WorldWideScience

Sample records for switchgrass-adapted compost community

  1. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D' haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  2. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  3. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  4. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A Neher

    Full Text Available Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here

  5. Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  6. Community level composting in a developing country: case study of KIWODET, Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberlin, A.S.; Szanto, G.L.

    2011-01-01

    Environmentally sustainable waste management practices have a limited relevance and viability in developing countries. Despite a technological potential, composting initiatives often share this fate. Little is known about the functioning of community level composting, which is reportedly the optimal

  7. Changes in the microbial communities during co-composting of digestates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Confalonieri, Alberto; Insam, Heribert; Schlegelmilch, Mirko; Körner, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a waste treatment method which is of increasing interest worldwide. At the end of the process, a digestate remains, which can gain added value by being composted. A study was conducted in order to investigate microbial community dynamics during the composting process of a mixture of anaerobic digestate (derived from the anaerobic digestion of municipal food waste), green wastes and a screened compost (green waste/kitchen waste compost), using the COMPOCHIP microarray. The composting process showed a typical temperature development, and the highest degradation rates occurred during the first 14 days of composting, as seen from the elevated CO2 content in the exhaust air. With an exception of elevated nitrite and nitrate levels in the day 34 samples, physical–chemical parameters for all compost samples collected during the 63 day process indicated typical composting conditions. The microbial communities changed over the 63 days of composting. According to principal component analysis of the COMPOCHIP microarray results, compost samples from the start of the experiment were found to cluster most closely with the digestate and screened compost samples. The green waste samples were found to group separately. All starting materials investigated were found to yield fewer and lower signals when compared to the samples collected during the composting experiment. PMID:24456768

  8. Changes in the microbial communities during co-composting of digestates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Confalonieri, Alberto; Insam, Heribert; Schlegelmilch, Mirko; Körner, Ina

    2014-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a waste treatment method which is of increasing interest worldwide. At the end of the process, a digestate remains, which can gain added value by being composted. A study was conducted in order to investigate microbial community dynamics during the composting process of a mixture of anaerobic digestate (derived from the anaerobic digestion of municipal food waste), green wastes and a screened compost (green waste/kitchen waste compost), using the COMPOCHIP microarray. The composting process showed a typical temperature development, and the highest degradation rates occurred during the first 14 days of composting, as seen from the elevated CO2 content in the exhaust air. With an exception of elevated nitrite and nitrate levels in the day 34 samples, physical-chemical parameters for all compost samples collected during the 63 day process indicated typical composting conditions. The microbial communities changed over the 63 days of composting. According to principal component analysis of the COMPOCHIP microarray results, compost samples from the start of the experiment were found to cluster most closely with the digestate and screened compost samples. The green waste samples were found to group separately. All starting materials investigated were found to yield fewer and lower signals when compared to the samples collected during the composting experiment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shanwei; Reuter, Tim; Gilroyed, Brandon H.; Tymensen, Lisa; Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying; Belosevic, Miodrag; Leonard, Jerry J.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ► Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ► Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ► Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH 4 and N 2 O emissions from compost. ► Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH 4 emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP Sc ) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P 4 primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N 2 O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP Sc

  10. Antibiotic resistome and its association with bacterial communities during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jian-Qiang; Wei, Bei; Ou-Yang, Wei-Ying; Huang, Fu-Yi; Zhao, Yi; Xu, Hui-Juan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2015-06-16

    Composting is widely used for recycling of urban sewage sludge to improve soil properties, which represents a potential pathway of spreading antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes to soils. However, the dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and the underlying mechanisms during sewage sludge composting were not fully explored. Here, we used high-throughput quantitative PCR and 16S rRNA gene based illumina sequencing to investigate the dynamics of ARGs and bacterial communities during a lab-scale in-vessel composting of sewage sludge. A total of 156 unique ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were detected encoding resistance to almost all major classes of antibiotics. ARGs were detected with significantly increased abundance and diversity, and distinct patterns, and were enriched during composting. Marked shifts in bacterial community structures and compositions were observed during composting, with Actinobacteria being the dominant phylum at the late phase of composting. The large proportion of Actinobacteria may partially explain the increase of ARGs during composting. ARGs patterns were significantly correlated with bacterial community structures, suggesting that the dynamic of ARGs was strongly affected by bacterial phylogenetic compositions during composting. These results imply that direct application of sewage sludge compost on field may lead to the spread of abundant ARGs in soils.

  11. The distribution of active β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities in composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiangyun; Liu, Meiting; Wang, Han; Fan, Yihong; Zhang, Haichang; Liu, Jiawen; Xing, Enlu; Xu, Xiuhong; Li, Hongtao

    2017-12-01

    The composting ecosystem is a suitable source for the discovery of novel microorganisms and secondary metabolites. Cellulose degradation is an important part of the global carbon cycle, and β-glucosidases complete the final step of cellulose hydrolysis by converting cellobiose to glucose. This work analyzes the succession of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities that persist throughout cattle manure - rice straw composting, and evaluates their metabolic activities and community advantage during the various phases of composting. Fungal and bacterial β-glucosidase genes belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 1 and 3 (GH1 and GH3) amplified from DNA were classified and gene abundance levels were analyzed. The major reservoirs of β-glucosidase genes were the fungal phylum Ascomycota and the bacterial phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus. This indicates that a diverse microbial community utilizes cellobiose. The succession of dominant bacteria was also detected during composting. Firmicutes was the dominant bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting; there was a shift to Actinomycetes in the maturing stage. Proteobacteria accounted for the highest proportions during the heating and thermophilic phases of composting. By contrast, the fungal phylum Ascomycota was a minor microbial community constituent in thermophilic phase of composting. Combined with the analysis of the temperature, cellulose degradation rate and the carboxymethyl cellulase and β-glucosidase activities showed that the bacterial GH1 family β-glucosidase genes make greater contribution in cellulose degradation at the later thermophilic stage of composting. In summary, even GH1 bacteria families β-glucosidase genes showing low abundance in DNA may be functionally important in the later thermophilic phase of composting. The results indicate that a complex community of bacteria and fungi expresses β-glucosidases in compost. Several

  12. Comparison of characterization and microbial communities in rice straw- and wheat straw-based compost for Agaricus bisporus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Mao, Jiugeng; Zhao, Hejuan; Li, Min; Wei, Qishun; Zhou, Ying; Shao, Heping

    2016-09-01

    Rice straw (RS) is an important raw material for the preparation of Agaricus bisporus compost in China. In this study, the characterization of composting process from RS and wheat straw (WS) was compared for mushroom production. The results showed that the temperature in RS compost increased rapidly compared with WS compost, and the carbon (C)/nitrogen (N) ratio decreased quickly. The microbial changes during the Phase I and Phase II composting process were monitored using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. Bacteria were the dominant species during the process of composting and the bacterial community structure dramatically changed during heap composting according to the DGGE results. The bacterial community diversity of RS compost was abundant compared with WS compost at stages 4-5, but no distinct difference was observed after the controlled tunnel Phase II process. The total amount of PLFAs of RS compost, as an indicator of microbial biomass, was higher than that of WS. Clustering by DGGE and principal component analysis of the PLFA compositions revealed that there were differences in both the microbial population and community structure between RS- and WS-based composts. Our data indicated that composting of RS resulted in improved degradation and assimilation of breakdown products by A. bisporus, and suggested that the RS compost was effective for sustaining A. bisporus mushroom growth as well as conventional WS compost.

  13. Bacterial community structure transformed after thermophilically composting human waste in Haiti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette M Piceno

    Full Text Available Recycling human waste for beneficial use has been practiced for millennia. Aerobic (thermophilic composting of sewage sludge has been shown to reduce populations of opportunistically pathogenic bacteria and to inactivate both Ascaris eggs and culturable Escherichia coli in raw waste, but there is still a question about the fate of most fecal bacteria when raw material is composted directly. This study undertook a comprehensive microbial community analysis of composting material at various stages collected over 6 months at two composting facilities in Haiti. The fecal microbiota signal was monitored using a high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip. Thermophilic composting altered the bacterial community structure of the starting material. Typical fecal bacteria classified in the following groups were present in at least half the starting material samples, yet were reduced below detection in finished compost: Prevotella and Erysipelotrichaceae (100% reduction of initial presence, Ruminococcaceae (98-99%, Lachnospiraceae (83-94%, primarily unclassified taxa remained, Escherichia and Shigella (100%. Opportunistic pathogens were reduced below the level of detection in the final product with the exception of Clostridium tetani, which could have survived in a spore state or been reintroduced late in the outdoor maturation process. Conversely, thermotolerant or thermophilic Actinomycetes and Firmicutes (e.g., Thermobifida, Bacillus, Geobacillus typically found in compost increased substantially during the thermophilic stage. This community DNA-based assessment of the fate of human fecal microbiota during thermophilic composting will help optimize this process as a sanitation solution in areas where infrastructure and resources are limited.

  14. Towards low carbon society in Iskandar Malaysia: Implementation and feasibility of community organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bong, Cassendra Phun-Chien; Goh, Rebecca Kar Yee; Lim, Jeng-Shiun; Ho, Wai Shin; Lee, Chew-Tin; Hashim, Haslenda; Abu Mansor, Nur Naha; Ho, Chin Siong; Ramli, Abdul Rahim; Takeshi, Fujiwara

    2017-12-01

    Rapid population growth and urbanisation have generated large amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) in many cities. Up to 40-60% of Malaysia's MSW is reported to be food waste where such waste is highly putrescible and can cause bad odour and public health issue if its disposal is delayed. In this study, the implementation of community composting in a village within Iskandar Malaysia is presented as a case study to showcase effective MSW management and mitigation of GHG emission. The selected village, Felda Taib Andak (FTA), is located within a palm oil plantation and a crude palm oil processing mill. This project showcases a community-composting prototype to compost food and oil palm wastes into high quality compost. The objective of this article is to highlight the economic and environment impacts of a community-based composting project to the key stakeholders in the community, including residents, oil palm plantation owners and palm oil mill operators by comparing three different scenarios, through a life cycle approach, in terms of the greenhouse gas emission and cost benefit analysis. First scenario is the baseline case, where all the domestic waste is sent to landfill site. In the second scenario, a small-scale centralised composting project was implemented. In the third scenario, the data obtained from Scenario 2 was used to do a projection on the GHG emission and costing analysis for a pilot-scale centralised composting plant. The study showed a reduction potential of 71.64% on GHG emission through the diversion of food waste from landfill, compost utilisation and significant revenue from the compost sale in Scenario 3. This thus provided better insight into the feasibility and desirability in implementing a pilot-scale centralised composting plant for a sub-urban community in Malaysia to achieve a low carbon and self-sustainable society, in terms of environment and economic aspects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbial communities and greenhouse gas emissions associated with the biodegradation of specified risk material in compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shanwei [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Reuter, Tim [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Gilroyed, Brandon H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Tymensen, Lisa [Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4V6 (Canada); Hao, Yongxin; Hao, Xiying [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada); Belosevic, Miodrag [Department of Biological Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E9 (Canada); Leonard, Jerry J. [Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2P5 (Canada); McAllister, Tim A., E-mail: tim.mcallister@agr.gc.ca [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge Research Centre, P.O. Box 3000, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada T1J 4B1 (Canada)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Addition of feathers altered bacterial and fungal communities in compost. ► Microbial communities degrading SRM and compost matrix were distinct. ► Addition of feathers may enrich for microbial communities that degrade SRM. ► Inclusion of feather in compost increased both CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from compost. ► Density of methanogens and methanotrophs were weakly associated with CH{sub 4} emissions. - Abstract: Provided that infectious prions (PrP{sup Sc}) are inactivated, composting of specified risk material (SRM) may be a viable alternative to rendering and landfilling. In this study, bacterial and fungal communities as well as greenhouse gas emissions associated with the degradation of SRM were examined in laboratory composters over two 14 day composting cycles. Chicken feathers were mixed into compost to enrich for microbial communities involved in the degradation of keratin and other recalcitrant proteins such as prions. Feathers altered the composition of bacterial and fungal communities primarily during the first cycle. The bacterial genera Saccharomonospora, Thermobifida, Thermoactinomycetaceae, Thiohalospira, Pseudomonas, Actinomadura, and Enterobacter, and the fungal genera Dothideomycetes, Cladosporium, Chaetomium, and Trichaptum were identified as candidates involved in SRM degradation. Feathers increased (P < 0.05) headspace concentrations of CH{sub 4} primarily during the early stages of the first cycle and N{sub 2}O during the second. Although inclusion of feathers in compost increases greenhouse gas emissions, it may promote the establishment of microbial communities that are more adept at degrading SRM and recalcitrant proteins such as keratin and PrP{sup Sc}.

  16. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  17. From Soil to Structure, a Novel Dimeric β-Glucosidase Belonging to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 3 Isolated from Compost Using Metagenomic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrew, Ryan P.; Park, Joshua I.; Heins, Richard A.; Reindl, Wolfgang; Friedland, Gregory D.; D'haeseleer, Patrik; Northen, Trent; Sale, Kenneth L.; Simmons, Blake A.; Adams, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    A recent metagenomic analysis sequenced a switchgrass-adapted compost community to identify enzymes from microorganisms that were specifically adapted to switchgrass under thermophilic conditions. These enzymes are being examined as part of the pretreatment process for the production of “second-generation” biofuels. Among the enzymes discovered was JMB19063, a novel three-domain β-glucosidase that belongs to the GH3 (glycoside hydrolase 3) family. Here, we report the structure of JMB19063 in complex with glucose and the catalytic variant D261N crystallized in the presence of cellopentaose. JMB19063 is first structure of a dimeric member of the GH3 family, and we demonstrate that dimerization is required for catalytic activity. Arg-587 and Phe-598 from the C-terminal domain of the opposing monomer are shown to interact with bound ligands in the D261N structure. Enzyme assays confirmed that these residues are absolutely essential for full catalytic activity. PMID:23580647

  18. Unique hyper-thermal composting process in Kagoshima City forms distinct bacterial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Tabata, Hanae; Itahara, Asuka; Shimizu, Natsuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-11-01

    A unique compost, Satsuma soil, is produced from three types of wastewater sludge using hyper-thermal processes at temperatures much higher than that of general thermophilic processes in Kagoshima City, Japan. We analyzed the bacterial community structures of this hyper-thermal compost sample and other sludges and composts by a high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 621,076 reads were derived from 17 samples and filtered. Artificial sequences were deleted and the reads were clustered based on the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity. Phylum-level analysis of the hyper-thermal compost revealed drastic changes of the sludge structures (each relative abundance) from Firmicutes (average 47.8%), Proteobacteria (average 22.3%), and Bacteroidetes (average 10.1%) to two main phyla including Firmicutes (73.6%) and Actinobacteria (25.0%) with less Proteobacteria (∼0.3%) and Bacteroidetes (∼0.1%). Furthermore, we determined the predominant species (each relative abundance) of the hyper-thermal compost including Firmicutes related to Staphylococcus cohnii (13.8%), Jeotgalicoccus coquinae (8.01%), and Staphylococcus lentus (5.96%), and Actinobacteria related to Corynebacterium stationis (6.41%), and found that these species were not predominant in wastewater sludge. In contrast, we did not observe any common structures among eight other composts produced, using the hyper-thermal composts as the inoculums, under thermophilic conditions from different materials. Principle coordinate analysis of the hyper-thermal compost indicated a large difference in bacterial community structures from material sludge and other composts. These results suggested that a distinct bacterial community structure was formed by hyper-thermal composting. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Tracking dynamics of plant biomass composting by changes in substrate structure, microbial community, and enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the dynamics of the microbial communities that, along with their secreted enzymes, are involved in the natural process of biomass composting may hold the key to breaking the major bottleneck in biomass-to-biofuels conversion technology, which is the still-costly deconstruction of polymeric biomass carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, the complexity of both the structure of plant biomass and its counterpart microbial degradation communities makes it difficult to investigate the composting process. Results In this study, a composter was set up with a mix of yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera wood-chips and mown lawn grass clippings (85:15 in dry-weight and used as a model system. The microbial rDNA abundance data obtained from analyzing weekly-withdrawn composted samples suggested population-shifts from bacteria-dominated to fungus-dominated communities. Further analyses by an array of optical microscopic, transcriptional and enzyme-activity techniques yielded correlated results, suggesting that such population shifts occurred along with early removal of hemicellulose followed by attack on the consequently uncovered cellulose as the composting progressed. Conclusion The observed shifts in dominance by representative microbial groups, along with the observed different patterns in the gene expression and enzymatic activities between cellulases, hemicellulases, and ligninases during the composting process, provide new perspectives for biomass-derived biotechnology such as consolidated bioprocessing (CBP and solid-state fermentation for the production of cellulolytic enzymes and biofuels.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Quinones from Compost for Microbial Community Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Gede Ratna Juliasih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was used to extract quinones from compost to monitor the microbial community dynamics during composting. The 0.3 g of dried compost was extracted using 3 mL min−1 of carbon dioxide (90% and methanol (10% at 45°C and 25 MPa for a 30 min extraction time. The extracted quinones were analysed using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC with 0.3 mL min−1 of methanol mobile phase for a 50 min chromatographic run time. A comparable detected amount of quinones was obtained using the developed method and an organic solvent extraction method, being 36.06 μmol kg−1 and 34.54 μmol kg−1, respectively. Significantly low value of dissimilarity index (D between the two methods (0.05 indicated that the quinone profile obtained by both methods was considered identical. The developed method was then applied to determine the maturity of the compost by monitoring the change of quinone during composting. The UQ-9 and MK-7 were predominant quinones in the initial stage of composting. The diversity of quinone became more complex during the cooling and maturation stages. This study showed that SFE had successfully extracted quinones from a complex matrix with simplification and rapidity of the analysis that is beneficial for routine analysis.

  1. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wei; Gu, Siyu; Xin, Ying; Bello, Ayodeji; Sun, Wenpeng; Xu, Xiuhong

    2018-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha) on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha) and high (45 Mg/ha) levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH) density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha) level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in black soil of

  2. Compost Addition Enhanced Hyphal Growth and Sporulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi without Affecting Their Community Composition in the Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi form symbiotic associations with most crop plant species in agricultural ecosystems, and are conspicuously influenced by various agricultural practices. To understand the impact of compost addition on AM fungi, we examined effect of four compost rates (0, 11.25, 22.5, and 45 Mg/ha on the abundance and community composition of AM fungi in seedling, flowering, and mature stage of soybean in a 1-year compost addition experiment system in Northeast China. Soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] was used as test plant. Moderate (22.5 Mg/ha and high (45 Mg/ha levels of compost addition significantly increased AM root colonization and extraradical hyphal (ERH density compared with control, whereas low (11.5 Mg/ha level of compost addition did not cause significant increase in AM root colonization and ERH density. AM fungal spore density was significantly enhanced by all the compost rates compared with control. The temporal variations analysis revealed that, AM root colonization in seedling stage was significantly lower than in flowering and mature stage. Although AM fungal operational taxonomic unit richness and community composition was unaffected by compost addition, some abundant AM fungal species showed significantly different response to compost addition. In mature stage, Rhizophagus fasciculatum showed increasing trend along with compost addition gradient, whereas the opposite was observed with Paraglomus sp. In addition, AM fungal community composition exhibited significant temporal variation during growing season. Further analysis indicated that the temporal variation in AM fungal community only occurred in control treatment, but not in low, moderate, and high level of compost addition treatments. Our findings highlighted the significant effects of compost addition on AM growth and sporulation, and emphasized that growth stage is a stronger determinant than 1-year compost addition in shaping AM fungal community in

  3. Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane Buried under Compost at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future. PMID:24056469

  4. Fungal communities associated with the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane buried under compost at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2013-12-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future.

  5. Responses of soil bacterial community after seventh yearly applications of composted tannery sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, Ana Roberta Lima; Mendes, Lucas William; Rocha, Sandra Mara Barbosa; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Bezerra, Walderly Melgaço; Melo, Vania Maria Maciel; Antunes, Jadson Emanuel Lopes; Araujo, Ademir Sergio Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Composted tannery sludge (CTS) contains organic compounds and inorganic elements, mainly chromium (Cr), and its long-term application in soil can alter the bacterial structure and diversity. Thus, we used the next-generation sequencing to assess the structure and diversity of bacterial communities

  6. Effect of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria on phosphorus dynamics and the bacterial community during composting of sugarcane industry waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada-Bonilla, German A; Lopes, Cintia M; Durrer, Ademir; Alves, Paulo R L; Passaglia, Nicolle; Cardoso, Elke J B N

    2017-07-01

    Sugarcane processing generates a large quantity of residues, such as filter cake and ashes, which are sometimes composted prior to their amendment in soil. However, important issues still have to be addressed on this subject, such as the description of bacterial succession that occurs throughout the composting process and the possibilities of using phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) during the process to improve phosphorus (P) availability in the compost end product. Consequently, this study evaluated the bacterial diversity and P dynamics during the composting process when inoculated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PSBR12 and Bacillus sp. BACBR01. To characterize the bacterial community structure during composting, and to compare PSB-inoculated compost with non-inoculated compost, partial sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and sequential P fractionation were used. The data indicated that members of the order Lactobacillales prevailed in the early stages of composting for up to 30 days, mostly due to initial changes in pH and the C/N ratio. This dominant bacterial group was then slowly replaced by Bacillales during a composting process of up to 60 days. In addition, inoculation of PSB reduced the levels of Ca-bound P by 21% and increased the labile organic P fraction. In PSB-inoculated compost, Ca-P compound solubilization occurred concomitantly with an increase of the genus Bacillus. The bacterial succession and the final community is described in compost from sugarcane residues and the possible use of these inoculants to improve P availability in the final compost is validated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation shapes the indigenous fungal communities during agricultural waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiachao; Zeng, Guangming; Chen, Yaoning; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Chang; Huang, Binbin; Sun, Weimin; Chen, Ming; Yu, Man; Huang, Hongli; Zhu, Yi

    2014-09-01

    Inoculation with exogenous white-rot fungi has been proven to be an efficient method to promote lignocellulose biodegradation during agricultural waste composting. Indigenous fungal communities, the most important organisms responsible for mineralization and decomposition of lignocellulosic materials in composts, can be affected by sample properties and other biotic factors. This research was conducted to determine the effects of the Phanerochaete chrysosporium inoculation on the indigenous fungal communities during agricultural waste composting. Fungal communities in samples with different inoculation regimes were investigated by sequencing and quantitative PCR. Results showed that P. chrysosporium inoculants produced significant negative effects on the indigenous fungal community abundance during the thermophilic stage. Samples inoculated during Phase II contained higher proportion of Acremonium chrysogenum and Galactomyces geotrichum, while those non-inoculated samples were dominated by Coprinopsis cinerea and Scytalidium thermophilum. Moreover, the indigenous fungal community abundance was significantly correlated with the C/N ratio, water soluble carbon and moisture content (P < 0.05). Redundancy analysis indicated that the most variation in distribution of indigenous fungal community structure was statistically explained by nitrate, C/N ratio, and moisture content, factors which solely explained 29.6 % (F = 30.316, P = 0.002), 25.6 % (F = 26.191, P = 0.002) and 10.0 % (F = 10.249, P = 0.002) of the variation in the indigenous fungal community structure, respectively.

  8. Investigation of the microbial community structure and activity as indicators of compost stability and composting process evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chroni, Christina; Kyriacou, Adamadini; Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Lasaridi, Konstantia-Ekaterini

    2009-08-01

    In a bid to identify suitable microbial indicators of compost stability, the process evolution during windrow composting of poultry manure (PM), green waste (GW) and biowaste was studied. Treatments were monitored with regard to abiotic factors, respiration activity (determined using the SOUR test) and functional microflora. The composting process went through typical changes in temperature, moisture content and microbial properties, despite the inherent feedstock differences. Nitrobacter and pathogen indicators varied as a monotonous function of processing time. Some microbial groups have shown a potential to serve as fingerprints of the different process stages, but still they should be examined in context with respirometric tests and abiotic parameters. Respiration activity reflected well the process stage, verifying the value of respirometric tests to access compost stability. SOUR values below 1 mg O(2)/g VS/h were achieved for the PM and the GW compost.

  9. Benefits to decomposition rates when using digestate as compost co-feedstock: Part II - Focus on microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Golnaz; Razaviarani, Vahid; Sheng, Zhiya; Liu, Yang; McCartney, Daryl

    2017-10-01

    Linkage between composting reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during co-composting of digestate and fresh feedstock (organic fraction of municipal solid waste) using 25L reactors. Previously, the relationship between composting performance and various physicochemical parameters were reported in Part I of the study (Arab and McCartney, 2017). Three digestate to fresh feedstock ratios (0, 40, and 100%; wet weight basis) were selected for analysis of microbial community dynamics. The 40% ratio was selected because it was found to perform the best (Arab and McCartney, 2017). Illumina sequencing results revealed that the reactor with a greater composting performance (higher organic matter degradation and higher heat generation; 40% ratio) was associated with higher microbial diversity. Two specific bacterial orders that might result in higher performance were Thermoactinomycetaceae and Actinomycetales with a higher sequence abundance during thermophilic composting phase and during the maturing composting phase, respectively. Galactomyces, Pichia, Chaetomium, and Acremonium were the four fungal genera that are probably also involved in higher organic matter degradation in the reactor with better performance. The redundancy analysis (RDA) biplot indicated that among the studied environmental variables, temperature, total ammonia nitrogen and nitrate concentration accounted for much of the major shifts in microbial sequence abundance during the co-composting process. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Temporal change of composition and potential activity of the thermophilic archaeal community during the composting of organic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummes, Kathrin; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2007-07-01

    To date, composting has been regarded as an aerobic process but it has been shown that composting piles are often sources of atmospheric methane. In order to gain a more comprehensive view on the diversity of methanogenic Archaea in compost, gas chromatographical methods and molecular cloning were used to study relationships of thermophilic archaeal communities and changes in methane production potential during compost maturation. According to the thermophilic methane production potential, wide differences could be detected between differently aged compost materials. In material derived from 3- and 4-week-old piles, low and no thermophilic methane production potential, respectively, was observed at 50 degrees C. Material from a 6-week-old pile showed the maximum methane production. With compost maturation, the production slowly decreased again with 6 weeks, 8 weeks, and mature compost showing an optimum methane production potential at 60 degrees C. At 70 degrees C, only 6-week-old material showed a comparable high production of methane. The 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic surveys revealed an increase of archaeal diversity with compost maturation. In the 6-week-old material, 86% of the sequences in the archaeal 16S rRNA library had the highest sequence similarities to Methanothermobacter spp. and the remaining 14% of the clones were related to Methanosarcina thermophila. Quantification of methanogens in 6-week-old material, on the basis of the methane production rate, resulted in values of about 2x10(7) cells per gram fresh weight. In 8-week-old and mature compost material, the proportion of sequences similar to Methanothermobacter spp. decreased to 34% and 0%, respectively. The mature compost material showed the highest variation in identified sequences, although 33% could be assigned to as yet uncultured Archaea (e.g. Rice cluster I, III, and IV). Our results indicate that compost harbours a diverse community of thermophilic methanogens, with changing composition

  11. Effect of different biochars on antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community during chicken manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Erping; Wu, Ying; Zuo, Yiru; Chen, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Rice straw biochar (RSB) and mushroom biochar (MB) were added to lab-scale chicken manure composting to evaluate their effects on the behaviors of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and on total and bio-available heavy metals (Cu, Zn and As). The associated bacterial community was characterized by 16SrRNA high-throughput sequencing. The abundance of pathogenic bacteria was also calculated. At the end of the control composting experiment, the average removal rate of ARGs was 0.86 log units and the removal rate of pathogenic bacteria was 57.1%. MB addition resulted in a higher removal rate than that in the control composting experiment. However, RSB addition yielded opposite results, which may be due to the higher abundance of Erysipelotrichaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Family_XI_Incertae_Sedis (belonging to Firmicutes carrying and disseminating ARGs) and pathogenic bacteria carrying ARGs. Furthermore, the correlations between bio-available heavy metals and ARGs were more obvious than those between total heavy metals and ARGs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of biochar on heavy metals and microbial community during composting of river sediment with agricultural wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaoning; Liu, Yao; Li, Yuanping; Wu, Yanxin; Chen, Yanrong; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Li, Hui

    2017-11-01

    Studies were performed to evaluate influence of biochar addition on physico-chemical process, heavy metals transformation and bacterial community diversity during composting of sediment with agricultural wastes. Simultaneously, the relationships between those parameters including heavy metals and bacterial community compositions were evaluated by redundancy analysis (RDA). The results show that the extraction efficiency of DTPA extractable heavy metals decreased in both piles, and reduced more in pile with biochar addition about 0.1-2.96%. Biochar addition dramatically influenced the bacterial community structure during the composting process. Moreover, the bacterial community composition was significantly correlated with C/N ratio, water soluble carbon (WSC), and organic matter (OM) (Pbiochar addition; while significantly correlated with temperature, WSC, and C/N ratio in pile which was free of biochar. This study would provide some valuable information for improving the composting for disposal of river sediment with heavy metals contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Diverse microbial communities in non-aerated compost teas suppress bacterial wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, W K; Powell, S M; Evans, K J; Barry, K M

    2017-03-01

    Non-aerated compost teas (NCTs) are water extracts of composted organic materials and are used to suppress soil borne and foliar disease in many pathosystems. Greenhouse trials were used to test the effectiveness of NCTs to suppress potato bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum on plants grown in soils inoculated with a virulent isolate of the pathogen (biovar II). NCTs prepared from matured compost sources: agricultural waste (AWCT), vermicompost (VCT) and solid municipal waste (SMWCT) were evaluated at three initial application times (7 days before inoculation, at time of inoculation and 7 days after inoculation) prior to weekly applications, in a randomized complete-block design. AWCT applied initially at the time of inoculation resulted in the greatest disease suppression, with the disease severity index 2.5-fold less than the non-treated plants and the "area under the disease progress curve" (AUDPC) 3.2-fold less. VCT and SMWCT were less suppressive than AWCT regardless of initial application time. Next generation sequencing of the v4 region of 16S rRNA gene and the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1) revealed that diversity and composition of the bacterial and fungal communities across the NCTs varied significantly. Dominant bacterial phyla such as Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Acidobacteria, and a fungal phylum Ascomycota were detected in all NCTs. AWCT had optimum physico-chemical measurements with higher bacterial Shannon diversity indices (H) and fungal richness (S) than the other treatments. We conclude that bacterial wilt of potatoes grown in controlled conditions can be suppressed by a non-aerated compost tea with a high microbial diversity when applied at planting and weekly thereafter.

  14. Comparing composts formed by different technological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckova, B.; Mudrunka, J.; Kucerova, R.; Glogarova, V.

    2017-10-01

    The presented article compares quality of composts which were formed by different technological processes. The subject to comparison was a compost which was created in a closed fermenter where ideal conditions for decomposition and organic substances conversion were ensured, with compost which was produced in an open box of community composting. The created composts were analysed to determine whether it is more important for the final compost to comply with the composting conditions or better sorting of raw materials needed for compost production. The results of the carried out experiments showed that quality of the resulting compost cannot be determined unequivocally.

  15. Changes in microbial communities in green waste and sewage sludge composts following maturity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, R.; Ruaudel, F.; Petit, J. Le; Terrom, G.; Perissol, C.

    2009-01-01

    Composting is an interesting way to valorize various bio wastes and is becoming an increasingly used soil amendment. compost is a product obtained after a humification process. However, compost utilization as amendment needs to know precisely its stability and maturity. since composting is mainly a microbial process, knowledge of the various microbial groups and their role in the process of bio-oxidation is essential. (Author)

  16. Effects of manure compost application on soil microbial community diversity and soil microenvironments in a temperate cropland in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zhen

    Full Text Available The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, communities, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded cropland soils by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of manure compost and bacteria fertilizers or its combination during maize growth. We investigated dynamic impacts on soil microbial count, biomass, basal respiration, community structure diversity, and enzyme activity using six different treatments [no fertilizer (CK, N fertilizer (N, N fertilizer + bacterial fertilizer (NB, manure compost (M, manure compost + bacterial fertilizer (MB, and bacterial fertilizer (B] in the plowed layer (0-20 cm of potted soil during various maize growth stages in a temperate cropland of eastern China. Denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE fingerprinting analysis showed that the structure and composition of bacterial and fungi communities in the six fertilizer treatments varied at different levels. The Shannon index of bacterial and fungi communities displayed the highest value in the MB treatments and the lowest in the N treatment at the maize mature stage. Changes in soil microorganism community structure and diversity after different fertilizer treatments resulted in different microbial properties. Adding manure compost significantly increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, thus enhancing soil respiration and enzyme activities (p<0.01, whereas N treatment showed the opposite results (p<0.01. However, B and NB treatments minimally increased the amount of cultivable microorganisms and microbial biomass, with no obvious influence on community structure and soil enzymes. Our findings indicate that the application of manure

  17. A comparative study of composting the solid fraction of dairy manure with or without bulking material: Performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Ma, Shi-Chun; Wang, Shi-Peng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Deng, Yu; Kida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The present study compared the development of various physicochemical properties and the composition of microbial communities involved in the composting process in the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) with a sawdust-regulated SFDM (RDM). The changes in several primary physicochemical properties were similar in the two composting processes, and both resulted in mature end-products within 48days. The bacterial communities in both composting processes primarily comprised Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Firmicutes were predominant in the thermophilic phase, whereas Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, and Nitrospirae were more abundant in the final mature phase. Furthermore, the succession of bacteria in both groups proceeded in a similar pattern, suggesting that the effects of the bulking material on bacterial dynamics were minor. These results demonstrate the feasibility of composting using only the SFDM, reflected by the evolution of physicochemical properties and the microbial communities involved in the composting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and microbial community shifts during co-composting of creosote-treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covino, Stefano; Fabianová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena; Čvančarová, Monika; Burianová, Eva; Filipová, Alena; Vořísková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-01-15

    The feasibility of decontaminating creosote-treated wood (CTW) by co-composting with agricultural wastes was investigated using two bulking agents, grass cuttings (GC) and broiler litter (BL), each employed at a 1:1 ratio with the matrix. The initial concentration of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in CTW (26,500 mg kg(-1)) was reduced to 3 and 19% after 240 d in GC and BL compost, respectively. PAH degradation exceeded the predicted bioaccesible threshold, estimated through sequential supercritical CO2 extraction, together with significant detoxification, assessed by contact tests using Vibrio fisheri and Hordeum vulgare. GC composting was characterized by high microbial biomass growth in the early phases, as suggested by phospholipid fatty acid analyses. Based on the 454-pyrosequencing results, fungi (mostly Saccharomycetales) constituted an important portion of the microbial community, and bacteria were characterized by rapid shifts (from Firmicutes (Bacilli) and Actinobacteria to Proteobacteria). However, during BL composting, larger amounts of prokaryotic and eukaryotic PLFA markers were observed during the cooling and maturation phases, which were dominated by Proteobacteria and fungi belonging to the Ascomycota and those putatively related to the Glomeromycota. This work reports the first in-depth analysis of the chemical and microbiological processes that occur during the co-composting of a PAH-contaminated matrix. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The evolution of water extractable organic matter and its association with microbial community dynamics during municipal solid waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-10-01

    The humification of water extractable organic matter (WEOM) by microorganisms is widely used for assessing compost maturity and quality. However, the effect of bacterial and fungal community dynamics on humification of WEOM was not yet explored fully. Here, we used canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA) to investigate the link between bacterial and fungal community dynamics and humification process of WEOM, respectively. Results showed that water-soluble carbon (WSC), humification degree, molecule weight and abundance of aromatic carbon were significantly related to bacterial community (pGalactomyces geotrichum can enhance the degradation of WSC and protein-like materials at the early composting. Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes could promote the increase of aromatic carbon, oxygen-containing functional groups, humification degree and molecular weight of WEOM during the initial fermentation stage. Cladosporium herbarum and Chaetomium globosum could be the dominant controllers at the second fermentation for acceleratingthe formation of oxygen-containing functional groups and humic-like materials of WEOM, respectively. Our results suggested that regulation for the dynamics of these special bacterial and fungal species at different composting stages might be a potential way to accelerate humification of municipal solid waste composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Metabolic patterns of bacterial communities in aerobic compost teas associated with potential biocontrol of soilborne plant diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catello PANE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerated compost teas (ACTs are organic products obtained by forced aeration of composts suspended in liquid phase. These products may be biological control tools alternative to synthetic fungicides, because ACTs contain antagonistic microorganisms. In this study, soilborne disease suppressive ability of seven water ACTs, extracted from five horticultural residue-based composts, from an animal waste anaerobic solid digestate and from a commercial municipal waste compost, was assessed using in vitro and in vivo systems. All the ACTs inhibited in vitro growth of Verticillium dahliae, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia minor, Sclerotium rolfsii and Botrytis cinerea. Filter or thermal sterilization eliminated in vitro suppression, suggesting that microorganisms play key roles in pathogen inhibition. Drenching applications of raw ACTs have potential to reduced disease symptoms caused by R. solani on savoy cabbage, S. minor on lettuce and S. rolfsii on pepper, improved the biomass production and did not show any sign of phytotoxicity. Both in vitro and in vivo suppressiveness of ACTs may be explained by antagonistic  bacterial communities that provide general suppression activities. The metabolic BIOLOG GN and GP profiles reflected the functional potential of the numerically dominant members of the microbial communities used as inoculum. This study has demonstrated that useful resident microorganisms, including mainly Gram-positive and Gram-negative antagonistic bacteria, are likely to be responsible for biological control activity of ACTs.

  1. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  2. Using Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) Analysis to Assess Microbial Community Structure in Compost Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiquia, Sonia M.

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis of PCR-amplified genes is a widely used fingerprinting technique in composting systems. This analysis is based on the restriction endonuclease digestion of fluorescently end-labeled PCR products. The digested product is mixed with a DNA size standard, itself labeled with a distinct fluorescent dye, and the fragments are then separated by capillary or gel electrophoresis using an automated sequencer. Upon analysis, only the terminal end-labeled restriction fragments are detected. An electropherogram is produced, which shows a profile of compost microbial community as a series of peaks of varying height. This technique has also been effectively used in the exploration of complex microbial environments and in the study of bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryal populations in natural habitats.

  3. The ecological and physiological responses of the microbial community from a semiarid soil to hydrocarbon contamination and its bioremediation using compost amendment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F; Jehmlich, N; Lima, K; Morris, B E L; Richnow, H H; Hernández, T; von Bergen, M; García, C

    2016-03-01

    The linkage between phylogenetic and functional processes may provide profound insights into the effects of hydrocarbon contamination and biodegradation processes in high-diversity environments. Here, the impacts of petroleum contamination and the bioremediation potential of compost amendment, as enhancer of the microbial activity in semiarid soils, were evaluated in a model experiment. The analysis of phospholipid fatty-acids (PLFAs) and metaproteomics allowed the study of biomass, phylogenetic and physiological responses of the microbial community in polluted semiarid soils. Petroleum pollution induced an increase of proteobacterial proteins during the contamination, while the relative abundance of Rhizobiales lowered in comparison to the non-contaminated soil. Despite only 0.55% of the metaproteome of the compost-treated soil was involved in biodegradation processes, the addition of compost promoted the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkanes up to 88% after 50 days. However, natural biodegradation of hydrocarbons was not significant in soils without compost. Compost-assisted bioremediation was mainly driven by Sphingomonadales and uncultured bacteria that showed an increased abundance of catabolic enzymes such as catechol 2,3-dioxygenases, cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde. For the first time, metaproteomics revealed the functional and phylogenetic relationships of petroleum contamination in soil and the microbial key players involved in the compost-assisted bioremediation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Understanding and mitigating the challenge of bioaerosol emissions from urban community composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankhurst, L. J.; Akeel, U.; Hewson, C.; Maduka, I.; Pham, P.; Saragossi, J.; Taylor, J.; Lai, K. M.

    2011-01-01

    Within the UK, local and regional government drives to reduce the quantity of waste being sent to landfill have led to an increase in small-scale composting schemes, instigated by local councils and not-for-profit organisations. The composting process relies upon the proliferation of microorganisms, leading to their emission into the ambient environment. In this investigative study, total bacteria and Aspergillus fumigatus emitted from a small-scale composting facility in central London were measured in different spatial and temporal dimensions. Bioaerosols did not disperse in concentrations significantly higher than those measured at 'background' locations, where maximum geometric mean was 55 × 10 2 Colony Forming Units (CFU) per m -3. Concentrations on-site and at the nearest potential receptor were comparable to those found at commercial facilities, reaching 25 × 10 4 and 29 × 10 3 CFU m -3 for total bacteria and A. fumigatus respectively. The room housing the facility was contaminated by moulds; likely to result from high relative humidity of the air (consistently above 80% during this study), building material, and the generation of organic dust. The complex diurnal meteorological variations of urban environments are likely to influence bioaerosol dispersal, and consequent exposure risk for sensitive receptors. Site planning tools including Geographical Information Systems (GIS) mapping with buffer zones around schools and hospitals, and use of computerised models for the design of rooms housing urban composting facilities are proposed as methods for reducing the risk of occupational and off-site receptor exposure.

  5. Evaluation of dredged sediment co-composted with green waste as plant growing media assessed by eco-toxicological tests, plant growth and microbial community structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, Paola; Pastorelli, Roberta; Rami, Gabriele; Mocali, Stefano; Giagnoni, Laura; Gonnelli, Cristina; Renella, Giancarlo

    2017-07-05

    Dredged sediments have currently no broad reuse options as compared to other wastes due to their peculiar physico-chemical properties, posing problems for the management of the large volumes of sediments dredged worldwide. In this study we evaluated the performance of sediment (S) co-composted with green waste (GW) as growing medium for ornamental plants. Analysis of the microbial community structure, eco-toxicological tests, were conducted on sediments at 1:1 and 3:1S:GW composting ratios. Sediment-based growing media were then reused to growth the ornamental plant Photina x fraseri in a pilot-scale experiment and plants' physiological and chemical parameters were measured. The results showed that co-composting with green waste increased the diversity of bacteria, fungi and archaea as compared to the untreated sediments, and that both the 1:1 and 3:1 S:GW composted sediments had no substantial eco-toxicological impacts, allowing an excellent plant growth. We concluded that co-composted of sediment with green waste produce a growing medium with suitable properties for growing ornamental plants, and represent a sustainable option for beneficial use of dredged sediments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Effects of superabsorbent polymers on the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes, mobile genetic elements, and the bacterial community during swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Aiyun; Gu, Jie; Wang, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Ranran; Yin, Yanan; Sun, Wei; Tuo, Xiaxia; Zhang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAPs) are considered suitable amendments for reducing the selection pressure due to heavy metals and the abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during composting. In this study, three SAP (sodium polyacrylate) levels (0, 5, and 15mgkg -1 of compost) were applied and their effects on the abundances of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and the bacterial community were investigated. After composting, the abundances of ARGs and MGEs decreased to different extent, where the removal efficiencies for tetW, dfrA7, ermX, aac(6')-ib-cr and MGEs exceeded 90%. The high SAP concentration significantly reduced the abundances of ARGs and MGEs, and changed the microbial community. Redundancy analysis indicated that the moisture content mainly explained the changes in ARGs and MGEs. Network analysis determined the potential hosts of ARGs and MGEs, and their co-occurrence. The results suggested that applying 15mgkg -1 SAP is appropriate for reducing ARGs in compost. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Seafood-Processing Sludge Composting: Changes to Microbial Communities and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Static Treatment versus for Turning during the Maturation Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Iria; Alves, David; Mato, Salustiano

    2016-01-01

    In general, in composting facilities the active, or intensive, stage of the process is done separately from the maturation stage, using a specific technology and time. The pre-composted material to be matured can contain enough biodegradable substrates to cause microbial proliferation, which in turn can cause temperatures to increase. Therefore, not controlling the maturation period during waste management at an industrial level can result in undesired outcomes. The main hypothesis of this study is that controlling the maturation stage through turning provides one with an optimized process when compared to the static approach. The waste used was sludge from a seafood-processing plant, mixed with shredded wood (1:2, v/v). The composting system consists of an intensive stage in a 600L static reactor, followed by maturation in triplicate in 200L boxes for 112 days. Two tests were carried out with the same process in reactor and different treatments in boxes: static maturation and turning during maturation when the temperature went above 55°C. PLFAs, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, forms of nitrogen and carbon, hydrolytic enzymes and respiratory activity were periodically measured. Turning significantly increased the duration of the thermophilic phase and consequently increased the organic-matter degradation. PCA differentiated significantly the two treatments in function of tracking parameters, especially pH, total carbon, forms of nitrogen and C/N ratio. So, stability and maturity optimum values for compost were achieved in less time with turnings. Whereas turning resulted in microbial-group stabilization and a low mono/sat ratio, static treatment produced greater variability in microbial groups and a high mono/sat ratio, the presence of more degradable substrates causes changes in microbial communities and their study during maturation gives an approach of the state of organic-matter degradation. Obtaining quality compost and optimizing the composting

  8. Replication of urban innovations - prioritization of strategies for the replication of Dhaka's community-based decentralized composting model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedla, Sudhakar

    2012-01-01

    Dhaka's community-based decentralized composting (DCDC) is a successful demonstration of solid waste management by adopting low-cost technology, local resources community participation and partnerships among the various actors involved. This paper attempts to understand the model, necessary conditions, strategies and their priorities to replicate DCDC in the other developing cities of Asia. Thirteen strategies required for its replication are identified and assessed based on various criteria, namely transferability, longevity, economic viability, adaptation and also overall replication. Priority setting by multi-criteria analysis by applying analytic hierarchy process revealed that immediate transferability without long-term and economic viability consideration is not advisable as this would result in unsustainable replication of DCDC. Based on the analysis, measures to ensure the product quality control; partnership among stakeholders (public-private-community); strategies to achieve better involvement of the private sector in solid waste management (entrepreneurship in approach); simple and low-cost technology; and strategies to provide an effective interface among the complementing sectors are identified as important strategies for its replication.

