. Finally, the effectiveness of the simplified switching algorithm is verified through experiments.

  3. Switching algorithm for maglev train double-modular redundant positioning sensors. (United States)

    He, Ning; Long, Zhiqiang; Xue, Song


    High-resolution positioning for maglev trains is implemented by detecting the tooth-slot structure of the long stator installed along the rail, but there are large joint gaps between long stator sections. When a positioning sensor is below a large joint gap, its positioning signal is invalidated, thus double-modular redundant positioning sensors are introduced into the system. This paper studies switching algorithms for these redundant positioning sensors. At first, adaptive prediction is applied to the sensor signals. The prediction errors are used to trigger sensor switching. In order to enhance the reliability of the switching algorithm, wavelet analysis is introduced to suppress measuring disturbances without weakening the signal characteristics reflecting the stator joint gap based on the correlation between the wavelet coefficients of adjacent scales. The time delay characteristics of the method are analyzed to guide the algorithm simplification. Finally, the effectiveness of the simplified switching algorithm is verified through experiments.

  4. Timing and amplitude jitter in a gain-switched multimode semiconductor laser (United States)

    Wada, Kenji; Kitagawa, Naoaki; Matsukura, Satoru; Matsuyama, Tetsuya; Horinaka, Hiromichi


    The differences in timing jitter between a gain-switched single-mode semiconductor laser and a gain-switched multimode semiconductor laser are examined using rate equations that include Langevin noise. The timing jitter in a gain-switched multimode semiconductor laser is found to be effectively suppressed by a decrease in the coherence time of the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) based on a broad bandwidth of multimode oscillation. Instead, fluctuations in the ASE cause amplitude jitter in the pulse components of the respective modes. A pulse train of gain-switched pulses from a multimode semiconductor laser with timing jitter is equivalently simulated by assuming a high spontaneous emission factor and a short coherence time of the ASE in the single-mode semiconductor laser rate equations.

  5. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.


    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  6. Photoresistance switching of plasmonic nanopores. (United States)

    Li, Yi; Nicoli, Francesca; Chen, Chang; Lagae, Liesbet; Groeseneken, Guido; Stakenborg, Tim; Zandbergen, Henny W; Dekker, Cees; Van Dorpe, Pol; Jonsson, Magnus P


    Fast and reversible modulation of ion flow through nanosized apertures is important for many nanofluidic applications, including sensing and separation systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of a reversible plasmon-controlled nanofluidic valve. We show that plasmonic nanopores (solid-state nanopores integrated with metal nanocavities) can be used as a fluidic switch upon optical excitation. We systematically investigate the effects of laser illumination of single plasmonic nanopores and experimentally demonstrate photoresistance switching where fluidic transport and ion flow are switched on or off. This is manifested as a large (∼ 1-2 orders of magnitude) increase in the ionic nanopore resistance and an accompanying current rectification upon illumination at high laser powers (tens of milliwatts). At lower laser powers, the resistance decreases monotonically with increasing power, followed by an abrupt transition to high resistances at a certain threshold power. A similar rapid transition, although at a lower threshold power, is observed when the power is instead swept from high to low power. This hysteretic behavior is found to be dependent on the rate of the power sweep. The photoresistance switching effect is attributed to plasmon-induced formation and growth of nanobubbles that reversibly block the ionic current through the nanopore from one side of the membrane. This explanation is corroborated by finite-element simulations of a nanobubble in the nanopore that show the switching and the rectification.

  7. Photoperiodic suppression of drug reinstatement. (United States)

    Sorg, B A; Stark, G; Sergeeva, A; Jansen, H T


    The rewarding influence of drugs of abuse varies with time of day and appears to involve interactions between the circadian and the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. The circadian system is also intimately involved in measuring daylength. Thus, the present study examined the impact of changing daylength (photoperiod) on cocaine-seeking behaviors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested on a 12L:12D light:dark schedule for cocaine-induced reinstatement of conditioned place preference (CPP) at three times of day (Zeitgeber time (ZT): 4, 12, and 20) to determine a preference score. Rats were then shifted to either shorter (6L:18D) or longer (18L:6D) photoperiods and then to constant conditions, re-tested for cocaine-induced reinstatement under each different condition, and then returned to their original photoperiod (12L:12D) and tested once more. Rats exhibited a circadian profile of preference score in constant darkness with a peak at 12 h after lights-off. At both ZT4 and ZT20, but not at ZT12, shorter photoperiods profoundly suppressed cocaine reinstatement, which did not recover even after switching back to 12L:12D. In contrast, longer photoperiods did not alter reinstatement. Separate studies showed that the suppression of cocaine reinstatement was not due to repeated testing. In an additional experiment, we examined the photoperiodic regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and dopamine transporter (DAT) proteins in drug-naive rats. These results revealed photoperiodic modulation of proteins in the prefrontal cortex and dorsal striatum, but not in the nucleus accumbens or ventral tegmental area. Together, these findings add further support to the circadian genesis of cocaine-seeking behaviors and demonstrate that drug-induced reinstatement is modulated by photoperiod. Furthermore, the results suggest that photoperiod partly contributes to the seasonal expression of certain drug-related behaviors in humans living at different latitudes and thus our

  8. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.


    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.


    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  10. Tactical switched message communications (United States)

    Homa, S., Jr.

    The task to provide service to users who employ various kinds of procedures in sending and receiving messages over terminal devices of different types presents a formidable challenge. In order to meet this challenge, it was necessary to develop a TRI-TAC system architecture with special characteristics which made it possible to process reliably narrative, data, and graphic messages even in an environment of high circuit noise and degradated signals. The present paper is concerned with the architectural considerations involved in the techniques which are utilized to handle message traffic in the tactical area.

  11. Interaction of tinnitus suppression and hearing ability after cochlear implantation. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Li, Jia-Nan; Lei, Guan-Xiong; Chen, Dai-Shi; Wang, Wei-Ze; Chen, Ai-Ting; Mong, Meng-Di; Li, Sun; Jiao, Qing-Shan; Yang, Shi-Ming


    To study the postoperative impact of cochlear implants (CIs) on tinnitus, as well as the impact of tinnitus on speech recognition with CI switched on. Fifty-two postlingual deafened CI recipients (21 males and 31 females) were assessed using an established Tinnitus Characteristics Questionnaire and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) before and after cochlear implantation. The tinnitus loudness was investigated when CI was switched on and off in CI recipients with persistent tinnitus. The relation between tinnitus loudness and recipients' satisfaction of cochlear implantation was analyzed by the visual analogue scale (VAS) score. With CI 'OFF', 42 CI recipients experienced tinnitus postimplant ipsilaterally and 44 contralaterally. Tinnitus was totally suppressed ipsilateral to the CI with CI 'ON' in 42.9%, partially suppressed in 42.9%, unchanged in 11.9% and aggravated in 2.4%. Tinnitus was totally suppressed contralaterally with CI 'ON' in 31.8% of CI recipients, partially suppressed in 47.7%, unchanged in 20.5%. Pearson correlation analysis showed that tinnitus loudness and the results of cochlear implant patients satisfaction was negatively correlated (r = .674, p tinnitus. The tinnitus loudness may affect patients' satisfaction with the use of CI.

  12. Portable Userspace Virtual Filesystem Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Faber


    Full Text Available Multiple different filesystems — including disk-based, network, distributed, abstract — arean integral part of every operating system. They are usually written as kernel modules and abstracted to the user via a virtual filesystem switch. In this paper we analyse the feasibility of reimplementing the virtual filesystem switch as a userspace daemon and applicability of this approach in real-life usage. Such reimplementation will require a way to virtualise processes behaviour related to filesystem operations. The problem is non-trivial, as we assume limited capabilities of the VFS switch implemented in userspace. We present a layered architecture comprising of a monitoring process, the VFS abstraction and real filesystem implementations. All working in userspace. Then, we evaluate this solution in four areas: portability, feasibility, usability and performance. Our results demonstrate possible gains in using the userspace-based approach with monolithic kernels, but also underline problems that are encountered in this approach.

  13. Feedback suppression in digital hearing instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Guilin

    . Methods to extract the fixed model are proposed and proved to be effective in representing the invariant part of the feedback path. Based on the investigation of the dynamic changes of the feedback path in adverse situations, for example when the user picks up the telephone handset, a reflection model...... is developed as one type of the fast varying models. The techniques to suppress the feedback are then reviewed. To improve the existing feedback suppression systems, two approaches are proposed to address the so-called “bias problem”. The first approach improves the performance of the adaptive feedback...... of the proposed feedback path models in the feedback cancellation systems is presented....

  14. Spectrally efficient switched transmit diversity for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bouida, Zied


    Under the scenario of an underlay cognitive radio network, we propose in this paper an adaptive scheme using switched transmit diversity and adaptive modulation in order to increase the spectral efficiency of the secondary link. The proposed bandwidth efficient scheme (BES) uses the scan and wait (SWC) combining technique where a transmission occurs only when a branch with an acceptable performance is found, otherwise data is buffered. In our scheme, the modulation constellation size and the used transmit branch are determined to achieve the highest spectral efficiency given the fading channel conditions, the required error rate performance, and a peak interference constraint to the primary receiver. Selected numerical examples show that the BES scheme increases the capacity of the secondary link when compared to an existing switching efficient scheme (SES). This spectral efficiency comes at the expense of an increased average number of switched branches and thus an increased average delay. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Two-frequency CARS imaging by switching fiber laser excitation. (United States)

    Rentchler, Eric C; Xie, Ruxin; Hui, Rongqing; Johnson, Carey K


    To fully exploit the power of coherent Raman imaging, techniques are needed to image more than one vibrational frequency simultaneously. We describe a method for switching between two vibrational frequencies based on a single fiber-laser source. Stokes pulses were generated by soliton self-frequency shifting in a photonic crystal fiber. Pump and Stokes pulses were stretched to enhance vibrational resolution by spectral focusing. Stokes pulses were switched between two wavelengths on the millisecond time scale by a liquid-crystal retarder. Proof-of-principle is demonstrated by coherent anti-Stokes Raman imaging of polystyrene beads embedded in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix. The Stokes shift was switched between 3,050 cm -1 , where polystyrene has a Raman transition, and 2,950 cm -1 , where both polystyrene and PMMA have Raman resonances. The method can be extended to multiple vibrational modes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Spin state switching in iron coordination compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Gütlich


    Full Text Available The article deals with coordination compounds of iron(II that may exhibit thermally induced spin transition, known as spin crossover, depending on the nature of the coordinating ligand sphere. Spin transition in such compounds also occurs under pressure and irradiation with light. The spin states involved have different magnetic and optical properties suitable for their detection and characterization. Spin crossover compounds, though known for more than eight decades, have become most attractive in recent years and are extensively studied by chemists and physicists. The switching properties make such materials potential candidates for practical applications in thermal and pressure sensors as well as optical devices.The article begins with a brief description of the principle of molecular spin state switching using simple concepts of ligand field theory. Conditions to be fulfilled in order to observe spin crossover will be explained and general remarks regarding the chemical nature that is important for the occurrence of spin crossover will be made. A subsequent section describes the molecular consequences of spin crossover and the variety of physical techniques usually applied for their characterization. The effects of light irradiation (LIESST and application of pressure are subjects of two separate sections. The major part of this account concentrates on selected spin crossover compounds of iron(II, with particular emphasis on the chemical and physical influences on the spin crossover behavior. The vast variety of compounds exhibiting this fascinating switching phenomenon encompasses mono-, oligo- and polynuclear iron(II complexes and cages, polymeric 1D, 2D and 3D systems, nanomaterials, and polyfunctional materials that combine spin crossover with another physical or chemical property.

  17. All-fiber polarization switch (United States)

    Knape, Harald; Margulis, Walter


    We report an all-fiber polarization switch made out of silica-based microstructured fiber suitable for Q-switching all-fiber lasers. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses are used to heat and expand an internal electrode to cause λ/2-polarization rotation in less than 10 ns for 1.5 μm light. The 10 cm long component has an experimentally measured optical insertion loss of 0.2 dB and a 0-10 kHz repetition frequency capacity and has been durability tested for more than 109 pulses.

  18. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly...... and behavior than do entry and exit firms. Switchers tend to be labor intensive and to seek competitive opportunities in labor-intensive sectors in response to changes in market environments. Moreover, resource reallocation resulting from switching forms an important component of productivity growth. The topic...

  19. Plasma suppression of beamstrahlung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittum, D.H.; Sessler, A.M.; Stewart, J.J.; Yu, S.S.


    We investigate the use of a plasma at the interaction point of two colliding beams to suppress beamsstrahlung and related phenomena. We derive conditions for good current cancellation via plasma return currents and report on numerical simulations conducted to confirm our analytic results. 10 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Wavelength conversion in optical packet switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Stubkjær, Kristian


    A detailed traffic analysis of optical packet switch design is performed. Special consideration is given to the complexity of the optical buffering and the overall switch block structure is considered in general. Wavelength converters are shown to improve the traffic performance of the switch...... blocks for both random and bursty traffic. Furthermore, the traffic performance of switch blocks with add-drop switches has been assessed in a Shufflenetwork showing the advantage of having converters at the inlets. Finally, the aspect of synchronization is discussed through a proposal to operate...... the packet switch block asynchronously, i.e. without packet alignment at the input...

  1. Switching in electrical transmission and distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Smeets, René; Kapetanovic, Mirsad; Peelo, David F; Janssen, Anton


    Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems presents the issues and technological solutions associated with switching in power systems, from medium to ultra-high voltage. The book systematically discusses the electrical aspects of switching, details the way load and fault currents are interrupted, the impact of fault currents, and compares switching equipment in particular circuit-breakers. The authors also explain all examples of practical switching phenomena by examining real measurements from switching tests. Other highlights include: up to date commentary on new develo

  2. Regime switching model for financial data: Empirical risk analysis (United States)

    Salhi, Khaled; Deaconu, Madalina; Lejay, Antoine; Champagnat, Nicolas; Navet, Nicolas


    This paper constructs a regime switching model for the univariate Value-at-Risk estimation. Extreme value theory (EVT) and hidden Markov models (HMM) are combined to estimate a hybrid model that takes volatility clustering into account. In the first stage, HMM is used to classify data in crisis and steady periods, while in the second stage, EVT is applied to the previously classified data to rub out the delay between regime switching and their detection. This new model is applied to prices of numerous stocks exchanged on NYSE Euronext Paris over the period 2001-2011. We focus on daily returns for which calibration has to be done on a small dataset. The relative performance of the regime switching model is benchmarked against other well-known modeling techniques, such as stable, power laws and GARCH models. The empirical results show that the regime switching model increases predictive performance of financial forecasting according to the number of violations and tail-loss tests. This suggests that the regime switching model is a robust forecasting variant of power laws model while remaining practical to implement the VaR measurement.

  3. Bipolar resistive switching and charge transport in silicon oxide memristor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylov, Alexey N., E-mail: [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23/3 Gagarin Prospect, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Belov, Alexey I.; Guseinov, Davud V.; Korolev, Dmitry S.; Antonov, Ivan N.; Efimovykh, Denis V.; Tikhov, Stanislav V.; Kasatkin, Alexander P.; Gorshkov, Oleg N.; Tetelbaum, David I.; Bobrov, Alexander I.; Malekhonova, Natalia V.; Pavlov, Dmitry A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23/3 Gagarin Prospect, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, Evgeny G. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23/3 Gagarin Prospect, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Sedakov Scientific-Research Institute, GSP-486, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Yatmanov, Alexander P. [Sedakov Scientific-Research Institute, GSP-486, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Si-based thin-film memristor structure was fabricated by magnetron sputtering. • We study bipolar resistive switching and charge transport mechanisms. • Resistive switching parameters are determined by a balance between redox reactions. - Abstract: Reproducible bipolar resistive switching has been studied in SiO{sub x}-based thin-film memristor structures deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on the TiN/Ti metalized SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. It is established that, after electroforming, the structure can be switched between the quasi-ohmic low-resistance state related to silicon chains (conducting filaments) and the high-resistance state with semiconductor-like hopping mechanism of charge transport through the defects in silicon oxide. The switching parameters are determined by a balance between the reduction and oxidation processes that, in turn, are driven by the value and polarity of voltage bias, current, temperature and device environment. The results can be used for the development of silicon-based nonvolatile memory and memristive systems as a key component of future electronics.

  4. Coexistence of bipolar and threshold resistive switching in TiO2 based structure with embedded hafnium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michelakaki, Irini; Bousoulas, Panagiotis; Stathopoulos, Spyros; Tsoukalas, Dimitris; Boukos, Nikos


    The coexistence of nonvolatile memory switching and volatile threshold switching in a single device is of importance for suppressing the sneak-path currents in crossbar resistive memory architectures. This study demonstrates that the combination of a thin film of TiO 2 with hafnium nanoparticles in Au/Ti/TiO 2 /Hf nanoparticles/Au device configuration enables conversion between memory switching and volatile threshold switching by adjusting the current compliance through the materials stack. The presence of hexagonal closed packed Hf nanoparticles, a synthesis of which has not been reported before, is critical for the device operation that exhibits beneficial features as it is forming free and operates at low voltage and power consumption. Analysis of measured current–voltage ( I – V ) characteristics reveal a filamentary nature of switching phenomena and present operating similarities with electrochemical metallization cells suggesting that Hf metal atoms and not only oxygen vacancies are responsible for conductive filament formation. (paper)

  5. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad


    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  6. Soliton switching in directional couplers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, T.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk


    The mechanism of pulse switching is investigated analytically and numerically for a family of initial conditions with a solitonlike pulse in one channel and no signal on the other channel of the coupler. This investigation is performed directly in the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations that

  7. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing


    Resistive switching materials are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfiguration of electronic applications. Intensive studies have been carried out on sandwiched metal-insulator-metal structures to achieve high density on-chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study in real-time the physical structure and analyze the chemical composition of the nanofilament dynamically during resistive switching. Electrical stressing using an external voltage was applied by a tungsten tip to the nanosized devices having hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the insulator layer. The formation and rupture of the nanofilaments result in up to three orders of magnitude change in the current flowing through the dielectric during the switching event. Oxygen vacancies and metal atoms from the anode constitute the chemistry of the nanofilament.

