WorldWideScience

Sample records for switching and terminal companies

  1. 76 FR 60603 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Minnesota Surety and Trust Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... 20782. Dated: September 15, 2011. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division...: Termination; Minnesota Surety and Trust Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service... Circular 570; 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR 38892. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  2. Switching of servers in small and medium-sized companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huser, A.

    2001-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the feasibility of switching off electronic data processing servers during periods of none-use, such as during the night or over the weekend. The results of a representative survey made in the German-speaking part of Switzerland are presented that have shown that acceptance is high if fully-developed and reliable systems are available. The feasibility of switching off servers, which has been demonstrated in four pilot installations, is discussed. In these projects, the goal was to cut operating times of central network components such as servers, printers etc. Measures taken to inform users of planned switch-off times and the possibilities they are given to change or override these are discussed. Other advantages to be gained from controlled, automatic shut-down of these components such as better reliability and security, time-savings for administrators and energy savings of more than 50% are discussed. The report recommends that further pilot projects be carried out with the ultimate goal of integrating the functions in commercial products.

  3. 77 FR 18883 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. [FR Doc. 2012...--Termination and Merger; Pioneer General Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  4. 77 FR 2056 - Merrimac Paper Company, Inc.; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... Company, Inc.; Notice of Termination of License by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments and Motions... Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of License by Implied Surrender. b. Project No.: 2928-007. c... project as proposed and authorized, the licensee is in violation of the terms and conditions of the...

  5. 76 FR 7840 - American Hydro Power Company; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Power Company; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments, Protests... the Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b. Project No... if any term or condition of the exemption is violated. The project has not operated since 2004, and...

  6. The extent of cigarette brand and company switching: results from the Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, M; Nelson, D E; Peddicord, J P; Merritt, R K; Giovino, G A; Eriksen, M P

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of cigarette advertising on brand switching, an accurate estimate of the extent of cigarette brand and company switching among current smokers is needed. Data from the 1986 Adult Use-of-Tobacco Survey were analyzed to estimate the percentage of adult smokers who switched cigarette brands and companies in the previous year. Approximately 9.2% of adult smokers (4.2 million) switched cigarette brands in 1986, and 6.7% (3.1 million) switched cigarette companies. The aggregate profitability of brand switching in 1986 was approximately $362 million. Based on this analysis, brand switching alone justifies only a small percentage of a cigarette company's advertising and promotion expenditures, suggesting that future research should address other potential effects of advertising, including maintenance of brand loyalty and expanding the cigarette market. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): addictive behavior, advertising, smoking, tobacco.

  7. 78 FR 13665 - L.E. Bell Construction Company, Inc.; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... Construction Company, Inc.; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments... initiated by the Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b... reserves the right to revoke an exemption if any term or condition of the exemption is violated. The...

  8. 75 FR 6791 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Trinity Universal Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    .... However, no new bonds should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Trinity Universal Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  9. 75 FR 38188 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Stonebridge Casualty Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service [NAIC 10952] Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Stonebridge Casualty Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal...

  10. 75 FR 81331 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination-Penn Millers Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination--Penn Millers Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department...

  11. 77 FR 29472 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Atlantic Bonding Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Atlantic Bonding Company, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department...

  12. 75 FR 33897 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Terminations: Commercial Alliance Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Terminations: Commercial Alliance Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  13. 77 FR 42554 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Termination: Peerless Insurance Company (NAIC #24198)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... should be accepted from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Termination: Peerless Insurance Company (NAIC 24198) AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service...

  14. 75 FR 36153 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds-Terminations: Victore Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... from this company, and bonds that are continuous in nature should not be renewed. The Circular may be... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds--Terminations: Victore Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the...

  15. 76 FR 37194 - Surety Companies Acceptable In Federal Bonds; Termination; Clearwater Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... to the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and...: June 16, 2011. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial...; Termination; Clearwater Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of...

  16. 77 FR 553 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Western Bonding Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    .... Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety..., 2011. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service...: Termination; Western Bonding Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the...

  17. 76 FR 37891 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Termination; Western Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ... the U.S. Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services.... Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. [FR...; Termination; Western Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of the...

  18. Technical forums as an instrument for knowledge management in oil pipelines and terminals companies: the experience of TRANSPETRO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Santiago, Adilson; Ribeiro, Kassandra Senra; Arruda, Daniela Mendonca [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes the experience of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit regarding an institutionalized knowledge management (KM) process of systematically promoting technical forums focused on: pipeline and terminal operations; industrial maintenance; and right-of-way activities management. This empirical work adds evidence that in the model of cooperative and communicative knowledge management it is necessary to motivate staff to provide the company with their tacit knowledge and to take a proactive part in knowledge management processes, particularly in technical forums. Within this KM perspective, technical forums have been held by TRANSPETRO for the following purposes: to discuss the main barriers and challenges the oil pipelines and terminals unit has to face in the coming years; to share and disseminate good practices concerning oil pipeline and terminal activities; to discuss new processes, methods and equipment developments with potential application in business and operational processes; to establish action plans concerning the main challenges, barriers and opportunities; to disseminate Research and Development (R and D) projects in course, new procedures, methods and equipment and to promote integration among forum attendees. The two year-experience in TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Unit revealed that technical forums have been an important instrument for cooperative and communicative knowledge management, according to evaluations from 173 attendees. (author)

  19. Do switching barriers of a service company moderate the relationship of perceived image and its antecedents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Veljko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify key antecedents of the perceived image. The paper presents a new model in which switching barriers play specific role. They have been highlighted as a potential moderator of relationship between the perceived image and its drivers. The survey was conducted on a sample of 221 respondents. The suitability of conceptual model was tested using confirmative factor analysis. When examining relations between the variables of the proposed model the main and interaction effects are determined. The paper provides useful managerial implications. Findings of the research indicate the factors that impact the perception of the image, where the intensity of the impact of each individual factor is established. The positioning of the image as dependent variable in the model gives the paper a certain specificity, since there are numerous examples of works in the field of services marketing in which authors identify the key drivers of customer satisfaction and loyalty. There are few studies which have analyzed the antecedents of the perceived image. Furthermore, the importance of the switching barriers as a potential moderator between certain variables is examined in the market of financial services, hotel and restaurant management, but so far it has not attracted greater attention of authors when it comes to the business of cable operators.

  20. Magnetization switching schemes for nanoscale three-terminal spintronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Shunsuke; Ohno, Hideo

    2017-08-01

    Utilizing spintronics-based nonvolatile memories in integrated circuits offers a promising approach to realize ultralow-power and high-performance electronics. While two-terminal devices with spin-transfer torque switching have been extensively developed nowadays, there has been a growing interest in devices with a three-terminal structure. Of primary importance for applications is the efficient manipulation of magnetization, corresponding to information writing, in nanoscale devices. Here we review the studies of current-induced domain wall motion and spin-orbit torque-induced switching, which can be applied to the write operation of nanoscale three-terminal spintronics devices. For domain wall motion, the size dependence of device properties down to less than 20 nm will be shown and the underlying mechanism behind the results will be discussed. For spin-orbit torque-induced switching, factors governing the threshold current density and strategies to reduce it will be discussed. A proof-of-concept demonstration of artificial intelligence using an analog spin-orbit torque device will also be reviewed.

  1. Three-terminal resistive switching memory in a transparent vertical-configuration device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungureanu, Mariana; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    The resistive switching phenomenon has attracted much attention recently for memory applications. It describes the reversible change in the resistance of a dielectric between two non-volatile states by the application of electrical pulses. Typical resistive switching memories are two-terminal devices formed by an oxide layer placed between two metal electrodes. Here, we report on the fabrication and operation of a three-terminal resistive switching memory that works as a reconfigurable logic component and offers an increased logic density on chip. The three-terminal memory device we present is transparent and could be further incorporated in transparent computing electronic technologies

  2. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; Universal Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... 20782. Dated: December 11, 2012. Kevin McIntyre, Acting Director, Financial Accounting and Services...: Termination; Universal Insurance Company AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of... 570; 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety...

  3. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 37893) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds is... bonds, including continuous bonds, currently in force with above listed Company, bond-approving officers...

  4. Analysis of Factors Affecting Manufacturing Companies in Indonesia Performing a Switching Auditor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atika Sukma Winata

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at analyzing the influence of the Public Accountant Firms Size, Size of Company, Financial Distress, Audit Opinion and Management Turnover toward Auditor Switching. The population of this study is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the period 2011-2015 consisting of 134 companies. The sample was obtained by purposive sampling technique which resulted in the sample of 26 companies. Methods of data analysis using logistic regression and SPSS 21 using data and other information obtained from Annual Report. Results of this study shows that the Public Accountant Firms Size and Management Turnover have significant impact toward auditor switching, size of company have influence auditor switching. Financial distress and audit opinion did not effect auditor switching significantly. The value of Nagelkerke R Square is 0.283. conclusions of this study is the Public Accountant Firms Size and Management Turnover have significant impact toward auditor switching, size of company have influence auditor switching. Financial distress and audit opinion did not effect auditor switching significantly.

  5. An Adaptive, Packet-Switched HF Data Terminal -Functional Overview and Initial Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    a real-time channel evaluation and channel selection mechanism, an adaptive link protocol for channel optimization, and a fully distributed and...de ce syst~me incluent un mr6chanisme d𔄀valuation et de selection de canaux en temps rel, un protocol adaptatif inter-liaison afin d’optimiser...mechanism, an adaptive link protocol for channel optimization, and a fully distributed and adaptive routing algorithm for the selection of routes in an HF

  6. 78 FR 41497 - Boston and Maine Corporation and Springfield Terminal Railroad Company-Petition for Declaratory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... freight rail transportation to a warehouse in the Town. According to Pan Am, it provides common carrier rail transportation to the warehouse, through the Montvale Yard, on behalf of shippers, and it holds... actions taken by the Town of Winchester (the Town) to ban certain rail transportation conducted by Pan Am...

  7. 78 FR 35360 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Terminations-American Economy Insurance Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ...: Terminations-- American Economy Insurance Company (NAIC 19690); American States Insurance Company (NAIC 19704... Circular 570, 2012 Revision, published July 2, 2012, at 77 FR 39322. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... officials should annotate their reference copies of the Treasury Department Circular 570 (Circular), 2012...

  8. Three-terminal nanoelectromechanical switch based on tungsten nitride—an amorphous metallic material

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2015-12-04

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd. Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switches inherently have zero off-state leakage current and nearly ideal sub-threshold swing due to their mechanical nature of operation, in contrast to semiconductor switches. A challenge for NEM switches to be practical for low-power digital logic application is their relatively large operation voltage which can result in higher dynamic power consumption. Herein we report a three-terminal laterally actuated NEM switch fabricated with an amorphous metallic material: tungsten nitride (WNx). As-deposited WNx thin films have high Young\\'s modulus (300 GPa) and reasonably high hardness (3 GPa), which are advantageous for high wear resistance. The first prototype WNx switches are demonstrated to operate with relatively low control voltage, down to 0.8 V for an air gap thickness of 150 nm.

  9. Terminal Galactosylation and Sialylation Switching on Membrane Glycoproteins upon TNF-Alpha-Induced Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Benjamin L; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Fazakerley, Daniel J; Holliday, Mira; Packer, Nicolle H; James, David E

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a complex pathophysiological state that arises from both environmental and genetic perturbations and leads to a variety of diseases, including type-2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity is associated with enhanced adipose tissue inflammation, which may play a role in disease progression. Inflammation modulates protein glycosylation in a variety of cell types, and this has been associated with biological dysregulation. Here, we have examined the effects of an inflammatory insult on protein glycosylation in adipocytes. We performed quantitative N-glycome profiling of membrane proteins derived from mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes that had been incubated with or without the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha to induce IR. We identified the regulation of specific terminal N-glycan epitopes, including an increase in terminal di-galactose- and a decrease in biantennary alpha-2,3-sialoglycans. The altered N-glycosylation of TNF-alpha-treated adipocytes correlated with the regulation of specific glycosyltransferases, including the up-regulation of B4GalT5 and Ggta1 galactosyltransferases and down-regulation of ST3Gal6 sialyltransferase. Knockdown of B4GalT5 down-regulated the terminal di-galactose N-glycans, confirming the involvement of this enzyme in the TNF-alpha-regulated N-glycome. SILAC-based quantitative glycoproteomics of enriched N-glycopeptides with and without deglycosylation were used to identify the protein and glycosylation sites modified with these regulated N-glycans. The combined proteome and glycoproteome workflow provided a relative quantification of changes in protein abundance versus N-glycosylation occupancy versus site-specific N-glycans on a proteome-wide level. This revealed the modulation of N-glycosylation on specific proteins in IR, including those previously associated with insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Terminal Galactosylation and Sialylation Switching on Membrane Glycoproteins upon TNF-Alpha-Induced Insulin Resistance in Adipocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Benjamin L.; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Fazakerley, Daniel J.; Holliday, Mira; Packer, Nicolle H.; James, David E.

    2016-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a complex pathophysiological state that arises from both environmental and genetic perturbations and leads to a variety of diseases, including type-2 diabetes (T2D). Obesity is associated with enhanced adipose tissue inflammation, which may play a role in disease progression. Inflammation modulates protein glycosylation in a variety of cell types, and this has been associated with biological dysregulation. Here, we have examined the effects of an inflammatory insult on protein glycosylation in adipocytes. We performed quantitative N-glycome profiling of membrane proteins derived from mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes that had been incubated with or without the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha to induce IR. We identified the regulation of specific terminal N-glycan epitopes, including an increase in terminal di-galactose- and a decrease in biantennary alpha-2,3-sialoglycans. The altered N-glycosylation of TNF-alpha-treated adipocytes correlated with the regulation of specific glycosyltransferases, including the up-regulation of B4GalT5 and Ggta1 galactosyltransferases and down-regulation of ST3Gal6 sialyltransferase. Knockdown of B4GalT5 down-regulated the terminal di-galactose N-glycans, confirming the involvement of this enzyme in the TNF-alpha-regulated N-glycome. SILAC-based quantitative glycoproteomics of enriched N-glycopeptides with and without deglycosylation were used to identify the protein and glycosylation sites modified with these regulated N-glycans. The combined proteome and glycoproteome workflow provided a relative quantification of changes in protein abundance versus N-glycosylation occupancy versus site-specific N-glycans on a proteome-wide level. This revealed the modulation of N-glycosylation on specific proteins in IR, including those previously associated with insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane. PMID:26537798

  11. 75 FR 15740 - Gallery Leather Company, Inc., Trenton, ME; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Gallery Leather Company, Inc., Trenton, ME; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on November 20, 2009, by a company official on behalf of workers of Gallery...

  12. Application of nanomaterials in two-terminal resistive-switching memory devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyong Ouyang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanometer materials have been attracting strong attention due to their interesting structure and properties. Many important practical applications have been demonstrated for nanometer materials based on their unique properties. This article provides a review on the fabrication, electrical characterization, and memory application of two-terminal resistive-switching devices using nanomaterials as the active components, including metal and semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs, nanotubes, nanowires, and graphenes. There are mainly two types of device architectures for the two-terminal devices with NPs. One has a triple-layer structure with a metal film sandwiched between two organic semiconductor layers, and the other has a single polymer film blended with NPs. These devices can be electrically switched between two states with significant different resistances, i.e. the ‘ON’ and ‘OFF’ states. These render the devices important application as two-terminal non-volatile memory devices. The electrical behavior of these devices can be affected by the materials in the active layer and the electrodes. Though the mechanism for the electrical switches has been in argument, it is generally believed that the resistive switches are related to charge storage on the NPs. Resistive switches were also observed on crossbars formed by nanotubes, nanowires, and graphene ribbons. The resistive switches are due to nanoelectromechanical behavior of the materials. The Coulombic interaction of transient charges on the nanomaterials affects the configurable gap of the crossbars, which results into significant change in current through the crossbars. These nanoelectromechanical devices can be used as fast-response and high-density memory devices as well. Dr. Jianyong Ouyang received his bachelor degree from the Tsinghua University in Beijing, China, and MSc from the Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science. He received his PhD from the Institute for Molecular

  13. 76 FR 38459 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds; Termination American Reliable Insurance Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-30

    ... of the Treasury, Financial Management Service, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Surety... Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division, Financial Management Service. BILLING CODE... Company AGENCY: Fiscal Service, Department of the Treasury, Financial Management Service. ACTION: Notice...

  14. 47 CFR 36.331 - Information origination/termination expenses-Account 6310 (Class B telephone companies); Accounts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROPERTY COSTS, REVENUES, EXPENSES, TAXES AND RESERVES FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES 1... Origination/Termination Equipment Expenses; Customer Premises Equipment Expenses (2) For some companies, these classifications are available from accounting records; for others, they are obtained by means of analyses of plant...

  15. 78 FR 24465 - Ballard Terminal Railroad Company, L.L.C.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Woodinville...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ... of Washington. The Port owns the real estate associated with the Line, which it acquired from BNSF.... 10502 for exemption from the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 10902 to acquire the residual common carrier rights and obligations, including the right to reinstitute rail service, and the physical trackage assets on...

  16. 78 FR 2483 - Ohio Terminal Railway Company-Operation Exemption-Hannibal Real Estate, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... Railway Company--Operation Exemption--Hannibal Real Estate, LLC Ohio Terminal Railway Company (OTRC),\\1\\ a... near Hannibal, in Monroe County, Ohio (the Line), pursuant to an operating agreement with Hannibal Real Estate, LLC (Hannibal). \\1\\ OTRC is a wholly owned, corporate subsidiary of Carload Express, Inc. (CEI...

  17. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.

    2011-01-01

    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  18. Molecular wires, switches and memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  19. Search and switching costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siekman, Wilhelm Henricus

    2016-01-01

    This thesis analyses markets with search and with switching costs. It provides insights in several important issues in search markets, including how loss aversion may affect consumer behavior and firm conduct, and how prices, welfare, and profits may change when an intermediating platform orders

  20. Switch of rhodopsin expression in terminally differentiated Drosophila sensory neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Sprecher, Simon G.; Desplan, Claude

    2008-01-01

    Specificity of sensory neurons requires restricted expression of one sensory receptor gene and the exclusion of all others within a given cell. In the Drosophila retina, functional identity of photoreceptors depends on light-sensitive Rhodopsins (Rhs). The much simpler larval eye (Bolwig organ) is composed of about 12 photoreceptors, eight of which are green-sensitive (Rh6) and four blue-sensitive (Rh5)1. The larval eye becomes the adult extraretinal ‘eyelet’ composed of four green-sensitive ...

  1. 77 FR 24459 - Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board [Order No. 1821] Voluntary Termination of Foreign-Trade Subzone 9D, Maui Pineapple Company, Ltd., Kahului, Maui, HI Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C. 81a-81u), and the Foreign-Trade Zones...

  2. 78 FR 23331 - Ballard Terminal Railroad Company, L.L.C.-Lease Exemption-Line of Eastside Community Rail, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... residual common carrier rights and obligations, including the right to reinstitute rail service, over the... resume providing common carrier rail service over this trackage. These filings will be addressed by the... Railroad Company, L.L.C.--Lease Exemption--Line of Eastside Community Rail, LLC Ballard Terminal Railroad...

  3. Ureaplasma antigenic variation beyond MBA phase variation: DNA inversions generating chimeric structures and switching in expression of the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Carl-Ulrich R; Rosengarten, Renate; Spergser, Joachim

    2011-02-01

    Phase variation of the major ureaplasma surface membrane protein, the multiple-banded antigen (MBA), with its counterpart, the UU376 protein, was recently discussed as a result of DNA inversion occurring at specific inverted repeats. Two similar inverted repeats to the ones within the mba locus were found in the genome of Ureaplasma parvum serovar 3; one within the MBA N-terminal paralogue UU172 and another in the adjacent intergenic spacer region. In this report, we demonstrate on both genomic and protein level that DNA inversion at these inverted repeats leads to alternating expression between UU172 and the neighbouring conserved hypothetical ORF UU171. Sequence analysis of this phase-variable 'UU172 element' from both U. parvum and U. urealyticum strains revealed that it is highly conserved among both species and that it also includes the orthologue of UU144. A third inverted repeat region in UU144 is proposed to serve as an additional potential inversion site from which chimeric genes can evolve. Our results indicate that site-specific recombination events in the genome of U. parvum serovar 3 are dynamic and frequent, leading to a broad spectrum of antigenic variation by which the organism may evade host immune responses. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Privatised companies and market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salini, M. P.

    2001-01-01

    The Italian Government decided to adopt the public company structure where a little group of medium-term investors had the task of supporting the transition of the privatised companies to the market. The article examines the reasons for this decision and its failure in attaining the purpose, not excluding the possibility for the public company of imposing itself in the long period and in a context of a minor legislative intervention and more effective Corporate Governance rules [it

  5. Efficient switching of 3-terminal magnetic tunnel junctions by the giant spin Hall effect of Pt85Hf15 alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hai; Shi, Shengjie; Rowlands, Graham E.; Aradhya, Sriharsha V.; Jermain, Colin L.; Ralph, D. C.; Buhrman, R. A.

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has indicated that introducing impurities that increase the resistivity of Pt can enhance the efficiency of the spin Hall torque it generates. Here, we directly demonstrate the usefulness of this strategy by fabricating prototype 3-terminal in-plane-magnetized magnetic tunnel junctions that utilize the spin Hall torque from a Pt85Hf15 alloy and measuring the critical currents for switching. We find that Pt85Hf15 reduces the switching current densities compared to pure Pt by approximately a factor of 2 for both quasi-static ramped current biases and nanosecond-scale current pulses, thereby proving the feasibility of this approach in assisting the development of efficient embedded magnetic memory technologies.

  6. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  7. Visual communication and terminal equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Cheol Hui

    1988-06-01

    This book is divided two parts about visual communication and terminal equipment. The first part introduces visual communication, which deals with foundation of visual communication, technique of visual communication, equipment of visual communication, a facsimile and pictorial image system. The second part contains terminal equipment such as telephone, terminal equipment for data transmission on constitution and constituent of terminal equipment for data transmission, input device and output device, terminal device and up-to-date terminal device.

  8. Switched Systems and Motion Coordination: Combinatorial Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Alexander V.

    2016-01-01

    Problems of routing commercial air traffic in a terminal airspace encounter different constraints: separation assurance, aircraft performance limitations, regulations. The general setting of these problems is that of a switched control system. Such a system combines the differentiable motion of the aircraft with the combinatorial choices of choosing precedence when traffic routes merge and choosing branches when the routes diverge. This presentation gives an overview of the problem, the ATM context, related literature, and directions for future research.

  9. Commitment and Switching Intentions: Customers and Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Werneck Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the relationship between a customer’s brand switching intentions and his commitment to a brand. Based on a literature review, constructs related to customer brand commitment were identified (affective and continuance commitment, trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness and their roles in the formation of brand switching intentions hypothesized. Through a cross-sectional survey, a sample of 201 smartphone users was collected to test the proposed relationships. Data analysis was carried out via structural equations modeling, with direct effects of trust, satisfaction, switching costs and alternative attractiveness upon the different kinds of commitment being verified. Furthermore, both types of brand commitment (affective and continuance were found to negatively impact a customer’s intention to switch brands. Regarding enterprise customer strategies, the research findings suggest that, if firms are able to track customer brand commitment, they could use such knowledge to develop better relationship strategies, minimizing customer defection and further developing customer value to the company.

  10. Coal - and the terminals that handle it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venter, J.

    2009-02-15

    The Maputo Coal Terminal commonly known as Terminal de Carvao de Matola Limitada (TCM) is a Mozambican company owned by the Grindrod Group. TCM was built in the 1960s and is undergoing a three-phase upgrade which will expand to a 6 mt terminal by August 2010. The Abbot Point X25 Port Expansion Project remains on target for completion by the end of June 2009, increasing the export capacity of this Queensland port to 25 mtpa. A second phase of expansion will increase this to 50 mtpa by 2011. 6 photos.

  11. Trauma and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F

    1995-02-01

    The author suggests a particular reading of the thesis put forward by Freud in 'Analysis terminable and interminable' that an effective and more definitive conclusion may be expected in analyses of cases with traumatic aetiology. This reading shifts the emphasis from the patient's history to the possibility of its crystallising in focal nuclei emerging within the analytic relationship under the pressure of the termination. The revival of separation anxieties which cannot be worked through, and their crystallisation in precipitating traumatic events, may give rise to decisive psychic work allowing the analysis to be brought to a conclusion. Two case histories are presented to show how the end of the analysis assumes the form of a new trauma, which reactivates in the present, traumatic anxieties from the patient's own infantile history. In the first case a premature birth and in the second a miscarriage, originally experienced as isolated automatic events without time or history, are relived in the terminal phase as vicissitudes of the transference, so that new meaning can be assigned to them and they can be withdrawn from the somatic cycle of repetition. The powerful tendency to act out and the intense countertransference pressure on the analyst are discussed in the light of the specificities of this phase, which is crucial to the success of the analysis. This leads to a re-examination, in the concluding notes, of some theoretical questions inherent in the problem of the termination and, in particular, to a discussion of the ambiguous concept of a natural ending.

  12. Countries and companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenning, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The trends and factors currently emerging are likely to have significant influence on the way the upstream oil and gas industry evolves in the coming decade. This paper discusses how these trends might influence events in the 1990s, particularly how they might influence relationships between host countries and companies in the oil industry. State owned companies will dominate the industry in resource terms. These statcos fall into three groups: a small group of technically able, financially sound, well-managed companies; a group of consumer statcos that have limited domestic production but significant domestic demand; a large group that are finding it difficult to maintain their production facilities in good standing to maximize recovery from their resources. This paper describes the future private sector as consisting of the Surviving Sisters and smaller, private companies very active in the upstream. How will these various players behave in the years to come? Conventional activity in the upstream will continue as companies seek to optimize their upstream portfolios

  13. Reduced numbers of switched memory B cells with high terminal differentiation potential in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carsetti, Rita; Valentini, Diletta; Marcellini, Valentina; Scarsella, Marco; Marasco, Emiliano; Giustini, Ferruccio; Bartuli, Andrea; Villani, Alberto; Ugazio, Alberto G

    2015-03-01

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) have increased susceptibility to infections and a high frequency of leukemia and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that immunodeficiency and immune dysfunction are integral parts of the syndrome. A reduction in B-cell numbers has been reported, associated with moderate immunodeficiency and normal immunoglobulin levels. Here, we compared B-cell populations of 19 children with DS with those in healthy age-matched controls. We found that all steps of peripheral B-cell development are altered in DS, with a more severe defect during the later stages of B-cell development. Transitional and mature-naïve B-cell numbers are reduced by 50% whereas switched memory B cells represent 10-15% of the numbers in age-matched controls. Serum IgM levels were slightly reduced, but all other immunoglobulin isotypes were in the normal range. The frequency of switched memory B cells specific for vaccine antigens was significantly lower in affected children than in their equivalently vaccinated siblings. In vitro switched memory B cells of patients with DS have an increased ability to differentiate into antibody-forming cells in response to TLR9 signals. Tailored vaccination schedules increasing the number of switched memory B cells may improve protection and reduce the risk of death from infection in DS. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. 77 FR 19417 - Affton Terminal Railroad Company-Operation Exemption1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... of grains and related products as well as plastic pellets and related products with the Terminal... Effingham R.R.--Pet. for Declaratory Order--Constr. at Effingham, IL, NOR 41986 et al. (STB served Sept. 18...

  15. The Influence of Abnormal Audit Fee and Auditor Switching Toward Opinion Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Nawalin, Ririn; Syukurillah, Indah Anis

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the influence of abnormal audit fee and auditor switching toward opinion shopping in non-financial company listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2011-2015. The data were analysed using ordinal logistic regression. The results showed that the abnormal audit fee positively influenced opinion shopping, as compared to auditor switching which did not have any effect. Furthermore, company size, ROA changes, leverage changes, company growth; loss and public accounting firm's (PA...

  16. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C

    2010-01-01

    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  17. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  18. Resolution and termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina FOLTIŞ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The resolution, the termination and the reduction of labour conscription are regulated by articles 1549-1554 in the new Civil Code, which represents the common law in this matter. We appreciate that the new regulation does not conclusively clarify the issue related to whether the existence of liability in order to call upon the resolution is necessary or not, because the existence of this condition has been inferred under the previous regulation from the fact that the absence of liability shifts the inexecution issue on the domain of fortuitous impossibility of execution, situation in which the resolution of the contract is not in question, but that of the risk it implies.

  19. Fluctuation-induced switching and the switching path distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykman, Mark

    2009-03-01

    Fluctuation-induced switching is at the root of diverse phenomena currently studied in Josephson junctions, nano-mechanical systems, nano-magnets, and optically trapped atoms. In a fluctuation leading to switching the system must overcome an effective barrier, making switching events rare, for low fluctuation intensity. We will provide an overview of the methods of finding the switching barrier for systems away from thermal equilibrium. Generic features of the barrier, such as scaling with the system parameters, will be discussed. We will also discuss the motion of the system in switching and the ways of controlling it. Two major classes of systems will be considered: dynamical systems, where fluctuations are induced by noise, and birth-death systems. Even though the motion during switching is random, the paths followed in switching form a narrow tube in phase space of the system centered at the most probable path. The paths distribution is generally Gaussian and has specific features, which have been seen in the experiment [1]. Finding the most probable path itself can be reduced to solving a problem of Hamiltonian dynamics of an auxiliary noise-free system. The solution also gives the switching barrier. The barrier can be found explicitly close to parameter values where the number of stable states of the system changes and the dynamics is controlled by a slow variable. The scaling of the barrier height depends on the type of the corresponding bifurcation. We show that, both for birth-death and for Gaussian noise driven systems, the presence of even weak non-Gaussian noise can strongly modify the switching rate. The effect is described in a simple explicit form [2,3]. Weak deviations of the noise statistics from Gaussian can be sensitively detected using balanced dynamical bridge, where this deviation makes the populations of coexisting stable states different from each other; a realization of such a bridge will be discussed. We will also discuss the sharp

  20. Switching in electrical transmission and distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Smeets, René; Kapetanovic, Mirsad; Peelo, David F; Janssen, Anton

    2014-01-01

    Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems presents the issues and technological solutions associated with switching in power systems, from medium to ultra-high voltage. The book systematically discusses the electrical aspects of switching, details the way load and fault currents are interrupted, the impact of fault currents, and compares switching equipment in particular circuit-breakers. The authors also explain all examples of practical switching phenomena by examining real measurements from switching tests. Other highlights include: up to date commentary on new develo

  1. 77 FR 10806 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; First Sealord Surety, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... 20782. Dated: February 10, 2012. Laura Carrico, Director, Financial Accounting and Services Division...: Termination; First Sealord Surety, Inc. AGENCY: Financial Management Service, Fiscal Service, Department of... 570; 2011 Revision, published July 1, 2011, at 76 FR 38892. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety...

  2. Comparison of Ion Beam opening switch and plasma opening switch performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenly, J.R.; Rondeau, G.D.; Sheldon, H.T.; Dreike, P.L.

    1986-01-01

    The Ion Beam opening switch (IBOS) experiment has shown that an intense charge-neutralized ion beam can carry current across a vacuum magnetically-insulated transmission line and then transfer that current to a downstream load quickly. In the IBOS experiment, a 10 cm wide parallel plate transmission line was fed up to 100 kA peak current by a 4Ω, 100 ns pulser. An ion beam of up to 100 A/cm/sup 2/, 100-300 keV protons or carbon was injected through the anode of the line in a 10 cm x 10 cm region. The line terminated in either a 15 nH short circuit or an electron diode with variable gap. The ion beam switch was able to carry up to 70 kA of line current before load current began to flow. This model is also quantitatively consistent with the observation that switch conduction current is not linear with either injected ion beam current or switch area

  3. Musculo-skeletal Disorders among Video Display Terminal Users: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Software Company, Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Rivu; Dasgupta, Aparajita; Ghosal, Gautam

    2014-12-01

    IT has revolutionized economies throughout the world, more so in India. West Bengal has also got its share of IT boom. But with this, it has brought in the class of human resource of Video Display Terminal workers operators that and along with that can cause a host of occupational problems in them namely musculoskeletal, ocular and psychological systems. The current study had assessed some of the musculoskeletal disorders occurring due to VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINAL use. An analytical cross-sectional study was done in a Software Company of Sector V, Kolkata, the IT hub of West Bengal. Of all the employees, required sample size of 206 was selected by Simple Random Sampling. After proper permissions and consent, socio-demographic variables were collected by standardized instruments, musculoskeletal morbidity was collected by Nordic questionnaire, and ergonomic practices were obtained by checklists. 90.78% of population showed some form of musculo skeletal symptoms. They were highest in fingers, elbows, wrist, shoulder, upper, while legs and lower back showed low morbidities. Increasing age, female sex, increasing years of work, repetition of work, poorer ergonomic scores all showed to have increased the symptoms. The regionwise ergonomic scores revealed how the poorer scores affected the musculo skeletal systems adversely. Several individual adverse ergonomic practices were also elicited. The study goes hand to hand with many other studies throughout the world and also in India. However, a much higher morbidity has been found in this study probably due to a symptom based questionnaire. The adverse practices obtained here goes well with other relevant studies. This study puts occupational health problems of VIDEO DISPLAY TERMINAL users, and upholds the need of future multicentric cohort studies along with implementation of proper measures to ameliorate the effects of this occupational hazard.

  4. Oil companies and human rights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandler, Geoffrey [Amnesty International (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    This article highlights the need for oil companies in the future to take into account human rights in corporate decision making. The influence oil companies can bring to bear on government violating human rights, excuses for not voicing condemnation of abuses, and the 1948 Universal Declaration of Human Rights are discussed. (UK)

  5. Computers and terminals as an aid to international technology transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, W. T.

    1974-01-01

    As technology transfer becomes more popular and proves to be an economical method for companies of all sizes to take advantage of a tremendous amount of new and available technology from sources all over the world, the introduction of computers and terminals into the international technology transfer process is proving to be a successful method for companies to take part in this beneficial approach to new business opportunities.

  6. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, James A.

    1986-01-01

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  7. 78 FR 2427 - Notice of Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease WYW144977, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ..., Jastera LC, Khody Land & Minerals Company, Nerd Gas Company LLC, and Slawson Exploration Company Inc., for... and was accompanied by all the rentals due since the date the lease terminated under the law. FOR... interest affecting the lands. Debra A. Olsen, Land Law Examiner. [FR Doc. 2013-00319 Filed 1-10-13; 8:45 am...

  8. On formalism and stability of switched systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we formulate a uniform mathematical framework for studying switched systems with piecewise linear partitioned state space and state dependent switching. Based on known results from the theory of differential inclusions, we devise a Lyapunov stability theorem suitable for this class...... of switched systems. With this, we prove a Lyapunov stability theorem for piecewise linear switched systems by means of a concrete class of Lyapunov functions. Contrary to existing results on the subject, the stability theorems in this paper include Filippov (or relaxed) solutions and allow infinite switching...... in finite time. Finally, we show that for a class of piecewise linear switched systems, the inertia of the system is not sufficient to determine its stability. A number of examples are provided to illustrate the concepts discussed in this paper....

  9. The ACTS propagation terminal delivery and support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutzman, Warren L.

    1993-01-01

    Viewgraphs on the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) propagation terminal delivery and support are included. Topics covered include: the ACTS propagation terminal (APT) development program; terminal overview; physical units; test results; status of terminals and schedule; shipping cartons; and site support.

  10. Electrical gating and rectification in graphene three-terminal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Händel, B. [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); FG Festkörperelektronik, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Hähnlein, B. [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Göckeritz, R. [FG Nanostrukturierte Materialien, Institut für Physik, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Von-Danckelmann-Platz 3, 06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Schwierz, F. [FG Festkörperelektronik, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Technische Universität Ilmenau, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany); Pezoldt, J., E-mail: joerg.pezoldt@tu-ilmenau.de [FG Nanotechnologie, Institut für Mikro- und Nanotechnologien MacroNano and Institut für Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Postfach 100565, 98684 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-02-01

    Graphene was grown on semiinsulating silicon carbide at 1800 °C and atmospheric argon pressure. The all carbon T- and Y-shape three terminal junction devices were fabricated using electron beam lithography. All devices featured the negative rectification effect. The exact properties of the devices like the curvature of the output voltage response can be tuned by changing the branch width in the T- and Y-shape devices. Beside the rectification a switching behavior is demonstrated with the same three terminal junctions.

  11. Superconducting switch and amplifier device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    An amplifying or switching superconductive device is described whose current-voltage characteristic is drastically altered by heavy injection of excess energetic quasi-particles. In this device, the superconducting bandgap of a superconducting layer is greatly altered by overinjection of energetic quasi-particles so that the bandgap changes greatly with respect to its thermal equilibrium value, and in most cases is made to vanish. In a preferred embodiment, a three electrode device is fabricated where at least one of the electrodes is a superconductor. Tunnel barriers are located between the electrodes. A first tunnel junction is used to heavily inject energetic quasi-particles into the superconducting electrode to change its superconducting bandgap drastically. In turn, this greatly modifies the currentvoltage characteristics of the second tunnel junction. This device can be used to provide logic circuits, or as an amplifier, and has an output sufficiently large that it can drive other similar devices

  12. Human resource policy and Danish multinational companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore.......A study of Danish multinational companies' human resource policy in their subsidiaries in Malaysia and Singapore.The sample of companies consists of 8 Danish multinational companies with activities in both Malaysia and Singapore....

  13. The carboxy-terminal αN helix of the archaeal XerA tyrosine recombinase is a molecular switch to control site-specific recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Claude Serre

    Full Text Available Tyrosine recombinases are conserved in the three kingdoms of life. Here we present the first crystal structure of a full-length archaeal tyrosine recombinase, XerA from Pyrococcus abyssi, at 3.0 Å resolution. In the absence of DNA substrate XerA crystallizes as a dimer where each monomer displays a tertiary structure similar to that of DNA-bound Tyr-recombinases. Active sites are assembled in the absence of dif except for the catalytic Tyr, which is extruded and located equidistant from each active site within the dimer. Using XerA active site mutants we demonstrate that XerA follows the classical cis-cleavage reaction, suggesting rearrangements of the C-terminal domain upon DNA binding. Surprisingly, XerA C-terminal αN helices dock in cis in a groove that, in bacterial tyrosine recombinases, accommodates in trans αN helices of neighbour monomers in the Holliday junction intermediates. Deletion of the XerA C-terminal αN helix does not impair cleavage of suicide substrates but prevents recombination catalysis. We propose that the enzymatic cycle of XerA involves the switch of the αN helix from cis to trans packing, leading to (i repositioning of the catalytic Tyr in the active site in cis and (ii dimer stabilisation via αN contacts in trans between monomers.

