Sample records for switches electricity

  1. Switched reluctance drives for electric vehicle applications


    Andrada Gascón, Pedro; Torrent Burgués, Marcel; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Perat Benavides, Josep Ignasi


    Electric vehicles are the only alternative for a clean, efficient and environmentally friendly urban transport system. With the increasing interest in electric drives for electric vehicle propulsion. This paper first tries to explain why the switched reluctance drive is a strong candidate for electric vehicle applications. It then gives switched reluctance drive design guidelines for battery or fuel cell operated electric vehicles. Finally, it presents the design and simulation of a switched ...

  2. Switching in electrical transmission and distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Smeets, René; Kapetanovic, Mirsad; Peelo, David F; Janssen, Anton


    Switching in Electrical Transmission and Distribution Systems presents the issues and technological solutions associated with switching in power systems, from medium to ultra-high voltage. The book systematically discusses the electrical aspects of switching, details the way load and fault currents are interrupted, the impact of fault currents, and compares switching equipment in particular circuit-breakers. The authors also explain all examples of practical switching phenomena by examining real measurements from switching tests. Other highlights include: up to date commentary on new develo

  3. Bistable fluidic valve is electrically switched (United States)

    Fiet, O.; Salvinski, R. J.


    Bistable control valve is selectively switched by direct application of an electrical field to divert fluid from one output channel to another. Valve is inexpensive, has no moving parts, and operates on fluids which are relatively poor electrical conductors.

  4. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.; Schwartz, D.T.; Haight, S.M.; Genders, J.D.


    Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) is a separation technology being developed as an alternative to conventional ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. A case study for the KE Basin on the Hanford Site was conducted based on the results of the development testing. Engineering design baseline parameters for film deposition, film regeneration, cesium loading, and cesium elution were used for developing a conceptual system. Order of magnitude cost estimates were developed to compare with conventional ion exchange. This case study demonstrated that KE Basin wastewater could be processed continuously with minimal secondary waste and reduced associated disposal costs, as well as lower capital and labor expenditures

  5. 30 CFR 75.520 - Electric equipment; switches. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 75.520 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.520 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided with switches or other controls that are...

  6. Colloidal Switches by Electric and Magnetic Fields. (United States)

    Demirörs, Ahmet Faik; Beltramo, Peter J; Vutukuri, Hanumantha Rao


    External electric and magnetic fields have already been proven to be a versatile tool to control the particle assembly; however, the degree of control of the dynamics and versatility of the produced structures is expected to increase if both can be implemented simultaneously. For example, while micromagnets can rapidly assemble superparamagnetic particles, repeated, rapid disassembly or reassembly is not trivial because of the remanence and coercivity of metals used in such applications. Here, an interdigitated design of micromagnet and microfabricated electrodes enables rapid switching of colloids between their magnetic and electric potential minima. Active control over colloids between two such adjacent potential minima enables a fast on/off mechanism, which is potentially important for optical switches or display technologies. Moreover, we demonstrate that the response time of the colloids between these states is on the order of tens of milliseconds, which is tunable by electric field strength. By carefully designing the electrode pattern, our strategy enables the switchable assembly of single particles down to few microns and also hierarchical assemblies containing many particles. Our work on precise dynamic control over the particle position would open new avenues to find potential applications in optical switches and display technologies.

  7. 30 CFR 77.507 - Electric equipment; switches. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Electric equipment; switches. 77.507 Section 77.507 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND... Electrical Equipment-General § 77.507 Electric equipment; switches. All electric equipment shall be provided...

  8. Understanding household switching behavior in the retail electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yingkui


    Deregulation of the Danish retail electricity market nearly a decade ago has produced little consumer switching among suppliers or renegotiation of supplier service contracts. From an energy policy perspective, a certain amount of supplier switching is an important indicator of the success of market deregulation. This argues that poor relationship management and a lack of economic benefits are two critical barriers to consumer switching. Latent class analysis indicates that only 11.4% of consumers are non-switchers, whereas 41.1% can be considered potential switchers and approximately one-half (47.5%) can be considered apathetic consumers. We also discuss the managerial implications for both electricity suppliers and policy makers. - Highlights: • This paper investigates the barriers for electricity supplier switching in Denmark. • Four switching barriers were identified. • Relationship management and economic benefits are critical for consumer switching. • Three consumer segments for electricity supplier switching were identified

  9. Resistance switching induced by electric fields in manganite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villafuerte, M; Juarez, G; Duhalde, S; Golmar, F; Degreef, C L; Heluani, S P


    In this work, we investigate the polarity-dependent Electric Pulses Induced Resistive (EPIR) switching phenomenon in thin films driven by electric pulses. Thin films of 0.5 Ca 0.5 MnO 3 (manganite) were deposited by PLD on Si substrate. The transport properties at the interface between the film and metallic electrode are characterized in order to study the resistance switching. Sample thermal treatment and electrical field history are important to be considered for get reproducible EPIR effect. Carriers trapping at the interfaces are considered as a possible explanation of our results

  10. Investment in electricity networks with transmission switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, A.B.


    allows the solution of large problem instances. The methodology is illustrated by its application to a problem of determining the optimal investment in switching equipment and transmission capacity for an existing network. Computational tests on IEEE test networks with 73 nodes and 118 nodes confirm...