  8. Switching Costs in Accounting Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koç


    Full Text Available Switching cost is defined as possible costs that customers may encounter when they want to change the firm they buy service, and an important subject in terms of accounting services. Particularly, small business entrepreneurs’ not having knowledge about accounting procedures, and sharing private information with accounting firms make switching costs more important for accounting services. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the concept of switching costs (relational cost, procedural cost and financial cost, its determinants (perceived service quality, service importance, and service failures, and consequences (re-purchasing, and recommen ding to others. Theresearch was conducted on small business entrepreneurs in down-town of Balıkesir in Turkey. Total 405 small business entrepreneur owners were interviewed. According to results of the study, perceived service quality positively affects all dimensions of switching costs, significance of service positively affects procedural and relational costs, and service failures negatively affect procedural and relational costs. The results showed that while procedural and relational costs positively affect re-purchasing and recommending to others variables, financial cost did not have any effect on these variables.

  9. Switching processes in financial markets. (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Schneider, Johannes J; Stanley, H Eugene


    For an intriguing variety of switching processes in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. Financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating upward trends and downward trends, on time scales ranging from macroscopic trends persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic trends persisting for a few minutes. The question arises whether these ubiquitous switching processes have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the transaction volume after each switching. Our findings can be interpreted as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in time intervals between transactions. We suggest that the well known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales--such as the most recent financial crisis--may not be outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the formation of increasing and decreasing trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large down to very small.

  10. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  11. Androgenic switch in barley microspores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Faria Maraschin, Simone


    Barley androgenesis represents an attractive system to study stress-induced cell differentiation and is a valuable tool for efficient plant breeding. The switch from the pollen developmental pathway towards an androgenic route involves several well-described morphological changes. However, little is

  12. Microstrip PIN diode microwave switch


    Usanov, Dmitry A.; Skripal, A. V.; Kulikov, M. Yu.


    A possibility of creating narrow-band electrically controlled microwave breakers and switches with enhanced attenuation level in the blocking mode has been considered. The specified devices are based on the structure containing a short-circuited microstrip link with connected capacitor and the loop coupler, in the center of which is located a PIN diode.

  13. Incorrect predictions reduce switch costs. (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane


    In three experiments, we combined two sources of conflict within a modified task-switching procedure. The first source of conflict was the one inherent in any task switching situation, namely the conflict between a task set activated by the recent performance of another task and the task set needed to perform the actually relevant task. The second source of conflict was induced by requiring participants to guess aspects of the upcoming task (Exps. 1 & 2: task identity; Exp. 3: position of task precue). In case of an incorrect guess, a conflict accrues between the representation of the guessed task and the actually relevant task. In Experiments 1 and 2, incorrect guesses led to an overall increase of reaction times and error rates, but they reduced task switch costs compared to conditions in which participants predicted the correct task. In Experiment 3, incorrect guesses resulted in faster performance overall and to a selective decrease of reaction times in task switch trials when the cue-target interval was long. We interpret these findings in terms of an enhanced level of controlled processing induced by a combination of two sources of conflict converging upon the same target of cognitive control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M


    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  15. Test results of lithium pool-air reaction suppression systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppson, D.W.


    Engineered reaction suppression systems were demonstrated to be effective in suppressing lithium pool-air reactions for lithium quantities up to 100 kg. Lithium pool-air reaction suppression system tests were conducted to evaluate suppression system effectiveness for potential use in fusion facilities in mitigating consequences of postulated lithium spills. Small-scale perforated and sacrificial cover plate suppression systems with delayed inert gas purging proved effective in controlling the lithium-air interaction for lithium quantities near 15 kg at initial temperatures up to 450 0 C. A large-scale suppression system with a sacrificial cover, a diverter plate, an inert gas atmosphere, and remotely retrievable catch pans proved effective in controlling lithium pool-air interaction for a 100-kg lithium discharge at an initial temperature of 550 0 C. This suppression system limited the maximum pool temperature to about 600 0 C less than that expected for a similar lithium pool-air reaction without a suppression system. Lithium aerosol release from this large-scale suppression system was a factor of about 10,000 less than that expected for a lithium pool-air reaction with no suppression system. Remote retrieval techniques for lithium cleanup, such as (1) in-place lithium siphoning and overhead crane dismantling, and (2) lithium catch pan removal by use of an overhead crane, were demonstrated as part of this large-scale test

  16. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia. (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin


    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Switch-connected HyperX network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip


    A network system includes a plurality of sub-network planes and global switches. The sub-network planes have a same network topology as each other. Each of the sub-network planes includes edge switches. Each of the edge switches has N ports. Each of the global switches is configured to connect a group of edge switches at a same location in the sub-network planes. In each of the sub-network planes, some of the N ports of each of the edge switches are connected to end nodes, and others of the N ports are connected to other edge switches in the same sub-network plane, other of the N ports are connected to at least one of the global switches.

  18. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches (United States)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  19. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.


    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  20. Bistable switches control memory and plasticity in cellular differentiation (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Walker, Brandon L.; Iannaccone, Stephen; Bhatt, Devang; Kennedy, Patrick J.; Tse, William T.


    Development of stem and progenitor cells into specialized tissues in multicellular organisms involves a series of cell fate decisions. Cellular differentiation in higher organisms is generally considered irreversible, and the idea of developmental plasticity in postnatal tissues is controversial. Here, we show that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in a human bone marrow stromal cell-derived myogenic subclone suppresses their myogenic ability and converts them into satellite cell-like precursors that respond to osteogenic stimulation. Clonal analysis of the induced osteogenic response reveals ultrasensitivity and an “all-or-none” behavior, hallmarks of a bistable switch mechanism with stochastic noise. The response demonstrates cellular memory, which is contingent on the accumulation of an intracellular factor and can be erased by factor dilution through cell divisions or inhibition of protein synthesis. The effect of MAPK inhibition also exhibits memory and appears to be controlled by another bistable switch further upstream that determines cell fate. Once the memory associated with osteogenic differentiation is erased, the cells regain their myogenic ability. These results support a model of cell fate decision in which a network of bistable switches controls inducible production of lineage-specific differentiation factors. A competitive balance between these factors determines cell fate. Our work underscores the dynamic nature of cellular differentiation and explains mechanistically the dual properties of stability and plasticity associated with the process. PMID:19366677

  1. Optimal Control of Switching Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Benmerzouga


    Full Text Available A solution to the control of switching linear systems with input constraints was given in Benmerzouga (1997 for both the conventional enumeration approach and the new approach. The solution given there turned out to be not unique. The main objective in this work is to determine the optimal control sequences {Ui(k ,  i = 1,..., M ;  k = 0, 1, ...,  N -1} which transfer the system from a given initial state  X0  to a specific target state  XT  (or to be as close as possible by using the same discrete time solution obtained in Benmerzouga (1997 and minimizing a running cost-to-go function. By using the dynamic programming technique, the optimal solution is found for both approaches given in Benmerzouga (1997. The computational complexity of the modified algorithm is also given.

  2. Conductive polymer switch for controlling superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, J.T.; Haupt, S.G.; Riley, D.R.; Zhao, J.; Grassi, J.; Lo, K.; Jones, C.


    The preparation of a hybrid conducting polymer/high-temperature superconductor device consisting of a polypyrrole coated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ microbridge is reported. Electrochemical techniques are exploited to alter the oxidation state of the polymer and, in doing so, it is found for the first time that superconductivity can be modulated in a controllable and reproducible fashion by a polymer layout. Whereas the neutral (insulating) polypyrrole only slightly influences the electrical properties of the underlying YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ film, the oxidized (conductive) polymer depresses T c by up to 50K. In a similar fashion, the oxidation state of the polymer is found to reversibly modulate the magnitude of J c , the superconducting critical current. Thus, a new type of molecule switch for controlling superconductivity is demonstrated

  3. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...

  4. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J


    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  5. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper


    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  6. A CW Gunn diode bistable switching element. (United States)

    Hurtado, M.; Rosenbaum, F. J.


    Experiments with a current-controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode are reported. Switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by current pulses of short duration (5-10 ns). Rise times of the order of several nanoseconds could be obtained.

  7. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  8. Switching antidepressants | Outhoff | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... worsening depression or unpleasant discontinuation reactions. Switching strategies to minimise these risks include immediate switching, cross-tapering or incorporating a washout period. Immediate switching is generally possible when substituting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or a serotonin and noradrenaline ...

  9. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching. (United States)


    ... foreign services that use local exchange switching facilities. (c) If end users of an interstate or... local exchange carriers shall establish rate elements for local switching as follows: (1) Price cap... use local exchange switching facilities for the provision of interstate or foreign services. The...

  10. Dynamic characteristics of the blisk with synchronized switch damping based on negative capacitor (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, L.; Huang, X.; Jezequel, L.


    In this paper, we propose a method to suppress the vibration of the integral bladed disk ('blisk' for short) in aero-engines using synchronized switch damping based on negative capacitor (SSDNC). Different from the classical piezoelectric shunt damping, SSDNC is a type of nonlinear piezoelectric damping. A multi-harmonic balance method combined with the alternating frequency/time method (MHBM-AFT) is used to predict and further analyze the dynamic characteristics of the electromechanical system, and an arc-length continuation technique is used to improve the convergence of the method. In order to validate the algorithm as well as to recognize the characteristics of the system with SSDNC, a two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) system with SSDNC is studied at first. The nonlinear complex modal information is calculated and compared with those of the corresponding system with a linear RL shunt circuit. The results indicate that the natural frequencies and modal damping ratio do not change with the modal amplitude, which means that SSDNC has the same modal damping corresponding to different system energy levels. In addition, SSDNC can improve the damping level of all the modes nearly without affecting the natural frequencies of the system. Then, the forced response of the blisk with SSDNC in the frequency domain is calculated and analyzed, including a tuned blisk, which is excited by the traveling wave excitation with a single harmonic and multi-harmonic, and a mistuned blisk, which is excited by traveling wave excitation with a single harmonic and multi-harmonic. We present two advantages of the SSDNC technique when compared with piezoelectric shunt damping. First, SSDNC can suppress the vibration of the blisk under a multi-harmonic wideband the traveling wave, and second, the vibration suppression performance of SSDNC is insensitive to the mistuning of mechanical parameters of the blisk. The results will be of great significance in overcoming the problem of the amplitude

  11. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals (United States)

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen


    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  12. High-Frequency Stimulation at the Subthalamic Nucleus Suppresses Excessive Self-Grooming in Autism-Like Mouse Models. (United States)

    Chang, Andrew D; Berges, Victoria A; Chung, Sunho J; Fridman, Gene Y; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M


    Approximately one quarter of individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) display self-injurious behavior (SIB) ranging from head banging to self-directed biting and punching. Sometimes, these behaviors are extreme and unresponsive to pharmacological and behavioral therapies. We have found electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can produce life-changing results, with more than 90% suppression of SIB frequency. However, these patients typically require frequent maintenance ECT (mECT), as often as every 5 days, to sustain the improvement gained during the acute course. Long-term consequences of such frequent mECT started as early as childhood in some cases are unknown. Accordingly, there is a need for alternative forms of chronic stimulation for these patients. To explore the feasibility of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for intractable SIB seen in some patients with an ASD, we utilized two genetically distinct mouse models demonstrating excessive self-grooming, namely the Viaat-Mecp2(-/y) and Shank3B(-/-) lines, and administered high-frequency stimulation (HFS) via implanted electrodes at the subthalamic nucleus (STN-HFS). We found that STN-HFS significantly suppressed excessive self-grooming in both genetic lines. Suppression occurs both acutely when stimulation is switched on, and persists for several days after HFS is stopped. This effect was not explained by a change in locomotor activity, which was unaffected by STN-HFS. Likewise, social interaction deficits were not corrected by STN-HFS. Our data show STN-HFS suppresses excessive self-grooming in two autism-like mouse models, raising the possibility DBS might be used to treat intractable SIB associated with ASDs. Further studies are required to explore the circuitry engaged by STN-HFS, as well as other potential stimulation sites. Such studies might also yield clues about pathways, which could be modulated by non-invasive stimulatory techniques.

  13. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches (United States)

    Cooper, James A.


    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  14. A Power Efficient Audio Amplifier Combining Switching and Linear Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zee, Ronan A.R.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria


    Integrated Class D audio amplifiers are very power efficient, but require an external filter which prevents further integration. Also due to this filter, large feedback factors are hard to realise, so that the load influences the distortion- and transfer characteristics. The amplifier presented in

  15. Reconfigurable Switched-Capacitor Power Converters Principles and Designs for Self-Powered Microsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Dongsheng


    This book provides readers specializing in ultra-low power supply design for self-powered applications, an invaluable reference on reconfigurable switched capacitor power converters. Readers will benefit from a comprehensive introduction to the design of robust power supplies for energy harvesting and self-power applications, focusing on the use of reconfigurable switched capacitor based DC-DC converters, which is ideal for such applications.  Coverage includes all aspects of switched capacitor power supply designs, from fundamentals, to reconfigurable power stages, and sophisticated controller designs.    Provides a comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of switched capacitor power supply design for novices, as well as advanced design and implementation  techniques for advanced readers; Includes discussion of all aspects of switched capacitor power supply designs, from fundamentals, to reconfigurable power stages, and sophisticated controller designs; Covers most state-of-art power supply design...

  16. Global finite-time stabilisation of a class of switched nonlinear systems (United States)

    Liang, Ying-Jiu; Ma, Ruicheng; Wang, Min; Fu, Jun


    This paper is concerned with the global finite-time stabilisation problem for a class of switched nonlinear systems under arbitrary switchings. All subsystems of the studied switched system under consideration are in lower triangular form. Based on the adding one power integrator technique, both a class of non-Lipschitz continuous state feedback controllers and a common Lyapunov function are simultaneously constructed such that the closed-loop switched system is global finite-time stable under arbitrary switchings. In the controller design process, a common coordinate transformation of all subsystems is exploited to avoid using individual coordinate transformations for subsystems. Finally, two examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Shape memory thermal conduction switch (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)


    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  18. Switch for Good Community Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Tabitha [Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management LLC, Newtown Square, PA (United States); Amran, Martha [WattzOn, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)


    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective. The program was delivered on-time and on-budget, and its success is based on the teamwork of local BB staff and the WattzOn team. The following graphic shows Switch4Good “by the numbers”, e.g. the scale of operations achieved during Phase I.

  19. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha


    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  20. Large aperture optical switching devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.


    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs

  1. Resistive Switching Assisted by Noise


    Patterson, G. A.; Fierens, P. I.; Grosz, D. F.


    We extend results by Stotland and Di Ventra on the phenomenon of resistive switching aided by noise. We further the analysis of the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of noise and study the EPIR (Electrical Pulse Induced Resistance) ratio dependence with noise power. In the case of internal noise we find an optimal range where the EPIR ratio is both maximized and independent of the preceding resistive state. However, when external noise is considered no beneficial effect is observed.

  2. Switching strategies to optimize search (United States)

    Shlesinger, Michael F.


    Search strategies are explored when the search time is fixed, success is probabilistic and the estimate for success can diminish with time if there is not a successful result. Under the time constraint the problem is to find the optimal time to switch a search strategy or search location. Several variables are taken into account, including cost, gain, rate of success if a target is present and the probability that a target is present.

  3. Evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games on the network with punishment and opportunistic partner switching (United States)

    Takesue, H.


    Punishment and partner switching are two well-studied mechanisms that support the evolution of cooperation. Observation of human behaviour suggests that the extent to which punishment is adopted depends on the usage of alternative mechanisms, including partner switching. In this study, we investigate the combined effect of punishment and partner switching in evolutionary prisoner's dilemma games conducted on a network. In the model, agents are located on the network and participate in the prisoner's dilemma games with punishment. In addition, they can opportunistically switch interaction partners to improve their payoff. Our Monte Carlo simulation showed that a large frequency of punishers is required to suppress defectors when the frequency of partner switching is low. In contrast, cooperation is the most abundant strategy when the frequency of partner switching is high regardless of the strength of punishment. Interestingly, cooperators become abundant not because they avoid the cost of inflicting punishment and earn a larger average payoff per game but rather because they have more numerous opportunities to be referred to as a role agent by defectors. Our results imply that the fluidity of social relationships has a profound effect on the adopted strategy in maintaining cooperation.

  4. Disease Suppressive Soils: New Insights from the Soil Microbiome. (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel; Kinkel, Linda; Thomashow, Linda; Weller, David; Paulitz, Timothy


    Soils suppressive to soilborne pathogens have been identified worldwide for almost 60 years and attributed mainly to suppressive or antagonistic microorganisms. Rather than identifying, testing and applying potential biocontrol agents in an inundative fashion, research into suppressive soils has attempted to understand how indigenous microbiomes can reduce disease, even in the presence of the pathogen, susceptible host, and favorable environment. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing of microbiomes have provided new tools to reexamine and further characterize the nature of these soils. Two general types of suppression have been described: specific and general suppression, and theories have been developed around these two models. In this review, we will present three examples of currently-studied model systems with features representative of specific and general suppressiveness: suppression to take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici), Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat (Rhizoctonia solani AG-8), and Streptomyces. To compare and contrast the two models of general versus specific suppression, we propose a number of hypotheses about the nature and ecology of microbial populations and communities of suppressive soils. We outline the potential and limitations of new molecular techniques that can provide novel ways of testing these hypotheses. Finally, we consider how this greater understanding of the phytobiome can facilitate sustainable disease management in agriculture by harnessing the potential of indigenous soil microbes.

  5. Molecular wires, switches and memories (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  6. Ways to suppress click and pop for class D amplifiers (United States)

    Haishi, Wang; Bo, Zhang; Jiang, Sun


    Undesirable audio click and pop may be generated in a speaker or headphone. Compared to linear (class A/B/AB) amplifiers, class D amplifiers that comprise of an input stage and a modulation stage are more prone to producing click and pop. This article analyzes sources that generate click and pop in class D amplifiers, and corresponding ways to suppress them. For a class D amplifier with a single-ended input, click and pop is likely to be due to two factors. One is from a voltage difference (VDIF) between the voltage of an input capacitance (VCIN) and a reference voltage (VREF) of the input stage, and the other one is from the non-linear switching during the setting up of the bias and feedback voltages/currents (BFVC) of the modulation stage. In this article, a fast charging loop is introduced into the input stage to charge VCIN to roughly near VREF. Then a correction loop further charges or discharges VCIN, substantially equalizing it with VREF. Dummy switches are introduced into the modulation stage to provide switching signals for setting up BFVC, and the power switches are disabled until the BFVC are set up successfully. A two channel single-ended class D amplifier with the above features is fabricated with 0.5 μm Bi-CMOS process. Road test and fast Fourier transform analysis indicate that there is no noticeable click and pop.