  14. Analysis Of Employee Engagement And Company Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Mekel, Peggy A.; Saerang, David P.E.; Silalahi, Immanuel Maradopan

    2014-01-01

    Employee could be a competitive advantage of a company if company manages its employees well. The success of a company could be seen from how a company manages their employees and engages their employees. Most of big companies put their employees in top priority in order to keep their top performance. These big companies manage their employees and try to engage their employees so that their employees could generate high performance. In this study, employee engagement is the factor to examine ...

  15. Switching control of an R/C hovercraft: stabilization and smooth switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Iwasaki, M; Wang, H O

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents stable switching control of an radio-controlled (R/C) hovercraft that is a nonholonomic (nonlinear) system. To exactly represent its nonlinear dynamics, more importantly, to maintain controllability of the system, we newly propose a switching fuzzy model that has locally Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models and switches them according to states, external variables, and/or time. A switching fuzzy controller is constructed by mirroring the rule structure of the switching fuzzy model of an R/C hovercraft. We derive linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions for ensuring the stability of the closed-loop system consisting of a switching fuzzy model and controller. Furthermore, to guarantee smooth switching of control input at switching boundaries, we also derive a smooth switching condition represented in terms of LMIs. A stable switching fuzzy controller satisfying the smooth switching condition is designed by simultaneously solving both of the LMIs. The simulation and experimental results for the trajectory control of an R/C hovercraft show the validity of the switching fuzzy model and controller design, particularly, the smooth switching condition.

  16. Photonic crystal Fano lasers and Fano switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Yu, Yi; Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    We show that Fano resonances can be realized in photonic crystal membrane structures by coupling line-defect waveguides and point-defect nanocavities. The Fano resonance can be exploited to realize optical switches with very small switching energy, as well as Fano lasers, that can generate short...

  17. Beethoven's terminal illness and death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, F M M

    2006-10-01

    There is dispute about the cause of Beethoven's death; alcoholic cirrhosis, syphilis, infectious hepatitis, lead poisoning, sarcoidosis and Whipple's disease have all been proposed. In this article all primary source documents related to Beethoven's terminal illness and death are reviewed. The documents include his letters, the report of his physician Andreas Wawruch, his Conversation Books, the autopsy report, and a new toxicological report of his hair. His terminal illness was characterised by jaundice, ascites, ankle oedema and abdominal pain. The autopsy data indicate that Beethoven had cirrhosis of the liver, and probably also renal papillary necrosis, pancreatitis and possibly diabetes mellitus. His lifestyle for at least the final decade of his life indicated that he overindulged in alcohol in the form of wine. Alcohol was by far the most common cause of cirrhosis at that period. Toxicological analysis of his hair showed that the level of lead was elevated. During the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, lead was added illegally to inexpensive wines to sweeten and refresh them. These findings strongly suggest that liver failure secondary to alcoholic cirrhosis, associated with terminal spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, was the cause of death. This was complicated in the end stages by renal failure. If the presence of endogenous lead was verified by analysis of Beethoven's skeletal remains, it would suggest that the lead was derived from wine that he drank. Lead poisoning may account for some of his end-of-life symptoms. There is little clinical or autopsy evidence that Beethoven suffered from syphilis.

  18. Musculoskeletal disorders among visual display terminal users in a telecommunications company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, T R; Sauter, S L; Peterson, M R; Fine, L J; Putz-Anderson, V; Schleifer, L R; Ochs, T T; Bernard, B P

    1994-10-01

    The relationship between workplace factors and work-related upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UE disorders) was assessed in a cross-sectional study of 533 telecommunication employees utilizing video display terminals (VDTs). Cases of UE disorders were defined using symptom questionnaires and physical examinations. Data on demographics, individual factors (medical conditions and recreational activities), work organization and practices, and psychosocial aspects of work, including electronic performance monitoring (EPM), were obtained by questionnaire. Associations between workplace factors and UE disorders were assessed by multiple logistic models generated for each of the four UE areas (neck, shoulder, elbow, hand/wrists). One-hundred and eleven (22%) participants met our case definition for UE disorders. Probable tendon-related disorders were the most common (15% of participants). Probable nerve entrapment syndromes were found in 4% of participants. The hand/wrist was the area most affected, 12% of participants. The following variables had associations in the final models (p < 0.05) with at least one of the four UE disorders, although the strength of these associations were modest. Non-white race, a diagnosis of a thyroid condition (self-reported) use of bifocals at work, and seven psychosocial variables (fear of being replaced by computers, increasing work pressure, surges in workload, routine work lacking decision-making opportunities, high information processing demands, jobs which required a variety of tasks and lack of a production standard) were associated with UE disorders. This study indicates that work-related UE musculoskeletal disorders are relatively common among telecommunication workers who use VDTs, and adds to the evidence that the psychosocial work environment is related to the occurrence of these disorders.

  19. 75 FR 15741 - Electronic Data Systems, a Hewlett-Packard Company: Montvale, NJ; Notice of Termination of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Electronic Data Systems, a Hewlett-Packard Company: Montvale, NJ..., on behalf of workers of Electronic Data Systems, a Hewlett-Packard Company, Montvale, New Jersey. The...

  20. Getting a Suitable Terminal Cost and Maximizing the Terminal Region for MPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ya-feng

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The model predictive control (MPC subject to control and state constraint is studied. Given a terminal cost, a terminal region is obtained through iterative estimation by using support vector machine (SVM. It is proved that the obtained terminal region is the largest terminal region when the terminal cost is given. The relationships between terminal cost and terminal region and between terminal cost and total cost are discussed, respectively. Based on these relationships, a simple method to get a suitable terminal cost is proposed and it can be adjusted according to our need. Finally, some experiment results are presented.

  1. TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES: DEFINITION, SPECIFICATION AND ADVANTAGES

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIRLI, Ozlam

    2017-01-01

    Thetransnational companies are considered to be the most complex and modern formamong the companies, however it has certain factors that makes it more obligedcomparing to other ones as well. Beforewe overview the structure and factors of transnational companies we shouldreview all forms of companies and determine its general definitions.

  2. Consumer poaching, brand switching, and price transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses price transparency on the consumer side in markets with behavioral price discrimination which feature welfare reducing brand switching. When long-term contracts are not available, an increase in transparency intensifies competition, lowers prices and profits, reduces brand...... switching and benefits consumers and welfare. With long-term contracts, an increase in transparency reduces the use of long-term contracts, leading to more brand switching and a welfare loss. Otherwise, the results are the same as without long-term contracts....

  3. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    in the environment where one engages in individual silent reading. The primary goal of the study was to explore the role and possible associations of a number of variables (text type, purpose, device) in selecting generic (e.g. indoors vs outdoors) as well as specific (e.g. home vs library) reading environments...

  4. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2014-10-01

    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  5. Blood and Books: Performing Code Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Friedman

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Code switching is a linguistic term that identifies ways individuals use communication modes and registers to negotiate difference in social relations. This essay suggests that arts-based inquiry, in the form of choreography and performance, provides a suitable and efficacious location within which both verbal and nonverbal channels of code switching can be investigated. Blood and Books, a case study of dance choreography within the context of post-colonial Maori performance in Aotearoa/New Zealand, is described and analyzed for its performance of code switching. The essay is framed by a discussion of how arts-based research within tertiary higher education requires careful negotiation in the form of code switching, as performed by the author's reflexive use of vernacular and formal registers in the essay. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802462

  6. Information, switching costs, and consumer choice:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anell, Anders; Dietrichson, Jens; Maria Ellegård, Lina

    . Such improvements are contingent on consumers having access to comparative information about providers and acting on this information when making their choice. However, in the presence of information frictions and switching costs, consumers may have limited ability to find suitable providers. We use two large......-scale randomized eld experiments in primary health care to examine if the choice of provider is affected when consumers receive comparative information by postal mail and small costs associated with switching are reduced. The first experiment targeted a subset of the general population in the Swedish region Skåne......, and the second targeted new residents in the region, who should have less prior information and lower switching costs. In both cases, the propensity to switch provider increased significantly after the intervention. The effects were larger for new residents than for the general population, and were driven...

  7. Information Switching Processor (ISP) contention analysis and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inukai, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    In designing a satellite system with on-board processing, the selection of a switching architecture is often critical. The on-board switching function can be implemented by circuit switching or packet switching. Destination-directed packet switching has several attractive features, such as self-routing without on-board switch reconfiguration, no switch control memory requirement, efficient bandwidth utilization for packet switched traffic, and accommodation of circuit switched traffic. Destination-directed packet switching, however, has two potential concerns: (1) contention and (2) congestion. And this report specifically deals with the first problem. It includes a description and analysis of various self-routing switch structures, the nature of contention problems, and contention and resolution techniques.

  8. CSR performance of global forest products companies and IT companies

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Ying

    2009-01-01

    As the global economy grows rapidly, certain environmental and societal problems have become challenges. This pushes more and more global companies to integrate those concerns in their business operations, in the form of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This thesis analyzes leading global companies’ CSR performance by using forest and IT industry as comparable cases, in order to point out the strength and weakness of CSR practice, and to indicate the proposal for CSR development. The st...

  9. Instability in time-delayed switched systems induced by fast and random switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yao; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yuming; Wu, Jianhong

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we consider a switched system comprising finitely or infinitely many subsystems described by linear time-delayed differential equations and a rule that orchestrates the system switching randomly among these subsystems, where the switching times are also randomly chosen. We first construct a counterintuitive example where even though all the time-delayed subsystems are exponentially stable, the behaviors of the randomly switched system change from stable dynamics to unstable dynamics with a decrease of the dwell time. Then by using the theories of stochastic processes and delay differential equations, we present a general result on when this fast and random switching induced instability should occur and we extend this to the case of nonlinear time-delayed switched systems as well.

  10. On The Snubber Influence To The Switching And Conduction Losses In A Converter Using Switched Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel DUGAN

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals to design and to compute the snubber parameters influence on the switching and conduction losses of the transistors (IGBT used as bidirectional switches in a converter with switched capacitor. The converter was modelled with difference equations, and the transistors during turn-on and turn-off processes were simulated by dynamically varying resistance models. The energy loss per switching, commutation time, the variation of the transistor voltage etc. and the influence of snubber parameters in each of these cases are shown in the context of a converter used as a 50Hz reactive power controller unit

  11. Multinational Oil Companies and Corporate Social Responsibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Niger Delta Region, Nigeria), the concept of corporate social responsibility must be fully imbibed by the multinational oil companies. Therefore, this study examines multinational oil companies and corporate social responsibilities with particular ...

  12. INNOVATION MANAGER AND HIS POSITION IN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATEŘINA HRAZDILOVÁ BOČKOVÁ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the importance of innovation manager in company. It analyses the actual state of definition of innovation manager in companies, it is dealing with their qualities and qualities of ideal innovation manager. The paper solves the placement of position of innovation manager into the company organization structure. It recommends the ideal placement of innovation manager position in the organization structure in company working in “Production, sale and operation of amusement and gaming technology”.

  13. Innovation manager and his position in company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Hrazdilová Bočková

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The presented paper deals with the importance of innovation manager in company. It analyses the actual state of definition of innovation manager in companies, it is dealing with their qualities and qualities of ideal innovation manager. The paper solves the placement of position of innovation manager into the company organization structure. It recommends the ideal placement of innovation manager position in the organization structure in company working in “Production, sale and operation of amusement and gaming technology”.

  14. Bipolar resistive switching in different plant and animal proteins

    KAUST Repository

    Bag, A.

    2014-06-01

    We report bipolar resistive switching phenomena observed in different types of plant and animal proteins. Using protein as the switching medium, resistive switching devices have been fabricated with conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) and Al as bottom and top electrodes, respectively. A clockwise bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in all proteins. It is shown that the resistive switching phenomena originate from the local redox process in the protein and the ion exchange from the top electrode/protein interface.

  15. Know your company - and its environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, Hans; Jørgensen, Betina

    2006-01-01

    How does a company perceive its environment and its role in its environment? What constitutes a company's identity, and how strong is this identity? Does it for instance manifest itself clearly in the company's actions, in its strategies and products? These are questions that Professor Hans Skytte...

  16. Switching between phenotypes and population extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohmar, Ingo; Meerson, Baruch

    2011-11-01

    Many types of bacteria can survive under stress by switching stochastically between two different phenotypes: the “normals” who multiply fast, but are vulnerable to stress, and the “persisters” who hardly multiply, but are resilient to stress. Previous theoretical studies of such bacterial populations have focused on the fitness: the asymptotic rate of unbounded growth of the population. Yet for an isolated population of established (and not very large) size, a more relevant measure may be the population extinction risk due to the interplay of adverse extrinsic variations and intrinsic noise of birth, death and switching processes. Applying a WKB approximation to the pertinent master equation of such a two-population system, we quantify the extinction risk, and find the most likely path to extinction under both favorable and adverse conditions. Analytical results are obtained both in the biologically relevant regime when the switching is rare compared with the birth and death processes, and in the opposite regime of frequent switching. We show that rare switches are most beneficial in reducing the extinction risk.

  17. Marine terminal baseline criteria and assessment OCIMF; Avaliacao de terminais maritimos - criterio OCIMF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Fabio Lindoso; Garcia, Luciano Maldonado [PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. (TRANSPETRO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The development of PETROBRAS Transporte S.A. corporate standards, specifically meant for the marine terminals segment and based on the 'Marine Terminal Baseline Criteria and Assessment Questionnaire', published by 'Oil Companies International Marine Forum' was accomplished by a Team of in-house staff with the assistance of international outsourced consultancy. This project resulted in the adjustment of the company's processes to international practices enabling consistent management and operating assessment of marine terminals. (author)

  18. 77 FR 43612 - Certain Lighting Control Devices Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Decision To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ... determined to review-in-part the ID. The '919 patent expired on March 31, 2012, which terminated the... Including Dimmer Switches and Parts Thereof (IV); Decision To Review-In-Part an Initial Determination Granting In-Part Complainant's Motion for Summary Determination of Violation of Section 337, and on Review...

  19. Dropouts in Swiss Vocational Education and the Effect of Training Companies' Trainee Selection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsblom, Lara; Negrini, Lucio; Gurtner, Jean-Luc; Schumann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In the Swiss vocational education system, which is often called a "Dual System", trainees enter into an apprenticeship contract with a training company. On average, 25% of those contracts are terminated prematurely (PCT). This article examines the relationship between training companies' selection methods and PCTs. The investigation is…

  20. Switching between intravenous and subcutaneous trastuzumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gligorov, Joseph; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Müller, Volkmar

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To assess the safety and tolerability of switching between subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) trastuzumab in the PrefHer study (NCT01401166). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with HER2-positive early breast cancer completed (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy and were randomised to receive four....... Rates of clinically important events, including grade ≥3 AEs, serious AEs, AEs leading to study drug discontinuation and cardiac AEs, were low and similar between treatment arms (safety signals for trastuzumab were observed. CONCLUSIONS: PrefHer revealed...... that switching from IV to SC trastuzumab (hand-held syringe or SID) or vice versa did not impact the known safety profile of trastuzumab....

  1. Performance Evaluation and Modelling of Container Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatasubbaiah, K.; Rao, K. Narayana; Rao, M. Malleswara; Challa, Suresh

    2018-02-01

    The present paper evaluates and analyzes the performance of 28 container terminals of south East Asia through data envelopment analysis (DEA), principal component analysis (PCA) and hybrid method of DEA-PCA. DEA technique is utilized to identify efficient decision making unit (DMU)s and to rank DMUs in a peer appraisal mode. PCA is a multivariate statistical method to evaluate the performance of container terminals. In hybrid method, DEA is integrated with PCA to arrive the ranking of container terminals. Based on the composite ranking, performance modelling and optimization of container terminals is carried out through response surface methodology (RSM).

  2. Huge capacity optical packet switching and buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinada, Satoshi; Furukawa, Hideaki; Wada, Naoya

    2011-12-12

    We demonstrate 2.56 Tbit/s/port dual-polarization DWDM/DQPSK variable-length optical packet (20 Gbit/s × 64 wavelengths × 2 polarizations) switching and buffering by using a 2×2 optical packet switch (OPS) system. The optical data plane of the OPS system was constructed of multi-connected electro-optical switches and fiber delay lines. The accumulated polarization dependent loss of each optical path in the data plane was less than 5 dB. This low-polarization-dependence OPS system enabled us to handle DWDM/DQPSK optical packets (1.28 Tbit/s/port) with time-varying polarization after transmission through 100 km fiber in the field. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. COMPANIES GROUPINGIN ALGERIAN AND COMPARATIVE LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H’oriya SOUIKI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A business cluster is the merging of two businesses or more, under the authority of one company called the parent company; the companies under its control are called the affiliates. What raises the debate about business clustering is the contradiction that may appear, at first glance, in the modus operandi of this business cluster and the relationship existing between its structures, knowing that the affiliated company has a legal independent status, but is at the same time subordinate to the parent company and subject to its control. The absence of an independent and detailed legal text to organize the mysteries of this giant economic structure makes this debate more intense.

  4. Service Quality Evaluation and Ranking of Container Terminal Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Sayareh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the service industry, the regular assessment of service quality is considered as a means of promoting the quality of services. Container market is no exception, and the quality of providing service in a container terminal is of prime importance in attracting new customers and maintaining the existing ones. The main aim of present research is to evaluate the quality of service being offered at Shahid Rajaee Container Terminal (SRCT in Bandar Abbas port. The evaluation process uses SERVQUAL model which is an appropriate tool for measuring the service quality, identifying and analyzing available gaps between service expectations and perceptions. Target population in this research includes customers of SRCT. The standard and customized questionnaires were distributed among 165 samples, out of which 127 (77% were returned. For the purpose of data analyses, initially the reliability of SERVQUAL model was checked, and then paired sample t-test was performed to reveal any possible gap between expectations and perceptions of respondents. Finally, TOPSIS was used to rank the 9 main container service companies in the SRCT. The results indicated that there are significant gaps between customers’ expectations and perceptions in SRCT, in all five dimensions of services quality. Additionally, from weighing point of view, ‘Tangibles’ was the most important dimension, followed by ‘Reliability’, ‘Assurance’, ‘Responsiveness’ and ‘Empathy’. In addition, ‘Tangibles’ dimension had maximum gap and ‘Empathy’ dimension had minimum gap between customers’ expectations and perceptions. Finally, after ranking companies, BandarAbbas Aria Container Terminal (BACT Company was ranked first among nine companies in satisfying customers’ expectations.

  5. [Terminal phase hydration, pain and delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heick, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydration of the terminal patient may relieve confusion and complaints of "dry mouth". But it may worsen oedema of the brain, lungs, and extremities, worsen terminal rattling and cause a need for frequent changing of diapers. The decision of whether and how to treat a dying patient with fluids sh...

  6. Switched capacitor DC-DC converter with switch conductance modulation and Pesudo-fixed frequency control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dennis Øland; Vinter, Martin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    A switched capacitor dc-dc converter with frequency-planned control is presented. By splitting the output stage switches in eight segments the output voltage can be regulated with a combination of switching frequency and switch conductance. This allows for switching at predetermined frequencies, 31.......25 kHz, 250 kHz, 500 kHz, and 1 MHz, while maintaining regulation of the output voltage. The controller is implemented in 180 CMOS with a 1/3 series-parallel output stage designed for 3.6–4.2 V input, 1.2 V output, and 1–40 mA load current. The proposed controller is compared with a co-integrated pulse...

  7. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  8. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Descriptive statistical analysis and binary logistic regression were ap- plied using stata version 12. Results: Results show that 13.8% of women had ever terminated pregnancy; 19.9% had ever experienced at least one type of spousal violence; and women who had ever terminated pregnancy had higher prevalence of all ...

  9. Size-change termination and bound analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the size-change termination principle, presented by Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram in [LJB01], is surprisingly strong and is able to show termination for a large class of programs. A significant limitation for its use, however, is the fact that the SCT requires data types to be ...

  10. Switching Dynamics and the Stress Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how maintaining social relationships can be a daily hassle that has implications for the stress process, depending on how often individuals transition, or "switch," between various social roles and social settings throughout the day. I use nationally representative time-diary data on 7,662 respondents from the 2010 American Time…

  11. Regulating Listed Companies: Between Company Law and Financial Market Law in Danish Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Nis Jul

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law.......The article discusses different elements and aspects of the regulation of listed companies in particular whether such regulation should be placed in company law or in financial marked law....

  12. Russian Enterprises and Company Law in Transition

    OpenAIRE

    Nysten-Haarala, S.

    2001-01-01

    Privatization and company law have been the most important instruments of transforming Russian enterprises. State enterprises have been privatized and modern company law governs how they function, but privatized companies have not changed their business culture. Privatization did not divide management and ownership and did not create efficient stock markets to monitor managers. Managers were able to keep their authoritarian methods inherited from socialist management and rent-seeking in the a...

  13. Crucial market demands and company competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    More and more, it is acknowledged that a company's success depends on it being capable of complying with the market's demands and wishes. It is, however, not always obvious, how the individual company will be able to meet the market's demands. A recent MAPP study has investigated this topic...... and identified a number of central market demands, which Danish food companies are faced with. Moreover, the study has identified which competencies are required to meet these demands and have also looked at howsuccessful companies structure some of these competencies. The study takes its point of departure...... in a literature review of MAPP's research. Results show that there are 27 central market demands, retail and consumer demands that Danish companies ought to be able to live up to. The study has also identified which competencies food companies must possess to be able to meet market's demands. Results from three...

  14. Offshore Companies and the Fiscal Paradise

    OpenAIRE

    CORINA ALEXANDRA VITELAR

    2006-01-01

    The present article introduces the reader in the problem of tax heaven and offshore companies. We tried to present, both positive and negative aspects of this problem. On one hand, this type of companies can help a multinational corporation in its economical and financial global projections, but, on the other hand, these companies can be use as extremely efficient instruments of tax evasion and money laundry

  15. Comparison of MEMS switches and PIN diodes for switched dual tuned RF coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maunder, Adam; Rao, Madhwesha; Robb, Fraser; Wild, Jim M

    2018-03-09

    To evaluate the performance of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) switches against PIN diodes for switching a dual-tuned RF coil between 19 F and 1 H resonant frequencies for multi-nuclear lung imaging. A four-element fixed-phase and amplitude transmit-receive RF coil was constructed to provide homogeneous excitation across the lungs, and to serve as a test system for various switching methods. The MR imaging and RF performance of the coil when switched between the 19 F and 1 H frequencies using MEMS switches, PIN diodes and hardwired configurations were compared. The performance of the coil with MEMS or PIN diode switching was comparable in terms of RF measurements, transmit efficiency and image SNR on both 19 F and 1 H nuclei. When the coil was not switched to the resonance frequency of the respective nucleus being imaged, reductions in the transmit efficiency were observed of 32% at the 19 F frequency and 12% at the 1 H frequency. The coil provides transmit field homogeneity of ±12.9% at the 1 H frequency and ±14.4% at the 19 F frequency in phantoms representing the thorax with the air space of the lungs filled with perfluoropropane gas. MEMS and PIN diodes were found to provide comparable performance in on-state configuration, while MEMS were more robust in off-state high-powered operation (>1 kW), providing higher isolation and requiring a lower DC switching voltage than is needed for reverse biasing of PIN diodes. In addition, clear benefits of switching between the 19 F and 1 H resonances were demonstrated, despite the proximity of their Larmor frequencies. © 2018 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  17. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  18. DETERMINANT OF DOWNWARD AUDITOR SWITCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Budisantoso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. This study examines the factors that influence downward auditor switching in five ASEAN countries. Fixed effect logistic regression was used as analytical method. This study found that opinion shopping occurred in ASEAN, especially in distress companies. Companies with complex businesses will retain the Big Four auditors to reduce complexity and audit costs. Audit and public committees serve as guardians of auditor quality. On the other hand, shareholders failed to maintain audit quality. It indicates that there is entrenchment effect in auditor switching.

  19. Quantum switching networks: Unicast and multicast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Manish Kumar

    Quantum switching networks are analogs of classical switching networks in which classical switches are replaced by quantum switches. These networks are used to switch quantum data among a set of quantum sources and receivers. They can also be used to efficiently switch classical data, and help overcome some limitations of classical switching networks by utilizing the unique properties of quantum information systems, such as superposition and parallelism. In this thesis, we design several such networks which can be broadly put in the following three categories: (1) Quantum unicast networks : We give the design of quantum Baseline network (QBN) which is a self-routing and unicast quantum packet switch that uses the Baseline topology. The classical version of the network blocks packets internally even when there are no output contentions and each input packet is addressed to a different output. The QBN uses the principles of quantum superposition and parallelism to overcome such blocking. Also, for assignments that have multiple input packets addressed to an output, this network creates a quantum superposition of all these packets on that output, ensuring that all packets have non-zero probabilities of being observed on that output. (2) Quantum concentrators : We introduce a new network called quantum concentrator, which is a key component of our quantum multicasting network design. This concentrator is also an n x n quantum switching network, to be denoted by n-QC, and which, for any m, 1 ≤ m ≤ n, routes arbitrary quantum states on any m of its inputs to its top m outputs. This network uses O( n log n) quantum gates, and has a gate level depth of O(log2 n). We also give several variations of this network, the main ones being orderpreserving and priority quantum concentrators. (3) Quantum multicast networks: We first design a quantum multicasting network, called a generalized quantum connector (GQC) which can be used to multicast quantum information from n input

  20. The loyalty of industrial clients of gas and electricity: the value rol and switching barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Acebron, C.; Vazquez Castelles, R.; Iglesias Arguelles, V.

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with perceived value and loyalty in a B2 B environment taking account switching barriers. The Spanish energy market has been newly liberalized and many companies offer supply services of natural gas and electricity. The research examines the casual relations between perceived value and two dimensions of loyalty: repurchase intentions and price tolerance. Although our results indicate that suppliers achieve better repurchase intentions by providing value to their customers, they also show that this is insufficient when the aim is to increase customer price tolerance. In this case another moderating variable must be included: the switching barriers. (Author)

  1. Language attrition and code-switching among US Americans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    switching in immigration contexts is the ... of code-switching, which is socially motivated, and language attrition, which is predominantly a psycholinguistic issue, ..... had a child no you were studying? To emphasize a point, focus, show contrast, quote.

  2. Photonics in switching: enabling technologies and subsystem design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, K.; Raffaelli, C.; Aleksic, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes recent research activities and results in the area of photonic switching carried out within the framework of the EU-funded e-Photon/ONe + network of excellence, Virtual Department on Optical Switching. Technology aspects of photonics in switching and, in particular, recent...... advances in wavelength conversion, ring resonators, and packet switching and processing subsystems are presented as the building blocks for the implementation of a high-performance router for the next-generation Internet....

  3. Switching power converters medium and high power

    CERN Document Server

    Neacsu, Dorin O

    2013-01-01

    An examination of all of the multidisciplinary aspects of medium- and high-power converter systems, including basic power electronics, digital control and hardware, sensors, analog preprocessing of signals, protection devices and fault management, and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) algorithms, Switching Power Converters: Medium and High Power, Second Edition discusses the actual use of industrial technology and its related subassemblies and components, covering facets of implementation otherwise overlooked by theoretical textbooks. The updated Second Edition contains many new figures, as well as

  4. Moderating and mediating effects of switching costs on the relationship between service value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: investigation of retail banking in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Minh Ngo; Drahomíra Pavelková

    2017-01-01

    Switching cost highlights the way how companies create barriers to proactively prevent customer defection which directly and significantly affects customer loyalty and then companies’ performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidences about the impact of switching cost on customer loyalty by examining its mediating and moderating effects on the relationships between service value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Specially, two difference types of switching co...

  5. Switch-On Effectiveness Trial: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rakhee; Jabin, Nico; Bussard, Loraine; Cartagena, Javiera; Haywood, Sarah; Lumpkin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Switch-on is an intensive, targeted literacy intervention that aims to improve the reading skills of pupils who are struggling with literacy. There are two versions of the intervention: Switch-on Reading and Switch-on Reading and Writing. Both involve specially trained Teaching Assistants (TAs) delivering a tailored programme of literacy support…

  6. Interconnecting network for switching data packets and method for switching data packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benner, Alan Frederic; Minkenberg, Cyriel Johan Agnes; Stunkel, Craig Brian

    2010-05-25

    The interconnecting network for switching data packets, having data and flow control information, comprises a local packet switch element (S1) with local input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, a remote packet switch element (S2) with remote input buffers (I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, and data lines (L) for interconnecting the local and the remote packet switch elements (S1, S2). The interconnecting network further comprises a local and a remote arbiter (A1, A2) which are connected via control lines (CL) to the input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y), I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)), and which are formed such that they can provide that the flow control information is transmitted via the data lines (L) and the control lines (CL).

  7. Working Memory, Controlled Attention and Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-03-31

    easily be traced back to Baldwin (1894), one of Piaget’s early influences . Baldwin and others argued that memory span tasks reflect ability to maintain...very little impact on the number of words remembered . Craik et al. concluded from these studies that controlled attention is critical to memory ...REPORT TITLE: Final Technical Report for Grant Working memory , controlled attention and task switching is forwarded for your information

  8. BARRIERS AND OPPORTUNITIES OF APPLICATION MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING IN MICRO AND SMALL COMPANIES TROUGH ACCOUNTING SERVICES COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Beuren, Ilse Maria; Universidade Federal do Paraná - UFPR; Barp, Adriano Dinomar; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB; Filipin, Roselaine; Universidade Regional de Blumenau - FURB

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the barriers and possibilities of application management accounting in micro and small companies through accounting services companies. A questionnaire, made of questions drawn from the research of Marriott and Marriott (2000), was sent to the customers of 35 accounting services companies in a municipality in southern Brazil and the accessibility sample comprises 109 micro and small companies. The data analysis was initially performed by using descriptive statistics, s...

  9. Crystal structure of an HIV assembly and maturation switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Jonathan M.; Zadrozny, Kaneil K.; Chrustowicz, Jakub; Purdy, Michael D.; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Pornillos, Owen

    2016-07-14

    Virus assembly and maturation proceed through the programmed operation of molecular switches, which trigger both local and global structural rearrangements to produce infectious particles. HIV-1 contains an assembly and maturation switch that spans the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the capsid (CA) region and the first spacer peptide (SP1) of the precursor structural protein, Gag. The crystal structure of the CTD-SP1 Gag fragment is a goblet-shaped hexamer in which the cup comprises the CTD and an ensuing type II β-turn, and the stem comprises a 6-helix bundle. The β-turn is critical for immature virus assembly and the 6-helix bundle regulates proteolysis during maturation. This bipartite character explains why the SP1 spacer is a critical element of HIV-1 Gag but is not a universal property of retroviruses. Our results also indicate that HIV-1 maturation inhibitors suppress unfolding of the CA-SP1 junction and thereby delay access of the viral protease to its substrate.

  10. Crystal structure of an HIV assembly and maturation switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan M; Zadrozny, Kaneil K; Chrustowicz, Jakub; Purdy, Michael D; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Pornillos, Owen

    2016-07-14

    Virus assembly and maturation proceed through the programmed operation of molecular switches, which trigger both local and global structural rearrangements to produce infectious particles. HIV-1 contains an assembly and maturation switch that spans the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the capsid (CA) region and the first spacer peptide (SP1) of the precursor structural protein, Gag. The crystal structure of the CTD-SP1 Gag fragment is a goblet-shaped hexamer in which the cup comprises the CTD and an ensuing type II β-turn, and the stem comprises a 6-helix bundle. The β-turn is critical for immature virus assembly and the 6-helix bundle regulates proteolysis during maturation. This bipartite character explains why the SP1 spacer is a critical element of HIV-1 Gag but is not a universal property of retroviruses. Our results also indicate that HIV-1 maturation inhibitors suppress unfolding of the CA-SP1 junction and thereby delay access of the viral protease to its substrate.

  11. Colloidal Switches by Electric and Magnetic Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirörs, Ahmet Faik; Beltramo, Peter J; Vutukuri, Hanumantha Rao

    2017-05-24

    External electric and magnetic fields have already been proven to be a versatile tool to control the particle assembly; however, the degree of control of the dynamics and versatility of the produced structures is expected to increase if both can be implemented simultaneously. For example, while micromagnets can rapidly assemble superparamagnetic particles, repeated, rapid disassembly or reassembly is not trivial because of the remanence and coercivity of metals used in such applications. Here, an interdigitated design of micromagnet and microfabricated electrodes enables rapid switching of colloids between their magnetic and electric potential minima. Active control over colloids between two such adjacent potential minima enables a fast on/off mechanism, which is potentially important for optical switches or display technologies. Moreover, we demonstrate that the response time of the colloids between these states is on the order of tens of milliseconds, which is tunable by electric field strength. By carefully designing the electrode pattern, our strategy enables the switchable assembly of single particles down to few microns and also hierarchical assemblies containing many particles. Our work on precise dynamic control over the particle position would open new avenues to find potential applications in optical switches and display technologies.

  12. Terminal Area Conflict Detection and Resolution Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Savita Arora

    2011-01-01

    This poster will describe analysis of a conflict detection and resolution tool for the terminal area called T-TSAFE. With altitude clearance information, the tool can reduce false alerts to as low as 2 per hour.

  13. Multiemployer Pension Plan Terminations, Mergers, and Insolvencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation — A listing of multiemployer pension plan terminations, mergers, and insolvencies reported to the PBGC for the current fiscal year. This data set will be updated...

  14. Gel catalysts that switch on and off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqiang; Kuroda, Kenichi; Enoki, Takashi; Grosberg, Alexander; Masamune, Satoru; Oya, Taro; Takeoka, Yukikazu; Tanaka, Toyoichi

    2000-01-01

    We report development of a polymer gel with a catalytic activity that can be switched on and off when the solvent composition is changed. The gel consists of two species of monomers. The major component, N-isopropylacrylamide, makes the gel swell and shrink in response to a change in composition of ethanol/water mixtures. The minor component, vinylimidazole, which is capable of catalysis, is copolymerized into the gel network. The reaction rate for catalytic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl caprylate was small when the gel was swollen. In contrast, when the gel was shrunken, the reaction rate increased 5 times. The activity changes discontinuously as a function of solvent composition, thus the catalysis can be switched on and off by an infinitesimal change in solvent composition. The kinetics of catalysis by the gel in the shrunken state is well described by the Michaelis–Menten formula, indicating that the absorption of the substrate by the hydrophobic environment created by the N-isopropylacrylamide polymer in the shrunken gel is responsible for enhancement of catalytic activity. In the swollen state, the rate vs. active site concentration is linear, indicating that the substrate absorption is not a primary factor determining the kinetics. Catalytic activity of the gel is studied for substrates with various alkyl chain lengths; of those studied the switching effect is most pronounced for p-nitrophenyl caprylate. PMID:10954747

  15. Reliable switching in MRAM and multiferroic logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munira, Kamaram; Bandyopadhyay, Supriyo; Atulasimha, Jayasimha; Chen, Eugene; Ghosh, Avik W.

    2012-02-01

    Low reliable writing in spintronic devices limits their applicability in the automotive and defense industries. Coupling stochastic macromagnetic simulator with quantum transport, we show how greater reliable switching can be achieved in MRAM and multiferroic logic. Using a combination of spin-transfer torque and small applied perpendicular field in MRAM, the error rate can be considerably reduced for a given voltage pulse. In multiferroic logic, strain plays the role of the magnetic field. Information is passed along an array of nanomagnets (NM) (magnetostrictive + piezoelectric layers) through dipole coupling with neighboring NMs. A low voltage applied to the piezoelectric element causes the NM's magnetization to switch to its hard axis. Upon releasing the stress, the magnetization of the NM relaxes to the easy axis, with its final orientation determined by the dipolar coupling with the left NM, thus achieving a low power Bennett clocked computation. In the face of stagnation points along the potential energy landscape, the success rate of the straintronic switching can be controlled with by how fast the stress is removed from the NM. (Funding: DARPA, GRANDIS, NSF-NEB).

  16. New stability and stabilization for switched neutral control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Lianglin; Zhong Shouming; Ye Mao; Wu Shiliang

    2009-01-01

    This paper concerns stability and stabilization issues for switched neutral systems and presents new classes of piecewise Lyapunov functionals and multiple Lyapunov functionals, based on which, two new switching rules are introduced to stabilize the neutral systems. One switching rule is designed from the solution of the so-called Lyapunov-Metzler linear matrix inequalities. The other is based on the determination of average dwell time computed from a new class of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). And then, state-feedback control is derived for the switched neutral control system mainly based on the state switching rules. Finally, three examples are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Multistage switching hardware and software implementations for student experiment purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sani, A.; Suherman

    2018-02-01

    Current communication and internet networks are underpinned by the switching technologies that interconnect one network to the others. Students’ understanding on networks rely on how they conver the theories. However, understanding theories without touching the reality may exert spots in the overall knowledge. This paper reports the progress of the multistage switching design and implementation for student laboratory activities. The hardware and software designs are based on three stages clos switching architecture with modular 2x2 switches, controlled by an arduino microcontroller. The designed modules can also be extended for batcher and bayan switch, and working on circuit and packet switching systems. The circuit analysis and simulation show that the blocking probability for each switch combinations can be obtained by generating random or patterned traffics. The mathematic model and simulation analysis shows 16.4% blocking probability differences as the traffic generation is uniform. The circuits design components and interfacing solution have been identified to allow next step implementation.

  18. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The current competitive environment is substantially modifying the organizations’ learning processes due to a global increase of available information allowing this to be transformed into knowledge. This opportunity has been exploited since the nineties by the tools of “Business Analytics” and “Business Intelligence” but, nevertheless, being integrated in the study of new organizational capacities engaged in the process of creating intelligence inside organizations is still an outstanding task. The review of the concept of absorptive capacity and a detailed study from the perspective of this new reality will be the main objective of study of this paper.Design/methodology/approach: By comparing classical absorptive capacity and absorptive capacity from the point of view of information management tools in each one of the three stages of the organizational learning cycle, some gaps of the former are overcome/fulfilled. The academic/bibliographical references provided in this paper have been obtained from ISI web of knowledge, Scopus and Dialnet data bases, supporting the state of affairs on absorptive capacity and thereafter filtering by "Business Intelligence" and "Business Analytics". Specialized websites and Business Schools` Publications there have also been included, crowning the content on information management tools used that are currently used in the strategic consulting.Findings: Our contribution to the literature is the development of "smart absorptive capacity". This is a new capacity emerging from the reformulation of the classical concept of absorptive capacity wherein some aspects of its definition that might have been omitted are emphasized. The result of this new approach is the creation of a new Theoretical Model of Organizational Intelligence, which aims to explain, within the framework of the Resources and Capabilities Theory, the competitive advantage achieved by the so-called smart companies

  19. Switching Between Everyday and Scientific Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blown, Eric J.; Bryce, Tom G. K.