  9. Strategies for enhancing the effectiveness of metagenomic-based enzyme discovery in lignocellulytic microbial communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeAngelis, K.M.; Gladden, J.G.; Allgaier, M.; D' haeseleer, P.; Fortney, J.L.; Reddy, A.; Hugenholtz, P.; Singer, S.W.; Vander Gheynst, J.; Silver, W.L.; Simmons, B.; Hazen, T.C.

    2010-03-01

    Producing cellulosic biofuels from plant material has recently emerged as a key U.S. Department of Energy goal. For this technology to be commercially viable on a large scale, it is critical to make production cost efficient by streamlining both the deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass and fuel production. Many natural ecosystems efficiently degrade lignocellulosic biomass and harbor enzymes that, when identified, could be used to increase the efficiency of commercial biomass deconstruction. However, ecosystems most likely to yield relevant enzymes, such as tropical rain forest soil in Puerto Rico, are often too complex for enzyme discovery using current metagenomic sequencing technologies. One potential strategy to overcome this problem is to selectively cultivate the microbial communities from these complex ecosystems on biomass under defined conditions, generating less complex biomass-degrading microbial populations. To test this premise, we cultivated microbes from Puerto Rican soil or green waste compost under precisely defined conditions in the presence dried ground switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) or lignin, respectively, as the sole carbon source. Phylogenetic profiling of the two feedstock-adapted communities using SSU rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing or phylogenetic microarray analysis revealed that the adapted communities were significantly simplified compared to the natural communities from which they were derived. Several members of the lignin-adapted and switchgrass-adapted consortia are related to organisms previously characterized as biomass degraders, while others were from less well-characterized phyla. The decrease in complexity of these communities make them good candidates for metagenomic sequencing and will likely enable the reconstruction of a greater number of full length genes, leading to the discovery of novel lignocellulose-degrading enzymes adapted to feedstocks and conditions of interest.

  10. Composting: a growth market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueker, D.; Guenther, H.; Komodromos, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper explains the current state of affairs in composting in Germany from the angles of licensing, engineering, the number and scale of existing and projected plants, the market for compost, and the prospective market for composting plants. (orig.) [de

  11. Spatial and temporal changes in the abundance and compostion of ladybird (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honek, Alois; Dixon, Anthony Fg; Soares, Antonio O; Skuhrovec, Jiri; Martinkova, Zdenka

    2017-04-01

    Because of their services to agriculture most ladybirds (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are intensively studied predators of mainly phytophagous pests. The study of the long-term variation in the composition of their communities was stimulated by recent dramatic changes in the abundance of some species. We review and evaluate possible effects of the main causes cited in the literature. Agricultural and habitat changes (particularly urbanization) affect coccinellid abundance, both negatively and positively. In the temperate zone dominant species occur most frequently associated with abundant prey populations on crops, weeds and planted stands of trees resulting from human activity. Invasive non-native species of coccinellids may endanger native species through intraguild predation or competition for resources, but their supposed serious negative effects on native species can differ considerably. Climatic change may influence coccinellid species in several ways, including indirect effects through lower trophic levels and desynchronisation of the phenologies of host plants, prey and coccinellid populations. In the near future we do not expect climate warming to have important effects on ladybird diversity globally, but local changes in the composition of coccinellid communities and abundance of particular species could occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradation and microbial community shifts during co-composting of creosote-treated wood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Covino, Stefano; Fabiánová, Tereza; Křesinová, Zdena; Čvančarová, Monika; Burianová, Eva; Filipová, Alena; Voříšková, Jana; Baldrian, Petr; Cajthaml, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 301, JAN 15 (2016), s. 17-26 ISSN 0304-3894 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0003; GA TA ČR TE01020218; GA ČR GA13-28283S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Composting * Bioremediation * Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 6.065, year: 2016

  14. Integration of a Communal Henhouse and Community Composter to Increase Motivation in Recycling Programs: Overview of a Three-Year Pilot Experience in Noáin (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Storino

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a three-year pilot experience of a new municipal waste management system developed in Navarre, Spain that integrates composting and hens. The aim of this new system is to motivate the general public to participate more in waste prevention programs. The Composter-Henhouse (CH is a compact facility comprised of a henhouse and three composters. This is shared by 30 families who provide the organic part of their kitchen waste to feed the hens. Hens help speed up the composting process by depositing their droppings and turning the organic residue into compost. This study assesses the CH in terms of treatment capacity, the technical adequacy of the composting process, the quality and safety of the compost obtained and some social aspects. Over three years, the CH has managed nearly 16.5 tons of organic waste and produced approximately 5600 kg of compost and more than 6000 high-quality fresh eggs. No problems or nuisances have been reported and the level of animal welfare has been very high. The follow up of the composting process (temperature, volume reduction and compost maturity and a physicochemical and microbiological analysis of the compost have ensured the proper management of the process. The level of involvement and user satisfaction has been outstanding and the project has presented clear social benefits.

  15. Composting: Fast 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  16. Wat is goede compost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, K.; Janmaat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Compost wordt voor meerdere doelen ingezet. Als meststof, maar ook om de organische stofbalans op peil te houden. Maar compost heeft nog meer voordelen. Zo worden aan compost ziektewerende eigenschappen toegekend. Het doel van compostgebruik bepaalt voor een groot deel welke prijs er voor wordt

  17. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea in Tropical Compost Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya eDe Gannes; Gaius eEudoxie; David H Dyer; William James Hickey

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the p...

  18. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  19. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Conza

    Full Text Available Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD. Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture and FLA (by culture in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila were detected in 69.3% (61/88 of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba in 92.0% (81/88. L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88 of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012 than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47 were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47 for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8% were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  20. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  1. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin Lars

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants.

  2. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaer...

  3. Compost als onkruidonderdrukker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, M.; PPO Akkerbouw, Groene Ruimte en Vollegrondsgroente

    2008-01-01

    Een deklaag van 2 centimeter compost vermindert de onkruiddruk tot 80 procent. Biologisch akkerbouwer Anton van Vilsteren uit Marknesse (Flevoland) heeft de eerste compoststrokenlegger voor uien en peen

  4. A FEASIBILITY STUDY OF PLANT FOR COMPOSTING ORGANIC WASTE IN THE CITY OF KRAGUJEVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nebojša Jovičić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing of waste quantity, its harmful influence on natural environments and world experiences has had so far impose the necessity for the analyses of techno-economic possibilities of the processes for treating the organic fraction of municipal solid waste stream, in our region. In this paper, problematic of treatment solid waste and composting process, which represents one of the most acceptable options for the processing of solid waste, are given. Composting involves the aerobic biological decomposition of organic materials to produce a stable humus-like product. Base of composting process, review of composting feedstock, use of compost, benefits of composting process and concrete proposal for composting process realization, with techno-economic analysis for the construction of composting plant on territory community Kragujevac, are given in this paper, too.

  5. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea in Tropical Compost Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya eDe Gannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA has changed the paradigm of nitrification being initiated solely by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the present study, AOA abundance and diversity was examined in composts produced from combinations of plant waste materials common in tropical agriculture (rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, coffee hulls, which were mixed with either cow- or sheep-manure. The objective was to determine how AOA abundance and diversity varied as a function of compost system and time, the latter being a contrast between the start of the compost process (mesophilic phase and the finished product (mature phase. The results showed that AOA were relatively abundant in composts of tropical agricultural wastes, and significantly more so than were the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, while the AOA communities in the composts were predominatly group I.1b, the communities were diverse and exhibited structures that diverged between compost types and phases. These patterns could be taken as indicators of the ecophysiological diversity in the soil AOA (groub I.1b, in that significantly different AOA communties developed when exposed to varying physico-chemical environments. Nitrification patterns and levels differed in the composts which, for the mature material, could have signifcant effects on its performanc as a plant growth medium. Thus, it will also be important to determine the association of AOA (and diversity in their communities with nitrification in these systems.

  6. Home composting versus industrial composting: influence of composting system on compost quality with focus on compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Font, Xavier; Gabarrell, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    Stability is one of the most important properties of compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. This property is essential for the application of compost to land to avoid further field degradation and emissions of odors, among others. In this study, a massive characterization of compost samples from both home producers and industrial facilities is presented. Results are analyzed in terms of chemical and respiration characterizations, the latter representing the stability of the compost. Results are also analyzed in terms of statistical validation. The main conclusion from this work is that home composting, when properly conducted, can achieve excellent levels of stability, whereas industrial compost produced in the studied facilities can also present a high stability, although an important dispersion is found in these composts. The study also highlights the importance of respiration techniques to have a reliable characterization of compost quality, while the chemical characterization does not provide enough information to have a complete picture of a compost sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Heavy metal content in compost and earthworms from home composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of compost tests from home composters and earthworms living there, that treating waste into compost. The samples were taken from home composters and allotment gardens from Opole Region. The composting material was green waste. The total content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni Cr in compost and compost earthworms’ samples were determined. It was found that the compost samples were not contaminated with heavy metals. According to the Polish classification of composts from municipal wastes, the composts met the requirements for first class of quality. The composts did not exceed the limits of heavy metals specified in the Polish law for solid organic fertilizers. The degree of metal accumulation by compost earthworms depended on the type of metal. The high value of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was obtained for Cd, Pb and Zn. No accumulation of other metals (Ni, Cr, Cu in earthworm bodies was found. It has been found that earthworm species, naturally occurring in Poland, can also be used as potential bioindicators of metals in the environment, such as the species Eisenia fetida. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in composts from home composters and ability to accumulate metals by compost earthworms.

  8. The potential impact on the biodegradation of organic pollutants from composting technology for soil remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xiaoya; Zeng, Guangming; Tang, Lin; Wang, Jingjing; Wan, Jia; Wang, Jiajia; Deng, Yaocheng; Liu, Yani; Peng, Bo

    2018-02-01

    Large numbers of organic pollutants (OPs), such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and petroleum, are discharged into soil, posing a huge threat to natural environment. Traditional chemical and physical remediation technologies are either incompetent or expensive, and may cause secondary pollution. The technology of soil composting or use of compost as soil amendment can utilize quantities of active microbes to degrade OPs with the help of available nutrients in the compost matrix. It is highly cost-effective for soil remediation. On the one hand, compost incorporated into contaminated soil is capable of increasing the organic matter content, which improves the soil environment and stimulates the metabolically activity of microbial community. On the other hand, the organic matter in composts would increase the adsorption of OPs and affect their bioavailability, leading to decreased fraction available for microorganism-mediated degradation. Some advanced instrumental analytical approaches developed in recent years may be adopted to expound this process. Therefore, the study on bioavailability of OPs in soil is extremely important for the application of composting technology. This work will discuss the changes of physical and chemical properties of contaminated soils and the bioavailability of OPs by the adsorption of composting matrix. The characteristics of OPs, types and compositions of compost amendments, soil/compost ratio and compost distribution influence the bioavailability of OPs. In addition, the impact of composting factors (composting temperature, co-substrates and exogenous microorganisms) on the removal and bioavailability of OPs is also studied. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The efficiency of home composting programmes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Soto, M

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of home composting programmes and the quality of the produced compost was evaluated in eight rural areas carrying out home composting programmes (up to 880 composting bins) for all household biowaste including meat and fish leftovers. Efficiency was analysed in terms of reduction of organic waste collected by the municipal services. An efficiency of 77% on average was obtained, corresponding to a composting rate of 126kg/person·year of biowaste (or 380kg/composter·year). Compost quality was determined for a total of 90 composting bins. The operation of composting bins by users was successful, as indicated by a low C/N ratio (10-15), low inappropriate materials (or physical contaminant materials, mean of 0.27±0.44% dry matter), low heavy metal content (94% of samples met required standards for agricultural use) and high nutrient content (2.1% N, 0.6% P, 2.5% K, 0.7% Mg and 3.7% Ca on average, dry matter). The high moisture (above 70% in 48% of the samples) did not compromise the compost quality. Results of this study show that home composting of household organic waste including meat and fish leftovers is a feasible practice. Home composting helps individuals and families to reduce the amount of household waste at the same time gaining a fertiliser material (compost) of excellent quality for gardens or vegetable plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-composting of biowaste and wood ash, influence on a microbially driven-process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Delgado Juárez, Marina; Prähauser, Barbara; Walter, Andreas; Insam, Heribert; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H

    2015-12-01

    A trial at semi-industrial scale was conducted to evaluate the effect of wood ash amendment on communal biowaste in a composting process and on the final composts produced. For this purpose, three treatments including an unamended control (C0) and composts with additions of 6% (C6), and 12% (C12) of wood ash (w/w) were studied, and physico-chemical parameters as well as microbial activity and community composition were investigated. At the end of the process, composts were tested for toxicity and quality, and microbial physiological activity. The influence of ash addition on compost temperature, pH, microbial activity and composition was stronger during the early composting stages and diminished with time, whereby composts became more similar. Using the COMPOCHIP microarray, a reduction in the pathogenic genera Listeria and Clostridium was observed, which together with the temperature increases of the composting process helped in the hygienisation of composts. Lactobacillus species were also affected, such that reduced hybridisation signals were observed with increased ash addition, due to the increased pH values in amended composts. Organic matter mineralisation was also increased through ash addition, and no negative effects on the composting process were observed. The nutrient content of the final products was increased through the addition of ash, and no toxic effects were observed. Nonetheless, greater concentrations of heavy metals were found in composts amended with more ash, which resulted in a downgrading of the compost quality according to the Austrian Compost Ordinance. Thus, regulation of both input materials and end-product quality is essential in optimising composting processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Compost voor biggen met diarree

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gommers, T.

    1990-01-01

    Het geven van compost aan biggen met diarree zorgt op het Proefstation voor de Varkenshouderij voor minder medicijngebruik. De biggen krijgen de compost van groente-, fruit- en tuinafval vanaf de tweede dag na de geboorte, zodra de diarreeverschijnselen zichtbaar zijn.

  12. Experimental evaluation of compost leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Compost is often used in raingardens, roadsides, and bioretention systems, not only because of : its beneficial properties on soil quality, but also because compost improves water infiltration and : retains stormwater contaminants. However, when comp...

  13. Successions and diversity of humic-reducing microorganisms and their association with physical-chemical parameters during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Huang, Caihong; Tan, Wenbing; Gao, Rutai; Zhang, Hui; Li, Dan

    2016-11-01

    Humic-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) could utilize humic substances (HS) as terminal electron mediator to promote the biodegradation of recalcitrant pollutants. However, the dynamics of HRMs during composting has not been explored. Here, high throughput sequencing technology was applied to investigate the patterns of HRMs during three composting systems. A total of 30 main genera of HRMs were identified in three composts, with Proteobacteria being the largest phylum. HRMs were detected with increased diversity and abundance and distinct patterns during composting, which were significantly associated with dissolved organic carbon, dissolved organic nitrogen and germination index. Regulating key physical-chemical parameters is a process control of HRMs community composition, thus promoting the redox capability of the compost. The redox capability of HRMs were strengthened during composting, suggesting that HRMs of the compost may play an important role on pollutant degradation of the compost or when they are applied to the contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Composting; Konposuto ka shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. [Saitama Univ., Saitama (Japan)

    2000-02-05

    The composting method can be divided roughly into the aerobic process and the anaerobic process. The former one is a method of processing which decomposes organic substances in the work of the micro-aerobion by blowing the air in the compost material layer, and the latter one is a method for mainly decomposing the organic substance by the work of the anaerobiont microorganism without the positive contact of the material and air. Since the anaerobic process has a slow reaction rate, and emits a resistant odor, an aerobic process system is taken in many plants. In this paper, the aerobic process is described. At first, a fermenter, crush equipment, screening system and a deodorizer as the composting facilities are explained, and the problems of the composting process are described. The largest problem is to exploit a demand without a seasonal variation. It is necessary to exploit the market except for farmland and orchards in order to avoid the seasonal variation. For example, there is a demand for compost in parks, green land and golf courses. It can be also utilized for the normal plane protection of roads and railways. In addition, there are utilization applications such as barn bedding, earthworm culture floors and a deodorant of sewage urine disposal facilities. (NEDO)

  15. Diversity and abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea in tropical compost systems

    OpenAIRE

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Dyer, David H.; Hickey, William J.

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the p...

  16. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of vermi-compost in northern Ethiopia is not a common practice. It is, therefore, important to understand the possible impediments through studying its chemical and biological properties and its extra contribution compared to other composting techniques. Four compost types (vermi-compost, conventional compost, ...

  17. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  18. Compost levert complete bemesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, K.; Janmaat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Compost is een zeer goed bemestingsproduct. Het kan kort voor het zaaien worden aangebracht, belemmert de wortelgroei niet en levert een kant-en-klaar ecosysteem als aanvulling en versterking van de bodembiologie. Ook de pH van de bodem en de lucht- en waterhuishouding varen wel bij de toepassing

  19. Aerobic composting reduces antibiotic resistance genes in cattle manure and the resistome dissemination in agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Min; Hu, Hang-Wei; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Jun-Tao; Hayden, Helen; Tang, Yue-Qin; He, Ji-Zheng

    2018-01-15

    Composting has been suggested as a potential strategy to eliminate antibiotic residues and pathogens in livestock manure before its application as an organic fertilizer in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of composting on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in livestock manure and their temporal succession following the application of compost to land are not well understood. We examined how aerobic composting affected the resistome profiles of cattle manure, and by constructing laboratory microcosms we compared the effects of manure and compost application to agricultural soils on the temporal succession of a wide spectrum of ARGs. The high-throughput quantitative PCR array detected a total of 144 ARGs across all the soil, manure and compost samples, with Macrolide-Lincosamide-Streptogramin B, aminoglycoside, multidrug, tetracycline, and β-lactam resistance as the most dominant types. Composting significantly reduced the diversity and relative abundance of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in the cattle manure. In the 120-day microcosm incubation, the diversity and abundance of ARGs in manure-treated soils were significantly higher than those in compost-treated soils at the beginning of the experiment. The level of antibiotic resistance rapidly declined over time in all manure- and compost-treated soils, coupled with similar temporal patterns of manure- and compost-derived bacterial communities as revealed by SourceTracker analysis. The network analysis revealed more intensive interactions/associations among ARGs and MGEs in manure-treated soils than in compost-treated soils, suggesting that mobility potential of ARGs was lower in soils amended with compost. Our results provide evidence that aerobic composting of cattle manure may be an effective approach to mitigate the risk of antibiotic resistance propagation associated with land application of organic wastes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  1. Compost supplementation with nutrients and microorganisms in composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Ospina, Diego A; Montoya, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The composting is an aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process by which different organic materials are transformed into more stable compounds. The product obtained is the compost, which contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. However, the compost usage in agriculture is constrained because of its long-time action and reduced supply of nutrients to the crops. To enhance the content of nutrients assimilable by the plants in the compost, its supplementation with nutrients and inoculation with microorganisms have been proposed. The objective of this work was to review the state of the art on compost supplementation with nutrients and the role played by the microorganisms involved (or added) in their transformation during the composting process. The phases of composting are briefly compiled and different strategies for supplementation are analyzed. The utilization of nitrogenous materials and addition of microorganisms fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere or oxidizing ammonia into more assimilable for plants nitrogenous forms are analyzed. Several strategies for nitrogen conservation during composting are presented as well. The supplementation with phosphorus and utilization of microorganisms solubilizing phosphorus and potassium are also discussed. Main groups of microorganisms relevant during the composting process are described as well as most important strategies to identify them. In general, the development of this type of nutrient-enriched bio-inputs requires research and development not only in the supplementation of compost itself, but also in the isolation and identification of microorganisms and genes allowing the degradation and conversion of nitrogenous substances and materials containing potassium and phosphorus present in the feedstocks undergoing the composting process. In this sense, most important research trends and strategies to increase nutrient content in the compost

  2. Garbage Composting for Mushroom Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, S. S.

    1965-01-01

    Laboratory and pilot-plant composting of garbage mixtures of newspaper and vegetable waste has demonstrated that garbage can be converted to a medium that produces mushrooms (Agaricus campestris) in good yield. Sewage sludge was less satisfactory than newspaper, gumwood sawdust, or vegetable waste as a compost material for growing mushrooms. A sample of commercially produced compost was found to yield mushrooms in the same quantity as was produced in the laboratory experiments. Images Fig. 3 PMID:14264848

  3. Large scale composting model

    OpenAIRE

    Henon , Florent; Debenest , Gérald; Tremier , Anne; Quintard , Michel; Martel , Jean-Luc; Duchalais , Guy

    2012-01-01

    International audience; One way to treat the organic wastes accordingly to the environmental policies is to develop biological treatment like composting. Nevertheless, this development largely relies on the quality of the final product and as a consequence on the quality of the biological activity during the treatment. Favourable conditions (oxygen concentration, temperature and moisture content) in the waste bed largely contribute to the establishment of a good aerobic biological activity an...

  4. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Compost duurzaam ingezet. De Compost Scorekaarten: een instrument voor het afwegen van de waarde van compost

    OpenAIRE

    Schrik, Yannick; Koopmans, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Het duurzame gebruik van een reststof zoals compost hangt sterk samen met de waarde die de compost heeft bij toepassing. Deze publicatie geeft via heldere Compost Score Kaarten inzicht in het vinden van de juiste compostsoort voor het gewenste doel. Of het nu gaat om organischestofvoorziening, verbetering van de bodemstructuur of de nutriëntenvoorziening van gewassen: een bewuste keuze voor de compostsoort en –kwaliteit draagt bij aan een duurzame inzet en duurzaam hergebruik van reststoffen.

  6. Evaluation of Composting and the Quality of Compost from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aerobic composting potential and quality of Source Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SSMSW) was studied using four different treatments for over 80 days. Four different types of treatments using different inoculums were used for the composting of source separated municipal solid waste. The phytotoxicity tests of the ...

  7. Screening of complex thermophilic microbial community and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of complex thermophilic microbial community and application during municipal solid waste aerobic composting. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Complex microbial community HP83 and HC181 were applied during municipal solid waste aerobic composting that was carried out in a composting reactor under ...

  8. Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains | Diallo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains. ... These bacterial additives allowed greater biodegradation compared to control compost. The inoculated composts were more degraded than the control compost with compost3 which presented the highest OM loss with 91.37%, compost1 with 90.15% and compost2 ...

  9. Diversity and abundance of ammonia oxidizing archaea in tropical compost systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gannes, Vidya; Eudoxie, Gaius; Dyer, David H; Hickey, William J

    2012-01-01

    Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) has changed the paradigm of nitrification being initiated solely by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the present study, AOA abundance and diversity was examined in composts produced from combinations of plant waste materials common in tropical agriculture (rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, and coffee hulls), which were mixed with either cow- or sheep-manure. The objective was to determine how AOA abundance and diversity varied as a function of compost system and time, the latter being a contrast between the start of the compost process (mesophilic phase) and the finished product (mature phase). The results showed that AOA were relatively abundant in composts of tropical agricultural wastes, and significantly more so than were the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, while the AOA communities in the composts were predominatly group I.1b, the communities were diverse and exhibited structures that diverged between compost types and phases. These patterns could be taken as indicators of the ecophysiological diversity in the soil AOA (group I.1b), in that significantly different AOA communties developed when exposed to varying physico-chemical environments. Nitrification patterns and levels differed in the composts which, for the mature material, could have significant effects on its performance as a plant growth medium. Thus, it will also be important to determine the association of AOA (and diversity in their communities) with nitrification in these systems.

  10. Microbial Succession in Co-Composting of Chipped-Ground Oil Palm Frond and Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Najib Ahmad; Siti Ramlah Ahmad Ali; Mohd Ali Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Succession and phylogenetic profile of microbial communities during co-composting of chipped-ground oil palm frond (CG-OPF) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) were studied by apply-ing polymerase chain reaction-denaturant gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis. The results indicated that the dominant microbial community detected was γ-Pro bacteria such as Pseudomonas sp. at almost throughout the composting process. Whilst Bacillales such as Bacillus psychrodurans were found toward the end of the composting process. Bacteroidetes such as Pedobacter solani were detected at the final stage of composting. This study contributed to a better understanding of microbial shifting and functioning throughout CG-OPF composting. Therefore, PCR-DGGE is recommended to be used as a tool to identify potential microbes that can contribute to a better performance of composting process. (author)

  11. A next generation sequencing approach with a suitable bioinformatics workflow to study fungal diversity in bioaerosols released from two different types of composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbareche, Hamza; Veillette, Marc; Bonifait, Laetitia; Dubuis, Marie-Eve; Benard, Yves; Marchand, Geneviève; Bilodeau, Guillaume J; Duchaine, Caroline

    2017-12-01

    Composting is used all over the world to transform different types of organic matter through the actions of complex microbial communities. Moving and handling composting material may lead to the emission of high concentrations of bioaerosols. High exposure levels are associated with adverse health effects among compost industry workers. Fungal spores are suspected to play a role in many respiratory illnesses. There is a paucity of information related to the detailed fungal diversity in compost as well as in the aerosols emitted through composting activities. The aim of this study was to analyze the fungal diversity of both organic matter and aerosols present in facilities that process domestic compost and facilities that process pig carcasses. This was accomplished using a next generation sequencing approach that targets the ITS1 genomic region. Multivariate analyses revealed differences in the fungal community present in samples coming from compost treating both raw materials. Furthermore, results show that the compost type affects the fungal diversity of aerosols emitted. Although 8 classes were evenly distributed in all samples, Eurotiomycetes were more dominant in carcass compost while Sordariomycetes were dominant in domestic compost. A large diversity profile was observed in bioaerosols from both compost types showing the presence of a number of pathogenic fungi newly identified in bioaerosols emitted from composting plants. Members of the family Herpotrichiellaceae and Gymnoascaceae which have been shown to cause human diseases were detected in compost and air samples. Moreover, some fungi were identified in higher proportion in air compared to compost. This is the first study to identify a high level of fungal diversity in bioaerosols present in composting plants suggesting a potential exposure risk for workers. This study suggests the need for creating guidelines that address human exposure to bioaerosols. The implementation of technical and organizational

  12. Phytosanitary risk assessment of composts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Rijn, van E.; Blok, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of phytosanitary risks associated with application of composts in agriculture generally has focused on the sanitation (self-heating) phase during composting when most plant pathogens are inactivated due to lethal temperatures. However, a few plant pathogens are heat resistant and they may

  13. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    ABSTRACT. The use of vermi-compost in northern Ethiopia is not a common practice. It is, therefore, important to understand the possible impediments through studying its chemical and biological properties and its extra contribution compared to other composting techniques. Four compost types (vermi-compost ...

  14. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  15. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  16. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...... these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in compost engineering and for establishing and running a successful composting facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the compost product. Use in agriculture is described in Chapter 9.10 and the use of compost in soil amendment...

  17. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongpat, S.; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)

  18. Influence of compost amendments on the diversity of alkane degrading bacteria in hydrocarbon contaminated soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eSchloter

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alkane degrading microorganisms play an important role for bioremediation of petrogenic contaminated environments. In this study, we investigated the effects of compost addition on the diversity of alkane monooxygenase gene (alkB harboring bacteria in oil-contaminated soil originated from an industrial zone in Celje, Slovenia, to improve our understanding about the bacterial community involved in alkane degradation and the effects of amendments. Soil without any amendments (control soil and soil amended with compost of different maturation stages, i 1 year and ii 2 weeks, were incubated under controlled conditions in a microcosm experiment and sampled after 0, 6, 12 and 36 weeks of incubation. By using quantitative real-time PCR higher number of alkB genes could be detected in soil samples with compost compared to the control soil after 6, 12 and 36 weeks mainly if the less maturated compost was added. To get an insight into the composition of the alkB harboring microbial communities, we performed next generation sequencing of alkB gene fragment amplicons. Richness and diversity of alkB gene harboring prokaryotes was higher in soil mixed with compost compared to control soil after 6, 12 and 36 weeks again with stronger effects of the less maturated compost. Comparison of communities detected in different samples and time points based on principle component analysis revealed that the addition of compost in general stimulated the abundance of alkB harboring Actinobacteria during the experiment independent from the maturation stage of the compost compared to the control soils. In addition alkB harboring proteobacteria like Shewanella or Hydrocarboniphaga as well as proteobacteria of the genus Agrobacterium responded positively to the addition of compost to soil The amendment of the less maturated compost resulted in addition in a large increase of alkB harboring bacteria of the Cytophaga group (Microscilla mainly at the early sampling

  19. Fractionation characterization and speciation of heavy metals in composts and compost and compost-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwegbue, C. M.A.; Emuh, F.N.; Isirimah, N.O.; Egun, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation and chemical extraction. Chemical extraction schemes are most frequently used approach to fractionate trace metals in soils, sewage sludge and composts. Several variations exist in the sequential extraction procedures. These variations include reagent types, strength, volume and extraction time. A main drawback shared by all sequential extraction schemes is that the procedures themselves are complex and time consuming. This setback has been overcome by the use of ultrasound accelerated extraction which reduce the extraction time for the entire extraction steps to about 90 minutes allowing composting process to be monitored more frequently which help to provide detailed understanding of the partitioning behaviour of heavy metals. Inspite of the variability the sequential extraction schemes, they all aimed at correlating each fraction with the mobility and plant availability of each metal. Several studies have shown that phase association of heavy metal in composts include water-soluble, exchangeable, precipitated as discrete phases, co-precipitate in metal oxides and adsorbed or complexed by organic ligands and residual forms. The phase association and solubility of metals changes over composting time thereby altering metal availability. It is apparent that the positive effects of resulting from compost application far outweigh the negative effect, but more research is needed on a wide range of municipal solid waste compost with more precise determination of the fate of municipal solid waste compost applied trace metals in the environment. (author)

  20. Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria in Cow Manure Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tingting; Cheng, Lijun; Zhang, Wenhao; Xu, Xiuhong; Meng, Qingxin; Sun, Xuewei; Liu, Huajing; Li, Hongtao; Sun, Yu

    2017-07-28

    Composting is widely used to transform waste into valuable agricultural organic fertilizer. Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria play an important role in the global nitrogen cycle, but their role in composting remains poorly understood. In the present study, the community structure, diversity, and abundance of anammox bacteria were analyzed using cloning and sequencing methods by targeting the 16S rRNA gene and the hydrazine oxidase gene ( hzo ) in samples isolated from compost produced from cow manure and rice straw. A total of 25 operational taxonomic units were classified based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries, and 14 operational taxonomic units were classified based on hzo gene clone libraries. The phylogenetic tree analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and deduced HZO protein sequences from the corresponding encoding genes indicated that the majority of the obtained clones were related to the known anammox bacteria Candidatus "Brocadia," Candidatus "Kuenenia," and Candidatus "Scalindua." The abundances of anammox bacteria were determined by quantitative PCR, and between 2.13 × 10 5 and 1.15 × 10 6 16S rRNA gene copies per gram of compost were found. This study provides the first demonstration of the existence of anammox bacteria with limited diversity in cow manure composting.

  1. Influence of climate and geography on the occurrence of Legionella and amoebae in composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Casati Pagani, Simona; Gaia, Valeria

    2014-11-24

    The incidence of Legionnaires' disease (LD) in southern Switzerland is three times higher than in northern Switzerland. Climatic and geographic factors may be potential causes for this difference.We studied the prevalence of Legionella and free-living amoebae (FLA) in compost and bioaerosol in two Swiss regions to understand the role of climate and geography in the transmission of LD. We also tried to investigate whether or not compost storage duration would influence the composition of Legionella and FLA communities. A larger proportion of compost heaps in facilities from southern Switzerland harbor more diverse Legionella compared to the north (P=0.0146). FLA were isolated from composts in northern facilities at slightly higher rates (88.2% vs. 69.2%) and at lower rates from bioaerosols (6.3% vs. 13%) than in southern Switzerland. The diversity of FLA was higher in northern than in southern Switzerland (80% vs. 65%). A general decrease in the presence and variety of species was observed with decreasing compost storage time length. A discriminant model showed that values of vapour pressure, relative humidity and temperature distinguish the two regions, which were also characterised by different contamination rates by FLA and Legionella. The duration of outdoor storage may favour contamination of the compost by Legionella, and may increase the number and isolation of Legionella naturally occurring in compost. The climate in the south seems to favour higher Legionella contamination of compost heaps: this could explain the higher incidence of LD in southern Switzerland.

  2. Cultivating Composting Culture Activities among Citizens and Its Beneficial to Prolong the Landfill Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azura Zakarya, Irnis; Azri Jamial, Khairul; Mat Tanda, Norazlinda

    2018-03-01

    Currently, the Ministry of Housing and Local Government manage solid waste in Malaysia, with the participation of the private sector. Food waste represents almost 60% of the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Material valorisation of food waste usually conducted by biological processes such as composting. Compost, an organic amendment, is the final product of the composting process. These processes are efficient, low cost and environmentally friendly alternative for managing food waste and are used extensively worldwide. Therefore, organic solid waste management practices program for the communities in Perlis was conducted. The main objective of this program was to instilling environment awareness especially among Perlis citizens. This study was investigated the impact of food waste or kitchen waste composting to the citizens in Perlis State and the beneficial of compost fertilizer to our environment especially in plant growth. Composting method was taught to the food premises owner, individuals, teachers, and students and their responses to the composting practices were then summarized. In future, we can prolong our landfill lifespan by practicing organic waste composting and can preserving our environment.

  3. Performance assessment of improved composting system for food waste with varying aeration and use of microbial inoculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manu, M K; Kumar, Rakesh; Garg, Anurag

    2017-06-01

    Wet waste recycling at generation point will alleviate burden on the overflowing waste dumpsites in developing nations. Drum composting is a potential treatment option for such waste at individual or community level. The present study was aimed to produce compost from wet waste (primarily comprising food waste) in composting drums modified for improved natural air circulation. Effect of microbial inoculum and waste turning on composting process was also studied. The final results showed the production of matured and stable compost in the modified drums. Addition of the microbial inoculum resulted in thermophilic phase within a week time. The self-heating test and germination index (>80%) showed the production of non-phytotoxic and mature compost in the modified drums after 60days. The change in microbial population, humic substances and biological parameters (lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) during the study is discussed. Moreover, the reduction in waste mass and volume is also reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOCHAR FOR COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Malińska

    2014-10-01

    for composting of materials with high moisture and/or nitrogen contents. The addition of biochar to composting mixtures can reduce ammonia emissions, and thus limit nitrogen losses during composting, increase water holding capacity and retention of nutrients. Biochar can also function as a carrier substrate for microbial inoculants and a scrubing material used in biofilters at composting facilities. Due to the fact that the literature does not provide many examples of biochar applications for composting, and there is little known about the effects of biochar added to composting mixtures on composting dynamics and properties of final composts, futher investigations should focus on mechanisms of biochar-composting mixtures interactions and analysis of properties of biochar-based composts. The overall goal of the article is to analyze the potentials of biochars for composting, to report the effects of various biochars on composting dynamics and quality of produced biochar-based composts, and to indicate the areas of further studies on biochar properties that would allow optimization of composting and improve the quality of final products.

  5. Compost for steep slope erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    This study was initiated to develop guidelines for maintenance erosion control measures for steep slopes. The study focused on evaluating and monitoring KY-31 fescue germination rates using two media treatments 1) 100 percent by weight compost and 2)...

  6. Identification of predictor parameters to determine agro-industrial compost suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum and Phytophthora capsici diseases in muskmelon and pepper seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaya, Josefa; Lloret, Eva; Ros, Margarita; Pascual, Jose Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The lack of reliable prediction tools for evaluation of the level and specificity of compost suppressiveness limits its application. In our study, different chemical, biological and microbiological parameters were used to evaluate their potential use as a predictor parameter for the suppressive effect of composts against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis (FOM) and Phytophthora capsici (P. capsici) in muskmelon and pepper seedlings respectively. Composts were obtained from artichoke sludge, chopped vineyard pruning waste and various agro-industrial wastes (C1: blanched artichokes; C2: garlic waste; C3: dry olive cake). Compost C3 proved to offer the highest level of resistance against FOM, and compost C2 the highest level of resistance against P. capsici. Analysis of phospholipid fatty acids isolated from compost revealed that the three composts showed different microbial community structures. Protease, NAGase and chitinase activities were significantly higher in compost C3, as was dehydrogenase activity in compost C2. The use of specific parameters such as general (dehydrogenase activity) and specific enzymatic activities (protease, NAGase and chitinase activities) may be useful to predict compost suppressiveness against both pathogens. The selection of raw materials for agro-industrial composts is important in controlling Fusarium wilt and Phytophthora root rot. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  8. Dynamics of copper and tetracyclines during composting of water hyacinth biomass amended with peat or pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xin; Liu, Lizhu; Fan, Ruqin; Luo, Jia; Yan, Shaohua; Rengel, Zed; Zhang, Zhenhua

    2017-10-01

    Composting is one of the post-treatment methods for phytoremediation plants. Due to a high potential of water hyacinth to accumulate pollutants, the physicochemical parameters, microbial activity as well as fates of copper (Cu) and tetracyclines (TCs) were investigated for the different amended water hyacinth biomass harvested from intensive livestock and poultry wastewater, including unamended water hyacinth (W), water hyacinth amended with peat (WP), and water hyacinth amended with pig manure (WPM) during the composting process. Pig manure application accelerated the composting process as evidenced by an increase of temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), NH 4 -N, as well as functional diversity of microbial communities compared to W and WP treatments. Composting process was slowed down by high Cu, but not by TCs. The addition of peat significantly increased the residual fraction of Cu, while pig manure addition increased available Cu concentration in the final compost. Cu could be effectively transformed into low available (oxidizable) and residual fractions after fermentation. In contrast, less than 0.5% of initial concentrations of TCs were determined at the end of 60-day composting for all treatments in the final composts. The dissipation of TCs was accelerated by the high Cu concentration during composting. Therefore, composting is an effective method for the post-treatment and resource utilization of phytoremediation plants containing Cu and/or TCs.

  9. Household food-waste composting using a small-scale composter

    OpenAIRE

    Vich, Daniele Vital; Miyamoto, Hitomi Pires; Queiroz, Luciano Matos; Zanta, Viviana Maria

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Household food-waste composting is an attractive alternative for Brazilian waste management; however, there are few programs or studies regarding the implementation or management of this small-scale process. This study investigates the performance of food-waste composting using a simple and small-scale domestic composter. Three composting trials were conducted using food waste and wood chips in 10 L plastic bins using different filling schemes. In the first trial, the composter was f...

  10. A mathematical model for composting kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2001-01-01

    Composting plays an important role in waste management schemes and organic farming, as the compost produced enables reuse of organic matter and nutrients. Modern composting plants must comply with strict environmental regulations, including gas emissions such as nuisance odors. Designing

  11. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    is potentially better growth medium amendment when compared with traditional compost types. The use of vermi-compost is, therefore, very helpful in terms of providing beneficial soil nutrients as compared to other compost types. In contrast to the other chemical and biological properties, the highest pH was recorded in the.

  12. Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Western Europe, approximately 25% of the 200 million tons of municipal solid waste that is generated each year is of organic origin and therefore compostable. Presently 35% of this organic waste is composted, resulting in 9 million tons of compost, and used mainly in agriculture,

  13. Influence of composting techniques on microbial succession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pH also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the pit. Good quality compost was obtained in 5 weeks when PACT was used. Conventional pit method lasted over several weeks. Key Words: Municipal wastes; passive aeration; pit composting; temperature; microbial succession. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  14. Additives aided composting of green waste: effects on organic matter degradation, compost maturity, and quality of the finished compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Bidyadhar, Rajnikant; Bhilawe, Priya; Anand, Duraisamy; Vaidya, Atul N; Wate, Satish R

    2012-06-01

    The effect of various additives such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, jaggery, lime, and polyethylene glycol on green waste composting was investigated through assessing their influence on microbial growth, enzymatic activities, organic matter degradation, bulk density, quality of finished compost including gradation test, heavy metal analysis, etc. A perusal of results showed that addition of jaggery and polyethylene glycol were helpful to facilitate composting process as they significantly influenced the growth of microbes and cellulase activity. The quality of finished compost prepared from jaggery and polyethylene glycol added treatments were superior to other composts, wherein reduction in C/N ratio was more than 8% in jaggery treatment. All other parameters of compost quality including gradation test also favored jaggery and polyethylene glycol as the best additives for green waste composting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Succession and diversity of microorganisms and their association with physicochemical properties during green waste thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Shuqi; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhao, Tingning; Zhang, Bolin

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive characterization of the bacterial diversity associated to thermophilic stages of green waste composting was achieved. In this study, eight different treatments (T1-T8) and three replicated lab-scale green waste composting were carried out to compare the effect of the cellulase (i.e. 0, 2%), microbial inoculum (i.e. 0, 2 and 4%) and particle size (i.e. 2 and 5 mm) on bacterial community structure. Physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of T1-T8 composts were observed, and the bacterial structure and diversity were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform. The results showed that the most abundant phyla among the treatments were the Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The shannon index and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed higher bacterial abundance and diversity at the metaphase of composting. Comparing with 5-mm treatments, particle size of 2-mm had a richer diversity of bacterial communities. The addition of cellulase and a microbial inoculum could promote the fermentation temperature, reduce the compost pH and C/N ratio and result in higher GI index. The humic substance (HS) and humic acid (HA) contents for 2-mm particle size treatments were higher than those of 5-mm treatments. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that differences in bacterial abundance and diversity significantly correlated with HA, E 4 /E 6 and temperature, and the relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was affected by composting stages. Based on these results, the application of cellulase to promote green waste composting was feasible, and particle size was identified as a potential control of composting physicochemical properties and bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A mathematical model for reducing the composting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Larreategui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The environment is still affected by the inappropriate use of organic matter waste, but a culture of recycling and reuse has been promoted in Ecuador to reduce carbon footprint. The composting, a technique to digest organic matter, which traditionally takes 16-24 weeks, is still inefficient to use. Therefore, this paper concerns the optimization of the composting process in both quality and production time. The variables studied were: type of waste (fruits and vegetables and type of bioaccelerator (yeast and indigenous microorganisms. By using a full factorial random design 22, a quality compost was obtained in 7 weeks of processing. Quality factors as temperature, density, moisture content, pH and carbon-nitrogen ratio allowed the best conditions for composting in the San Gabriel del Baba community (Santo Domingo de los Colorados, Ecuador. As a result of this study, a mathematical surface model which explains the relationship between the temperature and the digestion time of organic matter was obtained.