  7. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans


    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  8. Streamer model for high voltage water switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazama, F.J.; Kenyon, V.L. III


    An electrical switch model for high voltage water switches has been developed which predicts streamer-switching effects that correlate well with water-switch data from Casino over the past four years and with switch data from recent Aurora/AMP experiments. Preclosure rounding and postclosure resistive damping of pulseforming line voltage waveforms are explained in terms of spatially-extensive, capacitive-coupling of the conducting streamers as they propagate across the gap and in terms of time-dependent streamer resistance and inductance. The arc resistance of the Casino water switch and of a gas switch under test on Casino was determined by computer fit to be 0.5 +- 0.1 ohms and 0.3 +- 0.06 ohms respectively, during the time of peak current in the power pulse. Energy lost in the water switch during the first pulse is 18% of that stored in the pulseforming line while similar energy lost in the gas switch is 11%. The model is described, computer transient analyses are compared with observed water and gas switch data and the results - switch resistance, inductance and energy loss during the primary power pulse - are presented

  9. Synchronization in complex networks with switching topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Qing-guo


    This Letter investigates synchronization issues of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. By constructing a common Lyapunov function, we show that local and global synchronization for a linearly coupled network with switching topology can be evaluated by the time average of second smallest eigenvalues corresponding to the Laplacians of switching topology. This result is quite powerful and can be further used to explore various switching cases for complex dynamical networks. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results in the end. -- Highlights: → Synchronization of complex networks with switching topology is investigated. → A common Lyapunov function is established for synchronization of switching network. → The common Lyapunov function is not necessary to monotonically decrease with time. → Synchronization is determined by the second smallest eigenvalue of its Laplacian. → Synchronization criterion can be used to investigate various switching cases.

  10. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du


    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  11. Time-programmable drug dosing allows the manipulation, suppression and reversal of antibiotic drug resistance in vitro


    Yoshida, Mari; Galiñanes Reyes, Sabrina Galiñanes; Tsuda, Soichiro; Horinouchi, Takaaki; Furusawa, Chikara; Cronin, Leroy


    Multi-drug strategies have been attempted to prolong the efficacy of existing antibiotics, but with limited success. Here we show that the evolution of multi-drug-resistant Escherichia coli can be manipulated in vitro by administering pairs of antibiotics and switching between them in ON/OFF manner. Using a multiplexed cell culture system, we find that switching between certain combinations of antibiotics completely suppresses the development of resistance to one of the antibiotics. Using thi...

  12. High efficiency switching power amplifiers for multi-band radar (United States)

    Lawler, Jarred; Wells, Justin; Mendez, Sal; Wurth, Tim


    The reduction of size, weight, power, and cost (SWaP-C) of radio frequency (RF) components is becoming increasingly important to meet industry requirements. In meeting the SWaP-C objectives, RF components will be required to be smaller and more power efficient than the current state- of- the- art while sustaining high performance functionality. In compliance with SWaP-C and high performance functionality is a High Efficiency Switching Power Amplifier. This study focuses on the more efficient breed of switching power amplifiers (PAs), particularly the Class F PA with new techniques to operate broadband on multiple radar bands. Efficiencies in the range of 60% to 80% for Class F PAs have been reported in literature; however, this efficiency is only attainable over narrow bandwidths on the order of 10%. Several innovative techniques have been identified to increase the efficiency and operational bandwidth of RF power amplifiers (PAs) for radar applications. The amplifier design also incorporates fast turn on and turn off circuits to achieve switching times of less than one microsecond (μs). This enables the PA to be switched off during the receive period to prevent self-generated noise from corrupting the received signal. Also, high-power transmit and receive (T/R) switches at the antenna feed can be eliminated. A wideband PA enables the design of a multi-band radar, reducing the number of components needed for operation in the L and X bands. A high efficiency PA is also key to reducing battery size and cooling requirements in radar applications.

  13. How to suppress obsessive thoughts. (United States)

    Rassin, Eric; Diepstraten, Philip


    Thought suppression (i.e. consciously trying to avoid certain thoughts from entering consciousness) has been argued to be an inadequate strategy in case of unwanted intrusions. That is, thought suppression seems to result in more rather than less intrusions. Although this experimental finding has been explained in terms of failing attempts to distract oneself from the target thought, the White Bear Suppression Inventory (WBSI; a scale that measures chronic thought suppression tendencies) does not address the means by which respondents try to suppress unwanted thoughts. To examine which strategies of mental control people use to suppress unwanted thoughts, obsessive-compulsive disorder patients (N=47) completed the WBSI, the Thought Control Questionnaire, and two measures of psychopathology. Results suggest that the crucial mechanism in thought suppression may not be distraction, but self-punishment.

  14. Suppression of Adverse Effects of GIC Using Controlled Variable Grounding Resistor (United States)

    Abuhussein, A.; Ali, M. H.


    Geomagnetically induced current (GIC) has a harmful impact on power systems, with a large footprint. Mitigation strategies for the GIC are required to protect the integrity of the power system. To date, the adverse effects of GIC are being mitigated by either operational procedures or grounding fixed capacitors (GFCs). The operational procedures are uncertain, reduce systems' reliability, and increase energy losses. On the other hand, GFCs, incur voltage spikes, increase the transformer cost substantially, and require protection circuitry. This study investigates new possible approaches to cope with GIC, by using a controlled variable grounding resistor (CVGR), without interfering with the system's normal operation. In addition, the new techniques help suppress unsymmetrical faults in the power network. The controllability of the grounding resistor is applied using three different techniques: (1) a Parallel switch that is controlled by PI regulated duty cycle, (2) a Parallel switch that is triggered by a preset values in a look-up-table (LUT), and (3) a Mechanical resistor varied by a Fuzzy logic controller (FLC). The experimental results were obtained and validated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software. A hypothetical power system that consists of a generator, a 765kv, 500 km long transmission lines connecting between a step-up, Δ-Yn, transformer, and a step-down, Yn-Δ, transformer, is considered. The performance of the CVGR is compared with that of the GFC under the cases of GIC event and unsymmetrical faults. From the simulation results, the following points are concluded: The CVGR effectively suppresses the GIC flowing in the system. Consequently, it protects the transformers from saturation and the rest of the system from collapsing. The CVGR also reduces the voltage and power swings associated with unsymmetrical faults and blocks the zero sequence current flowing through the neutral of the transformer. The performance of the CVGR surpasses that of the GFC in

  15. Dual branch transmit switch-and-stay diversity for underlay cognitive networks

    KAUST Repository

    Sayed, Mostafa M.


    In this paper, we study applying dual branch transmit switch-and-stay combining (SSC) technique for underlay cognitive radio (UCR) networks. In UCR, the secondary user is allowed to share the spectrum with the primary (licensed) user under the condition that interference at the primary receiver is below a predetermined threshold. Assuming binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) modulation and Rayleigh fading channels, we develop a closed form expression for the average bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link as a function of the switching threshold. We then find a closed form expression for the optimal switching threshold in the sense of minimizing the average BER. For the sake of comparison we derive an expression for the average BER of the dual branch transmit selection combining (SC) technique. We finally investigate the effect of correlation between secondary and interference channels on the average BER and the associated optimal switching threshold. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. Unihemispheric burst suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward C. Mader Jr.


    Full Text Available Burst suppression (BS consists of bursts of high-voltage slow and sharp wave activity alternating with periods of background suppression in the electroencephalogram (EEG. When induced by deep anesthesia or encephalopathy, BS is bihemispheric and is often viewed as a non-epileptic phenomenon. In contrast, unihemispheric BS is rare and its clinical significance is poorly understood. We describe here two cases of unihemispheric BS. The first patient is a 56-year-old woman with a left temporoparietal tumor who presented in convulsive status epilepticus. EEG showed left hemispheric BS after clinical seizure termination with lorazepam and propofol. The second patient is a 39-year-old woman with multiple medical problems and a vague history of seizures. After abdominal surgery, she experienced a convulsive seizure prompting treatment with propofol. Her EEG also showed left hemispheric BS. In both cases, increasing the propofol infusion rate resulted in disappearance of unihemispheric BS and clinical improvement. The prevailing view that typical bihemispheric BS is non-epileptic should not be extrapolated automatically to unihemispheric BS. The fact that unihemispheric BS was associated with clinical seizure and resolved with propofol suggests that, in both cases, an epileptic mechanism was responsible for unihemispheric BS.

  17. Evaluation of Chemical Structure and Resistance Switching Characteristics of Undoped Titanium Oxide and Titanium-Yttrium Mixed Oxide (United States)

    Ohta, Akio; Goto, Yuta; Wei, Guobin; Murakami, Hideki; Higashi, Seiichiro; Miyazaki, Seiichi


    We have studied the chemical bonding features in the region near the TiO2/Pt interface after resistance change to gain a better understanding of the mechanism of resistance switching in TiO2-based resistance random access memory (ReRAM). For the Pt/TiO2/Pt structure after resistance switching, oxidation of the Pt electrode at the Pt/TiO2 interface in switching from a high resistance state (HRS) to a low resistance state (LRS) and reduction of this Pt-oxide in switching from the LRS to the HRS were observed by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The result suggests that the generation of oxygen vacancies in the Ti-oxide matrix is responsible for the formation of the conductive pass resulting in the LRS and that repeatable redox reaction at the Pt/TiO2 interface plays an important role in resistance switching behavior. To modify the oxide network, which leads to the change in the conduction pass formation, trivalent Y ions were added to the oxide matrix of quadrivalent Ti ions. Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction measurements show that the crystallization of TiO2 by thermal annealing was suppressed by the Y2O3 addition. In Au/TiYxOy/Pt structures, it has been demonstrated that the variations in resistance switching voltages are markedly suppressed by the Y2O3 addition to TiO2.

  18. Conditioned suppression to odorous stimuli in pigeons, 12 (United States)

    Henton, Wendon W.


    The conditioned suppression technique was employed to establish criterion discrimination of an amyl acetate concentration of 3% of vapor saturation, and to generate differential response rates in the presence of equal concentrations of amyl acetate and butyl acetate. The magnitude of suppression was also recorded as a function of amyl acetate concentration, with the concentrations presented in descending, ascending, and irregular series. The three stimulus presentation procedures generated approximately equivalent suppression versus concentration functions. Amyl acetate suppression thresholds were 0.16%, 0.50%, and 0.73% of vapor saturation for three subjects. Amyl acetate, butyl acetate, and butyric acid thresholds for two additional subjects were approximately 0.10% of vapor saturation. No suppression was recorded during control trials. PMID:5778311

  19. Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters topologies, control, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, Xinbo


    Soft-switching PWM full-bridge converters have been widely used in medium-to-high power dc-dc conversions for topological simplicity, easy control and high efficiency. Early works on soft-switching PWM full-bridge converter by many researchers included various topologies and modulation strategies.  However, these works were scattered, and the relationship among these topologies and modulation strategies had not been revealed. This book intends to describe systematically the soft-switching techniques for pulse-width modulation (PWM) full-bridge converters, including the topologies, control and

  20. Guaranteed Cost H∞ Controller Synthesis for Switched Systems Defined on Semi-algebraic Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmadi, Mohamadreza; Mojallali, Hamed; Wisniewski, Rafael


    A methodology to design guaranteed cost H∞ controllers for a class of switched systems with polynomial vector fields is proposed. To this end, we use sum of squares programming techniques. In addition, instead of the customary Carathéodory solutions, the analysis is performed in the framework...... of Filippov solutions which subsumes solutions with infinite switching in finite time and sliding modes. Firstly, conditions assuring asymptotic stability of Filippov solutions pertained to a switched system defined on semi-algebraic sets are formulated. Accordingly, we derive a set of sum of squares...

  1. Marginal bone loss around platform-switched and non-platform switched implants after two years of placement: a clinical trial. (United States)

    Zarandi, Ali; Novin, Maryam


    Background. The present study was conducted to investigate the marginal bone loss around two different types of implant‒abutment junctions, called platform-switched (Implantium system) and non-platform switched (XiVE system) after two years of loading. Methods. Sixty-four implants in 49 patients were included in the study. The implants were placed in the posterior mandibular region according to the relevant protocols. The extent of bone loss around the implants was measured and compared after 24 months, using digital parallel periapical radiographs. Results. The means ± SE of bone loss values in the platform-switched and non-platform-switched groups were 0.47 ± 0.048 mm and 1.87 ± 0.124 mm, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P technique seems to reduce the periimplant crestal bone resorption, which supports the long-term predictability of implant therapy.

  2. Mechanical switching of ferroelectric domains beyond flexoelectricity (United States)

    Chen, Weijin; Liu, Jianyi; Ma, Lele; Liu, Linjie; Jiang, G. L.; Zheng, Yue


    The resurgence of interest in flexoelectricity has prompted discussions on the feasibility of switching ferroelectric domains 'non-electrically'. In this work, we perform three-dimensional thermodynamic simulations in combination with ab initio calculations and effective Hamiltonian simulations to demonstrate the great effects of surface screening and surface bonding on ferroelectric domain switching triggered by local tip loading. A three-dimensional simulation scheme has been developed to capture the tip-induced domain switching behavior in ferroelectric thin films by adequately taking into account the surface screening effect and surface bonding effect of the ferroelectric film, as well as the finite elastic stiffness of the substrate and the electrode layers. The major findings are as follows. (i) Compared with flexoelectricity, surface effects can be overwhelming and lead to much more efficient mechanical switching caused by tip loading. (ii) The surface-assisted mechanical switching can be bi-directional without the necessity of reversing strain gradients. (iii) A mode transition from local to propagating domain switching occurs when the screening below a critical value. A ripple effect of domain switching appears with the formation of concentric loop domains. (iv) The ripple effect can lead to 'domain interference' and a deterministic writing of confined loop domain patterns by local excitations. Our study reveals the hidden switching mechanisms of ferroelectric domains and the possible roles of surface in mechanical switching. The ripple effect of domain switching, which is believed to be general in dipole systems, broadens our current knowledge of domain engineering.

  3. Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth (United States)

    Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.


    How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

  4. Aberrant recombination and repair during immunoglobulin class switching in BRCA1-deficient human B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björkman, Andrea; Qvist, Per; Du, Likun


    cancer type 2 susceptibility protein (BRCA2)-deficient cells. Thus, BRCA1, together with its interaction partners, seems to play an important role in repairing DSBs generated during class switch recombination by promoting the classical NHEJ pathway. This may not only provide a general mechanism......Breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) has a multitude of functions that contribute to genome integrity and tumor suppression. Its participation in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) during homologous recombination (HR) is well recognized, whereas its involvement...... in the second major DSB repair pathway, nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), remains controversial. Here we have studied the role of BRCA1 in the repair of DSBs in switch (S) regions during immunoglobulin class switch recombination, a physiological, deletion/recombination process that relies on the classical NHEJ...

  5. Conducting mechanism of Ag-diffused Bi-Te based resistive switching devices (United States)

    Liu, N.; Yan, P.; Li, Y.; Lu, K.; Sun, H. J.; Ji, H. K.; Xue, K. H.; Miao, X. S.


    The forming-free resistive switching (RS) and conducting mechanism of Ag-diffused BiTe chalcogenide thin film has been investigated. The mutual diffusion of Ag, Bi and Te elements at the interface is proved to suppress the crystallization of the as-deposited BiTe film. The amorphization of BiTe and the Schottky barrier between Ag and BiTe contribute to high resistance state (HRS) of the switching devices. When switched to low resistance state (LRS), the coexistence of metallic conduction and variable-range hopping is found to be the dominant conduction mechanism. The temperature dependence of LRS exhibits an interesting transport behavior, so that a positive temperature coefficient becomes a negative one at 24 K. Our results help to further understand the conduction mechanism and promote the design for future nonvolatile memory applications.

  6. Switching Magnetism and Superconductivity with Spin-Polarized Current in Iron-Based Superconductor (United States)

    Choi, Seokhwan; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ok, Jong Mok; Lee, Yeonghoon; Jang, Won-Jun; Lee, Alex Taekyung; Kuk, Young; Lee, SungBin; Heinrich, Andreas J.; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bang, Yunkyu; Johnston, Steven; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Jhinhwan


    We explore a new mechanism for switching magnetism and superconductivity in a magnetically frustrated iron-based superconductor using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). Our SPSTM study on single-crystal Sr2VO3FeAs shows that a spin-polarized tunneling current can switch the Fe-layer magnetism into a nontrivial C4 (2 ×2 ) order, which cannot be achieved by thermal excitation with an unpolarized current. Our tunneling spectroscopy study shows that the induced C4 (2 ×2 ) order has characteristics of plaquette antiferromagnetic order in the Fe layer and strongly suppresses superconductivity. Also, thermal agitation beyond the bulk Fe spin ordering temperature erases the C4 state. These results suggest a new possibility of switching local superconductivity by changing the symmetry of magnetic order with spin-polarized and unpolarized tunneling currents in iron-based superconductors.

  7. Switching Magnetism and Superconductivity with Spin-Polarized Current in Iron-Based Superconductor. (United States)

    Choi, Seokhwan; Choi, Hyoung Joon; Ok, Jong Mok; Lee, Yeonghoon; Jang, Won-Jun; Lee, Alex Taekyung; Kuk, Young; Lee, SungBin; Heinrich, Andreas J; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Bang, Yunkyu; Johnston, Steven; Kim, Jun Sung; Lee, Jhinhwan


    We explore a new mechanism for switching magnetism and superconductivity in a magnetically frustrated iron-based superconductor using spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy (SPSTM). Our SPSTM study on single-crystal Sr_{2}VO_{3}FeAs shows that a spin-polarized tunneling current can switch the Fe-layer magnetism into a nontrivial C_{4} (2×2) order, which cannot be achieved by thermal excitation with an unpolarized current. Our tunneling spectroscopy study shows that the induced C_{4} (2×2) order has characteristics of plaquette antiferromagnetic order in the Fe layer and strongly suppresses superconductivity. Also, thermal agitation beyond the bulk Fe spin ordering temperature erases the C_{4} state. These results suggest a new possibility of switching local superconductivity by changing the symmetry of magnetic order with spin-polarized and unpolarized tunneling currents in iron-based superconductors.

  8. Optical switching property of a light-induced pinhole in antimony thin film (United States)

    Fukaya, Toshio; Tominaga, Junji; Nakano, Takashi; Atoda, Nobufumi


    Optical near-field recording, called a super-resolution near-field structure, records and retrieves small marks beyond the diffraction limit. A thin layer of an antimony (Sb) film, added to the usual phase-change optical disk, is the key material of this technique. Nonlinear optical properties of an Sb film, especially optical switching, were studied in the stationary state using a nanosecond pulse laser. Clear switching was observed under microscopic measurement.