    2017-06-01

    The research reported here investigated the everyday and scientific repertoires of children involved in semi-structured, Piagetian interviews carried out to check their understanding of dynamic astronomical concepts like daytime and night-time. It focused on the switching taking place between embedded and disembedded thinking; on the imagery which subjects referred to in their verbal dialogue and their descriptions of drawings and play-dough models of the Earth, Sun and Moon; and it examined the prevalence and character of animism and figurative speech in children's thinking. Five hundred and thirty-nine children (aged 3-18) from Wairarapa in New Zealand (171 boys and 185 girls) and Changchun in China (99 boys and 84 girls) took part in the study. Modified ordinal scales for the relevant concept categories were used to classify children's responses and data from each age group (with numbers balanced as closely as practicable by culture and gender) analysed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample tests (at an alpha level of 0.05). Although, in general, there was consistency of dynamic concepts within and across media and their associated modalities in keeping with the theory of conceptual coherence (see Blown and Bryce 2010; Bryce and Blown 2016), there were several cases of inter-modal and intra-modal switching in both cultures. Qualitative data from the interview protocols revealed how children switch between everyday and scientific language (in both directions) and use imagery in response to questioning. The research indicates that children's grasp of scientific ideas in this field may ordinarily be under-estimated if one only goes by formal scientific expression and vocabulary.

  20. Globalization and the marketing orientation of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Oniszczuk-Jastrząbek

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of the enterprise in a constantly changing environ-ment means that companies should make the necessary transformation, meet challenges, and thus anticipate and shape the reality. Each company should be the instigator of continuous change, particularly innovative projects which success depends largely on the mobilization of all em-ployees for creative thinking, action and learning. Today, a company is considered as innovative and competitive, when it possesses the ability to use marketing in order to understand the market and results of scientific research, new concepts, ideas and inventions which are expected by consumers due to the high level of modernity.

  1. Venture capital and efficiency of portfolio companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thillai Rajan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Venture Capital (VC has emerged as the dominant source of finance for entrepreneurial and early stage businesses, and the Indian VC industry in particular has clocked the fastest growth rate globally. Academic literature reveals that VC funded companies show superior performance to non VC funded companies. However, given that venture capitalists (VCs select and fund only the best companies, how much credit can they take for the performance of the companies they fund? Do the inherent characteristics of the firm result in superior performance or do VCs contribute to the performance of the portfolio company after they have entered the firm? A panel that comprised VCs, an entrepreneur and an academic debated these and other research questions on the inter-relationships between VC funding and portfolio firm performance. Most empirical literature indicates that the value addition effect dominates the selection effect in accounting for the superior performance of VC funded companies. The panel discussion indicates that the context as well as the experience of the General Partners in the VC firms can influence the way VCs contribute to the efficiency of their portfolio companies.

  2. Falling R and D in oil companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creusen, H.; Minne, B.

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, the research expenditures of the 11 major oil companies and two specialised oil engineers have dropped worldwide. To explain this trend, this article points to an R and D race among the companies and to certain common expectations. The race is due to the absence of knowledge spillovers across the companies, because they need to keep their process innovations secret. Common expectations regarding the high risks of research for new energy sources leads to wait-and-see behaviour instead of own research. A small increase in research efficiency partly compensates for the drop in R and D

  3. Why job autonomy matters for young companies' performance: company maturity as a moderator between job autonomy and company performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Howaldt, J.; Oeij, P.R.A.; Dhondt, S.; Kraan, K.O.; Jansen, E.

    2016-01-01

    Although the positive impact of job autonomy has been widely shown for individual-level employee outcomes, research on job autonomy and company-level outcomes has been surprisingly scarce. Therefore, among 3,311 companies in the Netherlands, we investigate the relationship between employees' job

  4. Relationships between strategy switching and strategy switch costs in young and older adults: a study in arithmetic problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillan, Julien; Ardiale, Eléonore; Lemaire, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/STUDY CONTEXT: This study investigated age-related differences in within-item strategy switching (i.e., revising initial strategy choices to select a better strategy while solving a given problem) and in strategy switch costs (i.e., longer latencies when participants switch strategies than when they do not switch strategy during strategy execution). In a computational estimation task, participants had to give approximate products to two-digit multiplication problems (e.g., 41×67) while rounding up (i.e., do 50×70 for 41×67) or rounding down (i.e., do 40×60 for 41×67) operands to their nearest decades. After executing a cued strategy during 1000 ms, participants had the possibility to switch to another strategy (or repeat the same strategy) in a selection condition. In an execution condition, participants were forced to repeat the same strategy or to switch to another strategy. It was found that (1) older adults were less able than young adults to switch strategy after starting to execute a cued strategy (36.1% vs. 45.8%); (2) older adults showed larger switch costs than young adults (422 vs. 223 ms); and (3) strategy switches and strategy switch costs correlated in older adults but not in young adults. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the mechanisms underlying within-item strategy switching and aging effects on these mechanisms as well as, more generally, of strategic variations during cognitive aging.

  5. 77 FR 64185 - BNSF Railway Company-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... Surface Transportation Board BNSF Railway Company--Acquisition and Operation Exemption-- Nebraska Northeastern Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of exemption. SUMMARY: The.... 11323-25 for BNSF Railway Company (BNSF), a Class I rail carrier, to acquire and operate a 120.4- mile...

  6. Investment Company Series and Class Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Securities and Exchange Commission — The Series and Class Report provides basic identification information for all active registered investment company series and classes that have been issued IDs by...

  7. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  8. Social Capital, ICT Use and Company Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scupola, Ada; Steinfield, Charles; Lopez-Nicolas, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    , such as use of online databases for recruitment, intranets to enhance employee access to information and education, and collaborative tools to connect with off-premise researchers, companies reported better performance outcomes. Social capital in the form of connections to people who can provide access......This study explores how some uses of ICTs, as well as having social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development.  The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...

  9. Social Capital, ICT Use and Company Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinfield, Charles; Scupola, Ada; López-Nicolás, Carolina

    2009-01-01

    , such as use of online databases for recruitment, intranets to enhance employee access to information and education, and collaborative tools to connect with off-premise researchers, companies reported better performance outcomes. Social capital in the form of connections to people who can provide access......This study explores how some kinds of ICT uses, as well as social capital and other means of access to knowledge resources, are related to company performance in a knowledge-intensive business cluster. Data were collected through a survey of companies in the Medicon Valley biotech region located...... in Denmark and Southern Sweden. Responding companies included established producers of biotechnology-related products as well as small biotechnology start-up firms emphasizing research and development.  The results suggest that when ICT use was aimed at accessing and enhancing human and intellectual capital...

  10. Implementation of remote monitoring and managing switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Junmin; Fu, Guo

    2010-12-01

    In order to strengthen the safety performance of the network and provide the big convenience and efficiency for the operator and the manager, the system of remote monitoring and managing switches has been designed and achieved using the advanced network technology and present network resources. The fast speed Internet Protocol Cameras (FS IP Camera) is selected, which has 32-bit RSIC embedded processor and can support a number of protocols. An Optimal image compress algorithm Motion-JPEG is adopted so that high resolution images can be transmitted by narrow network bandwidth. The architecture of the whole monitoring and managing system is designed and implemented according to the current infrastructure of the network and switches. The control and administrative software is projected. The dynamical webpage Java Server Pages (JSP) development platform is utilized in the system. SQL (Structured Query Language) Server database is applied to save and access images information, network messages and users' data. The reliability and security of the system is further strengthened by the access control. The software in the system is made to be cross-platform so that multiple operating systems (UNIX, Linux and Windows operating systems) are supported. The application of the system can greatly reduce manpower cost, and can quickly find and solve problems.

  11. Medical communication companies and industry grants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Sheila M; Brudney, Karen F; Adair, Whitney; Rothman, David J

    2013-12-18

    Medical communication companies (MCCs) are among the most significant health care stakeholders, supported mainly by drug and device companies. How MCCs share or protect physicians' personal data requires greater transparency. To explore the financial relationships between MCCs and drug and device companies, to describe the characteristics of the large MCCs, and to explore whether they accurately represent themselves to physicians. We combined data from the 2010 grant registries of 14 pharmaceutical and device companies; grouped recipients into categories such as MCCs, academic medical centers, disease-targeted advocacy organizations, and professional associations; and created a master list of 19,272 grants. Determine the distribution of funds from drug and device companies to various entities and assess the characteristics of large MCCs. Of the 6493 recipients of more than $657 million grant awards from drug and device companies, 18 of 363 MCCs received 26%, academic medical centers received 21%, and disease-targeted organizations received 15%. For-profit MCCs received 77% of funds (208 of 363). Among the top 5% of MCCs, 14 of 18 were for-profit. All 18 offered continuing medical education: 14 offered live and 17 offered online CME courses. All required physicians to provide personal data. Ten stated that they shared information with unnamed third parties. Eight stated they did not share information, but almost all added exceptions. None required explicit physician consent to their sharing policies. Medical communication companies receive substantial support from drug and device companies. Physicians who interact with MCCs should be aware that all require personal data from the physician and some share these data with unnamed third parties.

  12. Emerging Market Multinational Companies and Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Bo B.; Nielsen, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    We develop a multilevel theoretical framework for investigating the role of home country urbanization for emerging market multinational companies' (EMNCs) international expansion. We propose that more urbanized home environments directly increase EMNC's proclivity to internationalize and moderate...

  13. Emerging Market Multinational Companies and Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    This paper furthers our understanding of the role of contextual conditions influencing internationalization of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs). We use resource-based, industrial organization, and economic development theories to develop a multilevel theoretical framework...

  14. Corporate Sustainability in Fashion and Luxury Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Arrigo, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    The paper deepens the notion of corporate sustainability in fashion and luxury field in order to highlight the main sustainable issues faced by companies operating in these markets. In particular, to provide a more faithful depiction of corporate sustainability in the fashion industry, two apparently opposed fashion market segments (mass-market and luxury) have been analyzed. Findings have shown how sustainability represents a critical driver of growth for both mass-market and luxury companie...

  15. A study on examining interrelationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty, and switching intent in industrial food suppliers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Saeedniya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Brand loyalty is one of the most important concepts in brand literature. Customer’s loyalty toward brand can increase firm’s share price. In addition, firms’ market share maintains close relationship with net profit and capital used return. Company efforts to motivate customers to switch from competitive brands to their own or to induce them to repurchase their own brands are very important in their marketing activities. Therefore, investigating customer variety-seeking orientation and level of involvement in decision-making plays essential role in explaining customers’ product selection activities. This study intends to examine interrelationships among customer satisfaction, loyalty, and switching intent in industrial food suppliers and verifies the moderating effect of customer variety-seeking orientation and purchase decision involvement. The findings indicate that, the impact of purchase involvement was lower than variety seeking and the satisfaction had the highest negative impact on switching intent of customers.

  16. Switch-out and switch-in: What motivates the decision makers in Italian occupational pension funds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Lippi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To switch presumes two kinds of transactions carried out by the same person: on the one hand, the decision to exit an investment line (switch-out and, on the other hand, the decision to enter into a new investment line (switch-in. What motivates the decision makers? This paper, considering a sample of Italian occupational pension funds, investigates the impact of short-term and long-term performance on the switch decision process and whether the same performance can lead investors to make opposite switch decisions. Some irrational behaviors are identified.

  17. Selective termination, fetal reduction and analogical reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, G

    2013-06-01

    Analogical reasoning is a basic method in bioethics. Its main purpose is to transfer the rule from an existing or known situation to a new and problematic situation. This commentary applies the lifeboat analogy to the context of selective termination and fetal reduction. It turns out that the analogy is only partially helpful as the main principle in the case of selective termination is the procreative beneficence principle. However, the wide person-affecting form of this principle doubly justifies selective termination: i.e. one prevents the harm caused by the birth of an affected child and one increases the life chances of the remaining fetuses. I conclude, however, that all analogies are basically flawed since they assume that fetuses as such have interests. I argue that fetuses only have interests to the extent that they are potential future persons. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-01-01

    This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in develo...

  19. Fostering Student Entrepreneurship and University Spinoff Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A student spinoff company strives to transform knowledge acquired by students into an income-generating business. This article outlines how a university can increase the number of spinoff companies created by its student entrepreneurs. Student spinoff companies are of interest to all forward-thinking universities, particularly those that support research and teaching programs in the field of entrepreneurship. The spinoff companies provide tangible evidence that students acquire viable entrepreneurial skills while studying at the university. In addition, student spinoff companies contribute to regional economic development, commercialize knowledge that otherwise would go undeveloped, help universities attain and expand their core missions, and increase the return on the investments in university R&D. University policies developed specifically for student spinoff companies significantly affect the growth potential of such ventures. This article provides a model and a set of principles that universities can use to support and increase the number of student entrepreneurs at their institutions. The model and principles are grounded in research findings and practical experience. In addition, the article suggests that universities adopt a results-based management approach to plan and deploy initiatives to support student entrepreneurs. The approach is widely used by government agencies interested in increasing the outcomes from their investments.

  20. COMPANY PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT AND REPORTING METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicu Ioana Elena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the priorities of economic research has been and remains the re-evaluation of the notion of performance and especially exploring and finding some indicators that would reflect as accurately as possible the subtleties of the economic entity. The main purpose of this paper is to highlight the main company performance measurement and reporting methods. Performance is a concept that raises many question marks concerning the most accurate or the best method of reporting the performance at the company level. The research methodology has aimed at studying the Romanian and foreign specialized literature dealing with the analyzed field, studying magazines specialized on company performance measurement. If the financial performance measurement indicators are considered to offer an accurate image of the situation of the company, the modern approach through non-financial indicators offers a new perspective upon performance measurement, which is based on simplicity. In conclusion, after the theoretical study, I have noticed that the methods of performance measurement, reporting and interpretation are various, the opinions regarding the best performance measurement methods are contradictive and the companies prefer resorting to financial indicators that still play a more important role in the consolidation of the company performance measurement than the non-financial indicators do.

  1. Privatisation, State Ownership and Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Crnković

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The standpoints on state ownership on the one hand and private ownership on the other changed frequently in the past. Nevertheless, the strengthening of the role of a state in economy – brought about by the big economic crisis in the late 1920s and 1930s and continuing after the Second World War – has caused a significantly more active role of state ownership in many economies. In the late 1970s, state companies began to lose their importance, mainly due to their inefficiency. This perception of inefficiency was actually the cause of privatisation processes, which reached their peak with the beginning of transition. On the other hand, the discussion on the relative efficiency of state-owned, private and privatised companies is still a current topic. This paper gives an overview of the key empirical studies that examine the relative efficiency of state-owned, private and privatised companies. Furthermore, it provides an overview of theoretical findings that give reasons for the existence of state companies, their lesser efficiency and the reasons for privatisation. The paper analyses the business results of sixty-nine Croatian companies in 2009, which are of special state interest (majority holding by the state in most of them, thus providing an empirical contribution to the current academic debate on the relative efficiency of state-owned and private companies.

  2. Generalized Multi-Cell Switched-Inductor and Switched-Capacitor Z-source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ding; Chiang Loh, Poh; Zhu, Miao

    2013-01-01

    -type Z-source in- verters were earlier proposed. These new classes of inverters are generally more robust and less sensitive to electromagnetic noises. However, their boosting capabilities are somehow compromised by high component stresses and poorer spectral performances caused by low modulation ratios....... Their boosting gains are, therefore, limited in practice. To overcome these shortcomings, the generalized switched-inductor and switched-capacitor Z-source inverters are proposed, whose extra boosting abilities and other advantages have already been verified in simulation and experiment....

  3. GROUPS OF COMPANIES AND ENVIRONMENTAL LIABILITY CONFRONTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaminia Stârc-Meclejan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available It's been a long time since markets transcended national borders, corporate law dealing at the beginning of this century with rather complex corporate structures that gradually replace its ordinary subjects, the companies. At the same time, the bases of civil liability for torts were put in a time when damage was only exceptional and had comprehensible dimensions, circumstances that are no longer valid today when we talk of the environmental damage. The ability of the victims of environmental damage, facing the precarious financial condition of a subsidiary, to sue the parent company is theoretically hindered by the independence of the affiliated companies forming the group, as each company retains its legal personality, as well as by the absence of a group regulation in Romanian law. In this context, the aim of our paper is that of seeking solutions that would allow a piercing of the parent company’s corporate veil to hold it accountable, considering reality.

  4. Perspective switching using theories and interpretations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, W.M. [Mitre Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    An important aspect of intelligence is the ability to switch perspectives. In the course of reasoning about a particular subject matter, it can be convenient to change from one perspective of the subject matter to another perspective, which is often at a different level of abstraction. For example, in some situations it may be advantageous to view a building as a collection of floors and in other situations as a collection of wings. If the arrangement of the rooms is not important for the task at hand, the building might be viewed as simply an unstructured collection of rooms. These are three perspectives on how a building can be decomposed. Utilizing multiple perspectives and freeing moving from one to another is a powerful method for both managing complexity and organizing knowledge. The key idea behind this method is to always employ the {open_quotes}right{close_quotes} perspective for each reasoning task. This talk will address the following two questions: (1) What logical machinery is needed to formalize perspective switching? (2) How can knowledge associated with one perspective be retrieved for use with another perspective?

  5. Optimization of Contact Force and Pull-in Voltage for Series based MEMS Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet KSHIRSAGAR

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cantilever based metal-to-metal contact type MEMS series switch has many applications namely in RF MEMS, Power MEMS etc. A typical MEMS switch consists of a cantilever as actuating element to make the contact between the two metal terminals of the switch. The cantilever is pulled down by applying a pull-in voltage to the control electrode that is located below the middle portion of the cantilever while only the tip portion of the cantilever makes contact between the two terminals. Detailed analysis of bending of the cantilever for different pull-in voltages reveals some interesting facts. At low pull-in voltage the cantilever tip barely touches the two terminals, thus resulting in very less contact area. To increase contact area a very high pull-in voltage is applied, but it lifts the tip from the free end due to concave curving of the cantilever in the middle region of the cantilever where the electrode is located. Again it results in less contact area. Furthermore, the high pull-in voltage produces large stress at the base of the cantilever close to the anchor. Therefore, an optimum, pull-in voltage must exist at which the concave curving is eliminated and contact area is maximum. In this paper authors report the finding of optimum contact force and pull-in voltage.

  6. 75 FR 11936 - Norforge and Machining, Inc., Bushnell, IL; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,749] Norforge and Machining, Inc., Bushnell, IL; Notice of Termination of Investigation Pursuant to Section 223 of the Trade Act of... the company official on behalf of workers of Norforge and Machining, Inc., Bushnell, Illinois. The...

  7. Proto-I switching and diode studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.; Miller, P.A.; McDaniel, D.H.; Poukey, J.W.; Widner, M.M.; Goldstein, S.A.

    1975-01-01

    Proto-I is a 3 MV, 800 kA, 24 ns electron beam accelerator that is under development at Sandia Laboratories. It represents an initial effort to develop a scalable technology that is applicable to accelerators for electron beam driven, inertial confinement fusion studies. Energy is supplied to each of the two diodes from six oil-dielectric Blumlein transmission lines (PFL) operating in parallel. A Marx generator charges three intermediate storage, water-dielectric capacitors which subsequently transfer the stored energy to the PFL. The discharge of the PFL is initiated by the simultaneous closure of 12 triggered oil-dielectric rail switches. Data will be presented on the operation of these multichannel switches. The two diodes have a common anode. Cathode diameters can be varied from 10 to 60 cm. Results of initial diode experiments and comparisons with theory are discussed. Plasma filled diode experiments are also reported, indicating pinch collapse velocities in excess of 10 9 cm/s

  8. Is There a Relationship between Training Quality and Premature Contract Terminations in VET?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Lucio; Forsblom, Lara; Gurtner, Jean-Luc; Schumann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The dominant organizational form of vocational education and training in Switzerland is the dual-track system, in which trainees sign an apprenticeship contract with a training company. Notably, 10% to 40% of those contracts are terminated prematurely each year, depending on region and occupational category, which is an important topic of concern…

  9. 75 FR 38543 - Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 46594

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management CA-920-1310-FI; CACA 46594] Proposed Reinstatement of Terminated Oil and Gas Lease CACA 46594 AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... for reinstatement of oil and gas lease CACA 46594 from Gasco Production Company. The petition was...

  10. Evaluation of Speedup and Expansion in Terabit Switch Fabrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, Andreas; Berger, Michael Stübert

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates speedup and expansion in a multi-stage Terabit switch fabric. Single-stage switch fabrics, e.g. crossbar switches, are difficult to scale up to a Terabit system. Hence, a multi-stage switch fabric, where traffic can be distributed on different chips, offers a promising...... perspective. We evaluate buffer usage, number of out-of-sequence cells and fabric delay. Simulation results obtained in OPNET Modeler show that speedup outperforms expansion and that both approaches significantly gain from applying an output line speedup. By reducing the buffer usage in the middle stage...

  11. Application and design of inexpensive small earth terminals for satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Sharifi, M.; Pourmand, B.

    Different applications of miniearth terminals (MET) for various satellite communication networks are discussed, and then the steps that must be taken to design a reliable satellite system using METs are specified. The main emphasis of the paper is on the various applications of the METs, selection of access method, modulation scheme, power requirement, and performance analysis. Depending on the application, the miniearth terminals may be designed to be used in the networks with any of the following access techniques: SCPC, MC-TDMA, TDM, satellite switch TDMA, random multiple access or some forms of hybrid demand assignment multiple access methods constituted of frequency time or spatial separation.

  12. Modeling and Mitigation for High Frequency Switching Transients Due to Energization in Offshore Wind Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Xin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive investigation on high frequency (HF switching transients due to energization of vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs in offshore wind farms (OWFs. This research not only concerns the modeling of main components in collector grids of an OWF for transient analysis (including VCBs, wind turbine transformers (WTTs, submarine cables, but also compares the effectiveness between several mainstream switching overvoltage (SOV protection methods and a new mitigation method called smart choke. In order to accurately reproduce such HF switching transients considering the current chopping, dielectric strength (DS recovery capability and HF quenching capability of VCBs, three models are developed, i.e., a user–defined VCB model, a HF transformer terminal model and a three-core (TC frequency dependent model of submarine cables, which are validated through simulations and compared with measurements. Based on the above models and a real OWF configuration, a simulation model is built and several typical switching transient cases are investigated to analyze the switching transient process and phenomena. Subsequently, according to the characteristics of overvoltages, appropriate parameters of SOV mitigation methods are determined to improve their effectiveness. Simulation results indicate that the user–defined VCB model can satisfactorily simulate prestrikes and the proposed component models display HF characteristics, which are consistent with onsite measurement behaviors. Moreover, the employed protection methods can suppress induced SOVs, which have a steep front, a high oscillation frequency and a high amplitude, among which the smart choke presents a preferable HF damping effect.

  13. Spousal violence and pregnancy termination among married ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Data on spousal violence among ever married women was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. The outcome variable is pregnancy termination. The explanatory variables were the type of spousal violence experienced by the women in the last 12 months preceding the survey.

  14. Current results and trends in platform switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Salimi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The platform switching (PLS concept was introduced in the literature in 2005. The biological benefits and clinical effectiveness of the PLS technique have been established by several studies. In this article different aspects of PLS concept are discussed. Crestal bone loss, biologic width, and stress distribution in this concept are comprehensively reviewed. In this article the relative published articles from 1990 to 2011 have been evaluated by electronic search. Because of controversial results especially in immediate loading and animal studies, further modified research is needed to establish the mechanism and effect of the PLS technique. Essential changes in studies including using the control group for accurate interpretation of results and long-term observation, particularly through, randomized, prospective, multicenter trials with large numbers of participants, and implants are necessary.

  15. 17 CFR 250.95 - Reports required from affiliate service companies and companies principally engaged in performing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affiliate service companies and companies principally engaged in performing services. 250.95 Section 250.95... REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service, Sales and Construction Contracts § 250.95 Reports required from affiliate service companies and companies principally engaged in performing services...

  16. Ownership structures of principal petroleum companies in Canada: company profiles - significant events - takeovers and acquisitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    This reference document on ownership structures of principal petroleum companies identifies 'who owns whom' in the Canadian petroleum industry. The publication consists of three chapters. Chapter one, entitled 'Corporate Structures' includes the equity linkages between the energy enterprise and its parents and subsidiaries, names of directors and officers of the company and their ownership of voting shares. Chapter two under the title of 'Significant Events', provides company incorporation and listing data, outlining information on address of the company's head office, the nature of its business, number of employees in Canada, and stock exchanges on which the company equity is listed, stock symbol, high, low and closing prices as of December 31, 1996. Chapter three, entitled 'Takeovers and Acquisitions 1976-1997, provides a list of purchases, mergers and acquisitions and the estimated value of each, where applicable. All information included is provided by the companies themselves

  17. Oil companies and village development in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikporukpo, C.O.

    1993-01-01

    The economic interest of oil companies and the oil-producing Third World countries, together with the technological handicaps and political considerations of the latter, provide the scenarios within which the two groups interact. In the early history of oil exploitation, the relationship was such that the oil companies had the final say in all matters. Furthermore, apart from the token royalty, no taxes were usually imposed on the exploration companies. The relationship between the oil companies and the host local communities, even in the developed countries, seems to be a replica of that between the companies and the host countries. There is the feeling in many of the local communities that they have gained little or nothing from petroleum exploitation. This is the case not only in the setting of a less developed country, such as Nigeria, but also in that of a developed country, such as the United States. In these communities, the adverse environment effect of oil exploitation is usually perceived as being overwhelming. (author)

  18. Teaching, Technology and Terminal Tutoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, M.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews computer assisted instructional (CAI) technology now available in large scale systems such as PLATO, and in videocassette-linked computer systems. Computer Managed Instruction (CMI) is described as a means of fitting instruction to the student's cognitive style. Discusses briefly cable TV, electronic newspapers, desk-top computers, and…

  19. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia P. BLĂJUȚ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the significant share of multinational companies in international trade that are a factor of developing global economies. In the context of economic globalization the activity of multinational companies and their foreign direct investment have a strong impact on the host country which presents advantages and disadvantages for them. The main objective of this article is the review of the important role played by multinationals in economic development, especially in developed economies. In the economies in which they operate, they bring capital, technology transfer, improve the national reputation and influence the other companies to invest in this countries, they provide a substantial source of revenue for the government and always improve the balance of payments in the host country.

  20. 47 CFR 25.134 - Licensing provisions of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. 25.134 Section 25.134 Telecommunication... Applications and Licenses Earth Stations § 25.134 Licensing provisions of Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) and C-band Small Aperture Terminal (CSAT) networks. (a)(1) VSAT networks operating in the 12/14 GHz...

  1. Measurement and Evaluation of Wear Frogs Switches ŽSR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urda Ján

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the measurement and evaluation of wear frogs switches ZSR. One of the main problems is the oversize wear. The possibilities analysis of this problem is offered through a set of switches and monitoring of selected parameters. One of these parameters is also monitoring the vertical wear

  2. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. Ajit Kumar. Theoretical aspects of optical solitons Volume 57 Issue 5-6 November-December 2001 pp 969-979 ... Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped fiber system is studied numerically.

  3. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dec. 2001 physics pp. 969–979. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously doped fiber couplers. AJIT KUMAR. Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016, India. Abstract. Switching between the bistable soliton states in a doubly and inhomogeneously doped.

  4. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Towards a Unified Developmental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children's performances in an attention-switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control…

  5. RISK MANAGEMENT COMPANIES AND HEDGE ACCOUNTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SABIN ARMĂŞELU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing use of derivatives for risk management of a company lately has led to the need to report on an actual basis as these instruments and regulate these operations accounting. This paper proposes a presentation of hedging transactions and their accounting evaluating the impact, in terms of accounting, risk management derivatives on a company. Hedges are often ineffective. Overcoming the ineffectiveness of hedging operations can be achieved by proper designation of the hedging relationship and create an appropriate method to demonstrate hedge effectiveness.

  6. GLOBALISATION, MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela HALLER

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Globalisation, far from meeting esoteric meaning requirements – everybody’s welfare –, created the conditions for a stronger and stronger presence of multinational companies, economic giants who did not avoid emerging markets, quite the contrary. The attraction of profit oriented the multinational companies’ attention towards the developing markets for the simple reason that here they could find with ease cheap factors of production and they could easily impose themselves by means of illusory promises. In the present paper we are going to analyse multinational companies and their effects on the emerging markets.

  7. A Novel Silicon-based Wideband RF Nano Switch Matrix Cell and the Fabrication of RF Nano Switch Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Xiu YANG

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the concept of RF nano switch matrix cell and the fabrication of RF nano switch. The nano switch matrix cell can be implemented into complex switch matrix for signal routing. RF nano switch is the decision unit for the matrix cell; in this research, it is fabricated on a tri-layer high-resistivity-silicon substrate using surface micromachining approach. Electron beam lithography is introduced to define the pattern and IC compatible deposition process is used to construct the metal layers. Silicon-based nano switch fabricated by IC compatible process can lead to a high potential of system integration to perform a cost effective system-on-a-chip solution. In this paper, simulation results of the designed matrix cell are presented; followed by the details of the nano structure fabrication and fabrication challenges optimizations; finally, measurements of the fabricated nano structure along with analytical discussions are also discussed.

  8. Switch-On Reading: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorard, Stephen; See, Beng Huat; Siddiqui, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Switch-on Reading is an intensive 10-week literacy intervention. It is delivered on a one to one basis by staff, most commonly teaching assistants, who have been trained in the approach. The purpose of Switch-on is to achieve functional literacy for as many pupils as possible, and so to close the reading achievement gap for vulnerable children…

  9. Photonics in switching: Architectures, systems and enabling technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raffaelli, C.; Vlachos, K.; Andriolli, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes recent research activities and results in the area of photonic switching carried out within the Virtual Department on Switching (VDS) of the European e-Photon/ONe Network of Excellence. Contributions from outstanding European research groups in this field are collected to offer...

  10. Code Switching in Normal and Aphasic Kannada-English Bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sapna; Chengappa, Shyamala

    Patterns of code switching were studies from two aphasic and two neurologically normal Kannada-English bilinguals. Conversational analysis of the samples based on the Matrix Language Frame (MLF) model (Myers-Scotton, 1993) revealed consistent code switching between two languages by all the subjects. The aphasic subjects demonstrated a greater…

  11. DNA supercoiling enhances cooperativity and efficiency of an epigenetic switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norregaard, Kamilla; Andersson, Magnus; Sneppen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophage λ stably maintains its dormant prophage state but efficiently enters lytic development in response to DNA damage. The mediator of these processes is the λ repressor protein, CI, and its interactions with λ operator DNA. This λ switch is a model on the basis of which epigenetic switch...

  12. International company restructuring and the effects on high-skilled employees in lead companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nana Wesley

    2016-01-01

    International company restructuring involving knowledge intensive jobs causes increasing concern about the effect on the globalization of high-skilled employees. Drawing on case studies in four Danish-based companies, this article argues that high-skilled employees in lead companies are rarely...... insulated from international restructuring processes. However, effects on wage and working conditions vary dependent on the motivation for restructuring, and as companies learn to take advantage of pools of skilled employees abroad. Continued international restructuring appear to challenge the insulation...

  13. Design Students and Companies - What's the Problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2009-01-01

    How are collaborative projects between university design programs and external partners like companies or institutions integrated in the curriculum and what are the advantages and problems related to such initiatives? Many experiments are done in the area, but until now a more general overview ha...

  14. Response switching and self-efficacy in Peer Instruction classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric

    2015-06-01

    Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or

  15. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support the collection of baseline data against which to measure future changes in smoking patters and amount of tobacco consumed. ... Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention ... Impact of multinational tobacco companies' penetration on tobacco consumption in China : final technical report ...

  16. Evolution of relationship between government and companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchuruk, S.

    1995-01-01

    The president of the Total petroleum company , during a meeting of Petroleum institute at London, exposed the relations and their evolution in energy area, between national government and petroleum industry. The nationalization or the privatization, the taxation, the differences made between different kind of energy are so many factors which are used to regulate energy policy

  17. Brand values for consumers and companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Saša

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In contemporary business management, which is characterized by intense competitive pressure, marketing is getting more and more dominant role. Companies on the market are more exposed to competitive pressure due to the growing number of suppliers (bidders and substitutive products on the home market, and increase of foreign competition due to the world economy globalization. The success of marketing tools usage largely depends on the expected financial effects realization, as well as the survival of company on the market does, both in long and short terms. Brand marketing is a useful tool in modern business environment and it is an important source of competitive advantage. The concept and essence of brand have been significantly changed recently, compared to the period of twenty or more years ago. Brand is no more considered as just a label or sign, it is a tool that creates value for consumers and significantly contributes to improving the competitive position on the market. In brand creating process one should start from the elements that influence the creation of value for consumers and to consistently apply mechanisms to maximize the function of the brand on the market and enable companies to achieve maximum impact in terms of achievement of competitive advantage. It is important at the same time, in the respect of analysis of the financial payback investment in brand creating, to conceder brand impacts on the financial performance of the company. The aim of this paper is to point out the role, importance and concept of brand in modern marketing, and to highlight the role and way of creating value for consumers with help of the brand, which contributes to improving the competitive position and points out the brand influence on the financial performance of companies.

  18. High-performance inkjet-printed four-terminal microelectromechanical relays and inverters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seungjun; Ul Karim, Muhammed Ahosan; Kwon, Hyuk-Jun; Subramanian, Vivek

    2015-05-13

    We report the first demonstration of inkjet-printed 4-terminal microelectromechanical (MEM) relays and inverters with hyper-abrupt switching that exhibit excellent electrical and mechanical characteristics. This first implementation of a printed 4-terminal device is critically important, since it allows for the realization of full complementary logic functions. The floated fourth terminal (body electrode), which allows the gate switching voltage to be adjusted, is bonded to movable channel beams via a printed epoxy layer in a planar structure, which can move downward together via the electrostatic force between the gate electrodes and body such that the channel can also actuate downward and touch the drain electrode. Because the body, channel, and drain electrodes are completely electrically separated, no detectable leakage or electrical interference between the electrodes is observed. The printed MEM relay exhibited an on-state resistance of only 3.48 Ω, immeasurable off-state leakage, subthreshold swing inverter exhibits abrupt transitions between on/off states. The operation of the printed 4-terminal MEM relay was also verified against the results of a 3-dimensional (3D) finite element simulation.

  19. Multinational Oil Companies and Corporate Social Responsibilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2013-07-07

    Jul 7, 2013 ... established the Nigeria National Petroleum Corporation to serve as an eye of the government, fix petroleum prices, enter into business as it concerns oil and gas, operates Joint return services with many oil companies in Nigeria. Okowa (2007) posits that, the joint venture services are arranged as follow:.

  20. Social media and social companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    drs. Frans van den Reep

    2010-01-01

    In this article, van der Reep argues the need for a new architectural priciple when desgining software systems. The Internet and its capacity to provide social media technology is creating a new P2P networked economy. An economy based around people working together and which will have a major impact

  1. Trading off switch costs and stimulus availability benefits: An investigation of voluntary task-switching behavior in a predictable dynamic multitasking environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelstädt, Victor; Miller, Jeff; Kiesel, Andrea

    2018-03-09

    In the present study, we introduce a novel, self-organized task-switching paradigm that can be used to study more directly the determinants of switching. Instead of instructing participants to randomly switch between tasks, as in the classic voluntary task-switching paradigm (Arrington & Logan, 2004), we instructed participants to optimize their task performance in a voluntary task-switching environment in which the stimulus associated with the previously selected task appeared in each trial after a delay. Importantly, the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) increased further with each additional repetition of this task, whereas the stimulus needed for a task switch was always immediately available. We conducted two experiments with different SOA increments (i.e., Exp. 1a = 50 ms, Exp. 1b = 33 ms) to see whether this procedure would induce switching behavior, and we explored how people trade off switch costs against the increasing availability of the stimulus needed for a task repetition. We observed that participants adapted their behavior to the different task environments (i.e., SOA increments) and that participants switched tasks when the SOA in task switches approximately matched the switch costs. Moreover, correlational analyses indicated relations between individual switch costs and individual switch rates across participants. Together, these results demonstrate that participants were sensitive to the increased availability of switch stimuli in deciding whether to switch or to repeat, which in turn demonstrates flexible adaptive task selection behavior. We suggest that performance limitations in task switching interact with the task environment to influence switching behavior.

  2. CONTAINER TERMINALS IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. WIEGMANS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the linkage between logistics (in particular, the management of marketing channel flows and transport markets, while also the interaction between these two markets and intermodal container terminals is analysed. The marketing channel theory is used to describe all relevant actors and flows that run through marketing channels, starting with customer needs and ending with customer satisfaction. Porter's theory of competitive advantages is used to review competitive forces in both markets. Finally, a competitor analysis is performed for the logistics and transport market. These theories are applied so as to be able to determine the competitive position of intermodal container terminals with a view to the management of marketing channel flows and the physical transport of freight flows. Hence, the central question of this paper is: Which markets are served by intermodal container terminals and with whom are they competing? At present, neither the maritime container terminals nor the continental container terminals appear to have a significant influence in the logistics service market; they concentrate mainly on the physical movement of containers (transshipment. Furthermore, maritime container terminals and continental container terminals are not dominant players in the transport service market. Our conclusion is that continental terminals are predominantly competing with unimodal road transport, with neighbouring continental terminals and with barge transport companies.

  3. Task switching costs in preschool children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Anna; Kirkham, Natasha Z; Mareschal, Denis

    2018-08-01

    Past research investigating cognitive flexibility has shown that preschool children make many perseverative errors in tasks that require switching between different sets of rules. However, this inflexibility might not necessarily hold with easier tasks. The current study investigated the developmental differences in cognitive flexibility using a task-switching procedure that compared reaction times and accuracy in 4- and 6-year-olds with those in adults. The experiment involved simple target detection tasks and was intentionally designed in a way that the stimulus and response conflicts were minimal together with a long preparation window. Global mixing costs (performance costs when multiple tasks are relevant in a context), and local switch costs (performance costs due to switching to an alternative task) are typically thought to engage endogenous control processes. If this is the case, we should observe developmental differences with both of these costs. Our results show, however, that when the accuracy was good, there were no age differences in cognitive flexibility (i.e., the ability to manage multiple tasks and to switch between tasks) between children and adults. Even though preschool children had slower reaction times and were less accurate, the mixing and switch costs associated with task switching were not reliably larger for preschool children. Preschool children did, however, show more commission errors and greater response repetition effects than adults, which may reflect differences in inhibitory control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Free Movement of Companies under Company Law, Tax Law and EU Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neville, Mette; Winther-Sørensen, Niels; Engsig Sørensen, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    Free movement of companies whereby they either transfers their de facto head office or their registered office from one member state to another is regulated by both company law, tax law and EU law. The interplay between these areas of law are analysed to determine whether such transfers are posible....