  17. Evaluation of Composting Process and Quality of Compost from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coffee pulp and husk are the main by-products generated by the coffee processing station and are disposed into arable land and surface water. Due to the contribution of these by-products to environmental pollution, environmentally friendly disposal methods are necessary. Therefore, composting as environmental friendly ...

  18. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  19. Role of biochar on composting of organic wastes and remediation of contaminated soils-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohua; He, Huijun; Inthapanya, Xayanto; Yang, Chunping; Lu, Li; Zeng, Guangming; Han, Zhenfeng

    2017-07-01

    Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of biomass residues under limited oxygen conditions. In recent years, biochar as an amendment has received increasing attention on composting and soil remediation, due to its unique properties such as chemical recalcitrance, high porosity and sorption capacity, and large surface area. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the chemical characteristics (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen loss, decomposition and humification of organic matter) and microbial community structure during composting of organic wastes. This review also discusses the use of biochar for remediation of soils contaminated with organic pollutants and heavy metals as well as related mechanisms. Besides its aging, the effects of biochar on the environment fate and efficacy of pesticides deserve special attention. Moreover, the combined application of biochar and compost affects synergistically on soil remediation and plant growth. Future research needs are identified to ensure a wide application of biochar in composting and soil remediation. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  20. Coffee husk composting: An investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-01-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. PMID:24369846

  1. Coffee husk composting: an investigation of the process using molecular and non-molecular tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemekite, Fekadu; Gómez-Brandón, María; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H; Praehauser, Barbara; Insam, Heribert; Assefa, Fassil

    2014-03-01

    Various parameters were measured during a 90-day composting process of coffee husk with cow dung (Pile 1), with fruit/vegetable wastes (Pile 2) and coffee husk alone (Pile 3). Samples were collected on days 0, 32 and 90 for chemical and microbiological analyses. C/N ratios of Piles 1 and 2 decreased significantly over the 90 days. The highest bacterial counts at the start of the process and highest actinobacterial counts at the end of the process (Piles 1 and 2) indicated microbial succession with concomitant production of compost relevant enzymes. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of rDNA and COMPOCHIP microarray analysis indicated distinctive community shifts during the composting process, with day 0 samples clustering separately from the 32 and 90-day samples. This study, using a multi-parameter approach, has revealed differences in quality and species diversity of the three composts. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of thermo-tolerant actinomycetes inoculation on cellulose degradation and the formation of humic substances during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Zhechao; Wei, Yuquan; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Li, Yanjie; Wei, Zimin

    2017-10-01

    The inoculum containing four cellulolytic thermophilic actinomycetes was screened from compost samples, and was inoculated into co-composting during different inoculation phases. The effect of different inoculation phases on cellulose degradation, humic substances formation and the relationship between inoculation and physical-chemical parameters was determined. The results revealed that inoculation at different phases of composting improved cellulase activities, accelerated the degradation of cellulose, increased the content of humic substances and influenced the structure of actinomycetic community, but there were significant differences between different inoculation phases. Redundancy analysis showed that the different inoculation phases had different impacts on the relationship between exogenous actinobacteria and physical-chemical parameters. Therefore, based on the promoting effort of inoculation in thermophilic phase of composting for the formation of humic substances, we suggested an optimized inoculation strategy to increase the content of humic substances, alleviate CO 2 emission during composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Two-phase olive mill waste composting: enhancement of the composting rate and compost quality by grape stalks addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayuela, Maria Luz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Roig, Asunción

    2010-06-01

    Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid sludge generated by the olive oil industry. Its recycling as a soil amendment, either unprocessed or composted, is being promoted as a beneficial agricultural practice in the Mediterranean area. One of the major difficulties when composting TPOMW is the compaction of the material due to its dough-like texture, which leads to an inadequate aeration. For this reason, the addition of bulking agents is particularly important to attain a proper composting process. In this study we followed the evolution of two composting mixtures (A and B) prepared by mixing equal amounts of TPOMW and sheep litter (SL) (in a dry weight basis). In pile B grape stalks (GS) were added (10% dry weight) as bulking agent to study their effect on the development of the composting process and the final compost quality. The incorporation of grape stalks to the composting mixture changed the organic matter (OM) degradation dynamics and notably reduced the total amount of lixiviates. The evolution of several maturation indices (C/N, germination index, water soluble carbon, humification indices, C/N in the leachates) showed a faster and improved composting process when GS were added. Moreover, chemical (NH4+, NO3(-), cation exchange capacity, macro and micronutrients, heavy metals) and physical properties (bulk and real densities, air content, total water holding capacity, porosity) of the final composts were analysed and confirmed the superior quality of the compost where GS were added.

  4. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  5. Application of compost for effective bioremediation of organic contaminants and pollutants in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kästner, Matthias; Miltner, Anja

    2016-04-01

    Soils contaminated with hazardous chemicals worldwide are awaiting remediation activities; bioremediation is often considered as a cost-effective remediation approach. Potential bioapproaches are biostimulation, e.g. by addition of nutrients, fertiliser and organic substrates, and bioaugmentation by addition of compound-degrading microbes or of organic amendments containing active microorganisms, e.g. activated sludge or compost. In most contaminated soils, the abundance of the intrinsic metabolic potential is too low to be improved by biostimulation alone, since the physical and chemical conditions in these soils are not conducive to biodegradation. In the last few decades, compost or farmyard manure addition as well as composting with various organic supplements have been found to be very efficient for soil bioremediation. In the present minireview, we provide an overview of the composting and compost addition approaches as 'stimulants' of natural attenuation. Laboratory degradation experiments are often biased either by not considering the abiotic factors or by focusing solely on the elimination of the chemicals without taking the biotic factors and processes into account. Therefore, we first systemise the concepts of composting and compost addition, then summarise the relevant physical, chemical and biotic factors and mechanisms for improved contaminant degradation triggered by compost addition. These factors and mechanisms are of particular interest, since they are more relevant and easier to determine than the composition of the degrading community, which is also addressed in this review. Due to the mostly empirical knowledge and the nonstandardised biowaste or compost materials, the field use of these approaches is highly challenging, but also promising. Based on the huge metabolic diversity of microorganisms developing during the composting processes, a highly complex metabolic diversity is established as a 'metabolic memory' within developing and mature

  6. Agronomic evaluation of Beirut municipal waste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khouri, Nadim

    1982-06-01

    The disposal of municipal solid waste in an environmentally sound manner is a major problem worldwide. The composting of the organic fraction of refuse transforms it into soil amendment that can be recycled on agricultural lands. In order to promote the use of compost among farmers, agronomic investigations have to evaluate the impact of its use on soil properties and plant growth. In a greenhouse experiment, a sample of locally produced compost was applied to a sandy clay soil at rates equivalent to 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 t/ha with supplemental addition of NH 4 NO 3 at levels equivalent to 0, 25, 50 and 100 Kg N/ha. Barley (Hordium vulgare L.) and corn (Zea mays L. indentata) were grown as indicator crops and soil properties were determined over a period of 150 days. Plant growth was affected by N starvation until the compost was stabilized in the soil. Nitrogen starvation persisted for a longer period with increasing applications of compost. Supplemental addition of N hastened the decomposition and mobilization of N. Application of solid waste compost increased soil C, N, pH and E.C. Induced salinity was believed to be the cause of detrimental effects caused by high rates of compost on plant yield. The sample of compost that was studied should either be further stabilized in the composting plant, or applied a few months before planting. Fertilizer N should be applied with the compost. (author)

  7. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2007-01-18

    367. Randle PH, Hayes WA (1972). Progress in experimentation on the efficiency of composting and compost. Mushroom Science 8: 789-. 795. Yigitbasi et al. 115. Randle PE (1984). Supplementation of mushrooms composts: ...

  8. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic composting of manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Subdiaga, Edisson; Orsetti, Silvia; de la Rosa, José María; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil. In this study, we used different spectroscopic techniques to compare the organic carbon speciation of manure compost amended with three different biochars. A non-biochar-amended compost served as control. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy we did not observe any differences in carbon speciation of the bulk compost independent of biochar type, despite a change in the FTIR absorbance ratio 2925cm -1 /1034cm -1 , that is suggested as an indicator for compost maturity. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and emission-excitation matrixes (EEM) revealed minor differences in the extractable carbon fractions, which only accounted for ~2-3% of total organic carbon. Increased total organic carbon content of biochar-amended composts was only due to the addition of biochar-C and not enhanced preservation of compost feedstock-C. Our results suggest that biochars do not alter the carbon speciation in compost organic matter under conditions optimized for aerobic decomposition of compost feedstock. Considering the effects of biochar on compost nutrient retention, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration, biochar addition during aerobic composting of manure might be an attractive strategy to produce a sustainable, slow

  9. Composted Cattle Manure Increases Microbial Activity and Soil Fertility More Than Composted Swine Manure in a Submerged Rice Paddy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suvendu; Jeong, Seung Tak; Das, Subhasis; Kim, Pil Joo

    2017-01-01

    Livestock waste composts with minimum inorganic fertilizer as a soil amendment in low-input intensive farming are a feasible agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and productivity and to mitigate soil degradation. The key benefits of the practice rely on the activities of soil microorganisms. However, the role of different livestock composts [composted cattle manure (CCM) vs. composted swine manure (CSM)] on soil microbes, their activities and the overall impact on soil fertility and productivity in a flooded paddy remains elusive. This study compares the effectiveness of CCM and CSM amendment on bacterial communities, activities, nutrient availability, and crop yield in a flooded rice cropping system. We used deep 16S amplicon sequencing and soil enzyme activities to decipher bacterial communities and activities, respectively. Both CCM and CSM amendment significantly increased soil pH, nutrient availability (C, N, and P), microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities indicative for C and N cycles, aboveground plant biomass and grain yield. And the increase in above-mentioned parameters was more prominent in the CCM treatment compared to the CSM treatment. The CCM amendment increased species richness and stimulated copiotrophic microbial groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes) which are often involved in degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, some dominant species (e.g., Azospirillum zeae , Azospirillum halopraeferens , Azospirillum rugosum , Clostridium alkalicellulosi , Clostridium caenicola , Clostridium termitidis , Clostridium cellulolyticum , Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum , Pleomorphomonas oryzae , Variovorax boronicumulans , Pseudomonas xanthomarina , Pseudomonas stutzeri , and Bacillus niacini ) which have key roles in plant growth promotion and/or lignocellulose degradation were enhanced under CCM treatment compared to CSM treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that soil pH and available carbon (C) and

  10. Composted Cattle Manure Increases Microbial Activity and Soil Fertility More Than Composted Swine Manure in a Submerged Rice Paddy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvendu Das

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Livestock waste composts with minimum inorganic fertilizer as a soil amendment in low-input intensive farming are a feasible agricultural practice to improve soil fertility and productivity and to mitigate soil degradation. The key benefits of the practice rely on the activities of soil microorganisms. However, the role of different livestock composts [composted cattle manure (CCM vs. composted swine manure (CSM] on soil microbes, their activities and the overall impact on soil fertility and productivity in a flooded paddy remains elusive. This study compares the effectiveness of CCM and CSM amendment on bacterial communities, activities, nutrient availability, and crop yield in a flooded rice cropping system. We used deep 16S amplicon sequencing and soil enzyme activities to decipher bacterial communities and activities, respectively. Both CCM and CSM amendment significantly increased soil pH, nutrient availability (C, N, and P, microbial biomass, soil enzyme activities indicative for C and N cycles, aboveground plant biomass and grain yield. And the increase in above-mentioned parameters was more prominent in the CCM treatment compared to the CSM treatment. The CCM amendment increased species richness and stimulated copiotrophic microbial groups (Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes which are often involved in degradation of complex organic compounds. Moreover, some dominant species (e.g., Azospirillum zeae, Azospirillum halopraeferens, Azospirillum rugosum, Clostridium alkalicellulosi, Clostridium caenicola, Clostridium termitidis, Clostridium cellulolyticum, Magnetospirillum magnetotacticum, Pleomorphomonas oryzae, Variovorax boronicumulans, Pseudomonas xanthomarina, Pseudomonas stutzeri, and Bacillus niacini which have key roles in plant growth promotion and/or lignocellulose degradation were enhanced under CCM treatment compared to CSM treatment. Multivariate analysis revealed that soil pH and available carbon (C and

  11. Composting rice straw with sewage sludge and compost effects on the soil-plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L; Martínez, C; Marcilla, P; Boluda, R

    2009-05-01

    Composting organic residue is an interesting alternative to recycling waste as the compost obtained may be used as organic fertilizer. This study aims to assess the composting process of rice straw and sewage sludge on a pilot-scale, to evaluate both the quality of the composts obtained and the effects of applying such compost on soil properties and plant development in pot experiments. Two piles, with shredded and non-shredded rice straw, were composted as static piles with passive aeration. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were determined, e.g. colour, temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, humification index, cation exchange capacity, chemical oxygen demand, and germination index. Moreover, sandy and clayey soils were amended with different doses of mature compost and strewed with barley in pot experiments. The results show that compost made from shredded rice straw reached the temperatures required to maximise product sanitisation, and that the parameters indicating compost maturity were all positive; however, the humification index and NH(4) content were more selective. Therefore, using compost-amended soils at a dose of 34 Mg ha(-1) for sandy soil, and of 11 Mg ha(-1) for clayey soil improves soil properties and the growth of Hordeum vulgare plants. Under there conditions, the only limiting factor of agronomic compost utilisation was the increased soil salinity.

  12. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-02-07

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  14. Composting of Explosives-Contaminated Soil Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    dinitrotoluenes) and to evaluate the influence of temperature upon composting effectiveness. This study demonstrated that the bioconversion of explosives under...Eweson digester Bioconversion Buhler-Miag Aerated windrows California Rotating drum; aerated windrows 28 days in vessel, Co-Composting 4-6 mo. curing...with biogas recovery OTV Longitudinal silo with horizontal 10-15 days in silo shaft paddle wheel to move compost 60 days curing thru silo, and forced

  15. Response of humic-reducing microorganisms to the redox properties of humic substance during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xinyu; He, Xiaosong; Xi, Beidou; Gao, Rutai; Tan, Wenbing; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Caihong; Li, Dan; Li, Meng

    2017-12-01

    Humic substance (HS) could be utilized by humus-reducing microorganisms (HRMs) as the terminal acceptors. Meanwhile, the reduction of HS can support the microbial growth. This process would greatly affect the redox conversion of inorganic and organic pollutants. However, whether the redox properties of HS lined with HRMs community during composting still remain unclear. This study aimed to assess the relationships between the redox capability of HS [i.e. humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA)] and HRMs during composting. The results showed that the changing patterns of electron accepting capacity and electron donating capacity of HS were diverse during seven composting. Electron transfer capacities (ETC) of HA was significantly correlated with the functional groups (i.e. alkyl C, O-alkyl C, aryl C, carboxylic C, aromatic C), aromaticity and molecular weight of HA. Aromatic C, phenols, aryl C, carboxylic C, aromaticity and molecular weight of HS were the main structuralfeatures associated with the ETC of FA. Ten key genera of HRMs were found significantly determine these redox-active functional groups of HS during composting, thus influencing the ETC of HS in composts. In addition, a regulating method was suggested to enhance the ETC of HS during composting based on the relationships between the key HRMs and redox-active functional groups as well as environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Compostability of bioplastic packaging materials: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Gaurav; Kijchavengkul, Thitisilp; Auras, Rafael; Rubino, Maria; Selke, Susan E; Singh, Sher Paul

    2007-03-08

    Packaging waste accounted for 78.81 million tons or 31.6% of the total municipal solid waste (MSW) in 2003 in the USA, 56.3 million tons or 25% of the MSW in 2005 in Europe, and 3.3 million tons or 10% of the MSW in 2004 in Australia. Currently, in the USA the dominant method of packaging waste disposal is landfill, followed by recycling, incineration, and composting. Since landfill occupies valuable space and results in the generation of greenhouse gases and contaminants, recovery methods such as reuse, recycling and/or composting are encouraged as a way of reducing packaging waste disposal. Most of the common materials used in packaging (i.e., steel, aluminum, glass, paper, paperboard, plastics, and wood) can be efficiently recovered by recycling; however, if packaging materials are soiled with foods or other biological substances, physical recycling of these materials may be impractical. Therefore, composting some of these packaging materials is a promising way to reduce MSW. As biopolymers are developed and increasingly used in applications such as food, pharmaceutical, and consumer goods packaging, composting could become one of the prevailing methods for disposal of packaging waste provided that industry, governments, and consumers encourage and embrace this alternative. The main objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current situation of packaging compostability, to describe the main mechanisms that make a biopolymer compostable, to delineate the main methods to compost these biomaterials, and to explain the main standards for assessing compostability, and the current status of biopolymer labeling. Biopolymers such as polylactide and poly(hydroxybutyrate) are increasingly becoming available for use in food, medical, and consumer goods packaging applications. The main claims of these new biomaterials are that they are obtained from renewable resources and that they can be biodegraded in biological environments such as soil and compost

  17. Microbiological parameters as indicators of compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiquia, S M

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the changes of microbial properties of pig manure collected from pens with different management strategies and composted using different turning and moisture regimes; relate their association with humification parameters and compost temperature; and identify the most suitable microbial indicators of compost maturity. Six different microbial parameters, including total bacterial count, oxygen consumption rate, ATP content, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial biomass C and N, along with humification parameters [humic acid (HA), fulvic acid (FA) and HA : FA ratio] and compost temperature were monitored during composting. Significant positive correlations were found between temperature and microbial properties, including O2 consumption rate, ATP content, dehydrogenase activity, and microbial biomass N. The humification parameters also showed significant correlations with microbial properties of the manure compost. For instance, HA contents of pig manures was positively correlated with total aerobic heterotrophs, and microbial biomass N and C; and negatively correlated with O2 consumption rate, ATP content, and dehydrogenase activity. Among the six microbial parameters examined, dehydrogenase activity was the most important factor affecting compost temperature and humification parameters. Composting strategies employed in this study affected the speed of composting and time of maturation. If the moisture content is maintained weekly at 60% with a 4-day turning frequency, the pig manure will reach maturity in 56 days. The composting process went through predictable changes in temperature, microbial properties and chemical components despite differences in the initial pig manure and composting strategies used. Among the six microbial parameters used, dehydrogenase activity is the most suitable indicator of compost maturity. Compared with respiration rate, ATP content and microbial biomass procedures, dehydrogenase activity

  18. The Learning of Compost Practice in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, T. W.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Riandi; Purwianingsih, W.

    2017-09-01

    The compost as one of the topics of the Urban Farming Movement in Bandung city, Indonesia. The preliminary study aims to obtain a description of the performance capabilities and compost products made by students with STREAM (Science-Technology-Religion-Art-Mathematics) approach. The method was explanatory sequential mixed method. The study was conducted on one class of Biology Education students at the one of the universities in Bandung, Indonesia. The sample was chosen purposively with the number of students as many as 44 people. The instruments were making Student Worksheets, Observation Sheets of Performance and Product Assessment, Rubric of Performance and Product, and Field Notes. The indicators of performance assessment rubrics include Stirring of Compost Materials and Composting Technology in accordance with the design. The product assessment rubric are a Good Composting Criteria and Compost Packaging. The result of can be stated most students have good performance. However, the ability to design of compost technology, compost products and the ability to pack compost are still lacking. The implication of study is students of Biology Education require habituation in the ability of designing technology.

  19. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR. It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO⁻₃-N than NH⁺₄-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%, Ochrobactrum (13.0%, Spingomonas (6.0% and uncultured bacterium (4.0% by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition.

  20. Effect of Aerated Compost Tea on the Growth Promotion of Lettuce, Soybean, and Sweet Corn in Organic Cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jeong; Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Yong Ki; Hong, Sung Jun; Park, Jong Ho; Han, Eun Jung; Kim, Jin Ho; Kim, Suk Chul

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the chemical characteristics and microbial population during incubation of four kinds of aerated compost teas based on oriental medicinal herbs compost, vermicompost, rice straw compost, and mixtures of three composts (MOVR). It aimed to determine the effects of the aerated compost tea (ACT) based on MOVR on the growth promotion of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn. Findings showed that the pH level and EC of the compost tea slightly increased based on the incubation time except for rice straw compost tea. All compost teas except for oriental medicinal herbs and rice straw compost tea contained more NO−3-N than NH+4-N. Plate counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the initial compost in ACT. Microbial communities of all ACT were predominantly bacteria. The dominant bacterial genera were analyzed as Bacillus (63.0%), Ochrobactrum (13.0%), Spingomonas (6.0%) and uncultured bacterium (4.0%) by 16S rDNA analysis. The effect of four concentrations, 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.8% MOVR on the growth of red leaf lettuce, soybean and sweet corn was also studied in the greenhouse. The red leaf lettuce with 0.4% MOVR had the most effective concentration on growth parameters in foliage part. However, 0.8% MOVR significantly promoted the growth of root and shoot of both soybean and sweet corn. The soybean treated with higher MOVR concentration was more effective in increasing the root nodule formation by 7.25 times than in the lower MOVR concentrations Results indicated that ACT could be used as liquid nutrient fertilizer with active microorganisms for culture of variable crops under organic farming condition. PMID:26361474

  1. Biogeochemical characterization of municipal compost to support urban agriculture and limit childhood lead exposure from resuspended urban soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia G. Fitzstevens

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic low-level lead exposure among low-income minority children is an urgent environmental justice issue. Addressing this ubiquitous urban public health crisis requires a new transdisciplinary paradigm. The primary goals of this work are to inform best practices for urban gardeners working in lead contaminated soils and to reimagine urban organic waste management schemes to produce compost, which when covering or mixed with urban soil, could minimize lead exposure. We investigate bulk and bioaccessible lead from five types of compost used in urban gardens in Boston, MA. We categorized them by feedstock and measured bulk elemental concentrations and physical characteristics. Our results show that different feedstocks exhibit unique geochemical fingerprints. While bulk lead concentrations in compost are a fraction of what is typical for urban soils, the bioaccessible lead fraction in compost is greater than the default parameters for the Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK model. The lack of geochemical differences across feedstocks for lead sorption to carbon indicates a similar sorption mechanism for all compost. This suggests that municipal compost would be suitable for capping lead contaminated urban soils. Risk assessment models should consider lead bioaccessibility, to prevent the underprediction of exposure risk, and should include compost along with soils as urban matrices. Based on the observed bioaccessibility in our compost samples, 170 mg/kg total lead in compost will yield the same bioaccessible lead as the IEUBK model predicts for the 400 mg/kg EPA soil lead benchmark. Local logistical challenges remain for interdisciplinary teams of city planners, exposure scientists, and urban agricultural communities to design organic waste collection practices to produce compost that will support urban agriculture and primary lead exposure prevention.

  2. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Composting of sewage sludge irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Shoji; Watanabe, Hiromasa; Nishimura, Koichi; Kawakami, Waichiro

    1981-01-01

    Recently, the development of the techniques to return sewage sludge to forests and farm lands has been actively made, but it is necessary to assure its hygienic condition lest the sludge is contaminated by pathogenic bacteria. The research to treat sewage sludge by irradiation and utilize it as fertilizer or soil-improving material has been carried out from early on in Europe and America. The effects of the irradiation of sludge are sterilization, to kill parasites and their eggs, the inactivation of weed seeds and the improvement of dehydration. In Japan, agriculture is carried out in the vicinity of cities, therefore it is not realistic to use irradiated sludge for farm lands as it is. The composting treatment of sludge by aerobic fermentation is noticed to eliminate the harms when the sludge is returned to forests and farm lands. It is desirable to treat sludge as quickly as possible from the standpoint of sewage treatment, accordingly, the speed of composting is a problem. The isothermal fermentation experiment on irradiated sludge was carried out using a small-scale fermentation tank and strictly controlling fermentation conditions, and the effects of various factors on the fermentation speed were studied. The experimental setup and method are described. The speed of composting reached the maximum at 50 deg C and at neutral or weak alkaline pH. The speed increased with the increase of irradiation dose up to 30 Mrad. (Kako, I.)

  4. Microbiological consequences of indoor composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegele, A; Reboux, G; Vacheyrou, M; Valot, B; Millon, L; Roussel, S

    2016-08-01

    Recycling of organic waste appeals to more and more people. The aim of this study was to evaluate the microbiological contamination around organic waste bins at three distances over a 12-month period. Contamination near the customary trash of control households was evaluated at the beginning to ensure that there is no recruitment bias. Air samples using the MAS 100 impactor were carried out in 38 dwellings that do household waste composting and in 10 dwellings of controls. Collection of particles by CIP 10 rotating cup sampler and dust samples collected by electrostatic dust collector cloths were acquired in dwellings that do household waste composting. Samples were analyzed by culture and by real-time quantitative PCR. Information about dwelling characteristics and inhabitant practices was obtained by a standardized questionnaire. The genera most often isolated were Penicillium, Aspergillus, Cladosporium and Streptomyces. Near the organic waste bins, bioaerosol samples showed an increase of Acarus siro (P = 0.001). Sedimented dust analyses highlighted an increase of A. siro, Wallemia sebi, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium sphaerospermum concentrations after a 12-month survey compared to the beginning. Composting favors microorganism development over time, but does not seem to have an effect on the bioaerosol levels and the surface microbiota beyond 0.5 m from the waste bin. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  6. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  7. Composting of empty fruit bunches in the tower composter - effect of air intake holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Husaini, T.; Trisakti, B.; Batubara, F.; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    The process of composting empty fruit bunches (EFB) by mixing with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative utilization of solid waste generated from palm oil mill. This study aims to find composting techniques of EFB and to obtain degradation data of composting EFB by varying the air intake holes to produce good quality compost. Composting process was carried out by tearing the EFB into four shreds, then put into the tower composter while adding ALOF until it reached the optimum moisture content of 55 -65%. During the composting process, we maintained moisture content at optimum conditions by adding ALOF. Variations of air intake holes area to the outer surface area of the composter are 0/44.314; 72.39/44.314 and 144.78/44.314 (cm2/cm2). Composting is carried out for forty days, however, based on the result, compost began to mature on the 10th day. The results revealed that there was an influence of air intake holes to the composting process. The best degradation of EFB was obtained on the variation of air intake holes 72.39/44.314 (cm2/cm2), pH 8.1, moisture content 79.14%, water holding capacity 60%, electrical conductivity 4.725 dS/m and C/N ratio 20.97.

  8. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  9. Composting of bio solids by composting tunnels; Compostaje de biosolidos mediante tunes de compostado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varo, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Prats, D.; Soto, R.; Pastor, B.; Monges, M.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the bio-solid composting process carried out in the composting plant of Aspe (Alicante) by means of open composting tunnels, and to determine the quality of the resulting compost. The parameters under control are temperature. humidity, density, pH, conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, ammonium nitride and organic nitrogen. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and copper were monitored during the composting process. Observing the parameters analyzed we can conclude that the composting process of the sewage sludge from Aspe procedures a product suitable for agricultural use. The values obtained allow the product resulting from the process to be designated as compost. (Author)

  10. Rhizosphere Microbiome Recruited from a Suppressive Compost Improves Plant Fitness and Increases Protection against Vascular Wilt Pathogens of Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniou, Anastasis; Tsolakidou, Maria-Dimitra; Stringlis, Ioannis A.; Pantelides, Iakovos S.

    2017-01-01

    Suppressive composts represent a sustainable approach to combat soilborne plant pathogens and an alternative to the ineffective chemical fungicides used against those. Nevertheless, suppressiveness to plant pathogens and reliability of composts are often inconsistent with unpredictable effects. While suppressiveness is usually attributed to the compost’s microorganisms, the mechanisms governing microbial recruitment by the roots and the composition of selected microbial communities are not fully elucidated. Herein, the purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of a compost on tomato plant growth and its suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Foxl) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). First, growth parameters of tomato plants grown in sterile peat-based substrates including 20 and 30% sterile compost (80P/20C-ST and 70P/30C-ST) or non-sterile compost (80P/20C and 70P/30C) were evaluated in a growth room experiment. Plant height, total leaf surface, and fresh and dry weight of plants grown in the non-sterile compost mixes were increased compared to the plants grown in the sterile compost substrates, indicating the plant growth promoting activity of the compost’s microorganisms. Subsequently, compost’s suppressiveness against Foxl and Vd was evaluated with pathogenicity experiments on tomato plants grown in 70P/30C-ST and 70P/30C substrates. Disease intensity was significantly less in plants grown in the non-sterile compost than in those grown in the sterile compost substrate; AUDPC was 2.3- and 1.4-fold less for Foxl and Vd, respectively. Moreover, fungal quantification in planta demonstrated reduced colonization in plants grown in the non-sterile mixture. To further investigate these findings, we characterized the culturable microbiome attracted by the roots compared to the unplanted compost. Bacteria and fungi isolated from unplanted compost and the rhizosphere of plants were sequence-identified. Community-level analysis revealed

  11. Study on the quality and stability of compost through a Demo Compost Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, K M M; Sarkar, G; Alamgir, M; Bari, Q H; Haedrich, G

    2012-11-01

    This study is concerned with the performance of a Demo Compost Plant for the development of acceptable composting technology in Bangladesh. The Demo Compost Plant was setup at the adjacent area of an existing compost plant located at Khulna city in Bangladesh. Four different composting technologies were considered, where Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) were used as a raw material for composting, collected from the adjacent areas of the plant. Initially the whole composting system was conducted through two experimental setups. In the 1st setup three different types of aerators (horizontal and vertical passively aerator and forced aerator) were selected. For a necessary observation four piles, using only MSW as the input materials in the first three compost pile, the fourth one was the existing Samadhan's compost pile. Based on the analysis of the experimental findings, the horizontal passively aerated composting technique is suitable for Bangladesh as it had better performance for reducing composting period than that of the others. It was being observed from the quality parameters of compost in the both 1st and 2nd setup that as the waste directly come from kitchen, degradation rate of waste shows a positive result for reducing this waste and there is no possibility of toxic contamination, when it would be used as a soil conditioner. Though there is no significant improvement in the quality of the final product in the 2nd setup as comparing with the 1st setup but it fulfills one of the main objectives of this study is to reduce the whole composting period as well as immediate management of the increasing amount of waste and reducing load on landfill. Selfheating tests reveal that degree of stability of compost with respect to maturation period was remained in the acceptable level, which was further accelerated due to the use of organic additives. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Compostwijzer compost maken in vier stappen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iepema, G.; Louis Bolk,

    2008-01-01

    Voor het in stand houden van veel natuurgebieden is maaien en afvoeren van het maaisel van belang. Het maaisel wordt vaak over grotere afstanden vervoerd om verwerkt te worden tot compost. In de directe nabijheid van het natuurgebied is in de landbouw in toenemende mate behoefte aan compost. In deze

  13. Managing physicochemical parameters in compost systems to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical, chemical and biological parameters were optimized during composting to enhance degradation of oil sludge. Mixtures of oil sludge, garden soil, poultry manure and the bulking agents were co-composted in static piles of about 1 m3 on wooden pallets overlaid with nylon fibre sheets. Temperature, moisture ...

  14. Production of organic compost for Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loon, van P.C.C.; Baar, J.; Straatsma, G.

    2009-01-01

    The increased demand for organic foods has increased the need for organic compost for the cultivation of Agaricus bisporus. The traditional ingredients for Dutch compost production are horse and chicken manures and wheat straw. These ingredients are not sufficiently abundant in organic form in The

  15. Composting and water pollution; Kompostointi vesistoen kuormittajana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettala, M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The composting of biowaste collected separately is becoming increasingly common. However, numerous structural and operational problems are involved. The study deals with the water and nitrogen balances in composting, demonstrating a substantial nitrogen load on waters due to the practice. (orig.)

  16. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  17. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    Het onderhavige onderzoek is een eerste verkenning geweest naar de aanwezigheid van organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost. In deze rapportage is een indicatieve vergelijking van de gehalten in compost met de streefwaarden voor bodem (H=20%) gemaakt. Mede op basis van dit onderzoek

  18. Compost: Brown gold or toxic trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  19. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The current investigation represented an initial survey on the presence of organic contaminants in Bio-waste compost (garden, fruit and vegetable wast). This report provides an indicative comparison between the pollution levels in compost and the target value for soil (H=20%). Partly based on this

  20. Process of composting; Proceso de compostaje envital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, D.; Ibanez, E.; Sanchez, F.

    1998-12-31

    Update, the european region uses three methods for Municipal Solid Wastes treatment: landfilling, incineration with energy recovery and composting. This last one is being used more and more lately. This is because of the separated collection that makes easier to give an adequate treatment to the organic fraction of MSW, like composting. (Author)

  1. Managing physicochemical parameters in compost systems to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Physical, chemical and biological parameters were optimized during composting to enhance degradation of oil sludge. Mixtures of oil sludge, garden soil, poultry manure and the bulking agents were co-composted in static piles of about 1 m3 on wooden pallets overlaid with nylon fibre sheets. Temperature ...

  2. Assessment of Composting Feasibility at Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    compost bioremediation , is currently being used to restore contaminated soils, manage storm water, control odors, and degrade volatile organic compounds...pressure-treated and creosote -coated wood. Occasional dumping in the dumpster by individuals not associated with the compost facility and the

  3. The influence of lignin content and temperature on the biodegradation of lignocellulose in composting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikman, M; Karjomaa, S; Kapanen, A; Wallenius, K; Itävaara, M

    2002-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the influence of lignin content and composting temperature on the biodegradation of lignin-containing pulp and paper products in a controlled composting test (European standard prEN 14046). Lignin reduced the biodegradation of the samples, and there was a linear correlation between the lignin content and the biodegradation of pulp and paper products at 58 degrees C. The influence of incubation temperature (35, 50 and 58 degrees C) on biodegradation was studied using bleached kraft paper containing 0.2 wt% lignin and mechanical pulp (stone-ground wood) containing 24-27 wt% lignin. Mechanical pulp biodegraded better at lower temperatures, while kraft paper biodegraded well at all three temperatures. Microbial activity was evaluated by measuring CO(2) evolution and the change in ATP content, and fungal biomass by measuring the ergosterol content during the composting experiments. Kraft paper strongly increased microbial activity during the controlled composting test, but the activity returned to the background level at the end of the composting test. The proportion of sample carbon converted to microbial biomass carbon was considerably higher at lower incubation temperatures. Changes in microbial community structure during biodegradation of mechanical pulp and kraft paper at 50 degrees C were studied by the PCR-based technique denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Changes in the microbial community were observed during the intensive degradation phase of kraft paper.

  4. Simulation of Organic Matter and Pollutant Evolution during Composting: The COP-Compost Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, G; Zhang, Y; Houot, S; Steyer, J P; Patureau, D; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2013-01-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance. In this work, we proposed a model to simulate the behavior of OPs and the dynamic of organic C during composting. This model, named COP-Compost, includes two modules. An existing organic C module is based on the biochemical composition of the initial waste mixture and simulates the organic matter transformation during composting. An additional OP module simulates OP mineralization and the evolution of its bioaccessibility. Coupling hypotheses were proposed to describe the interactions between organic C and OP modules. The organic C module, evaluated using experimental data obtained from 4-L composting pilots, was independently tested. The COP-Compost model was evaluated during composting experiments containing four OPs representative of the major pollutants detected in compost and targeted by current and future regulations. These OPs included a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), two surfactants (4--nonylphenol and a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate), and an herbicide (glyphosate). Residues of C-labeled OP with different bioaccessibility were characterized by sequential extraction and quantified as soluble, sorbed, and nonextractable fractions. The model was calibrated and coupling the organic C and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: Co-composting versus incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R.; Nason, Mark A.; Williamson, Julie C.; Jones, Davey L.

    2009-01-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost. - Co-composting did not provide enhanced stabilization of trace elements over the conventional addition of compost to contaminated land

  6. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, Srinath R.; Bhave, Prashant P.

    2006-01-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes

  7. Conservation of ammonia during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jabi, L F; Halalsheh, M M; Badarneh, D M

    2008-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to quantify ammonia (NH3) losses during food waste composting and to evaluate the effectiveness of mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost and phillipsite/chabazite zeolite in reducing NH3 losses during composting. Food waste amended with chopped barley straw was composted for a period of 68 days in three in-vessel reactors. The mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost and the zeolite were placed on a mesh tray above the waste mixture in the first and second reactors, respectively. The third reactor contained straw-amended food waste only and served as a control. It was found that the mature aerobic sewage sludge/olive pomace compost reduced NH3-N losses by 36% of initial TN through nitrifying volatilized NH3 into nitrate (NO3-). Zeolite reduced NH3-N losses by 41% of initial total nitrogen due to adsorption of volatilized NH3. The use of mature compost in conservation of nitrogen is a promising cheap method; however, it needs further optimization and research.

  8. Evaluating of selected parameters of composting process by composting of grape pomace

    OpenAIRE

    Patrik Burg; Pavel Zemánek; Milan Michálek

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, there is annually available 8 million tons of grape pomace. From the viewpoint of waste management, pomace represents biotic waste produced in the FDM (Food–Drink–Milk) sector. Composting process represents an effective use of grape pomace. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace provided by 2 different variants of different composition of composting piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of process is affected by the share of r...

  9. Polluted land areas purified by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.L.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Restoration of polluted land and development of purification methods are among the most topical environment protection issues, IVO, too, has participated in research on microbiological purification methods. The biodegrability of creosote, and agent used for impregnation of wooden power line poles, was tested in the laboratory in 1993-94. The tests revealed that soil polluted by creosote can be cleansed efficiently. In Petaejaevesi, central Finland, the results are being applied in the composting of land masses polluted by creosote. The composting, which began in summer 1995, has succeeded in line with expectations: The content of deleterious compounds fell by half after only a couple of months of composting. (orig.)

  10. Fungal succession in an in-vessel composting system characterized using 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarica-Fuentes, Adrian; Zafar, Urooj; Heyworth, Alan; Brown, Thomas; Fox, Graeme; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2014-05-01

    Fungi are known to have an important role in the composting process as degraders of recalcitrant materials such as cellulose and lignin. Previous attempts to study the diversity and succession of fungi in compost systems have relied on the use of culture-dependent analyses and low-resolution DNA-fingerprinting techniques, lacking the necessary depth to analyse such a rich ecosystem. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing was used to characterize the fungal community composition at the different stages of an in-vessel composting process. A complex succession of fungi was revealed, with 251 fungal OTUs identified throughout the monitoring period. The Ascomycota were the dominant phylum (82.5% of all sequences recovered), followed by the Basidiomycota (10.4%) and the subphylum Mucoromycotina (4.9%). In the starting materials and early stages of the process, yeast species from the Saccharomycetales were abundant, while in latter stages and in the high temperature regions of the pile, fungi from the orders Eurotiales, Sordariales, Mucorales, Agaricales and Microascales were the most prominent. This study provides an improved understanding of the fungal diversity occurring during the composting of municipal solid waste, and this knowledge can lead to the development of more efficient composting practices and a better evaluation of the end-product quality. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of microbial methods to detect fecal coliforms, E. coli and Salmonella spp. in finished compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Compost provides nutrients for produce crops. Improperly composted feedstocks can harbor pathogens which can be transferred to produce crops. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and US Composting Council (USCC) provide methods to test biosolids and compost, respectively, fo...

  13. Compost-amended biofiltration swale evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    From May 2009 through June 2010, Herrera Environmental Consultants conducted hydrologic : and water quality monitoring of a compost-amended biofiltration swale and a standard (control) : biofiltration swale in the median of State Route 518 for the Wa...

  14. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  15. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOST OF THE

    OpenAIRE

    MAHDI AHMED; AZNI IDRIS; S. R. SYED OMAR

    2007-01-01

    It is very important that tannery wastes in the form of sludge are managed in an environmentally sound manner. This study focused on the heavy metal characterization and the influence of changing the physico-chemical properties of the medium throughout the composting on the concentrations, bioavailability or chemical forms of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in tannery sludge. The physical and chemical properties of the composted sludge during treatment show the stability and maturity of end product. To...

  17. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  18. Combining woody biomass for combustion with green waste composting: Effect of removal of woody biomass on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Boogaerts, Christophe; Vandaele, Elke

    2016-12-01

    The question was tackled on how the green waste compost industry can optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing both bioenergy by combustion of the woody fraction, and high quality soil improvers as renewable sources of carbon and nutrients. Compost trials with removal of woody biomass before or after composting were run at 9 compost facilities during 3 seasons to include seasonal variability of feedstock. The project focused on the changes in feedstock and the effect on the end product characteristics (both compost and recovered woody biomass) of this woody biomass removal. The season of collection during the year clearly affected the biochemical and chemical characteristics of feedstock, woody biomass and compost. On one hand the effect of removal of the woody fraction before composting did not significantly affect compost quality when compared to the scenario where the woody biomass was sieved from the compost at the end of the composting process. On the other hand, quality of the woody biomass was not strongly affected by extraction before or after composting. The holocellulose:lignin ratio was used in this study as an indicator for (a) the decomposition potential of the feedstock mixture and (b) to assess the stability of the composts at the end of the process. Higher microbial activity in green waste composts (indicated by higher oxygen consumption) and thus a lower compost stability resulted in higher N immobilization in the compost. Removal of woody biomass from the green waste before composting did not negatively affect the compost quality when more intensive composting was applied. The effect of removal of the woody fraction on the characteristics of the green waste feedstock and the extracted woody biomass is depending on the season of collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  20. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Møller, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting...

  1. Temperatures In Compost Landfill Covers As Result Of Methane Oxidation And Compost Respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Merono, A. R.; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the temperature on methane (CH4) oxidation and respiration in compost sampled at a full scale biocover implemented at Klintholm landfill exhibiting high temperatures. Compost material was collected at Klintholm landfill and incubated with and without CH4...

  2. Suppressive composts from organic wastes as agents of biological control of fusariosis in Tatartan Republic (Russia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerova, Raushaniya; Galitskaya, Polina; Beru, Franchesca; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Plant diseases are one of the seriously limiting factors of agriculture efficiency around the world. Diseases caused by fungi are the major threat to plants. Crop protection in modern agriculture heavily depends on chemical fungicides. Disadvantages of chemical pesticides soon became apparent as damage to the environment and a hazard to human health. In this regard use of biopesticides becomes an attractive alternative method of plant protection. For biological control of fungal plant diseases, separate bacterial or fungal strains as well as their communities can be used. Biopreparations must consist of microbes that are typical for local climate and soil conditions and therefore are able to survive in environments for a long time. Another option of plant pests' biological control is implementation of suppressive composts made of agricultural or other organic wastes. These composts can not only prevent the development of plant diseases, but also improve the soil fertility. The objective of this work was estimation of potential of composts and strains isolated from these composts as means for biological control of fusariosis that is one of the most widespread plant soil born disease. The composts were made up of the commonly produced agricultural wastes produced in Tatarstan Republic (Russia). Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici was used as a model phytopathogen. Ten types of organic waste (Goat manure (GM), Chicken dung (CD), Chicken dung with straw addition (CS), Rabbit dung (RD), Cow manure (CM), Rerotting pork manure (RPM), Fresh pork manure (FPM), Pork manure with sawdust and straw (PMS), the remains of plants and leaves (PL), the vegetable waste (VW) were sampled in the big farms situated in Tatarstan Republic which is one of the main agricultural regions of Russia. The initial wastes were composted for 150 days. Further, the following characteristics of the composts were assessed: pH, electro conductivity, TOC, DOC, Ntot. On petri dishes with meat

  3. Open windrow composting of polymers: an investigation into the operational issues of composting polyethylene (PE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, G U

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the operational issues surrounding the open windrow composting of degradable polyethylene sacks. Areas for consideration were the impact of degradable polyethylene sacks on the composting process, the quality of the finished compost product, and how the use of sacks influenced the on-site processing. These factors were investigated through determining the amount of polymer residue and chemical contaminants in the finished compost product and the daily monitoring of windrow temperature profiles. Site and practical handling considerations of accepting an organic waste contained within PE sacks are also discussed. Statistical analysis of the windrow temperature profiles has led to the development of a model that can help to predict the expected trends in the temperature profiles of open compost windrows where the organic waste is kerbside collected using a degradable PE sack.