  9. Advances in surface ion suppression from RILIS: Towards the Time-of-Flight Laser Ion Source (ToF-LIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, S., E-mail: [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Catherall, R.; Crepieux, B. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Day Goodacre, T. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Fedosseev, V.N.; Giles, T.; Marsh, B.A. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ramos, J.P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Laboratory of Powder Technology, EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Rossel, R.E. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz (Germany); Faculty of Design, Computer Science and Media, Hochschule RheinMain, Wiesbaden (Germany)


    We present results from the development towards the Time-of-Flight Laser Ion Source (ToF-LIS) aiming for the suppression of isobaric contaminants through fast beam gating. The capability to characterize high resistance ion sources has been successfully demonstrated. A ninefold selectivity gain has been achieved through suppression of surface ionized potassium, while maintaining >90% transmission for laser-ionized gallium using a thin wall graphite ionizer cavity combined with a fast beam gate. Initial results from the investigation of glassy carbon as a potential hot cavity ion source are presented. Power-cycle tests of a newly designed mount for fragile ion source cavities indicates its capability to survive the thermal stress expected during operation in an ISOLDE target unit. Finally, we introduce fast ion beam switching at a rate of 10 kHz using the ISOLDE ion beam switchyard as a new concept for ion beam distribution and conclude by highlighting the potential applications of this ion beam multiplexing technique.

  10. Aging and service wear of multistage switches used in safety systems of nuclear power plants: Volume 1, Operating experience and failure identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, G.C.; Bacanskas, V.P.; Toman, G.J.


    An assessment of the types and uses of multistage switches in nuclear power plant safety-related service is provided. Through a description of the operation of each type of switch, combined with knowledge of nuclear power plant applications and operational occurrences, the significant stressors responsible for multistage switch deterioration are identified. A review of operating experience (failure data) leads to identification of potential monitoring techniques for early detection of incipient failures. Although the operating experience does not justify extensive deterioration monitoring of multistage switches, nondestructive testing methods that could be used to evaluate the condition of switches are identified.

  11. Contribution to high voltage matrix switches reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausenaz, Yvan


    Nowadays, power electronic equipment requirements are important, concerning performances, quality and reliability. On the other hand, costs have to be reduced in order to satisfy the market rules. To provide cheap, reliability and performances, many standard components with mass production are developed. But the construction of specific products must be considered following these two different points: in one band you can produce specific components, with delay, over-cost problems and eventuality quality and reliability problems, in the other and you can use standard components in a adapted topologies. The CEA of Pierrelatte has adopted this last technique of power electronic conception for the development of these high voltage pulsed power converters. The technique consists in using standard components and to associate them in series and in parallel. The matrix constitutes high voltage macro-switch where electrical parameters are distributed between the synchronized components. This study deals with the reliability of these structures. It brings up the high reliability aspect of MOSFETs matrix associations. Thanks to several homemade test facilities, we obtained lots of data concerning the components we use. The understanding of defects propagation mechanisms in matrix structures has allowed us to put forwards the necessity of robust drive system, adapted clamping voltage protection, and careful geometrical construction. All these reliability considerations in matrix associations have notably allowed the construction of a new matrix structure regrouping all solutions insuring reliability. Reliable and robust, this product has already reaches the industrial stage. (author) [fr

  12. Reconstruction of the Switched Reluctance Motor Stator (United States)

    El-Kharashi, Eyhab; Hassanien, Hany M.


    The paper re-designs the conventional 6/8 switched reluctance motor (SRM) by a particular way to minimize the losses. The flux loops are shortened by making each two stator teeth incorporated in one magnetic circuit only. Subsequently the flux does not cross in some iron parts of the stator core backs. These unused iron sections are taken off consequently the iron losses decreased. Now the stator consists of three separated sections and they are fixed inside non-magnetic cylinder. The copper losses also are decreased because less copper windings are used to produce the same amount of the output torque as the flux paths become short then the flux density increases. The analysis and comparison of the 6/8 SRM before and after the re-design process are presented. A m files Matlab software is used to simulate the dynamic performance. Then the paper proceeds to examine different control techniques to the new design. The hysteresis and PI controllers are used as classical method to control the SRM. Then the artificial neural network (ANN) is used to test the new control techniques.

  13. Switching model photovoltaic pumping system (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Abdul-Sadek Nour, M.

    Photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems are widely used due to their simplicity, high reliability and low cost. A directly-coupled PV pumping system is the most reliable and least-cost PV system. The d.c. motor-pump group is not, however, working at its optimum operating point. A battery buffered PV pumping system introduces a battery between the PV array and the d.c. motor-pump group to ensure that the motor-pump group is operating at its optimum point. The size of the battery storage depends on system economics. If the battery is fully charged while solar radiation is available, the battery will discharge through the load while the PV array is disconnected. Hence, a power loss takes place. To overcome the above mentioned difficulty, a switched mode PV pumping is proposed. When solar radiation is available and the battery is fully charged, the battery is disconnected and the d.c. motor-pump group is directly coupled to the PV array. To avoid excessive operating voltage for the motor, a part of the PV array is switched off to reduce the voltage. As a result, the energy loss is significantly eliminated. Detailed analysis of the proposed system shows that the discharged water increases by about 10% when compared with a conventional battery-buffered system. The system transient performance just after the switching moment shows that the system returns to a steady state in short period. The variations in the system parameters lie within 1% of the rated values.

  14. Reduced basal ganglia function when elderly switch between coordinated movement patterns. (United States)

    Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Van Impe, Annouchka; De Vos, Jeroen; Wenderoth, Nicole; Swinnen, Stephan P


    Structural and neurochemical changes in frontostriatal circuits are thought to underlie age-related behavioral deficits on cognitive tasks. Here, we test the hypothesis that age-related motor switching deficits are associated with reduced basal ganglia (BG) function. Right-handed volunteers (15 Old, and 15 Young) made spatially and temporally coupled bimanual circular motions during event-related FMRI. A visual cue signaled the right hand to Switch or Continue its circling direction. Switching from mirror symmetric to asymmetric (SW»ASYMM) took longer and resulted in more contralateral (left-) hand disruptions than vice versa. These effects were more pronounced in the elderly, showing that the ability to suppress and flexibly adapt motor behavior (agility) declines with age. For both groups, switching activated the BG and a typical network for task-set implementation, including dorsal anterior cingulate cortex/supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, SMA-proper) and anterior insula/inferior frontal gyrus. A region of interest analysis revealed significantly reduced SW»ASYMM activation in bilateral subthalamic nucleus and right globus pallidus, only in the elderly. Age-related behavioral deficits may be related to inefficient recruitment of cortico-BG loops to suppress undesired movements. The elderly may use an alternative strategy to select the required movement pattern as indicated by increased activation of prefrontal cortex.

  15. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.


    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  16. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.


    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit includes a light emitting diode which from time to time illuminates a photo-transistor, the photo-transistor serving when its output reaches a predetermined value to operate a trigger circuit. In order to allow for aging of the components, the current flow through the diode is increased when the output from the transistor falls below a known level. Conveniently, this is achieved by having a transistor in parallel with the diode, and turning the transistor off when the output from the phototransistor becomes too low. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  17. Laser-triggered vacuum switch (United States)

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.


    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  18. High accuracy switched-current circuits using an improved dynamic mirror (United States)

    Zweigle, G.; Fiez, T.

    The switched-current technique, a recently developed circuit approach to analog signal processing, has emerged as an alternative/compliment to the well established switched-capacitor circuit technique. High speed switched-current circuits offer potential cost and power savings over slower switched-capacitor circuits. Accuracy improvements are a primary concern at this stage in the development of the switched-current technique. Use of the dynamic current mirror has produced circuits that are insensitive to transistor matching errors. The dynamic current mirror has been limited by other sources of error including clock-feedthrough and voltage transient errors. In this paper we present an improved switched-current building block using the dynamic current mirror. Utilizing current feedback the errors due to current imbalance in the dynamic current mirror are reduced. Simulations indicate that this feedback can reduce total harmonic distortion by as much as 9 dB. Additionally, we have developed a clock-feedthrough reduction scheme for which simulations reveal a potential 10 dB total harmonic distortion improvement. The clock-feedthrough reduction scheme also significantly reduces offset errors and allows for cancellation with a constant current source. Experimental results confirm the simulated improvements.

  19. Analysis of Sampled Noise in Switched Current Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ivan Herald Holger; Bogason, Gudmundur


    The understanding of noise in analog sampled data systems is vital for the design of high resolution circuitry. In this paper a general description of sampled and held noise is presented. The noise calculations are verified by measurements on an analog delay line implemented using switched current...... (SI) technique. Based on the knowledge about sampled and held noise a high resolution/low power third order Sigma-Delta modulator is designed in SI technique. The measured performance of the designed Sigma-Delta modulator corresponds well with the expected performance....

  20. Suppression of sympathetic detonation (United States)

    Foster, J. C., Jr.; Gunger, M. E.; Craig, B. G.; Parsons, G. H.


    There are two basic approaches to suppression of sympathetic detonation. Minimizing the shock sensitivity of the explosive to long duration pressure will obviously reduce interround separation distances. However, given that the explosive sensitivity is fixed, then much can be gained through the use of simple barriers placed between the rounds. Researchers devised calculational methods for predicting shock transmission; experimental methods have been developed to characterize explosive shock sensitivity and observe the response of acceptors to barriers. It was shown that both EAK and tritonal can be initiated to detonation with relatively low pressure shocks of long durations. It was also shown that to be an effective barrier between the donor and acceptor, the material must attenuate shock and defect fragments. Future actions will concentrate on refining the design of barriers to minimize weight, volume, and cost.

  1. AlN passivation by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for GaN-based power switches and power amplifiers (United States)

    Chen, Kevin J.; Huang, Sen


    Developing an effective passivation technique for AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is of primary importance to keep pace with the advancement of GaN-based high-voltage power switches and high-power amplifiers. In this work, effective passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMT has been developed using a monocrystal-like AlN thin film grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) (PEALD). Significant current collapse suppression and dynamic ON-resistance reduction are demonstrated in the PEALD-AlN-passivated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, especially under high-drain-bias switching conditions. An output power density of 2.64 W mm-1 at 2 GHz is achieved on the PEALD-AlN-passivated GaN-on-Si HEMTs without the use of the field-plate. The physical mechanism of the PEALD-AlN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is systematically investigated with high-frequency and quasi-static capacitance-voltage (C-V) characterizations, and a novel passivation scheme using polarization charges in passivation materials to compensate the slow-response interface trap states is proposed.

  2. AlN passivation by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition for GaN-based power switches and power amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kevin J; Huang, Sen


    Developing an effective passivation technique for AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is of primary importance to keep pace with the advancement of GaN-based high-voltage power switches and high-power amplifiers. In this work, effective passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMT has been developed using a monocrystal-like AlN thin film grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) (PEALD). Significant current collapse suppression and dynamic ON-resistance reduction are demonstrated in the PEALD-AlN-passivated AlGaN/GaN HEMTs, especially under high-drain-bias switching conditions. An output power density of 2.64 W mm −1 at 2 GHz is achieved on the PEALD-AlN-passivated GaN-on-Si HEMTs without the use of the field-plate. The physical mechanism of the PEALD-AlN passivation of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs is systematically investigated with high-frequency and quasi-static capacitance–voltage (C–V) characterizations, and a novel passivation scheme using polarization charges in passivation materials to compensate the slow-response interface trap states is proposed. (invited paper)

  3. On formalism and stability of switched systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal


    In this paper, we formulate a uniform mathematical framework for studying switched systems with piecewise linear partitioned state space and state dependent switching. Based on known results from the theory of differential inclusions, we devise a Lyapunov stability theorem suitable for this class...... of switched systems. With this, we prove a Lyapunov stability theorem for piecewise linear switched systems by means of a concrete class of Lyapunov functions. Contrary to existing results on the subject, the stability theorems in this paper include Filippov (or relaxed) solutions and allow infinite switching...... in finite time. Finally, we show that for a class of piecewise linear switched systems, the inertia of the system is not sufficient to determine its stability. A number of examples are provided to illustrate the concepts discussed in this paper....

  4. Switching control of an R/C hovercraft: stabilization and smooth switching. (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Iwasaki, M; Wang, H O


    This paper presents stable switching control of an radio-controlled (R/C) hovercraft that is a nonholonomic (nonlinear) system. To exactly represent its nonlinear dynamics, more importantly, to maintain controllability of the system, we newly propose a switching fuzzy model that has locally Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models and switches them according to states, external variables, and/or time. A switching fuzzy controller is constructed by mirroring the rule structure of the switching fuzzy model of an R/C hovercraft. We derive linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions for ensuring the stability of the closed-loop system consisting of a switching fuzzy model and controller. Furthermore, to guarantee smooth switching of control input at switching boundaries, we also derive a smooth switching condition represented in terms of LMIs. A stable switching fuzzy controller satisfying the smooth switching condition is designed by simultaneously solving both of the LMIs. The simulation and experimental results for the trajectory control of an R/C hovercraft show the validity of the switching fuzzy model and controller design, particularly, the smooth switching condition.

  5. Suppressing a Sea of Starlight : enabling technology for the direct imaging of exoplanets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, G.P.P.L.


    In this thesis we present multiple techniques to suppress starlight in order to better directly image planets around other stars. We propose a laboratory setup to test a new focal-plane wavefront sensing technique. We also show an optical device that suppresses starlight using liquid crystals (the

  6. Pressure-induced switching in ferroelectrics: Phase-field modeling, electrochemistry, flexoelectric effect, and bulk vacancy dynamics (United States)

    Cao, Ye; Morozovska, Anna; Kalinin, Sergei V.


    Pressure-induced polarization switching in ferroelectric thin films has emerged as a powerful method for domain patterning, allowing us to create predefined domain patterns on free surfaces and under thin conductive top electrodes. However, the mechanisms for pressure-induced polarization switching in ferroelectrics remain highly controversial, with flexoelectricity, polarization rotation and suppression, and bulk and surface electrochemical processes all being potentially relevant. Here we classify possible pressure-induced switching mechanisms, perform elementary estimates, and study in depth using phase-field modeling. We show that magnitudes of these effects are remarkably close and give rise to complex switching diagrams as a function of pressure and film thickness with nontrivial topology or switchable and nonswitchable regions.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bezruchenko


    Full Text Available The analytical study of switching of the tractive engines of electric locomotives is conducted. It is found that the obtained curves of change of current of the sections commuted correspond to the theory of average rectilinear switching. By means of the proposed method it is possible on the stage of design of tractive engines to forecast the quality of switching and to correct it timely.

  8. Switching X-Ray Tubes Remotely (United States)

    Bulthuis, Ronald V.


    Convenient switch and relay circuit reduces risk of accidents. Proposed switching circuit for x-ray inspection system enables operator to change electrical connections to x-ray tubes remotely. Operator simply flips switch on conveniently-located selector box to change x-ray heads. Indicator lights on selector box show whether 160 or 320-kV head connected. Relays in changeover box provides proper voltages and coolants. Chance of making wrong connections and damaging equipment eliminated.

  9. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications


    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi


    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  10. Optical Multidimensional Switching for Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija


    , the limitations of previously proposed optical subwavelength switching technologies are discussed and a novel concept of optical time division multiplexed switching is proposed. A detailed elaboration of the envisioned scheme is given, with a special focus on the problem of synchronization. A novel...... synchronization algorithm for the Hi-Ring architecture is proposed and experimentally validated. Furthermore, software controlled switching in the data plane is experimentally demonstrated when the proposed algorithm is used for synchronization. Finally, integration is discussed from two different perspectives...

  11. Monitoring Mellanox Infiniband SX6036 switches

    CERN Document Server

    Agapiou, Marinos


    The SX6036 switches addressed by my project, are part of a fully non-blocking fat-tree cluster consisting of 72 servers and 6 Mellanox SX6036 Infiniband switches. My project is about retrieving the appropriate metrics from the Infiniband switch cluster, ingesting the data to Collectd and after my data are being transfered to CERN Database, they are being visualized via Grafana Dashboards.

  12. Atomic crystals resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunsen; Zhang David Wei; Zhou Peng


    Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F 2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 10 12 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory. (topical reviews)

  13. Atomic battery with beam switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, E.A.; McKenna, R.P.; Peterick, E.Th. Jr.; Trexler, F.D.


    An electric power generating apparatus that is powered primarily by the emission of electrically charged particles from radio-active materials enclosed in an evacuated vessel of glass or the like. An arrangement of reflecting electrodes causes a beam of particles to switch back and forth at a high frequency between two collecting electrodes that are connected to a resonating tuned primary circuit consisting of an inductor with resonating capacitor. The reflecting electrodes are energized in the proper phase relationship to the collecting electrodes to insure sustained oscillation by means of a secondary winding coupled inductively to the primary winding and connected to the reflecting electrodes. Power may be drawn from the circuit at a stepped down voltage from a power take-off winding that is coupled to the primary winding. The disclosure also describes a collecting electrode arrangement consisting of multiple spatially separated electrodes which together serve to capture a maximum of the available particle energy. A self-starting arrangement for start of oscillations is described. A specially adapted version of the invention utilizes two complementary beams of oppositely charged particles which are switched alternatingly between the collecting electrodes

  14. Stochastic multistep polarization switching in ferroelectrics (United States)

    Genenko, Y. A.; Khachaturyan, R.; Schultheiß, J.; Ossipov, A.; Daniels, J. E.; Koruza, J.


    Consecutive stochastic 90° polarization switching events, clearly resolved in recent experiments, are described by a nucleation and growth multistep model. It extends the classical Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi approach and includes possible consecutive 90°- and parallel 180° switching events. The model predicts the results of simultaneous time-resolved macroscopic measurements of polarization and strain, performed on a tetragonal Pb (Zr ,Ti ) O3 ceramic in a wide range of electric fields over a time domain of seven orders of magnitude. It allows the determination of the fractions of individual switching processes, their characteristic switching times, activation fields, and respective Avrami indices.

  15. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg


    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...... constitutes 18.5% of all job-to-job mobility, and the trend is increasing both from public to private and from private to public. Sector switching is also generally increasing for middle managers, but for administrative professionals only the flows from private to public increase and for top managers only...