  5. Chemical switches and logic gates based on surface modified semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, Szacilowski; Wojciech, Macyk [Jagiellonian Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Krakow (Poland)

    2006-02-15

    Photoelectrochemical properties of multicomponent photo-electrodes based on titanium dioxide and cadmium sulfide powders modified with hexacyanoferrate complexes have been examined. Photocurrent responses were recorded as functions of applied potential and photon energy. Surprisingly, the photocurrent can be switched between positive and negative values as a result of potential or photon energy changes. This new effect called Photo Electrochemical Photocurrent Switching (PEPS) opens a possibility of new chemical switches and logic gates construction. Boolean logic analysis and a tentative mechanism of the device are discussed. (authors)

  6. Contact materials for nanowire devices and nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2011-02-01

    The impact of contact materials on the performance of nanostructured devices is expected to be signifi cant. This is especially true since size scaling can increase the contact resistance and induce many unseen phenomenon and reactions that greatly impact device performance. Nanowire and nanoelectromechanical switches are two emerging nanoelectronic devices. Nanowires provide a unique opportunity to control the property of a material at an ultra-scaled dimension, whereas a nanoelectromechanical switch presents zero power consumption in its off state, as it is physically detached from the sensor anode. In this article, we specifi cally discuss contact material issues related to nanowire devices and nanoelectromechanical switches.

  7. Should I Stay or Should I Switch? A Cost-Benefit Analysis of Voluntary Language Switching in Young and Aging Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Ferreira, Victor S.

    2009-01-01

    Bilinguals spontaneously switch languages in conversation even though laboratory studies reveal robust cued language switching costs. The authors investigated how voluntary-switching costs might differ when switches are voluntary. Younger (Experiments 1-2) and older (Experiment 3) Spanish-English bilinguals named pictures in 3 conditions: (a)…

  8. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  9. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on power semiconductor switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The performance characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluence and gamma dose must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect the electrical and switching characteristics of solid state power switches is discussed. The experimental measurement system and radiation facilities are described. Experimental data showing the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the performance characteristics are given for power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), and Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). BJTs show a rapid decrease in gain, blocking voltage, and storage time for neutron irradiation, and MOSFETs show a rapid decrease in the gate threshold voltage for gamma irradiation.

  10. 77 FR 25229 - Adams-Warnock Railway, Inc.-Lease and Operation Exemption-Norfolk Southern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ....31 to lease from Norfolk Southern Railway Company (NSR), and to operate, a line of railroad referred to as the Brampton Lead, beginning just beyond the northernmost turnout switch at NSR milepost FL 5.5... revoke the exemption under 49 U.S.C. 10502(d) may be filed at any time. The filing of a petition to...

  11. Companies and the customers who hate them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Gail; Moon, Youngme

    2007-06-01

    Why do companies bind customers with contracts, bleed them with fees, and baffle them with fine print? Because bewildered customers, who often make bad purchasing decisions, can be highly profitable. Most firms that profit from customers' confusion are on a slippery slope. Over time, their customer-centric strategies for delivering value have evolved into company-centric strategies for extracting it. Not surprisingly, when a rival comes along with a friendlier alternative, customers defect. Adversarial value-extracting strategies are common in such industries as cell phone service, retail banking, and health clubs. Overly complex product and pricing options, for example, may have been designed to serve various segments. But in fact they take advantage of how difficult it is for customers to predict their needs (such as how many cell phone minutes they'll use each month) and make it hard for them to choose the right product. Similarly, penalties and fees, which may have been instituted to offset the costs of undesirable customer behavior, like bouncing checks, turn out to be very profitable. As a result, companies have no incentive to help customers avoid them. Tactics like these generate bad publicity and fuel customer defections, creating opportunities for competitors. Virgin Mobile USA, for example, has lured millions of angry cell phone customers away from the incumbents by offering a straightforward plan with no hidden fees, no time-of-day restrictions, and no contracts. ING Direct, now the fourth-largest thrift bank in the United States, offers accounts with no fees, no tiered interest rates, and no minimums. In industries where squeezing value from customers is commonplace, companies that dismantle these harmful practices and design a transparent, value-creating offer can head off customer retaliation and spur rapid growth.

  12. Geothermal switch heater installation, testing and monitoring : phases 1 & 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Transportation Technology Center, Inc. (TTCI), Norfolk Southern (NS), and John A. Volpe National Transportation Systems Center (Volpe) completed Phases 1 and 2 of a project on a working prototype geothermal switch heating system designed to test the ...

  13. Brexit and its consequencies for pharmaceutical companies

    OpenAIRE

    Gandoin, chloé

    2017-01-01

    Brexit had been voted in 23th June 2016. So, United Kingdom leaves Europe. What is the impact for the pharmaceutical companies ? United Kingdomis a leader in Life Science in Europe. When it leaves, it will loose the EU RD funding and then, the quality of scientific research will be deteriorated. The border control will limitate the scientific collaboration too. Moreover, Europe will loose the quality of the expertise of the UK agency in the evaluation of the Marketing Authorization and will l...

  14. Generic Switching and Non-Persistence among Medicine Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Andersen, Morten; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution means that one medicinal product is replaced by another product containing the same active substance. It is strictly regulated with respect to its bioequivalence, and all products must have undergone appropriate studies. Although generic substitution is widely...... implemented, it still remains to be answered how generic switch influences persistence to long-term treatment, and if it is modified by patients' concerns about medicine and views on generic medicine. This study focuses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics, and their experience of generic switching......' attitudes towards generic medicines and concerns about their medicine. RESULTS: Patients who experience their first-time switch of a specific drug were at higher risk of non-persistence, Hazard Ratio 2.98, 95% CI (1.81;4.89) versus those who have never switched, and 35.7% became non-persistent during...

  15. Robust filtering and fault detection of switched delay systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Dong; Wang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Switched delay systems appear in a wide field of applications including networked control systems, power systems, memristive systems. Though the large amount of ideas with respect to such systems have generated, until now, it still lacks a framework to focus on filter design and fault detection issues which are relevant to life safety and property loss. Beginning with the comprehensive coverage of the new developments in the analysis and control synthesis for switched delay systems, the monograph not only provides a systematic approach to designing the filter and detecting the fault of switched delay systems, but it also covers the model reduction issues. Specific topics covered include: (1) Arbitrary switching signal where delay-independent and delay-dependent conditions are presented by proposing a linearization technique. (2) Average dwell time where a weighted Lyapunov function is come up with dealing with filter design and fault detection issues beside taking model reduction problems. The monograph is in...

  16. Moderating and mediating effects of switching costs on the relationship between service value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty: investigation of retail banking in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vu Minh Ngo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Switching cost highlights the way how companies create barriers to proactively prevent customer defection which directly and significantly affects customer loyalty and then companies’ performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidences about the impact of switching cost on customer loyalty by examining its mediating and moderating effects on the relationships between service value, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Specially, two difference types of switching costs, positive one and negative one, are proposed and tested independently in order to provide more insights about their impacts. The data about switching costs and other constructs are collected from 261 retail banking customers, and analysed using structural equation modelling and moderated path analysis. It is found that positive switching costs increase customer loyalty by partly transforming the effect of service value and customer satisfaction into customer loyalty. While negative switching cost only mediates the service value-loyalty relationship. Moreover, only negative switching cost has significant moderating effect on the satisfaction-loyalty relationships. Finally, the analysis reveals that negative switching cost might also weaken good impacts from positive switching cost on satisfaction-loyalty relationships.

  17. Consumer Complaints and Company Market Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Consumer complaints affect company market value and common sense suggests that a negative impact is expected. However, do complaints always negatively impact company market value? We hypothesize in this study that complaints may have a non-linear effect on market value. Positive (e.g. avoiding high costs to solve complaints and negative (e.g. speedy and intense diffusion tradeoffs may occur given the level of complaints. To test our non-linear hypothesis, a panel data was collected from cell phone service providers from 2005 to 2013. The results supported our tradeoff rationale. Low levels of complaints allow for companies to increase market value, while high levels of complaints cause increasing harm to market value. The sample, model and period considered in this study, indicates a level of 0.49 complaints per thousand consumers as the threshold for a shift in tradeoffs. The effects on market value become increasingly negative when trying to make reductions to move below this level, due to negative tradeoffs.

  18. Direct versus sequential immunoglobulin switch in allergy and antiviral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svirshchevskaya, E; Fattakhova, G; Khlgatian, S; Chudakov, D; Kashirina, E; Ryazantsev, D; Kotsareva, O; Zavriev, S

    2016-09-01

    Allergy is characterized by IgE production to innocuous antigens. The question whether the switch to IgE synthesis occurs via direct or sequential pathways is still unresolved. The aim of this work was to analyze the distribution of immunoglobulins (Ig) to house dust mite D. farinae and A. alternata fungus in allergic children with primarily established diagnosis and compare it to Epstein-Barr antiviral (EBV) response in the same patients. In allergy patients the only significant difference was found in allergen specific IgE, likely mediated by a direct isotype switch, while antiviral response was dominated by EBV specific IgG and low level of concordant IgA and IgG4 production consistent with a minor sequential Ig switches. Taken collectively, we concluded that sequential isotype switch is likely to be a much rarer event than a direct one. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Modelling and measurement of high switching frequency conducted EMI

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, Inus

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available High density high switching frequency power converter conducted EMC had been analysed, modelling the noise source and noise path, while providing accurate conducted EMC noise levels comparable to accredited noise measurements up to 100 MHz...

  20. A switch in nucleotide affinity governs activation of the Src and Tec family kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Raußendorf, Freia; de Ruiter, Anita; Leonard, Thomas A

    2017-12-12

    The Tec kinases, closely related to Src family kinases, are essential for lymphocyte function in the adaptive immune system. Whilst the Src and Abl kinases are regulated by tail phosphorylation and N-terminal myristoylation respectively, the Tec kinases are notable for the absence of either regulatory element. We have found that the inactive conformations of the Tec kinase Itk and Src preferentially bind ADP over ATP, stabilising both proteins. We demonstrate that Itk adopts the same conformation as Src and that the autoinhibited conformation of Src is independent of its C-terminal tail. Allosteric activation of both Itk and Src depends critically on the disruption of a conserved hydrophobic stack that accompanies regulatory domain displacement. We show that a conformational switch permits the exchange of ADP for ATP, leading to efficient autophosphorylation and full activation. In summary, we propose a universal mechanism for the activation and autoinhibition of the Src and Tec kinases.

  1. Selective Attention and Attention Switching: Toward a Unified Developmental Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Rima; Smith, Linda B.

    2010-01-01

    We review and relate two literatures on the development of attention in children: one concerning flexible attention switching and the other concerning selective attention. The first is a growing literature on preschool children’s performances in an attention switching task indicating that children become more flexible in their attentional control during the preschool years. The second literature encompasses a large and robust set of phenomena for the same developmental period that indicate a ...

  2. Synchronization of switched system and application in communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Wenwu; Cao Jinde; Yuan Kun

    2008-01-01

    In this Letter, synchronization of switched system is investigated based on Lyapunov method. A sufficient condition is derived to ensure the synchronization between two switched systems, and a new communication scheme is also proposed based on this. Furthermore, some secure analysis works, such as return map attack and moving average error attack, are also given to show the security of the proposed scheme. Finally, simulation examples are constructed to verify the theoretical analysis and its application for communication

  3. Combining optics and SDN to enable true hybrid integration of electronic and photonic switching solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guelbenzu, Gonzalo; Miao, Wang; Ben-Itzhak, Yaniv

    2017-01-01

    We present two hybrid fabrics integrating optical and electronic switches with SDN, and a novel approach improving the scaling of fast optical switches. C-Share reroute flows through optical switches increasing network performance. E-WDM exploits the optical switch transparency by emulating...

  4. Company reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-08-15

    The information presented in this article was summarised from INMET, Australian Stock Exchange (ASX) company web sites, daily alerts and regional geologist information sourced through the Department's Mining Information Directory in December 2007. A selection of mining company information updates are given from ASX listed mineral companies currently active in the central and northern regions of Queensland. Brief details are given of exploration and new developments of 9 mineral companies, 7 coal companies and 6 petroleum and coal seam gas companies in the central region and of 23 mineral companies and one coal company in the northern region. 1 map.

  5. Dynamic Capabilities and Project Management in Small Software Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørbjerg, Jacob; Nielsen, Peter Axel; Persson, John Stouby

    2017-01-01

    dynamic capabilities at different levels of the company — particularly between the project management and the company levels. We present a case study of a small software company and show how successful dynamic capabilities at the company level can affect project management in small software companies...... in ways which may have an adverse impact on the company’s overall dynamic capabilities. This study contributes to our understanding of the managerial challenges of small software companies by demonstrating the need to manage the interaction between adaptability and flexibility at different levels...

  6. Pricing the (European) option to switch between two energy sources: An application to crude oil and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatfaoui, Hayette

    2015-01-01

    We consider a firm, which can choose between crude oil and natural gas to run its business. The firm selects the energy source, which minimizes its energy or production costs at a given time horizon. Assuming the energy strategy to be established over a fixed time window, the energy choice decision will be made at a given future date T. In this light, the firm's energy cost can be considered as a long position in a risk-free bond by an amount of the terminal oil price, and a short position in a European put option to switch from oil to gas by an amount of the terminal oil price too. As a result, the option to switch from crude oil to natural gas allows for establishing a hedging strategy with respect to energy costs. Modeling stochastically the underlying asset of the European put, we propose a valuation formula of the option to switch and calibrate the pricing formula to empirical data on a daily basis. Hence, our innovative framework handles widely the hedge against the price increase of any given energy source versus the price of another competing energy source (i.e. minimizing energy costs). Moreover, we provide a price for the cost-reducing effect of the capability to switch from one energy source to another one (i.e. hedging energy price risk). - Highlights: • We consider a firm, which chooses either crude oil or natural gas as an energy source. • The capability to switch offers the firm a hedge against energy commodity price risk. • A European put option prices the ability to switch from crude oil to natural gas. • The capability to switch between two energy sources reduces the firm's energy costs. • The discount illustrates the efficiency of the energy management policy (e.g. timing).

  7. Why media companies insist they're not media companies, why they're wrong, and why it matters

    OpenAIRE

    Napoli, Philip; Caplan, Robyn

    2017-01-01

    A common position amongst social media platforms and online content aggregators is their resistance to being characterized as media companies. Rather, companies such as Google, Facebook, and Twitter have regularly insisted that they should be thought of purely as technology companies. This paper critiques the position that these platforms are technology companies rather than media companies, explores the underlying rationales, and considers the political, legal, and policy implications associ...

  8. Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch Technology for Short Pulse Electromagnetics and Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denison, Gary J.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; O' Malley, Martin W.; Zutavern, Fred J.

    1999-08-05

    High gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) are being used to produce high power electromagnetic pulses foc (1) compact, repetitive accelerators, (2) ultra-wide band impulse sources, (3) precision gas switch triggers, (4) optically-activated firesets, and (5) high power optical pulse generation and control. High power, sub-nanosecond optical pulses are used for active optical sensors such as compact optical radars and range-gated hallistic imaging systems. Following a brief introduction to high gain PCSS and its general applications, this paper will focus on PCSS for optical pulse generation and control. PCSS technology can be employed in three distinct approaches to optical pulse generation and control: (1) short pulse carrier injection to induce gain-switching in semiconductor lasers, (2) electro-optical Q-switching, and (3) optically activated Q-switching. The most significant PCSS issues for these applications are switch rise time, jitter, and longevity. This paper will describe both the requirements of these applications and the most recent results from PCSS technology. Experiments to understand and expand the limitations of high gain PCSS will also be described.

  9. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  10. Prediction of Transcriptional Terminators in Bacillus subtilis and Related Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available In prokaryotes, genes belonging to the same operon are transcribed in a single mRNA molecule. Transcription starts as the RNA polymerase binds to the promoter and continues until it reaches a transcriptional terminator. Some terminators rely on the presence of the Rho protein, whereas others function independently of Rho. Such Rho-independent terminators consist of an inverted repeat followed by a stretch of thymine residues, allowing us to predict their presence directly from the DNA sequence. Unlike in Escherichia coli, the Rho protein is dispensable in Bacillus subtilis, suggesting a limited role for Rho-dependent termination in this organism and possibly in other Firmicutes. We analyzed 463 experimentally known terminating sequences in B. subtilis and found a decision rule to distinguish Rho-independent transcriptional terminators from non-terminating sequences. The decision rule allowed us to find the boundaries of operons in B. subtilis with a sensitivity and specificity of about 94%. Using the same decision rule, we found an average sensitivity of 94% for 57 bacteria belonging to the Firmicutes phylum, and a considerably lower sensitivity for other bacteria. Our analysis shows that Rho-independent termination is dominant for Firmicutes in general, and that the properties of the transcriptional terminators are conserved. Terminator prediction can be used to reliably predict the operon structure in these organisms, even in the absence of experimentally known operons. Genome-wide predictions of Rho-independent terminators for the 57 Firmicutes are available in the Supporting Information section.

  11. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN FAMILY COMPANIES AND NON-FAMILY COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Siniša Arsić

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the strategic innovation attributes that are represented in family companies, and the paper cross examinates a significant number of references dealing with this topic. In the reviewed literature, one aspect is usually imposed as a basis for comparison and evaluation of innovation in family companies, and it is "strategic entrepreneurship" (functional link of strategy and idea generation from an individual or a team of pe...

  12. Reasons of conscience and termination of employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The plaintiff was head of a research team in a German subsidiary company of a British pharmaceutical company. The research team was to carry out tests with volounteers for medical acceptance of a newly developed agent against nausea (preliminary product name BRL 43694-5-HT receptor antagonist). The goal was to prove the agent's efficacy for prevention or treatment of acute radiation sickness due to radiotherapy, or in the event of a nuclear war. The plaintiff refused for reasons of conscience to take part in this work. As the firm could not give him other tasks to do, notice of routine dismissal was sent after several warnings, against which he brought an action in court. The Federal Labour Court's decision headnotes state among other reasons: If serious reasons of conscience (para. 315 I BGB) do not allow an employer to assign a particular job to an employee, the reason for dismissal lies with the personality of the employee, if the firm cannot offer any other job. The personal conscience of the employee may not restrict the employer's freedom to determine their activities and product range. The employee in this case is not able to perform his duty in accordance with para. 297 BGB. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.

    1987-01-01

    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  14. Early-stage biotech companies: strategies for survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wendy; Erickson, Stanford

    2006-06-01

    The promise of start-up biotechnology companies is enormous. So are the risks and the uncertainty of product development. The authors present a checklist for young biotech companies, covering environmental factors, alliances, and strategic planning.

  15. Structure of the Afferent Terminals in Terminal Ganglion of a Cricket and Persistent Homology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jacob; Gedeon, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    We use topological data analysis to investigate the three dimensional spatial structure of the locus of afferent neuron terminals in crickets Acheta domesticus. Each afferent neuron innervates a filiform hair positioned on a cercus: a protruding appendage at the rear of the animal. The hairs transduce air motion to the neuron signal that is used by a cricket to respond to the environment. We stratify the hairs (and the corresponding afferent terminals) into classes depending on hair length, along with position. Our analysis uncovers significant structure in the relative position of these terminal classes and suggests the functional relevance of this structure. Our method is very robust to the presence of significant experimental and developmental noise. It can be used to analyze a wide range of other point cloud data sets. PMID:22649516

  16. Structure of the afferent terminals in terminal ganglion of a cricket and persistent homology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Brown

    Full Text Available We use topological data analysis to investigate the three dimensional spatial structure of the locus of afferent neuron terminals in crickets Acheta domesticus. Each afferent neuron innervates a filiform hair positioned on a cercus: a protruding appendage at the rear of the animal. The hairs transduce air motion to the neuron signal that is used by a cricket to respond to the environment. We stratify the hairs (and the corresponding afferent terminals into classes depending on hair length, along with position. Our analysis uncovers significant structure in the relative position of these terminal classes and suggests the functional relevance of this structure. Our method is very robust to the presence of significant experimental and developmental noise. It can be used to analyze a wide range of other point cloud data sets.

  17. SPECIFIC ASPECTS OF STRATEGIC ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN FAMILY COMPANIES AND NON-FAMILY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Arsić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the strategic innovation attributes that are represented in family companies, and the paper cross examinates a significant number of references dealing with this topic. In the reviewed literature, one aspect is usually imposed as a basis for comparison and evaluation of innovation in family companies, and it is "strategic entrepreneurship" (functional link of strategy and idea generation from an individual or a team of people. The abovementioned aspect is not analyzed in detail in the case of intrapreneurship in non-family companies. The aim of this paper is in realization of high-quality supplements or conclusions from the literature dealing with strategic entrepreneurship. The originality of this work lies in the analysis and comparison of family and non-family companies, by amending the variables that define strategic enterpreneurship. Thus, it allows the applicability of the same variables in the case of analysing family and non-family companies, and also identifies variables unique to a family company.

  18. Finance Companies and Small Business Borrowers: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes, George; Watts, Myles

    1996-01-01

    Finance companies have been perceived as isolated and insignificant lenders, attracting high risk borrowers and charging these borrowers relatively high prices. Using the 1988 National Survey of Small Business Finance, this study examines the relationship between finance companies and other lenders, describes the characteristics of borrowers attracted to finance companies and assesses whether finance companies charge higher loan prices and impose more stringent collateral requirements on thei...

  19. Comparison Between Switching and Creativity Among Bilingual and Monolingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Yousefi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion In accordance with the results of the study, it can be concluded that learning English through educational institutions, and at an advanced level, significantly increases the switching capability in children as well as their scores across the three components of creativity (fluency, flexibility, and elaboration. Therefore, the role of second language acquisition should be highlighted because of its contribution to children's creativity and ability to switch. In general, better performances of children are attributed to the capability of switching languages, specific cognitive mechanisms used in the two systems of languages, their familiarity with a new culture and customs while learning a new language, the intensive training sessions as well as the special atmosphere prevailing in the classes.

  20. Scale of activities and profit division in the agricultural companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Franc-Dąbrowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the issue of different dividend policies in agricultural companies of different sizes. The research involving sample of 469 companies clearly proved there is a lack of dependency between scale of activities and dividend payments.

  1. Barriers between international students and Swedish companies

    OpenAIRE

    Qytyku, Silvana Agolli and Sokol

    2008-01-01

    Title: Barriers between international student’s and Swedish companies Course: Master thesis in business administration, 15 ECTS Date: June 2008 Authors: Silvana Agolli and Sokol Qytyku Supervisor: Dr. Per Eisele In this thesis report we have conduct a primary research on Blekinge area, while it is a shortage of IT workers and at the same time there were a lot of internationals students that graduated every year and didn’t get those available jobs. In this investigation we wanted to find out t...

  2. A note on consummation and termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calef, V; Weinshel, E M

    1983-01-01

    The sensation sometimes expressed by analytic patients, most notably during termination of having left some "unfinished business" (to which they hope to return) is not necessarily simply a judgment about the analysis; frequently it is an affective component of the wish for consummation which has not been granted by the analysis. Simultaneously, it expresses the defense against that very consummation. The wish to give the analyst a gift is in some sense the direct opposite, or more correctly, expresses the defense more openly as a bribe and warning to the analyst that he should not expect or hope for consummation of the instinctual wishes which have been the center of analytic work; i.e., it is a defense against the fulfillment of those wishes almost as if the analyst, by attempting to analyze them, insists upon their enactment. Nevertheless, and despite the apparent contradiction, both affects, which serve similar functions, may appear simultaneously.

  3. 76 FR 24465 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Electric Company Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission and Establishing Procedural... Gas and Electric Company. e. Name of Project: Drum-Spaulding Project. f. Location: The west slope of..., Pacific Gas and Electric Company, P.O. Box 770000, San Francisco, CA 94177-0001, (415) 973-4481, or e-mail...

  4. 49 CFR 387.315 - Insurance and surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance and surety companies. 387.315 Section... Carriers and Property Brokers § 387.315 Insurance and surety companies. A certificate of insurance or surety bond will not be accepted by the FMCSA unless issued by an insurance or surety company that is...

  5. Market research companies and new product development tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, Edwin J.; Frambach, Ruud T.

    1998-01-01

    This research investigates (1) the share of new product development (NPD) research services in market research (MR) companies' turnover, (2) MR companies' awareness and use of NPD tools and the modifications made to these NPD tools, and (3) MR company managers' perceptions of the influence of client

  6. Executive remuneration and company performance for South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    managers became known as the directors of a company (and act as the agents). The. Mrs H.E. Scholtz is a ... remuneration and company performance, including the agency theory, is discussed. This is followed by an ..... companies', Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economic, 36(4): 405–426. Girma, P., Thomson, S.

  7. Exporting by Latvian companies: vitality, drivers of success, and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Talis J. Putninš

    2013-01-01

    This paper sheds light on Latvian exporters – how active they are, what challenges they face, what makes them succeed or fail. Our study draws on a survey of 503 medium-sized Latvian companies. We find that most medium-sized Latvian companies are exporters (either directly or indirectly) and for a typical exporting company, export turnover constitutes more than half of its total turnover. Exporting companies tend to be larger, younger and faster growing than their non-exporting counterparts. ...

  8. Australian Coal Company Risk Factors: Coal and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    M. Zahid Hasan; Ronald A. Ratti

    2014-01-01

    Examination of panel data on listed coal companies on the Australian exchange over January 1999 to February 2010 suggests that market return, interest rate premium, foreign exchange rate risk, and coal price returns are statistically significant in determining the excess return on coal companies’ stock. Coal price return and oil price return increases have statistically significant positive effects on coal company stock returns. A one per cent rise in coal price raises coal company returns ...

  9. Strategic Partnering with Chinese Companies: Hidden Motives and Treasures

    OpenAIRE

    Duysters, Geert; Saebi, Tina; Dong, Qinqin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we aim to investigate the key drivers of international alliance formation from the perspective of Chinese companies. Our results indicate that Chinese companies enter into alliances with Western companies mainly to get accesses to international markets and to develop their technological and managerial competences further. Therefore we can say that Chinese companies particularly value task-related criteria when selecting Western partners. Nevertheless we also find that Chinese co...

  10. Maitenance management and the production company management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Fries

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available A systematic and processional attitude to the maintenance management, as processional technical activities, has to be followed by firms and production companies for their organization processes including the maintenance. Then, an excellent level can be achieved according to the theory of vitality. In practice, it means that the maintenance is controlled in right way and the principles of the vitality theory have to be applied into the maintenance management. Application principles of the vitality theory in the management for maintenance management as a processional technical activity.

  11. 49 CFR 387.409 - Insurance and surety companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Insurance and surety companies. 387.409 Section... Forwarders § 387.409 Insurance and surety companies. A certificate of insurance or surety bond will not be accepted by the FMCSA unless issued by an insurance or surety company that is authorized (licensed or...

  12. 75 FR 55699 - Series LLCs and Cell Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... from the creditors of any other cell and from the creditors of the cell company. Under current law... law entity, such as an ordinary limited liability company. Individual series generally are not treated... insurance businesses. See, for example, The Companies (Guernsey) Law, 2008 Part XXVII (Protected Cell...

  13. Fast and low power Michelson interferometer thermo-optical switch on SOI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Junfeng; Fang, Q; Tao, S H; Liow, T Y; Yu, M B; Lo, G Q; Kwong, D L

    2008-09-29

    We designed and fabricated silicon-on-insulator based Michelson interferometer (MI) thermo-optical switches with deep etched trenches for heat-isolation. Switch power was reduced approximately 20% for the switch with deep etched trenches, and the MI saved approximately 50% power than that of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer. 10.6 mW switch power, approximately 42 micros switch time for the MI with deep trenches, 13.14 mW switch power and approximately 34 micros switch time for the MI without deep trenches were achieved.

  14. Analytical Modeling and Simulation of Four-Switch Hybrid Power Filter Working with Sixfold Switching Symmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlustý, J.; Škramlík, Jiří; Švec, J.; Valouch, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2012, č. 292178 (2012), s. 1-17 ISSN 1024-123X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : analytical modeling * four-switch hybrid power filter * sixfold switching symmetry Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.383, year: 2012 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/mpe/2012/292178/

  15. Death Education and Attitudes toward Euthanasia and Terminal Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagi, Mostafa H.; Lazerine, Neil G.

    1982-01-01

    Analyzed attitudes of 614 Protestant and Catholic Cleveland clergy toward terminal illness and euthanasia. Clergy responses revealed that, although eager to prolong life, terminally ill patients feared prolonged illness more than death. The controversial nature of euthanasia became more apparent with clergy who had more training in death…

  16. 77 FR 70174 - Waterway Suitability Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-23

    ... Assessment for Expansion of Liquefied Gas Terminals; Houston and Texas City, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Assessment to the Coast Guard Captain of the Port, Sector Houston-Galveston regarding the company's proposed expansion of its Liquefied Hazardous Gas (LHG) facilities in Houston and Texas City, Texas, and increased...

  17. Emerging Market Multinational Companies and Internationalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bernhard; Estrin, Saul; Nielsen, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    This paper furthers our understanding of the role of contextual conditions influencing internationalization of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs). We use resource-based, industrial organization, and economic development theories to develop a multilevel theoretical framework for inves......This paper furthers our understanding of the role of contextual conditions influencing internationalization of emerging market multinational companies (EMNCs). We use resource-based, industrial organization, and economic development theories to develop a multilevel theoretical framework...... for investigating the importance of specific contextual factors at home country as well as industry level for EMNC international expansion. We develop a multilevel theoretical framework for investigating the importance of specific contextual factors at the home country and industry level that may act as either...... of urbanization of the home country enhances the effects of tangible resources, it reduces the impact of intangible firm level resources on firm internationalization. We discuss these findings in relation to international business theories and illustrate the importance of context for EMNC internationalization....

  18. Optical tristability and ultrafast Fano switching in nonlinear magnetoplasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenjing; Ma, Pujuan; Sun, Hua; Gao, Lei; Noskov, Roman E.

    2018-02-01

    We consider light scattering by a coated magnetoplasmonic nanoparticle with a Kerr-type nonlinear plasmonic shell and a magneto-optic core. Such a structure features two plasmon dipole modes, associated with electronic oscillations on the inner and outer surfaces of the shell. Driven in a nonlinear regime, each mode exhibits a bistable response. Bistability of an inner plasmon leads to switching between this state and a Fano resonance (Fano switching). Once the external light intensity exceeds a critical value, the bistability zones of both eigenmodes overlap, yielding optical tristability characterized by three stable steady states for a given wavelength and light intensity. We develop a dynamic theory of transitions between nonlinear steady states and estimate the characteristic switching time to be as short as 0.5 ps. We also show that the magneto-optical effect allows red and blue spectral shifts of the Fano profile for right and left circular polarizations of the external light, rendering Fano switching sensitive to light polarization. Specifically, one can reach Fano switching for the right circular polarization while cancelling it for the left circular polarization. The results point to a class of ultrafast Fano switchers tunable by a magnetic field for applications in nanophotonics.

  19. Tetrapodal Molecular Switches and Motors : Synthesis and Photochemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Kuang-Yen; Wezenberg, Sander J.; Carroll, Gregory T.; London, Gabor; Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Pijper, Thomas C.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2014-01-01

    The design, synthesis, and dynamic behavior of a series of novel tetrapodal molecular switches and motors containing common functional groups for attachment to various inorganic and organic surfaces are presented. Using a Diels-Alder reaction, an anthracene unit with four functionalized alkyl

  20. Bipolar resistive switching and charge transport in silicon oxide memristor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylov, Alexey N., E-mail: mian@nifti.unn.ru [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23/3 Gagarin Prospect, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Belov, Alexey I.; Guseinov, Davud V.; Korolev, Dmitry S.; Antonov, Ivan N.; Efimovykh, Denis V.; Tikhov, Stanislav V.; Kasatkin, Alexander P.; Gorshkov, Oleg N.; Tetelbaum, David I.; Bobrov, Alexander I.; Malekhonova, Natalia V.; Pavlov, Dmitry A. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23/3 Gagarin Prospect, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Gryaznov, Evgeny G. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod, 23/3 Gagarin Prospect, Nizhni Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Sedakov Scientific-Research Institute, GSP-486, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Yatmanov, Alexander P. [Sedakov Scientific-Research Institute, GSP-486, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Si-based thin-film memristor structure was fabricated by magnetron sputtering. • We study bipolar resistive switching and charge transport mechanisms. • Resistive switching parameters are determined by a balance between redox reactions. - Abstract: Reproducible bipolar resistive switching has been studied in SiO{sub x}-based thin-film memristor structures deposited by magnetron sputtering technique on the TiN/Ti metalized SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates. It is established that, after electroforming, the structure can be switched between the quasi-ohmic low-resistance state related to silicon chains (conducting filaments) and the high-resistance state with semiconductor-like hopping mechanism of charge transport through the defects in silicon oxide. The switching parameters are determined by a balance between the reduction and oxidation processes that, in turn, are driven by the value and polarity of voltage bias, current, temperature and device environment. The results can be used for the development of silicon-based nonvolatile memory and memristive systems as a key component of future electronics.

  1. Alliances and partnering: A new relationship between oil/gas producing companies and service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazi, N.H.; Hottman, W.E.; Logan, J.L.; Verrett, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The current state of the energy industry finds both operating and service companies squeezed by lower prices and higher costs. Investment in exploration, equipment, and technology has been severely restricted. Many operators are responding to these harsh market conditions by re-engineering their work processes and focusing on core business activities. Re-engineered work processes encourage operators and service companies to work closely together. This motivates both to eliminate duplication, simplify processes, increase efficiency and capitalize on combined expertise to enhance production and optimize total system cost. Alliances and partnering are based on mutual trust and the commitment to add value to both organizations. Aligning interests is fundamental in establishing a lasting and mutually beneficial relationship. This paper presents an overview of these new relationships. The benefits and concerns of changing from traditional bidding agreements to new business arrangements between producing companies and service companies is discussed. Evaluation criteria for potential candidates, how to structure an alliance or partnering agreement, and a discussion of the key issues in the application of incentive contracts is presented

  2. Simulation and test of the thermal behavior of pressure switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifang; Chen, Daner; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Tingting

    2018-04-01

    Little, lightweight, low-power microelectromechanical system (MEMS) pressure switches offer a good development prospect for small, ultra-long, simple atmosphere environments. In order to realize MEMS pressure switch, it is necessary to solve one of the key technologies such as thermal robust optimization. The finite element simulation software is used to analyze the thermal behavior of the pressure switch and the deformation law of the pressure switch film under different temperature. The thermal stress releasing schemes are studied by changing the structure of fixed form and changing the thickness of the substrate, respectively. Finally, the design of the glass substrate thickness of 2.5 mm is used to ensure that the maximum equivalent stress is reduced to a quarter of the original value, only 154 MPa when the structure is in extreme temperature (80∘C). The test results show that after the pressure switch is thermally optimized, the upper and lower electrodes can be reliably contacted to accommodate different operating temperature environments.

  3. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jewon; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  4. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jewon; Hong, Seong Sook; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Joo; Chang, Yun Woo

    2015-01-01

    We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  5. Acute diverticulitis of the terminal ileum: ultrasonography and CT findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a rare case of terminal ileal diverticulitis in a 68-year-old female with a day of history Epub ahead of print of right lower quadrant pain and tenderness, mimicking acute appendicitis. Ultrasonography revealed small sac-like out-pouching lesions with increased echogenicity of surrounding fat in thickened terminal ileum, suggesting inflamed diverticula. We diagnosed terminal ileal diverticulitis primarily by ultrasonography. The diagnosis was confirmed by subsequent computed tomography.

  6. Selective and genetic constraints on pneumococcal serotype switching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Croucher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates typically express one of over 90 immunologically distinguishable polysaccharide capsules (serotypes, which can be classified into "serogroups" based on cross-reactivity with certain antibodies. Pneumococci can alter their serotype through recombinations affecting the capsule polysaccharide synthesis (cps locus. Twenty such "serotype switching" events were fully characterised using a collection of 616 whole genome sequences from systematic surveys of pneumococcal carriage. Eleven of these were within-serogroup switches, representing a highly significant (p < 0.0001 enrichment based on the observed serotype distribution. Whereas the recombinations resulting in between-serogroup switches all spanned the entire cps locus, some of those that caused within-serogroup switches did not. However, higher rates of within-serogroup switching could not be fully explained by either more frequent, shorter recombinations, nor by genetic linkage to genes involved in β-lactam resistance. This suggested the observed pattern was a consequence of selection for preserving serogroup. Phenotyping of strains constructed to express different serotypes in common genetic backgrounds was used to test whether genotypes were physiologically adapted to particular serogroups. These data were consistent with epistatic interactions between the cps locus and the rest of the genome that were specific to serotype, but not serogroup, meaning they were unlikely to account for the observed distribution of capsule types. Exclusion of these genetic and physiological hypotheses suggested future work should focus on alternative mechanisms, such as host immunity spanning multiple serotypes within the same serogroup, which might explain the observed pattern.

  7. Switched capacitor DC-DC converter with switch conductance modulation and Pesudo-fixed frequency control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Dennis Øland; Vinter, Martin; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    .25 kHz, 250 kHz, 500 kHz, and 1 MHz, while maintaining regulation of the output voltage. The controller is implemented in 180 CMOS with a 1/3 series-parallel output stage designed for 3.6–4.2 V input, 1.2 V output, and 1–40 mA load current. The proposed controller is compared with a co-integrated pulse...... skipping controller and yields a 84.8% reduction in worst-case low-load output ripple voltage and a 1.5% increase in peak efficiency reaching 92.5%, while also providing a predictable spectrum of the switching noise, reducing the risk of interfering with other sensitive circuits....

  8. Biologicals and switch in rheumatoid arthritis throughout time - are we being more aggressive? Biologicals and switch in rheumatoid arthritis throughout time - are we being more aggressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramiro, Sofia; Roque, Raquel; Vinagre, Filipe; Cordeiro, Ana; Tavares, Viviana; van Tubergen, Astrid; Canas da Silva, J.; Landewé, Robert; Santos, M. José

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the switches performed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis under biolo-gical therapy and specifically comparing the swi-tches from earlier days with more recent switches. Patients and methods: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis under biological therapy followed at

  9. Distinguishing Reconfiguration and Compound-cue Retrieval in Task Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon D Logan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers claim that task switching requires reconfiguration of the cognitive system. Others claim that task switching involves cue-based memory retrieval processes and not reconfiguration. We evaluate these competing claims by developing both reconfiguration and cue-based memory models in a common theoretical framework and by fitting the models to' target functions', which show how performance on individual target stimuli varies depending on the task subjects perform on the targets. Our analyses show that the process of compound-cue retrieval – using the task cue and the target as joint retrieval cues to select a response from memory – is sufficient to explain target functions for parity and magnitude judgments of digits and that reconfiguration does not seem to add anything to the explanation. We address the generality of this conclusion and speculate about the conditions under which reconfiguration may be necessary for task switching.