  4. Evaluating of selected parameters of composting process by composting of grape pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, there is annually available 8 million tons of grape pomace. From the viewpoint of waste management, pomace represents biotic waste produced in the FDM (Food–Drink–Milk sector. Composting process represents an effective use of grape pomace. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace provided by 2 different variants of different composition of composting piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of process is affected by the share of raw materials. According to the temperature curve characteristics, the temperature above 45 °C for at least 5 days was necessary for compost sanitation. Such temperature was achieved in piles with higher proportion of pomace (Var.II. Analysis of results shows that the compost made ​​of grape pomace is a quality organic fertilizer, which may have in addition to agronomic point of view also great hygienic and ecological importance.

  5. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composting Technology and the Impact of Compost on Soil Biochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-aziz, Reda Abdel Thaher; Al-Barakh, Fahad bin Nasser

    2005-01-01

    Organic farming is one of several approaches to sustainable agriculture. Properly managed, organic farming reduces or eliminates environmental pollution and helps conserve water and soil on the farm. Organic farming systems require significantly greater amounts of organic fertilizers input than conventional systems. Because of the shortage of organic fertilizers in arid areas, composting is a way to transform waste materials left over from agricultural production and processing into a useful resource. Mature compost is an excellent organic fertilizer and soil amendment. The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste material into farm resources makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as to enhance soil fertility and soil health, thereby increasing agricultural productivity, improving soil biodiversity, reducing ecological risks and improving the environment. Aerobic composting of some agricultural wastes (peanut, wheat straw and palm tree wastes) was carried out to raise its fertilizing value compared with widely used organic fertilizer, farmyard manure. The influence of composted and non-composted agricultural wastes on the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) in sandy soil, as well as the uptake of these elements by corn plants, was also studied. Results indicated a rapid degradation of palm tree and wheat straw wastes as compared with peanut wastes. The composting process raised the fertilizing value of agricultural wastes as indicated by increase in nutritional availability. The application of the composted wastes as organic fertilizers to sandy soil increased the content of available N, P and K. Results showed that the application of different composted organic materials increased the dry weight and NPK uptake by corn plants. (author)

  7. Mass and element balance in food waste composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The mass and element balance in municipal solid waste composting facilities that handle food waste was studied. Material samples from the facilities were analyzed for moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and the oxygen consumption of compost and bulking material was determined. Three different processes were used in the food waste composting facilities: standard in-vessel composting, drying, and stand-alone composting machine. Satisfactory results were obtained for the input/output ash balance despite several assumptions made concerning the quantities involved. The carbon/nitrogen ratio and oxygen consumption values for compost derived only from food waste were estimated by excluding the contribution of the bulking material remaining in the compost product. These estimates seemed to be suitable indices for the biological stability of compost because there was a good correlation between them, and because the values seemed logical given the operating conditions at the facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Summary Report for Evaluation of Compost Sample Drying Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frye, Russell

    1994-01-01

    .... Previous work in Support of these efforts developed a compost sample preparation scheme, consisting of air drying followed by milling, to reduce analytical variability in the heterogeneous compost matrix...

  9. Effects of Compost on Mycelia Growth and Fructification, Mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fries) singer on lingocellulosic waste. Long composted substrate formulations of sawdust (86%) + rice bran (10%) + cassava peel (4%) supported the longest mycelia growth and density. Long composted also produced larger fruitbodies and ...

  10. Compost Management in Iran: Opportunities and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Farzadkia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to report of the World Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, between 33 to 60 percent increase in agricultural production in the world due to the use of chemical fertilizers. Negative effects of fertilizers on the environment and health of living organisms, especially humans, has encountered the country whit challenges such as increasing the number of cancer. Therefore, it is necessary to replace chemical fertilizers whit biofertilizers such as compost. Compost Causes increases in productivity and controls soil erosion. Methods: In order to achieve the objectives of the research, literature review was conducted and to investigate the status of chemical fertilizers and compost in Iran and developed countries through internal and external databases, documents were collected. Results: Use of fertilizers in Europe forecasted to decline 16 million tons in 2030, while in the Iran, rate of fertilizer forecast increases to 6700 thousand tons in 2020. Total supply of compost in the country is 164 thousand tons in 2009 and will be to 590 thousand tons in 2016. The total demand is 472 thousand tons in 2009 and will be to 661 thousand tons in 2016. This indicates that there is 71 thousand tons deficiency in the supply until 2016. Conclusion: Use more of compost in the country, need to a multi-faceted management issue that Ministries, municipalities and recycle of organizations must be working together. Therefore necessary awareness aboute the adverse effects of indiscriminate use of fertilizers and also promote the use compost, in addition to reducing the use of chemical fertilizers, will be cause more demand for consumption of compost.

  11. [Production of a compost accelerator inoculant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina Lara, M Socorro; Quintero Lizaola, Roberto; Espinosa Victoria, David; Alarcón, Alejandro; Etchevers Barra, Jorge D; Trinidad Santos, Antonio; Conde Martínez, F Víctor

    2017-10-26

    Composting was performed using a mixture of ovine manure and straw. Inoculum was extracted at five different phases of the composting process (18, 23, 28, 33 and 38 days after the start of the composting process) and its effect on reducing biotransformation time was evaluated in the composted ovine manure. The samples were preserved in a deep freezer, then lyophilized to obtain the inoculum, 50g of which was added to each treatment in the second experimental phase. Six treatments were established; C=straw (P)+ovine manure (E), T1=P+ E+inoculum 18 days after the start of the composting process (I18), T2=P+E+I23, T3=P+E+I28, T4=P+E+I33, T5=P+E+I38, with three replications. Treatments were placed in a controlled-environment chamber at 45% relative humidity and 30°C along with flasks containing 50g of material to measure daily production, CO 2 accumulation, temperature, pH, electric conductivity (dS/m), organic matter (%), total nitrogen (%), total carbon (%), C: N ratio, particle size (Tp) and bulk density (g/l). CO 2 production (mg) showed a significant difference (p ≤.05) of treatments T2 and T5 with respect to the others, which demonstrated that the inoculum of these treatments accelerated the dynamics of microorganisms and the composting process. The quality and maturity of the compost are guaranteed as the amount of CO 2 decreases. Copyright © 2017 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of Explosives Processing Waste Decomposition Due to Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    either to residual contamination or to some non-contaminant difference in compost chemistry. In contrast, root length of lettuce seedlings in either...relative to nutrient-poor sand. Roots of lettuce seedlings in the CWR-8 compost were 24% to 35% shorter than in the UWR-5 compost. Shoot length was also...Germination and Early Growth of Lettuce After 5 D .................. 68 5.5 Germination Rates of Arabidopsis, Cabbage and Clover Seeds in 100% Sand or Compost

  14. Temperature profiles of Agaricus bisporus in composting stages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas using different activator materials were prepared for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A locally available casing material known as peat of Bolu district and its different combinations with perlite were used. Temperature profiles of all mixtures during composting were measured at every composting stages ...

  15. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the compost effectiveness on Zea mays and Hibiscus sabdarriffa under Fusarium wilt disease. Compost physical, chemical and biological characters were monitored weekly during the ripening process. Both coliform and nematode were tested. Finally, the effect of compost ...

  16. Runoff and Nutrient Losses from Constructed Soils Amended with Compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Hansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Composted organic materials used to stabilize roadside embankments in Texas promote rapid revegetation of soils disturbed by construction activities. Yet, adding compost to soil may increase total and soluble plant nutrients available for loss in runoff water. Composted municipal biosolids and dairy manure products were applied to soils in Texas according to prescribed Texas Department of Transportation specifications for stabilizing roadside soils. The specifications included a method for incorporating compost into soils prior to seeding or applying a compost and woodchip mix over a disturbed soil and then seeding. Applying compost and woodchips over the soil surface limited sediment losses (14 to 32 fold decrease compared to incorporating compost into the soil. Yet, the greatest total phosphorus and nitrogen losses in runoff water occurred from soils where the compost and woodchip mix was applied. The greatest losses of soluble phosphorus also occurred when the compost and woodchip mix was applied. In contrast, nitrate-nitrogen losses in runoff were similar when compost was incorporated in the soil or applied in the woodchip mix. Compost source affected the nutrient losses in runoff. While the composted municipal biosolids added greater nutrient loads to the soil, less nutrient loss in runoff occurred.

  17. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compost: organic matter stabilization and trace metal contamination. In: The Sciences of Composting, pp. 185-194Blackie. Academic and Professional, Glasgow, UK. Miller, F. C. (1993). Minimizing Odor Generation. In: Science and Engineering of. Composting and Design, Environmental,. Microbiological and Utilization.

  18. Composting winery waste: sludges and grape stalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertran, E; Sort, X; Soliva, M; Trillas, I

    2004-11-01

    The composting of winery waste is an alternative to the traditional disposal of residues, and also involves a commitment to reducing the production of waste products. We studied two residues (sludge and grape stalks), mixed in two proportions (1:1 and 1:2 sludge and grape stalks (v/v)), and we also examined the effects of grinding the grape stalks. Our results showed that composting the assayed materials was possible. Best results were obtained in the compost heap in which the residues were mixed in the proportion 1:2, and where the grape stalks had been previously ground. Optimum results required a moisture around 55% and a maximum temperature around 65 degrees C and an oxygen concentration not lower than 5-10%. The resulting compost had a high agronomic value and is particularly suitable for the soils of the vineyards which have a very low organic matter content. The compost can be reintroduced into the production system, thereby closing the residual material cycle.

  19. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF COMPOST OF THE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI AHMED

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available It is very important that tannery wastes in the form of sludge are managed in an environmentally sound manner. This study focused on the heavy metal characterization and the influence of changing the physico-chemical properties of the medium throughout the composting on the concentrations, bioavailability or chemical forms of Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd in tannery sludge. The physical and chemical properties of the composted sludge during treatment show the stability and maturity of end product. Total metal content in the final compost were much lower than the limit values of composts to be used as good soil fertilizer. Furthermore, it was observed in using a sequential extraction method in sludge compost at different phases of treatment, that a large proportion of the heavy metals were associated to the residual fraction (70– 80% and more resistant fractions to extraction X–NaOH, X–EDTA, X–HNO3 (12–29%. Less than 2% of metals bound to bioavailable fractions X–(KNO3 + H2O. Bioavailable fractions of all elements tend to decrease. Mobile fractions of metals are poorly predictable from the total content.

  20. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kumari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC and aerated static pile composting (SAPC. In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles, volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1 were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems.

  1. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems.

  2. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of woody peat and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Difang; Luo, Wenhai; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of calcium superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting with woody peat as the bulking agent. Two treatments were conducted with or without the addition of calcium superphosphate (10% dry weight of the composting mass), which were denoted as the control and superphosphate-amended treatment, respectively. Results show that the composting temperature of both treatments was higher than 50°C for more than 5days, which is typically required for pathogen destruction during manure composting. Compared to the control treatment, the superphosphate-amended treatment increased the emission of nitrogen oxide, but reduced the emission of methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide by approximately 35.5%, 37.9% and 65.5%, respectively. As a result, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission during manure composting was reduced by nearly 34.7% with the addition of calcium superphosphate. The addition of calcium superphosphate increased the content of humic acid (indicated by E 4 /E 6 ratio). Nevertheless, the superphosphate-amended treatment postponed the biological degradation of organic matter and produced the mature compost with a higher electrical conductivity in comparison with the control treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Evaluation of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Content of Compost Produced in Babol Composting Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asgharzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The most important parameter is heavy metal contents in compost production technology. These heavy metals residue from substances like soap, detergents, cosmetics, packaging, leather and butteries are existed in municipal solid waste. The heavy metals can produce toxin for animal, human and plant. The aim of this research was study of produced compost quality based on heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn in Babol compost plant in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive- cross sectional study in which was performed in six months. Total sample numbers (5 samples were randomly provided from final compost of Babol plant and then after extraction and filtration, the concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer PG- 999. Results: In analyzed samples the maximum, minimum and average of cadmium in the final compost were 7.25, 0.47 and 1.9 mg/kg. The maximum, minimum and mean of lead were 239.2, 31.9 and 67.1 mg/kg; in zinc were 972.7, 483.5 and 603.7 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of heavy metals in Babol compost samples was under Iranian national and World Health Organization standards and could be used for different species of plants. However, the usability of compost depends on other parameters such as carbon to nitrogen and other components like glass, plastics and textiles.

  5. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  7. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the ß Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalchuk, G.A.; Naoumenko, Z.S.; Derikx, P.J.L.; Felske, A.; Stephen, J.R.; Arkhipchenko, I.A.

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous

  8. Progress of organic matter degradation and maturity of compost produced in a large-scale composting facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Marui, Taketoshi

    2011-06-01

    To monitor the progress of organic matter degradation in a large-scale composting facility, the percentage of organic matter degradation was determined by measuring CO(2) evolution during recomposting of compost samples withdrawn from the facility. The percentage of organic matter degradation was calculated as the ratio of the amount of CO(2) evolved from compost raw material to that evolved from each sample during recomposting in the laboratory composting apparatus. It was assumed that the difference in the cumulative emission of CO(2) between the compost raw material and a sample corresponds to the amount of CO( 2) evolved from the sample in the composting facility. Using this method, the changes in organic matter degradation during composting in practical large-scale composting facilities were estimated and it was found that the percentage of organic matter degradation increased more vigorously in the earlier stages than in the later stages of composting. The percentage of organic matter degradation finally reached 78 and 55% for the compost produced from garbage-animal manure mixture and distillery waste (shochu residue), respectively. It was thus ascertained that organic matter degradation progressed well in both composting facilities. Furthermore, by performing a plant growth assay, it was observed that the compost products of both the facilities did not inhibit seed germination and thus were useful in promoting plant growth.

  9. Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Sinicco, Tania; D'Hose, Tommy; Vanden Nest, Thijs; Mondini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of biochar (10% on a dry weight basis) to improve the composting process and/or the compost quality by adding it to either the feedstock mixture or the mature compost. The addition of biochar to the feedstocks was essayed in a full scale trial using a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Addition of biochar to mature compost was performed in a medium scale experiment. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, changed the composting process and the properties of the end products. However these effects depended on the time of application. We observed a faster decomposition in the bio-oxidative phase and lower greenhouse gas emissions when biochar was added at the beginning of the composting process, and a reduction in readily available P when biochar was applied during compost storage. Biochar as a means to increase the C content of the compost was only effective during compost storage. The P fertilizer replacement value of the compost with and without biochar was tested in a plant trial with annual ryegrass. While there was a clear effect on readily available P concentrations in the compost, adding biochar to the feedstock or the compost did not affect the P fertilizer replacement value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  11. Improving quality of composted biowaste to enhance disease suppressiveness of compost-amended, peat-based potting mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Blok, W.J.; Curci, F.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biowaste can be converted into compost by composting or by a combination of anaerobic digestion and composting. Currently, waste management systems are primarily focused on the increase of the turnover rate of waste streams whereas optimisation of product quality receives less attention. This

  12. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    OpenAIRE

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-...

  13. Improvements in a Universal Composting Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Beloev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Designed in Bulgaria for the needs of organic, environmentally-friendly and conventional agriculture, the universal composting machine requires to be attached to the front of tractors when being used in aggregates. However, it is rare to find such tractors. What is more, tractors with front – shaft power take almost do not exist. For this reason the universal composting machine is rather limited from a technological point of view despite its capacity and this made it necessary to improve it through the development and testing of a hydraulic power drive system. The purpose of the present study is to discuss the technical and technological changes in the design of the composting machine which have resulted in increased performance under conditions of sustainable agriculture in Bulgaria.

  14. Effects of Vermi compost and Compost tea Application on the Growth criteria of Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Afsharmanesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. .Its value as a cost-effective ruminant feed is one of the main reasons that farmers grow it. However, lack of nutrients such as N and P, are the principal obstacles - to crop production under low input agricultural systems leading to dependency on chemical fertilizers. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers destroy soil physicochemical properties and it reduced permeability which restricts root growth, nutrient uptake and plant production. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers can help to enrich the soil root zone As a result growth and yield will improve. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of different levels of vermicompost and foliar application of tea compost on growth characteristics of the hybrid maize genotype 713, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, during 2013. Treatments were included vermicompost (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% pot weight and tea composts (foliar application, non-foliar application. Measured traits were included root dry weight, root volume, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, macro nutrient concentration (N and P and micro nutrient concentration (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. All the data were subjected to the statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA using SAS software (SAS 9.1.3. Differences between the treatments were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 1% confidence interval. Results and Discussion Results indicated that leaf and stem dry weight affected by the application of vermicompost and tea compost. However, the interaction effects had no significant effects on the leaf and stem dry weight. Application of tea compost increased 20% and 50% leaf dry weight and stem dry weight of corn compared to non- foliar application

  15. THE COMPOST – A METHOD TO RESTORE THE ORGANIC WASTE PRODUCTS IN THE NATURAL CIRCUIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia Nicoleta VIERU

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Half of the quantity of waste products produced by the households is made of foodremainders, vegetable and garden remainders and more of 50% of waste products are organicand they arrive in waste products storehouses, in cesspools or are burned, causing animportant pollution. As an alternative to those, we can transform the organic material througha set of microbial, biochemical, chemical and physical processes into a valuable material witha humus appearance, named compost. To obtain a quality compost we need to lead thecompost process, in accordance with the dimension, the humidity, the structure and thecomposition of residual materials, that these to be fast and efficient available to the microorganisms,making up an ideal substratum rich in nutrients for their development. Thedecomposition agents (bacterium, fungous, mites, Collembola, wooden lice, worms,diplopoda need the azote to build the cells and some food remainders, ripped grass and greenleaves. The chips of wood, the dry leaves and the sawdust are rich in carbon and theyconstitute another energy source for the decomposition agents. The azote sources aredesignated as the „green” elements, and the carbon sources are the „brown” ones. In a pile ofcompost is efficient to maintain a balance between the „brown” elements (carbon and the„green” ones (azote – in percent of 30:1 to offer the decomposition agents a balancednourishment and this thing can be acquired through the alternation of layers of brown andgreen elements. The production of compost in schools can be a way to determine the entireschool community to work together for helping the environment. This means the naturalrecirculation of resources, community education over the benefits of the compost, the changeof the cultural attitude over the garbage in a way that brings benefits to the society, thereduction of the alimentary remainders quantity from the school canteen, the implication ofthe students in extra

  16. Diptera of sanitary importance associated with composting of biosolids in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Alejandra Labud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Odorous compounds produced at the biosolids composting plant in Bariloche (NW Patagonia attract a variety of insects, mainly belonging to the order Diptera. In order to characterize these flies, collected specimens were taxonomically identified, their community characteristics were described and their sanitary and synanthropic importance and autochthonous or introduced character were determined. METHODS: Sampling was performed from October 1999 until March 2000. Adults were collected using an entomological net, and larvae and puparia were obtained from the composting material and incubated to obtain adults. Richness, abundance and sex ratio were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 9 taxa of Diptera were identified: Sarconesia chlorogaster, Phaenicia sericata, Calliphora vicina, Cochliomya macellaria, Ophyra sp, Muscina stabulans, Musca domestica, Sarcophaga sp and Fannia sp. Specimens of Anthomyiidae, Acaliptratae and one larva of Eristalis tenax were also found. Ophyra sp. was the most abundant taxa. All the captured Diptera belonged to introduced taxa. Most of them are considered to be eusynanthropic and/or hemisynanthropic and have sanitary importance as they may cause myiasis and pseudomyiasis. The high number of females registered and the finding of immature stages indicated that flies can develop their complete life cycle on biosolid composting windrows. CONCLUSIONS: The characterization of flies obtained in this study may be useful for defining locations of urban or semi-urban composting facilities. It also highlights the importance of sanitary precautions at such plants.

  17. Degradation of ¹³C-labeled pyrene in soil-compost mixtures and fertilized soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Iris K U; Miltner, Anja; Kästner, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are toxic pollutants widely distributed in the environment due to natural and anthropogenic processes. In order to mitigate tar oil contaminations with PAH, research on improving bioremediation approaches, which are sometimes inefficient, is needed. However, the knowledge on the fate of PAH-derived carbon and the microbial degraders in particular in compost-supplemented soils is still limited. Here we show the PAH carbon turnover mass balance in microcosms with soil-compost mixtures or in farmyard fertilized soil using [(13)C6]-pyrene as a model PAH. Complete pyrene degradation of 100 mg/kg of soil was observed in all supplemented microcosms within 3 to 5 months, and the residual (13)C was mainly found as carbon converted to microbial biomass. Long-term fertilization of soil with farmyard manure resulted in pyrene removal efficiency similar to compost addition, although with a much longer lag phase, higher mineralization, and lower carbon incorporation into the biomass. Organic amendments either as long-term manure fertilization or as compost amendment thus play a key role in increasing the PAH-degrading potential of the soil microbial community. Phospholipid fatty acid stable isotope probing (PLFA-SIP) was used to trace the carbon within the microbial population and the amount of biomass formed from pyrene degradation. The results demonstrate that complex microbial degrader consortia rather than the expected single key players are responsible for PAH degradation in organic-amended soil.

  18. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  19. Microbiological analysis of composts produced on South Carolina poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, M W; Liang, P; Jiang, X; Doyle, M P; Erickson, M C

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the methods used in compost operations of small and medium-sized poultry farms resulted in the production of an amendment free of foodborne pathogens. Nine compost heaps on five South Carolina poultry farms were surveyed at different stages of the composting process. Compost samples were analysed for coliforms and enriched for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The waste materials and composting practices differed among the surveyed farms. On two farms, new materials were added to heaps that had previously completed the active composting phase. Five compost heaps did not reach an internal temperature of 55 degrees C, and c. 62% of all internal samples in the first composting phase contained moisture contents poultry wastes. This research provides information regarding the effectiveness of the composting practices and microbiological quality of poultry compost produced by small- and medium-sized farms. Ensuring the safety of compost that may be applied to soils should be an integral part of preharvest food safety programme.

  20. [Mechanisms of nitrous oxide emission during livestock manure aerobic composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei-Xiang; Li, Li-Jie; Lü, Hao-Hao; Wang, Cheng; Deng, Hui

    2012-06-01

    Aerobic composting is an effective way to treat and recycle livestock manure. However, the aerobic composting of livestock manure is a potential source of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), which closely relates to the global greenhouse effect and ozone depletion. With the expansion of livestock industry and the dramatic increasing yield of manure compost, the N2O emission during the aerobic composting has become a severe problem. The researches on the mechanisms of N2O emission during livestock manure composting have attracted increasing concerns. In this paper, the recent researches on the N2O generation approaches, emission dynamics, potential affecting factors, and microbiological mechanisms of N2O emission during livestock manure aerobic composting were reviewed, and the measures to control the N2O emission during composting process were summarized. Some perspectives for the future researches in this field were suggested.

  1. Quality of compost from urban solid wastes; Calidad del compost de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejada, M.; Dobao, M.M. [Universidad de Sevilla. Sevilla (Spain); Benitez, C; Gonzalez, J. L. [Universidad de Cordoba. Cordoba (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The stability, maturity and quality of MSW compost are discussed in this paper. The higher or lower stability is related to the microbial activity, but the maturity is related with the absence of phitotoxic substances. The MSW compost quality is fixed, besides of its stability/maturity, by other parameters (heavy metals contents, granulometric composition, etc...) Likewise, this paper shows a revision about the chemist, physics and biologic methods for the definition of this concepts. (Author) 51 refs.

  2. Composting of Sewage Sludge Using Recycled Matured Compost as a Single Bulking Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Jian; Niu, Huasi; Wu, Xingwu

    2010-11-01

    Pretreatment (bulking agent choice and mixing) is an essential phase of dewatered raw sludge (RS) composting affecting its industrialization significantly. In this paper recycled compost (RC) was chosen as a single bulking agent in the composting experiment instead of other agents such as sawdust, rice straw, MSW, and the mixing machine was developed for mixing of SS and RC. According to the mixing experiment, SS and RC can be mixed uniformly and formed into small particles of 10˜15 mm in diameter, which improved the availability of oxygen during composting. The effect of different volumetric ratios of RS to RC, 1:1 (Exp.1), 1:2 (Exp.2) and 1:4 (Exp.3), on the performance of composting was investigated in detail. Temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matter, C/N ratio and moisture content were monitored in each experiment. In despite of low initial C/N of the mixture, intensive fermentation happened in all the experiments. Exp.1 and Exp.2 achieved stability and sanitization, but Exp 1 took more days to accomplish the fermentation. Exp 3 maintained thermophilic temperatures for a shortest time and did not satisfy the necessary sanitation requirements because more RC was recycled. In all experiments, the moisture content of their final composts were too high to be used as bulking agents before extra moisture was reduced. RS: RC = 1:2 (v/v) was the optimum and advisable proportion for the industrialization of sewage sludge composting of, the composting period was about 10 days, and the aeration rate 0.05 m3/(m3ṡmin) was appropriate in this study.

  3. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Assessment of the maturity and biological parameters of compost produced from dairy manure and rice chaff by excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wei; Li, Lingzhi; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Zhenhua; Yu, Guanghui; Shen, Qirong; Shen, Biao

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of maturity and biological parameters is important in the composting process. In this study, excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy was applied to evaluate the maturity and biological parameters of compost produced from the co-composting of dairy and rice chaff. The results from a Pearson correlation analysis between traditional physico-chemical maturity indices and fluorescence regional integration (FRI) parameters showed that among the FRI parameters, P(V,n)/P(III,n) and P(V,n) were suitable for the assessment of compost maturity. Moreover, the FRI parameters could be used to evaluate biological parameters including the germination index (GI) and ribotype evolution which indicate the bacterial community structure and dynamics. P(IV,n) was the most suitable indicator for revealing the community structure and dynamics during the composting process. Fluorescence spectroscopy combined with the FRI analysis could be used as a sensitive and efficient tool for assessing compost maturity and biological parameters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Compost degradation and growth of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Reproductive structures of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, form a high quality food source. Its mushrooms are cultivated on straw based compost that is rich in microbes. A. bisporus primarily degrades lignin during its vegetative growth while plant cell wall carbohydrates are primarily

  6. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was then mixed in a ratio ...

  7. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Contaminated soil (FAO: Lithosol) containing >380 000 mg kg-1 total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) was bioremediated by composting. The soil was inoculated with sewage sludge and incubated for 19 months. The soil was mixed in a ratio of 1:1 (v/v) with wood chips. The soil-wood chips mixture was.

  8. Influence of Fresh, Composted and Vermicomposted Parthenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the influence of fresh, composted and vermicomposted Parthenium and poultry droppings on the quality parameters of radish like protein, carbohydrates, phenolics, reducing sugar, total soluble sugars and chlorophylls on 45 and 60 DAS (Days After Sowing). The maximum ...

  9. Influence of Fresh, Composted and Vermicomposted Parthenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: A pot culture experiment was carried out to assess the influence of fresh, composted and vermicomposted Parthenium and poultry droppings on the quality parameters of radish like protein, carbohydrates, phenolics, reducing sugar, total soluble sugars and chlorophylls on 45 and 60 DAS (Days After Sowing).

  10. Physical and biochemical processes in composting material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginkel, van J.T.

    1996-01-01


    In the composting process temperature and oxygen concentrations are essential parameters. A main objective of this thesis is to formulate a mathematical model which can predict these parameters. In this model a number of important material properties must be used: composition in terms of

  11. Effectiveness of combined thermophilic composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vermicomposting (V) is also increasingly becoming popular. These two techniques have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. In this study, vermicomposting and a combination of thermophilic composting and vermicomposting were compared as ways of sanitizing and biodegrading dairy manure and waste paper ...

  12. Biochar/compost project in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, K.; Jenny, F.

    2012-04-01

    In cooperation with the organization Abokobi Society Switzerlands (ASS) the biochar/compost project tries to assist impecunious farmers in the Tamale /Walewale area in the northern region of Ghana. The soil of these farmers is often overused and low in organic matter and minerals. Field tests have been carried out since 2009 in the Walewale area and in the year 2011 also in the Tamale area. In 2011 combinations of Biochar with other natural fertilizers were tested, such as poultry manure and compost. By using the combination of biochar, compost and poultry manure as an organic soil improvement material the soil quality could be improved and higher crop yields of 50% and more could be achieved, without the use of chemical fertilizer. It is possible to achieve remarkably higher crop yields for a longer period of time, with only one single application. Local farmers were shown the new trial results in the field. They were convinced by the positive results of the crop yields. Those who would also like to improve the soil of their fields, could be given initial aid allowing them to help themselves to improve their dire situation. The biochar/compost project provided the occasion to raise awareness amongst local farmers for sustainable agriculture.

  13. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  14. Compost: The Rot Thing for Our Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Fred; Fucigna, Carolee

    2013-01-01

    Fred Estes is a science teacher and lower school science coordinator at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Carolee Fucigna is a prekindergarten teacher at The Nueva School in Hillsborough, California. Their year in the classroom regularly begins with starting a compost pile that serves as a focus for classroom research and science…

  15. DDT degradation potential of cattle manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, Adi Setyo; Koyama, Futoshi; Mori, Toshio; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of cattle manure compost (CMC) to degrade 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT). DDT was degraded during composting and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD) was detected as a metabolic product. Degradation of DDT at 60 degrees C was the most effective of all the stages of composting. Fourteen strains of fungi were isolated and identified from CMC, and most of them were closely related to Mucor circinelloides and Galactomyces geotrichum. These fungi demonstrated a high ability to degrade DDT both at 30 and 60 degrees C in potato dextrose broth (PDB) medium. DDD and 4,4-dichlorobenzophenone (DBP) were detected as metabolic products. Degradation of DDT-contaminated soil was also investigated. Composting materials in the mesophilic stage exhibited the highest ability to degrade DDT in un-sterilized (USL) contaminated soil during a 28d incubation period. The isolated fungi possessed the ability to degrade DDT in sterilized (SL) and un-sterilized (USL) soils. These results indicated that CMC contains fungi that can be potentially used for bioremediation in DDT-contaminated environments. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  17. The effect of compost on carbon cycling and the active soil microbiota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Esther; Woyke, Tanja; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee

    2014-09-02

    Rangelands cover an estimated 40-70percent of global landmass, approximately one-third of the landmass of the United States and half of California. The soils of this vast land area has high carbon (C) storage capacity, which makes it an important target ecosystem for the mitigation of greenhouse gas emission and effects on climate change, in particular under land management techniques that favor increased C sequestration rates. While microbial communities are key players in the processes responsible for C storage and loss in soils, we have barely shed light on these highly complex processes in part due to the tremendous and seemingly intractable diversity of microbes, largely uncultured, that inhabit soil ecosystems. In our study, we compare Mediterranean grassland soil plots that were amended with greenwaste compost in a single event 6 years ago. Subsampling of control and amended plots was performed in depth increments of 0-10 cm. We present data on greenhouse gas emissions and budgets of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and micronutrients in dependence of compost amendment. Changes in the active members of the soil microbial community were assessed using a novel approach combining flow cytometry and 16S tag sequencing disclosing who is active. This is the first study revealing the nature of actively metabolizing microbial community members linked to the geochemical characteristics of compost-amended soil.

  18. Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacteria: Evidence from Hot Composts by Culture-independent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic diversity of the bacteria in hot composting samples collected from three spatial locations was investigated by molecular tools in order to determine the influence of gradient effect on bacterial communities during the thermophilic phase of composting swine manure with rice straw. Total microbial DNA was extracted and bacterial near full-length 16S rRNA genes were subsequently amplified, cloned, restriction fragment length polymorphism-screened and sequenced. The superstratum sample had the highest microbial diversity among the three samples which was possibly related to the surrounding conditions of the sample resulting from the location. The results showed that the sequences related to Bacillus sp. were most common in the composts. In superstratum sample, 45 clones (33% and 36 clones (27% were affiliated with the Bacillus sp. and Clostridium sp., respectively; 74 clones (58% were affiliated with the Clostridium sp. in the middle-level sample; 52 clones (40% and 29 clones (23% were affiliated with the Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. in substrate sample, respectively. It indicated that the microbial diversity and community in the samples were different for each sampling site, and different locations of the same pile often contained distinct and different microbial communities.

  19. Use of dispersion modelling for Environmental Impact Assessment of biological air pollution from composting: Progress, problems and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P; Hayes, E T; Williams, W B; Tyrrel, S F; Kinnersley, R P; Walsh, K; O'Driscoll, M; Longhurst, P J; Pollard, S J T; Drew, G H

    2017-12-01

    With the increase in composting asa sustainable waste management option, biological air pollution (bioaerosols) from composting facilities have become a cause of increasing concern due to their potential health impacts. Estimating community exposure to bioaerosols is problematic due to limitations in current monitoring methods. Atmospheric dispersion modelling can be used to estimate exposure concentrations, however several issues arise from the lack of appropriate bioaerosol data to use as inputs into models, and the complexity of the emission sources at composting facilities. This paper analyses current progress in using dispersion models for bioaerosols, examines the remaining problems and provides recommendations for future prospects in this area. A key finding is the urgent need for guidance for model users to ensure consistent bioaerosol modelling practices. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Compost plant of Medellin - An interesting project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedoya V, Julian; Arango M, Carlos Andres

    1998-01-01

    Empresas varias de Medellin acquired a composting plant (solid waste treatment plant) in the beginning of the 70's. This plant, manufactured in Spain, using French technology, started operation in 1972. It was bought from the machinery Pascua Hermanos y Compania ltda. Spanish consortium. The total investment cost by 1971 was of about $ 20' 000, 000 Colombian pesos. The composting plant was designed as a partial solution (180t/day) to the disposal of about 400 t/days of solid waste disposal in Medellin city. The operation steps of the plant were: collection cars into one of the three hoppers dumped solid waste. Then recyclable material was picked up by hand in a flat conveyor. Hammer mills, where non-crushable material was separated and collected in a reject conveyor, crushed organic material. Afterwards, organic material was screened and was taken by another conveyor into a rotary trommel where manure and organic wastes from the cattle market Plaza de Ferias, and from the municipal slaughterhouse, was planned to be added (this operation was never implemented). The organic portion was separated magnetically from ferrous materials and then conducted to the fermenting aisle, where it stayed for nine days; oxidation was increased by aeration by Archimedes screws. Product coming from the fermenting aisle was discharged in a screening system to classify the compost by granulometry. Again strange elements where taken away from the compost using collision with a ballistic separator. Finally, weight and size, and using belt conveyors and a rotary distributor classified compost, it was disposed in a open field, where it would stay for about thirty days. Social, technical, marketing, economic and administrative problems made difficult the operation of the plant that was closed down in 1985 and fully dismantled in 1988

  1. [Composting facilities. 1. Microbiological quality of compost with special regard to disposable diapers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, E; Rüden, H; Zeschmar-Lahl, B

    1994-10-01

    At three different composting facilities, co-composting of used panty diapers with an addition of 10% (weight) to the usual plant input was investigated for various hygienic and microbiological parameters. In nearly any case, a sufficient degree of germ reduction above 99.9% could be observed by determination of reduction rates of B. subtilis spores. The concentrations of "total microorganisms" ranged from 3.9 x 10(5) to 3.3 x 10(11) colony forming units per gram compost (CFU/g) in composts without and from 3.3 x 10(5) to 4.7 x 10(9) CFU/g in composts with panty diapers in the input. The concentrations of "gram-negative bacteria" ranged from 3.3 x 10(4) to 1.3 x 10(9) CFU/g (without panty diapers) resp. from 3.3 x 10(5) to 3.5 x 10(8) CFU/g (with panty diapers), the concentrations of "fecal streptococci" from 1.7 x 10(3) to 7.7 x 10(7) CFU/g (without panty diapers) resp. from 1.4 x 10(4) to 1.4 x 10(8) CFU/g (with panty diapers). Facultatively pathogenic microorganisms showed a broad variety, but no common trend in composts with and without panty diapers in the input. Statistical validity of the determination of contents of microorganisms in compost samples was guaranteed by the collection and analysis of 20 parallel samples with an average sample mass of 10 to 15 kg. From the analyzed quantitative and qualitative hygienic-microbiological parameters, it can be concluded that no negative hygienic-microbiological effects, caused by the addition of 10% (weight) of used panty diapers in the input, have to be expected. Under the aspects of epidemiologic hygiene, composting of used panty diapers together with usual input materials seems to cause no increased risks under the tested conditions. Under the aspect of consumer protection, there is no increase in the risk of infection when using compost produced with addition of panty diapers, compared to compost produced without panty diaper addition to the input.

  2. Evaluation of Effective Microorganisms on home scale organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yee Van; Lee, Chew Tin; Klemeš, Jiří Jaromír; Chua, Lee Suan; Sarmidi, Mohamad Roji; Leow, Chee Woh

    2017-04-17

    Home composting can be an effective way to reduce the volume of municipal solid waste. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of Effective Microorganism™ (EM) for the home scale co-composting of food waste, rice bran and dried leaves. A general consensus is lacking regarding the efficiency of inoculation composting. Home scale composting was carried out with and without EM (control) to identify the roles of EM. The composting parameters for both trials showed a similar trend of changes during the decomposition. As assayed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), the functional group of humic acid was initially dominated by aliphatic structure but was dominated by the aromatic in the final compost. The EM compost has a sharper peak of aromatic CC bond presenting a better degree of humification. Compost with EM achieved a slightly higher temperature at the early stage, with foul odour suppressed, enhanced humification process and a greater fat reduction (73%). No significant difference was found for the final composts inoculated with and without EM. The properties included pH (∼7), electric conductivity (∼2), carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C: N 100%), humic acid content (4.5-4.8%) and pathogen content (no Salmonella, compost has a higher nitrogen content (+1.5%). The overall results suggested the positive effect provided by EM notably in odour control and humification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  4. Effects of compost age on the release of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal B. Al-Bataina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Composted organic materials are applied to help restore disturbed soils, speed revegetation, and control erosion; these changes are generally beneficial for stormwater quality. Ensuring that nutrient release from compost is adequate for plant needs without degrading stormwater quality is important since composts release nitrogen at variable rates (1–3% of total N/yr and the leaching process can extend for many years. The aim of this work was to understand the effect of compost age on the extent and rates of nitrogen release by conducting detailed rainfall simulation studies of one compost type at three different ages. Models describing temporal changes in nitrogen release to runoff during a single storm and across multiple storms were developed and applied to the runoff data. Nitrogen content (% and bulk density of compost increased with the increase in compost age and total nitrogen release decreased with increasing compost age. The three rain simulations (storms performed on each of the three compost ages show that nitrogen release declined each day of the repeated daily storms. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the amount of nitrogen remaining on compost after several storms.

  5. Bioremediation of polychlorinated-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans contaminated soil using simulated compost-amended landfill reactors under hypoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Wu, Jer-Horng, E-mail: enewujh@mail.ncku.edu.tw; Lin, Shih-Chiang; Chang, Juu-En

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • We developed a new hypoxic reactor system for remediating PCDD/Fs. • We demonstrated effects of compost on the degradation of PCDD/Fs. • We uncovered microbial compositions and dynamics during the degradation of PCDD/Fs. - Abstract: Compost-amended landfill reactors were developed to reduce polychlorinated-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in contaminated soils. By periodically recirculating leachate and suppling oxygen, the online monitoring of the oxidation reduction potential confirmed that the reactors were maintained under hypoxic conditions, with redox levels constantly fluctuating between −400 and +80 mV. The subsequent reactor operation demonstrated that PCDD/F degradation in soil could be facilitated by amending compost originating from the cow manure and waste sludge and that the degradation might be affected by the availability of easily degradable substrates in the soil and compost. The pyrosequencing analysis of V4/V5 regions of bacterial 16S rRNA genes suggested that species richness of the soil microbial community was increased by a factor of 1.37–1.61. Although the bacterial community varied with the compost origin and changed markedly during reactor operation, it was dominated by Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. The aerotolerant anaerobic Sedimentibacter and Propionibacterium spp., and the uncultured Chloroflexi group could be temporarily induced to a high abundance by amending the cow manure compost; the bacterial growths were associated with the rapid degradation of PCDD/Fs. Overall, the novel bioremediation method for PCDD/F-contaminated soils using hypoxic conditions was effective, simple, energy saving, and thus easily practicable.

  6. Composting of solid and sludge residues from agricultural and food industries. Bioindicators of monitoring and compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranalli, G; Bottura, G; Taddei, P; Garavani, M; Marchetti, R; Sorlini, C

    2001-01-01

    A study to monitor the composting process, to evaluate the effectiveness of bioindicators for the quality and maturity of cured compost obtained by a mixture of winery residues, sludges from dairies and solid residues from food processing (grape-stalks, grape-dregs, rice husks), was conducted. Composting process lasting five months was monitored by chemico-physical, spectroscopic (FTIR, DTG and DSC), microbiological and enzymatic analyses. Biological activities (ATP, DHA contents and several enzymatic activities), impedance variations (DT) of mixed cultures during growth and potential pathogens (E. coli and Salmonella sp.), were determined. The phytotoxicity tests gave a germination index higher than 90% and no significant genotoxic differences between controls and the compost samples were evidenced. Pathogens were not found on the cured compost that can therefore be satisfactorily used as amendment for agricultural crops. However, no single measurement of a composting process factor, biological, chemical or physical, gave a comprehensive view of the quality of a specific composting. We proposed a tool of bioindicators of potential activity and markers in combination for integrated evaluation of monitoring of composting process and compost quality. The responses of several enzymatic activities were positive and indicative of their favorable use capable to reveal even very small changes within microbial population and activity in test and monitoring of compost programmes.

  7. Compost: the effect on nutrients, soil health and crop quantity and quality

    OpenAIRE

    Hitchings, Roger

    2008-01-01

    The primary scope of this review is to provide evidence for the effects of compost as distinct from the effects of fresh or stored manure. It is intended to help advisers and farmers identify when the use of compost or a composting process is appropriate. This review does not address the detailed issues surrounding the various production of compost but includes some basic information with particular respect to on-farm composting operations. The differences between well-made compost and ...

  8. Potential of Compost with Some Added Supplementary Materials on the Development of Agaricus blazei Murill

    OpenAIRE

    Horm, Visal; Ohga, Shoji; 大賀, 祥治

    2008-01-01

    Potential of compost on the development of Agaricus blazei Murill was evaluated on various compost concentrations with two kinds of supplementary materials. Sugarcane compost as well as cattle compost added with sawdust and rice bran was influential substrates on mycelial growth and fruit body development. The fast spawn running was realized on cattle compost concentrations, but primordial formation and fruit body development took a short period on sugarcane compost concentrations. All cattle...

  9. Property and quinone profile analysis of the compost made in Kuriyama town

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 桑原, 直美; 田中, 尚道; 駒井, 功一郎

    2006-01-01

    [Synopsis] Application of compost made from garbage and bio-sludge show crop growth promoting effect in the field. We have evaluated to a property of the compost made in Kuriyama town (Hokkaido). Kuriyama town have a compost producing facility established in 2004. Mainly, we have evaluated suppression of the plant disease and plant growth promotion by using this compost. Application of this compost had promoted the cucumber growth in dose dependent manner. Application of native compost ...