  11. Electrically tunable electromagnetic switches based on zero-index metamaterials (United States)

    Cao, Yanyang; Meng, Qingquan; Xu, Yadong


    In this work, we design a heterojunction in a two dimensional parallel-plate metallic waveguide by using zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic dielectrics which are electrically tunable. We show analytically and numerically that by only controlling the direct current voltage applied to the anisotropic dielectrics, the phenomena of perfect transmission and near perfect reflection can be tuned electrically. Such designed junctions can service as electrically tunable switches in waveguide systems, with good performances and high sensitivities. Our work provides another way to electrically control the propagation of electromagnetic waves in waveguide systems.

  12. Active RF Pulse Compression Using An Electrically Controlled Semiconductor Switch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan; Tantawi, Sami; /SLAC


    First we review the theory of active pulse compression systems using resonant delay lines. Then we describe the design of an electrically controlled semiconductor active switch. The switch comprises an active window and an overmoded waveguide three-port network. The active window is based on a four-inch silicon wafer which has 960 PIN diodes. These are spatially combined in an overmoded waveguide. We describe the philosophy and design methodology for the three-port network and the active window. We then present the results of using this device to compress 11.4 GHz RF signals with high compression ratios. We show how the system can be used with amplifier like sources, in which one can change the phase of the source by manipulating the input to the source. We also show how the active switch can be used to compress a pulse from an oscillator like sources, which is not possible with passive pulse compression systems.

  13. Void formation induced electrical switching in phase-change nanowires. (United States)

    Meister, Stefan; Schoen, David T; Topinka, Mark A; Minor, Andrew M; Cui, Yi


    Solid-state structural transformation coupled with an electronic property change is an important mechanism for nonvolatile information storage technologies, such as phase-change memories. Here we exploit phase-change GeTe single-nanowire devices combined with ex situ and in situ transmission electron microscopy to correlate directly nanoscale structural transformations with electrical switching and discover surprising results. Instead of crystalline-amorphous transformation, the dominant switching mechanism during multiple cycling appears to be the opening and closing of voids in the nanowires due to material migration, which offers a new mechanism for memory. During switching, composition change and the formation of banded structural defects are observed in addition to the expected crystal-amorphous transformation. Our method and results are important to phase-change memories specifically, but also to any device whose operation relies on a small scale structural transformation.

  14. 49 CFR 236.207 - Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control. (United States)


    ..., AND APPLIANCES Automatic Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.207 Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control. Electric lock on hand-operated switch shall be controlled so that it cannot be unlocked... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric lock on hand-operated switch; control...

  15. The Control of Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu


    Full Text Available The control of SRM was discussed: current chopping control, angle position control. This paper presents an inverter circuit and a fuzzy sliding mode control method to minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM. Based on the experimental results, Using the inverter circuit and fuzzy sliding mode control method can effectively minimize the torque fluctuation and noise of the SRM, For the switched reluctance motor applications in electric vehicles to provide a theoretical basis.

  16. Electrical Switching of Perovskite Thin-Film Resistors (United States)

    Liu, Shangqing; Wu, Juan; Ignatiev, Alex


    Electronic devices that exploit electrical switching of physical properties of thin films of perovskite materials (especially colossal magnetoresistive materials) have been invented. Unlike some related prior devices, these devices function at room temperature and do not depend on externally applied magnetic fields. Devices of this type can be designed to function as sensors (exhibiting varying electrical resistance in response to varying temperature, magnetic field, electric field, and/or mechanical pressure) and as elements of electronic memories. The underlying principle is that the application of one or more short electrical pulse(s) can induce a reversible, irreversible, or partly reversible change in the electrical, thermal, mechanical, and magnetic properties of a thin perovskite film. The energy in the pulse must be large enough to induce the desired change but not so large as to destroy the film. Depending on the requirements of a specific application, the pulse(s) can have any of a large variety of waveforms (e.g., square, triangular, or sine) and be of positive, negative, or alternating polarity. In some applications, it could be necessary to use multiple pulses to induce successive incremental physical changes. In one class of applications, electrical pulses of suitable shapes, sizes, and polarities are applied to vary the detection sensitivities of sensors. Another class of applications arises in electronic circuits in which certain resistance values are required to be variable: Incorporating the affected resistors into devices of the present type makes it possible to control their resistances electrically over wide ranges, and the lifetimes of electrically variable resistors exceed those of conventional mechanically variable resistors. Another and potentially the most important class of applications is that of resistance-based nonvolatile-memory devices, such as a resistance random access memory (RRAM) described in the immediately following article