  16. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.


    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  17. Heat switch technology for cryogenic thermal management (United States)

    Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; E Fesmire, J.


    Systematic review is given of development of novel heat switches at cryogenic temperatures that alternatively provide high thermal connection or ideal thermal isolation to the cold mass. These cryogenic heat switches are widely applied in a variety of unique superconducting systems and critical space applications. The following types of heat switch devices are discussed: 1) magnetic levitation suspension, 2) shape memory alloys, 3) differential thermal expansion, 4) helium or hydrogen gap-gap, 5) superconducting, 6) piezoelectric, 7) cryogenic diode, 8) magneto-resistive, and 9) mechanical demountable connections. Advantages and limitations of different cryogenic heat switches are examined along with the outlook for future thermal management solutions in materials and cryogenic designs.

  18. Mechanism of single atom switch on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Stokbro, Kurt; Thirstrup, C.


    We demonstrate single atom switch on silicon which operates by displacement of a hydrogen atom on the silicon (100) surface at room temperature. We find two principal effects by which the switch is controlled: a pronounced maximum of the switching probability as function of sample bias...... and a preferred direction of switching as function of STM tip position. Based on first principles calculations, are show that this behaviour is due to a novel mechanism involving an electronic excitation of a localized surface resonance. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Adaptive Suppression of Noise in Voice Communications (United States)

    Kozel, David; DeVault, James A.; Birr, Richard B.


    A subsystem for the adaptive suppression of noise in a voice communication system effects a high level of reduction of noise that enters the system through microphones. The subsystem includes a digital signal processor (DSP) plus circuitry that implements voice-recognition and spectral- manipulation techniques. The development of the adaptive noise-suppression subsystem was prompted by the following considerations: During processing of the space shuttle at Kennedy Space Center, voice communications among test team members have been significantly impaired in several instances because some test participants have had to communicate from locations with high ambient noise levels. Ear protection for the personnel involved is commercially available and is used in such situations. However, commercially available noise-canceling microphones do not provide sufficient reduction of noise that enters through microphones and thus becomes transmitted on outbound communication links.

  20. Characterization of a High-Power, High-Frequency, Soft-Switching Power Converter for EMC Considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, S


    This report presents the setup, experimental techniques, and results of the radiated emissions tests on the PCM-3 soft-switching power converter using the Gigahertz Transverse Electromagnetic (GTEM) facility...

  1. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones (United States)

    Baca, Albert G.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Zipperian, Thomas E.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Denison, Gary J.; Brown, Darwin J.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Hou, Hong Q.


    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  2. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. (United States)


    ... controller. 236.6 Section 236.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the point, or with facing-point lock and circuit controller, shall be so maintained that when point is open...

  3. Improved resistive switching reliability by using dual-layer nanoporous carbon structure (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Li, Xuhong; Wang, Zhongqiang; Xu, Haiyang; Ding, Wentao; Ma, Jiangang; Liu, Yichun


    We optimized the diameter and microgeometry of preformed conductive filaments (CFs) to improve the switching reliability of copper/nanoporous amorphous carbon (a-C)/platinum memory devices. Forming-free devices were obtained because of the introduction of preformed CFs into the nanoporous layer during the copper electrode evaporation process. The switching fluctuation decreased with the increasing preformed CF size in a certain range; however, the device with stronger preformed CFs suffered from high current in the first RESET process. Furthermore, to achieve both high switching uniformity and low power consumption, a dual-layer structure was proposed to regulate the microgeometry of preformed CFs. Compared with those of a pristine device and single-layer nanoporous device, the fluctuation of high/low resistance values was further suppressed to 26% and 21%, respectively. In addition, Resistive random access memory (RRAM) devices exhibited a fast switching speed (endurance (>105 cycles), and long retention time (>105 s at 85 °C). These results reveal the key role of preformed CF optimization in resistive switching performance improvement, providing an effective approach to develop high-performance RRAM devices.

  4. Modeling and Mitigation for High Frequency Switching Transients Due to Energization in Offshore Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Xin


    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive investigation on high frequency (HF switching transients due to energization of vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs in offshore wind farms (OWFs. This research not only concerns the modeling of main components in collector grids of an OWF for transient analysis (including VCBs, wind turbine transformers (WTTs, submarine cables, but also compares the effectiveness between several mainstream switching overvoltage (SOV protection methods and a new mitigation method called smart choke. In order to accurately reproduce such HF switching transients considering the current chopping, dielectric strength (DS recovery capability and HF quenching capability of VCBs, three models are developed, i.e., a user–defined VCB model, a HF transformer terminal model and a three-core (TC frequency dependent model of submarine cables, which are validated through simulations and compared with measurements. Based on the above models and a real OWF configuration, a simulation model is built and several typical switching transient cases are investigated to analyze the switching transient process and phenomena. Subsequently, according to the characteristics of overvoltages, appropriate parameters of SOV mitigation methods are determined to improve their effectiveness. Simulation results indicate that the user–defined VCB model can satisfactorily simulate prestrikes and the proposed component models display HF characteristics, which are consistent with onsite measurement behaviors. Moreover, the employed protection methods can suppress induced SOVs, which have a steep front, a high oscillation frequency and a high amplitude, among which the smart choke presents a preferable HF damping effect.

  5. 1.114-gb/s time/space division switch system (United States)

    Pawelski, Robert L.; Nordin, Ronald A.; Huisman, R. F.; Kelly, S.; Payne, William A.; Veach, R. S.


    Advanced digital communication services11 such as Broadband ISDN High Definition Television (HDTV) and enhanced data networking are expected to require high bandwidth and fast reconfiguration time switching centers available in the 1990''s. Digital GaAs IC''s can allow the implementation of these switching centers providing these services efficiently and at a low cost. The low cost arises from the reduction in hardware power maintenance etc. when the switch is designed to operate at the incoming data rate instead of at a lower rate. In order to utilize the capacity of a high bandwidth data link time division multiplexing is employed. This is a technique where multiple digital signals are interleaved (bit byte or block) on one data link. Clearly it is advantageous to have a switch that not only has a large bandwidth but can reconfigure at the data rate so as to provide bit byte or block switching functions thus being compatible with many different transmission formats. We present an experimental Time/Space Division Switch System capable of operating at over 1 Gb/s. Both custom and commercial Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) devices are used in the design of the various system functional blocks. These functional blocks include a Time Slot Interchanger (TSI) Time Multiplexed Switch (TMS) TMS Controller Multiplexer and Demultiplexers. In addition to the system overview we discuss such issues as printed circuit board microwave interconnections and CAD tools for high speed

  6. Analysis of Factors Affecting Manufacturing Companies in Indonesia Performing a Switching Auditor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Sukma Winata


    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the influence of the Public Accountant Firms Size, Size of Company, Financial Distress, Audit Opinion and Management Turnover toward Auditor Switching. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period 2011-2015 consisting of 134 companies. The sample was obtained by purposive sampling technique which resulted in the sample of 26 companies. Methods of data analysis using logistic regression and SPSS 21 using data and other information obtained from Annual Report. Results of this study shows that the Public Accountant Firms Size and Management Turnover have significant impact toward auditor switching, size of company have influence auditor switching. Financial distress and audit opinion did not effect auditor switching significantly. The value of Nagelkerke R Square is 0.283. conclusions of this study is the Public Accountant Firms Size and Management Turnover have significant impact toward auditor switching, size of company have influence auditor switching. Financial distress and audit opinion did not effect auditor switching significantly.

  7. Vibration interference analysis and verification of micro-fluidic inertial switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Tingting


    Full Text Available The micro-fluidic inertial switch based on liquid metal utilizes the moving mercury droplet to close the switch under the action of acceleration, which is characterized by no moving parts, small contact resistance, long service life and large current. In addition to the requirement of response time, accuracy and reliability, the micro-fluidic inertial switch needs to overcome the impact of the ambient vibration. The influence of the ambient vibration on the performance of switch is investigated by loading pulse or sinusoidal interference signals in the X, Y and Z direction. The numerical results suggest that the performance of micro-fluidic inertial switch is greatly affected by impact interference signal in X sensitive direction as compared with low frequency harmonic signal. If the impact signal with high amplitude lasts only for a short time, the wrong operation might also occur. The interference signals in insensitive direction have a relatively small impact on the performance of switch, and the impact of interference signal can be reduced by reasonable structural design. Finally, anodic bonding, deep reactive ion etching (DRIE and sputtering technique are adopted to fabricate the micro-fluidic inertial switch. The acceleration threshold of the prototype is tested. The experiment results agree with the numerical results, which indicate that the simulation method is valid.

  8. An Alternative to Thought Suppression? (United States)

    Boice, Robert


    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  9. WaterControl: self-diffusion based solvent signal suppression enhanced by selective inversion. (United States)

    Zheng, Gang; Torres, Allan M; Price, William S


    Selective inversion/excitation based solvent signal suppression techniques are widely used in various NMR experiments because of their high efficiency and general applicability. However, these techniques generate a 'null'/suppression region containing (non-quantitatively) degraded solvent and desired resonances because of their reliance on the rejection of the coherence transfer pathway corresponding to all the resonances within the suppression region. To address this issue, the WaterControl technique was developed by inserting a (pulsed gradient - selective inversion pulse - pulsed gradient) unit into each 'transverse' period of a standard stimulated echo pulse sequence so that the coherence transfer pathways corresponding to both the suppression and non-suppression regions can be selected in one transient. The new sequence affords a diffusion based and quantifiable solvent signal suppression with no or minimal loss of features of interest. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Hybrid switched time-optimal control of underactuated spacecraft (United States)

    Olivares, Alberto; Staffetti, Ernesto


    This paper studies the time-optimal control problem for an underactuated rigid spacecraft equipped with both reaction wheels and gas jet thrusters that generate control torques about two of the principal axes of the spacecraft. Since a spacecraft equipped with two reaction wheels is not controllable, whereas a spacecraft equipped with two gas jet thrusters is controllable, this mixed actuation ensures controllability in the case in which one of the control axes is unactuated. A novel control logic is proposed for this hybrid actuation in which the reaction wheels are the main actuators and the gas jet thrusters act only after saturation or anticipating future saturation of the reaction wheels. The presence of both reaction wheels and gas jet thrusters gives rise to two operating modes for each actuated axis and therefore the spacecraft can be regarded as a switched dynamical system. The time-optimal control problem for this system is reformulated using the so-called embedding technique and the resulting problem is a classical optimal control problem. The main advantages of this technique are that integer or binary variables do not have to be introduced to model switching decisions between modes and that assumptions about the number of switches are not necessary. It is shown in this paper that this general method for the solution of optimal control problems for switched dynamical systems can efficiently deal with time-optimal control of an underactuated rigid spacecraft in which bound constraints on the torque of the actuators and on the angular momentum of the reaction wheels are taken into account.

  11. Sensorless speed control of a switched reluctance motor (United States)

    Chan, Wei Min


    This dissertation presents a sensorless rotor position detection technique for a switched reluctance motor (SRM). The effectiveness of other SRM sensorless rotor position detection techniques found in a literature review are evaluated and compared to this technique. Finite element analysis is used to determine the magnetic flux profile in the motor for a few shapes of the stator and rotor poles. An algorithm that uses this position sensing technique to control the motor speed is described. Magnetic flux linkage profile of a SRM is measured. A model of the SRM is developed by curve fitting this data. Some relations between model equations are found. Computer simulation results are obtained using this model. The results are compared to measurements taken with an oscilloscope. Comparison shows the results predicted by the model correlates to those measured from the motor.

  12. Optimal modal vibration suppression of a fluid-conveying pipe with a divergent mode (United States)

    Lin, Yih-Hwang; Huang, Rui-Cheng; Chu, Chih-Liang


    This study deals with the divergence characteristics of pipes conveying fluid and explores the applicability of active modal vibration control for suppressing the associated excessive structural vibration. The Timoshenko beam theory is used to establish the system equation of motion. The analysis is based on the finite element method. Active modal control technique is developed in this work for pipes conveying fluid with a flow speed exceeding the critical one. Optimal independent modal space control (IMSC) is applied for the design. For pipes conveying super-critical flow speed, as considered in this work, the system's eigenvalues have both real and complex roots, which must be dealt with in a different way from what has been established in the literature. A weighting matrix with finite weights is applied for the control of complex modes, whereas a weighting matrix with an infinite weight is used for controlling the divergent mode, with roots being real. From this study, it is demonstrated that the control approach proposed in this work can ensure closed loop stability. The mode switching scheme of directing control to the mode which has higher modal response is found to be beneficial in reducing the overall structural vibration of the fluid-conveying pipe.

  13. Crystal structure of an HIV assembly and maturation switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Jonathan M.; Zadrozny, Kaneil K.; Chrustowicz, Jakub; Purdy, Michael D.; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Pornillos, Owen


    Virus assembly and maturation proceed through the programmed operation of molecular switches, which trigger both local and global structural rearrangements to produce infectious particles. HIV-1 contains an assembly and maturation switch that spans the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the capsid (CA) region and the first spacer peptide (SP1) of the precursor structural protein, Gag. The crystal structure of the CTD-SP1 Gag fragment is a goblet-shaped hexamer in which the cup comprises the CTD and an ensuing type II β-turn, and the stem comprises a 6-helix bundle. The β-turn is critical for immature virus assembly and the 6-helix bundle regulates proteolysis during maturation. This bipartite character explains why the SP1 spacer is a critical element of HIV-1 Gag but is not a universal property of retroviruses. Our results also indicate that HIV-1 maturation inhibitors suppress unfolding of the CA-SP1 junction and thereby delay access of the viral protease to its substrate.

  14. Crystal structure of an HIV assembly and maturation switch. (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan M; Zadrozny, Kaneil K; Chrustowicz, Jakub; Purdy, Michael D; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Pornillos, Owen


    Virus assembly and maturation proceed through the programmed operation of molecular switches, which trigger both local and global structural rearrangements to produce infectious particles. HIV-1 contains an assembly and maturation switch that spans the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the capsid (CA) region and the first spacer peptide (SP1) of the precursor structural protein, Gag. The crystal structure of the CTD-SP1 Gag fragment is a goblet-shaped hexamer in which the cup comprises the CTD and an ensuing type II β-turn, and the stem comprises a 6-helix bundle. The β-turn is critical for immature virus assembly and the 6-helix bundle regulates proteolysis during maturation. This bipartite character explains why the SP1 spacer is a critical element of HIV-1 Gag but is not a universal property of retroviruses. Our results also indicate that HIV-1 maturation inhibitors suppress unfolding of the CA-SP1 junction and thereby delay access of the viral protease to its substrate.

  15. Superconducting switch and amplifier device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, S.M.


    An amplifying or switching superconductive device is described whose current-voltage characteristic is drastically altered by heavy injection of excess energetic quasi-particles. In this device, the superconducting bandgap of a superconducting layer is greatly altered by overinjection of energetic quasi-particles so that the bandgap changes greatly with respect to its thermal equilibrium value, and in most cases is made to vanish. In a preferred embodiment, a three electrode device is fabricated where at least one of the electrodes is a superconductor. Tunnel barriers are located between the electrodes. A first tunnel junction is used to heavily inject energetic quasi-particles into the superconducting electrode to change its superconducting bandgap drastically. In turn, this greatly modifies the currentvoltage characteristics of the second tunnel junction. This device can be used to provide logic circuits, or as an amplifier, and has an output sufficiently large that it can drive other similar devices

  16. Modelling switching power converters as complementarity systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, Mehmet; Iannelli, Luigi; Vasca, Francesco


    Switched complementarity models of linear circuits with ideal diodes and/or ideal switches allow one to study well-posedness and stability issues for these circuits by employing the complementarity problems of the mathematical programming. In this paper, we demonstrate that other types of typical

  17. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.


    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  18. Novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Fiorini, P.; De Raedt, W.; Tilmans, H.A.C.


    This paper reports on novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching devices implementing an electrically floating metal layer covering the dielectric to ensure intimate contact with the bridge in the down state. This results in an optimal switch down capacitance and allows optimisation of the down/up

  19. Internal Backpressure for Terabit Switch Fabrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, Andreas


    This paper proposes and analyzes the efficiency of novel backpressure schemes for Terabit switch fabrics. The proposed schemes aim at buffer optimization under uniform traffic distribution with Bernoulli packet arrival process. Results show that a reduction of the needed maximum buffer capacity w...... with up to 47% can be achieved with switch-internal backpressure mechanisms at the expense of a small control overhead....

  20. Ice-release coating for disconnect switches (United States)

    Mundon, J. L.


    Several coatings for ice release, heat dissipation, thermal cycling, and outdoor weathering properties were evaluated. The coating having the most desired performance were applied to full scale switch components. The full scale switches were tested for ice performance and heat dissipation and the results were compared with those on identical switches with uncoated components. The coating chosen for application to switch components was installed on several switches for field evaluation during the winter of 1979 and 1980. It was offered for commercial application for installation to existing switch installations. Results indicate that the coating also exhibits excellent heat dissipation properties and may be used to improve heat dissipation of switch blades and other components. The coating material is unaffected by sunlight; it is a two component, Teflon-filled polyurethane that is available from two sources. The material is currently used for a variety of purposes, such as: aircraft wing and leading edge areas, hydrofoils, conveyor chutes and many others. Light gray in color, it is an excellent heat dissipator and matches the gray insulators used with most switches.

  1. Photonic crystal Fano lasers and Fano switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Yu, Yi; Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu


    We show that Fano resonances can be realized in photonic crystal membrane structures by coupling line-defect waveguides and point-defect nanocavities. The Fano resonance can be exploited to realize optical switches with very small switching energy, as well as Fano lasers, that can generate short...

  2. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.


    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor

  3. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives


    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro


    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  4. Voltage-Driven Conformational Switching with Distinct Raman Signature in a Single-Molecule Junction. (United States)

    Bi, Hai; Palma, Carlos-Andres; Gong, Yuxiang; Hasch, Peter; Elbing, Mark; Mayor, Marcel; Reichert, Joachim; Barth, Johannes V


    Precisely controlling well-defined, stable single-molecule junctions represents a pillar of single-molecule electronics. Early attempts to establish computing with molecular switching arrays were partly challenged by limitations in the direct chemical characterization of metal-molecule-metal junctions. While cryogenic scanning probe studies have advanced the mechanistic understanding of current- and voltage-induced conformational switching, metal-molecule-metal conformations are still largely inferred from indirect evidence. Hence, the development of robust, chemically sensitive techniques is instrumental for advancement in the field. Here we probe the conformation of a two-state molecular switch with vibrational spectroscopy, while simultaneously operating it by means of the applied voltage. Our study emphasizes measurements of single-molecule Raman spectra in a room-temperature stable single-molecule switch presenting a signal modulation of nearly 2 orders of magnitude.