  10. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  11. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optimization of food waste compost with the use of biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqas, M; Nizami, A S; Aburiazaiza, A S; Barakat, M A; Ismail, I M I; Rashid, M I

    2017-06-18

    This paper aims to examine the influence of biochar produced from lawn waste in accelerating the degradation and mineralization rates of food waste compost. Biochar produced at two different temperatures (350 and 450 °C) was applied at the rates 10 and 15% (w/w) of the total waste to an in-vessel compost bioreactor for evaluating its effects on food waste compost. The quality of compost was assessed against stabilization indices such as moisture contents (MC), electrical conductivity (EC), organic matters (OM) degradation, change in total carbon (TC) and mineral nitrogen contents such as ammonium (NH 4 + ) and nitrate (NO 3 - ). The use of biochar significantly improved the composting process and physiochemical properties of the final compost. Results showed that in comparison to control trial, biochar amended compost mixtures rapidly achieved the thermophilic temperature, increased the OM degradation by 14.4-15.3%, concentration of NH 4 + by 37.8-45.6% and NO 3 - by 50-62%. The most prominent effects in term of achieving rapid thermophilic temperature and a higher concentration of NH 4 + and NO 3 - were observed at 15% (w/w) biochar. According to compost quality standard of United States (US), California, Germany, and Austria, the compost stability as a result of biochar addition was achieved in 50-60 days. Nonetheless, the biochar produced at 450 °C had similar effects as to biochar produced at 350 °C for most of the compost parameters. Therefore, it is recommended to produce biochar at 350 °C to reduce the energy requirements for resource recovery of biomass and should be added at a concentration of 15% (w/w) to the compost bioreactor for achieving a stable compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Composting in small laboratory pilots: performance and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, G; Barriuso, E; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M; Houot, S

    2012-02-01

    Small-scale reactors (composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O(2) consumption and CO(2) emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Disease control with quality compost in pot and field trials

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Jacques; Larbi, Mohamed

    2005-01-01

    Quality compost can have a positive effect on soil fertility and plant growth and health. This positive effect is not only observable in the laboratory, but also by growers. Phytopathological problems could be solved with the use of compost. Durable success can only be obtained if a quality management is resolutely followed. Further research is needed to optimize the quality management of compost production and utilization. For example, very little is known about the long-term ...

  15. Effect of castor cake and elephant grass composting on edaphic fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Scoriza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Elephant grass and castor cake when combined can make a promising organic fertilizer. However, castor cake contains potentially toxic chemicals, such as ricin and ricinine. To test potential effects of these chemicals, compost piles of elephant grass ( Pennisetum purpureum Schum. with castor cake were prepared with different C:N ratios (T1 = 40, T2 = 30, T3 = 20; T4 = 30 [control, elephant grass + crotalaria] to evaluate colonization by edaphic fauna and any suppressive effects of castor cake. Soil organisms were collected with Berlese-Tullgren funnels. There were temporal differences between the treatments, and the epigeous fauna was mainly represented by members of the Acari and Entomobryomorpha. Elapsed time is the major factor in determining the composition of the epigeous fauna community associated with composting, indicating that castor cake has no suppressive effect.

  16. Environmental Aspects Of Home Composting Of Organic Household Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Six composting units were monitored during a two-year long experimental campaign. Data regarding chemical compositions of waste inputs and outputs, gaseous emissions and leachate productions were collected, organized in mass balances and assessed by means of LCA. The management of the home...... composting unit was very relevant for the environmental performance of home composting, as the turning frequency influence the emissions of CH4 which is the main responsible for potential impacts on global warming. Results showed that overall home composting has low environmental impacts (between -2 and 16 m...

  17. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  18. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Changes in cadmium mobility during composting and after soil application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanc, Ales; Tlustos, Pavel; Szakova, Jirina; Habart, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The effect of twelve weeks of composting on the mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in six composts containing sewage sludge, wood chips and grass was studied, along with the cadmium immobilization capacity of compost. Two different soils were used and Cd accumulation measured in above-ground oat biomass (Avena sativa L.). Increasing pH appears to be an important cause of the observed decreases in available cadmium through the composting process. A pot experiment was performed with two different amounts of compost (9.6 and 28.8 g per kg of soil) added into Fluvisol with total Cd 0.255 mg kg -1 , and contaminated Cambisol with total Cd 6.16 mg kg -1 . Decrease of extractable Cd (0.01 mol l -1 CaCl 2 ) was found in both soils after compost application. The higher amount of compost immobilized an exchangeable portion of Cd (0.11 mol l -1 CH 3 COOH extractable) in contaminated Cambisol unlike in light Fluvisol. The addition of a low amount of compost decreased the content of Cd in associated above-ground oat biomass grown in both soils, while a high amount of compost decreased the Cd content in oats only in the Cambisol.

  20. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  1. Biodegradation of Lignocelluloses in Sewage Sludge Composting and Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Alidadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Alidadi H, Najafpour AA, Vafaee A, Parvaresh A, Peiravi R. Biodegradation of lignocelluloses in sewage sludge composting and vermicomposting. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:1-5.   Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to determine the amount of lignin degradation and biodegradation of organic matter and change of biomass under compost and vermicomposting of sewage sludge. Materials & Methods: Sawdust was added to sewage sludge at 1:3 weight bases to Carbon to Nitrogen ratio of 25:1 for composting or vermicomposting. Lignin and volatile solids were determined at different periods, of 0, 10, 30, 40 and 60 days of composting or vermicomposting period to determine the biodegradation of lignocellulose to lignin. Results were expressed as mean of two replicates and the comparisons among means were made using the least significant difference test calculated (p <0.05. Results: After 60 days of experiment period, the initial lignin increased from 3.46% to 4.48% for compost and 3.46% to 5.27% for vermicompost. Biodegradation of lignocellulose was very slow in compost and vermicompost processes. Vermicomposting is a much faster process than compost to convert lignocellulose to lignin (p <0.05. Conclusions: The organic matter losses in sewage sludge composting and vermicomposting are due to the degradation of the lignin fractions. By increasing compost age, the amount of volatile solids will decrease.

  2. Sweet Sorghum Crop. Effect of the Compost Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, M. J.; Solano, M. L.; Carrasco, J.; Ciria, P.

    1998-01-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs

  3. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Culturable fungi in potting soils and compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Doris; Lesch, Susanne; Buzina, Walter; Galler, Herbert; Gutschi, Anna Maria; Habib, Juliana; Pfeifer, Bettina; Luxner, Josefa; Reinthaler, Franz F

    2016-11-01

    In the present study the spectrum and the incidence of fungi in potting soils and compost was investigated. Since soil is one of the most important biotopes for fungi, relatively high concentrations of fungal propagules are to be expected. For detection of fungi, samples of commercial soils, compost and soils from potted plants (both surface and sub-surface) were suspended and plated onto several mycological media. The resulting colonies were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The results from the different sampling series vary, but concentrations on the surface of potted plants and in commercial soils are increased tenfold compared to compost and sub-surface soils. Median values range from 9.5 × 10(4) colony forming units (CFU)/g to 5.5 × 10(5) CFU/g. The spectrum of fungi also varies in the soils. However, all sampling series show high proportion of Aspergillus and Penicillium species, including potentially pathogenic species such as Aspergillus fumigatus. Cladosporium, a genus dominant in the ambient air, was found preferably in samples which were in contact with the air. The results show that potentially pathogenic fungi are present in soils. Immunocompromised individuals should avoid handling soils or potted plants in their immediate vicinity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Kinetic study of compost liquor nitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnaire, J; Wang, X Y; Chapon, L; Moulin, P; Marrot, B

    2011-01-01

    This study is a first kinetic approach about the compost liquor treatment by activated sludge. This industrial wastewater is highly loaded in organic and nitrogen compounds (COD≈12,000 mg L(-1) and NH(4)(+)-N≈4,000 mg L(-1)). The possibility of its treatment in an urban WWTP is studied measuring ammonia oxidation rate with non-acclimated sludge to the industrial effluent. Compost liquor appears as an inhibitor substrate. The ammonia oxidation rate can be modelled by the Haldane model: U(MAX)=0.180 d(-1), K(S)=12.0 mgN.L(-1) and K(I)=26.0 mgN.L(-1). The ammonia oxidation rate also follows for a synthetic substrate which has the same pollutant load as the real substrate. In this case, the ammonia oxidation rate can be modelled by the Monod model: U(MAX)=0.073 d(-1) and K(S)=4.3 mgN.L(-1). This result confirms that the ammonia oxidising bacteria are inhibited by the real wastewater. The following-up of nitrate production shows also the inhibition of nitrite oxidising bacteria. The compost liquor treatment seems not possible in an urban WWTP (<50,000 p.e.). That's why a specific WWTP is recommended and an acclimation step of activated sludge is essential.

  6. Performance of compostable baby used diapers in the composting process with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Joan; Mestre-Montserrat, Maria; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-05-01

    In modern societies, disposable diapers constitute a significant percentage of municipal solid wastes. They have been traditionally landfilled or incinerated as only limited recycling processes are being implemented in some parts of Europe. With the implementation of separated collection systems for the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes (OFMSWs) and the need to preserve the environment, compostable diapers have appeared in the market to avoid the main environmental impacts associated to non-biodegradable disposable diapers. In this study, a full-scale composting of door-to-door collected OFMSW with a 3% (w/w) of compostable diapers has also been carried out. Previously, lab-scale experiments confirmed that almost 50% of carbon of compostable diapers is emitted as CO2 under aerobic controlled conditions. The results obtained at full-scale demonstrate that both the composting process and the final end product (compost) are not altered by the presence of compostable diapers in crucial aspects such as pathogenic content, stability and elemental composition (including nutrients and heavy metals). The main conclusion of this study is that the collection of the OFMSW with compostable diapers can be a new way to transform this waste into high-quality compost. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sweet Sorghum crop. Effect of the Compost Application; Cultivo de Sorgo Dulce. Efecto de la Aplicacion de Compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, M.J.; Solano, M.L.; Carrasco, J.; Ciria, P.

    1998-12-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs.

  8. Impacts of sporulation temperature, exposure to compost matrix and temperature on survival of Bacillus cereus spores during livestock mortality composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K; Reuter, T; Gilroyed, B H; McAllister, T A

    2015-04-01

    To investigate impact of sporulation and compost temperatures on feasibility of composting for disposal of carcasses contaminated with Bacillus anthracis. Two strains of B. cereus, 805 and 1391, were sporulated at either 20 or 37°C (Sporulation temperature, ST) and 7 Log10 CFU g(-1) spores added to autoclaved manure in nylon bags (pore size 50 μm) or in sealed vials. Vials and nylon bags were embedded into compost in either a sawdust or manure matrix each containing 16 bovine mortalities (average weight 617 ± 33 kg), retrieved from compost at intervals over 217 days and survival of B. cereus spores assessed. A ST of 20°C decreased spore survival by 1·4 log10 CFU g(-1) (P Compost temperatures >55°C reduced spore survival (P compost temperatures were key factors influencing survival of B. cereus spores in mortality compost. Composting may be most appropriate for the disposal of carcasses infected with B. anthracis at ambient temperatures ≤20°C under thermophillic composting conditions (>55°C). © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Opportunities and barriers to on-farm composting and compost application: A case study from northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, J; Van Lancker, J; Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Bijttebier, J; Ruysschaert, G; De Neve, S; Reubens, B

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining and increasing soil quality and fertility in a sustainable way is an important challenge for modern agriculture. The burgeoning bioeconomy is likely to put further pressure on soil resources unless they are managed carefully. Compost has the potential to be an effective soil improver because of its multiple beneficial effects on soil quality. Additionally, it fits within the bioeconomy vision because it can valorize biomass from prior biomass processing or valorize biomass unsuitable for other processes. However, compost is rarely used in intensive agriculture, especially in regions with high manure surpluses. The aim of this research is to identify the barriers to on-farm composting and the application of compost in agriculture, using a mixed method approach for the case of Flanders. The significance of the 28 identified barriers is analyzed and they are categorized as market and financial, policy and institutional, scientific and technological and informational and behavioral barriers. More specifically, the shortage of woody biomass, strict regulation, considerable financial and time investment, and lack of experience and knowledge are hindering on-farm composting. The complex regulation, manure surplus, variable availability and transport of compost, and variable compost quality and composition are barriers to apply compost. In conclusion, five recommendations are suggested that could alleviate certain hindering factors and thus increase attractiveness of compost use in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing thermal conductivity of composting reactor with attention on varying thermal resistance between compost and the inner surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Niu, Wenjuan; Ai, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic estimation of heat transfer through composting reactor wall was crucial for insulating design and maintaining a sanitary temperature. A model, incorporating conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer mechanisms, was developed in this paper to provide thermal resistance calculations for composting reactor wall. The mechanism of thermal transfer from compost to inner surface of structural layer, as a first step of heat loss, was important for improving insulation performance, which was divided into conduction and convection and discussed specifically in this study. It was found decreasing conductive resistance was responsible for the drop of insulation between compost and reactor wall. Increasing compost porosity or manufacturing a curved surface, decreasing the contact area of compost and the reactor wall, might improve the insulation performance. Upon modeling of heat transfers from compost to ambient environment, the study yielded a condensed and simplified model that could be used to conduct thermal resistance analysis for composting reactor. With theoretical derivations and a case application, the model was applicable for both dynamic estimation and typical composting scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insight into effects of mature compost recycling on N2O emission and denitrification genes in sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wu, Yiqi; Li, Weiguang; Wu, Chuandong; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    Mature compost recycling is widely used to reduce the dosage of organic bulking agent in actual composting process. In this study, the effects of mature compost amendment on N 2 O emission and denitrification genes were investigated in 47 days composting of sewage sludge and rice husks. The results showed that mature compost amendment dramatically augmented N 2 O emission rate in mesophilic phase and CO 2 emission rate in thermophilic phase of composting, respectively. The cumulative amount of N 2 O emission increased by more than 23 times compared to the control. Mature compost amendment not only reduced moisture and pH, but also significantly increased NO 3 - -N and NO 2 - -N concentrations. The correlation matrices indicated that NO 3 - -N, narG and norB were the main factors influencing N 2 O emission rate in sludge composting with mature compost recycling, but the N 2 O emission rate was significantly correlated to NO 2 - -N, nirK and norB in the control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: yangfan19870117@126.com [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  13. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J.; Carrasco, J.E.; Negro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs

  14. COP-compost: a software to study the degradation of organic pollutants in composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Zhu, Y-G; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2014-02-01

    Composting has been demonstrated to be effective in degrading organic pollutants (OP) whose behaviour depends on the composting conditions, the microbial populations activated and interactions with organic matters. The fate of OP during composting involves complex mechanisms and models can be helpful tools for educational and scientific purposes, as well as for industrialists who want to optimise the composting process for OP elimination. A COP-Compost model, which couples an organic carbon (OC) module and an organic pollutant (OP) module and which simulates the changes of organic matter, organic pollutants and the microbial activities during the composting process, has been proposed and calibrated for a first set of OP in a previous study. The objectives of the present work were (1) to introduce the COP-Compost model from its convenient interface to a potential panel of users, (2) to show the variety of OP that could be simulated, including the possibility of choosing between degradation through co-metabolism or specific metabolism and (3) to show the effect of the initial characteristics of organic matter quality and its microbial biomass on the simulated results of the OP dynamic. In the model, we assumed that the pollutants can be adsorbed on organic matter according to the biochemical quality of the OC and that the microorganisms can degrade the pollutants at the same time as they degrade OC (by co-metabolism). A composting experiment describing two different (14)C-labelled organic pollutants, simazine and pyrene, were chosen from the literature because the four OP fractions simulated in the model were measured during the study (the mineralised, soluble, sorbed and non-extractable fractions). Except for the mineralised fraction of simazine, a good agreement was achieved between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of the different organic fractions. For simazine, a specific biomass had to be added. To assess the relative importance

  15. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  16. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini

    2015-09-01

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  17. Microbiological characteristics of bioaerosol at the composting plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversion of biodegradable waste from landfill is of key importance in developing a sustainable waste strategy for the next decade and beyond. The proliferation of waste treatment technologies such as mechanical biological treatment, anaerobic digestion and composting will be paramount in achieving this strategic goal. Composting plant is one of the end technology, which is widely used in waste processing of the biodegradable waste. These wastes originate from the maintenance of green areas in the cities and the municipalities and from the separatelly collected biodegradable waste from the citizens. There is also possible to process other biodegradable materials whose origin may be in other technologies of waste management at the composting plant. The most commonly used technology of composting is windrow system. Technological operations, which are necessary for the proper conduct of the composting process, may have negative influence on the environment in the immediate vicinity of composting plant. As pollutants we can mark particular odor and microorganisms. The largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic thermotolerant fungi. The amount of thermophillic actinomycetes ranged from 10 to 84.000 CFU∙m−3 (colony forming units per m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the maximum air contamination has been found during aeration of windrow by compost turner and during the sieving of the mature compost. For each indicator, the increase in concentrations due to the turning of compost windrow as compared to the background concentration obtained in natural environments and upwind of composting plants was determined. At a distance of 150 m from the composting plant, only low numbers of indicator organisms at a regular occurrence in the air has been found.

  18. Disposal and utilization of broiler slaughter waste by composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bharathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the feasibility of hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste with coir pith and caged layer manure. Materials and Methods: Compost bins (4 feet x 4 feet x 4 feet were established with concrete blocks with air holes to facilitate aerobic composting. The broiler slaughter waste and coconut coir pith waste were collected from the local market, free of cost. The caged layer manure available from poultry farms were utilized as manure substrate. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated (USDA-NRCS, 2000. Two control bins were maintained simultaneously, using caged layer manure with coir pith waste and water in a ratio of 0.8:3:1.2 (T and another one bin using caged layer manure alone(T . 2 3 Results: At the end of composting, moisture content, weight and the Volume of the compost were reduced significantly (P<0.01, pH, EC, TDS, total organic carbon and total nitrogen content were also significantly (P<0.01 reduced at the finishing of composting. Calcium, phosphorous and potassium content was progressively increased during composting period. The finished compost contains undetectable level of salmonella. Cowpea and sorghum seeds showed positive germination percentage when this finished compost was used. It indicated that all of the finished compost was free from phytotoxin substances. Conclusion: The results indicated that, composting of slaughter waste combined with coir pith waste may be a hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 359-361

  19. Co-composting of distillery wastes with animal manures: carbon and nitrogen transformations in the evaluation of compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Bernal, M P; Moral, R

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the solid wastes generated by the winery and distillery industry by means of co-composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two piles, using exhausted grape marc and cattle manure or poultry manure, respectively (at ratios, on a fresh weight basis, of 70:30), were composted by the Rutgers static pile composting system. Throughout the composting process, a number of parameters were monitored, such as pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, water-soluble carbon, water-soluble polyphenols, different forms of nitrogen (organic nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate) and humification indices (humification ratio, humification index, percentage of humic acid-like C, polymerisation ratio and cation exchange capacity), as well as the germination index. Organic matter losses followed first-order kinetics equation in both piles, the highest organic matter mineralisation rate being observed with exhausted grape marc and cow manure. On the other hand, the mixture with the lowest C/N ratio, using exhausted grape marc and poultry manure, showed the highest initial ammonium contents, probably due to the higher and more labile N content of poultry manure. The increase in the cation exchange capacity revealed the organic matter humification during composting. In contrast, other humification parameters, such as the humification ratio and the humification index, did not show the expected evolution and, thus, could not be used to assess compost maturity. Composting produced a degradation of the phytotoxic compounds, such as polyphenols, to give composts without a phytotoxic character. Therefore, composting can be considered as an efficient treatment to recycle this type of wastes, due to composts presented a stable and humified organic matter and without phytotoxic effects, which makes them suitable for their agronomic use.

  20. Recycling of organic residues in compost to improve coastal sandy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recycling of municipal organic waste in compost is a potential approach to addressing waste disposal problems and soil fertility management. We studied during two years experiment whether composts of municipal organic waste improved with chicken dejection (MOW+Cdj), municipal organic waste improved with ...

  1. Comparing The Quality Of Two Composts Produced From Municipal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Mauritius, composting is viewed more as a means of waste disposal than a safe and environmental-friendly process, the product of which can be used for agricultural purposes. The aim of this paper is to compare the quality of two types of composts; one derived from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and the other from ...

  2. Bacteria associated with compost used for cultivation of Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteria involved in an outdoor single phase composting using sawdust and wheat bran as substrates for cultivation of Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fr.) Singer, and Lentinus squarrosulus (Berk.), two Nigerian edible mushrooms were identified. Composting was carried out for 2 weeks. The highest core and peripheral ...

  3. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-08-28

    Aug 28, 2012 ... The present research was conducted to evaluate the compost effectiveness on Zea mays and Hibiscus sabdarriffa under Fusarium wilt disease. Compost physical, chemical and biological characters were monitored weekly during the ripening process. Both coliform and nematode were tested. Finally, the.

  4. Exploring the sustainability of composting as a solid waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Solid waste composting has emerged as an innovative approach to managing solid waste in various regions of the world. However, the sustainability of this approach to solid waste management has been sparsely investigated in the study area. This paper reviews composting case studies in Nigeria with the aim of providing ...

  5. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  6. Microbiological and Physico-chemical Analysis of Compost and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of the composting is dependent on factors such as, number of microorganisms, nutrient balance, temperature, pH, electrical conductivity and moisture content. However there is paucity of data on these parameters and the influence of compost on the yield of kale. The aims of this study were to investigate the ...

  7. Evaluation of microbially enhanced composting of sophora flavescens residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai B; Han, Li R; Feng, Jun T; Zhang, Xing

    2016-02-01

    The effects of inoculants on the composting of Sophora flavescens residues were evaluated based on several physical, chemical and biological parameters, as well as the infrared spectra. Compared to the control compost without inoculants, the treatment compost with inoculants (Bacillus subtilis strain G-13 and Chaetomium thermophilum strain GF-1) had a significantly longer thermophilic duration, higher cellulase activity and a higher degradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin (P compost with apparently lower C:N ratio (15.88 vs. 17.77) and NH 4 -N:NO 3 -N ratio (0.16 vs. 0.20) was obtained with the inoculation comparing with the control (P composting process and increase the maturity degree of compost as indicated by the germination index (GI) in which the treatment reached the highest GI of 133.2% at day 15 while the control achieved the highest GI of 125.7% at day 30 of the composting. Inoculation with B. subtilis and C. thermophilum is a useful method to enhance the S. flavescens residues composting according to this study.

  8. Impact of applying composted biosolids on wheat growth and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of applying composted biosolids on wheat growth and yield parameters on a calcimagnesic soil in a semi-arid region. ... Marchouch) growing on a calcimagnesic soil using compost applied at 42 T/ha during the three years of study, but in different ways: C1, C2 and C3. Over this period, the level of total Kjeldhal ...

  9. Effect of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) on the productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six rates and a control of municipal solid waste compost (MSWC) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 Mg/ha) were used to evaluate the effect of municipal compost on cowpea growth parameters (Plant height, leaf area, biomass and grain yields and tissue heavy metal concentrations). Plant height, leaf area and heavy metal concentration ...

  10. Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactor by using compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris in photobioreactor by using compost as a nutrient source for biomass production. X. B. Tan, Y. Uemura, J. W. Lim, M. K. Lam. Abstract. Microalgae are well known for its high photosynthetic activity and ability to accumulate large amount of lipids within their cells. Compost fertilizers are derived ...

  11. Co-composting of sewage sludge and Echinochloa pyramidalis (Lam.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yaoundé-Cameroon) in order to assess the effect of three sewage sludge: Macrophyte ratios on the co-composting process and compost quality. The ratios were T1: 25 kg of plant material (Echinochloa pyramidalis) and 75 kg sludge; T2: 50 kg ...

  12. Removal of five fluoroquinolone antibiotics during broiler manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Meng, Lei; Xue, Nandong

    2018-02-01

    Composting is a cost-effective approach for the removal of antibiotics from the environment; however, the consequence of this approach on fluoroquinolone antibiotics is limited. The fate of five representative fluoroquinolone antibiotics, namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and sarafloxacin, was investigated in a pilot-scale composting of broiler manure over 42 days. The effect of antibiotic concentrations (at a dose of 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg for each and a control without antibiotic addition) on the composting process was also assessed. The 42-day composting showed 45.3-75.4% of antibiotic removal with species-specific patterns. However, the observed variations in such removal among both antibiotics concentrations and composting times were not significant in most cases, possibly indicating a slight side-effect of the tested antibiotic concentrations on the composting process. To the best of our knowledge, this study is among few studies with a focus on the persistence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics during a pilot-scale composting, which warrants further study in regards to the mechanism underlying the removal of these compounds during composting.

  13. Toepassing van de basisvrachtbenadering op fosfaat van compost; advies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, P.A.I.

    2005-01-01

    Bij het vormgeven van het stelsel van gebruiksnormen is een maatschappelijke discussie ontstaan over de aanvoer van fosfaat met grond in compost en zwarte grond. Deze deskstudie gaat in op vragen die hierbij gesteld zijn. Het aandeel grond in compost en zwarte grond en de hoeveelheid fosfaat daarin

  14. Input/Output: hoeveelheid en volume compost in de champignonkweek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leyh, Romain; Blok, Chris

    2017-01-01

    The conclusion of a previous experiment showed that the compost quantity was the most determining parameter for the production volume of mushrooms, despite the addition of hemi cellulose as carbon source to the compost. The present experiment focuses on the mycelium action with regard to the carbon

  15. Chemical changes of spinach waste during composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Considering this, the present study was planned to prepare compost and vermicompost of spinach collected from the supermarket of Amritsar and to estimate various chemical changes; nitrates, phosphates, sodium, potassium, calcium and pH during its composting and vermicomposting. It was observed that fresh vegetable ...

  16. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D 10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts

  17. An assessment of the adoption of compost manure by smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compost manure seems to be a viable option to be promoted. This study was designed to assess the adoption of compost manure making and utilization by smallholder farmers. The study was conducted through a combination of individual interviews and observation of 150 smallholder farmers as well as through focus ...

  18. Microbial biomass in compost during colonization of Agaricus bisporus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Aurin M.; Heijboer, Amber; Boschker, Henricus T.S.; Bonnet, Barbara; Lugones, Luis G.; Wösten, Han A.B.

    2017-01-01

    Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol

  19. "ComPost": A Writing Program Newsletter and Its Rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dennis R.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the development and rationale of "ComPost," a weekly newsletter of the Composition Program at the University of Louisville. Suggests that a vehicle like ComPost can promote the communications that contribute to accomplishing collegiality and genuine program consensus. (RS)

  20. Revaluation of maturity and stability indices for compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BOD/COD ratio of compost was studied in conjunction with C/N ratio as commonly maturity index. Carbonaceous materials as well as nitrogenous materials declined in open-air conditions during 20 weeks. C/N ratio was correlated with BOD/COD, a couple parameters to qualify the compost was mature and stable.

  1. Composting of Municipal Solid Wastes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breidenbach, Andrew W.

    To gain more comprehensive knowledge about composting as a solid waste management tool and to better assess the limited information available, the Federal solid waste management program, within the U. S. Public Health Service, entered into a joint experimental windrow composting project in 1966 with the Tennessee Valley Authority and the City of…

  2. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-11-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts.

  3. STUDY OF OPPORTUNITIES OF USE OF COMPOSTS CUNICOLES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7 mars 2015 ... ABSTRACT. The present work aims to study the potential valorization of composts exhausted cunicoles for aboveground vegetable plants. In a device complete random block with three repetitions, five composts in a pure state or in mixture and a witness are tested under tomato in seedbed except ground.

  4. Anaerobic composting of pyrethrum waste with and without effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the use of effective microorganisms (EM) for enhancement of biogas production through composting of solid pyrethrum remains after extraction of pyrethrins (marc). The laboratory scale experiment involved composting of the waste as substrate mixed with EM at different ratios consisting of a control, ...

  5. Comparison of plant nutrient levels between compost from Sky loo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent scholars have highlighted the benefit of harvesting compost from eco-san toilets for application as plant nutrients. However, levels of nutrients in eco-san compost may vary depending on the type of toilet and also the type of top soil in a particular geographical region. This study compared levels of nitrogen, ...

  6. Microbial enrichment to enhance the disease suppressive activity of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, J.; Montenari, M.; Boogert, van den P.H.J.F.

    2003-01-01

    Compost amended soil has been found to be suppressive against plant diseases in various cropping systems. The level and reproducibility of disease suppressive properties of compost might be increased by the addition of antagonists. In the present study, the establishment and suppressive activity of

  7. A Cost Analysis of Food Waste Composting in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Tui Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan’s Environmental Protection Administration (EPA has enacted a food waste recycling policy since 2003 as an alternative of landfill and incineration for the final disposal of municipal solid waste. Recycled food waste is currently seen as a valuable material, especially when appropriate technology is developed. This paper conducts a cost/benefit analysis based on six cases of food waste composting plants in Taiwan, finding that (1 the composting of food waste may yield the most net benefit compared to other applications of today; (2 the production cost of compost ranges from NT$ 2897–23,117/tonne; (3 the adoption of more automatic technology may reduce operation costs and, thus, a closed composting system with mechanical aeration may be more cost effective; (4 the output is a determinant of affecting production costs and private firms are more competitive in production costs than government-affiliated composting units; (5 all of the government-affiliated composting units face a negative profit and thus they are required to make use of the market value of the produced compost to achieve economic viability; and (6 a subsidy to the compost producer is needed to expand the market demand as the food waste recycled can save the disposal cost of municipal solid waste (MSW incineration.

  8. Metagenomic analysis of a tropical composting operation at the são paulo zoo park reveals diversity of biomass degradation functions and organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layla Farage Martins

    Full Text Available Composting operations are a rich source for prospection of biomass degradation enzymes. We have analyzed the microbiomes of two composting samples collected in a facility inside the São Paulo Zoo Park, in Brazil. All organic waste produced in the park is processed in this facility, at a rate of four tons/day. Total DNA was extracted and sequenced with Roche/454 technology, generating about 3 million reads per sample. To our knowledge this work is the first report of a composting whole-microbial community using high-throughput sequencing and analysis. The phylogenetic profiles of the two microbiomes analyzed are quite different, with a clear dominance of members of the Lactobacillus genus in one of them. We found a general agreement of the distribution of functional categories in the Zoo compost metagenomes compared with seven selected public metagenomes of biomass deconstruction environments, indicating the potential for different bacterial communities to provide alternative mechanisms for the same functional purposes. Our results indicate that biomass degradation in this composting process, including deconstruction of recalcitrant lignocellulose, is fully performed by bacterial enzymes, most likely by members of the Clostridiales and Actinomycetales orders.

  9. Composting in small laboratory pilots: Performance and reproducibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lashermes, G.; Barriuso, E. [INRA, UMR1091 Environment and Arable Crops (INRA, AgroParisTech), F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France); Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M. [VEOLIA Environment - Research and Innovation, F-78520 Limay (France); Houot, S., E-mail: sabine.houot@grignon.inra.fr [INRA, UMR1091 Environment and Arable Crops (INRA, AgroParisTech), F-78850 Thiverval-Grignon (France)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We design an innovative small-scale composting device including six 4-l reactors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate the performance and reproducibility of composting on a small scale. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic conditions are established by self-heating in all replicates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biochemical transformations, organic matter losses and stabilisation are realistic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic matter evolution exhibits good reproducibility for all six replicates. - Abstract: Small-scale reactors (<10 l) have been employed in composting research, but few attempts have assessed the performance of composting considering the transformations of organic matter. Moreover, composting at small scales is often performed by imposing a fixed temperature, thus creating artificial conditions, and the reproducibility of composting has rarely been reported. The objectives of this study are to design an innovative small-scale composting device safeguarding self-heating to drive the composting process and to assess the performance and reproducibility of composting in small-scale pilots. The experimental setup included six 4-l reactors used for composting a mixture of sewage sludge and green wastes. The performance of the process was assessed by monitoring the temperature, O{sub 2} consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final

  10. Waste utilization of red snapper (Lutjanus sp.) fish bone to improve phosphorus contents in compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadhani, S.; Iswanto, B.; Purwaningrum, P.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to get the idea that bone waste will be the P content enhancer in compost so that the compost produced meets the standard P levels specified in SNI 19-7030-2004 which regulating compost quality standard. Nutrient levels were obtained in fish bone meal (FBM) are C (3.35%), N (0.48%), P (30.90%) and K (0.02%). Effects of fish bone meal to the rising levels of P in the compost has been known. P levels of compost B, C, D, and E increased at 428.57; 542.85; 657.14 and 914.28% against the compost A (blank). FBM ideal addition indicated in compost B, as much as 15 gr, with a P content of 0.37% and has been passed according standards (0.10% for P). C/N ratio decreased over the 21 days period of composting, with the greatest decline was compost E with a ratio of 16:1. Highest nitrogen (N) levels recorded respectively in compost B and C with value of 1.09% and the lowest of recorded N content was compost A, D and E (1.08%). N content in all samples of compost were eligible minimum N of 0.40%. Carbon (C) is the highest recorded in compost B; 20.20% and the lowest in the compost E; 17.34%. Highest and lowest C levels on the compost has met the minimum C of 9.80%. Composting is done in a bucket as an aerobic composter (with air holes), compost pile turnover for each sample is controlled as much as once/2 days. Mesophilic period (23-450C) occurs during the 21-day period of composting. Compost B has P content of 0.37%, so it has fulfilled the provisions of SNI 19-7030-2004 about the recommended compost standard.

  11. Effect of compost amendment on soil organic matter and humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Pérez, L.; Gil, C.; Jurado, M.; Pons, V.; Boluda, R.

    2009-04-01

    Organic soil amendments are increasingly being examined for their potential use to improve soil functions and quality. We studied the effect of compost amendment on soil organic matter (SOM) and humic substances. The study was carried out on Luvic Calcisol in the Valencian Community (East Spain) used as a citrus fruit orchard. Four plots were amended at dose 0, 6, 12 and 36 Mg ha-1 of rice residue and sewage sludge compost. Seven soil samples for each treatment at depths of 0-10 and 10-20 cm were taken in the first seven months after application. Soil characteristics, SOM, mineral nitrogen, total nitrogen, NH4+-N, and fulvic and humic acids were determined. The results demonstrated that the use of organic compost considerably increases SOM, total nitrogen and the humic substances such as the applied dose. The level of humic substances remained without significant variations during the experimental period. The dose of 36 Mg ha-1 proved the most efficient. We would like to thank Spanish government-MICINN for partial funding and support (MIMAN project 4.3-141/2005/3-B and MICINN project CGL2006-09776).

  12. Nutrient transformations during composting of pig manure with bentonite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Zengqiang; Shen, Feng; Zhang, Guangjie; Qin, Rui; Li, Xiaolong; Xiao, Ran

    2012-10-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the influence of different amounts of bentonite on nutrients transformation during pig manure composting process. The results showed that bentonite had no significant effects on compost temperature and pH changes. While, EC, moisture, OM, TN and NO(3)(-)-N were notably influenced by BT addition. The adding of BT could facilitate OM degradation, increase TKN content and decrease the C/N ratio. Increasing the proportion of bentonite in pig manure compost to reduce extractable heavy metal content is feasible. However, potherb mustard seed GI decreased with the proportion of added bentonite increasing. The results suggest that a proportion of less than 2.5% bentonite is recommended for addition to pig manure compost, and examining the additive ratio in a comprehensive waste composting project is a worthwhile direction for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Emission of Gases during Composting of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Kučić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biochemical process converting organic components into stable compost with release of heat, water, CO2 and NH3. The objective of this work was to determine the amount of CO2 and NH3 in the exhaust gases during composting of tobacco waste (TW and mixture of tobacco and grape waste (TGW. The cumulative evolved CO2 during 21 days of composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 94.01 g kg−1 and 208.18 g kg−1, respectively, and cumulative evolved NH3 during composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 504.81 mg kg−1 and 122.45 mg kg−1, respectively.

  14. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Input materials and processing conditions control compost dissolved organic carbon quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straathof, A.L.; Comans, R.N.J.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been proposed as an indicator of compost maturity and stability. Further fractionation of compost DOC may be useful for determining how particular composting conditions will influence DOC quality. Eleven composts ranging in input materials and processing techniques

  16. Mass balances and life cycle inventory of home composting of organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    -cycle inventory (LCI) was established for the six home composting units. No water, electricity or fuel was used during composting, so the major environmental burdens were gaseous emissions to air and emissions via leachate. The loss of carbon (C) during composting was 63–77% in the six composting units...

  17. Monitoring of the evolution of an industrial compost and prediction of some compost properties by NIR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergnoux, A; Guiliano, M; Le Dréau, Y; Kister, J; Dupuy, N; Doumenq, P

    2009-03-15

    Sewage treatment plants produce wastes resulting from the organic matter concentration in the form of sludge. A way of jointly treating and exploiting these increasing wastes jointly is the composting. Composting makes it possible to reduce volumes and the masses of wastes all while developing them in a product usable like organic soil enrichment. In this work, the composting process of an industrial sewage sludge composting plant was monitored to study the evolution of different physico-chemical parameters (temperature, moisture, pH, organic carbon, organic and inorganic nitrogen, organic carbon/organic nitrogen ratio, humic substances) and biochemical parameters (soluble fraction, hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin). Because these analyses are expensive and time consuming, we wanted to develop an alternative method to determine the maturity of compost related to compost properties with raw samples. Acceptable predictions were found for moisture, temperature, pH, organic carbon, organic carbon/organic nitrogen ratio, total-, organic- and ammoniacal nitrogen, fulvic- and humic acids and fulvic acids/humic acids ratio, but the error values were too high for the compost age to consider a quantification model. With regard to the biochemical parameters, this study is rather a preliminary test which shows the interest of the approach, but requires to be continued. Finally, the age of compost can be evaluated with Principal Component Analysis applied to NIR spectra.

  18. Effects of rhamnolipid and initial compost particle size on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a potential alternative to green waste incineration or deposition in landfills. The effects of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) (at 0.0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) and initial compost particle size (IPS) (10, 15, and 25 mm) on a new, two-stage method for composting green waste was investigated. A combination of RL addition and IPS adjustment improved the quality of the finished compost in terms of its physical characteristics, pH, C/N ratio, nutrient content, cellulose and hemicellulose contents, water-soluble carbon (WSC) content, xylanase and CMCase activities, numbers of culturable microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi), and toxicity to germinating seeds. The production of a stable and mature compost required only 24 days with the optimized two-stage composting method described here rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. The best quality compost was obtained with 0.15% RL and an IPS of 15 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. REMOVAL OF ADDED NITRATE IN COTTON BURR COMPOST, MULCH COMPOST, AND PEAT: MECHANISMS AND POTENTIAL USE FOR GROUNDWATER NITRATE REMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted batch tests on the nature and kinetics of removal of added nitrate in cotton burr compost, mulch compost, and sphagnum peat that may be potentially used in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for groundwater nitrate remediation. A rigorous steam autoclaving protocol (...

  20. Effect of spent mushroom substrate as a bulking agent on gaseous emissions and compost quality during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Danyang; Li, Jijin; Li, Yangyang; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yun

    2018-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate the gaseous emissions (CH 4 , N 2 O, and NH 3 ) and compost quality during the pig manure composting by adding spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a bulking agent. The control treatment was also studied using corn stalk (CS) as a bulking agent. The experiment was conducted in a pilot scale composting reactor under aerobic condition with the initial C/N ratio of 20. Results showed that bulking agents significantly affected gaseous emissions and compost quality. Using SMS as a bulking agent improved composting efficiency by shortening the time for maturity. SMS increased germination index and humic acid of the final compost (by 13.44 and 41.94%, respectively) compared with CS. Furthermore, composting with SMS as a bulking agent could reduce nitrogen loss, NH 3 , and N 2 O emissions (by 13.57, 35.56, and 46.48%, respectively) compared with the control. SMS slightly increased CH 4 emission about 1.1 times of the CS. However, a 33.95% decrease in the global warming potential of CH 4 and N 2 O was obtained by adding SMS treatment. These results indicate that SMS is a favorable bulking agent for reducing gaseous emissions and increasing compost quality.

  1. Composting as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.W.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thompson, A.; Fleming, R.; MacAlpine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure, whereas nitrous oxide is emitted from the storage of manure and from soil following manure or fertilizer application. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use. We will present information of GHG emissions and potentials for reduction based on available data, and on specific composting experiments. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were monitored on an enclosed composting system processing liquid hog manure. Measurements indicated that total GHG emissions during composting were 24% of the Tier 2 IPCC estimates for traditional liquid hog manure management on that farm. Previous research has also indicated little nitrous oxide emission following application of composted manure to soil. The method of composting has a large impact on GHG emissions, where GHG emissions are higher from outdoor windrow composting systems than from controlled aerated systems. Further research is required to assess the whole manure management system, but composting appears to have great potential to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The bonus is that composting also addresses a number of other environmental concerns such as pathogens, surface and groundwater quality and ammonia emissions. (author)

  2. Inside the small-scale composting of kitchen and garden wastes: Thermal performance and stratification effect in vertical compost bins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Juan Pablo; Paladino, Gabriela; Garibaldi, Lucas Alejandro; Laos, Francisca

    2018-03-20

    Decentralized composting has been proposed as a best available practice, with a highly positive impact on municipal solid wastes management plans. However, in cold climates, decentralized small-scale composting performance to reach thermophilic temperatures (required for the product sanitization) could be poor, due to a lack of critical mass to retain heat. In addition, in these systems the composting process is usually disturbed when new portions of fresh organic waste are combined with previous batches. This causes modifications in the well-known composting evolution pattern. The objective of this work was to improve the understanding of these technical aspects through a real-scale decentralized composting experience carried out under cold climate conditions, in order to assess sanitization performance and to study the effects of fresh feedstock additions in the process evolution. Kitchen and garden organic wastes were composted in 500 L-static compost bins (without turning) for 244 days under cold climate conditions (Bariloche, NW Patagonia, Argentina), using pine wood shavings in a ratio of 1.5:1 v: v (waste: bulking agent). Temperature profile, stability indicators (microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen contents and ratio) and other variables (pH and electrical conductivity), were monitored throughout the experience. Our results indicate that small-scale composting (average generation rate of 7 kg d -1 ) is viable under cold weather conditions, since thermophilic sanitization temperatures (> 55 °C) were maintained for 3 consecutive days in most of the composting mass, according to available USEPA regulations commonly used as a reference for pathogens control in sewage sludge. On the other hand, stability indicators showed a differentiated organic matter degradation process along the compost bins height. Particularly, in the bottommost composting mix layer the process took a longer period to achieve compost stability than the upper layers, suggesting

  3. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pile composting of two-phase centrifuged olive husk residues: technical solutions and quality of cured compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, G; Belli, C; Lustrato, G; Ranalli, G

    2008-07-01

    The present work proposed an economically sustainable solution for composting olive humid husks (OHH) and leaves (OL) at a small/medium sized olive oil mill. We planned and set up a composting plant, the prototype taking the form of a simplified low-cost turning machine, and evaluated the use of an inoculum of one year-old composted humid husks (CHH) and sheep manure (SM) to facilitate the starting phase of the process. Trials were carried out using four piles under different experimental conditions (turnover, static, and type of inoculum). The best results were achieved with turnover and an inoculum that induced fast start-up and a correct evolution of the composting process. The final product was a hygienically clean, cured compost.

  5. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J H; Murphy, R J; Narayan, R; Davies, G B H

    2009-07-27

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all 'good' or petrochemical-based products are all 'bad'. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated 'home' composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted.