  10. Role of Ess1 in growth, morphogenetic switching, and RNA polymerase II transcription in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanushki Samaranayake

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a fungal pathogen that causes potentially fatal infections among immune-compromised individuals. The emergence of drug resistant C. albicans strains makes it important to identify new antifungal drug targets. Among potential targets are enzymes known as peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases that catalyze isomerization of peptide bonds preceding proline. We are investigating a PPIase called Ess1, which is conserved in all major human pathogenic fungi. Previously, we reported that C. albicans Ess1 is essential for growth and morphogenetic switching. In the present study, we re-evaluated these findings using more rigorous genetic analyses, including the use of additional CaESS1 mutant alleles, distinct marker genes, and the engineering of suitably-matched isogenic control strains. The results confirm that CaEss1 is essential for growth in C. albicans, but show that reduction of CaESS1 gene dosage by half (δ/+ does not interfere with morphogenetic switching. However, further reduction of CaEss1 levels using a conditional allele does reduce morphogenetic switching. We also examine the role of the linker α-helix that distinguishes C. albicans Ess1 from the human Pin1 enzyme, and present results of a genome-wide transcriptome analysis. The latter analysis indicates that CaEss1 has a conserved role in regulation of RNA polymerase II function, and is required for efficient termination of small nucleolar RNAs and repression of cryptic transcription in C. albicans.

  11. Research Update: Molecular electronics: The single-molecule switch and transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Sotthewes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design and realize single-molecule devices it is essential to have a good understanding of the properties of an individual molecule. For electronic applications, the most important property of a molecule is its conductance. Here we show how a single octanethiol molecule can be connected to macroscopic leads and how the transport properties of the molecule can be measured. Based on this knowledge we have realized two single-molecule devices: a molecular switch and a molecular transistor. The switch can be opened and closed at will by carefully adjusting the separation between the electrical contacts and the voltage drop across the contacts. This single-molecular switch operates in a broad temperature range from cryogenic temperatures all the way up to room temperature. Via mechanical gating, i.e., compressing or stretching of the octanethiol molecule, by varying the contact's interspace, we are able to systematically adjust the conductance of the electrode-octanethiol-electrode junction. This two-terminal single-molecule transistor is very robust, but the amplification factor is rather limited.

  12. Emergency Medical Technicians Are Often Consulted on Termination of Resuscitation, and Will Terminate Resuscitation Based on Controversial Single Factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mygind-Klausen, Troels; Glerup Lauridsen, Kasper; Bødtker, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    on abandoning CPR but this is sparsely investigated. Aim: To investigate if EMTs are involved in termination of CPR, their self-assessed competence and knowledge of guidelines on termination of CPR according to European Resuscitation Council guidelines 2015. In addition, to evaluate single factors...... competent in deciding when to abandon CPR. Several EMTs (40%) had experienced a physician terminating CPR earlier than the EMT felt was correct. The majority of EMTs (94%) did not know ERC guidelines on termination of CPR. EMTs would abandon CPR based on the following single factors: unwitnessed cardiac...... consulted on termination of CPR. They feel competent in deciding when to abandon CPR, but do not know the ERC guidelines on termination of CPR. Several EMTs would terminate CPR based on controversial single factors. Author Disclosures: T. Mygind-Klausen: None. K. G. Lauridsen: None. H. Bødker: None. B...

  13. When Oil and Wind Turbine Companies Make Green Sense Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2009-01-01

    In this article I contribute to descriptive green business research on how processes of eco‐effective greening business unfold in practical reality. I look into the case of the increasing interaction between the multinational oil company Shell and the world's largest wind turbine company Vestas. I...... draw on descriptive organizational sense‐making theory and analyse to this end the shared green sense‐making of Shell and Vestas on off‐shore wind energy business. The article concludes that greening companies such as Shell – that are not born green – might be considerably advanced if these companies...... strengthen their relationships with companies such as Vestas – that are born green. This is so since companies that are born green have strong green ecocentric business beliefs that can function as important engines in shared green sense‐making with companies that are not born green and have more hesitant...

  14. When Oil and Wind Turbine Companies Make Green Sense Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    2007-01-01

    In this article I contribute to descriptive green business research on how processes of eco-effective greening business unfold in the practical reality. I look into the case of the increasing interaction between the multinational oil company Shell and the world's largest wind turbine company Vestas....... I draw on descriptive organisational sense-making theory and analyse to this end Shell and Vestas' shared green sense-making on off-shore wind energy business. The article concludes that greening companies such as Shell - that are not born green - might be considerably advanced, if these companies...... strengthen their relationships with companies such as Vestas - that are born green. This is so, since companies that are born green have strong green ecocentric business beliefs that can function as important engines in shared green sense-making with companies that are not born green and have more hesitant...

  15. When Oil and Wind Turbine Companies Make Green Sense Together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Lise

    In this article I contribute to descriptive green business research on how processes of eco-effective greening business unfold in the practical reality. I look into the case of the increasing interaction between the multinational oil company Shell and the world's largest wind turbine company Vestas....... I draw on descriptive organisational sense-making theory and analyse to this end Shell and Vestas' shared green sense-making on off-shore wind energy business. The article concludes that greening companies such as Shell - that are not born green - might be considerably advanced, if these companies...... strengthen their relationships with companies such as Vestas - that are born green. This is so, since companies that are born green have strong green ecocentric business beliefs that can function as important engines in shared green sense-making with companies that are not born green and have more hesitant...

  16. 77 FR 29884 - Assessment of Fees on Large Bank Holding Companies and Nonbank Financial Companies Supervised by...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... consideration their capital structure, riskiness, complexity, financial activities (including the financial... Companies and Nonbank Financial Companies Supervised by the Federal Reserve Board To Cover the Expenses of the Financial Research Fund AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule and interim...

  17. Torque and Suspension Force in a Bearingless Switched Reluctance Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemoto, Masatsugu; Chiba, Akira; Akagi, Hirofumi; Fukao, Tadashi

    Bearingless switched reluctance motors, which can control rotor radial positions with magnetic force, have been proposed. The bearingless switched reluctance motors are characterized by integration of switched reluctance motors and magnetic bearings. These motors have two kinds of stator windings composed of motor main windings and suspension windings in the same stator in order to produce suspension force that can realize rotor shaft suspension without mechanical contacts or lubrication. For successful stable operation, accurate theoretical formulae of instantaneous torque and suspension force are necessary to a rotational speed controller and a rotor radial position controller. This paper derives the theoretical formulae of the instantaneous torque and the suspension force from an assumption of simple permeance distribution. This derivation process makes an assumption that fringing fluxes are distributed on elliptical lines. It is shown with experimental results that the derived theoretical formulae are very accurate in terms of practical application.

  18. 26 CFR 1.821-4 - Tax on mutual insurance companies other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... life insurance companies and other than fire, flood, or marine insurance companies, subject to tax... Life and Certain Marine Insurance Companies and Other Than Fire Or Flood Insurance Companies Which... other than life insurance companies and other than fire, flood, or marine insurance companies, subject...

  19. Fault tolerance in space-based digital signal processing and switching systems: Protecting up-link processing resources, demultiplexer, demodulator, and decoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redinbo, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Fault tolerance features in the first three major subsystems appearing in the next generation of communications satellites are described. These satellites will contain extensive but efficient high-speed processing and switching capabilities to support the low signal strengths associated with very small aperture terminals. The terminals' numerous data channels are combined through frequency division multiplexing (FDM) on the up-links and are protected individually by forward error-correcting (FEC) binary convolutional codes. The front-end processing resources, demultiplexer, demodulators, and FEC decoders extract all data channels which are then switched individually, multiplexed, and remodulated before retransmission to earth terminals through narrow beam spot antennas. Algorithm based fault tolerance (ABFT) techniques, which relate real number parity values with data flows and operations, are used to protect the data processing operations. The additional checking features utilize resources that can be substituted for normal processing elements when resource reconfiguration is required to replace a failed unit.

  20. Solvency and Liquidity in Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heejung Yeo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines factors affecting the solvency of shipping firms. The paper uses a panel dataset and employs the GLM and FGLS regression analyses. This study explores the financial structure of top 130 shipping firms provided by the Factiva database during the period between 2009 and 2013. The paper finds that liquidity is closely related to the leverage of shipping companies. The negative association between the asset liquidity and the leverage level implies that there exist conflicts of interest between managers and investors. Shipping firms have a comfortable high liquidity position, but they have a high degree of leverage. They need to take steps to reduce debts. There is evidence of heterogeneity in the determinants of leverage level. The paper also finds that the variables such as profitability, FSIZE, FAGE influence differently the leverage level whether the debt is short-term or long-term.

  1. COMPETITIVENESS AND INNOVATION OF THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Nagy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In front of the Romanian economy which has been integrated only for a few years, lies the challenge of competitiveness which in many cases is associated with innovation. To turn from a close center oriented economy to market economy required an enormous effort from the population and from the companies as well, but the real challenge is still to come. The requirements of competitiveness and innovation of the United European Market are compulsory, from the point of view of the Romanian entrepreneurs is vital for their survival and development. The studies made so far are not very promising. There are many things to be done, many problems are still not solved in the European Union. The European Union is behind its traditional competitors USA and Japan. This is why one of the major concerns of the EU is competitiveness and innovation.

  2. Emerging Multinational Companies and Strategic Fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Filatotchev, Igor; Hobdari, Bersant

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness in international business that institutional factors need to be better incorporated into the understanding of international investments decisions of multinational companies. This applies equally to outward foreign direct investment by emerging economy firms...... dimensions, domestically, abroad and in the global environment. We then proceed to interpret recent evidence on ‘emerging multinationals’, including the contributions in this special issue, in the context of this framework. We conclude with proposing promising areas of future research........ The intense renewal of interest in these ‘emerging multinationals’ over the last half decade or so has stimulated an increasing volume of contributions offering alternative theoretical perspectives, macro-level surveys of aggregate trends and case studies of firms and their strategies and operations. Not much...

  3. Qualitative differences between bilingual language control and executive control: evidence from task switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eCalabria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous research has shown that highly-proficient bilinguals have comparable switch costs in both directions when they switch between languages (L1 and L2, the so called ‘symmetrical switch cost’ effect. Interestingly, the same symmetry is also present when they switch between L1 and a much weaker L3. These findings suggest that highly proficient bilinguals develop a language control system that seems to be insensitive to language proficiency. In the present study, we explore whether the pattern of symmetrical switch costs in language switching tasks generalizes to a non-linguistic switching task in the same group of highly-proficient bilinguals. The end goal of this is to assess whether bilingual language control (bLC can be considered as subsidiary to domain-general executive control (EC. We tested highly-proficient Catalan-Spanish bilinguals both in a linguistic switching task and in a non-linguistic switching task. In the linguistic task, participants named pictures in L1 and L2 (Experiment 1 or L3 (Experiment 2 depending on a cue presented with the picture (a flag. In the non-linguistic task, the same participants had to switch between two card sorting rule-sets (colour and shape. Overall, participants showed symmetrical switch costs in the linguistic switching task, but not in the non-linguistic switching task. In a further analysis, we observed that in the linguistic switching task the asymmetry of the switch costs changed across blocks, while in the non-linguistic switching task an asymmetrical switch cost was observed throughout the task. The observation of different patterns of switch costs in the linguistic and the non-linguistic switching tasks suggest that the bLC system is not completely subsidiary to the domain-general EC system.

  4. 78 FR 23634 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... Surface Transportation Board Union Pacific Railroad Company--Trackage Rights Exemption--Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement dated December 18, 2012, Elgin, Joliet and Eastern Railway Company (EJ&E) \\1\\ has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to Union...

  5. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  6. Persian Records by the Lindström Company: Triangle of Political Relationships, Local Agents and Recording Company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The earliest engagement of German gramophone companies in recording Persian music dates back to 1906-7, when three tracks were recorded for the Beka Company and a dozen recordings were issued on the Globophon label. About twenty years later the Lindström company was engaged in the process of

  7. Switching Schools: Reconsidering the Relationship Between School Mobility and High School Dropout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasper, Joseph; DeLuca, Stefanie; Estacion, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Youth who switch schools are more likely to demonstrate a wide array of negative behavioral and educational outcomes, including dropping out of high school. However, whether switching schools actually puts youth at risk for dropout is uncertain, since youth who switch schools are similar to dropouts in their levels of prior school achievement and engagement, which suggests that switching schools may be part of the same long-term developmental process of disengagement that leads to dropping out. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, this study uses propensity score matching to pair youth who switched high schools with similar youth who stayed in the same school. We find that while over half the association between switching schools and dropout is explained by observed characteristics prior to 9th grade, switching schools is still associated with dropout. Moreover, the relationship between switching schools and dropout varies depending on a youth's propensity for switching schools. PMID:25554706

  8. Diglossia and Code Switching in Nigeria: Implications for English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses a sociolinguistic phenomenon, 'diglossia' and how it relates to code-switching in bilingual and multilingual societies like Nigeria. First, it examines the relevance of the social and linguistic contexts in determining the linguistic code that bilinguals and multilinguals use in various communicative ...

  9. Optical Switching and Bit Rates of 40 Gbit/s and above

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackaert, A.; Demester, P.; O'Mahony, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optical switching in WDM networks introduces additional aspects to the choice of single channel bit rates compared to WDM transmission systems. The mutual impact of optical switching and bit rates of 40 Gbps and above is discussed....

  10. Knowledge cycle and strategic knowledge within company

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu Nicolescu

    2007-01-01

    In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed an...

  11. Synthesis and characterization of phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel thermosetting imide compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kimura

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenylethynyl terminated novel imide compound based on 1,3-bis(3-aminophenoxybenzene (APB and phenylethynyl trimellitic anhydride (PETA were prepared. The curing behavior of phenylethynyl terminated imide compound was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. The curing reaction of phenylethynylcarbonyl end group completed at 220°C, and proceeded much faster than that of phenylethynyl end group. Glass transition temperature of the thermosetting resin from phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel imide compound determined by dynamic mechanical analysis was almost the same as that of o-cresolnovolac type epoxy resin. In addition, the thermosetting resin from phenylethynylcarbonyl terminated novel imide compound exhibited excellent thermal and dimensional stabilities. These excellent properties of these phenylethynyl terminated imide compound might be due to the incorporation of alkene group or aromatic ring substitutes in the backbones, which might enhance the chain interaction (molecular packing and reduce the molecular chain mobility.

  12. Turning round the tanker: oil companies and corporate social responsibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn-English, Teresa

    1999-01-01

    This article focuses on the conversion of oil companies to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), and their dialogue with charities after their reputations plummeted earlier in this decade, and traces this change in corporate culture and the restructuring of toil company operations to take into account CSR. The growing business for CSR consultants and ethical investment companies, the role of charities such as Oxfam in promoting CSR, the fact that most of the world major oil reserves are in countries with human rights problems, the potency of peer pressure, and the competitive disadvantages now attached to companies having a negative impact are discussed. It is questioned whether the cultural transformation is just another PR exercise, and the unbridgeable gap between environmentally friendly operations advocated by Greenpeace and oil company operations, and the CSR performance of the oil giants are considered. Details of the Nigerian experience, codes for companies, and the views of Greenpeace and Amnesty are given. (UK)

  13. Investigation of a metal-organic interface. Realization and understanding of a molecular switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neucheva, Olga [Forschungszentrum Juelich (DE). Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN), Functional Nanostructures at Surfaces (IBN-3)

    2010-07-01

    The field of molecular organic electronics is an emerging and very dynamic area. The continued trend to miniaturisation, combined with increasing complexity and cost of production in conventional semiconductor electronics, forces companies to turn their attention to alternatives that promise the next levels of scale at significantly lower cost. After consumer electronic devices based on organic transistors, such as TVs and book readers, have already been presented, molecular electronics is expected to offer the next breakthrough in feature size. Unfortunately, most of the organic/metal interfaces contain intrinsic defects that break the homogeneity of the interface properties. In this thesis, the electronic and structural properties of such defects were examined in order to understand the influence of the inhomogeneities on the quality of the interface layer. However, the main focus of this work was the investigation of the local properties of a single molecule. Taking advantage of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope's (STM's) ability to act as a local probe, a single molecular switch was realized and studied. Moreover, in close collaboration with theory groups, the underlying mechanism driving the switching process was identified and described. Besides the investigation of the switching process, the ability of the STM to build nanostructures of different shapes from large organic molecules was shown. Knowing the parameters for realization and control of the switching process and for building the molecular corrals, the results of this investigation enable the reconstruction of the studied molecular ensemble and its deployment in electric molecular circuits, constituting a next step towards further miniaturization of electronic devices. (orig.)

  14. Code-Switching Functions in Modern Hebrew Teaching and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilead, Yona

    2016-01-01

    The teaching and learning of Modern Hebrew outside of Israel is essential to Jewish education and identity. One of the most contested issues in Modern Hebrew pedagogy is the use of code-switching between Modern Hebrew and learners' first language. Moreover, this is one of the longest running disputes in the broader field of second language…

  15. Active Photonic Crystal Switches: Modeling, Design and Experimental Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Yu, Yi; Kristensen, Philip Trøst

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present recent progress in modeling, design, fabrication and experimental characterization of InP photonic crystal all-optical switches. Novel designs with increased flexibility and performance are presented, and their operation using high speed data signals is analyzed...

  16. Diglossia and Code Switching in Nigeria: Implications for English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper discusses a sociolinguistic phenomenon, 'diglossia' and how it relates to code-switching in bilingual and multilingual societies. It highlights the characteristic features of diglossia by discussing the functions and status of languages or varieties of languages that are involved in diglossic situations. The paper goes ...

  17. Antecedents and Consequences of Sales Representatives' Relationship Termination Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geersbro, Jens; Ritter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    's customer portfolio, managers must not only provide a clear definition of the types of customers the organization does not want to serve, but must also implement termination routines within the organization. Managers also need to establish incentives for sales representatives to terminate relationships......Purpose: Most firms have a number of unprofitable customer relationships that drain the firms' resources. However, firms in general and sales representatives in particular hesitate to address this problem and, ultimately, to terminate business relationships. This paper therefore aims to investigate...... the antecedents and consequences of sales representatives' relationship termination competence. Design/methodology/approach: A model of antecedents of sales representatives' relationship termination competence is developed and tested using a cross-sectional survey of more than 800 sales representatives...

  18. Power from Switching across Netdoms through Reflexive and Indexical Language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fontdevila, Jorge

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In differentiated societies with far-reaching yet fragmented social networks, the ability to manage pervasive ambiguity is crucial to navigate domination orders. In this paper we contend that identities, to enhance their control through switchings across networks and domains (netdoms, manage growing ambiguity via language’s reflexive and indexical features. We elaborate on several features—metapragmatics, heteroglossia, and poetics—and assert that they are seldom innocent performances to build consensus in the reproduction of social orders. On the contrary, language is inherently implicated in relations of domination. We then argue that metapragmatic control of stories acquired in countless netdom switchings leads to strong footings that secure resources and opportunity; that rhetorics that include rich heteroglossic voicing via structural holes generate stories that can be reflexively transposed to other institutional arenas; and that poetic control of speech styles may transform identities into power-law constellations with robust footing that decouple into prisms to preserve quality. Our goal is to twofold: First, to show that the reflexivity and indexicality of language emerges from myriad switchings across netdoms; and second, to demonstrate that reflexive and indexical language is critical to identities’ struggles for control—of footing and domination—via their switchings across rapidly polymerizing netdoms.

  19. Determination of the mechanical thermostat electrical contacts switching quality with sound and vibration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejc, Jure; Munih, Marko [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-05-15

    A mechanical thermostat is a device that switches heating or cooling appliances on or off based on temperature. For this kind of use, electronic or mechanical switching concepts are applied. During the production of electrical contacts, several irregularities can occur leading to improper switching events of the thermostat electrical contacts. This paper presents a non-obstructive method based on the fact that when the switching event occurs it can be heard and felt by human senses. We performed several laboratory tests with two different methods. The first method includes thermostat switch sound signal analysis during the switching event. The second method is based on sampling of the accelerometer signal during the switching event. The results show that the sound analysis approach has great potential. The approach enables an accurate determination of the switching event even if the sampled signal carries also the switching event of the neighbour thermostat.

  20. Stability of Large Direct-Current Power Systems That Use Switching Converters and the Application of Switching Converters to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Bruce A.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1997-01-01

    As direct-current space power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When a large direct-current system that uses power converters of this type is being designed, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. The impedance specification approach for system stability was accomplished as a result of cooperative work of the International Space Station program team, which consists of the NASA Lewis Research Center, the Boeing Company, and Rocketdyne Division/Rockwell International. In addition, major contributions were provided by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University working under a grant to NASA Lewis.

  1. Cell state switching factors and dynamical patterning modules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-01-05

    Jan 5, 2009 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 34; Issue 4. Cell state switching factors and dynamical patterning modules: complementary mediators of plasticity in development and evolution. Stuart A Newman Ramray Bhat Nadejda V Mezentseva. Articles Volume 34 Issue 4 October 2009 pp 553-572 ...

  2. Bistable soliton states and switching in doubly inhomogeneously ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    there has been a considerable interest in bistable solitons in glass fibers (with non-Kerr properties), in connection with optical bistability and other possible applications leading to switching and logic-gate devices. In literature one distinguishes between two kinds of bistable solitons: one for which the nonlinear propagation ...

  3. Ultrafast Terahertz Dynamics and Switching in Quantum Dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2012-01-01

    In this Chapter we describe the experimental studies of ultrafast carrier dynamics and all-optical switching in semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) using ultrafast terahertz (THz) techniques. In the first part of this chapter we describe the studies of carrier capture into the QDs, and thermionic...

  4. Switching between Domestic Market Activity, Export and FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiller, Sanne; Yalcin, Erdal

    -concentration trade-off with a stochastic productivity evolution, we analyze the transition dynamics between domestic market serving, exporting and FDI. We find that a stochastic productivity development generates hysteresis, and thereby confirm a general real option result. Market serving mode switching is driven...

  5. Perceptual and Conceptual Priming of Cue Encoding in Task Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Darryl W.

    2016-01-01

    Transition effects in task-cuing experiments can be partitioned into task switching and cue repetition effects by using multiple cues per task. In the present study, the author shows that cue repetition effects can be partitioned into perceptual and conceptual priming effects. In 2 experiments, letters or numbers in their uppercase/lowercase or…

  6. Code-switching and communicative competence in the language ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Code switching (CS) is a normal practice among bilingual and multilingual speakers both in the community at large and at schools despite it being mostly prohibited in most South African classrooms. Even though educators express the banes of CS or even deny its use in the classroom, the study on which this paper draws ...

  7. Mononuclear and terminal zirconium and hafnium methylidenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Masahiro; Pinter, Balazs; Chen, Chun-Hsing; Pink, Maren; Mindiola, Daniel J

    2014-10-06

    The dimethyl aryloxide complexes [(PNP)M(CH3)2(OAr)] (M=Zr or Hf; PNP(-)=N[2-P(CHMe2)2-4-methylphenyl]2); Ar=2,6-iPr2C6H3), which were readily prepared from [(PNP)M(CH3)3] by alcoholysis with HOAr, undergo photolytically induced α-hydrogen abstraction to cleanly produce complexes [(PNP)M=CH2(OAr)] with terminal methylidene ligands. These unique systems have been fully characterized, including the determination of a solid-state structure in the case of M=Zr. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Modeling the Structural-Thermal-Electrical Coupling in an Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Switch and Its Impact on the Switch Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of a MEMS cantilever switch subjected to both electrical and thermal loadings are presented. The thermal loading forces can be as a result of a huge amount of switching contact of the microswitch. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium and the electric force as a nonlinear function of displacement and accounts for its fringing-field effect. The electric force is assumed to be distributed over specific lengths underneath the microbeam. A boundary-value solver is used to study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We have found negligible influence of the temperature on the static stability of the switch. We then investigate the effect of the thermal heating due to the current flow on the cantilever switch while it is in the on position (adhered position. We also found slight effect on the static stability of the switch.

  9. Filament growth and resistive switching in hafnium oxide memristive devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirkmann, Sven; Kaiser, Jan; Wenger, Christian; Mussenbrock, Thomas

    2018-03-30

    We report on the resistive switching in TiN/Ti/HfO 2 /TiN memristive devices. A resistive switching model for the device is proposed, taking into account important experimental and theoretical findings. The proposed switching model is validated using 2D and 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulation models. The models are consistently coupled to the electric field and different current transport mechanisms as direct tunneling, trap assisted tunneling (TAT), ohmic transport, and transport through a quantum point contact (QPC) have been considered. We find that the numerical results are in excellent agreement with experimentally obtained data. Important device parameters, which are difficult or impossible to measure in experiments, are calculated. This includes the shape of the conductive filament, width of filament constriction, current density, and temperature distribution. To obtain insights in the operation of the device, consecutive cycles have been simulated. Furthermore, the switching kinetic for the forming and set process for different applied voltages is investigated. Finally, the influence of an annealing process on the filament growth, especially on the filament growth direction, is discussed.

  10. Magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirbie, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  11. Company Law Modernisation and Corporate Governance in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Tomasic

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Many elements of British company law are deeply embedded in nineteenth-century assumptions. Change has come very slowly when efforts have been made to modernise company law in the United Kingdom. The passage of the Companies Act 2006 was a significant advance after a lengthy period of debate and consultation, but the outcome is far from perfect. This legislation has, however, introduced some important new concepts into this body of British law. The Act sought to simplify company law and to start with a small firm focus as these comprise the vast majority of companies. For the first time, the Act also codified the duties of directors and introduced the concept of ‘enlightened shareholder value’, to give greater attention to stakeholders other than shareholders and to encourage companies to adopt more long-term perspectives. This paper explores some of these important changes.

  12. Design and characterization of a three-terminal transcriptional device through polymerase per second.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadarajan, Prasanna Amur; Del Vecchio, Domitilla

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, we provide an in silico input-output characterization of a three-terminal transcriptional device employing polymerase per second (PoPS) as input and output. The device is assembled from well-characterized parts of the bacteriophage lambda switch transcriptional circuit. We draw the analogy between voltage and protein concentration and between current and PoPS to demonstrate that the characteristics of the three-terminal transcriptional device are qualitatively similar to those of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT). In particular, as it occurs in a BJT, the device can be tuned to operate either as a linear amplifier or as a switch. When the device operates as a linear amplifier, gains of twofolds can be obtained, which are considerably smaller than those obtained in a BJT (in which 100-fold amplification gains can be reached). This fact suggests that the parts extracted from natural transcriptional systems may be naturally designed mostly to process and store information as opposed to amplify signals.

  13. Self-Management of Hybrid Optical and Packet Switching Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fioreze, Tiago; Pras, Aiko

    Hybrid optical and packet switching networks enable data to be forwarded at multiple levels. Large IP flows at the IP level may be therefore moved to the optical level bypassing the per hop routing decisions of the IP level. Such move could be beneficial since congested IP networks could be

  14. Switching between Sensory and Affective Systems Incurs Processing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Nicolas; Niedenthal, Paula M.; Luminet, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    Recent models of the conceptual system hold that concepts are grounded in simulations of actual experiences with instances of those concepts in sensory-motor systems (e.g., Barsalou, 1999, 2003; Solomon & Barsalou, 2001). Studies supportive of such a view have shown that verifying a property of a concept in one modality, and then switching to…

  15. Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil [Santa Fe, NM; Singleton, John [Los Alamos, NM; Migliori, Albert [Santa Fe, NM

    2008-08-05

    A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

  16. Selective Attention to Perceptual Dimensions and Switching between Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Dimov, Eduard; Ganel, Tzvi

    2013-01-01

    In the present experiments, the question being addressed was whether switching attention between perceptual dimensions and selective attention to dimensions are processes that compete over a common resource? Attention to perceptual dimensions is usually studied by requiring participants to ignore a never-relevant dimension. Selection failure…

  17. Cell state switching factors and dynamical patterning modules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    Plasticity (i.e. stochastic or condition-dependent variability) of developmental outcome in multicellular organisms is due to two principal mechanisms. The first is largely, though not entirely, a function of differential gene expression and is based on the capacity of individual cells to switch between alternative states under ...

  18. Diglossia and Code Switching in Nigeria: Implications for English ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    implications of the diglossic situations in Nigeria for English language teaching and learning. Key words: Diglossia, bilinguals, multilinguals, code-switching. Introduction. The act of choosing a language or variety with which to communicate, at any gives time is a common feature of bilingual or multilingual societies. In such.

  19. Case Study: SEO Strategy and Implementation for Industrial Pump Company

    OpenAIRE

    Kivistö, Miika

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this Master Thesis was to define the search engine visibility requirements for an industrial pump company in Finland, create a search engine optimization strategy and implement changes to the company´s website and analyse their effect. The company´s website was transferred from Wordpress to the Joomla! content management system. Google Webmaster Tools and Tag Manager collected the data. Keyword research, Technical optimization, Semantic content optimization (On-page optimizat...

  20. Identiofication and Structuralization of Company External Environemnt Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Wach, Krzysztof

    2008-01-01

    The paper puts domestic and international conclusions of research results on structuralization of company environment regarding its dimensions or features in order. The author describes the process of identification and structuralization of company external environment regarding occurring limitations. The paper focuses on presentation and analysis of synthetic dimensions of company external environment applied not only in theoretical formulations, but mainly in empirical formulations. The aim...

  1. Graphene and its derivatives: switching ON and OFF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Gang; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Kang, En-Tang

    2012-07-07

    As the thinnest material ever known in the universe, graphene has been attracting tremendous amount of attention in both materials science and condensed-matter physics since its successful isolation a few years ago. This one-atom-thick two-dimensional pseudo-infinite nano-crystal consists of sp(2)-hybridized aromatic carbon atoms covalently packed into a continuous hexagonal lattice. Graphene exhibits a range of unique properties, viz., high three-dimensional aspect ratio and large specific surface area, superior mechanical stiffness and flexibility, remarkable optical transmittance, extraordinary thermal response and excellent electronic transport properties, promising its applications in the next generation electronics. To switch graphene and its derivatives between ON and OFF states in nanoelectronic memory devices, various techniques have been developed to manipulate the carbon atomic sheets via introducing the valence-conduction bandgap and to enhance their processability. In this article, we review the utilization of electrically, thermally and chemically modified graphene and its polymer-functionalized derivatives for switching and information storage applications. The challenges posed on the development of novel graphene materials and further enhancements of the device switching performance have also been discussed.

  2. Industrial conflict and its management in selected Nigerian manufacturing companies

    OpenAIRE

    Solaja Oludele Mayowa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined industrial conflict and its management strategies in selected manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study utilized co-relational survey method which involves the use of structured questionnaire and personal observation to elicit information from the respondents. Participants comprised of staffs of three manufacturing companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the respondents from the three manufacturing companies und...

  3. Formation and incorporation of a limited liability company

    OpenAIRE

    Steininger, Vojtěch

    2011-01-01

    in English This rigorosum thesis is titled "Foundation and Incorporation of a Limited Liability Company" and the subject of the thesis is the Czech legal regulation of this matter. The thesis itself is organised in six sections. Following Preamble, concerning historically linguistic connotations of the term "limited liability company", I provide a brief outline of the development of the legal regulation of a limited liability company - in Section I. Section II is focused on general features o...

  4. Battery system including batteries that have a plurality of positive terminals and a plurality of negative terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J; Symanski, James S; Kuempers, Joerg A; Miles, Ronald C; Hansen, Scott A; Smith, Nels R; Taghikhani, Majid; Mrotek, Edward N; Andrew, Michael G

    2014-01-21

    A lithium battery for use in a vehicle includes a container, a plurality of positive terminals extending from a first end of the lithium battery, and a plurality of negative terminals extending from a second end of the lithium battery. The plurality of positive terminals are provided in a first configuration and the plurality of negative terminals are provided in a second configuration, the first configuration differing from the second configuration. A battery system for use in a vehicle may include a plurality of electrically connected lithium cells or batteries.

  5. Marketing indicators of market attractiveness and of target company competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Veljko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with analysis of market and competitive position company during takeover process. Important preparatory activity is detailed scanning and researching market performance of the company. During the market analysis, the values of several important indicators must be considered. In the very beginning, it is necessary to index the specific market attractiveness. Then, the research center is moved to measuring of competitive position index value. Very important indicator of company market position strength is the customer satisfaction index. High value of this index, which is maintained or improved in successive time intervals, strengthens the bond between a company and customers implicating a series of positive effects in long terms. .

  6. Foreign investment multinational companies and economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Đorđe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no universal answer on the question whether foreign investments stimulate economic development. The positive effect of foreign direct investments will follow when the investments is carried out under normal conditions of competition. That means, above all, low barriers for foreign trade and the low level of restrictions for foreign owned companies. In such circumstances, multinational corporations can assist the economies of penetration to make its businesses more efficient. Foreign investors bring with them brand new types of economic activities and in that way shifting the limits of business opportunities in the countries of penetration. But if the investments are implemented in markets protected with protectionist barriers of various kinds, then they could have negative effects. The negative effects are in particularly reflected in the inefficient use of domestic resources. Foreign investments depend on the macro and micro institutional reforms, low inflation, real exchange rate, and reasonably efficient legal system that protects the property rights and encourages savings and investment. The low level of corruption, together with the foregoing conditions is a prerequisite for the creation of a stimulating environment for foreign investments.

  7. 42 CFR 136a.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. Federal funds are available for drugs or devices... termination of an ectopic pregnancy. ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic...

  8. SMEs’ Organizational Performance: Comparative Study between Cooperated and Uncooperated Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Karla de Lucena Justino Gomes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the need for survival and competitiveness, here called micro and small enterprises (MPE, they seek to develop competitive differentials, such as the insertion of the company into a cooperation network. Several researches seek to identify the benefits of cooperative strategies, but few studies seek to compare the organizational performance of cooperating companies with that of uncooperated companies. Thus, the present study has as general objective to verify if the MPE, when inserted in cooperation networks, present organizational performance superior to those that are not inserted in that context. The present research is of the survey type and involves 67 companies inserted in cooperation networks and 154 companies that do not participate in cooperation networks. To achieve the objective, the organizational performance was analyzed based on the managers' perception regarding aspects associated to the following performance measures: customer satisfaction, employee satisfaction, company growth, company profitability and overall performance. The results indicate that the companies included in cooperation networks presented superior performance when compared to the companies not included in cooperation networks

  9. ECONOMIC CRISIS AND THE COMPETITIVENESS OF TRANSNATIONAL COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In crisis situations, the competitiveness of transnational companies becomes a particularly complex concept, due to the fact that said business entities are continuously moving within the context of internationalization and increasing use of global strategies. Given the current economic context, one cannot merely assess the competitiveness level of any given transnational company from a static standpoint, depending on the turnover, sales volume or number of employees of said company, but such assessment needs to be made from a dynamic standpoint, in close connection with the internal and international business environment in which that company carries out its activity.

  10. Assessing Port Governance, Devolution and Terminal Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Onwuegbuchunam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about performance and efficiency in port terminals led many national governments to embark on port reforms. The Federal government of Nigeria, for example, adopted the Landlord port model which brought about concessioning of port terminals to private operators. Despite high investments in terminal facilities by the private terminal operators, there are still complaints about level of service offered to port users. This paper applied key performance indicator metrics and parameters of queuing model in assessing performance of Nigeria’s concessioned port terminals. Data for the study were obtained from terminal level records of cargo and ship handling activities for years 2000 to 2015. Major findings indicate that cargo and vessel throughputs improved after the reforms in the six ports examined. However, much variability was observed in trends in ships’ turnround times across all ports after the concession policy implementation. Additional results from the queuing model analysis suggest that the high ships turnround times observed in some ports are associated to delays in ship operation at the berths. The paper recommends that policy interventions be focused on ship operations at the berths as a step in improving service level in the port terminals.

  11. Railroad Terminals and Stations - INTERMODAL_TERMINAL_NTAD_IN: Intermodal Terminal Facilities in Indiana (Bureau of Transportation Statistics, 1:100,000 Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — BTS metadata states – “The Intermodal Terminal Facilities data set contains geographic data for trailer-on-flatcar (TOFC) and container-on-flatcar (COFC) highway...

  12. Companies and adaptation to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourrier, Herve; Duchene, Patrice-Henry; Metcalf, Gerry; Deandreis, Celine; Hardelin, Julien; Vautard, Robert; Bailly, Boris; Gemenne, Francois; Peyrat, Olivier; Greppo, Fabien; Reysset, Bertrand; Beriot, Nicolas; Leonard, Damien; Colas, Julien; Tutenuit, Claire

    2014-04-01

    Whereas climate change will have significant consequences on various economic sectors (infrastructures, energy and water supply, agriculture, cities and buildings, and so on), population behaviours and uses will have to be deeply changed, and this is more particularly the case for enterprises and companies. This guide aims at presenting solutions to face the challenge of climate change for enterprises. In its first part, it outlines how our climate is already changing, gives an overview of main future climate trends in the World, indicates what will be the future climate in France, discusses the noticeable and brutal consequences for activities, resources and territories, outlines that adaptation to tomorrow's climate begins now, and discusses to which climate we'll have to adapt at the local level. In the second part, this publication explains why enterprises must adapt themselves to climate change: enterprises are in a changing environment, and must take a legal and standard framework into account, but this adaptation will have a cost. Adaptation also means uncertainty management, and enterprises are facing obstacles and brakes to adaptation. The last part describes how to implement a strategy of adaptation in an enterprise: resources for adaptation, integration of enterprise management, understanding needs to convince within the enterprise itself, assessment of vulnerability to climate change, how to define priorities for action, which options to choose to adapt the enterprise, how to implement the strategy and how to follow it up and assess it. Some sector-related sheets are provided in appendix. They indicate identified risks, potential impacts of national policies for enterprises, measures which can be freely implemented by enterprises, and identified opportunities for various sectors (health, agriculture, forest, coastal areas, fishery and aquaculture, energy and industry, transport infrastructure, town planning and built environment, tourism

  13. Innovative PLC design concepts for a petroleum pipeline and terminal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, A.L. [Enbridge Pipelines Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Day, D.C. [DCD Engineering Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Enbridge Inc. owns and operates Enbridge Pipelines Inc, the Canadian portion of the Enbridge crude oil mainline, the world's longest crude oil and refined liquids pipeline system. Several major terminals are part of the pipeline system and serve as storage, injection or receipt points for petroleum products from producing companies serviced by Enbridge. The terminals run on a continuous basis and are operated remotely from a central control centre in Edmonton, Alberta. Maintenance shutdowns are scheduled to coincide with lower-throughput periods in order to minimize pipeline downtime. However, due to expansion at each terminal facility, Enbridge was finding it difficult to perform normal maintenance functions. Adding a new programmable logic controller or processor (PLC) to these facilities was a challenge since existing terminal control systems were based on single large PLC controllers in a hot-standby configuration, thereby becoming a single point of failure for the entire terminal. In addition, existing PLC controllers were often situated too far from new expansion facilities to reliably connect to the expanding input/output devices (I/O) or communications network. As such, in 2000 Enbridge launched a systematic multi-year replacement of the existing PLC equipment used in its pipeline control systems. Phase 1 involved replacement of mainline pump station PLC processors, followed by the replacement of terminal PLC processors and PLC I/O subsystems. This paper described inter-PLC communications, Ethernet communications, supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) and remote access communications, slave communications, and power and cable routing requirements. It was concluded that the large scale control system change-out was successfully executed despite several challenges, such as limitations in available technology, the need to deliver a more reliable and robust system within budgetary and time constraints, and commissioning a new system without

  14. The Organizational Climate and Employees’ Job Satisfaction in the Terminal Operation Context of Kaohsiung Port1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaur-luh Tsai

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the organizational climate in the terminal operation industry in the port of Kaohsiung. Data was collected from questionnaire survey. Questionnaire designed through the processes included literature review, interviews, pre-test, and pilot test. Exploratory factor analysis, analysis of variable (ANOVA and regression analysis were employed to analyze the respondent data. Subsequently, the primary organizational climate of terminal operation industry, namely, management system, awards and motivation, transformation leadership, and laissez-faire leadership, were yielded, and the employees’ job satisfaction were used as explanation variables in this study. Results interpreted that employees’ job satisfaction strongly related with the types of company and organizational climate. Theoretical and practical implications of the research findings are discussed.