  5. Consumers Attitudes towards Internet and Brick and Mortar Store Channels Switching Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolrazagh MADAHI


    Full Text Available he purpose of this study is to examine the role of consumers’ behavioral attitude and intention toward channel switching behavior in regards to Internet and brick and mortar store channels in Malaysia. The survey instrument administered to the Malaysian consumers from regions of Klang Valley and Penang. A total of 497 completed surveys were obtained. Partial least squares (PLS based structural equation modeling (SEM technique was used to analyze data. A total of 497 completed surveys were obtained. Findings showed that compatibility and complexity were significant in predicting attitude in regard to switching channel from Internet to brick and mortar store. Relative advantage and compatibility were relevant in predicting attitude in brick and mortar store channel. Attitude also significantly affected channel switching intention regarding to both channels. Our findings reveal that gender and intention significantly affect channel switching behavior.

  6. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.


    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  7. A Mechanical Switch Using Spectral Microshifts (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon L.; Saaski, Elric W.; Hartl, James C.


    Among the simplest fiber optic sensors, are those which operate in a binary fashion; they were the first sensor types to be developed. Early experiments with fiber bundles and shutters produced demonstrations of, for example, displacement sensors. Typical applications range from position sensing for aircraft landing gear to counting objects on a production line. Because they frequently replace electrical snap action switches, binary sensors are generally called optical switches. Optical switch applications account for a much larger market than the more complex analog measurements discussed in the balance of this volume. This paper presents an optical switch concept that uses a single fiber and is tolerant of back reflections. The sensor element is a low finesse Fabry-Perot pressure sensor which replaces the electrical contact in a conventional snap action switch.

  8. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver (United States)

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell


    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  9. The use of repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience. (United States)

    Nordt, Marisa; Hoehl, Stefanie; Weigelt, Sarah


    Repetition suppression paradigms allow a more detailed look at brain functioning than classical paradigms and have been applied vigorously in adult cognitive neuroscience. These paradigms are well suited for studies in the field of developmental cognitive neuroscience as they can be applied without collecting a behavioral response and across all age groups. Furthermore, repetition suppression paradigms can be employed in various neuroscience techniques, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG). In the present article we review studies using repetition suppression paradigms in developmental cognitive neuroscience covering the age range from infancy to adolescence. Our first goal is to point out characteristics of developmental repetition suppression effects. In doing so, we discuss the relationship of the direction of repetition effects (suppression vs enhancement) with developmental factors, and address the question how the direction of repetition effects might be related to looking-time effects in behavioral infant paradigms, the most prominently used behavioral measure in infant research. To highlight the potential of repetition suppression paradigms, our second goal is to provide an overview on the insights recently obtained by applying repetition paradigms in neurodevelopmental studies, including research on children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). We conclude that repetition suppression paradigms are valuable tools for investigating neurodevelopmental processes, while at the same time we highlight the necessity for further studies that disentangle methodological and developmental factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Implications of Sepedi/English code switching for ASR systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, TI


    Full Text Available Code switching (the process of switching from one language to another during a conversation) is a common phenomenon in multilingual environments. Where a minority and dominant language coincide, code switching from the minority language...

  11. Generalized Gramian Framework for Model/Controller Order Reduction of Switched Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Wisniewski, Rafal


    In this article, a general method for model/controller order reduction of switched linear dynamical systems is presented. The proposed technique is based on the generalised gramian framework for model reduction. It is shown that different classical reduction methods can be developed into a genera......In this article, a general method for model/controller order reduction of switched linear dynamical systems is presented. The proposed technique is based on the generalised gramian framework for model reduction. It is shown that different classical reduction methods can be developed...

  12. A novel technique for active vibration control, based on optimal

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the last few decades, researchers have proposed many control techniques to suppress unwanted vibrations in a structure. In this work, a novel and simple technique is proposed for the active vibration control. In this technique, an optimal tracking control is employed to suppress vibrations in a structure by simultaneously ...

  13. The measurement and treatment of suppression in amblyopia. (United States)

    Black, Joanna M; Hess, Robert F; Cooperstock, Jeremy R; To, Long; Thompson, Benjamin


    Amblyopia, a developmental disorder of the visual cortex, is one of the leading causes of visual dysfunction in the working age population. Current estimates put the prevalence of amblyopia at approximately 1-3%(1-3), the majority of cases being monocular(2). Amblyopia is most frequently caused by ocular misalignment (strabismus), blur induced by unequal refractive error (anisometropia), and in some cases by form deprivation. Although amblyopia is initially caused by abnormal visual input in infancy, once established, the visual deficit often remains when normal visual input has been restored using surgery and/or refractive correction. This is because amblyopia is the result of abnormal visual cortex development rather than a problem with the amblyopic eye itself(4,5) . Amblyopia is characterized by both monocular and binocular deficits(6,7) which include impaired visual acuity and poor or absent stereopsis respectively. The visual dysfunction in amblyopia is often associated with a strong suppression of the inputs from the amblyopic eye under binocular viewing conditions(8). Recent work has indicated that suppression may play a central role in both the monocular and binocular deficits associated with amblyopia(9,10) . Current clinical tests for suppression tend to verify the presence or absence of suppression rather than giving a quantitative measurement of the degree of suppression. Here we describe a technique for measuring amblyopic suppression with a compact, portable device(11,12) . The device consists of a laptop computer connected to a pair of virtual reality goggles. The novelty of the technique lies in the way we present visual stimuli to measure suppression. Stimuli are shown to the amblyopic eye at high contrast while the contrast of the stimuli shown to the non-amblyopic eye are varied. Patients perform a simple signal/noise task that allows for a precise measurement of the strength of excitatory binocular interactions. The contrast offset at which

  14. Menstrual suppression in the adolescent. (United States)

    Kantartzis, Kelly L; Sucato, Gina S


    Menstrual suppression, the use of contraceptive methods to eliminate or decrease the frequency of menses, is often prescribed for adolescents to treat menstrual disorders or to accommodate patient preference. For young women using hormonal contraceptives, there is no medical indication for menstruation to occur monthly, and various hormonal contraceptives can be used to decrease the frequency of menstruation with different side effect profiles and rates of amenorrhea. This article reviews the different modalities for menstrual suppression, common conditions in adolescents which may improve with menstrual suppression, and strategies for managing common side effects. Copyright © 2013 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Power system design optimization using Lagrange multiplier techniques (United States)

    Yu, Y.; Lee, F. C.


    An optimization technique using the Lagrange Multiplier Method is proposed to facilitate design of switching power converter systems. The essence of the optimization is to identify the optimal battery voltage level and switching frequency along with the detailed converter design so that the total system weight including the battery and the packaged converter is minimized, and concurrently all specified power circuit performances are satisfied.

  16. Structural Optimization of a Laterally Driven Electromagnetic Micro Optical Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Jeong Sam; Kwak, Byung Man [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jong Soo [Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    This paper presents structural optimization for a micro optical switch based on the concept of a laterally driven electromagnetic microactuator (LaDEM). This utilizes a nonlinear behavior of a snap-through buckling occurring in two arch-shaped leaf springs of the switch, when actuated by a distributed Lorentz force induced along the leaf springs. An important objective in the design of the micro optical switch is to achieve a large displacement with low actuation force. For this purpose, a parametric study is first made. The most important parameters are found the initial rise and two sizes of the meander and chosen as design variables. The nonlinear displacement-load response is calculated by a modified Riks method in ABAQUS. Two formulations of structural optimization were studied. In the first formulation, the load needed for the micro mirror to reach a specific displacement is minimized subject to natural frequency and stress constraints. In the other optimization, the displacement was maximized for an applied load subject to the same constraints in the first approach. Nonlinear FE techniques and optimizations are found to be valuable tools for analysis and design of microactuators which utilize a complex nonlinear snap-through buckling behavior.

  17. Graphene and its derivatives: switching ON and OFF. (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Gang; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Kang, En-Tang


    As the thinnest material ever known in the universe, graphene has been attracting tremendous amount of attention in both materials science and condensed-matter physics since its successful isolation a few years ago. This one-atom-thick two-dimensional pseudo-infinite nano-crystal consists of sp(2)-hybridized aromatic carbon atoms covalently packed into a continuous hexagonal lattice. Graphene exhibits a range of unique properties, viz., high three-dimensional aspect ratio and large specific surface area, superior mechanical stiffness and flexibility, remarkable optical transmittance, extraordinary thermal response and excellent electronic transport properties, promising its applications in the next generation electronics. To switch graphene and its derivatives between ON and OFF states in nanoelectronic memory devices, various techniques have been developed to manipulate the carbon atomic sheets via introducing the valence-conduction bandgap and to enhance their processability. In this article, we review the utilization of electrically, thermally and chemically modified graphene and its polymer-functionalized derivatives for switching and information storage applications. The challenges posed on the development of novel graphene materials and further enhancements of the device switching performance have also been discussed.

  18. The allosteric switching mechanism in bacteriophage MS2 (United States)

    Perkett, Matthew R.; Mirijanian, Dina T.; Hagan, Michael F.


    We use all-atom simulations to elucidate the mechanisms underlying conformational switching and allostery within the coat protein of the bacteriophage MS2. Assembly of most icosahedral virus capsids requires that the capsid protein adopts different conformations at precise locations within the capsid. It has been shown that a 19 nucleotide stem loop (TR) from the MS2 genome acts as an allosteric effector, guiding conformational switching of the coat protein during capsid assembly. Since the principal conformational changes occur far from the TR binding site, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this allosteric communication. To this end, we use all-atom simulations with explicit water combined with a path sampling technique to sample the MS2 coat protein conformational transition, in the presence and absence of TR-binding. The calculations find that TR binding strongly alters the transition free energy profile, leading to a switch in the favored conformation. We discuss changes in molecular interactions responsible for this shift. We then identify networks of amino acids with correlated motions to reveal the mechanism by which effects of TR binding span the protein. We find that TR binding strongly affects residues located at the 5-fold and quasi-sixfold interfaces in the assembled capsid, suggesting a mechanism by which the TR binding could direct formation of the native capsid geometry. The analysis predicts amino acids whose substitution by mutagenesis could alter populations of the conformational substates or their transition rates.

  19. The allosteric switching mechanism in bacteriophage MS2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkett, Matthew R.; Mirijanian, Dina T.; Hagan, Michael F., E-mail: [Martin Fisher School of Physics, Brandeis University, Waltham, Massachusetts 02474 (United States)


    We use all-atom simulations to elucidate the mechanisms underlying conformational switching and allostery within the coat protein of the bacteriophage MS2. Assembly of most icosahedral virus capsids requires that the capsid protein adopts different conformations at precise locations within the capsid. It has been shown that a 19 nucleotide stem loop (TR) from the MS2 genome acts as an allosteric effector, guiding conformational switching of the coat protein during capsid assembly. Since the principal conformational changes occur far from the TR binding site, it is important to understand the molecular mechanism underlying this allosteric communication. To this end, we use all-atom simulations with explicit water combined with a path sampling technique to sample the MS2 coat protein conformational transition, in the presence and absence of TR-binding. The calculations find that TR binding strongly alters the transition free energy profile, leading to a switch in the favored conformation. We discuss changes in molecular interactions responsible for this shift. We then identify networks of amino acids with correlated motions to reveal the mechanism by which effects of TR binding span the protein. We find that TR binding strongly affects residues located at the 5-fold and quasi-sixfold interfaces in the assembled capsid, suggesting a mechanism by which the TR binding could direct formation of the native capsid geometry. The analysis predicts amino acids whose substitution by mutagenesis could alter populations of the conformational substates or their transition rates.

  20. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.


    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  1. Design of all Optical Packet Switching Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein T. Mouftah


    Full Text Available Optical switches and wavelength converters are recognized as two of the most important DWDM system components in future all-optical networks. Optical switches perform the key functions of flexible routing, reconfigurable optical cross-connect (OXC, network protection and restoration, etc. in optical networks. Wavelength Converters are used to shift one incoming wavelength to another outgoing wavelength when this needs to be done.  Always residing in optical switches, they can effectively alleviate the blocking probability and help solve contention happening at the output port of switches. The deployment of wavelength converters within optical switches provides robust routing, switching and network management in optical layer, which is critical to the emerging all-optical Internet. However, the high cost of wavelength converters at current stage of manufacturing technology has to be taken into consideration when we design node architectures for an optical network. Our research explores the efficiency of wavelength converters in a long-haul optical network at different degrees of traffic load by running a simulation. Then, we propose a new cost-effective way to optimally design wavelength-convertible switch so as to achieve higher network performance while still keeping the total network cost down. Meanwhile, the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA algorithm used in the research is designed to be a generic one for both large-scale and small-scale traffic. Removing the constraint on the traffic load makes the RWA more adaptive and robust. When this new RWA works in conjunction with a newly introduced concept of wavelength-convertible switches, we shall explore the impact of large-scale traffic on the role of wavelength converter so as to determine the method towards optimal use of wavelength convertible switches for all-optical networks.

  2. Comparison of switching control algorithms effective in restricting the switching in the neighborhood of the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, JinWook; Chung, Lan; Smyth, Andrew W


    The active interaction control (AIC) system consisting of a primary structure, an auxiliary structure and an interaction element was proposed to protect the primary structure against earthquakes and winds. The objective of the AIC system in reducing the responses of the primary structure is fulfilled by activating or deactivating the switching between the engagement and the disengagement of the primary and auxiliary structures through the interaction element. The status of the interaction element is controlled by switching control algorithms. The previously developed switching control algorithms require an excessive amount of switching, which is inefficient. In this paper, the excessive amount of switching is restricted by imposing an appropriately designed switching boundary region, where switching is prohibited, on pre-designed engagement–disengagement conditions. Two different approaches are used in designing the newly proposed AID-off and AID-off 2 algorithms. The AID-off 2 algorithm is designed to affect deactivated switching regions explicitly, unlike the AID-off algorithm, which follows the same procedure of designing the engagement–disengagement conditions of the previously developed algorithms, by using the current status of the AIC system. Both algorithms are shown to be effective in reducing the amount of switching times triggered from the previously developed AID algorithm under an appropriately selected control sampling period for different earthquakes, but the AID-off 2 algorithm outperforms the AID-off algorithm in reducing the number of switching times

  3. Organization of the channel-switching process in parallel computer systems based on a matrix optical switch (United States)

    Golomidov, Y. V.; Li, S. K.; Popov, S. A.; Smolov, V. B.


    After a classification and analysis of electronic and optoelectronic switching devices, the design principles and structure of a matrix optical switch is described. The switching and pair-exclusion operations in this type of switch are examined, and a method for the optical switching of communication channels is elaborated. Finally, attention is given to the structural organization of a parallel computer system with a matrix optical switch.

  4. Energy Conversion Loops for Flux-Switching PM Machine Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ilhan


    Full Text Available Induction and synchronous machines have traditionally been the first choice of automotive manufacturers for electric/hybrid vehicles. However, these conventional machines are not able anymore to meet the increasing demands for a higher energy density due to space limitation in cars. Flux-switching PM (FSPM machines with their high energy density are very suitable to answer this demand. In this paper, the energy conversion loop technique is implemented on FSPM for the first time. The energy conversion technique is a powerful tool for the visualization of machine characteristics, both linear and nonlinear. Further, the technique provides insight into the torque production mechanism. A stepwise explanation is given on how to create these loops for FSPM along with the machine operation.

  5. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.


    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  6. In vivo Treg suppression assays. (United States)

    Workman, Creg J; Collison, Lauren W; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R; Rehg, Jerold E; Vignali, Dario A A


    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (T(reg)) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of T(regs) upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model including resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  7. In Vivo Treg Suppression Assays


    Workman, Creg J.; Collison, Lauren W.; Bettini, Maria; Pillai, Meenu R.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Vignali, Dario A.A.


    To fully examine the functionality of a regulatory T cell (Treg) population, one needs to assess their ability to suppress in a variety of in vivo models. We describe five in vivo models that examine the suppressive capacity of Tregs upon different target cell types. The advantages and disadvantages of each model includ ing resources, time, and technical expertise required to execute each model are also described.

  8. Fault tolerant control for switched linear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Du, Dongsheng; Shi, Peng


    This book presents up-to-date research and novel methodologies on fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control for switched linear systems. It provides a unified yet neat framework of filtering, fault detection, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control of switched systems. It can therefore serve as a useful textbook for senior and/or graduate students who are interested in knowing the state-of-the-art of filtering, fault detection, fault diagnosis and fault tolerant control areas, as well as recent advances in switched linear systems.  

  9. Consumer poaching, brand switching, and price transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian


    This paper addresses price transparency on the consumer side in markets with behavioral price discrimination which feature welfare reducing brand switching. When long-term contracts are not available, an increase in transparency intensifies competition, lowers prices and profits, reduces brand...... switching and benefits consumers and welfare. With long-term contracts, an increase in transparency reduces the use of long-term contracts, leading to more brand switching and a welfare loss. Otherwise, the results are the same as without long-term contracts....

  10. Design of a switched reluctance generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heese, T.; Pyrhoenen, J.


    This report presents the design of a low voltage switched reluctance generator for variable speed applications showing the design of its construction and commutation unit. For the realisation of the control system the control strategy is presented. The principle and the theory of switched reluctance generators are described in this context. Also an overview of existing generator technology for these applications is given. The results gained suggest that switched reluctance machines can also advantageously be used as generators if the generating operation is considered within the design process. Compared with the existing technology a higher output power and efficiency is reached over the whole speed range. (orig.)