  17. Electric field control of thermal stability and magnetization switching in (Ga,Mn)As (United States)

    Chiba, D.; Ono, T.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.


    Magnetization switching induced by electric fields in the absence of external magnetic field has been demonstrated in a field effect structure with a (Ga,Mn)As layer having an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The switching is related to the modulation of the in-plane magnetic anisotropy by electric fields. Reducing magnetic anisotropy energy height by electric fields, we observe stochastic magnetization switching.

  18. Determination of the mechanical thermostat electrical contacts switching quality with sound and vibration analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rejc, Jure; Munih, Marko [University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    A mechanical thermostat is a device that switches heating or cooling appliances on or off based on temperature. For this kind of use, electronic or mechanical switching concepts are applied. During the production of electrical contacts, several irregularities can occur leading to improper switching events of the thermostat electrical contacts. This paper presents a non-obstructive method based on the fact that when the switching event occurs it can be heard and felt by human senses. We performed several laboratory tests with two different methods. The first method includes thermostat switch sound signal analysis during the switching event. The second method is based on sampling of the accelerometer signal during the switching event. The results show that the sound analysis approach has great potential. The approach enables an accurate determination of the switching event even if the sampled signal carries also the switching event of the neighbour thermostat.

  19. Neutron effects on the electrical and switching characteristics of NPN bipolar power transistors (United States)

    Frasca, Albert J.; Schwarze, Gene E.


    The use of nuclear reactors to generate electrical power for future space missions will require the electrical components used in the power conditioning, control, and transmission subsystem to operate in the associated radiation environments. An initial assessment of neutron irradiation on the electrical and switching characteristics of commercial high power NPN bipolar transistors was investigated. The results clearly show the detrimental effects caused by neutron irradiation on the electrical and switching characteristics of the NPN bipolar power transistor.

  20. Electric-field-induced magnetization switching in CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (United States)

    Kanai, Shun; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo


    The electric-field effect on magnetic anisotropy provides a low-energy scheme for magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions. We review our recent works on the electric-field-induced magnetization switching in CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions. We show that the switching with a higher speed and a lower energy than the spin-transfer switching can be realized using the electric-field effect. The increase of the electric-field modulation ratio is expected to result in a marked reduction of the switching energy as well as in the improvement of the switching reliability for magnetic tunnel junctions with a high thermal stability factor. Further study is necessary to improve the modulation ratio.

  1. Modeling the Structural-Thermal-Electrical Coupling in an Electrostatically Actuated MEMS Switch and Its Impact on the Switch Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen M. Ouakad


    Full Text Available Modeling and analysis for the static behavior and collapse instabilities of a MEMS cantilever switch subjected to both electrical and thermal loadings are presented. The thermal loading forces can be as a result of a huge amount of switching contact of the microswitch. The model considers the microbeam as a continuous medium and the electric force as a nonlinear function of displacement and accounts for its fringing-field effect. The electric force is assumed to be distributed over specific lengths underneath the microbeam. A boundary-value solver is used to study the collapse instability, which brings the microbeam from its unstuck configuration to touch the substrate and gets stuck in the so-called pinned configuration. We have found negligible influence of the temperature on the static stability of the switch. We then investigate the effect of the thermal heating due to the current flow on the cantilever switch while it is in the on position (adhered position. We also found slight effect on the static stability of the switch.