  6. Biodegradable and compostable alternatives to conventional plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, J. H.; Murphy, R. J.; Narayan, R.; Davies, G. B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Packaging waste forms a significant part of municipal solid waste and has caused increasing environmental concerns, resulting in a strengthening of various regulations aimed at reducing the amounts generated. Among other materials, a wide range of oil-based polymers is currently used in packaging applications. These are virtually all non-biodegradable, and some are difficult to recycle or reuse due to being complex composites having varying levels of contamination. Recently, significant progress has been made in the development of biodegradable plastics, largely from renewable natural resources, to produce biodegradable materials with similar functionality to that of oil-based polymers. The expansion in these bio-based materials has several potential benefits for greenhouse gas balances and other environmental impacts over whole life cycles and in the use of renewable, rather than finite resources. It is intended that use of biodegradable materials will contribute to sustainability and reduction in the environmental impact associated with disposal of oil-based polymers. The diversity of biodegradable materials and their varying properties makes it difficult to make simple, generic assessments such as biodegradable products are all ‘good’ or petrochemical-based products are all ‘bad’. This paper discusses the potential impacts of biodegradable packaging materials and their waste management, particularly via composting. It presents the key issues that inform judgements of the benefits these materials have in relation to conventional, petrochemical-based counterparts. Specific examples are given from new research on biodegradability in simulated ‘home’ composting systems. It is the view of the authors that biodegradable packaging materials are most suitable for single-use disposable applications where the post-consumer waste can be locally composted. PMID:19528060

  7. Managing and Transforming Waste Streams – A Tool for Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Managing and Transforming Waste Streams Tool features 100 policy and program options communities can pursue to increase rates of recycling, composting, waste reduction, and materials reuse across waste stream generators.

  8. Study of compost maturity produced in the composting plant in Granollers (Barcelona, Spain); Estudio de la madurez del compost producido en la planta de compostaje de Granollers (Barcelona)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez Fontanet, E.; Alba Munoz, G.; Aguilera Riba, F.; Sanchez Ferrer, A.

    2000-07-01

    The following article presents the determination of important parameters, which have been traditionally used in the evaluation of the compost maturity. Compost from a tunnel plant placed in Granollers (Barcelona) has been chosen during the maturation stage. The results showed that self-heating test and organic material content are the most significant maturity indexes, whereas Solvita differed from the rest of analysis. Other important parameters, such as ion exchange capacity, water content, conductivity and pH were also determined. (Author)

  9. Production of well-matured compost from night-soil sludge by an extremely short period of thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Ohtaki, Akihito; Takemoto, Minoru; Fujiwara, Shunrokuro

    2011-03-01

    The effect of various operational conditions on the decomposition of organic material during the composting of night-soil treatment sludge was quantitatively examined. The optimum composting conditions were found to be a temperature of ca. 60°C and an initial pH value of 8. Rapid decomposition of organic matter ceased by the sixth day of composting under these optimum conditions, and the final value of the cumulative emission of carbon (E(C)), which represents the degree of organic matter decomposition, was less than 40%, indicating that the sludge contained only a small amount of easily degradable organic material. A plant growth assay using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L. var. rapiferafroug) in a 1/5000a standard cultivation pot was then conducted for the compost at various degrees of organic matter decomposition: the raw composting material, the final compost obtained on day 6, and the 2 intermediate compost products (i.e., E(C)=10% and 20%). It was found that the larger the E(C), the greater the yield of Komatsuna growth. It was also found that 6 days of composting is sufficient to promote Komatsuna growth at the standard loading level, which is equivalent to a 1.5 g N/pot, since the promotion effect was as high as that obtained using chemical fertilizer. It can therefore be concluded that well-matured compost could be obtained in a short period of time (i.e., as early as 6 days), when night-soil sludge is composted under optimum conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compost maturity and nitrogen availability by co-composting of paddy husk and chicken manure amended with clinoptilolite zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Omar; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Susilawati, Kassim; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2015-04-01

    The availability of paddy husk from rice processing plants remains high owing to increase in the worldwide rice consumption. Increasing demand for chicken products leads to poultry wastes production. Co-composting of the aforementioned wastes could solve the indiscriminate disposal of these wastes. Thus, co-composting of paddy husk and chicken slurry with clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additive was carried out. Clinoptilolite zeolite was used to enhance ammonium and nitrate retention in the compost. Temperature of the compost was monitored three times daily for 55 days. Cation exchange capacity, organic matter, ash, humic acids, pH, total C, N, C/N ratio; total P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, NH4+, NO3-, and heavy metals contents were determined using standard procedures. pH, total N, humic acids, ash, NH4+, NO3-, P, Ca, Mg, and K contents increased but the salinity, heavy metals contents, and microbial population were low after the co-composting process. Zea mays L. (test crop) seed germination rate in distilled water and the compost were not significantly different. Growth of Spinach oleracea (test crop) on a peat-based growing medium and the compost was also not significantly different. These findings were possible because the clinoptilolite zeolite used in co-composting reduced accumulation of heavy metals that may have damage effects on the test crops. Mature compost with good agronomic properties can be produced by co-composting chicken slurry and paddy husk using clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additives. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Use of Urban composts for the regeneration of a burnt Mediterranean soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cellier, A.; Baldy, V.; Ballini, C.; Houot, S.; Francou, C.

    2009-01-01

    In Mediterranean region, forest fires are a major problem towards the desertification of the environment. Use of composts is considered as a solution for soil and vegetation rehabilitation. In this study, we determined the effects of three urban composts and their mode of application (laid at the soil surface or buried) on soil restoration after fire: municipal wastes compost (MWC), sewage sludge and green wastes compost (SSC) and, green wastes compost (GWC). (Author)

  12. Reproducibility of suppression of Pythium wilt of cucumber by compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauritz Vilhelm Vestberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global interest in using compost to suppress soil-borne fungal and bacterial diseases and nematodes. We studied the reproducibility of compost suppressive capacity (SC against Pythium wilt of cucumber using nine composts produced by the same composting plant in 2008 and 2009. A bioassay was set up in a greenhouse using cucumber inoculated with two strains of Pythium. The composts were used as 20% mixtures (v:v of a basic steam-sterilized light Sphagnum peat and sand (3:1, v:v. Shoot height was measured weekly during the 5-week experiment. At harvest, the SC was calculated as the % difference in shoot dry weight (DW between non-inoculated and inoculated cucumbers. The SC was not affected by year of production (2008 or 2009, indicating reproducibility of SC when the raw materials and the composting method are not changed. Differences in shoot height were not as pronounced as those for shoot DW. The results were encouraging, but further studies are still needed for producing compost with guaranteed suppressiveness properties.

  13. Compost and Wildflowers for the Management of Urban Derelict Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify whether the use of source-separated municipal waste compost could improve the physical quality of urban soils and create better conditions for their management when planted with herbaceous species. A sandy soil in traffic islands was tilled to a depth of 10 cm, and half of the surface was treated with compost (3 kg/m2. A mixture of 25 herbaceous annuals was then sown in the entire area. Organic carbon content and physical characteristics were determined at different times in the soil treated and not treated with compost. The vegetation was monitored in terms of its growth and flowering. The compost-treated soil showed an increase in organic carbon content. Total porosity increased with time in the compost-treated soil, due to a higher volume of transmission pores, which play a role in water movement. Soil aggregate stability also improved in the compost-treated soil. The duration of flowering of the individual species and the overall quantity of flowers were greater in the compost-treated soil.

  14. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  15. Revamping of entisol soil physical characteristics with compost treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumono; Loka, S. P.; Nasution, D. L. S.

    2018-02-01

    Physical characteristic of Entisol soil is an important factor for the growth of plant. The aim of this research was to know the effect of compost application on physical characteristics of Entisol soil. The research method used was experimental method with 6 (six) treatments and 3 replications of which K1 = 10 kg Entisol soil without compost, K2 = 9 Kg Entisol soil with 1 kg compost, K3 = 8 kg Entisol soil with 2 kg compost, K4 = 7 kg Entisol soilwith3 kg compost, K5 = 6 kg Entisol soil with 4 kg compost and K6 = 5 kg Entisol soil with 5 kg compost. The observed parameters were soil texture, soil organic matter, soil thickness, porosity, soil pore size, soil permeability and water availability. The results showed that the Entisol soil texture was loamy sand texture, the value of soil organic matter ranged from 0.74% to 4.69%, soil thickness ranged from 13.83 to 20.16 cm, porosity ranged from16% to 37%, soil pore size ranged from 2.859 to 5.493 µm, permeability ranged from 1.24 to 5.64 cm/hour and water availability ranged from 6.67% to 9.12% by each treatment.

  16. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Recycling Pig Slurry Solid Fraction Compost as a Sound Absorber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niccolò Pampuro

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the physical and acoustical properties of compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction (SF in order to assess the potential to recycle this agricultural waste as a sound absorber. The compacts were obtained by compression. The physical parameters investigated were bulk density, durability, and particle size distribution. The acoustical features of the compacts were studied with an impedance tube device in order to verify the acoustic absorption coefficient. Two composts were prepared: pig SF compost without a bulking agent (SSFC and pig SF compost with wood chips as a bulking agent (WCC. The study’s results indicated that compost particles dimension played a key role in the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts: the smaller the particles, the higher the physical and acoustical properties of the compacts. The densification process increased the bulk density of the investigated composts up to 690 kg m−3 for SSFC and 660 kg m−3 for WWC, with, respectively, medium (77.9% and low (66.5% durability. The addition of woody bulking agent significantly reduced the absorption coefficient: the best results, in terms of potential use as a sound absorber, were observed for compacts made from composted pig slurry solid fraction without the addition of wood chips.

  18. Biodegradation of genetically modified seeds and plant tissues during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tim; Alexander, Trevor W; Xu, Weiping; Stanford, Kim; McAllister, Tim A

    2010-03-15

    The increasing global market of genetically modified (GM) crops amplifies the potential for unintentional contamination of food and feed with GM plants. Methods proposed for disposal of crop residues should be assessed to prevent unintended distribution of GM materials. Composting of organic material is inexpensive and location-independent. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of composting for disposal of GM plants in terms of reducing seed viability and promoting the degradation of endogenous as well as transgenic DNA. Duplicate samples of corn kernels, alfalfa leaves, and GM canola seeds, meal and pellets were sealed in porous nylon bags and implanted in duplicate 85,000 kg (initial weight) feedlot manure compost piles. Samples were collected at intervals over 230 days of composing. Canola seeds and corn kernels were not viable after 14 days of composting with temperatures in the piles exceeding 50 degrees C. In all samples, PCR analyses revealed that plant endogenous and transgenic fragments were substantially degraded after 230 days of composting. Southern blotting of genomic DNA isolated from canola seeds identified differences in the persistence of endogenous, transgenic, and bacterial DNA. Composting GM and non-GM plant materials with manure rendered seeds non-viable, and resulted in substantial, although not complete, degradation of endogenous and transgenic plant DNA. This study demonstrates that composting could be effective for disposing of GM crops in the event of their inadvertent entry into the food or feed chain.

  19. Removal of beta-pinene and limonene using compost biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, S; Neerackal, G; Buyuksonmez, F

    2013-02-01

    Composting is widely used for the treatment of solid organic wastes; however emissions from composting are becoming a threat to humans due to the release of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs). VOCs from composting operations are characterized by high flow rates and, normally, low pollutant concentration. Typical VOCs include a large amount of terpenes (-65% of total VOCs). This study was to investigate the efficiency of biofiltration in controlling terpene emissions from composting operations using a laboratory-scale unit. The performance of a biofilter was investigated as a function of inlet flow rate, inlet concentration, and bed length/bed diameter (L/D) ratio of bed. At the lowest total inlet flow rate, removal efficiency of limonene and beta-pinene was more than 90%. With the decrease in inlet concentration and increase in L/D ratio, the removal efficiency was effectively increased. Removal efficiency of more than 85% for Limonene and 45% for beta-Pinene was attained at a loading rate of 55 g/m3-hr. The maximum elimination capacity was found for 109.7 g/m3-hr for limonene and 10.3 g/m3-hr for beta-pinene at a critical loading of 150.1 g/m3-hr Based on this study, the compost bed could function as a biofilter for controlling terpene odors during the composting process. The purpose of this research project is to investigate the efficiency of biofiltration in controlling limonene and beta-pinene emissions from composting operations using a laboratory scale. In addition, the performance of a biofilter as a function of inlet flow rate, inlet concentration, and L/D ratio of bed was evaluated. Establishing a nexus between the operational parameters and efficiency would be useful in design and operation of compost bed as a biofilter for controlling terpene odors during the composting process.

  20. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week -1 and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 o C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH 4 Mg -1 input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N 2 O Mg -1 ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH 4 and N 2 O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH 4 during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH 4 emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg -1 ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  2. Compost de ave de corral como componente de sustratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Alejandra Barbaro¹

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El sustrato para cultivo es un material que colocado en un contenedor permite el anclaje del sistema radicular, proporcionando agua y nutrientes. Entre los materiales empleados para formular sustratos se encuentran los compost. Entre ellos el compost de cama de ave de corral (CAC, elaborado en base al estiércol de aves mezclado con los materiales que forman su lecho. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar dos compost de CAC como componente de sustrato, mediante el desarrollo de plantas de Coral (Salvia splendens. Uno de los compost contenía cama de stud (CAC+S durante su compostaje. Se formularon sustratos con diferentes proporciones de compost de CAC, compost de corteza de pino y pinocha, luego fueron analizados física y químicamente. A las plantas cultivadas en cada sustrato se midió la longitud y el diámetro del tallo, peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radicular. La densidad, porosidad y capacidad de retención de agua de todos los sustratos fueron aceptables. El pH de ambos compost de CAC fue mayor a 6,3, y los valores de las mezclas se encontraron dentro del rango aceptable. Todos los sustratos superaron 1 dS m-1 (1+5 v/v, principalmente los formulados con compost de CAC+S, cuyo material puro contenía altos niveles salinos. Al disminuir el porcentaje de CAC en las mezclas, diminuyó la concentración de cada nutriente. Las plantas cultivadas en el sustrato comercial y en las mezclas con 20% de CAC fueron las que lograron los mayores pesos aéreos y radiculares, diámetro y longitud del tallo. Por lo tanto, el compost de ave de corral podría ser una alternativa viable como componente de sustrato si se lo utiliza hasta un 20%.

  3. Composting in Serbia: Possibilities and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vemić Mirčeta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of sustainable development of the planet Earth, which includes environmental, economic, social and institutional harmony of normal life of the people in it, is applicable to both the global and the regional and local level. This concept was promoted by the United Nations (UN at the end of the last century, and one of the solutions has been offered in this direction: Vision 2050: The new agenda for business, published by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD. In accordance with the above document, Serbia in 2008 adopted a National Strategy for Sustainable Development, in which it set out its vision and anticipated a number of measures for its realization. Within the projection of sustainable development, composting can take an important place as a process of natural decomposition of organic waste, by which, its quantity is reduced and harmful impact on the environment can be removed on the one hand, while on the other hand a cost-effective material used for soil conditioning or as fertilizer can be obtained. Surveys carried out in Serbia show that there are respectable agricultural and forest resources which generate substantial amounts of organic waste. In this paper, in the specific examples of regions of Belgrade, Novi Sad and Niš, the possible range of biodegradable waste suitable for composting is established, which is now in Serbia at the beginning of the application. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47007

  4. Simulating the dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in contaminated soil through composting by COP-Compost model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Guan, Yidong; Shi, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts, and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance to minimize the risk of soil contamination and improve soil fertility. In this work, integration of the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and OPs in an overall experimental framework is first proposed and adopted to validate the applicability of the COP-Compost model and to calibrate the model parameters on the basis of what has been achieved with the COP-Compost model. The COP-Compost model was evaluated via composting experiments containing 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the sorption coefficient (Kd) values of two types of OP: fluorenthene (FLT) and pyrene (PHE). In our study, these compounds are used to characterize the sequential extraction and are quantified as soluble, sorbed, and non-extractable fractions. The model was calibrated, and coupling the OC and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. The results show good agreement between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of different organic pollutants using the OP module, as well as the coupling module. However, no clear relationship is found between the Kd and the property of organic fractions. Further estimation of parameters is still necessary to modify the insufficiency of this present research.

  5. Effects of compost and manure additions on the greenhouse gas dynamics of managed grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonge, M. S.; Silver, W. L.

    2013-12-01

    Grasslands cover approximately 30% of the terrestrial land surface, and have significant potential to increase soil C storage and thus lower atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Organic matter amendments (e.g., compost, manure) have been shown to be effective at increasing grassland soil C both through direct addition and by increasing net primary productivity. However, organic matter additions can also increase N2O and CH4 fluxes. The effects of organic matter amendments on both soil C and greenhouse gas emissions are dependent on their physical and chemical qualities. To explore the impacts of organic matter amendments of different chemical and physical qualities on soil C and greenhouse gas emissions we established research plots on three managed annual grasslands in California. Three replicate blocks were established at each site and included an untreated control, a manure treatment, and a compost treatment. At one site, an additional compost with a lower nitrogen content was also tested. In October 2011, a 1 cm layer of the designated amendment was added to each plot. All plots were sampled for soil (C and N, bulk density, temperature, moisture) and plant (community, aboveground biomass) properties, prior to and for two years following treatment. Plots were also sampled intensively for N2O, CH4, and CO2 fluxes using static chambers on over 35 days throughout the two rainy seasons, where sampling days were selected to target pulses following rain events. Results show that the amendments differentially affected soil C and greenhouse gases among the treatments. One year after treatment, C concentrations in the top 10 cm of soils had increased at all three sites by a mean of 0.5-1% on plots that received either compost treatment, but not on those that received manure. Lower in the profile (10-30 cm), C concentrations were increased by a smaller amount (treatment rain event (the second rain event of the season). Fluxes on all treated plots exceeded those on control

  6. Recycling of Agriculture and Animal Farm Wastes into Compost Using Compost Activator in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    , M.W. Sadik; , H.M. El Shaer; , H. M. Yakot

    2016-01-01

    Saudi Arabia, as well as other countries in the Near East region, is characterized by erratic weather conditions, limited area of fertile arable lands, and with acute water shortage. Although agricultural residues (AGR) production in the region is huge (more than 440 million tons), most of these residues are either burned in the field or utilized in an inefficient way. Utilization of AGR as compost may contribute to expansion of arable lands through its use for reclamation of soil and reduce ...

  7. Bioremediation of diesel oil-contaminated soil by composting with biowaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestel, Kristin van; Mergaert, Joris; Swings, Jean; Coosemans, Jozef; Ryckeboer, Jaak

    2003-01-01

    Composting of biowaste and diesel contaminated-soil is an efficient bioremediation method, with mature compost as a usable end product. - Soil spiked with diesel oil was mixed with biowaste (vegetable, fruit and garden waste) at a 1:10 ratio (fresh weight) and composted in a monitored composting bin system for 12 weeks. Pure biowaste was composted in parallel. In order to discern the temperature effect from the additional biowaste effect on diesel degradation, one recipient with contaminated soil was hold at room temperature, while another was kept at the actual composting temperature. Measurements of composting parameters together with enumerations and identifications of microorganisms demonstrate that the addition of the contaminated soil had a minor impact on the composting process. The first-order rate constant of diesel degradation in the biowaste mixture was four times higher than in the soil at room temperature, and 1.2 times higher than in the soil at composting temperature

  8. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  9. COMPARISON OF COMPOST MATURITY, MICROBIAL SURVIVAL AND HEALTH HAZARDS IN TWO COMPOSTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N.K. Rockson

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Data collected on germination index, temperature, moisture content, pH, total viable count, total coliform count and total fungi count were determined during composting in HV and FA systems at VREL Farms for a period of thirteen weeks and analysed to ascertain the effects of temperature, moisture and pH on compost maturity and microbial survival. There were no significant differences in germination index, pH and moisture content values for both systems as ANOVA results at α = 5% yielded p-values of 0.17, 0.98 and 0.13 respectively. Moisture content and pH values ranged between 40%-70% and 7.20 - 8.30 respectively. Temperature values recorded however were significantly different (p-value = 1.2 x 10-5, α = 5% in both systems and affected the microbial distribution during the process. The temperature recorded in HV and FA systems ranged between 45.19 ºC – 65.44 ºC and 29.00 ºC – 50.83ºC respectively. Germination Index values were >150% in different systems at the end of week 12. Listeria spp., known to be zoonotic, and Staphylococcus spp. survived in compost processed in FA system; and Penicillium spp. in both systems.

  10. Effect of commercial mineral-based additives on composting and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanen, M; Hänninen, K

    2009-08-01

    The effectiveness of two commercial additives meant to improve the composting process was studied in a laboratory-scale experiment. Improver A (sulphates and oxides of iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc mixed with clay) and B (mixture of calcium hydroxide, peroxide, and oxide) were added to source-separated biowaste:peat mixture (1:1, v/v) in proportions recommended by the producers. The composting process (T, emissions of CO(2), NH(3), and CH(4)) and the quality of the compost (pH, conductivity, C/N ratio, water-soluble NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, water- and NaOH-soluble low-weight carboxylic acids, nutrients, heavy metals and phytotoxicity to Lepidium sarivum) were monitored during one year. Compared with the control, the addition of improver B increased pH by two units, led to an earlier elimination of water-soluble ammonia, an increase in nitrates, a 10-fold increase in concentrations of acetic acid, and shortened phytotoxicity period by half; as negative aspect it led to volatilization of ammonia. The addition of improver A led to a longer thermophilic stage by one week and lower concentrations of low-weight carboxylic acids (both water- and NaOH-extractable) with formic and acetic of similar amounts, however, most of the aspects claimed by the improver's producer were not confirmed in this trial.

  11. Effects of Compost, Vermicompost and Sulfur Compost on Scindapsus aureus Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Saffari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: This study was conducted to investigate effects of biofertilizers application and its interaction with organic manures on Scindapsus aureus performance. Materials & Methods: The experiment was performed in a randomized block design with factorial arrangement of two above mentioned factors at greenhouse of Municipality fertilizer production factory. Three different fertilizers (vermicompost, granular compost fortified with sulphur and trash compost were applied at four levels of 5, 10, 15, and 20 percent of soil. The comparisons among means were made using the least significant difference test calculated at p-values <0.05. Results: Around leaves area index (LAI, performance of vermicompost (8.31 was better than other fertilizers. This increase can be related to more absorb nutrients, better nutrition and thus improve plant performance in the presence of vermicompost. Conclusions: Thus use of fertilizers and especially vermicompost in the Scindapsus aureus growth with 10% of soil, will achieve increase in all indicators of plant growth. Thus, the processes of biological conversion such as composting in addition to economic value also have benefits for environmental protection.

  12. Legionnaires’ Disease and Compost

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-09-27

    Dr. Brian Raphael, a CDC research microbiologist, discusses Legionella bacteria in compost.  Created: 9/27/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2017.

  13. De eerste fase van het Input-Outputproject : compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnenberg, A.S.M.; Blok, C.

    2011-01-01

    In het kader van het 'Input-Output' project van WUR tracht men in een experimentele champignonteelt in Wageningen sluitende balansen te generen voor de belangrijkste parameters bij de benutting van compost. Dat levert interessante data op..

  14. Compostable cutlery and waste management: an LCA approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Francesco; Fieschi, Maurizio; Innocenti, Francesco Degli; Bastioli, Catia

    2009-04-01

    The use of disposable cutlery in fast food restaurants and canteens in the current management scenario generates mixed heterogeneous waste (containing food waste and non-compostable plastic cutlery). The waste is not recyclable and is disposed of in landfills or incinerated with or without energy recovery. Using biodegradable and compostable (B&C) plastic cutlery, an alternative management scenario is possible. The resulting mixed homogeneous waste (containing food waste and compostable plastic cutlery) can be recycled through organic recovery, i.e., composting. This LCA study, whose functional unit is "serving 1000 meals", shows that remarkable improvements can be obtained by shifting from the current scenario to the alternative scenario (based on B&C cutlery and final organic recovery of the total waste). The non-renewable energy consumption changes from 1490 to 128MJ (an overall 10-fold energy savings) and the CO(2) equivalents emission changes from 64 to 22 CO(2) eq. (an overall 3-fold GHG savings).

  15. Sequential extraction of heavy metals during composting of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, Soumia; Hafidi, Mohamed; Merlina, Georges; Revel, Jean-Claude

    2005-05-01

    The major limitation of soil application of sewage sludge compost is the total heavy metal contents and their bioavailability to the soil-plant system. This study was conducted to determine the heavy metal speciation and the influence of changing the physico-chemical properties of the medium in the course of composting on the concentrations, bioavailability or chemical forms of Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni in sewage sludge. Principal physical and chemical properties and FTIR spectroscopical characterization of sludge compost during treatment show the stability and maturity of end product. The total metal contents in the final compost were much lower than the limit values of composts to be used as good soil fertilizer. Furthermore, it was observed by using a sequential extraction procedure in sludge compost at different steps of treatment, that a large proportion of the heavy metals were associated to the residual fraction (70-80%) and more resistant fractions to extraction X-NaOH, X-EDTA, X-HNO3 (12-29%). Less than 2% of metals bound to bioavailable fractions X-(KNO3+H2O). Heavy metal distribution and bioavailability show some changes during composting depending on the metal itself and the physico-chemical properties of the medium. Bioavailable fractions of all elements tend to decrease except Ni-H2O. Zn and mainly Cu present more affinity to organic and carbonate fractions. In contrast, Pb is usually preferentially bound to sulfide forms X-HNO3. Nickel shows a significant decrease of organic form. Significant degrees of correlation were found between heavy metal fractions and changes of some selected variables (e.g. pH, ash, organic matter, humic substance) during the course of composting. Mobile fractions of metals are poorly predictable from the total content. The R2 value was significantly increased by the inclusion of other variables such as the amount of organic matter (OM) and pH.

  16. Composting Assessment for Organic Solid Waste at Fort Polk, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    compostable. ERDC received samples of the wood pallet material from Ft. Polk. There was no evidence of oily material, such as that found with creosote ...Treatment. Biowaste. 96 Conference. Aaborg, Denmark. Jorgensen, K. S., J. Puustinen, and A-M. Suortti. 2000. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon...USEPA Van Gestel, K., J. Mergaert, J. Swings, J. Coosemans, and J. Ryckeboer. 2003. Bioremediation of diesel oil-contaminated soil by composting

  17. THE USE OF POULTRY SLAUGHTERHOUSE WASTE TO PRODUCE COMPOST

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Kopeć; Krzysztof Gondek; Kalina Orłowska; Zdzisław Kulpa

    2014-01-01

    Poultry industry generates large amounts of waste, which in the biological treatment process creates a number of problems. One of them is a high amount of fat and creatine which is hard to decompose. Composting process was carried out with the waste from poultry farms and abattoirs mixed with maize straw, which was used to improve the structure and to increase the amount of carbon in the substrate. The chemical composition of composts from poultry waste involving maize straw meets the minimum...

  18. Effect of compost on erodibility of loamy sand under simulated rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.M.; Vermang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of composts [vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost (VFYW), garden waste compost (GW), and spent mushroom compost (SM)] were applied at a rate of 30 m3 ha−1 for 10 years to loamy sand, to determine its effect on the aggregate stability and susceptibility to water erosion. Aggregate...... significant improvement for any of the compost types. SM application resulted in a significant increase (51%) in the shear strength of the soil after rainfall. Long term compost application does not appreciably improve the resistance of loamy sand to water erosion....

  19. Le compost de broussailles en Tunisie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Dale, G.

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Scrub compost in Tunisia - Comite Jean Pain. Use of a longlife polyethylene film for crop protection under greenhouse results in an important, and very often too important improvement of the maximum air temperature, and in a very small improvement of the minimum air temperature during the night. A theoretical approach of energy losses under PE greenhouse in Tunesia allows the constatation of the importance of infrared radiation during the night. Use of new and improved polyethylene films and thermal screens reducing energy losses by infrared radiation, are discussed. Heating of the greenhouse by an air blower peak heating system seems to be expensive under our conditions. Alternative heating with back radiant mulch film tubes using solar captors and geothermic ressources are discussed. Reduction of maximum temperature under PE greenhouse is also discussed.

  20. Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauer, Kit, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Art in context of community is the theme of this newsletter. The theme is introduced in an editorial "Community-Enlarging the Definition" (Kit Grauer). Related articles include: (1) "The Children's Bridge is not Destroyed: Heart in the Middle of the World" (Emil Robert Tanay); (2) "Making Bridges: The Sock Doll…

  1. Possibilities of composting disposable diapers with municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, Joan; Ruggieri, Luz; Sánchez, Antoni; González, Aina; Puig, Ignasi

    2011-03-01

    The possibilities for the management of disposable diapers in municipal solid waste have been studied. An in-depth revision of literature about generation, composition and current treatment options for disposable diapers showed that the situation for these wastes is not clearly defined in developed recycling societies. As a promising technology, composting of diapers with source-separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) was studied at full scale to understand the process performance and the characteristics of the compost obtained when compared with that of composting OFMSW without diapers. The experiments demonstrated that the composting process presented similar trends in terms of evolution of routine parameters (temperature, oxygen content, moisture and organic matter content) and biological activity (measured as respiration index). In relation to the quality of both composts, it can be concluded that both materials were identical in terms of stability, maturity and phytotoxicity and showed no presence of pathogenic micro-organisms. However, compost coming from OFMSW with a 3% of disposable diapers presented a slightly higher level of zinc, which can prevent the use of large amounts of diapers mixed with OFMSW.

  2. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  3. Remediation of metal contaminated soil with mineral-amended composts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herwijnen, Rene van [University of Surrey, School of Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Hutchings, Tony R. [Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Al-Tabbaa, Abir [University of Cambridge, Department of Engineering, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Moffat, Andy J. [Forest Research, Land Regeneration and Urban Greening Group, Alice Holt Lodge, Farnham, Surrey GU10 4LH (United Kingdom); Johns, Mike L. [University of Cambridge, Department of Chemical Engineering, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Ouki, Sabeha K. [University of Surrey, School of Engineering, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.ouki@surrey.ac.uk

    2007-12-15

    This study examined the use of two composts derived from green waste and sewage sludge, amended with minerals (clinoptilolite or bentonite), for the remediation of metal-contaminated brownfield sites to transform them into greenspace. Soils contaminated with high or low levels of metals were mixed with the mineral-enhanced composts at different ratios and assessed by leaching tests, biomass production and metal accumulation of ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The results showed that the green waste compost reduced the leaching of Cd and Zn up to 48% whereas the composted sewage sludge doubled the leachate concentration of Zn. However, the same soil amended with composted sewage sludge showed an efficient reduction in plant concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb or Zn by up to 80%. The results suggest that metal immobilisation and bioavailability are governed by the formation of complexes between the metals and organic matter. The amendment with minerals had only limited effects. - Composts can increase or decrease the bioavailability of metals in soil.

  4. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couth, R; Trois, C

    2012-12-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AGARICUS BLAZEI MURRILL MUSHROOM COMPOST STUDY ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC PHASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sándor Rózsa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost for the production of Agaricus blazei Murrill mushrooms, is produced from wheat straw, straw-bedded horse manure, chicken manure and gypsum. The substrate is made in two processes called Phase I (anaerobic and Phase II (aerobic. Phase I includes mixing and moistening of the ingredients and a period of uncontrolled self-heating where temperatures will rise to 80ºC. Phase II starts with a pasteurization period of 8h at 56-60ºC and continues with a conditioning period at 45ºC for up to 7 days until volatile NH3 has been cleared from the process by air. Quality parameters for compost cannot be established directly. Moisture and nitrogen contents and pH can be adjusted at the start of Phase I, but the values will be affected during processing. In this paperwork, we studied the physical properties (water content, electrical conductivity and chemical composition (pH, organic matter, nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, ammonia of four recipes of compost: classical, synthetic, mixt and original. During the experience, we recorded every hour the compost and the air temperature and the air relative humidity. The highest yield was obtained on synthetic compost with 42 kg mushrooms on 100 kg of compost.

  6. Composting in small laboratory pilots: Performance and reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashermes, G.; Barriuso, E.; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M.; Houot, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We design an innovative small-scale composting device including six 4-l reactors. ► We investigate the performance and reproducibility of composting on a small scale. ► Thermophilic conditions are established by self-heating in all replicates. ► Biochemical transformations, organic matter losses and stabilisation are realistic. ► The organic matter evolution exhibits good reproducibility for all six replicates. - Abstract: Small-scale reactors ( 2 consumption and CO 2 emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures.

  7. Utilization of household organic compost in zinc adsorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundari, Lia; Isvaringga, Nyiayu Dita; Arinda, Yesica Maharani

    2017-11-01

    Zinc (Zn) is one of the heavy metals which is polluted to the environment in an amount greater than 15 mg/L [1]. Zinc contamination caused by the disposal of industrial waste such as batteries, electroplating, paint and other industries. One of the Zinc recovery technique that is relatively inexpensive, simple, high effectiveness and efficiency, and can be regenerated is adsorption using compost. This study has been carried out the preparation of compost from organic household waste and cow manure and its application to Zinc recovery. In this research, the raw material of compost is varied. There is an organic household waste (A1) and a mixture of organic household waste and cow manure with ratio 7:6 (A2). Decomposition of A1 and A2 with addition Effective Microorganism (EM4) requires 21 days, with 3 times inversion. Zinc adsorption is done by using a compost variation of 0.5 g, 1 g, and 2 g in every 100 and 200 mg/L Zn concentration solution. The batch process is applied to analyze the capacity of adsorption. Determination of capacity of adsorption based on the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm model. Direct observation and spectrophotometry are applied in research methodology. The results show that compost A1 and A2 have fulfilled Indonesian Standart of compost and have the ability to reduce Zinc concentration to 94-96%. It indicates highly recommended biosorbent that can be applied to Zinc adsorption.

  8. Bioaerosol generation at large-scale green waste composting plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A; Stentiford, Edward I; Urpilainen, Sari T

    2005-05-01

    Bioaerosol release from composting plants is a cause of concern because of the potential health impacts on site workers and local residents. A one-year monitoring was undertaken in a typical composting plant treating green wastes by windrowing in the open. Aspergillus fumigatus spores and mesophilic bacteria were used as monitoring parameters and were collected in a six-stage Andersen sampler impactor from the air at different locations and during different operational activities. Background concentrations of both microorganisms were generally below 1000 colony-forming units m(-3) when no vigorous activity was taking place. Shredding of fresh green wastes, pile turning, and screening of mature compost were identified as the activities generating the highest amounts of both bioaerosols 40 m downwind of the composting pad. These air concentrations were approximately 2 log units higher than background levels. Screening of mature compost generated lower amounts of A. fumigatus than the other two activities (an average of 1 log unit higher than background levels). Workers were identified as the main potential receptors of high bioaerosol concentrations in areas close to the composting pad, whereas no major risk for local residents was expected because the concentrations recorded at distances of 200 and 300 m downwind of the operational area were not significantly different from background levels.

  9. Feasibility of medical stone amendment for sewage sludge co-composting and production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Li, Ronghua; Zhao, Junchao; Ren, Xiuna; Wang, Meijing; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-01-18

    The feasibility of medical stone (MS) amendment as an innovative additive for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) co-composting was assessed using a 130-L vessel-scale composter. To verify successful composting, five treatments were designed with four different dosages (2, 4, 6, and 10) % of MS with a 1:1 mixture (dry weight) of DFSS + wheat straw (WS). The WS was used as a bulking agent. A control without any amendment treatment was carried out for the purpose of comparison. For DFSS co-composting, the amendment with MS improved the mineralization efficiency and compost quality in terms of CO 2 emissions, dehydrogenase enzyme (DE), electrical conductivity (EC), water-solubility, and total nutrients transformation. The DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn were also estimated to confirm the immobilization ability of the applied MS. Seed germination and plant growth tests were conducted to ensure the compost stability and phytotoxicity for Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis L.) growth and biomass, as well as chlorophyll content. The results showed that during the bio-oxidative phase, DOC, DON, AP, NH 4 + -N, and NO 3 - -N increased drastically in all the MS-blended treatments, except the application of 2% MS and the control treatment; significantly lower water-soluble nutrients were observed in the 2% MS and control treatments. A novel additive with 6-10% MS dosages considerably enhanced the organic matter conversion in the stable end-product (compost) and reduced the maturity period by two weeks compared to the 2% MS and control treatments. Consequently, the maturity parameters (e.g., EC, SGI, NH 4 + -N, DOC, and DON) confirmed that compost with 6-10% MS became more stable and mature within four weeks of DFSS co-composting. At the end of composting, significantly higher DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn contents were observed in the control treatment, and subsequently, in the very low application (10%) of MS. Higher MS dosage lowered the pH and EC to within the permissible

  10. Quality of compost from composting plant in Puerto Real (Cadiz, Spain); Calidad del compost procedente de la planta de compostaje de Puerto Real (Cadiz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godillo Romero, M. D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.; Garrido Perez, C.; Rodriguez Barros, R.; Sales Marquez, D. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The compost taken from the Compost Plant, treating urban solid residues from the Consorcio Bahia de Cadiz in the municipal district of Puerto Real, Cadiz, has been analysed for its particular qualities over the years 1990-1996. With this in mind we have determined the most important of parameters with a view to defining the quality of this organic fertilizer extracted from urban solid residues (USR): pH, conductivity, rejection through net meshing, humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, C/N relationship, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, tin, zinc and mercury. The compost gathered complies with the established legal requisites concerning fertilizers and their related substances. The quality in the first years of this study is better due possibly to the construction of the bio-recycling plant leaving the latter as a holding plant. (Author)

  11. Reduced turning frequency and delayed poultry manure addition reduces N loss from sugarcane compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryndum, S; Muschler, R; Nigussie, A; Magid, J; de Neergaard, A

    2017-07-01

    Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization. Sugarcane-waste was composted for 54days with addition of poultry manure at the beginning (i.e. early addition) or after 21days of composting (delayed addition). The compost pile was then turned either every three or nine days. Composts were subsequently applied to soil as (i) homogeneously mixed, or (ii) stratified, and incubated for 28days to test the effect of compost application on nitrogen mineralization. The results showed that delayed addition of poultry manure reduced total nitrogen loss by 33% and increased mineral nitrogen content by >200% compared with early addition. Similarly, less frequent turning reduced total N loss by 12% compared with frequent turning. Stratified placement of compost did not enhance N mineralization compared to a homogeneous mixing. Our results suggested that simple modifications of the composting process (i.e. delayed addition and/or turning frequency) could significantly reduce N losses and improve the plant-nutritional value of compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL

  13. Temperature control strategy to enhance the activity of yeast inoculated into compost raw material for accelerated composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Hirai, Hidehira

    2017-07-01

    The effects of inoculating the mesophilic yeast Pichia kudriavzevii RB1, which is able to degrade organic acids, on organic matter degradation in composting were elucidated. When model food waste with high carbohydrate content (C/N=22.3) was used, fluctuation in the inoculated yeast cell density was observed, as well as fluctuation in the composting temperature until day 5 when the temperature rose to 60°C, which is lethal for the yeast. After the decrease in yeast, acetic acid accumulated to levels as high as 20mg/g-ds in the composting material and vigorous organic matter degradation was inhibited. However, by maintaining the temperature at 40°C for 2days during the heating phase in the early stage of composting, both the organic acids originally contained in the raw material and acetic acid produced during the heating phase were degraded by the yeast. The concentration of acetic acid was kept at a relatively low level (10.1mg/g-ds at the highest), thereby promoting the degradation of organic matter by other microorganisms and accelerating the composting process. These results indicate that temperature control enhances the effects of microbial inoculation into composts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Composting of organically amended/treated hardwood and softwood sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takyi-Lartey, Rita

    2015-07-01

    Sawdust is a major waste produced by the wood industry. Adding value to sawdust through composting is one of the surest means by which environmental pollution could be minimized. About 500 kg of softwood and hardwood sawdust were separately mixed with mucuna leaves and kitchen waste in the ratio of 3:1:1 on weight basis and heaped using effluent from abattoir to develop composts. Objectives of the study were to monitor changes in the physico-chemical properties, NH4 + ‒ N, NO3 ‒ ‒ N, C:N ratio, minerals N, K, P, microbial load and toxic elements in the composts during a 12 week period. Germination test was also done to evaluate the stability and maturity of the composts developed. Degradation of softwood sawdust compost (SSC) was better in the mesophilic phase while that of hardwood sawdust compost (HSC) occurred in the thermophilic phase. Thus, significantly higher amount of the organic material in SSC was decomposed during the period as compared to HSC. Also, greater percentage of the nitrogen in the initial material of SSC was converted into plant-available inorganic nitrogen (NH4 + and NO3 ‒ ) than was achieved in HSC. Hence, most of the mineral nitrogen in HSC that was converted was lost, probably in the thermophilic phase. On the contrary, the amount of organic nitrogen contained in the finished composts of both SSC and HSC were adequately good for application to the soil. Additionally, concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms in SSC and HSC products were within acceptable limits in terms of toxicity on growing plants. The softwood sawdust compost was relatively more stable as compared to HSC under the experimental conditions. Concentrations of heavy metals in both SSC and HSC were also within acceptable limits that would cause no toxicity to plants. Also, moisture contents in both SSC and HSC were within the good range (40 - 60%) required for a good compost. Thus both SSC and HSC produced were of good quality. Further research targeting specific

  15. Determining Thermal Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Fresh Compost by Simulating Early Phases of the Composting Process ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kim, Jinkyung; Shepherd, Marion W.; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Xiuping

    2011-01-01

    A three-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated into fresh dairy compost (ca. 107 CFU/g) with 40 or 50% moisture and was placed in an environmental chamber (ca. 70% humidity) that was programmed to ramp from room temperature to selected composting temperatures in 2 and 5 days to simulate the early composting phase. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 population was analyzed by direct plating and enrichment. Optimal and suboptimal compost mixes, with carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios of 25:1 and 16:1, respectively, were compared in this study. In the optimal compost mix, E. coli O157:H7 survived for 72, 48, and 24 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 72, 24, and 24 h with 50% moisture at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively, following 2 days of come-up time (rate of heating up). However, in the suboptimal compost mix, the pathogen survived for 288, 72, and 48 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 240, 72, 24 h in compost with 50% moisture at the same temperatures, respectively. Pathogen survival was longer, with 5 days of come-up time compared with 2 days of come-up. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 was inactivated faster in the compost with 50% moisture than in the compost with 40% at 55 and 60°C. Both moisture and come-up time were significant factors affecting Weibull model parameters. Our results suggest that slow come-up time at the beginning of composting can extend pathogen survival during composting. Additionally, both the C/N ratio and the initial moisture level in the compost mix affect the rate of pathogen inactivation as well. PMID:21498743

  16. Determining thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh compost by simulating early phases of the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kim, Jinkyung; Shepherd, Marion W; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Xiuping

    2011-06-01

    A three-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated into fresh dairy compost (ca. 10(7) CFU/g) with 40 or 50% moisture and was placed in an environmental chamber (ca. 70% humidity) that was programmed to ramp from room temperature to selected composting temperatures in 2 and 5 days to simulate the early composting phase. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 population was analyzed by direct plating and enrichment. Optimal and suboptimal compost mixes, with carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios of 25:1 and 16:1, respectively, were compared in this study. In the optimal compost mix, E. coli O157:H7 survived for 72, 48, and 24 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 72, 24, and 24 h with 50% moisture at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively, following 2 days of come-up time (rate of heating up). However, in the suboptimal compost mix, the pathogen survived for 288, 72, and 48 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 240, 72, 24 h in compost with 50% moisture at the same temperatures, respectively. Pathogen survival was longer, with 5 days of come-up time compared with 2 days of come-up. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 was inactivated faster in the compost with 50% moisture than in the compost with 40% at 55 and 60°C. Both moisture and come-up time were significant factors affecting Weibull model parameters. Our results suggest that slow come-up time at the beginning of composting can extend pathogen survival during composting. Additionally, both the C/N ratio and the initial moisture level in the compost mix affect the rate of pathogen inactivation as well.