  15. 49 CFR 236.7 - Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock..., AND APPLIANCES Rules and Instructions: All Systems General § 236.7 Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement. Circuit controller operated by switch-and-lock movement shall be maintained so...

  16. Systems and methods for switched-inductor integrated voltage regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Kenneth L.; Sturcken, Noah Andrew

    2017-12-12

    Power controller includes an output terminal having an output voltage, at least one clock generator to generate a plurality of clock signals and a plurality of hardware phases. Each hardware phase is coupled to the at least one clock generator and the output terminal and includes a comparator. Each hardware phase is configured to receive a corresponding one of the plurality of clock signals and a reference voltage, combine the corresponding clock signal and the reference voltage to produce a reference input, generate a feedback voltage based on the output voltage, compare the reference input and the feedback voltage using the comparator and provide a comparator output to the output terminal, whereby the comparator output determines a duty cycle of the power controller. An integrated circuit including the power controller is also provided.

  17. Motivation and Communication within the Commercial Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlata Kastelic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Research question (RQ: The research deals with the question of how employees are motivated for mutual communication and transfer of information needed for smooth functioning of work processes. Another question is how much awards affect motivation of employees in the organization. Purpose: The purpose of the research was to determine the connection between motivation and communication of employees in the organization. What is the influence of remuneration on positive motivation and successful communication and how this is connected with effective achievement of goals set in the organization? Method: The research was carried out by a Likert-type scale to study perception of motivation with communication of employees in the organization. Employees of the sales organization were part of the research study. Results: The results show that employees' communication has an influence on motivation of employees in the sales organization. Furthermore, the results show that suitable communication increases working motivation and that employees are satisfied with communication at their workplace. Organization: Communication among employees is vital for a successful organization. The employees of the sales organization were aware of the fact that their company cannot be successful without proper motivation for communication. This research study shows that proper communication increases working motivation in the organization, but the questionnaire should be carried out systematically to determine progress and improvement on a longitudinal basis. Society: Establishing communication in a sales organization is very important because communication happens among colleagues as well as among buyers who contribute to the success of the business. Originality: The goal of the research was to determine the connection between motivation and communication of the employees in a sales organization. The research was carried out to define weaknesses of communication to suggest

  18. Destruction and reallocation of skills following large company closures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Jacob Rubæk; Østergaard, Christian Richter; Olesen, Thomas Roslyng

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes what happens to redundant skills and workers when large companies close down and whether their skills are destroyed or reallocated. The analysis is based on a combination of qualitative and quantitative data of the closure of four companies. Getting a job in a skill...

  19. On Beyond Alliances? The New Reality for Companies and Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanian, Carol B.; Brickell, Henry M.

    1981-01-01

    The current business/academe patterns and innovations transcend cooperative partnerships. They reflect the adoption of similar objectives, the overlapping of functions, the copying of organizational structures, the appointment of counterpart personnel, the emergence of colleges as companies and companies as colleges, and the proliferation of…

  20. Sales strategy in small and medium-sized food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate; Stacey, Julia; Andersen, Lone Merete Schreiber

    2002-01-01

    All managing teams know that they have to deal with the company's strategy in handling the market. But how do they do it and on the basis of which beleifs and interpretations? A nearly completed PhD project has examined the way in which three small and medium-sized food companies define...

  1. The Effects of Customer Value and Switching Barrier to Customer Loyalty at PT. Telkomsel Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Mintje, Saniati Muliani M.

    2013-01-01

    Customer value is customer's perceived preference for and evaluation of those product or service. It is one of factor that can attract customers. While, switching barrier is difficult of switch product or service by a customer who is not satisfied with the existing service. It is a factor that can keep customers. so, with definition of Customer Value and Switching barrier above, it can concluded that, by creating Customer value and Switching Barrier it can create customer loyalty. The Pur...

  2. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND COMPANY PERFORMANCE – RESEARCH AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Varcholova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to summarize the results of published researches conducted in the area of influence of ownership forms on companies and financial performance and to highlight the specifics of these relations in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  3. 49 CFR 236.330 - Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. 236.330 Section 236.330 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Rules and Instructions § 236.330 Locking dog of switch-and-lock movement. Locking dog of switch-and-lock...

  4. 75 FR 37453 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Determination Concerning Dimmer and Fan Speed Switch Controls AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection... country of origin of certain dimmer and fan speed switch controls which may be offered to the United... determination CBP concluded that Mexico is the country of origin of the dimmer and fan speed switch controls for...

  5. 17 CFR 259.213 - Form U-13E-1, for report by affiliate companies and independent service companies pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affiliate companies and independent service companies pursuant to Rule 95 (§ 250.95 of this chapter). 259...) FORMS PRESCRIBED UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Forms for Statements and Reports § 259.213 Form U-13E-1, for report by affiliate companies and independent service companies pursuant to...

  6. Marginal Experiments: Peter Brook and Stepping out Theatre Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpin, Anna

    2010-01-01

    This article juxtaposes the recent work of Peter Brook with a Bristol-based mental health service-user collective--Stepping Out Theatre Company. Informed by field-work with the company, this chapter explores the aesthetic and political relationship between professional, experimental theatre work and community-based performance practice. Drawing…

  7. How Educational Management Companies Serve Charter Schools and Their Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walk, R. David, Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Rebuttal to two articles by Kathleen Conn in the April and July 2002 issues of "Journal of Law and Education," the first criticizing the profit-maximizing duty of for-profit school-management companies; the second proposing legal remedies. Argues that main goal of for-profit educational-management companies is to provide all children a quality…

  8. Prevalence and correlates of switching to another tobacco product to quit smoking cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, Gillian L; Malarcher, Ann M; Babb, Stephen D

    2015-05-01

    Using nationally representative data, we assessed the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smokers who tried switching to smokeless tobacco (SLT) or to other combusted tobacco (OCT) products to quit. Data came from 12,400 current or former adult smokers who made a quit attempt in the past year and responded to the 2010-2011 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Demographics and smoking characteristics were computed among those switching to SLT, switching to OCT, or trying to quit without using either strategy. Bivariate and multinomial logistic regression models identified correlates of using each strategy. Overall, 3.1% of smokers tried switching to SLT to quit, 2.2% tried switching to OCT, and 0.6% tried both strategies. Compared to those not using either switching strategy to try to quit, males were more likely than females to try switching to SLT or OCT; Blacks were less likely than Whites to try switching to SLT, but more likely to try switching to OCT; younger age groups were more likely to try switching to SLT or OCT; current someday smokers were more likely to have try switching to SLT (vs. everyday smokers), while recent former smokers were more likely to have tried switching to OCT. Both switching groups were more likely to have used cessation medication versus those not using switching strategies. Data suggest that switching to other tobacco products is a prevalent cessation approach; messages are needed to help clinicians encourage smokers who try to quit by switching to use evidence-based cessation approaches. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Bank Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance And Company Values in Banking Companies Go Public in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24 banks or 72 observations during 2011-2013. The results showed that 23 banks had low risk and low to moderate risk, and only one bank had moderate risk. The results also showed that inherent risk profile rating is equivalent to capital adequacy. In other words, inherent risk profile of these banks have complied with Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012. Furthermore, this study indicated that GCG has significant and positive influence on the company value, while the inherent risk has no influence on the company value. Overall, this study suggest that go public banks in Indonesia are one of good alternative means of investment for its soundness as reflected by the fulfillment of minimum capital ratio required by the regulator.

  10. The structure and behaviour of some Danish food companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tage Koed

    information gathered on the market. They concentrate on few and well-known geographical markets. 4. The non-exporting food companies report their main strengths to be production flexibility, delivery on time, customer adaptation and good personal relations to customers; exporters rely more on competences......Executive summary 1. The paper examines the structure and behaviour of 33 food companies which were identified in a database including 505 companies from different industries. The food companies are compared with all firms in the database. Furthermore, they are split into various categories...... and then compared. High-profit firms are compared with low-profit ones, exporters with non-exporters, and market expanders with market penetrators. 2. In comparison with firms from other industries, food companies seem to be more focused and to penetrate markets/exploit market opportunities in a more concentrated...

  11. Application of plasma erosion opening switches to high power accelerators for pulse compression and power multiplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.; Boller, J.R.; Commisso, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    A new vacuum opening switch called a plasma erosion opening switch is described. A model of its operation is presented and the energy efficiency of such a switch is discussed. Recent high power experiments on the Gamble II accelerator are described and compared to previous experiments

  12. Electron and ion magnetohydrodynamic effects in plasma opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossmann, J.M.; DeVore, C.R.; Ottinger, P.F.

    1993-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a numerical code designed to investigate electron and ion magnetohydrodynamic effects in plasma erosion opening switches. The present model is one-dimensional and resolves effects such as the JxB deformation of the plasma, and the penetration of magnetic field either by anomalous resistivity or electron magnetohydrodynamics (Hall effect). Comparisons with exact analytic results and experiment are made

  13. Current and Speed Control of the Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Fort

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The papers deals with the problem of the current and speed control of the switched reculttance motor (SRM on the base of the proposed mathematical model of the SRM. The basic types of the controllers are described (proportional controller, PI-controller and controller with the on-line voltage calculation of the mathematical model and the design of their parameters is proposed. Then the comparsion of the simulation and the real drive experimental measurement results is presented.

  14. The South African companies act and the realisation of corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The Companies Act 71 of 2008 (the Companies Act) was promulgated in April 2009 and came into effect on 1 April. The purpose of this Act is, among other things, to promote compliance with the Bill of Rights as provided for in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 (the Constitution), in the application ...

  15. Segmenting, positioning and market targeting in service companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kancir Rade

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective marketing management system in every company, including service companies, assumes existence of adequate information infrastructure which enables production of information relevant for making of different types of marketing decisions. Information based decisions are necessary in every phase of the management process, both on strategic and operative level.

  16. 76 FR 57769 - Advisory Committee on Small and Emerging Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Commission's Internet submission form ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/other.shtml ); or Send an e-mail message to... comments on the Commission's Internet Web site ( http://www.sec.gov/rules/other.shtml ). Comments also will... corporate governance requirements of emerging companies and smaller public companies. Up to 20 voting...

  17. Open innovation: the activities and views of companies in Wales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rhisiart, Martin; Djebarni, Rami; Thomas, Andrew

    This is the Final Report of a study conducted on open innovation in companies in Wales. The programme of research included a review of global literature, interviews with 15 companies, a survey and a focus group.The study discusses Government support measures for open innovation.  Those most favou...

  18. Code switching in student-student interaction; functions and reasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Amorim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available : Today’s students of English will communicate mostly with non-native speakers, in predominantly non-native speaking environments. English teachers know that if they are to realistically prepare students for international communication, they must focus on speaking activities that promote communicative competence and fluency. Presence of mother tongue in communicative exchanges is frequently detected by teachers in EFL classrooms. This study analyses student-student interaction during a group-work speaking activity, to uncover some of the reasons for code switching (CS. It also presents participants’ perspectives revealing mixed feelings towards this linguistic behaviour, which is sometimes intentional and sometimes unconscious. The aim of this paper is to illustrate how EFL students alternate between foreign language and native language to perform certain pragmatic functions and counter-balance for language deficiencies. It also considers the relationship between students’ language level and the functional character of their switches.

  19. Price discrimination, entry, and switching costs in network competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews theoretical models of network competition in telecommunications. We will discuss two alternative approaches. The first approach assumes Hoteling’s horizontal differentiation and the second approach is based on switching costs. We will first analyse spatial competition with linear prices and continue with price discrimination between on-net and off-net calls. Price discrimination can also be used to deter entry to the market. We will also deal with the regulator’s optimal choice of access price, which should be designed to induce entry of new firms. Furthermore, pricing of roaming services and the switching cost approach to network competition will be considered. Finally, we will illustrate the theoretical results with data from the Serbian mobile and fixed telephony market.

  20. Switching and programming dynamics in phase-change memory cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ielmini, D.; Mantegazza, D.; Lacaita, A. L.; Pirovano, A.; Pellizzer, F.

    2005-11-01

    Emerging phase-change memory (PCM) technology for non-volatile applications presents many potential advantages in terms of scalability, endurance and program/read speed. While several integration issues have still to be solved before achieving volume-production stage, the fundamental physics of chalcogenide switching and phase-change behaviour has still to be comprehensively understood. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the switching and programming transient in PCM cells. It is shown that the cell parasitic capacitance can lead to a marked current overshoot in the programming transient. As evidenced by experiments, this overshoot is able to melt and quench the active material as in a reset operation. The parasitic reset results in a series distribution of crystalline and amorphous phases after program. The analysis of array cell capacitance instead indicates that no parasitic reset is to be expected, allowing for a localized crystallization during program, as previously obtained by numerical simulations.

  1. IMPACT OF GLOBALIZATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE COMPANY: THE CASE OF COMPANIES FROM BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahmutović

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The discourse of globalization and its effects have been the most current topic in the field of economics in recent times. However, empirical research on the impact of globalization on companies, especially in transition countries, is very scarce. This paper focuses on the study of the impact of globalization on the performance of companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina by analyzing their interrelationships. The findings, in the case of companies in Bosnia and Herzegovina, have confirmed earlier findings about the double impact of globalization by showing, on the one hand, its positive effects and, on the other hand, the negative effects on the performance of the companies. Additionally, the research results have shown that negative effects are felt more strongly in the case of small and medium-sized companies than in the case of large companies.

  2. Companies on Facebook and Twitter. Current situation and communication strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÁ Pérez Dasilva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Given their influence, companies are being forced to integrate social networks in their communication strategies. Objectives. This article aims to provide an overview of the use of Facebook and Twitter by the main commercial brands in Spain and to analyse the communication strategies of the companies that tend to receive more complaints from the public. Method. The study is based on the examination of the social network accounts of the three brands with the highest advertising investment in each of the 15 industry sectors. A total of 5,433 tweets and 3,000 posts were analysed. Conclusions. The study confirmed the massive presence of these companies is the social networks and demonstrated the extreme variability of the number of followers, the traffic and the nature of the information published. However, it was also demonstrated that the use made of the different social networks and the communication strategies required by the different companies are distinguishable and identifiable.

  3. Switched-Capacitor Filter Optimization with Respect to Switch On-State Resistance and Features of Real Operational Amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hospodka

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of a switched-capacitor filter, which implements a biquadratic section, is described in this paper. The aim of the optimization is to obtain a required magnitude frequency response of the filter. The optimization takes into account both one of the features of real switches - their on-state resistance, and the features of real operational amplifiers - finite voltage gain and finite unity-gain bandwidth. An optimal dynamic range is to be achieved as well. The differential evolution - a kind of evolutionary algorithms - is employed for the optimization. The filter is designed by the usual way with ideal switches and ideal operational amplifiers at first. The analysis of this filter with real switches and real operational amplifiers proves that there is a significant difference between its magnitude frequency response and the one with ideal components. Hence, the optimization is applied for finding component values so that the magnitude frequency response is as similar to the one with ideal components as possible. As for other main real features of operational amplifiers - input and output resistance - it is shown that their effect is small.

  4. A smart microelectromechanical sensor and switch triggered by gas

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.

    2016-07-05

    There is an increasing interest to realize smarter sensors and actuators that can deliver a multitude of sophisticated functionalities while being compact in size and of low cost. We report here combining both sensing and actuation on the same device based on a single microstructure. Specifically, we demonstrate a smart resonant gas (mass) sensor, which in addition to being capable of quantifying the amount of absorbed gas, can be autonomously triggered as an electrical switch upon exceeding a preset threshold of absorbed gas. Toward this, an electrostatically actuated polymer microbeam is fabricated and is then functionalized with a metal-organic framework, namely, HKUST-1. The microbeam is demonstrated to absorb vapors up to a certain threshold, after which is shown to collapse through the dynamic pull-in instability. Upon pull-in, the microstructure can be made to act as an electrical switch to achieve desirable actions, such as alarming.

  5. A Critical Analysis and Assessment of High Power Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    Wendelstein VII A, and Laboratory Tests of the Next Breaker Generation," Proc. 7th Symp. on Engineering Problems of Fusion Research, Oct. 1977. [5] W...areas, such as lasers and fusion , often require electrical switching capabilities beyond what are currently available. New requirements may result in new...for Fusion Reactors," EPRI ER-o376-SR, July, 1977, (M. Kristiansen, Editor), Electric Power Research, Institute. [4] P. Felsenthal and J. M. Proud

  6. 17 CFR 250.93 - Accounts and records of mutual and subsidiary service companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and subsidiary service companies. 250.93 Section 250.93 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT... subsidiary service companies. Every mutual service company and every company whose organization and conduct...

  7. Switching power supply filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  8. Assessing materials handling and storage capacities in port terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinu, O.; Roşca, E.; Popa, M.; Roşca, M. A.; Rusca, A.

    2017-08-01

    Terminals constitute the factual interface between different modes and, as a result, buffer stocks are unavoidable whenever transport flows with different discontinuities meet. This is the reason why assessing materials handling and storage capacities is an important issue in the course of attempting to increase operative planning of logistic processes in terminals. Proposed paper starts with a brief review of the compatibilities between different sorts of materials and corresponding transport modes and after, a literature overview of the studies related to ports terminals and their specialization is made. As a methodology, discrete event simulation stands as a feasible technique for assessing handling and storage capacities at the terminal, taking into consideration the multi-flows interaction and the non-uniform arrivals of vessels and inland vehicles. In this context, a simulation model, that integrates the activities of an inland water terminal and describes the essential interactions between the subsystems which influence the terminal capacity, is developed. Different scenarios are simulated for diverse sorts of materials, leading to bottlenecks identification, performance indicators such as average storage occupancy rate, average dwell or transit times estimations, and their evolution is analysed in order to improve the transfer operations in the logistic process

  9. The terminator syndrome: Science fiction, cinema and contemporary culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sey

    1992-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact of contemporary technology on representations of the human body in American popular culture, focusing on James Cameron’s science fiction films The Terminator (1984 and The Terminator II - Judgment Day (1991 in both of which the key figures are cybernetic organisms (cyborgs or a robot which can exactly imitate the human form . The paper argues that the ability of modern film technology’ to represent the human form in robotic guise undercuts the distinction between nature and culture which maintains the position of the human being in society. The ability of the robot or cyborg to be ‘polygendered’ in particular, undermines the position of a properly oedipalized human body in society, one which balances the instinctual life against the rule of cultural law. As a result the second Terminator film attempts a recuperation of the category of the human by an oedipalization of the terminator cyborg.

  10. Carboxylate switch between hydro- and carbopalladation pathways in regiodivergent dimerization of alkynes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatolochnaya, Olga V; Gordeev, Evgeniy G; Jahier, Claire; Ananikov, Valentine P; Gevorgyan, Vladimir

    2014-07-28

    Experimental and theoretical investigation of the regiodivergent palladium-catalyzed dimerization of terminal alkynes is presented. Employment of N-heterocyclic carbene-based palladium catalyst in the presence of phosphine ligand allows for highly regio- and stereoselective head-to-head dimerization reaction. Alternatively, addition of carboxylate anion to the reaction mixture triggers selective head-to-tail coupling. Computational studies suggest that reaction proceeds via the hydropalladation pathway favoring head-to-head dimerization under neutral reaction conditions. The origin of the regioselectivity switch can be explained by the dual role of carboxylate anion. Thus, the removal of hydrogen atom by the carboxylate directs reaction from the hydropalladation to the carbopalladation pathway. Additionally, in the presence of the carboxylate anion intermediate, palladium complexes involved in the head-to-tail dimerization display higher stability compared to their analogues for the head-to-head reaction. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Bilingual Language Switching and the Frontal Lobes: Modulatory Control in Language Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuter, Renata; Humphreys, Glyn; Rumiati, Raffaella

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the brain mechanisms mediating the switching of languages in bilingual subjects. To ascertain the brain mechanisms mediating the control of language switching, switching was examined in a bilingual patient with frontal lobe damage and impaired control processes. (Author/VWL)

  12. A new account of the effect of probability on task switching: ERP evidence following the manipulation of switch probability, cue informativeness and predictability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessler, Doreen; Friedman, David; Johnson, Ray

    2012-10-01

    This task-switching ERP study of 16 young participants investigated whether increased RT slowing on stay trials and faster RTs on switch trials for frequent than infrequent switching are explained by an activation or preparation account. The activation account proposes that task sets are maintained at a higher baseline activation level for frequent switching, necessitating increased task-set updating, as reflected by a larger and/or longer lasting early parietal positivity. The preparation account assumes advance (pre-cue) switch preparation (i.e., task-set reconfiguration), preceding stay and switch trials for frequent switching, as reflected by pre-cue and post-cue late parietal positivities. By and large, the data support the activation account. However, we also found increased, pre-cue task-set updating on frequent stay trials and pre-cue, task-set reconfiguration prior to predictable, frequent switches. These results lead us to propose an extended activation account to explain the effects of switch probability on the executive processes underlying task-switching behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The impact of high performance work systems in Irish companies: an examination of company and employee outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mkamwa, Thadeus F.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the impact of High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) on company and employee-level performance outcomes. At the company level, the study examines the outcomes of HPWS usage on innovation, productivity and turnover. The study uses data collected from 132 companies in Ireland who participated in a general manager (GM) and human resource (HR) manager survey conducted in 2006. This study shows that an extensive application ...

  14. The efficacy, pharmacokinetics, safety and cardiovascular risks of switching nevirapine to rilpivirine in HIV-1 patients: the RPV switch study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rokx, C.; Blonk, M.; Verbon, A.; Burger, D.M.; Rijnders, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Nevirapine (NVP) induces cytochrome P450 3A4 by which rilpivirine (RPV) is metabolized. Switching NVP to RPV could result in decreased RPV exposure with subsequent virological failure and dyslipidemia because NVP is regarded as the least dyslipidemic, non-nucleoside, reverse

  15. Conformational switching and fibrillogenesis in the amyloidogenic fragment of apolipoprotein a-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreola, Alessia; Bellotti, Vittorio; Giorgetti, Sofia; Mangione, Palma; Obici, Laura; Stoppini, Monica; Torres, Jaume; Monzani, Enrico; Merlini, Giampaolo; Sunde, Margaret

    2003-01-24

    The N-terminal portion of apolipoprotein A-I corresponding to the first 93 residues has been identified as the main component of apolipoprotein A-I fibrils in a form of systemic amyloidosis. We have been able to characterize the process of conformational switching and fibrillogenesis in this fragment of apolipoprotein A-I purified directly from ex vivo amyloid material. The peptide exists in an unstructured form in aqueous solution at neutral pH. The acidification of the solution provokes a collapse into a more compact, intermediate state and the transient appearance of a helical conformation that rapidly converts to a stable, mainly beta-structure in the fibrils. The transition from helical to sheet structure occurs concomitantly with peptide self-aggregation, and fibrils are detected after 72 h. The alpha-helical conformation is induced by the addition of trifluoroethanol and phospholipids. Interaction of the amyloidogenic polypeptide with phospholipids prevents the switching from helical to beta-sheet form and inhibits fibril formation. The secondary structure propensity of the apolipoprotein A-I fragment appears poised between helix and the beta-sheet. These findings reinforce the idea of a delicate balance between natively stabilizing interactions and fatally stabilizing interactions and stress the importance of cellular localization and environment in the maintenance of protein conformation.

  16. Triggers of IgE class switching and allergy development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Lars K.; Hummelshoj, Lone

    2007-01-01

    type 2 (Th2) T cell subset are the actions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) on dendritic cells and the OX40 ligand on CD4+ T cells. In order for a B lymphocyte to switch to IgE production it needs two signals provided by a Th2 cell in the form of the cytokines interleukin (IL-) 4/IL-13...... the need for more knowledge on preventable causes of IgE- and allergy development....

  17. Switching between polymerase and exonuclease sites in DNA polymerase ε

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganai, Rais A.; Bylund, Göran O.; Johansson, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The balance between exonuclease and polymerase activities promotes DNA synthesis over degradation when nucleotides are correctly added to the new strand by replicative B-family polymerases. Misincorporations shift the balance toward the exonuclease site, and the balance tips back in favor of DNA synthesis when the incorrect nucleotides have been removed. Most B-family DNA polymerases have an extended β-hairpin loop that appears to be important for switching from the exonuclease site to the polymerase site, a process that affects fidelity of the DNA polymerase. Here, we show that DNA polymerase ε can switch between the polymerase site and exonuclease site in a processive manner despite the absence of an extended β-hairpin loop. K967 and R988 are two conserved amino acids in the palm and thumb domain that interact with bases on the primer strand in the minor groove at positions n−2 and n−4/n−5, respectively. DNA polymerase ε depends on both K967 and R988 to stabilize the 3′-terminus of the DNA within the polymerase site and on R988 to processively switch between the exonuclease and polymerase sites. Based on a structural alignment with DNA polymerase δ, we propose that arginines corresponding to R988 might have a similar function in other B-family polymerases. PMID:25550436

  18. Fast and flexible selection with a single switch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Broderick

    Full Text Available Selection methods that require only a single-switch input, such as a button click or blink, are potentially useful for individuals with motor impairments, mobile technology users, and individuals wishing to transmit information securely. We present a single-switch selection method, "Nomon," that is general and efficient. Existing single-switch selection methods require selectable options to be arranged in ways that limit potential applications. By contrast, traditional operating systems, web browsers, and free-form applications (such as drawing place options at arbitrary points on the screen. Nomon, however, has the flexibility to select any point on a screen. Nomon adapts automatically to an individual's clicking ability; it allows a person who clicks precisely to make a selection quickly and allows a person who clicks imprecisely more time to make a selection without error. Nomon reaps gains in information rate by allowing the specification of beliefs (priors about option selection probabilities and by avoiding tree-based selection schemes in favor of direct (posterior inference. We have developed both a Nomon-based writing application and a drawing application. To evaluate Nomon's performance, we compared the writing application with a popular existing method for single-switch writing (row-column scanning. Novice users wrote 35% faster with the Nomon interface than with the scanning interface. An experienced user (author TB, with 10 hours practice wrote at speeds of 9.3 words per minute with Nomon, using 1.2 clicks per character and making no errors in the final text.

  19. Exterior foam drainage and flow regime switch in the foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anazadehsayed, Abdolhamid; Rezaee, Nastaran; Naser, Jamal

    2018-02-01

    The three-dimensional flow in exterior microscale foams including the Plateau borders and nodes are investigated by solving Navier-stoke and continuity equations. First, we show the effect of the interfacial mobility and film thickness on the dimensionless mean velocity of the exterior foams. The velocity of the exterior node-PB is similar to the velocity of single exterior Plateau border. Next, we calculated the pressure difference of each element separately and obtained their hydraulic resistances. We found out that the hydraulic resistance of the exterior Plateau border is always larger than the hydraulic resistance of the exterior node, resulting in a consistent channel-dominated regime. However, For the interior foams, there is a value of interfacial mobility where the node's resistance overcomes the channel's resistance, resulting in a switch from the channel-dominated regime to a node-dominated regime. This switching point is dependent on the relative length of the channels. Hence, we obtained an approximation of the interfacial mobility switching points versus the relative length of channels. Moreover, in a form of approximation master curve, we showed the dependence of mean velocities of foams and channels' hydraulic resistances to a dimensionless combined parameter of Λ -1 that contains interfacial mobility and film thickness together. For both the exterior and interior nodes, the velocity and hydraulic resistance are almost constant for various Boussinesq numbers since interfacial mobility has a marginal effect on node's flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Bistable switches control memory and plasticity in cellular differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Walker, Brandon L.; Iannaccone, Stephen; Bhatt, Devang; Kennedy, Patrick J.; Tse, William T.

    2009-01-01

    Development of stem and progenitor cells into specialized tissues in multicellular organisms involves a series of cell fate decisions. Cellular differentiation in higher organisms is generally considered irreversible, and the idea of developmental plasticity in postnatal tissues is controversial. Here, we show that inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in a human bone marrow stromal cell-derived myogenic subclone suppresses their myogenic ability and converts them into satellite cell-like precursors that respond to osteogenic stimulation. Clonal analysis of the induced osteogenic response reveals ultrasensitivity and an “all-or-none” behavior, hallmarks of a bistable switch mechanism with stochastic noise. The response demonstrates cellular memory, which is contingent on the accumulation of an intracellular factor and can be erased by factor dilution through cell divisions or inhibition of protein synthesis. The effect of MAPK inhibition also exhibits memory and appears to be controlled by another bistable switch further upstream that determines cell fate. Once the memory associated with osteogenic differentiation is erased, the cells regain their myogenic ability. These results support a model of cell fate decision in which a network of bistable switches controls inducible production of lineage-specific differentiation factors. A competitive balance between these factors determines cell fate. Our work underscores the dynamic nature of cellular differentiation and explains mechanistically the dual properties of stability and plasticity associated with the process. PMID:19366677

  1. 75 FR 51987 - Birch Power Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... Company and Sorenson Engineering; Birch Power Company and Sorenson Leasing L.L.C.; Notice of Application... Leasing, L.L.C. (transferees) filed an application for transfer of license for the Birch Creek... Sorenson Leasing L.L.C., 5203 South 11th East, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83404, phone (208) 589-6908. FERC Contact...

  2. Mathematical and Simulation Model Development of Switched Reluctance Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Aleksandrovsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The switched reluctance motor (SRM represents a great interest while being applied in various fields as an alternative to asynchronous motors with a short-circuit rotor. A SRM disadvantage is a nonlinearity of its characteristics. Due to this reason it is desirable to execute investigations using a developed simulation model. The simulation results (electromagnetic torque and current are in good agreement with those values studied in the literature.

  3. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Peng, Fang Z.

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  4. Design and Fabrication of 1 × 2 Nanophotonic Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaf Shahmoon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the design and the fabrication of a novel 1×2 nanophotonic switch. The switch is a photonic T-junction in which a gold nano particle is being positioned in the junction using the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM. The novelty of this 1×2 switch is related to its ability to control the direction of wave that propagates along a photonic structure. The selectivity of the direction is determined by a gold nanoparticle having dimension of a few tens of nanometer. This particle can be shifted. The shift of the gold nano particle can be achieved by applying voltage or by illuminating it with a light source. The shifts of the particle, inside the air gap, direct the input beam ones to the left output of the junction and once to its right output. Three types of simulations have been done in order to realize the photonic T-junction, and they are as follows: photonic crystal structures, waveguide made out of PMMA, and a silicon waveguide.

  5. Alpha-cut implemented fuzzy clustering algorithms and switching regressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Miin-Shen; Wu, Kuo-Lung; Hsieh, June-Nan; Yu, Jian

    2008-06-01

    In the fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering algorithm, almost none of the data points have a membership value of 1. Moreover, noise and outliers may cause difficulties in obtaining appropriate clustering results from the FCM algorithm. The embedding of FCM into switching regressions, called the fuzzy c-regressions (FCRs), still has the same drawbacks as FCM. In this paper, we propose the alpha-cut implemented fuzzy clustering algorithms, referred to as FCMalpha, which allow the data points being able to completely belong to one cluster. The proposed FCMalpha algorithms can form a cluster core for each cluster, where data points inside a cluster core will have a membership value of 1 so that it can resolve the drawbacks of FCM. On the other hand, the fuzziness index m plays different roles for FCM and FCMalpha. We find that the clustering results obtained by FCMalpha are more robust to noise and outliers than FCM when a larger m is used. Moreover, the cluster cores generated by FCMalpha are workable for various data shape clusters, so that FCMalpha is very suitable for embedding into switching regressions. The embedding of FCMalpha into switching regressions is called FCRalpha. The proposed FCRalpha provides better results than FCR for environments with noise or outliers. Numerical examples show the robustness and the superiority of our proposed methods.

  6. Generic switching of warfarin and risk of excessive anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellfritzsch, Maja; Rathe, Jette; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Generic switching of warfarin was recently repealed in Denmark, as adverse drug reaction (ADR) reports suggested risk of excessive anticoagulation following switches from branded to generic warfarin. We investigated this putative association in a formalized pharmacoepidemiological analys...

  7. Development of SWITCH-Hawaii model: loads and renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    This report summarizes work done to configure the SWITCH power system model using data for the Oahu power system. SWITCH is a planning model designed to choose optimal infrastructure investments for power systems over a multi-decade period. Investmen...

  8. Using a Fixed and Switched-Capacitor Bank to Investigate Harmonic Resonance and Capacitor Bank Switching in a Distribution Network

    OpenAIRE

    J.C. Attachie; C.K. Amuzuvi

    2014-01-01

    Harmonic resonance often manifests as high harmonic voltages in a power system. This produces losses and affects other consumers in the grid negatively. Capacitance switching applications also involve not only interrupting capacitive currents, but also the energizing of capacitor banks, cables and overhead lines. The applications of capacitors are extensively used in power systems for voltage support and power factor correction. However, the main concern arising from the use of capacitors is ...

  9. Packet Guide to Routing and Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Hartpence, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Go beyond layer 2 broadcast domains with this in-depth tour of advanced link and internetwork layer protocols, and learn how they enable you to expand to larger topologies. An ideal follow-up to Packet Guide to Core Network Protocols, this concise guide dissects several of these protocols to explain their structure and operation. This isn't a book on packet theory. Author Bruce Hartpence built topologies in a lab as he wrote this guide, and each chapter includes several packet captures. You'll learn about protocol classification, static vs. dynamic topologies, and reasons for installing a pa

  10. CHIRALITY IN NONLINEAR OPTICS AND OPTICAL SWITCHING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.W.; Feringa, B.L.

    1993-01-01

    Chirality in molecular opto-electronics is limited sofar to the use of optically active liquid crystals and a number of optical phenomena are related to the helical macroscopic structure obtained by using one enantiomer, only. In this paper, the use of chirality in nonlinear optics and optical

  11. Design and Fabrication of Multimode Optical Switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    down in a pure argon atmosphere (0.020 Torr partial pressure) from a mixed oxide sputtering target: 88’ Ino 3 and 12% SnO ,,. The resulting ITO film...control cir- cuits and other semiconductor IC logic circuits. We have not tested these multi-way structures but are confident that they will perform as

  12. Morphological control and polarization switching in polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Liquid crystals dispersed in polymer systems constitute novel class of optical materials. The precise control of the liquid crystal droplet morphology in the polymer matrix is essentially required to meet the prerequisites of display device. Experiments have been carried out to investigate and identify the material properties and ...

  13. Morphological control and polarization switching in polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Physics and Materials Science, Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology, Patiala 147 004, India. Abstract. Liquid crystals dispersed in ... dye concentration to liquid crystal ratio led to better optical responses as well as the .... PDLC film) is an important measure of performance for any electro-optic display.

  14. Analysis and modeling of resistive switching mechanisms oriented to resistive random-access memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Da; Wu Jun-Jie; Tang Yu-Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the progress of the semiconductor industry, the resistive random-access memory (RAM) has drawn increasing attention. The discovery of the memristor has brought much attention to this study. Research has focused on the resistive switching characteristics of different materials and the analysis of resistive switching mechanisms. We discuss the resistive switching mechanisms of different materials in this paper and analyze the differences of those mechanisms from the view point of circuitry to establish their respective circuit models. Finally, simulations are presented. We give the prospect of using different materials in resistive RAM on account of their resistive switching mechanisms, which are applied to explain their resistive switchings

  15. Working Memory, Controlled Attention and Task Switching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Engle, Randall

    2000-01-01

    Eight sets of studies are reported that support a model my colleagues and I have developed which views WM as a system consisting of those long-term memory traces active above threshold, the procedures...

  16. Metalloregulatory proteins: metal selectivity and allosteric switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Caballero, Hermes; Campanello, Gregory C; Giedroc, David P

    2011-07-01

    Prokaryotic organisms have evolved the capacity to quickly adapt to a changing and challenging microenvironment in which the availability of both biologically required and non-essential transition metal ions can vary dramatically. In all bacteria, a panel of metalloregulatory proteins controls the expression of genes encoding membrane transporters and metal trafficking proteins that collectively manage metal homeostasis and resistance. These "metal sensors" are specialized allosteric proteins, in which the direct binding of a specific or small number of "cognate" metal ion(s) drives a conformational change in the regulator that allosterically activates or inhibits operator DNA binding, or alternatively, distorts the promoter structure thereby converting a poor promoter to a strong one. In this review, we discuss our current understanding of the features that control metal specificity of the allosteric response in these systems, and the role that structure, thermodynamics and conformational dynamics play in mediating allosteric activation or inhibition of DNA binding. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thermal Simulations, Open Boundary Conditions and Switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Yannis; Florio, Adrien; Kaczmarek, Olaf; Mazur, Lukas

    2018-03-01

    SU(N) gauge theories on compact spaces have a non-trivial vacuum structure characterized by a countable set of topological sectors and their topological charge. In lattice simulations, every topological sector needs to be explored a number of times which reflects its weight in the path integral. Current lattice simulations are impeded by the so-called freezing of the topological charge problem. As the continuum is approached, energy barriers between topological sectors become well defined and the simulations get trapped in a given sector. A possible way out was introduced by Lüscher and Schaefer using open boundary condition in the time extent. However, this solution cannot be used for thermal simulations, where the time direction is required to be periodic. In this proceedings, we present results obtained using open boundary conditions in space, at non-zero temperature. With these conditions, the topological charge is not quantized and the topological barriers are lifted. A downside of this method are the strong finite-size effects introduced by the boundary conditions. We also present some exploratory results which show how these conditions could be used on an algorithmic level to reshuffle the system and generate periodic configurations with non-zero topological charge.