  2. High-Temperature Switched-Reluctance Electric Motor (United States)

    Montague, Gerald; Brown, Gerald; Morrison, Carlos; Provenza, Andy; Kascak, Albert; Palazzolo, Alan


    An eight-pole radial magnetic bearing has been modified into a switched-reluctance electric motor capable of operating at a speed as high as 8,000 rpm at a temperature as high as 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor (see figure) is an experimental prototype of starter-motor/generator units that have been proposed to be incorporated into advanced gas turbine engines and that could operate without need for lubrication or active cooling. The unique features of this motor are its electromagnet coils and, to some extent, its control software. Heretofore, there has been no commercial-off-the-shelf wire capable of satisfying all of the requirements for fabrication of electromagnet coils capable of operation at temperatures up to 1,000 F (=540 C). The issues addressed in the development of these electromagnet coils included thermal expansion, oxidation, pliability to small bend radii, micro-fretting, dielectric breakdown, tensile strength, potting compound, thermal conduction, and packing factor. For a test, the motor was supported, along with a rotor of 18 lb (.8-kg) mass, 3-in. (.7.6-cm) diameter, 21-in. (.53-cm) length, on bearings packed with high-temperature grease. The motor was located at the mid span of the rotor and wrapped with heaters. The motor stator was instrumented with thermocouples. At the time of reporting the information for this article, the motor had undergone 14 thermal cycles between room temperature and 1,000 F (.540 C) and had accumulated operating time >27.5 hours at 1,000 F (=540 C). The motor-controller hardware includes a personal computer equipped with analog-to-digital input and digital-to-analog output cards. The controller software is a C-language code that implements a switched-reluctance motor-control principle: that is, it causes the coils to be energized in a sequence timed to generate a rotating magnetic flux that creates a torque on a scalloped rotor. The controller can operate in an open- or closed-loop mode. In addition, the software has

  3. Electrical switching in Sb doped Al23Te77 glasses (United States)

    Pumlianmunga; Ramesh, K.


    Bulk glasses (Al23Te77)Sbx (0≤ x≤10) prepared by melt quenching method show a change in switching type from threshold to memory for x≥5. An increase in threshold current (Ith) and a concomitant decrease in threshold voltage (Vth) and resisitivity(ρ) have been observed with the increase of Sb content. Raman spectra of the switched region in memory switching compositions show a red shift with respect to the as prepared glasses whereas in threshold switching compositions no such shift is observed. The magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) of 27Al atom shows three different environments for Al ([4]Al, [5]Al and [6]Al). The samples annealed at their respective crystallization temperatures show rapid increase in [4]Al sites by annihilating [5]Al sites. The melts of threshold switching glasses (x≤2.5) quenched in water at room temperature (27 °C) show amorphous structure whereas, the melt of memory switching glasses (x>2.5) solidify into crystalline structure. The higher coordination of Al increases the cross-linking and rigidity. The addition of Sb increases the glass transition(Tg) and decreases the crystallization temperature(Tc). The decrease in the interval between the Tg and Tc eases the transition between the amorphous and crystalline states and improves the memory properties. The temperature rise at the time of switching can be as high as its melting temperature and the material in between the electrodes may melt to form a filament. The filament may consists of temporary (high resistive amorphous) and permanent (high conducting crystalline) units. The ratio between the temporary and the permanent units may decide the switching type. The filament is dominated by the permanent units in memory switching compositions and by the temporary units in threshold switching compositions. The present study suggests that both the threshold and memory switching can be understood by the thermal model and filament formation.

  4. All-electric-controlled spin current switching in single-molecule magnet-tunnel junctions (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng-Zhong; Shen, Rui; Sheng, Li; Wang, Rui-Qiang; Wang, Bai-Gen; Xing, Ding-Yu


    A single-molecule magnet (SMM) coupled to two normal metallic electrodes can both switch spin-up and spin-down electronic currents within two different windows of SMM gate voltage. Such spin current switching in the SMM tunnel junction arises from spin-selected single electron resonant tunneling via the lowest unoccupied molecular orbit of the SMM. Since it is not magnetically controlled but all-electrically controlled, the proposed spin current switching effect may have potential applications in future spintronics.

  5. Electrically switched cesium ion exchange. FY 1997 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilga, M.A.; Orth, R.J.; Sukamto, J.P.H.


    This paper describes the Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) separation technology being developed as an alternative to ion exchange for removing radionuclides from high-level waste. Progress in FY 1997 for specific applications of ESIX is also outlined. The ESIX technology, which combines ion exchange and electrochemistry, is geared toward producing electroactive films that are highly selective, regenerable, and long lasting. During the process, ion uptake and elution can be controlled directly by modulating the potential of an ion exchange film that has been electrochemically deposited onto a high surface area electrode. This method adds little sodium to the waste stream and minimizes the secondary wastes associated with traditional ion exchange techniques. Development of the ESIX process is well underway for cesium removal using ferrocyanides as the electroactive films. Films having selectivity for perrhenate (a pertechnetate surrogate) over nitrate also have been deposited and tested. Based on the ferrocyanide film capacity, stability, rate of uptake, and selectivity shown during performance testing, it appears possible to retain a consistent rate of removal and elute cesium into the same elution solution over several load/unload cycles. In batch experiments, metal hexacyanoferrate films showed high selectivities for cesium in concentrated sodium solutions. Cesium uptake was unaffected by Na/Cs molar ratios of up to 2 x 10 4 , and reached equilibrium within 18 hours. During engineering design tests using 60 pores per inch, high surface area nickel electrodes, nickel ferrocyanide films displayed continued durability. losing less than 20% of their capacity after 1500 load/unload cycles. Bench-scale flow system studies showed no change in capacity or performance of the ESIX films at a flow rate up to 13 BV/h, the maximum flow rate tested, and breakthrough curves further supported once-through waste processing. 9 refs., 24 figs