  17. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts of addition of natural zeolite or a nitrification inhibitor on antibiotic resistance genes during sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Sui, Qianwen; Tong, Juan; Jiang, Chao; Lu, Xueting; Zhang, Yuxiu; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-03-15

    Composting is commonly used for the treatment and resource utilization of sewage sludge, and natural zeolite and nitrification inhibitors can be used for nitrogen conservation during sludge composting, while their impacts on ARGs control are still unclear. Therefore, three lab-scale composting reactors, A (the control), B (natural zeolite addition) and C (nitrification inhibitor addition of 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate, DMPP), were established. The impacts of natural zeolite and DMPP on the levels of ARGs were investigated, as were the roles that heavy metals, mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the bacterial community play in ARGs evolution. The results showed that total ARGs copies were enriched 2.04 and 1.95 times in reactors A and C, respectively, but were reduced by 1.5% in reactor B due to the reduction of conjugation and co-selection of heavy metals caused by natural zeolite. Although some ARGs (blaCTX-M, blaTEM, ermB, ereA and tetW) were reduced by 0.3-2 logs, others (ermF, sulI, sulII, tetG, tetX, mefA and aac(6')-Ib-cr) increased by 0.3-1.3 logs after sludge composting. Although the contributors for the ARGs profiles in different stages were quite different, the results of a partial redundancy analysis, Mantel test and Procrustes analysis showed that the bacterial community was the main contributor to the changes in ARGs compared to MGEs and heavy metals. Network analysis determined the potential host bacteria for various ARGs and further confirmed our results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A new method for conservation of nitrogen in aerobic composting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Y K; Kim, J S

    2001-09-01

    Several factors, such as pH, C/N ratio, temperature, mixing and turning, and aeration rate, could affect the loss of ammonia in composting reactions. Substantial loss of ammonia can reduce the nutrient value of the compost product and may lead to a severe odor problem in the composting facility. A new method for conservation of ammonia in composting was proposed and tested in this study. The ammonia being produced during the composting was precipitated into struvite crystals by addition of Mg and P salts. Ammonia volatilization was greatly reduced by this method and it also contributed to a remarkable increase in total ammoniacal-N (TAN) content in the compost, reaching up to 1.4% of dry mass. This value of TAN content was 3-5 times higher than that in normal compost. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analyses confirmed the formation of struvite crystals in the aerobic composting process.

  20. Conditions for energy generation as an alternative approach to compost utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclavska, H; Juchelkova, D; Skrobankova, H; Wiltowski, T; Campen, A

    2011-01-01

    Very strict limits constrain the current possibilities for compost utilization in agriculture and for land reclamation, thus creating a need for other compost utilization practices. A favourable alternative can be compost utilization as a renewable heat source - alternative fuel. The changes of the basic physical-chemical parameters during the composting process are evaluated. During the composting process, energy losses of 920 kJ/kg occur, caused by carbohydrate decomposition (loss of 12.64% TOC). The net calorific value for mature compost was 11.169 kJ/kg dry matter. The grain size of compost below 0.045 mm has the highest ash content. The energetic utilization of compost depended on moisture, which can be influenced by paper addition or by prolonging the time of maturation to six months.

  1. Pathogen analysis of NYSDOT road-killed deer carcass compost facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Composting of deer carcasses was effective in reducing pathogen levels, decomposing the : carcasses and producing a useable end product after 12 months. The composting process used in this project : involved enveloping the carcasses of road-killed de...

  2. Adding Cellulosic Ash to Composting Mix as a Soil Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jathwa Abd Alkareem Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste generation and composition in Baghdad is typically affected by population growth, urbanization, improved economic conditions, changes in lifestyles and social and cultural habits. A burning chamber was installed to burn cellulosic waste only. It was found that combustion reduced the original volume and weight of cellulosic waste by 97.4% and 85% respectively. A batch composting study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of co-composting organic food waste with the cellulosic bottom ash in three different weight ratios (w/w [95/5, 75/25, 50/50]. The composters were kept in controlled aerobic conditions for 7 days. Temperature, moisture, and pH were measured hourly as process successful indicators. Maximum temperature ranged between (41 to 53 ºC. Results showed that the blend of M2 [OFMSW: BCA] [75:25] was the most beneficial to composting. It maintained the highest temperature for the longest duration for 9hrs. at (53 ºC, achieved the highest nitrogen content(1.65% , a C/N ratio of (14.18 %, nitrification index(N-NH4/N-NO3 of (0.29,nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium(NPK(1.65, 1.22, 1.73% respectively, seed germination 80% indicating that the achieved compost is mature and stable. Heavy metal contents (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were detected in the above compost and all were lower than the regulation limits of the metal quality standards for compost and stabilized bio-waste.

  3. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  4. Production of nitrate-rich compost from the solid fraction of dairy manure by a lab-scale composting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient composting process for the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) using lab-scale systems. We first evaluated the factors affecting the SFDM composting process using different thermophilic phase durations (TPD, 6 or 3days) and aeration rates (AR, 0.4 or 0.2 lmin(-1)kg(-1)-total solid (TS)). Results indicated that a similar volatile total solid (VTS) degradation efficiency (approximately 60%) was achieved with a TPD of 6 or 3days and an AR of 0.4 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called higher AR), and a TPD of 3days resulted in less N loss caused by ammonia stripping. N loss was least when AR was decreased to 0.2 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called lower AR) during the SFDM composting process. However, moisture content (MC) in the composting pile increased at the lower AR because of water production by VTS degradation and less water volatilization. Reduced oxygen availability caused by excess water led to lower VTS degradation efficiency and inhibition of nitrification. Adding sawdust to adjust the C/N ratio and decrease the MC improved nitrification during the composing processes; however, the addition of increasing amounts of sawdust decreased NO3(-) concentration in matured compost. When an improved composting reactor with a condensate removal and collection system was used for the SFDM composting process, the MC of the composting pile was significantly reduced, and nitrification was detected 10-14days earlier. This was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Highly matured compost could be generated within 40-50days. The VTS degradation efficiency reached 62.0% and the final N content, NO3(-) concentration, and germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process were 3.3%, 15.5×10(3)mg kg(-1)-TS, and 112.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. EM.1 Compost and its effects on the nodulation, growth and yield of berseem (trifolium alexandrinum) crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daur, I.; Abusuwar, A. O.

    2015-01-01

    To wisely utilize local organic resources and enhance their quality in order to effectively fertilize agricultural crops, a blend of organic resources, comprising cow manure, poultry manure, and kitchen waste (2:1:1 ratio by volume), was composted with (Compost EM.1) and without (Compost plain) effective microorganisms (EM.1). Various parameters including temperature, pH, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and the C/N ratio were recorded during composting to assess the effects of EM.1 on this process. After completion of the composting process, the effects of the resultant composts on the nodulation, growth, and yield of berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) crop were tested in a field trial. Temperature and pH were lower and the N content was higher in Compost EM.1 than in Compost plain throughout composting. C degradation was also faster in Compost EM.1 than in Compost plain. Consequently, the C/N ratio stabilized faster in Compost EM.1, leading to rapid completion of composting. In the field trial, composts showed no significant effect on nodulation or the shoot-to-root ratio. However, in comparison to Compost plain, Compost EM.1 significantly increased the leaf-to-stem ratio and the fresh and dry yields of berseem. We conclude that EM.1 enhances the composting process and the yield of berseem crop. (author)

  6. Microbial Profiling of a Suppressiveness-Induced Agricultural Soil Amended with Composted Almond Shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vida, Carmen; Bonilla, Nuria; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS) as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analyzed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of 40-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS) and unamended (CT) soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the "soil benefit" category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp., or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated). The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed.

  7. Microbial profiling of a suppressiveness-induced agricultural soil amended with composted almond shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen eVida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on the microbial profile present in an agricultural soil that becomes suppressive after the application of composted almond shells (AS as organic amendments. For this purpose, we analysed the functions and composition of the complex communities present in an experimental orchard of forty-year-old avocado trees, many of them historically amended with composted almond shells. The role of microbes in the suppression of Rosellinia necatrix, the causative agent of avocado white root rot, was determined after heat-treatment and complementation experiments with different types of soil. Bacterial and fungal profiles obtained from natural soil samples based on the 16S rRNA gene and ITS sequencing revealed slight differences among the amended (AS and unamended (CT soils. When the soil was under the influence of composted almond shells as organic amendments, an increase in Proteobacteria and Ascomycota groups was observed, as well as a reduction in Acidobacteria and Mortierellales. Complementary to these findings, functional analysis by GeoChip 4.6 confirmed these subtle differences, mainly present in the relative abundance of genes involved in the carbon cycle. Interestingly, a group of specific probes included in the soil benefit category was present only in AS-amended soils, corresponding to specific microorganisms previously described as potential biocontrol agents, such as Pseudomonas spp., Burkholderia spp. or Actinobacteria. Considering the results of both analyses, we determined that AS-amendments to the soil led to an increase in some orders of Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Dothideomycetes, as well as a reduction in the abundance of Xylariales fungi (where R. necatrix is allocated. The combination of microbial action and substrate properties of suppressiveness are discussed.

  8. EVALUATION OF THE BIOSOLIDS COMPOST MATURITY IN SOUTH ISFAHAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alidadi, A. R. Parvaresh, M. R. Shahmansouri, H. Pourmoghadas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The composting process is a useful method of producing a stabilized material that can be used as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner. Maturity of compost is essential for its optimal use as a soil amendment and a source of plant nutrients as well. Immature composts pose problems of malodors and flies and phytotoxicity and pollution during use. Stability and maturity both are required for compost quality control. Compost maturity tests can be classified into physical, chemical, plant, and microbial activity assays. In this study, several methods of evaluating the stability and maturity of composted biosolids were compared based on chemical and biological properties. The sludge used of windrow composting was obtained from the drying beds of South Isfahan wastewater treatment plant. The results showed that, C/N ratio after 100 days of composting reached to 15/1; NH4/NO3 ratio decreased with increase of the time dewatered sludge compost, which this loss is 57.3%. The content of volatile solids, 28.8% decreased with composting time. The number of fecal coliforms in the initial sewage sludge compost was 17.9´106 and at the end of composting was 898MPN/g of total solids and the compost process provided class A pathogen criteria. Use of chemical and biological parameters exhibited three phases: rapid decomposition (day 40, stabilization (day 80 and maturation (day 100 in biosolids compost. Thus, the biosolid compost was mature and ready for use as an agricultural substrate after about 100 days of composting.

  9. The effect of sugarcane litter compost to soilphysical mechanical properties and ratoon sugarcane performance

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    It is expected that the use of sugarcane litter compost as organic fertilizer in the field will contribute in improving soil structure and increased sugarcane production. The objectives of this study were to identify the quality of sugarcane litter compost and to analyze the influence of the compost to soil chemical, physical and mechanical properties, soil fertility, and ratoon crop growth. The results showed that, based on C/N ratio, the quality of compost produced was appropriate with SNI ...

  10. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Temporal-Lara, Beatriz; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; G?mez, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedre?o, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter–rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine) for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (ne...

  11. Concept for quality management to secure benefits of compost use for soil and plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, J.G.; Berner, A.; Mayer, J.; Schleiss, K.

    2014-01-01

    Use of quality compost can have an important positive impact on soil fertility and plant growth and health. For example, it increases soil humus and improves soil structure and suppressivity towards plant diseases. To obtain these positive results, it is important that the compost quality is appropriate for each use. If used inadequately, the impact of compost can also be negative. The compost producer should be responsible for the quality of his products, and has to communicate the propertie...

  12. Examinations of content of heavy metals in municipal solid waste and produced compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golimowski, J.; Tykarska, A.; Orzechowska, K.

    1993-01-01

    The basic methods of utilization of municipal solid waste are biothermic and aerobic methods to compost. The content of heavy metals in composts depends on the initial their content in wastes as well as on the compost process. The voltammetric method has been applied for measurement of concentration of Zn, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Hg in the waste and composts samples. (author). 24 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs

  13. Odour control in composting plants; Control de olores en plantas de compostaje

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa Coloma, O.; Hoyo, M. del; Blanco, A.M.; Garcia, J. C.

    2000-07-01

    When planning a composting facility, it is important to predict potential sources of odors along with their emission rates, detectability, and intensity. This article explains the compounds thought to be responsible for odors at composting facilities and the existing technologies for composting odour control. It is described the bio filters whose use in the composting industry is expanding as engineering design criteria for this technology have become increasingly available. (Author)

  14. Composting of meat products. First studies; Compostaje de productos carnicos. Primeros estudios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Hurtado, J. L.

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out about the composting of one product meat wastes: the bay product from tannery industry. the aim was the control pathogens by maintaining temperatures for some time periods during composting. Heat inactivation of pathogens is one of the major benefits of thermophilic composting. The results were very successful. It should be noted, however, that heat inactivation is not the only method of pathogen destruction in a compost system. (Author) 12 refs.

  15. Composting of sewage sludge with solid fraction of digested pulp from agricultural biogas plant

    OpenAIRE

    Czekała Wojciech; Dach Jacek; Przybył Jacek; Mazurwiekiwcz Jakub; Janczak Damian; Lewicki Andrzej; Smurzyńska Anna; Kozłowski Kamil

    2018-01-01

    Sewage sludge management is an important element of environmental protection. Composting and anaerobic digestion are the biological conversion methods for sewage sludge management. Mass and volume reduction is a result of a properly composted process. Solid fraction of digested pulp can be use as co-substrate, because it is good structural material. The aim of the study was to determine the possibility of composting sewage sludge with a solid fraction of digestate. The compost mix consisted o...

  16. EFFECT OF COMBINATIONS OF VERMICULITE AND EARTHWORM COMPOST IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF RANGPUR LIME ROOTSTOCK

    OpenAIRE

    Orioli, Fabrício Alberghini; Coopercitrus/Jales; Oliveira, Antônio Luís de; FAFRAM; Orioli Júnior, Valdeci; Unesp/Jaboticabal

    2008-01-01

    The present work was carried in protecting environment located in the Ranch Saint Luzia, situated in Monte Azul Paulista city. Rangpur lime rootstock was evaluated in different combinations of vermiculite and earthworm compost. The experiment was installed using a randomized block design, with five repetitions and seven treatments: 100% vermiculite; 100% earthworm compost; 50% vermiculite and 50% earthworm compost; 60% vermiculite and 40% earthworm compost; 70% vermiculite and 30% earthworm c...

  17. A survey of Italian compost dairy barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Leso

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Compost-bedded pack barns (CBPB, generally known as compost dairy barns, are alternative housing systems for dairy cows. In these barns, the whole surface of the resting area is covered with a deepbedded pack that is frequently stirred in order to incorporate fresh manure into the pack and to enhance the evaporation of water. Experiences with CBPB for dairy cows are reported in literature from the US, Israel, the Netherlands and Austria. Potential advantages of these housing systems regard animal welfare and manure management. Since 2006, this housing system has been widely applied in Italy. However, there is still little scientific knowledge available about Italian CBPB. This study aims to describe the housing system, assess producers’ satisfaction and measure performance of dairy cows housed in CBPB. Ten commercial dairy farms in northern Italy were involved in the study. All pens in each farm were surveyed to determine the total available surface area, bedded area and pack depth. A questionnaire was submitted to each farm manager in order to investigate management practices, labour requirement, amount of bedding materials used and producers’ satisfaction. The temperature of the bedded pack was measured in summer and in winter. Data from the Italian Dairy Association were collected for each herd over a period of one year (from September 2011 to September 2012. In the barns involved in the study, the average total available area was 10.9 m2/cow and the average pack area was 6.7 m2/cow. The bedded pack was aerated 1.4 times per day.The most commonly used bedding material in these farms was dry sawdust. The consumption of bedding materials was 8.1 m3/cow per year. A tendency towards inverse correlation was found between the space per cow and the amount of bedding needed per cow (R2=0.395; P=0.051. Operations related to pack management required 4.1 hours of labour per cow per year. A direct relationship was found between the bedded area space

  18. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from the full process of sewage sludge composting and land application of compost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Feng; Ying, Mei-Juan; Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Xiong, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pei-Cai; Ge, Zhen; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    There is a great uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and nitrogen conservation from the full process of sludge composting and land application of compost in China due to the lack of emission data of GHG such as N2O and CH4 and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study is to get emission characteristics of GHGs and NH3 from the full process with on-site observation. Results showed that the total GHG emission factor from full process of the turning windrow (TW) system (eCO2/dry sludge, 196.21 kg x t(-1)) was 1.61 times higher of that from the ATP system. Among the full process, N2O was mostly from the land application of compost, whereas CH4 mainly resulted from the sludge composting. In the sludge composting of ATP, the GHG emission equivalence of the ATP (eCO2/dry sludge, 12.47 kg x t(-1) was much lower than that of the TW (eCO2/dry sludge, 86.84 kg x t(-1)). The total NH3 emission factor of the TW (NH3/dry sludge, 6.86 kg x t(-1)) was slightly higher than that of the ATP (NH3/dry sludge, 6.63 kg x t(-1)). NH3 was the major contributor of nitrogen loss in the full process. During the composting, the nitrogen loss as NH3 from both TW and ATP was nearly the same as 30% of TN loss from raw materials, and the N and C loss caused by N2O and CH4 were negligible. These results clearly showed that the ATP was a kind of environmentally friendly composting technology.

  19. Effect of heat build-up on carbon emissions in chimato compost piles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine impacts of heat build-up of chimato compost piles TD0, TD20, TD40, TD50, TD60, TD80 and TD100, made by blending maize stalks with 0, 20, 40, 50, 60, 80 and 100% Tithonia diversifolia, respectively, on carbon losses and emissions during composting. Compost piles temperatures ...

  20. Comparison of several maturity indicators for estimating phytotoxicity in compost-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslam, Danielle N; Horwath, William; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2008-11-01

    Compost can provide a rich organic nutrient source and soil conditioner for agricultural and horticultural applications. Ideal compost amendment rates, however, vary based on starting material and compost maturity or their interaction, and there is little consensus on appropriate methods to gauge maturity. In this study, electrical conductivity, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio, and carbon mineralization measurements were made on compost-amended soils and compared to phytotoxicity measured as cress (Lepidium sativum) germination. Cress germination in soil and compost mixtures incubated for 8-10 days significantly decreased with increasing electrical conductivity and carbon mineralization rate of the mixture and with carbon mineralization rate and mineralizable carbon associated with the compost. Cress germination was not related to carbon-to-nitrogen ratio or pH of soil and compost mixtures. The electrical conductivity of the soil and compost mixtures significantly decreased with decreasing mineralizable carbon suggesting that compounds contributing to electrical conductivity were present in the compost and decomposed upon soil amendment. The results of this study indicate that measurements of mineralizable carbon and mineralization rate of composts in soil, and electrical conductivity and mineralization rate of soil and compost mixtures, can be used as indicators of compost maturity.

  1. Testing compost as an anti wind erosion agent in a wind tunnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, de J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The potential of compost as an anti wind erosion agent was studied in a wind tunnel on a sandy soil susceptible to wind erosion. Soil treated with a compost-water mixture, which forms a crust on the soil surface after drying, was exposed to a series of increasing wind speeds. Two composts were

  2. Environmental benefits of compost use on land through LCA – a review of the current gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazcano, Cristina; Martínez-Blanco, Julia; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2014-01-01

    The use of biowaste compost on land can have beneficial effects on the plant–soil system. While the environmental impacts associated with compost production have been successfully assessed in previous studies, the assessment of the benefits of compost on plant and soil has been only partially inc...

  3. Performance of Elaeis Guineensis Leaves Compost in Filter Media for Stormwater Treament Through Column Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaijudin, H.; Ghani, A. A.; Zakaria, N. A.; Tze, L. L.

    2016-07-01

    Compost based materials arv e widely used in filter media for improving soil capability and plant growth. The aim of this paper is to evaluate different types of compost materials used in engineered soil media through soil column investigation. Three (3) column, namely C1 (control), C2 and C3 had different types compost (10%) which were, commercial compost namely PEATGRO, Compost A and Compost B were prepared with 60% medium sand and 30% of topsoil. The diluted stormwater runoff was flushed to the columns and it was run for six (6) hour experiment. The influent and effluent samples were collected and tested for Water Quality Index (WQI) parameters. The results deduced that C3 with Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost (Compost B) achieved 90.45 (Class II) better than control condition which accomplished 84 (Class II) based on WQI Classification. C3 with Compost A (African Mahogany Leaves Compost) obtained only 59.39 (Class III). C3 with the composition of Compost B effectively removed most pollutants, including Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, Ammoniacal Nitrogen (NH3-N), were reduced by 89±4% and 96.6±0.9%, respectively. The result concluded that Elaeis Guineensis leaves compost is recommended to be used as part of engineered soil media due to its capabilities in eliminating stormwater pollutants.

  4. Assessment of compost quality and usage for agricultural use: a case study of Hebron, Palestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sari, Majed I; Sarhan, Mohammed A A; Al-Khatib, Issam A

    2018-03-15

    Complying with the technical specifications of compost production is of high importance not only for environmental protection but also for increasing the productivity and promotion of compost use by farmers in agriculture. This study focuses on the compost quality of the Palestinian market and farmers' attitudes toward agricultural use of compost. The quality is assessed through selection of 20 compost samples of different suppliers and producers and lab testing for quality parameters, while the farmers' attitudes to compost use for agriculture are evaluated through survey questionnaire of 321 farmers in the Hebron area. The results showed that the compost in the Palestinian markets is of medium quality due to partial or non-compliance with the quality standards and guidelines. The Palestinian farmers showed a positive attitude since 91.2% of them have the desire to use compost in agriculture. The results also showed that knowledge of difference between compost and chemical fertilizers, perception of compost benefits, and previously experiencing problems in compost use are significant factors affecting the farmers' attitude toward the use of compost as an organic fertilizer.

  5. Adjustment of the composting process for mushroom cultivation based on initial substrate composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straatsma, G.; Gerrits, J.P.G.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.; Amsing, J.G.M.; Loeffen, H.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The feasibility of adjusting individual composting processes to be able to produce the desired mass of compost of the required composition was evaluated. Data sets from experiments in tunnels were constructed and analyzed. Total mass and dry matter contents at the start and at the end of composting

  6. Can volatiles emitted by compost during spawn run be used to detect green mould infection early?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johan, B.; Rutjens, J.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years green mould (Trichoderma aggressivum) has presented big problems to the Dutch mushroom industry. T. aggressivum infects compost at a very early stage and in the Dutch situation infection most likely takes place at the compost yard. Even though compost producers in the Netherlands are

  7. Recent developments in biochar utilization as an additive in organic solid waste composting: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ran; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Li, Ronghua; Park, Jonghwan; Pensky, Scott M; Wang, Quan; Wang, Jim J; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, considerable studies have been devoted to investigating the effect of biochar application on organic solid waste composting. This review provides an up-to-date overview of biochar amendment on composting processes and compost quality. Biochar production, characteristics, and its application coupled with the basic concepts of composting are briefly introduced before detailing the effects of biochar addition on composting. According to recent studies, biochar has exhibited great potential for enhancing composting. It is evident that biochar addition in composting can: (1) improve compost mixture physicochemical properties, (2) enhance microbial activities and promote organic matter decomposition, (3) reduce ammonia (NH 3 ) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and (4) upgrade compost quality by increasing the total/available nutrient content, enhancing maturity, and decreasing phytotoxicity. Despite that, further research is needed to explore the mechanism of biochar addition on composting and to evaluate the agricultural and environmental performances of co-composted biochar compost. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A compost bin for handling privy wastes: its fabrication and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E. Leonard; S.C. Fay

    1978-01-01

    A 24-ft3 (6.8-m3) fiberglass bin was constructed and tested for its effectiveness in composting privy wastes. A mixture of ground hardwood bark and raw sewage was used for composting. Temperatures in excess of 60°C for 36 hours were produced in the bin by aerobic, thermophilic composting. This temperature is...

  9. A process-based model for cattle manure compost windrows: Model description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting is an alternative management practice for handling and storing manure in intensive cattle production systems. With composting, cattle manure is converted into a soil amendment with improved nutrient and physical properties and is easier to handle. Despite its benefits, composting can prod...

  10. Laboratory Investigation of Rill Erosion on Compost Blankets under Concentrated Flow Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A flume study was conducted using a soil, yard waste compost, and an erosion control compost to investigate the response to concentrated flow and determine if the shear stress model could be used to describe the response. Yard waste compost (YWC) and the bare Cecil soil (CS) cont...

  11. Relative efficacy of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of cocoa pod husk-based compost on growth and nutrient uptake of cocoa seedlings was compared with conventional NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer at the nursery in a randomized complete block design experiment. Poly bags were filled with either top soil or compost alone, and also with mixtures of top soil, compost ...

  12. Composts with and without wood ash admixture for the management of tropical acid soils: chemical, physical and microbiological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougnom, B. P.; Insam, H.; Etoa, F. X.

    2009-04-01

    Acid soils generally found in the tropics have a low pH, are poor in organic matter, deficient in Ca2+, Mg+, P, or Mo ; limited in mineralization, nitrification, nodulation, and mycorrhizal infection , suffer from Al or Mn toxicity. Within the framework aiming at using organic wastes and wood ash to overcome soil infertility in tropical acidic soils, a green house experiment was conducted with two acid soils collected from Cameroon (Ferralsol and Acrisol) and amended with three types of compost 3:1(W/W) containing 0 (K0), 8(K8) and 16% (K16) wood ash admixture respectively for two consecutive cycles of 100 days, during which soybean (Glycine max) was grown on the first, the second cycle was left as fallow. Generally the same trends of variation of the physico-chemical parameters were observed in both soils. Addition of organic wastes increased the pH electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, water holding capacity, total Carbone and total nitrogen as compared to the controls. The rate of nitrification highly increased posing the problem of possible leaching of nitrates in the ground water. The cations and micronutrients content followed the same trends. These changes leaded to an increase of the P availability and a decrease of Al toxicity. At the end of the second cycle, generally most of the different parameters slightly decreased except for the electrical conductivity. All composts passed a toxicity test, and the amended soils had significant better fresh and dried plant biomass, the Total nitrogen also significantly increased. Amended soils with K0 generally performed better than those amended with K8 and K16, thinking that their pH (closer to the neutrality) was responsible of these performances, all the parameters were significantly correlated to the pH. K8 and K16 performances could be performed by reducing the added quantities. The study of PCR-DGGE have shown a shift in the fungal and bacterial communities, Ammonia oxidizing bacteria community were

  13. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumaresan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, pH and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  14. Soil microbial attributes treated with composting of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Roberto Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of sludge composting in agricultural areas alters the microbial functions. In this context it is necessary to evaluate the impact of composting addition on microbial activities in the soil. This study evaluated the alteration of microbial attributes of a soil fertilized with sewage sludge compost by measuring the CO2 release rates and counting bacteria and fungi numbers. This experiment was conducted in laboratory using respirometric jars that contained samples of soil mixed with different doses of compost: 0; 20; 40; 60 and 80 Mg ha-1, and CO2 release was quantified daily during the 28 days of incubation when the samples were removed from the jars and bacteria and fungi quantities were counted. The treatments corresponding to each dose of the composting were arranged in completely randomized design with four replications. The CO2 release and the quantity of bacteria and fungi increased with additional doses of the compound. This occurred as a result of supplying energetic substrate and nutrients from the compound. The CO2 released measurements indicated that compound above 20 Mg ha-1 has significant impact on soil microbial activity.

  15. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalander, C., E-mail: cecilia.lalander@slu.se [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K. [Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden); Vinnerås, B. [Department of Energy and Technology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-09-15

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  16. Investigation of biomethylation of arsenic and tellurium during composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz-Bone, Roland A., E-mail: roland.diaz@uni-due.de [Microbiology I and Instrumental Analytical Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, 45141 Essen (Germany); Raabe, Maren [Municipal Water and Waste Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Awissus, Simone; Keuter, Bianca; Menzel, Bernd [Institute for Environmental Analytical Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, 45141 Essen (Germany); Kueppers, Klaus [Institute of Applied Botany, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetstrasse 3-5, 45141 Essen (Germany); Widmann, Renatus [Municipal Water and Waste Engineering, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 15, 45141 Essen (Germany); Hirner, Alfred V. [Institute for Environmental Analytical Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitaetsstrasse 3-5, 45141 Essen (Germany)

    2011-05-30

    Though the process of composting features a high microbiological activity, its potential to methylate metals and metalloids has been little investigated so far in spite of the high impact of this process on metal(loid) toxicity and mobility. Here, we studied the biotransformation of arsenic, tellurium, antimony, tin and germanium during composting. Time resolved investigation revealed a highly dynamic process during self-heated composting with markedly differing time patterns for arsenic and tellurium species. Extraordinary high concentrations of up to 150 mg kg{sup -1} methylated arsenic species as well as conversion rates up to 50% for arsenic and 5% for tellurium were observed. In contrast, little to no conversion was observed for antimony, tin and germanium. In addition to experiments with metal(loid) salts, composting of arsenic hyperaccumulating ferns Pteris vittata and P. cretica grown on As-amended soils was studied. Arsenic accumulated in the fronds was efficiently methylated resulting in up to 8 mg kg{sup -1} methylated arsenic species. Overall, these studies indicate that metal(loid)s can undergo intensive biomethylation during composting. Due to the high mobility of methylated species this process needs to be considered in organic waste treatment of metal(loid) contaminated waste materials.

  17. Comparative management of offshore posidonia residues: composting vs. energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocozza, Claudio; Parente, Angelo; Zaccone, Claudio; Mininni, Carlo; Santamaria, Pietro; Miano, Teodoro

    2011-01-01

    Residues of the marine plant posidonia (Posidonia oceanica, PO) beached in tourist zones represent a great environmental, economical, social and hygienic problem in the Mediterranean Basin, in general, and in the Apulia Region in particular, because of the great disturb to the bathers and population, and the high costs that the administrations have to bear for their removal and disposal. In the present paper, Authors determined the heating values of leaves and fibres of PO, the main offshore residues found on beaches, and, meantime, composted those residues with mowing and olive pruning wood. The final composts were characterized for pH, electrical conductivity, elemental composition, dynamic respiration index, phytotoxicity, fluorescence and infrared spectroscopic fingerprints. The aim of the paper was to investigate the composting and energy recovery of PO leaves and fibres in order to suggest alternative solutions to the landfill when offshore residues have to be removed from recreational beaches. The fibrous portion of PO residues showed heating values close to those of other biofuels, thus suggesting a possible utilization as source of energy. At the same time, compost obtained from both PO wastes showed high quality features on condition that the electrical conductivity and Na content are lowered by a correct management of wetting during the composting. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nitrous oxide flux from landfill leachate-sawdust nitrogenous compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui, C.H.; So, M.K.; Lee, C.M.; Chan, G.Y.S.

    2003-01-01

    Composted nitrogenous waste has the potential to produce excessive amounts of nitrous oxide (N 2 O), a potent greenhouse gas that also contributes to stratospheric ozone depletion. In this laboratory study, sawdust was irrigated with varying amounts of landfill leachate with high NH 4 + -N content (3950 mg l -1 ). Physicochemical properties, including the amount of N 2 O produced, were monitored during the composting process over 28 days. A rapid decline in NH 4 + -N in the first 4 days and increasing NO 3 - -N for 11 days was followed by lower but stabilized levels of available-N, even with repeated leachate irrigation. Less than 0.03% of the leachate-applied N was lost as N 2 O. Higher leachate applications as much as tripled N 2 O production, but this represented a lesser proportion overall of the total nitrogen. Addition of glucose to the composting process had no significant effect on N 2 O production. The derived sawdust-leachate compost supported healthy growth of Sesbania rostrata. It is concluded that compost can be produced from sawdust irrigated with landfill leachate without substantial emission of N 2 O, although excessive flux of N 2 O remains about high application rates over longer time periods. (Author)

  19. Fate of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalander, C.; Senecal, J.; Gros Calvo, M.; Ahrens, L.; Josefsson, S.; Wiberg, K.; Vinnerås, B.

    2016-01-01

    A novel and efficient organic waste management strategy currently gaining great attention is fly larvae composting. High resource recovery efficiency can be achieved in this closed-looped system, but pharmaceuticals and pesticides in waste could potentially accumulate in every loop of the treatment system and spread to the environment. This study evaluated the fate of three pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, roxithromycin, trimethoprim) and two pesticides (azoxystrobin, propiconazole) in a fly larvae composting system and in a control treatment with no larvae. It was found that the half-life of all five substances was shorter in the fly larvae compost (< 10% of control) and no bioaccumulation was detected in the larvae. Fly larvae composting could thus impede the spread of pharmaceuticals and pesticides into the environment. - Highlights: • Degradation of pharmaceuticals and pesticides in fly larvae composting (FLC). • Half-life considerably shorter in FLC than in control with no larvae. • Half-life of carbamazepine was less than two days in FLC. • No bioaccumulation in larvae detected. • FLC could impede the spreading of pharmaceuticals and pesticide in the environment.

  20. Investigation of biomethylation of arsenic and tellurium during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Bone, Roland A.; Raabe, Maren; Awissus, Simone; Keuter, Bianca; Menzel, Bernd; Kueppers, Klaus; Widmann, Renatus; Hirner, Alfred V.

    2011-01-01

    Though the process of composting features a high microbiological activity, its potential to methylate metals and metalloids has been little investigated so far in spite of the high impact of this process on metal(loid) toxicity and mobility. Here, we studied the biotransformation of arsenic, tellurium, antimony, tin and germanium during composting. Time resolved investigation revealed a highly dynamic process during self-heated composting with markedly differing time patterns for arsenic and tellurium species. Extraordinary high concentrations of up to 150 mg kg -1 methylated arsenic species as well as conversion rates up to 50% for arsenic and 5% for tellurium were observed. In contrast, little to no conversion was observed for antimony, tin and germanium. In addition to experiments with metal(loid) salts, composting of arsenic hyperaccumulating ferns Pteris vittata and P. cretica grown on As-amended soils was studied. Arsenic accumulated in the fronds was efficiently methylated resulting in up to 8 mg kg -1 methylated arsenic species. Overall, these studies indicate that metal(loid)s can undergo intensive biomethylation during composting. Due to the high mobility of methylated species this process needs to be considered in organic waste treatment of metal(loid) contaminated waste materials.

  1. An integrated approach of composting methodologies for solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaresan, K.; Balan, R.; Sridhar, A.; Aravind, J.; Kanmani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Organic fraction of solid waste, which upon degradation produces foul smell and generates pathogens, if not properly managed. Composting is not a method of waste disposal but it is a method of waste recycling and used for agricultural purposes. An integrated approach of composting methodology was tested for municipal solid waste management. Solid waste first was composted and after 22 days, was further processed by vermicomposting. Samples were routinely taken for analysis of carbon, nitrogen, moisture content, p H and temperature to determine the quality of composting. Decrease in moisture content to 32.1 %, relative decrease in carbon and nitrogen content were also observed. Among the different types of treatment, municipal solid waste + activated sludge integration showed promising results, followed by vermicomposting municipal solid waste + activated sludge combination, compared to the combinations of dried activated sludge, municipal solid waste + activated sludge semisolid and municipal solid waste + sewage water. Thus, windrow composting followed by vermicomposting gave a better result than other methods. Thus this method would serve as a potential alternative for solid waste management.

  2. Accelerated In-vessel Composting for Household Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Prashant P.; Joshi, Yadnyeshwar S.

    2017-12-01

    Composting at household level will serve as a viable solution in managing and treating the waste efficiently. The aim of study was to design and study household composting reactors which would treat the waste at source itself. Keeping this aim in mind, two complete mix type aerobic reactors were fabricated. A comparative study between manually operated and mechanically operated reactor was conducted which is the value addition aspect of present study as it gives an effective option of treatment saving the time and manpower. Reactors were loaded with raw vegetable waste and cooked food waste i.e. kitchen waste for a period of 30 days after which mulch was allowed to mature for 10 days. Mulch was analyzed for its C/N ratio, nitrate, phosphorous, potassium and other parameters to determine compost quality, every week during its period of operation. The results showed that compost obtained from both the reactors satisfied almost all compost quality criteria as per CPHEEO manual on municipal solid waste management and thus can be used as soil amendment to increase the fertility of soil.In terms of knowledge contribution, this study puts forth an effective way of decentralized treatment.

  3. Polemics on Ethical Aspects in the Compost Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroušek, Josef; Hašková, Simona; Zeman, Robert; Žák, Jaroslav; Vaníčková, Radka; Maroušková, Anna; Váchal, Jan; Myšková, Kateřina

    2016-04-01

    This paper focuses on compost use in overpasses and underpasses for wild animals over roads and other similar linear structures. In this context, good quality of compost may result in faster and more resistant vegetation cover during the year. Inter alia, this can be interpreted also as reduction of damage and saving lives. There are millions of tones of plant residue produced every day worldwide. These represent prospective business for manufacturers of compost additives called "accelerators". The opinions of the sale representatives' with regards to other alternatives of biowaste utilization and their own products were reviewed. The robust analyzes of several "accelerated" composts revealed that the quality was generally low. Only two accelerated composts were somewhat similar in quality to the blank sample that was produced according to the traditional procedure. Overlaps between the interests of decision makers on future soil fertility were weighed against the preferences on short-term profit. Possible causes that allowed the boom of these underperforming products and the possible consequences are also discussed. Conclusions regarding the ethical concerns on how to run businesses with products whose profitability depends on weaknesses in the legal system and customer unawareness are to follow.

  4. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

    Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and

  5. Effect of an Extract from Saprozoic Nematode-Infested Compost on the Mycelial Growth of Agaricus brunnescens

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, T. D.; Bloom, J. R.; Lukezic, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Extracts from compost infested with Caenorhabditis elegans suppressed mycelial growth of Agaricus brunnescens. An extract from uninfested compost also inhibited mycelial growth but to a lesser degree. The critical role of compost bacteria and/or other compost micro-organisms is implicated by these results.

  6. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal-Lara, Beatriz; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Gómez, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose

    2016-11-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter-rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine) for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near) real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS) models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation-RPD = 2.68), humification ratio (RPD = 2.23), total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07) and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66) with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring.

  7. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Temporal-Lara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter–rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation—RPD = 2.68, humification ratio (RPD = 2.23, total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07 and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66 with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring.

  8. ORGANIC MATTER AND CARBON MANAGEMENT INDEX OF SOIL TREATED WITH COMPOSTED AND NON-COMPOSTED LAYERED RESIDUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIANA AUGUSTA MOURA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic residues and compost is a common practice to improve soil quality and content of organic matter. In this study, the labile and stable fractions of soil organic matter were evaluated after application of layers of fresh (non-composted or composted organic residues in a 6-year-old citrus orchard. The experiment was set up as a randomized block design, with 6 treatments: control without NPK, control with NPK, non-composted organic residue (NCOR, with and without NPK, and composted organic residue (humus, with and without NPK, with three replicates. The treatments were applied under the plant canopy. Soil samples were collected from the 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.15 m layers. There were increases of 10.3, 22.4, 16.3, and 37.1 % in the organic carbon contents of the surface soil for the treatments using NCOR without NPK, NCOR with NPK, humus with NPK, and humus without NPK, respectively. The organic carbon contents of the labile fraction varied from 1.0 to 12.8 g kg-1, representing between 8 and 62 % of the total carbon. The carbon concentrations in the stable fraction varied from 3.1 to 9.7 g kg-1, representing between 38 and 92 % of the total carbon, and this was the dominant fraction for most of the treatments.

  9. Water state changes during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Dong-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Qiang; Huang, Huan-Lin; Hu, Li-Fang; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-04-01

    Changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste were determined. Three experiments, R(55), R(60), and R(65), with different initial moisture contents, 55%, 60%, and 65%, respectively, were performed. Three water states, entrapped water (EW), capillary water (CW), and multiple-molecular-layer water (MMLW), were monitored during the experiments. Changes only occurred with the EW and CW during the composting process. The percentage of EW increased, and the percentage of CW decreased as the composting process progressed. The R(60) experiment performed better than the other experiments according to changes in the temperature and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (C/N). The percentage of EW correlated well (P<0.05) with the dissolved organic carbon content (DOC), electrical conductivity (EC), pH, and C/N, and was affected by the hemicellulose and cellulose contents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. CHROMIUM BIOACCUMULATION FROM COMPOSTS AND VERMICOMPOSTS BASED ON TANNERY SLUDGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof GONDEK

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Storage of waste substances is not indifferent to ecological equilibrium in the environment therefore should not be the ultimate way to limit waste arduousness. Therefore, the conducted investigations aimed to determine the effect of tannery composts and vermicomposts loaded with chromium on this element bioaccumulation in earthworm bodies and biomass of selected plants. Chromium in composts and vermicomposts based on tannery sludges occurred in small quantities and easily soluble compounds. Chromium concentrations in redworm biomass points to this metal accumulation in Eisenia fetida body tissues. This element content in redworm biomass was signifi cantly positively correlated with its content in composts. Chromium content in plants was diversifi ed and on treatments was generally smaller than on mineral treatment or farmyard manure. Chromium absorbed by plants was stored mainly in the root systems, and over the norm content of this element found in vermicomposts did not cause its excessive accumulation in plant biomass.

  11. Bacterial inoculum enhances keratin degradation and biofilm formation in poultry compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, J M; Krizova, L; LeFevre, C A; Keener, H M; Elwell, D L; Burtt, E H

    2001-11-01

    Native microbial populations can degrade poultry waste, but the process can be hastened by using feather-degrading bacteria. Strains of Bacillus licheniformis and a Streptomyces sp. isolated from the plumage of wild birds were grown in a liquid basal medium and used to inoculate feathers in compost bioreaction vessels. Control vessels had only basal medium added to the feathers, litter and straw. Temperature, ammonia, carbon and nitrogen were monitored for 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy of the feather samples showed more complete keratin-degradation, more structural damage, and earlier microbial biofilm formation on inoculated feathers than on uninoculated feathers. A diverse community of aerobic bacteria and fungi were cultured early, but declined rapidly. Thermophilic B. licheniformis and Streptomyces spp. were abundant throughout. Enteric gram-negative bacteria, (e.g., Salmonella, E. coli) originally found on waste feathers were not recovered after day 4. Vessel temperatures reached 64-71 degrees C within 36 h and stabilized at 50 degrees C. When tumble-mixed at day 14, renewed activity peaked at 59 degrees C and quickly dropped as available carbon was used. Feathers soaked in an inoculum of B. licheniformis and Streptomyces degraded more quickly and more completely than feathers that were not presoaked. Inoculation of feather waste could improve composting of the large volume of feather waste generated every year by poultry farms and processing plants.

  12. FERTILISER VALUE AND TRACE ELEMENT CONTENT OF COMPOSTS PRODUCED FROM DIFFERENT WASTES

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Meller; Edward Niedźwiecki; Patrycja Rogalska; Grzegorz Jarnuszewski; Dawid Wilczyński

    2015-01-01

    Composting process provides a valuable material improving physical and chemical properties of soil. The quality of the obtained compost depends to a great extent on the kind of material subjected to stabilisation. Composting biodegradable products may result in the end product exceeding heavy metal limits that cannot be used in agriculture. The studies included composts produced in the compost plant in Kołobrzeg, the Municipal Waste Recovery and Storage Plant in Leśno Górne and the Waste Mana...

  13. The influence of age on the composting rate of organic material by Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the main objectives of a vermicomposting plant is to achieve a maximum composting rate of organic waste. Apart from population densities, substrate characteristics and environmental factors, age structure of the population is expected to affect the rate of composting. The composting rate of worms was studied in the laboratory under optimal conditions over a period of 55 days. Growth and sexual maturity were monitored as well as the composting rate during various stages of the life-cycle of Eisenia fetida. The composting rate was initially slow and reached a maximum peak when the worms were pre-clitellate.