  18. Morphological control and polarization switching in polymer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Liquid crystals dispersed in polymer systems constitute novel class of optical materials. The precise control of the liquid crystal droplet morphology in the polymer matrix is essentially required to meet the pre- requisites of display device. Experiments have been carried out to investigate and identify the material pro-.

  19. Electrostatically actuated torsional resonant sensors and switches

    KAUST Repository

    Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-12-29

    Embodiments in accordance of a torsional resonant sensor disclosure is configured to actuate a beam structure using electrostatic actuation with an AC harmonic load (e.g., AC and DC voltage sources) that is activated upon detecting a particular agent having a mass above a predefined level. In various embodiments, the beam structure may be different types of resonant structures that is at least partially coated or layered with a selective material.

  20. Synergic motives and economic success of mergers of Czech companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Sedláček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the motives for mergers and acquisitions is the synergy effect, which can take several forms. This paper tries to find out whether mergers implemented at the Czech market bring positive or negative synergies. The basis of our investigation is the database of the companies that implemented a merger within 2001–2009; out of these, the companies that published their financial statements in a digitalized form were selected. We monitored the development of six indicators characterizing the economic status of a company. The values of these indicators were compared for all participating companies before the merger and for the successor company three years after the merger. The hypotheses were formulated so that they expressed an expectation of a positive synergy brought about by mergers. However, hypothesis testing has not provided a clear result. A positive effect of a merger on the key indicator of net assets, whose growth means an increase in the accounting value of the company after the merger, has been proved for small and medium-sized companies only. The effect of mergers on the increase in indicators has been confirmed for retained earnings from past years and personal costs. Further research will concentrate on the relations between the indicators with the aim to create an integral indicator for the economic success of mergers.

  1. Influence of new customs procedures and logistic security standards on companies competiveness – a Croatian company case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Erceg

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In today’s global market, companies are constantly confronted with the competition on the local, national and international level. Companies therefore use a variety of strategies and tools to become and/or remain competitive. Potential areas for cost reduction in companies are supply chain management and logistic and customs procedures. Implementation of various logistic standards in supply chain management can provide significant cost savings for the company’s daily operations and thus reduce overall costs and improve the competitiveness. Using different customs procedures and logistic standards to reduce their costs and become more competitive in the market is necessary for Croatian companies. The method of using these tools is not a one-time process and requires constant efforts. Companies therefore have to be ready to improve daily to be and remain competitive. Using a variety of modern customs procedures can save their money and time, not only through these procedures, but also through better use of their employee’s time, their own vehicles and other equipment. The paper analyzes various customs procedures and logistic standards that can help companies save time and money and improve their competitiveness. In the example of Croatian company, which uses various available procedures and standards the benefits of their use are shown. Apart from bringing savings in operations, all these procedures and standards allow the company to be better, cheaper and more attractive to buyers.

  2. Brand switching and toxic chemicals in cigarette smoke: A national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendel, Jennifer R; Baig, Sabeeh A; Hall, Marissa G; Jeong, Michelle; Byron, M Justin; Morgan, Jennifer C; Noar, Seth M; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brewer, Noel T

    2018-01-01

    US law requires disclosure of quantities of toxic chemicals (constituents) in cigarette smoke by brand and sub-brand. This information may drive smokers to switch to cigarettes with lower chemical quantities, under the misperception that doing so can reduce health risk. We sought to understand past brand-switching behavior and whether learning about specific chemicals in cigarette smoke increases susceptibility to brand switching. Participants were US adult smokers surveyed by phone (n = 1,151, probability sample) and online (n = 1,561, convenience sample). Surveys assessed whether smokers had ever switched cigarette brands or styles to reduce health risk and about likelihood of switching if the smoker learned their brand had more of a specific chemical than other cigarettes. Chemicals presented were nicotine, carbon monoxide, lead, formaldehyde, arsenic, and ammonia. Past brand switching to reduce health risk was common among smokers (43% in phone survey, 28% in online survey). Smokers who were female, over 25, and current "light" cigarette users were more likely to have switched brands to reduce health risks (all p brand switching based on information about particular chemicals. In both samples, lead, formaldehyde, arsenic, and ammonia led to more susceptibility to switch than nicotine (all p brands or styles to reduce health risks. The majority said they might or would definitely switch brands if they learned their cigarettes had more of a toxic chemical than other brands. Brand switching is a probable unintended consequence of communications that show differences in smoke chemicals between brands.

  3. 75 FR 70351 - Termination of Environmental Review Process Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Virginia Beach, VA AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Termination of environmental... the Cities of Chesapeake and Virginia Beach, Virginia, is terminated. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...

  4. Different Pathogenesis of CCR5-Using Primary HIV-1 Isolates from Non-Switch and Switch Virus Patients in Human Lymphoid Tissue Ex Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarlsson, Ingrid; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Chen. Silvia; Karlsson, Anders; Albert, Jan; Fenyol, Eva Maria; Margolis, Leonid B.

    2005-01-01

    CCR5-utilizing HIV-1 variants (R5) typically transmit infection and dominate its early stages, whereas emergence of CXCR4-using (X4 or R5X4) HIV-1 is often associated with disease progression. However, such a switch in co-receptor usage can only be detected in approximately onehalf of HIV-infected patients (switch virus patients), and progression to immunodeficiency may also occur in patients without detectable switch in co-receptor usage (non-switch virus patients). Here, we used a system of ex vivo-infected tonsillar tissue to compare the pathogenesis of sequential primary R5 HIV-1 isolates from the switch and non-switch patients. Inoculation of ex vivo tissue with these R5 isolates resulted in viral replication and CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cell depletion. The levels of such depletion by HIV-1 isolated from non-switch virus patients were significantly higher than those by R5 HIV-1 isolates from switch virus patients. T cell depletion seemed to be controlled by viral factors and did not significantly vary between tissues from different donors. In contrast, viral replication did not correlate with the switch status of the patients; in tissues fiom different donors it varied 30-fold and seemed to be controlled by a combination of viral and tissue factors. Nevertheless, replication-level hierarchy among sequential isolates remained constant in tissues from various donors. Viral load in vivo was higher in switch virus patients compared to non-switch virus patients. The high cytopathogenicity of CCR5(+)CD4(+) T cells by R5 HIV-1 isolates from non-switch virus patients may explain the steady decline of CD4(+) T cells in the absence of CXCR4 using virus; elimination of target cells by these isolates may limit their own replication in vivo.

  5. Bank Risk Profile, Good Corporate Governance And Company Values in Banking Companies Go Public in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Susi Retna Cahyaningtyas; Elin Erlina Sasanti; Wahidatul Husnaini

    2017-01-01

    The latest Bank Indonesia Regulation No.14/18/PBI/2012 requires bank to have minimum capital of 8%-14% depends on the risk profile of each bank. Therefore, the main objective of this research is to assess whether the total of inherent risk profile of each bank meets the terms of this regulation. In addition, this study aims to examine the impact of inherent risk profile and GCG on the banking company value. The sample in this study is determined by purposive sampling method and resulted in 24...

  6. Dust settles at Dalrymple Bay Terminal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    With an annual loading capacity approaching 60Mt, Queensland's Dalrymple Bay Coal Terminal is one of the largest and most efficient coal export facilities in Australia. Each day, DBCT handles thousands of tonnes of coal transported directly from the Bowen Basin via an electrified railway and bound, ultimately, for out-loading onto bulk carrier ships. It is little wonder then that dust control and an accurate knowledge of coal moisture content are key priorities for DBCT. In early 2004, these priorities, together with an undertaking to the Co-ordinator General to reduce dust emissions, saw DBCT investigate the CSIRO-developed Low Frequency Microwave (LFM) Moisture Analyser. The LFM Analyser is specifically designed to deliver accurate, online measurements of moisture in continuous on-conveyor applications. At this stage, it was already enjoying significant success in the iron ore market with BHP Billiton Iron Ore investing in multiple units as part of its moisture control strategy for the Marra Mamba ore-types. The LFM Analysers, now being commercialised by spin-out company Intalysis, were commissioned in July 2004. Babcock and Brown Infrastructure (BBI), the company that holds the long-term leasehold of DBCT, was heavily involved in the analyser's commissioning. BBI's electrical supervisor Doug Mitchell says the analyser offers the means for DBCT to meet the environmental conditions of the terminal license while at the same time enabling it to meet its individual contract obligations with the terminal customers. 'This basically involves ensuring the moisture content for each coal type does not exceed that which has been agreed upon with terminal customer,' Mitchell says. DBCT has installed two analysers on the in loading conveyors, each about 100m from the coal discharge hoppers. They are fitted to steel cord belts at a nominal speed of around 6m/sec that carry the coal to either 4250tph or 5500tph yard stacking machines, depending on the string selected for

  7. Quitting activity and tobacco brand switching: findings from the ITC-4 Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Genevieve A; Swift, Elena; Partos, Timea; Borland, Ron

    2015-04-01

    Among Australian smokers, to examine associations between cigarette brand switching, quitting activity and possible causal directions by lagging the relationships in different directions. Current smokers from nine waves (2002 to early 2012) of the ITC-4 Country Survey Australian dataset were surveyed. Measures were brand switching, both brand family and product type (roll-your-own versus factory-made cigarettes) reported in adjacent waves, interest in quitting, recent quit attempts, and one month sustained abstinence. Switching at one interval was unrelated to concurrent quit interest. Quit interest predicted switching at the following interval, but the effect disappeared once subsequent quit attempts were controlled for. Recent quit attempts more strongly predicted switching at concurrent (OR 1.34, 95%CI=1.18-1.52, pbrand switching does not affect subsequent quitting. Brand switching does not appear to interfere with quitting. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Private Military Industry Analysis: Private and Public Companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunar, III, Charles J; Mitchell, Jared L; Robbins, III, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    Since the end of the Cold War, the Private Military Industry has skyrocketed. This study gathers, compiles and examines demographic and financial information on 585 private and public companies that operate in the Private Military Industry...

  9. Does company size matter? Validation of an integrative model of safety behavior across small and large construction companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Brian H W; Yiu, Tak Wing; González, Vicente A

    2018-02-01

    Previous safety climate studies primarily focused on either large construction companies or the construction industry as a whole, while little is known about whether company size has significant effects on workers' understanding of safety climate measures and relationships between safety climate factors and safety behavior. Thus, this study aims to: (a) test the measurement equivalence (ME) of a safety climate measure across workers from small and large companies; (b) investigate if company size alters the causal structure of the integrative model developed by Guo, Yiu, and González (2016). Data were collected from 253 construction workers in New Zealand using a safety climate measure. This study used multi-group confirmatory factor analyses (MCFA) to test the measurement equivalence of the safety climate measure and structure invariance of the integrative model. Results indicate that workers from small and large companies understood the safety climate measure in a similar manner. In addition, it was suggested that company size does not change the causal structure and mediational processes of the integrative model. Both measurement equivalence of the safety climate measure and structural invariance of the integrative model were supported by this study. Practical applications: Findings of this study provided strong support for a meaningful use of the safety climate measure across construction companies in different sizes. Safety behavior promotion strategies designed based on the integrative model may be well suited for both large and small companies. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. WAR TERMINATION IN SOMALIA AND KENYA DEFENSE FORCES’ (KDF ROLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.O.S. ODHIAMBO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available War causes and conduct have fascinated war planners, war executors and scholars for a long time because little attention has been given to how wars are ended. This oversight is apparent not only in historical accounts of warfare but, more importantly, in contemporary analyses and doctrinal formulations of deterrence and overall defense policies. Just as historians have focused on how wars begin and are fought, military analysts and planners have concentrated on influencing the initiation and conduct of warfare rather than on analyzing the process and requirements for terminating warfare on acceptable terms and at acceptable costs. Conflict termination is the formal end of fighting, not the end of conflict. Despite the volumes of research and literature on the subject, belligerents mismanage war termination. The major objective of wartime strategy is defeating enemy arms as quickly as possible with the least cost in friendly casualties. As long as hostilities endure, diplomacy is subordinated to military requirements. War termination planning, as it is currently accomplished, takes the form of civil affair planning on the details of how the vanquished will be managed following the capitulation of the enemy and cessation of hostilities. We argue that Kenya Defence Forces (KDF prudently terminated its war with the terrorists group Al-Shabaab that merged with Al-Qaeda when they agreed to be integrated into the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM which is backed up by the United Nations.

  11. Green Computing in Local Governments and Information Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badar Agung Nugroho

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Green computing is a study and practice of designing, manufacturing, using, and disposing of information and communication devices efficiently and effectively with minimum impact on the environment. If the green computing concept was implemented, it will help the agencies or companies to reduce energy and capital cost from their IT infrastructure. The goal from this research is to explore the current condition about the efforts from local governments and IT companies at West Java to implement the green computing concept at their working environment. The primary data were collected by using focus group discussion by inviting the local governments and IT companies representatives who responsible to manage their IT infrastructure. And then, the secondary data were collected by doing brief observation in order to see the real effort of green computing implementation at each institution. The result shows that there are many different perspectives and efforts of green computing implementation between local governments and IT companies.

  12. SUPPLY –CHAIN AND LOGIC MODELS FOR THE TEXTILE AND CLOTHING COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    VISILEANU Emilia; ENE Alexandra; CĂRPUŞ Eftalea; MIHAI Carmen; SCARLAT Răzvan

    2014-01-01

    The textile and clothing industry is characterized by specific supply-chain models with companies situated in a complex cluster type structure. Depending on the size, the volume and the variety of production, companies can be classified as follows: large companies, griffes, medium size companies and subcontracting companies. The logic of companies is defined by the main feature of the textile and clothing field, namely the logic of collections, determined by the seasonality and classified ...

  13. Equity and Music Education: Euphemisms, Terminal Naivety, and Whiteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Juliet

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I advocate for the use of explicit language for discussions of race and call for music education to move out of terminal naivety (Vaugeois 2013) toward a heightened consciousness of political issues and racial oppressions. Employing critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework, this paper examines race-related silences and…

  14. Inter-terminal transfer between port terminals. A continuous mathematical programming model to optimize scheduling and deployment of transport units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Fusco, P.; Pedrielli, G.; Zhou, C.; Hay Lee, L.; Peng Chew, E.

    2016-07-01

    In most large port cities, the challenge of inter-terminal transfers (ITT) prevails due to the long distance between multiple terminals. The quantity of containers requiring movement between terminals as they connect from pre-carrier to on-carrier is increasing with the formation of the mega-alliances. The paper proposes a continuous time mathematical programming model to optimize the deployment and schedule of trucks and barges to minimize the number of operating transporters, their makespan, costs and the distance travelled by the containers by choosing the right combination of transporters and container movements while fulfilling time window restrictions imposed on reception of the containers. A multi-step routing problem is developed where transporters can travel from one terminal to another and/or load or unload containers from a specific batch at each step. The model proves successful in identifying the costless schedule and means of transportation. And a sensibility analysis over the parameters used is provided. (Author)

  15. Business process modeling applied to oil pipeline and terminal processes: a proposal for TRANSPETRO's oil pipelines and terminals in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, Adilson da Silva [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Caulliraux, Heitor Mansur [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ/GPI), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia. Grupo de Producao Integrada; Almeida, Maria Fatima Ludovico de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio/ITUC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Instituto Tecnologico; Felippe, Adriana Vieira de Oliveira [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transporte S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Business process modeling (BPM) using event driven process chain diagrams (EPCs) to lay out business process work flows is now widely adopted around the world. The EPC method was developed within the framework of the ARIS Toolset developed by Prof. Wilhelm-August Scheer at the Institut fur Wirtschaftsinformatik at the Universitat des Saarlandes, in the early 1990s. It is used by many companies to model, analyze and redesign business processes. As such it forms the core technique for modeling in ARIS, which serves to link the different aspects of the so-called control view, which is discussed in the section on ARIS business process modeling. This paper describes a proposal made to TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais, which will be jointly developed by specialists and managers from TRANSPETRO and from COPPETEC, the collaborative research arm of Rio de Janeiro Federal University (UFRJ). The proposal is based on ARIS business process modeling and is presented here according to its seven phases, as follows: information survey and definition of the project structure; mapping and analysis of Campos Eliseos Terminal (TECAM) processes; validation of TECAM process maps; mapping and analysis of the remaining organizational units' processes; validation of the remaining organizational units' process maps; proposal of a business process model for all organizational units of TRANSPETRO's Oil Pipelines and Terminals Division in Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais; critical analysis of the process itself and the results and potential benefits of BPM. (author)

  16. Linking intellectual capital and intellectual property to company performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure the effects of intellectual capital components; namely, human capital, structural capital and relational capital on company performance in Iranian auto industry. The study uses a questionnaire consists of 100 questions to cover intellectual capital and company performance in Likert scale and it is distributed among 180 experts in one of Iranian auto industry. Cronbach alphas for intellectual capital components, i.e. human capital, relational capital and structural capital are 0.82, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. In addition, Cronbach alpha for company performance is 0.82. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between intellectual capital and company performance. The study has also determined a positive and meaningful relationship between human capital and structural capital. Among components of performance, efficiency maintained the highest effect while innovation represents the minimum effect.

  17. Security Paving Company, Inc.: Consent Agreement and Proposed Final Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consent Agreement and Proposed Final Order (“Proposed Consent Agreement”), between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 9 (“EPA”), and Security Paving Company (“Respondent”) to resolve a civil administrative penalty proceeding.

  18. The Kellogg Company Optimizes Production, Inventory, and Distribution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Gerald; Keegan, Joseph; Vigus, Brian; Wood, Kevin

    2001-01-01

    For over a decade, the Kellogg Company has used its planning system (KPS), a large-scale, multiperiod linear program, to guide production and distribution decisions for its cereal and convenience foods business...

  19. Six sigma and lean production adoption in a manufacturing company

    OpenAIRE

    Alisson Christian Scheller; Paulo A. Cauchick Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The connection among Lean Production with Six Sigma originated the Lean Six Sigma methodology, focused on processes variation and waste reduction. This methodology was developed on different ways in the companies and there is no consensus over its structure and its implementation. In this context, this paper aims to identify and analyze the main characteristics on the adoption and integration of Lean Six Sigma methodology through a case study conducted in a manufacturing company that adopts l...

  20. Hedging Life and Pension Company Balance Sheets with Hybrid Derivatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2009-01-01

    Life and Pension companies are facing enhanced risks of market due to dynamic interest rates and unprecedented volatility in equities, jeopardising guarantee of performance to policyholders and shareholders. Evolving statutory requirements and financial reporting standards, add to the challenges...... for these companies. This paper highlights the utility of "Hybrid Derivatives" and the new risk based solvency reporting system, know as "Traffic Light System" adopted by the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority, as an answer to the challenges posed....

  1. Industrial conflict and its management in selected Nigerian manufacturing companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solaja Oludele Mayowa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined industrial conflict and its management strategies in selected manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study utilized co-relational survey method which involves the use of structured questionnaire and personal observation to elicit information from the respondents. Participants comprised of staffs of three manufacturing companies in Lagos, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was employed in selecting the respondents from the three manufacturing companies under the study. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistic including tables, frequency counts, and percentages as well as mean scores. The findings revealed that the causes of conflict in manufacturing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria include poor means of communicating grievances to top managers, unfavorable economic and industrial policies, poor employee compensation and welfare among others. Therefore, this study concluded that managers should combine strategies such as bargaining, collaboration and avoidance when dealing with industrial conflict to maintain cordial and productive labour-management relationship.

  2. Efficiency of insurance companies: Application of DEA and Tobit analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Grmanová

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the relationship between technical efficiency and profitability of insurance companies. The profitability of insurance companies was expressed by such indicators as ROA, ROE and the size of assets. We analysed 15 commercial insurance companies in Slovakia in the period of 2013-2015. Technical efficiency scores were expressed using DEA models. The relationship between the technical efficiency score and the indicators of profitability was expressed using censored regression, i.e. the Tobit regression model and the Mann-Whitney U-test. The relationship between the technical efficiency score in the CCR and BCC models and all the groups formed on the basis of the return on assets and the group formed basing on the return on equity was not confirmed. Statistically significant difference between average technical efficiency score in the CCR model in the group of insurance companies with ROA

  3. Environmental Management in Danish Manufacturing Companies: Attitudes and Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henning; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1996-01-01

    The importance of environmental management has long been recognized, and has, among other things, resulted in a number of national and international recommendations and guidelines for sustainable business practice. However, while several examples of the actual implementation of environmental...... in Danish manufacturing companies. Some of the general results of this survey are presented below. They point to a situation where the major driving factor is legislation and where only few companies have formulated a general environmental policy and written internal environmental guidelines. However, many...... companies have established practical steps in improving their environmental situation but mainly because of the cost saving effect. Only a limited number of companies have introduced techniques which can help them to monitor and control the environmental situation and development....

  4. Relationship marketing and customer loyalty:a customer service approach in nigerian companies. in nigerian companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olumoko,Tajudeen .A.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines relationship marketing and customer loyalty from the approach of customer service-using some selected companies in Nigeria as a case study. The study clarifies the role of relationship marketing in customer services toward the achievement of customer loyalty via customer services among a sample of some selected companies in Nigeria. The study is a survey which uses a literature based research instrument [questionnaire] to measure the application of relationship marketing in customer services to achieve customer loyalty. Structured, close ended questions were used to collect primary data from the respondents. A six point likert scale ranging from “very high extent” to “no extent at all” was used to measure the level of the application of relationship marketing through customer services that aid customer loyalty. 2,400 respondents were selected based on convenience sampling method and stratified into the categories of Manufacturing, Service and Others, operating in Nigeria. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis. The research instrument shared high reliability and validity. The major findings of the study were as follows: In Nigeria, there is significant relationship between relationship marketing practice in customer service operation and customer loyalty, relationship marketing can be used to increase sales through customer loyalty via effective customer services and that relationship marketing has positive effect on customer satisfaction and organizational profitability.

  5. Charge transport and bipolar switching mechanism in a Cu/HfO2/Pt resistive switching cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Tingting; Guo Tingting; Wu Zhihui; Liu Zhengtang

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar resistance switching characteristics are investigated in Cu/sputtered-HfO 2 /Pt structure in the application of resistive random access memory (RRAM). The conduction mechanism of the structure is characterized to be SCLC conduction. The dependence of resistances in both high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS) on the temperature and device area are studied. Then, the composition and chemical bonding state of Cu and Hf at Cu/HfO 2 interface region are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Combining the electrical characteristics and the chemical structure at the interface, a model for the resistive switching effect in Cu/HfO 2 /Pt stack is proposed. According to this model, the generation and recovery of oxygen vacancies in the HfO 2 film are responsible for the resistance change. (paper)

  6. Rights and duties of members of a limited liability company

    OpenAIRE

    Jančíková, Tereza

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The reason for choosing the topic of my thesis was primarily the popularity of a Limited Liability Company as a form of a corporation suitable especially for small and medium-sized undertakings and practical usability of the knowledge about this issue. During their life businessmen and other legal persons encounter the form of Limited Liability Company almost daily and they participate very often in its business with a prospect of profit. This is why the knowledge about the rights an...

  7. Logistics and supply chain effectiveness measure areas in lng companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issues of logistics and supply chain measures in companies. It considers different management systems in the area of production, which evolved from isolated production activities to business connected systems. There are performed three case studies - three examples of systems proposed and implemented in the LNG industry: I-MAC, ICIMS and PMS. Data gained from these systems are the basis to create effectiveness measures for LNG companies and LNG supply chains.

  8. MULTI-NATIONAL COMPANIES AND TRANSITION COUNTRIES: A MACEDONIAN EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Patoska; Branko Dimeski

    2015-01-01

    The process of globalization and liberalization is further accelerated by the growing expansion of multinational companies in post-communist transition countries. Transition countries improve their technological development, increase the exports and gain better access to global markets. On other hand, global companies maximize their profits by employing cheaper resources, paying lower taxes and using a number of benefits that the transition countries offer to them. The main purpose of the pap...

  9. The Strategist of Micro, Small and Medium Brazilian Private Company

    OpenAIRE

    Fontes Filho, Joaquim Rubens; Nunes, Geraldo Sant Anna

    2010-01-01

    The importance of micro, small and medium size companies (MSMC) to the economical development and job creation in the country hasn’t found parallel with respect to the production of theories in the strategy field, even considering the limited capacity of action of the MSMCs and the idiosyncrasies of their leaders. This article seeks to contribute to the understanding of the strategy formation processes in these companies by the nature of the strategic thinking of their strategists, having as ...

  10. 12 CFR 225.21 - Prohibited nonbanking activities and acquisitions; exempt bank holding companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... exempt from the provisions of this subpart: (1) Family-owned companies. Any company that is a “company... company that has controlled only one bank since before July 1, 1968, and that has been granted an... acquisitions; exempt bank holding companies. 225.21 Section 225.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM...

  11. Fostering engagement during termination: Applying attachment theory and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmarosh, Cheri L

    2017-03-01

    Therapists often struggle to determine the most important things to focus on during termination. Reviewing the treatment, identifying plans for the future, summarizing positive gains, and saying goodbye receive the most attention. Despite our best intentions, termination can end up becoming intellectualized. Attachment theory and recent developments in neuroscience offer us a road map for facilitating endings that address client's underlying relational needs, direct us to foster engagement, and help us facilitate new relational experience that can be transformative for clients. We argue that endings in therapy activate client's and therapist's attachments and these endings trigger emotion regulating strategies that can elicit client's engagement or more defensiveness. The current paper will highlight through de-identified case examples how clients automatically respond termination and how therapists can foster rich relational experiences in the here-and-now that clients can take with them. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. The Theoretical Foundations for Establishment and Functioning of Transnational Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korogodova Olena O.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the concepts of both the transnational and the multinational corporations. The main types of transnational companies have been defined and characterized. A retrospective of development of the transnational structures has been carried out considering the multinational, global and specific marketing strategies of the production-commercial activities of companies at different stages of formation. The main benefits for globalization of companies have been defined. The level of the global investment flows has been provided. A top-ten of the leading transnational companies according to the Global Fortune 500 has been allocated, the quantitative changes in the geographical structure of the leaders as to the home countries have been determined. The degree of influence of the transnational structures on the world level of scientific, technological developments, as well as commercializing the market for high-tech products has been defined. The objectives of creating the strategic transnational alliances have been determined.

  13. Top executive compensation and company performance in Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vittaniemi, Jukka

    1997-01-01

    The compensation of Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. The current value of stock options in CEOs' compensation packages may exceed several million Finnish marks and at the same time companies are firing thousands of employees. In this paper we examine...... whether the CEOs in our sample are rewarded for good economic performance or if pay increases occur irrespective of share performance and financial performance of their firms? The sample of this study consists of 48 listed and 70 private companies over the period 1989-1993. We were able to detect...... a significant pay-for-performance relationship in executive compensation in listed companies. In private companies this relationship is found to be much less important....

  14. Open Innovation and Business Model: A Brazilian Company Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elzo Alves Aranha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Open Innovation is increasingly being introduced in international and national organizations for the creation of value. Open innovation is a practical tool, requiring new strategies and decisions from managers for the exploitation of innovative activities. The basic question that this study seeks to answer is linked to the practice of open innovation in connection with the open business model geared towards the creation of value in a Brazilian company. This paper aims to present a case study that illustrates how open innovation offers resources to change the open business model in order to create value for the Brazilian company. The case study method of a company in the sector of pharma-chemical products was used. The results indicate that internal sources of knowledge, external sources of knowledge and accentuate working partnerships were adopted by company as strategies to offer resources to change the open business model in order to create value.

  15. Telecommunications companies and health in West Africa: the issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankri, R; Maroune, M-H

    2017-11-01

    West Africa still faces important public health issues today: improving the health infrastructure, compensating for the lack of medical personnel, and bringing the rural "lost-to-follow-up" population into an inclusive healthcare system. At the same time, the boom in the mobile telephone market is providing important business opportunities for telecommunications companies in this field, leading to the rapid propagation of eHealth solutions. Thus, the telecom companies' technical innovations enable the creation of digital health solutions adapted to the specific needs of the West African market. The companies can thus increase their business through eHealth and simultaneously generate positive externalities (a healthier population), meeting the goals of their corporate social responsibility policies. We will see how these companies, aware of this opportunity, build these solutions and they meet the challenges they will confront.

  16. Strategies for Sustainable Business and Performance in Brazilian Industrial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clandia Maffini Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The study looks to analyze the adoption of strategies for sustainable business and the performance of Brazilian industrial companies. The quantitative character research has involved the execution of a survey. The results have permitted to conclude that the Brazilian companies are enlarging their participation in the international market. However, one must observe that some factors still limit this performance in terms of innovation management and socio-environmental management. Concerning the technological innovation management, one observes that, in spite of the growth of use of external sources of innovation over the last few years, one must still go a long way in the sense of developing a corporate culture that may value the partnership and the collaboration between the companies. Concerning socio-environmental management, the research data confirm the studies by authors mentioned in the literature review who maintain that most Brazilian companies still adopt a reactive stance in relation to these issues.

  17. Benefits of joint audits of service company and operator personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Companies operating in the petroleum industry are showing an increasing collective awareness of safety and environmental issues. The objective of management in any organization is to identify potential hazards and develop and implement an action plant to eliminate these hazards. Joint audits between operating companies and service companies have proved an effective means of developing an objective and realistic safety awareness program. Joint audits, unlike external audits, enable both companies to develop, implement and monitor a meaningful safety policy based on factual information. The paper describes the planning, execution and follow up of an in-depth joint audit. Analysis of the audit results generated action plans to correct areas in need of improvement for both the operating and service companies. Of these areas, most could be corrected and resolved within three months while the remainder were targeted for remedial action to be completed within one year. The paper provides a thorough set of guidelines for all stages of a successful joint audit and illustrates, with examples, the operational improvements to be gained from such operator/service-company cooperation

  18. Governance and Accountability for Italian Listed Public Utilities Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo RICCI; Tiziana LANDI

    2010-01-01

    The present paper deals with a critically Italian question with regard to the actual debate about public utility sector. The paper tries to point out positive effects that a suitable accountability system can produce in the management of local public utilities in order to bridge the gap between Public Utilities Companies and their stakeholder. In the paper the policies, the strategies and all accountability tools of some Italian listed public utilities companies are analyzed. The aim of the p...

  19. Joint stock company memorandum of association and environmental protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Zoran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint stock company memorandum of association and environmental protection 2011 Company Act stipulates that prevailing purpose of enterprise is mandatory element of memorandum of association. Connection between memorandum of association and environmental protection is based on provision that registration or doing certain business may be subject to license granted by relevant body. This is the case with 2009 Waste Management Act which provides for license granted by state authorities for doing one or more activities in waste management.

  20. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THEIR ATITUDE TOWARDS UNION ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina BĂLĂNEASA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The intensification of the global economic activity has generated changes in working relations. The intensification of the activities within multinational companies has determined greater employment flexibility, but also a lower collective bargaining power of the employees, because the multinationals attempted to weaken the power of trade unions.The purpose of this paper is precisely to identify the attitude of these companies towards trade union activity and the reaction of labour organizations in response to the challenges of the globalization.The policy of multinational companies is, as it comes from the results presented in this paper, to avoid as far as possible syndicates recognition for collective bargaining of the reciprocal rights and obligations. One of the reasons would be that trade unions recognition would imply for the managers of these companies some restrictions of control management prerogatives.In order to show strength against multinational companies, trade unions have joined at European and international level, trying to formulate a strategic response to the challenges of the globalization. Through global trade unions such as Global Syndicate Federations (GSF and the European Trade Union Confederation, employees have obtained the right to be consulted, informed and negotiate their rights through international and European social dialogue.Although multinational companies have an attitude of avoiding trade union recognition, the internationalization and Europeanization of syndicates contribute to maintaining the strategic partner role of the union in the struggle to ensure satisfactory life and working conditions of its members.

  1. The rise and fall of an oil company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    A tremendous amount of oil and gas reserves has been found. These reserves were discovered when geologists were in key positions. Exploration oriented leaders are not in key positions today. As with all living organisms, oil companies are governed by a life cycle which includes birth, adolescence, maturity, old age, and death. The life cycle of a company is characterized by its CEO/management team. During the birth of an oil company, a geologist and/or entrepreneur (leader) who has a desire to succeed is in charge. There are few tangible assets and the mortality rate is high. In the adolescence stage, the leader is willing to take high risks and is very receptive to new ideas. The discovery of company-making reserves are most likely to occur during this stage. During maturity, the key officer is usually an engineer who develops the newly found reserves. He has the desire to quantify exploration ventures in unrealistic, precise terms. Old age usually has a CPA as manager who prefers to take cash flow and transfer it to other businesses (diversification). The sale of properties starts in this stage. The last stage is death and the key officer is either a lawyer or a banker. The legal entanglement will start that inevitably plagues the cash-rich, asset-rich oil company. There is no residual expertise conducting exploration activity. We now have the liquidation of remaining assets and the company goes through mergers or sale

  2. Sustainability and Financial Performance of Companies in the Energy Sector in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragos Paun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we focus on the question of sustainability in the renewable energy sector of Romania. The aim of the current paper is to analyze the financial performance of the companies operating in the field. Our assumption is that the success of the implementation of the energy switch from classic to renewables relies on the businesses operating in this industry. In our article, we have selected the most prominent players in the energy industry, comparing the performance of those that are producing renewable energy to the ones that are producing energy using fossil fuels. Our analysis has shown that, starting with 2013, the companies have encountered financial difficulties, which has led to a halt in investments and the questioning of the sustainability of entering the market. After analyzing the data, we have seen that the investments have been rather opportunistic, based on the commitment of the government to keep the subsidies introduced by the policy, and have not been based on the realistic long-term financial performance of the companies in this area.

  3. Production and Logistics Performance of Czech and Slovak Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polakova Veronika

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with the issues of production and logistics performance of Czech and Slovak companies. The goal of the research was to analyze logistic processes, methods of industrial engineering, methods and evaluation of manufacturing, software tools utilized for measurement and management of performance, which are currently applied in manufacturing companies in the Czech and Slovak Republic. This analysis was done with the utilization of qualitativeresearch conducted in 80 selected manufacturing companies in 2009. The results are compared in the continuity with the conclusions from previous researches on manufacturing and logistic factors of the competitiveness of Czech industrial manufacturers carried out during the period 2000-2001 in the framework of the research project of the Faculty of Economics and Management completed in 2004.

  4. Comparison of the Thermal Performance of Radiative and Convective Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Dreau, Jerome; Heiselberg, Per

    2012-01-01

    of interest to compare the energy efficiency of the two types of terminals for heating and cooling buildings. Convective terminals (i.e. air conditioning systems) have been widely used in buildings, but the level of comfort is not always acceptable due to high air velocity. On the other hand radiant terminals...... can provide a better indoor climate, and be more energy efficient because they can make use of low-grade sources. The output of this conceptual approach is a better understanding of the advantages and drawbacks of the two technologies under different conditions. The analysis has been performed...... by simulating the energy consumption of an office room, located in Denmark. Different outdoor conditions have been tested, in order to compare their performance during the winter season and the summer season. Different types of activated surface have also been simulated. The results of this analysis show...

  5. [How to Use Presentations and Leaflets from Pharmaceutical Companies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nango, Eishu

    2015-01-01

    Presentations and leaflets from pharmaceutical companies are still a major source of information for physicians in Japan. Most physicians trust them and base their clinical practice on them. Such products from pharmaceutical companies are just advertising, because they are profit-making enterprises. Gifts from pharmaceutical companies to health care providers introduce bias when prescribing medicine. Thus, it is important that health care providers who receive this information from pharmaceutical companies, interpret it correctly. There are several methods for information supplements used by pharmaceutical companies. The range of the vertical axis on a survival curve may not be the full range, and differences between treatment groups are expanded in graphs. Sometimes the shape of the survival curve is artificial. The treatment effects should be interpreted based on various indicators such as raw incidence, relative risk or the number needed to treat. A composite endpoint is often used in mega-studies because each individual outcome which comprises the composite endpoint has a small event rate that is not enough to reach statistical significance, whether outcomes are important for patients or not. Evidence-based medicine is a formulated method of clinical reasoning from evidence used to make decisions. We should consider not only the evidence, but also a patient's clinical state and circumstances, a patient's preferences and actions, and the clinical expertise of the health care providers. Although pharmaceutical companies seduce health care providers, they have to recognize the true magnitude of the effects of their products and recommend their use for patients carefully.

  6. Deletion of the nucleotide excision repair gene Ercc1 reduces immunoglobulin class switching and alters mutations near switch recombination junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Carol E; Vardo, Joycelyn; Linehan, Erin; Twarog, Michael Z; Niedernhofer, Laura J; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Stavnezer, Janet

    2004-08-02

    The structure-specific endonuclease ERCC1-XPF is an essential component of the nucleotide excision DNA repair pathway. ERCC1-XPF nicks double-stranded DNA immediately adjacent to 3' single-strand regions. Substrates include DNA bubbles and flaps. Furthermore, ERCC1 interacts with Msh2, a mismatch repair (MMR) protein involved in class switch recombination (CSR). Therefore, ERCC1-XPF has abilities that might be useful for antibody CSR. We tested whether ERCC1 is involved in CSR and found that Ercc1(-)(/)(-) splenic B cells show moderately reduced CSR in vitro, demonstrating that ERCC1-XPF participates in, but is not required for, CSR. To investigate the role of ERCC1 in CSR, the nucleotide sequences of switch (S) regions were determined. The mutation frequency in germline Smicro segments and recombined Smicro-Sgamma3 segments cloned from Ercc1(-)(/)(-) splenic B cells induced to switch in culture was identical to that of wild-type (WT) littermates. However, Ercc1(-)(/)(-) cells show increased targeting of the mutations to G:C bp in RGYW/WRCY hotspots and mutations occur at sites more distant from the S-S junctions compared with WT mice. The results indicate that ERCC1 is not epistatic with MMR and suggest that ERCC1 might be involved in processing or repair of DNA lesions in S regions during CSR.

  7. Bipolar resistive switching behaviours in ZnMn2O4 film deposited on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ohm's law, trap-filled-limited and Child's law conduction procedure at room temperature. Keywords. ZnMn2O4; bipolar; resistive switching; chemical solution deposition. 1. Introduction. Non-volatile memories (NVMs) based on resistive switch- ing between two-terminal electrodes induced by an exter- nal electric field were ...