  11. Pseudo-spark switch (PSS) characteristics under different operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamad, B. H., E-mail:; Ahmad, A. K., E-mail: [College of Science, Al Nahrain University, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq); Lateef, K. H., E-mail: [Ministry of Science and Technology, Jadria, Baghdad (Iraq)


    The present paper concentrates on the characteristics of the pseudospark switch (PSS) designed in a previous work. The special characteristics of PSS make it a replacement for other high voltage switches such as thyratrons and ordinary high-pressure spark gaps. PSS is characterized by short rise time and small jitter time. The pseudo park chamber consists of two hollow cylindrical electrodes made of a stainless steel material (type 306L) separated by an insulator. The insulator used in our design is a glazed ceramic 70 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm in thickness. A PSS with an anode voltage of 29.2 kV, and a current of 3.6 kA and 11 ns rise time was achieved and used successfully at a repetition rate of about 2.2 kHz. A simple trigger circuit designed, built, and used effectively reaching more than 1.56 kV trigger pulse which is sufficient to ignite the argon gas inside the cathode to cause a breakdown. A non-inductive dummy load is designed to be a new technique to find the accurate value of the PSS inductance. A jitter time of ±10 ns pulses is observed to occur in a reliable manner for more than 6 h of continuous operation. In this research, the important parameters of this switch like rise time, peak current, and anode voltage were studied at various values of charging capacitance. The lifetime of this system is depending on the kind of the electrode material and on the type of insulation material in the main gap of the pseudospark switch.

  12. Global Robust Stability of Switched Interval Neural Networks with Discrete and Distributed Time-Varying Delays of Neural Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaiqin Wu


    Full Text Available By combing the theories of the switched systems and the interval neural networks, the mathematics model of the switched interval neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays of neural type is presented. A set of the interval parameter uncertainty neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays of neural type are used as the individual subsystem, and an arbitrary switching rule is assumed to coordinate the switching between these networks. By applying the augmented Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional approach and linear matrix inequality (LMI techniques, a delay-dependent criterion is achieved to ensure to such switched interval neural networks to be globally asymptotically robustly stable in terms of LMIs. The unknown gain matrix is determined by solving this delay-dependent LMIs. Finally, an illustrative example is given to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  13. Switching on the Aire conditioner. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuru


    Aire has been cloned as the gene responsible for a hereditary type of organ-specific autoimmune disease. Aire controls the expression of a wide array of tissue-restricted Ags by medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), thereby leading to clonal deletion and Treg-cell production, and ultimately to the establishment of self-tolerance. However, relatively little is known about the mechanism responsible for the control of Aire expression itself. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Haljasorg et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2015. 45: 3246-3256] have reported the presence of an enhancer element for Aire that binds with NF-κB components downstream of the TNF receptor family member, RANK (receptor activator of NF-κB). The results suggest that RANK has a dual mode of action in Aire expression: one involving the promotion of mTEC differentiation and the other involving activation of the molecular switch for Aire within mature mTECs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Control of Bouncing in MEMS Switches Using Double Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Abdul Rahim, Farhan


    This paper presents a novel way of controlling the bouncing phenomenon commonly present in the Radio Frequency Microelectromechanical Systems (RF MEMS) switches using a double-electrode configuration. The paper discusses modeling bouncing using both lumped parameter and beam models. The simulations of bouncing and its control are discussed. Comparison between the new proposed method and other available control techniques is also made. The Galerkin method is applied on the beam model accounting for the nonlinear electrostatic force, squeeze film damping, and surface contact effect. The results indicate that it is possible to reduce bouncing and hence beam degradation, by the use of double electrodes.

  15. Resistance switching in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramod, K.; Sahu, Binaya Kumar; Gangineni, R. B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry – 605014 (India)


    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PDVF), one of the best electrically active polymer material & an interesting candidate to address the electrical control of its functional properties like ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity etc. In the current work, with the help of spin coater and DC magnetron sputtering techniques, semi-crystallized PVDF thin films prominent in alpha phase is prepared in capacitor like structure and their electrical characterization is emphasized. In current-voltage (I-V) and resistance-voltage (R-V) measurements, clear nonlinearity and resistance switching has been observed for films prepared using 7 wt% 2-butanone and 7 wt% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents.

  16. Prediction of Acoustic Noise in Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B


    Prediction of acoustic noise distribution generated by electric machines has become an integral part of design and control in noise sensitive applications. This paper presents a fast and precise acoustic noise imaging technique for switched reluctance machines (SRMs). This method is based on distribution of radial vibration in the stator frame of the SRM. Radial vibration of the stator frame, at a network of probing points, is computed using input phase current and phase voltage waveforms. Sequentially, the acceleration of the probing network will be expanded to predict full acceleration on the stator frame surface, using which acoustic noise emission caused by the stator can be calculated using the boundary element method.

  17. Position Control of Switched Reluctance Motor Using Super Twisting Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rafiq Mufti


    Full Text Available The inherent problem of chattering in traditional sliding mode control is harmful for practical application of control system. This paper pays a considerable attention to a chattering-free control method, that is, higher-order sliding mode (super twisting algorithm. The design of a position controller for switched reluctance motor is presented and its stability is assured using Lyapunov stability theorem. In order to highlight the advantages of higher-order sliding mode controller (HOSMC, a classical first-order sliding mode controller (FOSMC is also applied to the same system and compared. The simulation results reflect the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Burst Suppression for ICP Control. (United States)

    Zeiler, Frederick A; Akoth, Eva; Gillman, Lawrence M; West, Michael


    The goal of our study was to perform a systematic review of the literature to determine the effect that burst suppression has on intracranial pressure (ICP) control. All articles from MEDLINE, BIOSIS, EMBASE, Global Health, Scopus, Cochrane Library, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (inception to January 2015), reference lists of relevant articles, and gray literature were searched. The strength of evidence was adjudicated using both the Oxford and the Grading of Recommendation Assessment Development and Education (GRADE) methodology. Seven articles were considered for review. A total of 108 patients were studied, all receiving burst suppression therapy. Two studies failed to document a decrease in ICP with burst suppression therapy. There were reports of severe hypotension and increased infection rates with barbiturate-based therapy. Etomidate-based suppressive therapy was linked to severe renal dysfunction. There currently exists both Oxford level 2b and GRADE C evidence to support that achieving burst suppression reduces ICP, and also has no effect on ICP, in severe traumatic brain injury. The literature suggests burst suppression therapy may be useful for ICP reduction in certain cases, although these situations are currently unclear. In addition, the impact on patient functional outcome is unclear. Further prospective study is warranted.

  19. What makes the lac-pathway switch: identifying the fluctuations that trigger phenotype switching in gene regulatory systems. (United States)

    Bhogale, Prasanna M; Sorg, Robin A; Veening, Jan-Willem; Berg, Johannes


    Multistable gene regulatory systems sustain different levels of gene expression under identical external conditions. Such multistability is used to encode phenotypic states in processes including nutrient uptake and persistence in bacteria, fate selection in viral infection, cell-cycle control and development. Stochastic switching between different phenotypes can occur as the result of random fluctuations in molecular copy numbers of mRNA and proteins arising in transcription, translation, transport and binding. However, which component of a pathway triggers such a transition is generally not known. By linking single-cell experiments on the lactose-uptake pathway in E. coli to molecular simulations, we devise a general method to pinpoint the particular fluctuation driving phenotype switching and apply this method to the transition between the uninduced and induced states of the lac-genes. We find that the transition to the induced state is not caused only by the single event of lac-repressor unbinding, but depends crucially on the time period over which the repressor remains unbound from the lac-operon. We confirm this notion in strains with a high expression level of the lac-repressor (leading to shorter periods over which the lac-operon remains unbound), which show a reduced switching rate. Our techniques apply to multistable gene regulatory systems in general and allow to identify the molecular mechanisms behind stochastic transitions in gene regulatory circuits. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  20. Bone-suppressed radiography using machine learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Beom; Kim, Dae Cheon; Kim, Ho Kyung


    The single-shot dual-energy imaging suffers from reduced contrast-to-noise ratio performance due to poor spectral separation. Tomosynthesis requires more complex motion equipment and may require higher patient dose. An alternative tissue-specific imaging technique was introduced. This alternative technique usually possesses a filter to generate bone-only images for given digital radiographs. Therefore, it provides soft-tissue-enhanced images from the subtraction of given radiographs and filtered bone-only images. Only bone-suppressed imaging capability is a limitation of the method. The filter can be obtained from a machine-learning algorithm, e.g. artificial neural network (ANN), with the dual-energy bone-only images (called 'teaching' images). We suspect the robustness of the filter may be dependent upon the number of teaching images and the number of patients from whose radiographs we obtain the teaching images. In this study, we design an ANN to obtain a bone-extracting filter from a radiograph, and investigate the filter properties with respect to various ANN parameters. Preliminary results are summarized in Fig. 3. We extracted 5,000 subregions in a 21x21 pixel format from the lung region in the bone-enhanced dual-energy image and we used them for teaching images during training the ANN. The resultant bone-enhanced image from the ANN nonlinear filter is shown in Fig. 3 (a). From the weighted logarithmic subtraction between Fig. 2 (a) and Fig. 3 (a), we could obtain the bone-suppressed image as shown in Fig. 3 (b). The quality of the bone-suppressed image is comparable to the ground truth Fig. 2 (c).

  1. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  2. A forming-free bipolar resistive switching behavior based on ITO/V2O5/ITO structure (United States)

    Wan, Zhenni; Darling, Robert B.; Majumdar, Arka; Anantram, M. P.


    Forming-free bipolar resistive switching behavior in an ITO/V2O5/ITO structure is observed. While the bottom ITO layer functions as a common ground electrode, the top ITO layer is an active element and used as an oxygen reservoir, with an additional metal electrode patterned on its top for making contact. In contrast to typical metal/transition metal oxide/metal based resistive memories, our device exhibits a low resistance state in its virgin state and is switched to a high resistance state when a forward bias of ˜+2.5 V is applied. The device can be reset to its original state at a reverse bias of ˜-1.5 V. A noticeable decrease in switching voltage with a reduced top contact area is observed, indicating a strong electric field enhanced switching mechanism. Different from the widely seen conductive filament mechanism in bipolar switching, we explain the switching behavior by the migration of oxygen ions at the top ITO/V2O5 interface. When oxygen ions are extracted to the ITO side, an interfacial layer with reduced oxidation states is formed and acts as a Schottky barrier that suppresses the current through the whole device. The results suggest future applications in low power, high speed integrated non-volatile memories.

  3. Robust dynamic output feedback control for switched polytopic systems under asynchronous switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Tingting


    Full Text Available The robust controller design problem for switched polytopic systems under asynchronous switching is addressed. These systems exist in many aviation applications, such as dynamical systems involving rapid variations. A switched polytopic system is established to describe the highly maneuverable technology vehicle within the full flight envelope and a robust dynamic output feedback control method is designed for the switched polytopic system. Combining the Lyapunov-like function method and the average dwell time method, a sufficient condition is derived for the switched polytopic system with asynchronous switching and data dropout to be globally, uniformly and asymptotically stable in terms of linear matrix inequality. The robust dynamic output feedback controller is then applied to the highly maneuverable technology vehicle to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The simulation results show that the angle of attack tracking performance is acceptable over the time history and the control surface responses are all satisfying along the full flight trajectory.

  4. Instability in time-delayed switched systems induced by fast and random switching (United States)

    Guo, Yao; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yuming; Wu, Jianhong


    In this paper, we consider a switched system comprising finitely or infinitely many subsystems described by linear time-delayed differential equations and a rule that orchestrates the system switching randomly among these subsystems, where the switching times are also randomly chosen. We first construct a counterintuitive example where even though all the time-delayed subsystems are exponentially stable, the behaviors of the randomly switched system change from stable dynamics to unstable dynamics with a decrease of the dwell time. Then by using the theories of stochastic processes and delay differential equations, we present a general result on when this fast and random switching induced instability should occur and we extend this to the case of nonlinear time-delayed switched systems as well.

  5. Construction of large scale switch matrix by interconnecting integrated optical switch chips with EDFAs (United States)

    Liao, Mingle; Wu, Baojian; Hou, Jianhong; Qiu, Kun


    Large scale optical switches are essential components in optical communication network. We aim to build up a large scale optical switch matrix by the interconnection of silicon-based optical switch chips using 3-stage CLOS structure, where EDFAs are needed to compensate for the insertion loss of the chips. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) performance of the resulting large scale optical switch matrix is investigated for TE-mode light and the experimental results are in agreement with the theoretical analysis. We build up a 64 ×64 switch matrix by use of 16 ×16 optical switch chips and the OSNR and receiver sensibility can respectively be improved by 0.6 dB and 0.2 dB by optimizing the gain configuration of the EDFAs.

  6. Digital Switching CMOS Power Amplifier for Multiband and Multimode Handset Applications (United States)

    Nakatani, Toshifumi

    This thesis is directed towards the development of a digitally-assisted radio frequency power amplifier (RF PA) which is one of the potential solutions to realize a multiband and multimode transmitter with high efficiency for handset applications. To improve efficiency and linearity in multiple conditions, PA circuits and digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are co-designed. In the dissertation, a proposed architecture employs a current-mode class-D (CMCD) configuration for high efficiency, and a polar modulation scheme driven by digital inputs. Detail design, fabrication and experimental results are given for circuit implementation and DSP of this architecture. First, a multiband watt-class complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) PA is demonstrated using 0.15 um CMOS integrated circuits (ICs), off-chip inductor and balun. To obtain high breakdown voltage, stacked field effect transistors (FETs) are used. The CMCD PA is tuned by band-switching capacitors, operating in the 0.7-1.8 GHz frequency band. The overall efficiencies of 27.1 / 25.6 % are achieved at 30.2 / 28.9 dBm CW output powers and 0.85 / 1.75 GHz carrier frequencies, respectively. Next, to achieve wide output power dynamic range, an architecture consisting of small segmented unti-cells is introduced into the PA, where multiple three-state unit-cells are used and the state of each unit-cell is controlled to provide a specific output power. The overall dynamic ranges are expanded to approximately 90 dB and 85 dB at and 0.85 / 1.75 GHz, respectively. The dissertation then presents digital modulation algorithms. The digital compensation techniques are developed to maintain linearity of an envelope modulator of the polar transmitter. A new digital pulse width modulation algorithm is also shown to partially suppress spurious signals associated with the digital input envelope signal. When wideband code-division multiple access (WCDMA) modulation is implemented, spur suppression of 9-10 dB is

  7. Azo biphenyl polyurethane: Preparation, characterization and application for optical waveguide switch (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Da, Zulin; Qiu, Fengxian; Yang, Dongya; Guan, Yijun; Cao, Guorong


    Azo waveguide polymers are of particular interest in the design of materials for applications in optical switch. The aim of this contribution was the synthesis and thermo-optic waveguide switch properties of azo biphenyl polyurethanes. A series of monomers and azo biphenyl polyurethanes (Azo BPU1 and Azo BPU2) were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The physical and mechanical properties of thin polymer films were measured. The refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) of polymer films were investigated for TE (transversal electric) polarizations by ATR technique. The transmission loss of film was measured using the Charge Coupled Device digital imaging devices. The results showed the Azo BPU2 containing chiral azobenzene chromophore had higher dn/dT and lower transmission loss. Subsequently, a 1 × 2 Y-branch and 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the prepared polymers were designed and simulated. The results showed that the power consumption of all switches was less than 1.0 mW. Compared with 1 × 2 Y-branch optical switch, the 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the same polymer have the faster response time, which were about only 1.2 and 2.0 ms, respectively.

  8. Seeding method and rate influence on weed suppression in aerobic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High weed pressure is amongst the major constraints to the extensive adoption of aerobic rice system as a water-wise technique. Towards developing a sustainable weed management strategy, seeding method and rate may substantially contribute to weed suppression and reduce herbicide use and weeding cost. A trough ...

  9. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements (United States)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara


    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  10. Topological photonic orbital-angular-momentum switch (United States)

    Luo, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Chuanwei; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhou, Zheng-Wei


    The large number of available orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) states of photons provides a unique resource for many important applications in quantum information and optical communications. However, conventional OAM switching devices usually rely on precise parameter control and are limited by slow switching rate and low efficiency. Here we propose a robust, fast, and efficient photonic OAM switch device based on a topological process, where photons are adiabatically pumped to a target OAM state on demand. Such topological OAM pumping can be realized through manipulating photons in a few degenerate main cavities and involves only a limited number of optical elements. A large change of OAM at ˜10q can be realized with only q degenerate main cavities and at most 5 q pumping cycles. The topological photonic OAM switch may become a powerful device for broad applications in many different fields and motivate a topological design of conventional optical devices.

  11. Blood and Books: Performing Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Friedman


    Full Text Available Code switching is a linguistic term that identifies ways individuals use communication modes and registers to negotiate difference in social relations. This essay suggests that arts-based inquiry, in the form of choreography and performance, provides a suitable and efficacious location within which both verbal and nonverbal channels of code switching can be investigated. Blood and Books, a case study of dance choreography within the context of post-colonial Maori performance in Aotearoa/New Zealand, is described and analyzed for its performance of code switching. The essay is framed by a discussion of how arts-based research within tertiary higher education requires careful negotiation in the form of code switching, as performed by the author's reflexive use of vernacular and formal registers in the essay. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802462

  12. Active plasmonics in WDM traffic switching applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papaioannou, S.; Kalavrouziotis, D.; Vyrsokinos, K.


    With metal stripes being intrinsic components of plasmonic waveguides, plasmonics provides a "naturally" energy-efficient platform for merging broadband optical links with intelligent electronic processing, instigating a great promise for low-power and small-footprint active functional circuitry....... The first active Dielectric-Loaded Surface Plasmon Polariton (DLSPP) thermo-optic (TO) switches with successful performance in single-channel 10 Gb/s data traffic environments have led the inroad towards bringing low-power active plasmonics in practical traffic applications. In this article, we introduce...... active plasmonics into Wavelength Division Multiplexed (WDM) switching applications, using the smallest TO DLSPP-based Mach-Zehnder interferometric switch reported so far and showing its successful performance in 4310 Gb/s low-power and fast switching operation. The demonstration of the WDM...

  13. Bistable fluidic valve is electrically switched (United States)

    Fiet, O.; Salvinski, R. J.


    Bistable control valve is selectively switched by direct application of an electrical field to divert fluid from one output channel to another. Valve is inexpensive, has no moving parts, and operates on fluids which are relatively poor electrical conductors.

  14. Multi-planed unified switching topologies (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Sugawara, Yutaka


    An apparatus and method for extending the scalability and improving the partitionability of networks that contain all-to-all links for transporting packet traffic from a source endpoint to a destination endpoint with low per-endpoint (per-server) cost and a small number of hops. An all-to-all wiring in the baseline topology is decomposed into smaller all-to-all components in which each smaller all-to-all connection is replaced with star topology by using global switches. Stacking multiple copies of the star topology baseline network creates a multi-planed switching topology for transporting packet traffic. Point-to-point unified stacking method using global switch wiring methods connects multiple planes of a baseline topology by using the global switches to create a large network size with a low number of hops, i.e., low network latency. Grouped unified stacking method increases the scalability (network size) of a stacked topology.