  14. Extractability, plant yield and toxicity thresholds for boron in compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinton, W.F.; Evans, E.; Blewett, C. [Woods End Labs Inc., Mt. Vernon, ME (United States)

    2008-04-01

    Boron (B) is a trace element essential to crop growth in small soil concentrations (0.2-1.5ppm), yet may produce plant toxicity symptoms readily as the amount in the soil solution increases over 2ppm. Our study examined commercial compost made with coal fly-ash used to prepare growing media for cultivars of varying sensitivity (corn, beans, cucumber, peas). We examined total vs. extractable boron content and relate final visual symptoms of B-toxicity to yields and tissue concentrations. Visual toxicity effects included tip burn (corn), leaf mottling and necrosis (beans and peas) and leaf mottling and cupping (cucumbers). Fly ash added to compost increased hot-water soluble (HWS) B in proportion to rate and in dependence on pH, with 30% and 10% of total-B expressed as HWS-B at a media pH of 6 and 7.5, respectively. Biomass for bean and cucumber was significantly reduced by 45 to 55%, respectively, by addition of 33% fly-ash compost to growing media (28ppm total-B) while plant tissue-B increased by 6- to 4-fold, respectively. Economic yield depressions in compost media are evident for all crops and appeared at levels of HWS-B in compost media exceeding 5 ppm. The study underscores the need for careful management of exogenous factors that may be present in composts and suggests detailed understanding of media-pH and cultivar preferences may be required in preparation of growing media in order to reduce potential negative growth effects.

  15. Cost effective waste management through composting in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couth, R.; Trois, C.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The financial/social/institutional sustainability of waste management in Africa is analysed. ► This note is a compendium of a study on the potential for GHG control via improved zero waste in Africa. ► This study provides the framework for Local Authorities for realizing sustained GHG reductions. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per person from urban waste management activities are greater in sub-Saharan African countries than in other developing countries, and are increasing as the population becomes more urbanised. Waste from urban areas across Africa is essentially dumped on the ground and there is little control over the resulting gas emissions. The clean development mechanism (CDM), from the 1997 Kyoto Protocol has been the vehicle to initiate projects to control GHG emissions in Africa. However, very few of these projects have been implemented and properly registered. A much more efficient and cost effective way to control GHG emissions from waste is to stabilise the waste via composting and to use the composted material as a soil improver/organic fertiliser or as a component of growing media. Compost can be produced by open windrow or in-vessel composting plants. This paper shows that passively aerated open windrows constitute an appropriate low-cost option for African countries. However, to provide an usable compost material it is recommended that waste is processed through a materials recovery facility (MRF) before being composted. The paper demonstrates that material and biological treatment (MBT) are viable in Africa where they are funded, e.g. CDM. However, they are unlikely to be instigated unless there is a replacement to the Kyoto Protocol, which ceases for Registration in December 2012.

  16. Solid State Culture Conditions for Composting Sewage Sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Kabbashi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is applied to treat sewage sludge from treatment plants to enhance its quality and suitability for agricultural use. In this work the optimal conditions for composting sewage sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plants in a horizontal drum bioreactor (HDB were investigated. This study investigated the physico-chemical conditions affecting the use of filamentous fungi in composting. The average number of faecal coliforms was 2.3  107 bacteria/g waste dry weight at the beginning of the composting process, and decreased considerably to 8.2  103, 8.1  103, 8.5  103, 8.0  103,and 8.4  103 bacteria/g, respectively for experiments T1 to T5. This decrease was presumably the result of raising temperature. The phase of hygienisation was marked by a very significant decrease in the number of E. coli cells (1.8  107, to 3.7  103, 3.8  103, 3.3  103, 3.2  103, and 3.6  103 bacteria/g for T1 to T5 experiments, respectively: A second aspect was the investigation of a possible reduction of hazardous pollutants.  The highest concentration was for Fe and the lowest for Pb, showing that Fe is the most loosely bound to the sewage sludge organic matrix and Pb the most strongly bound, the Cd reduction by composting was more than 50%.Keywords: Sewage sludge, compost, horizontal drum bioreactor, hazardous.

  17. Composting-Like Conditions Are More Efficient for Enrichment and Diversity of Organisms Containing Cellulase-Encoding Genes than Submerged Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senta Heiss-Blanquet

    Full Text Available Cost-effective biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass depends on efficient degradation of the plant cell wall. One of the major obstacles for the development of a cost-efficient process is the lack of resistance of currently used fungal enzymes to harsh conditions such as high temperature. Adapted, thermophilic microbial communities provide a huge reservoir of potentially interesting lignocellulose-degrading enzymes for improvement of the cellulose hydrolysis step. In order to identify such enzymes, a leaf and wood chip compost was enriched on a mixture of thermo-chemically pretreated wheat straw, poplar and Miscanthus under thermophile conditions, but in two different set-ups. Unexpectedly, metagenome sequencing revealed that incubation of the lignocellulosic substrate with compost as inoculum in a suspension culture resulted in an impoverishment of putative cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes. However, mimicking composting conditions without liquid phase yielded a high number and diversity of glycoside hydrolase genes and an enrichment of genes encoding cellulose binding domains. These identified genes were most closely related to species from Actinobacteria, which seem to constitute important players of lignocellulose degradation under the applied conditions. The study highlights that subtle changes in an enrichment set-up can have an important impact on composition and functions of the microcosm. Composting-like conditions were found to be the most successful method for enrichment in species with high biomass degrading capacity.

  18. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of sewage sludge and compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dams, R.; Buysse, A.M.; Helsen, M.

    1982-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been applied for the analysis of sewage sludges of four municipal water treatment plants and one industrial water treatment plant. Compost was collected from a municipal compostation plant in Belgium. This pilot study showed that concentrations for 41 elements could be obtained. Tests for homogeneity and accuracy indicated the necessity of a thorough grinding and homogenization of the samples before analysis. The concentrations obtained were compared with the mean soil composition and the possible enrichment of heavy metals in the soil calculated when the materials are used as a manure to agricultural land. The Zn concentration is mostly the limiting factor for the agricultural application. (author)

  19. Features of the compost received by use of dairy whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Smolnikova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article features cjmposting of organic materials are considered at use of a traditional way and fermenting additives. Indicators of quality of the composts received with the use of dairy whey and a bacterial preparation as the fermenting additive are investigated. Comparison of the received samples of composts on such indicators of quality as is spent: humidity, acidity, the maintenance of organic substance in recalculation on dry weight, quantity of the general and fmmonium nitrogen.

  20. Low-cost automatic station for compost temperature monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. L. Jordão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Temperature monitoring is an important procedure to control the composting process. Due to cost limitation, temperature monitoring is manual and with daily sampling resolution. The objective of this study was to develop an automatic station with US$ 150 dollars, able to monitor air temperature at two different points in a compost pile, with a 5-min time resolution. In the calibration test, the sensors showed an estimated uncertainty from ± 1 to ± 1.9 ºC. In the field validation test, the station guaranteed secure autonomy for seven days and endured high humidity and extreme temperature (> 70 °C.

  1. Compost and Wildflowers for the Management of Urban Derelict Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Pini, Roberto; Bretzel, Francesca; Sparvoli, Enzo; Pezzarossa, Beatrice; Scatena, Manuele

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether the use of source-separated municipal waste compost could improve the physical quality of urban soils and create better conditions for their management when planted with herbaceous species. A sandy soil in traffic islands was tilled to a depth of 10 cm, and half of the surface was treated with compost (3 kg/m2). A mixture of 25 herbaceous annuals was then sown in the entire area. Organic carbon content and physical characteristics were determined at...

  2. Agricultural use of household compost in Brazzaville market gardening belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matondo, H.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available After the finalization of the household filth processing through aerobic fermentation or compostage, which allowed us to get an organic tool, so important in the plant production, the following communication studies the fertilising values of compost from household filth and raw wastes. Conducted in the fields, the study has revelead being successful with positive effects of the burying of compost upon the output of gardenmarket cultivation (in the Brazzaville poor soil. More over, the direct burying of household filth go along with depressive effects mainly on short-cycle vegetative cultivation.

  3. Quantification of sodium pentobarbital residues from equine mortality compost piles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J; Farris, R; Parker, G; Bonhotal, J; Schwarz, M

    2015-04-01

    Sodium pentobarbital, a euthanasia drug, can persist in animal carcasses following euthanasia and can cause secondary toxicosis to animals that consume the remains. This experiment was conducted to observe the effects of composting on euthanized horse carcass degradation and sodium pentobarbital residues in compost material up to 367 d. Six separate compost bins were constructed on pastureland. Three bins served as the control while 3 served as the treatment. The carbonaceous material, or bulking agent, consisted of hardwood chips mixed with yard waste wetted to approximately 50% moisture content. Bulking agent was added to each bin at a depth of 0.46 m, creating the pad. A licensed veterinarian provided 6 horse carcasses for use in the experiment. These horses had required euthanasia for health reasons. All horses were weighed and then sedated with an intravenous injection of 8 mL of xylazine. After sedation the 3 horses in the treatment group were euthanized by intravenous injection of 60 mL of sodium pentobarbital. The 3 control group horses were anesthetized by intravenous injection of 15 mL of ketamine hydrochloride and then humanely euthanized by precise gunshot to the temporal lobe. Following euthanasia, each carcass was placed on the center of the pad and surrounded with 0.6 m of additional bulking agent. Serum and liver samples were obtained immediately following death. Compost samples were obtained on d 7, 14, 28, 56, 84, 129, 233, and 367 while soil samples were obtained on d -1 and 367. Each sample was analyzed for sodium pentobarbital concentration. Compost pile and ambient temperatures were also recorded. Composting successfully degraded soft tissue with only large bones remaining. Data illustrate that sodium pentobarbital was detectable up to 367 d in compost piles with no clear trend of concentration reduction. Drug residues were detected in soil samples indicating that sodium pentobarbital leached from the carcass and through the pad. These

  4. Onderzoek naar de herkomst van zware metalen en organische stoffen in GFT-compost. Deel I.1 Kwaliteit van GFT-compost

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker PM; LAE

    1995-01-01

    GFT-compost, afkomstig van gescheiden ingezameld huishoudelijk afval, voldoet in de regel niet aan de kwaliteitseisen van zeer schone compost (AmvB BOOM). In het component-onderzoek wordt nagegaan of de belastende stoffen afkomstig zijn van bepaalde componenten in GFT, zodat deze componenten eventueel buiten de gescheiden inzameling van GFT kunnen worden gehouden. Voor elk onderzocht composteerbedrijf is het gemiddelde metaalgehalte in GFT-compost gerelateerd aan de normen voor schone en zeer...

  5. Plant tests for determining the suitability of grape marc composts as components of plant growth media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradelo, Remigio; Moldes, Ana Belén; González, Desiree; Barral, María Teresa

    2012-10-01

    Five grape marc composts prepared by different procedures (composting and vermicompost at several scales) were tested as potential components of plant growth media. The five composts had high organic matter content (>90%), low electric conductivity (<1 dS m(-1)) and a pH between 7 and 8. Different chemical and biochemical analyses performed indicated the higher stability of those composts submitted to a longer composting process or to a vermicomposting process (lower water soluble organic matter, respiration and dehydrogenase activity). In order to determine the suitability of the composts as substrate components, plant growth tests were performed by blending the composts with peat or commercial substrate at two compost rates (25% and 50%). The mixtures were sown with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and grown under controlled conditions in an incubation chamber. No prejudicial effects derived from the use of composted grape marc were observed, whatever the procedure of composting used. The results showed that four out of the five composts would be suitable for use in plant growth substrates elaboration, as they did not reduce productivity with respect to the control substrates.

  6. Effect of Sewage Sludge Addition on the Completion of Aerobic Composting of Thermally Hydrolyzed Kitchen Biogas Residue

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-tao Liu; Lu Cai

    2014-01-01

    The composting of thermal-hydrolyzed kitchen biogas residue, either with or without sewage sludge, was compared in this study. The addition of sewage sludge increased and prolonged the temperature to a sufficient level that met the requirements for aerobic composting. Moreover, after mixing the compost materials, oxygen, ammonia, and carbon dioxide levels reverted to those typical of aerobic composting. Finally, increased dewatering, organic matter degradation, and similar mature compost prod...

  7. Evaluation of three composting systems for the management of spent coffee grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K; Price, G W

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the optimum composting approach for the management of spent coffee grounds from the restaurant and ready-to-serve coffee industry. Three composting systems were assessed, including in-vessel composting, vermicomposting bins, and aerated static pile bin composting, over study periods ranging from 47 to 98 days. Total carbon content was reduced by 5-7% in the spent coffee ground treatments across the three composting systems. Nitrogen and other mineral nutrient contents were conserved or enhanced from the initial to the final composts in all the composting systems assessed. Earthworm growth and survival (15-80%) was reduced in all the treatments but mortality rates were lower in coffee treatments with cardboard additions. A decline in earthworm mortality with cardboard additions was the result of reduced exposure to organic compounds and chemicals released through the decomposition of spent coffee grounds. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Biodegradation of Methane and Halocarbons in Simulated Landfill Biocover Systems Containing Compost Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Pedersen, Gitte Bukh; Costa, G.

    2009-01-01

    The attenuation potential of methane (CH4) and of selected volatile organic Compounds (VOCs) was compared in four types of compost materials using dynamic flow column experiments over a period of 255 d. Garden waste compost mixed with wood chips showed the highest steady-state CH4 oxidation rate...... (161 g m(-2) d(-1)), followed by a commercial compost product Supermuld (110 g m(-2) d(-1)). In the column containing the highest fraction of compost (compost/sand mixed in 1: 1), CH4 oxidation declined significantly during the period of operation, probably due to clogging by formation of exopolymeric...... of the columns. Overall, the highest removal of VOCs was observed in the column containing the compost/ wood chip mixture. This study demonstrates that biocovers consisting of compost materials have the potential to attenuate trace gas emissions from landfills....

  9. Amending a loamy sand with three compost types: impact on soil quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.M.; Vermang, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the long-term addition of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost – VFYW, garden waste compost – GW and spent mushroom compost – SM) on the physical properties of a sandy soil and to quantify any such effects using...... indicators of soil physical quality. Soil samples were taken from a field with annual compost applications of 30 m3/ha for 10 yr and various physico-chemical analyses were undertaken. Results show a significant increase in soil organic carbon (21%) with the VFYW and GW compost types. With SM, soil organic...... carbon increased by 16%. Increased soil macroporosity and water content at saturation with a corresponding decrease in bulk density were observed for all compost types. However, quantification of these improvements using existing soil physical quality indicators such as the ‘S-index’, soil air capacity...

  10. Reduced turning frequency and delayed poultry manure addition reduces N loss from sugarcane compost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie; Muschler, R.; Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie

    2017-01-01

    Composting is an effective method to recycle biodegradable waste as soil amendment in smallholder farming systems. Although all essential plant nutrients are found in compost, a substantial amount of nitrogen is lost during composting. This study therefore investigated the potential of reducing N...... losses by (i) delaying the addition of nitrogen-rich substrates (i.e. poultry manure), and (ii) reducing the turning frequency during composting. Furthermore, we tested the effect of compost application method on nitrogen mineralization. Sugarcane-waste was composted for 54days with addition of poultry...... of compost application on nitrogen mineralization. The results showed that delayed addition of poultry manure reduced total nitrogen loss by 33% and increased mineral nitrogen content by >200% compared with early addition. Similarly, less frequent turning reduced total N loss by 12% compared with frequent...

  11. Can we build better compost? Use of waste drywall to enhance plant growth on reclamation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeth, M Anne; Wilkinson, Sarah R

    2013-11-15

    Compost is a readily available source of organic matter and nutrients and is produced large scale in many jurisdictions. Novel advancements in composting include addition of construction waste, such as drywall, to address its disposal while potentially improving compost quality for use in land reclamation. Varying compositions (15-30% by weight) of coarse and ground waste drywall were added to manure and biosolids during composting. Six composts were applied at four rates (0, 50, 100, 200 Mg ha(-1)) to three reclamation soils (agricultural, urban clean fill, oil sands tailings). Response to composts was assessed in the greenhouse with three plant species (Hordeum vulgare L. (barley), Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte (slender wheat grass) and Festuca saximontana Rydb. (rocky mountain fescue). Drywall added to biosolids or manure during composting had no detrimental effects on vegetation; any negative effects of compost occurred with and without drywall. In agricultural soil and clean fill, biosolids composts with 15% coarse and 18% ground drywall improved native grass response, particularly biomass, relative to biosolids compost without drywall. Drywall manure composts reduced native grass response relative to manure compost without drywall. Only low quality tailings sand was improved by 30% coarse drywall. Compost rate significantly affected above and below ground biomass in agricultural soil and reduced performance of native species at highest rates, suggesting a threshold beyond which conditions will not be suitable for reclamation. Grinding drywall did not significantly improve plant performance and use of coarse drywall would eliminate the need for specialized equipment and resources. This initial research demonstrates that drywall composts are appropriate soil amendments for establishment of native and non native plant species on reclamation sites with consideration of substrate properties and plant species tolerances to dictate which additional feed

  12. Composting and comerzialization of compost from organic wastes in Vitoria- Gasteiz (Spain); Estrategia de compostaje y comercializacion de compost de la fraccion organica de RSU para Vitoria-Gastez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Franco, R.; Cebrian Otsoa, M.

    1997-12-31

    In the experience of the selective recovery in Vitoria-Gasteiz, were obtained a seria of conclusions about the best way to made the composting of the MSM`s organic part, alone or mixed with water treatment sludges, in addition to the possible actions in order to commercialize the obtained compost. (Author)

  13. MONITORING AND THERMAL ANALYSIS OF CO-COMPOSTING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    30 juin 2013 ... ABSTRACT. The objective of this work was to study thermogenesis during the process of Co-composting to assess the possibilities of thermal destruction of the germination capacity of weeds seeds. A regular monitoring of temperature has been achieved, using a probe thermometer, at nine locations of ...

  14. Study of opportunities of use of composts cunicoles for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of opportunities of use of composts cunicoles for the aboveground production of tomato plants in Tunisia. ... The vegetative behavior of these plants with respect to the variation of the composition and the average size of the particles of the substrates shows a sensitivity of the seedlings to these parameters to the ...

  15. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-10-04

    Oct 4, 2007 ... mycelium (Type Horst U1) per kg then filled into plastic bags as 7 kg wet weight basis. During spawn run the temperature of the inlet air is automatically regulated by a cooling surface in the recir- culation canal such that the compost temperature is maintained at. 24-25°C with a minimum supply of fresh air.

  16. Composting oily sludges: Characterizing microflora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, A.; Quednau, M.; Ahrne, S.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory-scale composts in which oily sludge was composted under mesophilic conditions with amendments such as peat, bark, and fresh or decomposed horse manure, were studied with respect to basic parameters such as oil degradation, respirometry, and bacterial numbers. Further, an attempt was made to characterize a part of the bacterial flora using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD). The compost based on decomposed horse manure showed the greatest reduction of oil (85%). Comparison with a killed control indicated that microbial degradation actually had occurred. However, a substantial part of the oil was stabilized rather than totally broken down. Volatiles, on the contrary, accounted for a rather small percentage (5%) of the observed reduction. RAPD indicated that a selection had taken place and that the dominating microbial flora during the active degradation of oil were not the same as the ones dominating the different basic materials. The stabilized compost, on the other hand, had bacterial flora with similarities to the ones found in peat and bark

  17. Co-composting of Non-aqueous Drilling Fluid Contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drill cuttings (from Ologbo active oil field) contaminated with non-aqueous drilling fluid was co-composted with poultry manure and plant waste for eighteen weeks. A homogenized non-aqueous based fluid contaminated cutting was mixed with wood chips in a ratio of 1:1 and then mixed with soil, poultry and plant waste ...

  18. Biodegradation of Synthetic Polymers by Composting and Fungal Treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šašek, Václav; Vitásek, J.; Chromcová, D.; Prokopová, I.; Brožek, J.; Náhlík, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 5 (2006), s. 425-430 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/03/0508 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : biodegradation * composting * synthetic polymers Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.963, year: 2006

  19. Anaerobic composting of pyrethrum waste with and without effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    composing biodegradable organic matters. Combination of additives, EM and cellulose ... The arrangement consists of 5 L plastic cane for anaerobic composting, 2.5 L capacity inverted glass bottles for quantification of biogas, 6-L capacity plastic canes for collecting displaced water that are equivalent to volume of biogas ...

  20. Humic substances in a soil treated with household compost under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tillage (hoeing) significantly enhanced the formation of humic substances (HS) in the soil. Formation of humic substance (HS) was not favoured by fertilizer application which gave lower % HS than the control. Fulvic acid fraction was higher in compost amended soil. Nigerian Journal of Soil Science Vol. 15 2005: 86-89 ...

  1. A greenhouse experiment to evaluate compost derived from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Urban peasants in Uganda frequently cultivate soils with low intrinsic fertility status (low pH, low organic matter and nutrient contents), which restricts high crop production. A greenhouse study was conducted at Kabanyolo Research Station, Makerere. University to evaluate how compost (CO) compares with commercial ...

  2. Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Livestock manures and compost production and use in Uganda. M.S. W1!j11li, H. Ssa/i and C.K. Kaizzi. Kawanda Agricultural Research lnstitut<:: P.O. Box 7065. Kampala- Uganda. Abstract. Agricultural research in Uganda started around 1898. However, research on manures came into light after 19-03 when commercial ...

  3. Valorization aboveground of the extract of compost ovine for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion) in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and ...

  4. Evaluation of crop residue retention, compost and inorganic fertilizer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil fertility depletion is a serious problem in the highlands of Ethiopia. A field experiment was conducted for two consecutive cropping seasons (2009-2010) on farmers' fields in Degem Wereda, North Shewa, Oromiya Regional State. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crop residue, compost, inorganic ...

  5. Effet du compost et de Trichoderma harzianum sur la suppression ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    31 oct. 2013 ... harzianum T39 biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea. Eur. J. Plant Pathol., 104, 279-286. Diab H. G., Hu S. et Benson D. M. 2003. Suppression of. Rhizoctonia solani on impatiens by enhanced microbial activity in composted swine waste- amended potting mixes. Phytopathol., 93, 1115-. 1123. Douira A. et Lahlou H.

  6. Storm Water Pollution Removal Performance of Compost Filter Socks

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2005, the US Environmental Protection Agency National Menu of Best Management Practices (BMPs) listed compost filter socks as an approved BMP for controlling sediment in storm runoff on construction sites. Filtrexx International manufactures and distributes Filter Soxx (FS). Literature suggests...

  7. Physico- Chemical characteristics of compost (Cotonou, Benin, West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work was led the town of Cotonou in Benin and particularly on the vegetable garden site of Houéyiho. It involved the valorization of the waste of this site by proceeding the aerobic composting of the biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste collected in the markets. This consists among other rotten fruits of various ...

  8. Influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at the University of Ghana's Soil and Irrigation Research Centre - Kpong during 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons to evaluate the influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice yield, Nitrogen-use efficiency and soil chemical characteristics. The study was laid out in a ...

  9. Sequential Analysis of Metals in Municipal Dumpsite Composts of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Ni) in Municipal dumpsite compost were determined by the sequential extraction method. Chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, and organic carbon contents of the samples were also determined. Analysis of the extracts was carried out by atomic absorption spectrophotometer machine (Buck Scientific VPG 210).

  10. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas; wheat straw based and using different activator materials such as wheat brain, chicken manure, and pigeon manure were used for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Locally available casing materials such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara, and their mixture (80:20; v:v) with perlite were ...

  11. Performance of Glomus clarum and Tithonia diversifolia compost in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screen house experiments were conducted at the Institute of Agricultural Research and Training, Ibadan, on a sandy loam soil in two years, to assess the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus clarum) and compost (sunflower) on the growth and yield of tomato plants. The experimental design was laid out in a ...

  12. Quantification Of Greenhouse Gases From Three Danish Composting Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Samuelsson, J.

    2011-01-01

    A measurement method combining a controlled trace gas release with downwind concentrations measurements was successfully used to quantify greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from three Danish open windrow composting facilities. Overall, the results showed that composting of organic waste generate GHG...... emissions in terms of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) and thus contribute to climate change. At all three facilities significant CH4 emissions were occurring. The CH4 emission varied between 0.50 and 5.73 kg CH4 h-1. The highest CH4 emission (5.73 kg CH4 h-1) were measured at the Aarhus composting...... facility and was believed to be a result of the windrow lay-out with very broad and high windrows and a low turning frequency. The lowest CH4 emission (0.50 kg CH4 h-1) was measured at Fakse composting area and was most likely a result of the relatively small windrows and frequent weekly turnings. For all...

  13. The determinants for the adoption of compost from household waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper analyzes the factors influencing the utilization of compost from household waste by farmers living around Yaoundé-city, Cameroon. Both descriptive statistics and logit model are used to analyze the data collected from 108 farmers residing in villages surrounding the city. The descriptive results show that 14 ...

  14. Ontwikkeling van een toets ter detectie groene schimmel in compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baars, J.J.P.; Rutjens, A.J.; Mumm, R.

    2011-01-01

    Sinds het voorjaar van 2006 komen op champignonteeltbedrijven met een zekere regelmaat infecties voor met een agressieve groene schimmel; Trichoderma aggressivum. De infectie treedt al op op de compostbedrijven, maar is op het moment waarop compost wordt uitgeleverd aan teeltbedrijven nog niet

  15. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and downflow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh Tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The e...

  16. Udder health in a Danish compost bedded pack barn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svennesen, Line; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt

    Besides welfare advantages of the compost bedded pack system (CBP) there could be a negative effect of the organic bedding on udder health. Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of a CBP on udder health compared to a free stall system (FS) with sand bedded cubicles. Within the same Danish...

  17. ANAEROBIC COMPOST CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS SYSTEM TECHNOLOGY - SITE TECHNOLOGY CAPSULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In fall 1994, anaerobic compost wetlands in both upflow and down flow configurations were constructed adjacent to and received drainage from the Burleigh tunnel, which forms part of the Clear Creek/Central City Superfund site. The systems were operated over a 3 year period. The ...

  18. Composting swine manure from high rise finishing facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the last twenty years there have been considerable increases in the incidence of human infections with bacteria that are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. This has precipitated concerns about the use of antibiotics in livestock production. Composting of swine manure has several advantages...

  19. Cultivation of Agaricus bisporus on some compost formulas and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas (formula I, formula II, and formula III) based waste tea leaves and using some activator materials such as wheat bran, chicken manure and pigeon manure were studied for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. Some locally available peats such as peat of Bolu, peat of Agacbasi, peat of Caykara and theirs ...

  20. Municipal Household Solid Waste Compost: Effects on Carrot ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of municipal household solid waste compost on N, P and K uptake and yield of carrot (Daucus carrota), using a coastal savanna Haplic Acrisol. Bulked samples of fresh solid waste from 45 households within the Cape Coast Municipality in the Central Region of Ghana ...

  1. Urban Composting in the Technology and Engineering Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelin-Biesecker, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The average American produces around 1,600 pounds of garbage every year, and it is estimated that 50 percent of that waste is material that could be composted (Clean Air Council, 2012). Instead, most is sent to landfills and incinerators. In technology and engineering education, a great deal of time is spent in talking, teaching, and thinking…

  2. Effects of crude humin and compost produced from selected waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste from oil palm plantations, paddy fields, sawn timber and poultries are substantial. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes can cause environmental problems such as air and land pollutions. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of crude humin and compost produced from rice straw, rice husk, sawdust, ...

  3. HOME COMPOSTING: IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF THE PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Lourenço Castiglioni Guidoni

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available : In Brazil, the Municipal Solid Waste (RSU, from Portuguese Resíduo Sólido Urbano is a growing issue that is faced both in the formal field, in regulatory laws, as well as in management practices, concerning social and environmental responsibility of individuals, businesses and municipalities. Among the several components, organic matter corresponds to more than half of the entire amount of generated waste. As a treatment and a recycling alternative, home composting can improve the use of this fraction generated by Brazilian households. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to implement and evaluate a home composting system in four households. In each residence it was set up a cylindrical reactor of 255L to store the leftovers of fruit and vegetables as it was generated, being mixed and covered with rice hull. Weekly, the temperature and volume of the filled reactors were recorded. The final composts were assessed by the macro and micronutrients contained and their maturity stage. As a result, it was possible to reduce the amount of waste allocated for public management by the recycling source. The efficiency of the process was verified by monitoring the temperature and the absence of unpleasant odors. When 90 days were elapsed after the attendance, three of the researched households have remained with the composting system, voluntarily.

  4. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moqsud, M.A.; Yoshitake, J.; Bushra, Q.S.; Hyodo, M.; Omine, K.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells

  5. Evaluation on the effects of P. ostreatus spent mushroom compost ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Realization in minimizing production cost for in vitro culture had brought to a study on application of P. ostreatus spent mushroom compost (SMC). Sterile nodal explants was inoculated on different treatments with 15 replicates each. Treatments were MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of SMC (1 and 2 ...

  6. Production and efficiency of organic compost generated by millipede activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando de Sousa Antunes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The putrefactive activity of organisms such as diplopods in the edaphic macrof auna can be leveraged to promote the transformation of agricultural and urban waste into a low-cost substrate for the production of vegetable seedlings. This research aimed to evaluate: (1 the quantity of Gervais millipedes ( Trigoniulus corallinus needed to produce an acceptable quantity of organic compost; (2 the main physical and chemical characteristics of different compost types; and (3 compost efficiency in the production of lettuce seedlings. The first experiment lasted 90 days and was conducted using 6.5L of Gliricidia, 6.5L of Flemingia, 13.5L of grass cuttings, 4.5L of cardboard, 4.5L of coconut husk, and 4.5L of corncob. Treatments consisting of 0, 0.10, 0.30, 0.50, and 0.90L of millipedes were applied. This experiment compared millicompost and vermicompost, using four repetitions. After 23 days, the heights of grown lettuce plants and the weights of the fresh and dry mass of above ground lettuce and of the roots were assessed. A millipede volume of 0.1L proved to be sufficient for the production of an acceptable volume of organic compost. However, the addition of greater volumes leads to increased calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous content. Millicompost has similar physicochemical characteristics those of vermicompost, and both are equally efficient as a substrate for the production of lettuce seedlings.

  7. Co-composting of Non-aqueous Drilling Fluid Contaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    observed in electrical conductivity of the compost systems. Macrocosms containing poultry manure .... pH, Electrical conductivity (µS/cm): The samples were prepared by homogenizing 25 g of the sample in 25 ml of water. ..... Thus, as the electrical conductivity (ionic strength) reduced more micro-organisms are proliferating.

  8. Algal Compost Effects on Soil Nutrient Status and Aggregate Stab ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted in the Soil Science laboratory of Micheal Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, to investigate the effect of algal compost on soil nutrient status indices such as soil pH, cation exchange capacity, organic matter, total nitrogen and available phosphorus as well as soil structural stability.

  9. Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elfeki, M.; Elbestawy, E.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 2445-2453 ISSN 1230-1485 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : agricultural wastes * biogas in Egypt * bioconversion * compost in Egypt * organic wastes Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016

  10. Comparative effects of organic compost and NPK fertilizer on soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-treatment and post planting soil samples were taken for laboratory soil analysis of soil chemical properties for a comparison of the assessment of the cumulative effects of organic compost and inorganic fertilizer in improving soil fertility over a period of three years. The organic matter increased by 23.3% and 0.6% in the ...

  11. Effects of arbuscular mycorrhiza and composted market waste on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined effects of composted market waste and Arbuscular Mycorrhiza (AM) on Root Colonization (RC) and fibre yield of kenaf. The experimental design was 2 x 12 factorial in a Completely Randomized Design replicated three times. The treatments were with AM (AM+) and without (AM-) and twelve levels of ...

  12. Variation of physicochemical parameters during a composting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria C, D.M.; Ballesteros, M.I.; Bendeck, M.

    1999-01-01

    Two composting processes were carried out; they lasted for about 165 days. In one of the processes the decomposition of the material was performed only by microorganisms only (direct composting) and in the other one, by microorganisms and earthworms -Eisenla foetida- (indirect composting). The first one was carried out in a composting system called c amas a nd the indirect one was carried out in its initial phase in a system of p anelas , then the wastes were transferred to a c ama . The materials were treated in both processes with lime, ammonium nitrate and microorganisms. Periodical samples were taken from different places of the pile and a temperature control was made weekly. The following physicochemical parameters were analyzed in each sample: Humidity, color, pH soil : water in ratios of 1:5 and 1:10, ash, organic matter, CIC, contents of carbon and nitrogen and C/N ratio. In the aqueous extract, C/N ratio and percentage of hydro solubles were analyzed. It was also made a germination assay taking measurements of the percentage of garden cress seeds (Lepidium sativum) that germinated in the aqueous extract. The parameters variation in each process let us to establish that the greatest changes in the material happened in the initial phases of the process (thermophilic and mesophilic phases); the presence of microorganisms was the limiting factor in the dynamic of the process; on the other hand, the earthworm addition did not accelerate the mineralization of organic matter. The results let us to establish that the color determination is not an effective parameter in order to evaluate the degree of maturity of the compost. Other parameters such as temperature and germination percentage can be made as routine test to determine the process rate. Determination of CIC, ash and hydro solubles content are recommended to evaluate the optimal maturity degree in the material. It is proposed changes such as to reduce the composting time to a maximum of 100 days and to

  13. Influence of aeration rate on nitrogen dynamics during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Guardia, A; Petiot, C; Rogeau, D; Druilhe, C

    2008-01-01

    The paper aimed to study the influence of aeration rate on nitrogen dynamics during composting of wastewater sludge with wood chips. Wastewater sludge was sampled at a pig slaughterhouse 24h before each composting experiment, and mixtures were made at the same mass ratio. Six composting experiments were performed in a lab reactor (300 L) under forced aeration. Aeration flow was constant throughout the experiment and aeration rates applied ranged between 1.69 and 16.63 L/h/kg DM of mixture. Material temperature and oxygen consumption were monitored continuously. Nitrogen losses in leachates as organic and total ammoniacal nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate, and losses in exhaust gases as ammonia were measured daily. Concentrations of total carbon and nitrogen i.e., organic nitrogen, total ammoniacal nitrogen, and nitrite and nitrate were measured in the initial substrates and in the composted materials. The results showed that organic nitrogen, which was released as NH4+/NH3 by ammonification, was closely correlated to the ratio of carbon removed from the material to TC/N(org) of the initial substrates. The increase of aeration was responsible for the increase in ammonia emissions and for the decrease in nitrogen losses through leaching. At high aeration rates, losses of nitrogen in leachates and as ammonia in exhaust gases accounted for 90-99% of the nitrogen removed from the material. At low aeration rates, those accounted for 47-85% of the nitrogen removed from the material. The highest concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen in composts occurred at the lowest aeration rate. Due to the correlation of ammonification with biodegradation and to the measurements of losses in leachates and in exhaust gases, the pool NH4+/NH3 in the composting material was calculated as a function of time. The nitrification rate was found to be proportional to the mean content of NH4+/NH3 in the material, i.e., initial NH4+/NH3 plus NH4+/NH3 released by ammonification minus losses in

  14. Methane and Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Different Composting Periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Hsiung Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate green house gas emissions from compost preparations, methane and carbon dioxide concentrations and emission rates at different accumulative times and composting periods were determined. While the accumulative time was less than 10 min with a closed acrylic chamber, meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions in creased slightly but with high fluntuation in the sampling e ror, and these values decreased significantly when the accumulative time was more than 20 min. During the 8 weeks of composting, the methane emission rate reaches its peak near the end of the second week and the carbon dioxide emission rate does the same near the end of third week. Meth ane and carbon dioxide emissions had high val ues at the first stage of com post ing and then de creased grad u ally for the ma tu rity of com post. Carbon dioxide emission (y was significantly related to temperature (x1, moisture content (x2, and total or ganiccarbon (x3; and there gression equation is: y = 3.11907x1 + 6.19236x2 - 6.63081x3 - 50.62498. The re gres sion equa tion be tween meth ane emis sion (y? and mois ture con tent (x2, pH (x4, C/N ra tio (x5, and ash con tent (x6 is: y?= 0.13225x2 - 0.97046x4 - 1.10599x5 - 0.55220x6 + 50.77057 in the ini tial com post ing stage (weeks 1 to 3; while, the equa tion is: y?= 0.02824x2 - 0.0037x4 - 0.1499x5 - 0.07013x6 + 4.13589 in the later compost ing stage (weeks 4 to 8. Dif ferent stage composts have significant variation of properties and greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, the emissions may be reduced by manipulating the proper factors.

  15. Valorization of a pharmaceutical organic sludge through different composting treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucina, Mirko; Tacconi, Chiara; Sordi, Simone; Pezzolla, Daniela; Gigliotti, Giovanni; Zadra, Claudia

    2018-04-01

    Nowadays, the agricultural reuse of pharmaceutical sludge is still limited due to environmental and agronomic issues (e.g. low stabilization of the organic matter, phytotoxicity). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the characteristics of a pharmaceutical sludge derived from the daptomycin production and to study the possibility of improving its quality through composting. The pharmaceutical sludge showed high content of macronutrients (e.g. total Kjeldahl N content was 38 g kg -1 ), but it was also characterized by high salinity (7.9 dS m -1 ), phytotoxicity (germination index was 36.7%) and a low organic matter stabilization. Two different mixtures were prepared (mixture A: 70% sludge + 30% wood chips w/w, mixture B: 45% sludge + 45% wood chips + 10% cereal straw w/w) and treated through static composting using two different aeration systems: active and passive aeration. The mixtures resulted in the production of two different compost, and the evolution of process management parameters was different. The low total solids and organic matter content of mixture A led to the failure of the process. The addition of cereal straw in mixture B resulted in increased porosity and C/N ratio and, consequently, in an optimal development of the composting process (e.g. the final organic matter loss was 54.1% and 63.1% for the passively and actively aerated treatment, respectively). Both passively and actively aerated composting of mixture B improved the quality of the pharmaceutical sludge, by increasing its organic matter stabilization and removing phytotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlinger, Florian; Peyr, Stefan; Cuhls, Carsten

    2008-02-01

    In order to carry out life-cycle assessments as a basis for far-reaching decisions about environmentally sustainable waste treatment, it is important that the input data be reliable and sound. A comparison of the potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with each solid waste treatment option is essential. This paper addresses GHG emissions from controlled composting processes. Some important methodological prerequisites for proper measurement and data interpretation are described, and a common scale and dimension of emission data are proposed so that data from different studies can be compared. A range of emission factors associated with home composting, open windrow composting, encapsulated composting systems with waste air treatment and mechanical biological waste treatment (MBT) are presented from our own investigations as well as from the literature. The composition of source materials along with process management issues such as aeration, mechanical agitation, moisture control and temperature regime are the most important factors controlling methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammoniac (NH3) emissions. If ammoniac is not stripped during the initial rotting phase or eliminated by acid scrubber systems, biofiltration of waste air provides only limited GHG mitigation, since additional N2O may be synthesized during the oxidation of NH3, and only a small amount of CH4 degradation occurs in the biofilter. It is estimated that composting contributes very little to national GHG inventories generating only 0.01-0.06% of global emissions. This analysis does not include emissions from preceding or post-treatment activities (such as collection, transport, energy consumption during processing and land spreading), so that for a full emissions account, emissions from these activities would need to be added to an analysis.

  17. Improving green waste composting by addition of sugarcane bagasse and exhausted grape marc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2016-10-01

    The composting of lignocellulosic waste into compost is a potential way of sustainably disposing of a waste while generating a useful product. The current study determined whether the addition of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) (at 0, 15, and 25%) and/or exhausted grape marc (EGM) (at 0, 10, and 20%) improved the two-stage composting of green waste (GW). The combined addition of SCB and EGM improved composting conditions and the quality of the compost product in terms of temperature, water-holding capacity, particle-size distribution, coarseness index, pH, electrical conductivity, water-extractable organic carbon and nitrogen, microbial numbers, enzymatic activities, polysaccharide and lignin content, nutrient content, respiration, and phytotoxicity. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with the combined addition of 15% SCB and 20% EGM. With the optimized two-stage composting method, the compost matured in only 21days rather than in the 90-270days required for traditional composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Municipal household waste used as complement material for composting chicken manure and crop residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume L. Amadji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few organic materials available as agricultural soil amendment because their low chemical content means that large quantities are required. In order to improve the availability of raw materials for composting, as well as the quality of the compost produced, municipal solid waste (MW was added to cotton-seed residue (CSR and to the association of CSR with chicken manure (M in different weight/weight (MW/added materials ratios of 5:1 and 2:1. Aerobic composting was processed and compost yield was determined, as well as compost particle size and pH. Also, the compost bulk density and its water holding capacity were determined as well as contents of total nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, calcium (Ca, magnesium and heavy metals. According to its pH and carbon/nitrogen ratio values, the municipal waste of Cotonou was judged to be a good raw material for composting in order to improve availability of the organic source of nutrients. The composts produced with MW+M+CSR had the highest potential for amending Ferralsols, especially with a mixture of 2:1 (200 kg MW+100 kg M+100 kg CSR that could be applied at 10 t ha–1. However, further improvement in composting methods was suggested to increase Ca++ and reduce mercury contents, respectively. Moreover, potassium balance should be improved in the produced compost.

  19. Energy Analysis of a Rotary Drum Bioreactor for Composting Tomato Plant Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad N. Alkoaik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy produced from plant residue composting has stimulated great interest in heat recovery and utilization. Composting is an exothermic process often controlled through temperature measurements. However, energy analysis of the overall composting system, especially the rotary bioreactors, is generally not well known and very limited. This study presents detailed energy analysis in a laboratory-scale, batch-operated, rotary bioreactor used for composting tomato plant residues. The bioreactor was considered as a thermodynamic system operating under unsteady state conditions. The composting process was described, the input generated and lost energy terms as well as the relative importance of each term were quantitatively evaluated, and the composting phases were clearly identified. Results showed that the compost temperature peaked at 72 h of operation reaching 66.7 °C with a heat generation rate of 9.3 W·kg−1 of organic matter. During the composting process, the accumulated heat generation was 1.9 MJ·kg−1 of organic matter; only 4% of this heat was gained by the composting material, and 96% was lost outside the bioreactor. Contributions of thermal radiation, aeration, cylindrical, and side-walls surfaces of the reactor on the total heat loss were 1%, 2%, 69%, and 28%, respectively. The information obtained is applicable in the design, management, and control of composting operations and in improvement of bioreactor effectiveness and productivity.

  20. Effects of the main extraction parameters on chemical and microbial characteristics of compost tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M K; Yaseen, T; Traversa, A; Ben Kheder, M; Brunetti, G; Cocozza, C

    2016-06-01

    The rising popularity of compost tea as fertilizer or foliar spray against pathogens has encouraged many researchers to evaluate its performance without standardizing its quality, so obtaining inconsistent and controversial results. The fertilizing and pesticide-like effects of compost tea are due to its chemical and microbiological properties. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the best combination of the compost tea extraction parameters for exalting both chemical and microbiological features. A factorial design was adopted to evaluate the effects of compost/water ratio, extraction time, storage duration and storage temperature in different combination on physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of compost tea, and the results were elaborated through different statistical analyses. Compost tea nutrients and microorganisms were influenced by compost/water ratio and extraction time. In addition, the storage duration affected the microbial populations, whereas the storage temperature influenced only the fungal population of compost tea. Results suggested that the best combination of the studied parameters was: 1:2.5 compost/water ratio, 2days of extraction time and the compost tea should be utilized immediately after the extraction, since the storage reduced the microbial populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.