  8. MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES AND THEIR ATITUDE TOWARDS UNION ACTIVITY

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cristina BÃLÃNEASA

    2013-01-01

    The intensification of the global economic activity has generated changes in working relations. The intensification of the activities within multinational companies has determined greater employment flexibility, but also a lower collective bargaining power of the employees, because the multinationals attempted to weaken the power of trade unions. The purpose of this paper is precisely to identify the attitude of these companies towards trade union activity and the reaction of labour organizat...

  9. Intellectual Capital on the Financial Performance and Company Growth

    OpenAIRE

    gunawan, Barbara; Sari, Kharisma Iman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of intellectual capital on thefinancial performance and company growth. Population of study is bankingcompanies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange during the years of observation2007-2009. There are 63 financial statements of 21 companies which can besampled during the years of observation research. Result of analysis using ameasuring instrument SmartPLS show that intellectual capital has positive influnceon corporate financial performance, intellect...

  10. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY OF COMPANIES IN BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Čavalić, Admir; Bećirović, Damir

    2017-01-01

    The concept of corporate social responsibility implies that the company has far more responsibilities that overcome its basic economic responsibility. Corporate social responsibility is the imperative of modern business and one of the prerequisites for achieving competitive advantage. Thus, in order to be socially responsible, it is important for a company to demonstrate a certain level of responsibility towards its stakeholders. Historically, the concept of social responsibility has been the...

  11. Temperature and density profiles of an MHD switch on shock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson-Munro, C.N.; Bighel, L.; Collins, A.R.; Cramer, N.F.; Cross, R.C.

    1975-02-01

    An experimental study of the structure of MHD switch-on shock waves propagating into partially ionized hydrogen and helium plasmas is described. The variation of electron and ion temperatures through the shock front was studied as a function of the level of preionization. When the shock propagates into an almost fully ionized plasma, the electron temperatures rises well above the ion temperature due to resistive heating of the electrons. At low preionization levels however, the ion temperature rises above the electron temperature. These results indicate that ion-neutral collisions can play a dominant role in the dissipation of energy in a shock wave. (author)

  12. Spontaneous class switch recombination in B cell lymphopoiesis generates aberrant switch junctions and is increased after VDJ rearrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edry, Efrat; Koralov, Sergei B; Rajewsky, Klaus; Melamed, Doron

    2007-11-15

    Mature B cells replace the mu constant region of the H chain with a downstream isotype in a process of class switch recombination (CSR). Studies suggest that CSR induction is limited to activated mature B cells in the periphery. Recently, we have shown that CSR spontaneously occur in B lymphopoiesis. However, the mechanism and regulation of it have not been defined. In this study, we show that spontaneous CSR occurs at all stages of B cell development and generates aberrant joining of the switch junctions as revealed by: 1) increased load of somatic mutations around the CSR break points, 2) reduced sequence overlaps at the junctions, and 3) excessive switch region deletion. In addition, we found that incidence of spontaneous CSR is increased in cells carrying VDJ rearrangements. Our results reveal major differences between spontaneous CSR in developing B cells and CSR induced in mature B cells upon activation. These differences can be explained by deregulated expression or function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase early in B cell development.

  13. Practice and Preparation Time Facilitate System-Switching in Perceptual Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Hélie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mounting evidence suggests that category learning is achieved using different psychological and biological systems. While existing multiple-system theories and models of categorization may disagree about the number or nature of the different systems, all assume that people can switch between systems seamlessly. However, little empirical data has been collected to test this assumption, and recent available data suggest that system-switching is difficult. The main goal of this article is to identify factors influencing the proportion of participants who successfully learn to switch between procedural and declarative systems on a trial-by-trial basis. Specifically, we tested the effects of preparation time and practice, two factors that have been useful in task-switching, in a system-switching experiment. The results suggest that practice and preparation time can be beneficial to system-switching (as calculated by a higher proportion of switchers and lower switch costs, especially when they are jointly present. However, this improved system-switching comes at the cost of a larger button-switch interference when changing the location of the response buttons. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of these findings for empirical research on system-switching and theoretical work on multiple-systems of category learning.

  14. Theoretical and Practical Aspects Regarding the Nulity of Commercial Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Lefter

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The absence of a Romanian legal definition of the concept of nullity of commercial companies arouses a lot of questions. The delimitation of this concept is very important for a correct establishment of its field of application. In other words, are the cases of nullity of commercial companies regulated only by Law no. 31/1990 or by the provisions of common law as well?Started from the fact that the nullity is not considered by the legislator a simple sanction applicable to the juridical acts but it affects directly the existence of the company and becomes a means to sanction the creation of a legal person by disregarding the imperative legal provisions, we analyzed firstly the Romanian (II and the EU legal provisions regarding the nullity of commercial companies. The elements of this analyze helped us to qualify the nullity of commercial companies and its effect (III. Finally, through the conclusion formulated we hope to call the attention on the fact that a company, even created through the non-observance of the legal rules, can be viable from economic point of view and it is senseless to make it disappearance.

  15. Value of Construction Company and its Dependence on Significant Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vítková, E.; Hromádka, V.; Ondrušková, E.

    2017-10-01

    The paper deals with the value of the construction company assessment respecting usable approaches and determinable variables. The reasons of the value of the construction company assessment are different, but the most important reasons are the sale or the purchase of the company, the liquidation of the company, the fusion of the company with another subject or the others. According the reason of the value assessment it is possible to determine theoretically different approaches for valuation, mainly it concerns about the yield method of valuation and the proprietary method of valuation. Both approaches are dependant of detailed input variables, which quality will influence the final assessment of the company´s value. The main objective of the paper is to suggest, according to the analysis, possible ways of input variables, mainly in the form of expected cash-flows or the profit, determination. The paper is focused mainly on methods of time series analysis, regression analysis and mathematical simulation utilization. As the output, the results of the analysis on the case study will be demonstrated.

  16. A novel linear switched reluctance motor : Investigation and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rengasamy Arumugam

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel stator geometry for a linear switched reluctance motor (LSRM that improves the force profile is presented inthis paper. In the new geometry, pole shoes are affixed on the stator poles. Static characteristics for the proposed structurehave been highlighted using two dimensional (2-D finite element analyses (FEA. A detailed sensitivity analysis of the effectof several geometrical parameters on the performance of the proposed LSRM is presented. Further, motor performance forvariable load conditions is discussed. The 2-D FEA results and the experimental results of this paper prove that LSRMs areone of the strong candidates for linear propulsion drives.

  17. Buffer allocation in an ATM switch with output buffer and speed constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Anil K.; Georganas, N. D.

    A synchronous nonblocking N times N switch for asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks or high speed packet switching networks transporting fixed length packets called cells is considered. Such a switch with output queuing achieves the optimal performance, however it requires the switch fabric to work at the speed of N. In practice the switch may operate L times faster than the input/output trunk. It is assumed that queues at each output port have a limited buffer space and whenever an output queue is full, the back-pressure is applied and the packets are retained at the head of the input queues. The upper bound on the packet loss probability at the input queues in such a switch are computed. To achieve a given packet loss rate, the switch with L equals 2 requires almost the same amount of input and output buffers as with L equals 4 up to 70 percent input load, but as the load increases beyond 70 percent the switch with L equals 4 would require more output buffers and less input buffers in comparison with a switch operating at L equals 2. The performance of a switch with L equals 3 is very similar to that for L equals 4 and is not considered.

  18. Case study: The Transnationalization of Russian Oil and Gas Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Lavrov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The value of multinational enterprises (MNEs as the main players in the global economy is constantly increasing. More and more companies from developing and transition economies are starting to do business beyond their national borders. Not all of them strictly belong to the category of MNEs, as is the case for Russia’s largest companies. This article analyzes the international activities of Russian MNEs. The authors study the place of MNEs in the modern world and examine the transformation of the concept of an MNE in the international practice. They identify the internationally accepted criteria that classify a company as an MNE. They analyze the international activities of the largest Russian companies in the oil and gas sector (Gazprom, Rosneft, Lukoil, Surgutneftegas, Novatek and their possible classification as MNEs. The article also assesses the influence of the economic and political sanctions on the international activities of Russian MNEs in the oil and gas sector. The methodological basis for the study is the dialectical method of investigating phenomena and processes in the modern world as the most effective way to achieve goals. The authors pay particular attention to the practical application of comparative economic analysis, classification and empirical generalization of original data. The authors came to seven conclusions. First, there is no single approach to defining the essence of MNEs. Second, the indicators that classify a company as an MNE can be divided into qualitative and quantitative criteria. Third, not all the large companies in Russia engaged in expanding into foreign markets can be classified as MNEs by the formal criteria. Fourth, most Russian MNEs have an unstable position in international ratings of MNEs, with the exception of Lukoil. Fifth, the main problems of Russian MNEs include the inefficiency of foreign assets, the lack of experience in managing international holdings and the longstanding crisis of the

  19. Regio- and stereoselective hydrosilylation of immobilized terminal alkynes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Henriksen, Jonas; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held

    2008-01-01

    Regio- and stereoselective hydrosilylation of terminal alkynes on solid support using diisopropyl hydrosilanes yielding b-(E)-vinyl silanes with excellent selectivity is reported. The hydrosilylation is catalyzed by Pt(DVDS)/P(iBuNCH2CH2)3N (DVDS = 1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl-disiloxane), in ......Regio- and stereoselective hydrosilylation of terminal alkynes on solid support using diisopropyl hydrosilanes yielding b-(E)-vinyl silanes with excellent selectivity is reported. The hydrosilylation is catalyzed by Pt(DVDS)/P(iBuNCH2CH2)3N (DVDS = 1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyl...

  20. 76 FR 64264 - Authority to Require Supervision and Regulation of Certain Nonbank Financial Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... threaten the financial condition and competitive position of other significant financial companies when... Supervision and Regulation of Certain Nonbank Financial Companies AGENCY: Financial Stability Oversight...'') authorizes the Financial Stability Oversight Council (the ``Council'') to require a nonbank financial company...

  1. CSR and technology companies: A study on its implementation, integration and effects on the competitiveness of companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Andres Bernal-Conesa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, a structural equation model is presented in order to explain the motivations of implementing Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR in Spanish technology companies and its linkage with others standardized management systems before CSR implementation. It also examines whether CSR influences the competitiveness of these companies. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in companies located in Spanish Science and Technology Parks. For this study, a survey was sent and structural equation model was used. Findings and Originality/value: Model results show that there is a positive, direct and statistically significant relationship between the motivations, previous management systems, implementation of CSR and the real integration of CSR in the organization. Research limitations/implications: Limitations are determined by the technique used for the proposed model: structural equations, which assume linearity of the relationship between latent variables. Practical implications: Companies can use the results of this study as a foothold to enhance the integration of CSR based on previous management systems and take advantage of synergies between them, since the integration of CSR has a direct relationship with the competitiveness of the company. Originality/value: The link between the motivations of CSR, CSR actions and their integration in technology companies are reliably and empirically demonstrated.

  2. Language switching in bilingual production: Empirical data and computational modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Filippi, R.; Karaminis, T.; Thomas, M.

    2014-01-01

    One key issue in bilingualism is how bilinguals control production, particularly to produce words in the less dominant language. Language switching is one method to investigate control processes. Language switching has been much studied in comprehension, e.g., in lexical decision task, but less so in production. Here we first present a study of language switching in Italian–English adult bilinguals in a naming task for visually presented words. We demonstrate an asymmetric pattern of time cos...

  3. Antenna Correlation From Input Parameters for Arbitrary Topologies and Terminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The spatial correlation between pairs of antennas in a system comprised of N RF ports is found by extending the N × N scattering matrix to (N + 1)×(N + 1) spatial scattering matrix, where the extra space dimension accounts for the reference port patterns. The lossless property of the spatial...... scattering matrix in a 3D uniform field is employed for expressing the spatial correlation between the port patterns at arbitrary complex terminations merely from the reference scattering parameters and the complex terminations without any far-field calculation....

  4. High power switching and other high power devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, Martin

    1992-09-01

    High power thyratrons and devices such as high power microwave sources have cathode-related performance limits. Research is described of a simple, robust 'super-emissive' cathode that produces greater than 10,000 A/sq cm from a macroscopic area (approx. 1 sq cm), and operates with a low pressure (approx. 0.1 torr), spatially uniform glow plasma (density greater than 1015 cu cm). The cathode also can operate as a hollow cathode, and is at the heart of the operation of the pseudospark and back-lighted thyratron. The physics of this hollow and super-emissive cathode is very rich. The hollow cathode geometry traps electrons in the hollow cathode backspace. The lifetime of these electrons enables them to ionize a spatially homogeneous high density glow, and this hollow cathode mode of operation is responsible for certain types of electron and ion beam behavior. A plasma cathode sheath that is formed during this phase leads to super-emissive behavior, which is responsible for high current emission. Super-emissive cathode thyratron-type switches (with higher peak current, voltage, di/dt) being developed for pulsed power switching of lasers, accelerators, high current and high coulomb transfer, Marx bank operation, transfer of technology to commercial applications, high current electron beams, and millimeter wave generation (1 to 100 GHz) are described.

  5. The link between competences and company success in Danish manufacturing companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bove, Karsten; Harmsen, Hanne; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2000-01-01

    competencies: Sales competence, production management, internal market orientation, product development, image, strategy and vision, customer knowledge, quality management, surveillance and marketing competence. The performance on these competencies and background variables were then related to success......The purpose of this paper is to analyse which competencies top managers perceive as the most important ones for achieving success, and to analyse how these competencies create success, and how they influence each other. Competence elements perceived to be important for achieving company success...... were inductively identified in qualitative interviews with top managers, following a managerial cognition approach. The results were used as input for a representative study of manufacturing firms in Denmark, where the most important competencies were identified. The data analysis revealed 10 key...

  6. Development and analysis of U-core switched reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Rasmus; Nielsen, Simon Staal; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2016-01-01

    Switched reluctance machines (SRMs) have seen a lot of interest due to their rugged and fault tolerant construction as well as their high efficiency over a wide speed range. The technology however suffers from torque ripple, acoustic noise and low torque density. Many concepts to address these di......Switched reluctance machines (SRMs) have seen a lot of interest due to their rugged and fault tolerant construction as well as their high efficiency over a wide speed range. The technology however suffers from torque ripple, acoustic noise and low torque density. Many concepts to address...... these disadvantages have been presented, but not all of them have been demonstrated practically. This paper presents a practical demonstration and assessment of a segmented U-core SRM, which copes with some of the disadvantages of the regular SRM. The U-core SRM has a segmented stator, with a short flux path......, which addresses the shortcomings of the U-core technology, as well as general considerations for SRMs. This allows for further development and improvement of the technology, and also contributes to improve the development and modelling of conventional SRMs....

  7. 37 CFR 404.10 - Modification and termination of licenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modification and termination of licenses. 404.10 Section 404.10 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY POLICY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE LICENSING OF GOVERNMENT OWNED INVENTIONS § 404.10 Modification and...

  8. Trilinguals' language switching: A strategic and flexible account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Michela

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how trilinguals select the language they intend to use in a language switching context. Two accounts are examined: (a) a language-specific account, according to which language selection considers the activation level of words of the intended language only (i.e., language co-activation without language competition), and (b) a language non-specific account, where activated words from both the intended and non-intended languages compete for selection (i.e., language co-activation with language competition). Results showed that, in both groups, all three languages competed for selection and that selection was achieved by inhibiting the currently non-relevant languages. Moreover, extending findings from previous research, the study reveals that, in both Experiments 1 and 2, the amount of inhibition was influenced not only by language proficiency but also by the typological similarity between languages. Overall, the study shows that language switching performance can be accounted for by a strategic and flexible inhibitory account. In particular, the controlling system is "strategic" in the sense that it aims at preventing potential conflicting situations, such as typological closeness between languages, and it is "flexible" in that it adjusts languages' activation levels, depending on the conflict to be solved.

  9. Dissociating Stimulus-Set and Response-Set in the Context of Task-Set Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieffaber, Paul D.; Kruschke, John K.; Cho, Raymond Y.; Walker, Philip M.; Hetrick, William P.

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the present research was to determine how stimulus-set and response-set components of task-set contribute to switch costs and conflict processing. Three experiments are described wherein participants completed an explicitly cued task-switching procedure. Experiment 1 established that task switches requiring a reconfiguration of both stimulus- and response-set incurred larger residual switch costs than task switches requiring the reconfiguration of stimulus-set alone. Between-task interference was also drastically reduced for response-set conflict compared with stimulus-set conflict. A second experiment replicated these findings and demonstrated that stimulus- and response-conflict have dissociable effects on the “decision time” and “motor time” components of total response time. Finally, a third experiment replicated Experiment 2 and demonstrated that the stimulus- and response- components of task switching and conflict processing elicit dissociable neural activity as evidence by event-related brain potentials. PMID:22984990

  10. Floral to green: mating switches moth olfactory coding and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saveer, Ahmed M; Kromann, Sophie H; Birgersson, Göran; Bengtsson, Marie; Lindblom, Tobias; Balkenius, Anna; Hansson, Bill S; Witzgall, Peter; Becher, Paul G; Ignell, Rickard

    2012-06-22

    Mating induces profound physiological changes in a wide range of insects, leading to behavioural adjustments to match the internal state of the animal. Here, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a noctuid moth switches its olfactory response from food to egg-laying cues following mating. Unmated females of the cotton leafworm (Spodoptera littoralis) are strongly attracted to lilac flowers (Syringa vulgaris). After mating, attraction to floral odour is abolished and the females fly instead to green-leaf odour of the larval host plant cotton, Gossypium hirsutum. This behavioural switch is owing to a marked change in the olfactory representation of floral and green odours in the primary olfactory centre, the antennal lobe (AL). Calcium imaging, using authentic and synthetic odours, shows that the ensemble of AL glomeruli dedicated to either lilac or cotton odour is selectively up- and downregulated in response to mating. A clear-cut behavioural modulation as a function of mating is a useful substrate for studies of the neural mechanisms underlying behavioural decisions. Modulation of odour-driven behaviour through concerted regulation of odour maps contributes to our understanding of state-dependent choice and host shifts in insect herbivores.

  11. Convergent evolution of hemoglobin switching in jawed and jawless vertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Kim; Stuhlmann, Friederike; Docker, Margaret F; Burmester, Thorsten

    2016-02-01

    During development, humans and other jawed vertebrates (Gnathostomata) express distinct hemoglobin genes, resulting in different hemoglobin tetramers. Embryonic and fetal hemoglobin have higher oxygen affinities than the adult hemoglobin, sustaining the oxygen demand of the developing organism. Little is known about the expression of hemoglobins during development of jawless vertebrates (Agnatha). We identified three hemoglobin switches in the life cycle of the sea lamprey. Three hemoglobin genes are specifically expressed in the embryo, four genes in the filter feeding larva (ammocoete), and nine genes correspond to the adult hemoglobin chains. During the development from the parasitic to the reproductive adult, the composition of hemoglobin changes again, with a massive increase of chain aHb1. A single hemoglobin chain is expressed constitutively in all stages. We further showed the differential expression of other globin genes: Myoglobin 1 is most highly expressed in the reproductive adult, myoglobin 2 expression peaks in the larva. Globin X1 is restricted to the embryo; globin X2 was only found in the reproductive adult. Cytoglobin is expressed at low levels throughout the life cycle. Because the hemoglobins of jawed and jawless vertebrates evolved independently from a common globin ancestor, hemoglobin switching must also have evolved convergently in these taxa. Notably, the ontogeny of sea lamprey hemoglobins essentially recapitulates their phylogeny, with the embryonic hemoglobins emerging first, followed by the evolution of larval and adult hemoglobins.

  12. 77 FR 48512 - Northern Indiana Public Service Company; Notice of Application for Amendment of License and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Indiana Public Service Company; Notice of Application for Amendment..., 2012. d. Applicant: Northern Indiana Public Service Company (licensee). e. Name of Project: Norway... Supervisor-- Chemical and Environmental Compliance, Northern Indiana Public Service Company, 1414 W. Broadway...

  13. Back to school: new paths opened between companies and campuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faulkner, P.

    2000-01-01

    Educational and training programs in effect at Alberta Energy Company (AEC) and Gulf Canada Resources Ltd are used to illustrate the enlightened attitude adopted by more and more oil companies as a result of the realisation that while the studies help the employee to realize their own objectives, in an industry where technological competitiveness and adaptability are means of survival, the company is the ultimate beneficiary. Unlike in the past when oil companies brought in experts for a mixture of general in-house courses, today's scientists, engineers, computer programmers and others need upgrading tailored to their particular roles. Instead of the company deciding on what course to put on, the responsibility for finding and arranging the matches has been transferred to the employees. Energy marketing, computer training, management and leadership courses are the most favored courses at the moment, with the Banff School of Management, the Niagara Institute, the International Human Resources Development Corporation, the Petroleum Industry Training Service, , Oil and Gas Consultants International, the Southern Alberta Institute of Technology and the University of Calgary, the favorite training grounds. Studying alone is a challenge for many, and it certainly is no free ride in terms of the effort involved, but the load is lightened by the knowledge that the cost is paid by the companies regardless of how advanced the training may be. While retraining has become hot stuff, there is still an acknowledged gap between theory and practice. Empirical evidence shows that the greatest benefit, both to the employee as well as the company, is obtained when the theory of the classroom is leavened by the hands-on experience of the real world

  14. Light guiding and switching using eccentric core-shell geometries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreda, Ángela I; Gutiérrez, Yael; Sanz, Juan M; González, Francisco; Moreno, Fernando

    2017-09-11

    High Refractive Index (HRI) dielectric nanoparticles have been proposed as an alternative to metallic ones due to their low absorption and magnetodielectric response in the VIS and NIR ranges. For the latter, important scattering directionality effects can be obtained. Also, systems constituted by dimers of HRI dielectric nanoparticles have shown to produce switching effects by playing with the polarization, frequency or intensity of the incident radiation. Here, we show that scattering directionality effects can be achieved with a single eccentric metallo-HRI dielectric core-shell nanoparticle. As an example, the effect of the metallic core displacements for a single Ag-Si core-shell nanoparticle has been analyzed. We report rotation of the main scattering lobe either clockwise or counterclockwise depending on the polarization of the incident radiation leading to new scattering configurations for switching purposes. Also, the efficiency of the scattering directionality can be enhanced. Finally, chains of these scattering units have shown good radiation guiding effects, and for 1D periodic arrays, redirection of diffracted intensity can be observed as a consequence of blazing effects. The proposed scattering units constitute new blocks for building systems for optical communications, solar energy harvesting devices and light guiding at the nanoscale level.

  15. 47 CFR 51.715 - Interim transport and termination pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....715 Section 51.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER... arrangement, pending resolution of negotiation or arbitration regarding transport and termination rates and approval of such rates by a state commission under sections 251 and 252 of the Act. (1) This requirement...

  16. Agent-based Security and Efficiency Estimation in Airport Terminals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.A.M.

    We investigate the use of an Agent-based framework to identify and quantify the relationship between security and efficiency within airport terminals. In this framework, we define a novel Security Risk Assessment methodology that explicitly models attacker and defender behavior in a security

  17. Ecological and Economic Indicators of Oil and Gas Companies Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia V. Sheveleva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the basic ecological-economic indicators of oil and gas companies, in particular the various volumes of oil, the number of spills per year of CO2 emissions, the costs of environmental protection. In the process of exploration, development and exploitation of oil and gas fields, production, refining, transportation and storage companies have a negative impact on the environment. Occur accidents involving oil spills, emissions and discharges of pollutants into the environment. As a result contaminates water resources, soil and atmosphere, animals dying, birds and fish, but also transformed the structure of the subsurface and changes the landscape, reduced strategic reserves of fuel and energy resources are formed objects of accumulated environmental damage. The need for construction of environmental protection facilities; the protection, rational use and rehabilitation of lands; protection of water resources and atmospheric air; monitoring the environment and industrial facilities; the prevention and elimination of consequences of accidents on pipelines; disposal and recycling of waste; environmental education; conducting scientific research requires oil and gas companies to undertake large expenditures. A positive trend of modern development of oil and gas companies is the introduction of mechanisms for environmental management in practice their activities, which leads to a gradual reduction of the negative impact of their activities on the environment.

  18. Morse taper dental implants and platform switching: The new paradigm in oral implantology

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Jos? Paulo; Pereira, Jorge; Vahey, Brendan R.; Henriques, Bruno; Benfatti, Cesar A. M.; Magini, Ricardo S.; L?pez-L?pez, Jos?; Souza, J?lio C. M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a literature review on the potential benefits with the use of Morse taper dental implant connections associated with small diameter platform switching abutments. A Medline bibliographical search (from 1961 to 2014) was carried out. The following search items were explored: ?Bone loss and platform switching,? ?bone loss and implant-abutment joint,? ?bone resorption and platform switching,? ?bone resorption and implant-abutment joint,? ?Morse taper and platf...

  19. Operation and evaluation of the Terminal Configured Vehicle Mission Simulator in an automated terminal area metering and spacing ATC environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the work being done at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center on the development of a mission simulator for use in the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program. A brief description of the goals and objectives of the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program is presented. A more detailed description of the Mission Simulator, in its present configuration, and its components is provided. Finally, a description of the first research study conducted in the Mission Simulator is presented along with a discussion of some preliminary results from this study.

  20. Controller Architectures for Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigate different controller architectures in connection with controller switching. The controller switching is derived by using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. A number of different architectures for the implementation of the YJBK parameterization...... are described and applied in connection with controller switching. An architecture that does not include inversion of the coprime factors is introduced. This architecture will make controller switching particular simple....

  1. private military and security companies: ethics, policies and civil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hennie

    International, regional and national security, as well as the security of the individual is increasingly entwined in services provided by private military and security contractors. The editors accordingly acknowledge that “… [the] astonishing growth of private and security companies (PMSCs) is clearly one of the most noteworthy.

  2. Analyzing Program Termination and Complexity Automatically with AProVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giesl, Jürgen; Aschermann, Cornelius; Brockschmidt, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In this system description, we present the tool AProVE for automatic termination and complexity proofs of Java, C, Haskell, Prolog, and rewrite systems. In addition to classical term rewrite systems (TRSs), AProVE also supports rewrite systems containing built-in integers (int-TRSs). To analyze p...

  3. Views and attitudes of pregnant women regarding late termination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the views and attitudes of pregnant women with severe fetal anomalies regarding late termination of pregnancy (LTOP). Methods. Data were ... Detection of severe congenital fetal abnormalities after ..... diagnosis and abortion for fetuses with severe genetic disorder: Type 1 spinal muscular atrophy. Ann Saudi Med ...

  4. Aligning barge and terminal operations using service-time profiles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douma, A.M.; Schuur, Peter; Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a key issue in hinterland container navigation in ports, such as Rotterdam and Antwerp, namely the barge handling problem: how to optimize the alignment of barge and terminal operations in a port. We make a major step in solving the barge handling problem for practical settings.

  5. A Planar Switchable 3-D-Coverage Phased Array Antenna and Its User Effects for 28-GHz Mobile Terminal Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Xiaoming; Syrytsin, Igor A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a planar switchable 3D-coverage phased array for 28 GHz mobile terminal applications. In order to realize 3D-coverage beam scan with a simple planar array, chassis surface waves are efficiently excited and controlled by three identical slot subarrays. Three subarrays switch...... their beams to three distinct regions. Each subarray works as a phased array to steer the beam within each region. Large coverage efficiency is achieved (e.g., 80% of the space sphere has the realized gain of over 8 dBi). The proposed antenna covers a bandwidth of over 2 GHz in the band of 28 GHz. User...

  6. Optical overview and qualification of the LLCD space terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVoe, C. E.; Pillsbury, A. D.; Khatri, F.; Burnside, J. M.; Raudenbush, A. C.; Petrilli, L. J.; Williams, T.

    2017-11-01

    In October 2013 the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration (LLCD) made communications history by successfully demonstrating 622 megabits per second laser communication from the moon's orbit to earth. The LLCD consisted of the Lunar Laser Communication Space Terminal (LLST), developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory, mounted on NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft and a primary ground terminal located in New Mexico, the Lunar Laser Communications Ground Terminal (LLGT), and two alternate ground terminals. This paper presents the optical layout of the LLST, the approach for testing the optical subsystems, and the results of the optical qualification of the LLST. Also described is the optical test set used to qualify the LLST. The architecture philosophy for the optics was to keep a small, simple optical backend that provided excellent boresighting and high isolation between the optical paths, high quality wavefront on axis, with minimal throughput losses on all paths. The front end large optics consisted of a Cassegrain 107mm telescope with an f/0.7 parabolic primary mirror and a solar window to reduce the thermal load on the telescope and to minimize background light received at the sensors.

  7. The fox and the cabra: an ERP analysis of reading code switched nouns and verbs in bilingual short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Shukhan; Gonzalez, Christian; Wicha, Nicole Y Y

    2014-04-04

    Comprehending a language (or code) switch within a sentence context triggers 2 electrophysiological signatures: an early left anterior negativity post code switch onset - a LAN - followed by a Late Positive Component (LPC). Word class and word position modulate lexico-semantic processes in the monolingual brain, e.g., larger N400 amplitude for nouns than verbs and for earlier than later words in the sentence. Here we test whether the bilingual brain is affected by word class and word position when code switching, or if the cost of switching overrides these lexico-semantic and sentence context factors. Adult bilinguals read short stories in English containing 8 target words. Targets were nouns or verbs, occurred early or late in a story and were presented alternately in English (non-switch) or Spanish (switch) across different story versions. Overall, switched words elicited larger LAN and LPC amplitude than non-switched words. The N400 amplitude was larger for nouns than verbs, more focal for switches than non-switches, and for early than late nouns but not for early than late verbs. Moreover, an early LPC effect was observed only for switched nouns, but not verbs. Together, this indicates that referential elements (nouns) may be harder to process and integrate than relational elements (verbs) in discourse, and when switched, nouns incur higher integration cost. Word position did not modulate the code switching effects, implying that switching between languages may invoke discourse independent processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Computer and visual display terminals (VDT) vision syndrome (CVDTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parihar, J K S; Jain, Vaibhav Kumar; Chaturvedi, Piyush; Kaushik, Jaya; Jain, Gunjan; Parihar, Ashwini K S

    2016-07-01

    Computer and visual display terminals have become an essential part of modern lifestyle. The use of these devices has made our life simple in household work as well as in offices. However the prolonged use of these devices is not without any complication. Computer and visual display terminals syndrome is a constellation of symptoms ocular as well as extraocular associated with prolonged use of visual display terminals. This syndrome is gaining importance in this modern era because of the widespread use of technologies in day-to-day life. It is associated with asthenopic symptoms, visual blurring, dry eyes, musculoskeletal symptoms such as neck pain, back pain, shoulder pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, psychosocial factors, venous thromboembolism, shoulder tendonitis, and elbow epicondylitis. Proper identification of symptoms and causative factors are necessary for the accurate diagnosis and management. This article focuses on the various aspects of the computer vision display terminals syndrome described in the previous literature. Further research is needed for the better understanding of the complex pathophysiology and management.

  9. Blueprint and Approach to Grow Revenue in Small Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a new approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. We name this new approach the business ecosystem approach. The article is organized into five sections. The first section provides a blueprint to grow revenue and an inventory of growth formulas that top management teams of small technology companies and founders of startups find useful. The second section briefly defines business ecosystems, keystones and platforms. The third section describes the business ecosystem approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. It compares the traditional and business ecosystem approaches to growing revenue; identifies when the business ecosystem approach works better than the traditional approach; explains what small companies and startups need to do to grow revenue using the business ecosystem approach; and describes the benefits and risks of implementing the business ecosystem approach. The fourth section compares three approaches to growing revenue and highlights the differences between i business ecosystems and development communities and ii the business ecosystem approach and outsourcing. The fifth section identifies the key decisions a small technology company or technology startup needs to make to become the keystone that anchors a business ecosystem.

  10. Using Alloy to Formally Model and Reason About an OpenFlow Network Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Mirzaei, Saber; Bahargam, Sanaz; Skowyra, Richard; Kfoury, Assaf; Bestavros, Azer

    2016-01-01

    Openflow provides a standard interface for separating a network into a data plane and a programmatic control plane. This enables easy network reconfiguration, but introduces the potential for programming bugs to cause network effects. To study OpenFlow switch behavior, we used Alloy to create a software abstraction describing the internal state of a network and its OpenFlow switches. This work is an attempt to model the static and dynamic behaviour a network built using OpenFlow switches.

  11. Investigation of switching frequency variations and EMI properties in self-oscillating class D amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Pfaffinger, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    for its variation. Knowledge of switching frequency variations is of great importance with respect to electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper will investigate, whether the switching frequency is depended on modulation index and audio reference frequency. Validation is done using simulations......, and the results are compared with measurements performed on a 50 W prototype amplifier. The switching frequency is tracked through accurate spectrum measurements, and very good compliance with simulation results are observed....

  12. Cost and Management Accounting Practices: A Survey of Manufacturing Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali UYAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to explore cost and management accounting practices utilized by manufacturing companies operating in Istanbul, Turkey. The sample of the study consists of 61 companies, containing both small and medium-sized enterprises, and large companies. The data collection methodology of the study is questionnaire survey. The content of the questionnaire survey is based on several previous studies. The major findings of the study are as follows: the most widely used product costing method is job costing; the complexity in production poses as the highest ranking difficulty in product costing; the most widely used three overhead allocation bases are prime costs, units produced, and direct labor cost; pricing decisions is the most important area where costing information is used; overall mean of the ratio of overhead to total cost is 34.48 percent for all industries; and the most important three management accounting practices are budgeting, planning and control, and cost-volume-profit analysis. Furthermore, decreasing profitability, increasing costs and competition, and economic crises are the factors, which increase the perceived importance of cost accounting. The findings indicate that companies perceive traditional management accounting tools still important. However, new management accounting practices such as strategic planning, and transfer pricing are perceived less important than traditional ones. Therefore, companies need to improve themselves in this aspect.

  13. Reason for termination of breastfeeding and the length of breastfeeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M S; Sodemann, Morten; Mølbak, Kare

    1996-01-01

    In third world countries the length of breastfeeding often has a major influence on child mortality, morbidity and nutritional status. When evaluating the impact of length of breastfeeding the reason why a mother terminates breastfeeding is usually not taken into consideration....

  14. Death, dynamics and disorder: Terminating reentry in excitable ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Death, dynamics and disorder: Terminating reentry in excitable media by dynamically-induced ... ventricular tachycardia, often leading to death. This is typically treated by rapid stimula- tion from ... Note the non-conducting scar tissue (in black) occupying a significant portion of the ventricle. Pacing is usually applied via an ...

  15. Dynamics of convulsive seizure termination and postictal generalized EEG suppression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, P.R.; Thijs, R.D.; Lamberts, R.J.; Velis, D.N.; Visser, G.H.; Tolner, E.A.; Sander, J.W.; Lopes da Silva, F.H.; Kalitzin, S.N.

    It is not fully understood how seizures terminate and why some seizures are followed by a period of complete brain activity suppression, postictal generalized EEG suppression. This is clinically relevant as there is a potential association between postictal generalized EEG suppression,

  16. Synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives from terminal alkynes and o ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 129; Issue 11. Synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives from terminal alkynes and o-phenylenediamines by using copper alumina catalyst. AKHIL V NAKHATE KALIDAS B RASAL GUNJAN P DESHMUKH SHYAM SUNDER R GUPTA LAKSHMI KANTAM MANNEPALLI.

  17. Intermodel freight terminals: marketing channels and telecommunication networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegmans, B.W.; Nijkamp, P.; Masurel, E.

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to highlight the importance of modern telecommunications networks in combined transport marketing channels deployed for intermodal terminals. To develop a customer-based and broadly applicable framework for studying combined freight transport in Europe, the use of the marketing

  18. The influence of supplier assessment in the termination of oil and gas exploitation and production contracts in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleison Antonio Pinto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The supplier performance assessment literature shows that the prior identification of contracts considered unsatisfactory may prove crucial to the maintenance of a company, especially in sectors with high operational and environmental risk and significant investments, such as the oil and gas exploitation sector. Although considered important, contract termination has been little studied in the Brazilian oil segment, due to the small number of firms operating in the sector and restricted access to information from these companies. This article aims to reduce this gap by analyzing what service assessment criteria most influence contract terminations in the Brazilian sector of oil and gas exploitation and production. Therefore, the assessments of service contracts terminated between 1/1/2006 and 12/31/2014 by a business unit active in oil and gas exploitation and production located in Brazil were analyzed using logit regressions. In the resulting database, 273 contracts were found that include all specialized services in the activity, totaling 19,613 ratings. The results indicate that the Term and Logistics criteria reveal the greatest influence on contract cancelations of the sector activities. In addition, by segregating the analysis by specialty, it was found that different specialties have different requirements and therefore different contractual arrangements. These results empirically corroborate the theoretical discussions in the literature about the importance of compliance with contractual obligations, especially with regard to the negotiated deadlines.

  19. Teacher’s Use of Code Switching in the Classroom and Its Implications on Students’ Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Herlina K.

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Code switching is usually done by people who have mastered two languages well. Among the people who can fulfill these criteria are Indonesians who teach English. In teaching English to Indonesian students, English teachers do not always use English as the medium of instruction, they usually code switch to Indonesian. Research focuses on the teachers as the subjects who apply code switching in the classroom. The respondents are eight lecturers in Bina Nusantara University who teach English to non-English department students. This research analyses the speech of the teachers to find out the percentage of code switching and the uses of code switching in the classroom. Finally, the relation between code switching and the students’ scores is calculated using independent samples T-test.  

  20. Common and Distinct Neural Mechanisms of Attentional Switching and Response Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chobok; Johnson, Nathan F.; Gold, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    The human capacities for overcoming prepotent actions and flexibly switching between tasks represent cornerstones of cognitive control. Functional neuroimaging has implicated a diverse set of brain regions contributing to each of these cognitive control processes. However, the extent to which attentional switching and response conflict draw on shared or distinct neural mechanisms remains unclear. The current study examined the neural correlates of response conflict and attentional switching using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a fully randomized 2×2 design. We manipulated an arrow-word version of the Stroop task to measure conflict and switching in the context of a single task decision, in response to a common set of stimuli. Under these common conditions, both behavioral and imaging data showed significant main effects of conflict and switching but no interaction. However, conjunction analyses identified frontal regions involved in both switching and response conflict, including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and left inferior frontal junction. In addition, connectivity analyses demonstrated task-dependent functional connectivity patterns between dACC and inferior temporal cortex for attentional switching and between dACC and posterior parietal cortex for response conflict. These results suggest that the brain makes use of shared frontal regions, but can dynamically modulate the connectivity patterns of some of those regions, to deal with attentional switching and response conflict. PMID:22750124