  15. Information, switching costs, and consumer choice:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Anders; Dietrichson, Jens; Maria Ellegård, Lina

    . Such improvements are contingent on consumers having access to comparative information about providers and acting on this information when making their choice. However, in the presence of information frictions and switching costs, consumers may have limited ability to find suitable providers. We use two large......-scale randomized eld experiments in primary health care to examine if the choice of provider is affected when consumers receive comparative information by postal mail and small costs associated with switching are reduced. The first experiment targeted a subset of the general population in the Swedish region Skåne......, and the second targeted new residents in the region, who should have less prior information and lower switching costs. In both cases, the propensity to switch provider increased significantly after the intervention. The effects were larger for new residents than for the general population, and were driven...

  16. Modeling switching behaviour of direct selling customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Msweli-Mbanga


    Full Text Available The direct selling industry suffers a high turnover rate of salespeople, resulting in high costs of training new salespeople. Further costs are incurred when broken relationships with customers cause them to switch from one product supplier to another. This study identifies twelve factors that drive the switching behaviour of direct sales customers and examines the extent to which these factors influence switching. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess the validity of these factors. The factors were represented in a model that posits that an interpersonal relationship between a direct sales person and a customer moderates the relationship between switching behaviour and loyalty. Structural equation modeling was used to test the proposed model. The author then discusses the empirical findings and their managerial implications, providing further avenues for research.

  17. Week 96 results of the randomized, multicentre Maraviroc Switch (MARCH) study. (United States)

    Pett, S L; Amin, J; Horban, A; Andrade-Villanueva, J; Losso, M; Porteiro, N; Madero, J S; Belloso, W; Tu, E; Silk, D; Kelleher, A; Harrigan, R; Clark, A; Sugiura, W; Wolff, M; Gill, J; Gatell, J; Clarke, A; Ruxrungtham, K; Prazuck, T; Kaiser, R; Woolley, I; Alberto Arnaiz, J; Cooper, D; Rockstroh, J K; Mallon, P; Emery, S


    The Maraviroc Switch (MARCH) study week 48 data demonstrated that maraviroc, a chemokine receptor-5 (CCR5) inhibitor, was a safe and effective switch for the ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor (PI/r) component of a two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI] plus PI/r-based antiretroviral regimen in patients with R5-tropic virus. Here we report the durability of this finding. MARCH, an international, multicentre, randomized, 96-week open-label switch study, enrolled HIV-1-infected adults with R5-tropic virus who were stable (> 24 weeks) and virologically suppressed [plasma viral load (pVL) < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL]. Participants were randomized to continue their current PI/r-based regimen (PI/r) or to switch to MVC plus two N(t)RTIs (MVC) (1:2 randomization). The primary endpoint was the difference in the proportion with pVL < 200 copies/mL at 96 weeks. The switch arm was defined as noninferior if the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference was < -12% in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Safety endpoints (the difference in the mean change from baseline or a comparison of proportions) were analysed as key secondary endpoints. Eighty-two (PI/r) and 156 (MVC) participants were randomized and included in the ITT analysis; 71 (87%) and 130 (83%) were in follow-up and on therapy at week 96. At week 96, 89.0% and 90.4% in the PI/r and MVC arms, respectively, had pVL < 50 copies/mL (95% CI -6.6, 10.2). Moreover, in those switching away from PI/r, there were significant reductions in mean total cholesterol (differences 0.31 mmol/L; P = 0.02) and triglycerides (difference 0.44 mmol/L; P < 0.001). Changes in CD4 T-cell count, renal function, and serious and nonserious adverse events were similar in the two arms. MVC as a switch for a PI/r is safe and effective at maintaining virological suppression while having significant lipid benefits over 96 weeks. © 2017 British HIV Association.

  18. The Robustness of Stochastic Switching Networks


    Loh, Po-Ling; Zhou, Hongchao; Bruck, Jehoshua


    Many natural systems, including chemical and biological systems, can be modeled using stochastic switching circuits. These circuits consist of stochastic switches, called pswitches, which operate with a fixed probability of being open or closed. We study the effect caused by introducing an error of size ∈ to each pswitch in a stochastic circuit. We analyze two constructions – simple series-parallel and general series-parallel circuits – and prove that simple series-parallel circuits are robus...

  19. Automatic Control System Switching Roadway Lighting


    Agus Trimuji Susilo; Lingga Hermanto Drs. MM


    Lack of attention to the information officer street lights, cause is not exactly the timewhen the blame lights street lighting street - the street in this city protocol. And whenit was already dark, the lights had not lit, so it can harm the users of the road. Werecommend that when it got bright lights - the lights switched off late, so muchelectricity is wasted with nothing - nothing.Given the problems above, the automatic switching is required that can control all thelights - the existing l...

  20. Optical waveguide switch through magnetic reflectance wall (United States)

    Fang, Yuntuan; Ni, Zhiyao; Yang, Lixia


    We propose a new design to achieve optical waveguide switch. We construct a photonic crystal waveguide with one yttrium iron garnet (YIG) rod array on the two sides of the waveguide. Through the mode analysis, we find in special frequency range a few YIG rods under magnetic field can form the magnetic reflectance wall that blocks the light flow. Removing the magnetic field will delete the reflection wall and let the blocked light to be switched on.

  1. Ring oscillator switching noise under NBTI wearout


    Fernández García, Raúl; Gil Galí, Ignacio; Ruiz, José María; Morata Cariñena, Marta


    In this paper the switching noise of a CMOS ring oscillator has been analysed when their pFETs are subjected to negative bias temperature instability (NBTI). The impact of pFET under NBTI has been experimentally quantified whereas CMOS ring oscillator frequency and the switching noise has been analysed by means of electrical full-model simulation. The results show that the impact on the electromagnetic compatibility behaviour increases with NBTI wearout. Peer Reviewed

  2. Portfolio Selection with Jumps under Regime Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao


    Full Text Available We investigate a continuous-time version of the mean-variance portfolio selection model with jumps under regime switching. The portfolio selection is proposed and analyzed for a market consisting of one bank account and multiple stocks. The random regime switching is assumed to be independent of the underlying Brownian motion and jump processes. A Markov chain modulated diffusion formulation is employed to model the problem.

  3. Lasers for switched-power linacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigio, I.J.


    Laser-switched power surges for particle accelerators, just as with direct laser-driven accelerator schemes, place unique demands on the specifications of the invoked laser systems. We review the laser requirements for switched power sources of the types described in other chapters of this volume. The relative advantages and disadvantages of selected lasers are listed, and the appropriateness and scalability of existing technology is discussed. 4 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  4. New pulse modulator with low switching frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub V. S.


    Full Text Available The author presents an integrating pulse modulator (analog signal converter with the pulse frequency and duration modulation similar to sigma-delta modulation (with low switching frequency, without quantization. The modulator is characterized by the absence of the quantization noise inherent in sigma-delta modulator, and a low switching frequency, unlike the pulse-frequency modulator. The modulator is recommended, in particular, to convert signals at the input of the class D power amplifier.

  5. High power gain switched laser diodes using a novel compact picosecond switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor structure for pumping (United States)

    Vainshtein, Sergey; Kostamovaara, Juha


    A number of up-to-date applications, including advanced optical radars with high single-shot resolution, precise 3 D imaging, laser tomography, time imaging spectroscopy, etc., require low-cost, compact, reliable sources enabling the generation of high-power (1-100 W) single optical pulses in the picosecond range. The well-known technique of using the gain-switching operation mode of laser diodes to generate single picosecond pulses in the mW range fails to generate high-power single picosecond pulses because of a lack of high-current switches operating in the picosecond range. We report here on the achieving of optical pulses of 45W / 70ps, or alternatively 5W / 40ps, with gain-switched commercial quantum well (QW) laser diodes having emitting areas of 250 × 200 μm and 75 × 2 μm, respectively. This was made possible by the use of a novel high-current avalanche switch based on a GaAs bipolar junction transistor (BJT) structure with a switching time (transistor structure.) A simulation code developed earlier but modified and carefully verified here allowed detailed comparison of the experimental and simulated laser responses and the transient spectrum.

  6. Marginal bone loss around platform-switched and non-platform switched implants after two years of placement: a clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Zarandi


    Full Text Available Background. The present study was conducted to investigate the marginal bone loss around two different types of implant‒abutment junctions, called platform-switched (Implantium system and non-platform switched (XiVE system after two years of loading. Methods. Sixty-four implants in 49 patients were included in the study. The implants were placed in the posterior mandibular region according to the relevant protocols. The extent of bone loss around the implants was measured and compared after 24 months, using digital parallel periapical radiographs. Results. The means ± SE of bone loss values in the platform-switched and non-platform-switched groups were 0.47 ± 0.048 mm and 1.87 ± 0.124 mm, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. Conclusion. The platform-switching technique seems to reduce the periimplant crestal bone resorption, which supports the long-term predictability of implant therapy.

  7. On The Snubber Influence To The Switching And Conduction Losses In A Converter Using Switched Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel DUGAN


    Full Text Available The paper deals to design and to compute the snubber parameters influence on the switching and conduction losses of the transistors (IGBT used as bidirectional switches in a converter with switched capacitor. The converter was modelled with difference equations, and the transistors during turn-on and turn-off processes were simulated by dynamically varying resistance models. The energy loss per switching, commutation time, the variation of the transistor voltage etc. and the influence of snubber parameters in each of these cases are shown in the context of a converter used as a 50Hz reactive power controller unit

  8. Hybrid Optical Switching for Data Center Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Fiorani


    Full Text Available Current data centers networks rely on electronic switching and point-to-point interconnects. When considering future data center requirements, these solutions will raise issues in terms of flexibility, scalability, performance, and energy consumption. For this reason several optical switched interconnects, which make use of optical switches and wavelength division multiplexing (WDM, have been recently proposed. However, the solutions proposed so far suffer from low flexibility and are not able to provide service differentiation. In this paper we introduce a novel data center network based on hybrid optical switching (HOS. HOS combines optical circuit, burst, and packet switching on the same network. In this way different data center applications can be mapped to the optical transport mechanism that best suits their traffic characteristics. Furthermore, the proposed HOS network achieves high transmission efficiency and reduced energy consumption by using two parallel optical switches. We consider the architectures of both a traditional data center network and the proposed HOS network and present a combined analytical and simulation approach for their performance and energy consumption evaluation. We demonstrate that the proposed HOS data center network achieves high performance and flexibility while considerably reducing the energy consumption of current solutions.

  9. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Infrared Signature Suppression of Aircraft Skin (United States)

    Lu, Jian Wei; Wang, Qiang; Kwon, Oh Joon

    During typical supersonic cruising, the temperature of the aircraft skin rises above 300 K due to aerodynamic heating. In this situation, aircraft-skin infrared (IR) suppression, used to minimize the radiation contrast from the background is a crucial survival technology. In the present study, a technique to evaluate the effectiveness of IR suppression of aircraft skin is proposed. For this purpose, a synthetic procedure based on numerical simulations has been developed. In this procedure, the thermal status of aircraft skin is obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method for complex aircraft geometries. An IR signature model is proposed using a reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) technique. The detection range and the IR contrast are adopted as the performance indicators for the evaluation of the aircraft IR suppression. The influence of these factors related to the aircraft-skin radiation, such as aircraft-skin emissivity, surface temperature distribution and flight speed, on the IR contrast and the detection range is also studied. As a test case, the effectiveness of various IR suppression schemes was analyzed for a typical air combat situation. Then, the method is applied to clarify the contribution of each aircraft component to the IR suppression of the overall IR radiation. The results show that aircraft-skin temperature control and emissivity control are effective means to reduce the IR radiation and to achieve lower detection. The results can be used as a practical guide for designing future stealth aircraft.

  10. High-voltage high-current triggering vacuum switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alferov, D.F.; Bunin, R.A.; Evsin, D.V.; Sidorov, V.A.


    Experimental investigations of switching and breaking capacities of the new high current triggered vacuum switch (TVS) are carried out at various parameters of discharge current. It has been shown that the high current triggered vacuum switch TVS can switch repeatedly a current from units up to ten kiloampers with duration up to ten millisecond [ru

  11. 49 CFR 236.342 - Switch circuit controller. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch circuit controller. 236.342 Section 236.342 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Instructions § 236.342 Switch circuit controller. Switch circuit controller connected at the point to switch...

  12. A System for English Vocabulary Acquisition Based on Code-Switching (United States)

    Mazur, Michal; Karolczak, Krzysztof; Rzepka, Rafal; Araki, Kenji


    Vocabulary plays an important part in second language learning and there are many existing techniques to facilitate word acquisition. One of these methods is code-switching, or mixing the vocabulary of two languages in one sentence. In this paper the authors propose an experimental system for computer-assisted English vocabulary learning in…

  13. Multilevel tracking power supply for switch-mode audio power amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Lazarevic, Vladan; Vasic, Miroslav


    Switch-mode technology is the common choice for high efficiency audio power amplifiers. The dynamic nature of real audio reduces efficiency as less continuous output power can be achieved. Based on methods used for RF amplifiers this paper proposes to employ envelope tracking techniques...

  14. Analysis and design of a high-efficiency zero-voltage-switching step ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recently, high-efficiency power conversion techniques have been researched due to the increas- ... They feature fixed switching frequency and ZVS of power .... and IDo1, respectively. 3. Design parameters. 3.1 Voltages across the split input filter capacitors CC f 1 and CC f 2. Since the average inductor voltage must be ...

  15. Generalized Simulation Model for a Switched-Mode Power Supply Design Course Using MATLAB/SIMULINK (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Shun-Chung; Liu, Yi-Hua


    Switched-mode power supplies (SMPS) are becoming an essential part of many electronic systems as the industry drives toward miniaturization and energy efficiency. However, practical SMPS design courses are seldom offered. In this paper, a generalized MATLAB/SIMULINK modeling technique is first presented. A proposed practical SMPS design course at…

  16. The all-fiber cladding-pumped Yb-doped gain-switched laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Hansen, K. P.; Mattsson, Kent Erik


    Gain-switching is an alternative pulsing technique of fiber lasers, which is power scalable and has a low complexity. From a linear stability analysis of rate equations the relaxation oscillation period is derived and from it, the pulse duration is defined. Good agreement between the measured pul...

  17. Electrical permeability and domain switching effect on fracture behavior of piezoelectric material (United States)

    Kalyanam, Sureshkumar

    The crystal structure and domain microstructure within each grain of a piezoelectric material and 90°, 180° polarization switch observed experimentally are discussed. The work and internal energy density domain switching criteria are used to predict domain switch zones near crack tip of CT fracture specimen. Constitutive relations are modified to reflect changes in material properties and strains arising from domain switch. An incremental finite element solution procedure using UNIX program was developed to use ABAQUS piezoelectric FEA software along with FORTRAN codes for prediction and modeling of domain switching in piezoelectric material. Insulating materials like silicone oil are used by researchers to prevent electric arcing between crack faces during fracture tests with piezoelectric material. A finite element (UEL) was developed to model dielectric medium filling crack cavity of piezoelectric fracture test specimens. An iterative procedure was adopted to solve geometrically nonlinear crack opening using an UNIX program. The effect of permeability of crack cavity medium on near tip electric fields in CT fracture specimen was investigated. A CT fracture specimen was modeled using incremental domain switch finite element solution procedure. Domain switch zones in the vicinity of the crack tip were obtained for various electrical and mechanical fracture loads applied. The effect of actual crack profile on near tip domain switch zones, opening stress, stress intensity is discussed. A gradual polarization switch model which considers the gradual change in the average polarization direction from the original poling direction was developed. Fracture load predictions using stress intensity factor obtained from assuming linear material behavior, nonlinear behavior using the instantaneous and gradual polarization switch model are compared. Gradual polarization switch model was used to model a SENB fracture specimen to obtain the near tip strain field and compare it

  18. Proposal of Switching Power Amplifier Using Small Capacity Linear Amplifier and LC Filter (United States)

    Kamada, Jo; Funato, Hirohito; Ogasawara, Satoshi

    The higher efficiency and the low noise in output voltage and current has been required in some applications, i.e. audio-video equipment, medical equipment and so on. This paper proposes a power amplifier in which a PWM inverter is used as a main circuit. In the proposed power amplifier, a hybrid filter composed of a simple and general LC filter and a small capacity linear amplifier is connected to the output of the inverter. The linear amplifier is inserted in series to the filter capacitor to improve the filtering effect of the LC filter. Switching ripples and LC resonances are considerably suppressed by controlling the amplifier using the proposed method and a low distortion switching power amplifier is realized. The effects of the proposal circuit are verified by simulations and experiments. As a result, the proposed circuit achieves low noise about THD=0.68% in simulation and THD=1.7% in experiment.

  19. Electric-field-induced magnetization switching in CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with high junction resistance (United States)

    Kanai, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.


    We show the electric-field induced magnetization switching for CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with thick MgO barrier layer of 2.8 nm, whose resistance-area product is 176 kΩ μm2, and achieve the small switching energy of 6.3 fJ/bit. The increase of the junction resistance is expected to suppress the energy consumption due to the Joule heating during the switching; however, the energy is still dominated by the Joule energy rather than the charging energy. This is because the junction resistance decreases more rapidly for junctions with thicker MgO as bias voltage increases.

  20. Effectiveness, Safety, and Costs of a Treatment Switch to Dolutegravir Plus Rilpivirine Dual Therapy in Treatment-Experienced HIV Patients. (United States)

    Revuelta-Herrero, José Luis; Chamorro-de-Vega, Esther; Rodríguez-González, Carmen Guadalupe; Alonso, Roberto; Herranz-Alonso, Ana; Sanjurjo-Sáez, María


    Evidence about the use of dolutegravir (DTG) and rilpivirine (RPV) as an antiretroviral therapy (ART) in treatment-experienced patients is scarce. To explore the effectiveness, safety, and costs of switching to a DTG plus RPV regimen in this population. This observational, prospective study included all treatment-experienced patients who switched to DTG plus RPV between November 2014 and July 2016. Patients were excluded if resistance mutations to integrase inhibitors or RPV were found. The effectiveness endpoint was the proportion of patients who achieved virological suppression (viral load [VL] 90% increased from 65.6% to 93.8% ( P = 0.004). The annual per-patient ART costs dropped by €665 ( P = 0.265). Switching to DTG plus RPV seems to be an effective and safe strategy. Significant improvements in patients' adherence and costs were achieved.