  6. An innovative hybrid insulation switch to enable/disable electrical loads without overvoltages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zajkowski Konrad


    Full Text Available This article describes an innovative project for the design of a low voltage switch to enable/disable electrical devices from an AC source, which is characterised by the absence of arc ignition. When powered off, this device is a galvanically separated of the receiver from the power source. The proposed hybrid interaction has two switches: the insulating switch made of mechanical contacts and the current switch made of elements from power electronics. The absence of arc ignition increases the equipment uptime and improves the comfort-powered receiver and equipment located nearby.

  7. Modeling the choice to switch from fuelwood to electricity. Implications for giant panda habitat conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Linderman, Marc A. [Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources Building, 48824 East Lansing, MI (United States); Lupi, Frank [Departments of Agricultural Economics and Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, 213F Agriculture Hall, 48824 East Lansing, MI (United States); Huang, Jinyan [Wolong Nature Reserve Administration, Wenchuan County, 623002 Sichuan Province (China)


    Despite its status as a nature reserve, Wolong Nature Reserve (China) has experienced continued loss of giant panda habitat due to human activities such as fuelwood collection. Electricity, though available throughout Wolong, has not replaced fuelwood as an energy source. We used stated preference data obtained from in-person interviews to estimate a random utility model of the choice of adopting electricity for cooking and heating. Willingness to switch to electricity was explained by demographic and electricity factors (price, voltage, and outage frequency). In addition to price, non-price factors such as voltage and outage frequency significantly affect the demand. Thus, lowering electricity prices and increasing electricity quality would encourage local residents to switch from fuelwood to electricity and should be considered in the mix of policies to promote conservation of panda habitat.

  8. Modeling the choice to switch from fuelwood to electricity. Implications for giant panda habitat conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Li; Liu, Jianguo; Linderman, Marc A.; Lupi, Frank; Huang, Jinyan


    Despite its status as a nature reserve, Wolong Nature Reserve (China) has experienced continued loss of giant panda habitat due to human activities such as fuelwood collection. Electricity, though available throughout Wolong, has not replaced fuelwood as an energy source. We used stated preference data obtained from in-person interviews to estimate a random utility model of the choice of adopting electricity for cooking and heating. Willingness to switch to electricity was explained by demographic and electricity factors (price, voltage, and outage frequency). In addition to price, non-price factors such as voltage and outage frequency significantly affect the demand. Thus, lowering electricity prices and increasing electricity quality would encourage local residents to switch from fuelwood to electricity and should be considered in the mix of policies to promote conservation of panda habitat

  9. Electrical permeability and domain switching effect on fracture behavior of piezoelectric material (United States)

    Kalyanam, Sureshkumar

    The crystal structure and domain microstructure within each grain of a piezoelectric material and 90°, 180° polarization switch observed experimentally are discussed. The work and internal energy density domain switching criteria are used to predict domain switch zones near crack tip of CT fracture specimen. Constitutive relations are modified to reflect changes in material properties and strains arising from domain switch. An incremental finite element solution procedure using UNIX program was developed to use ABAQUS piezoelectric FEA software along with FORTRAN codes for prediction and modeling of domain switching in piezoelectric material. Insulating materials like silicone oil are used by researchers to prevent electric arcing between crack faces during fracture tests with piezoelectric material. A finite element (UEL) was developed to model dielectric medium filling crack cavity of piezoelectric fracture test specimens. An iterative procedure was adopted to solve geometrically nonlinear crack opening using an UNIX program. The effect of permeability of crack cavity medium on near tip electric fields in CT fracture specimen was investigated. A CT fracture specimen was modeled using incremental domain switch finite element solution procedure. Domain switch zones in the vicinity of the crack tip were obtained for various electrical and mechanical fracture loads applied. The effect of actual crack profile on near tip domain switch zones, opening stress, stress intensity is discussed. A gradual polarization switch model which considers the gradual change in the average polarization direction from the original poling direction was developed. Fracture load predictions using stress intensity factor obtained from assuming linear material behavior, nonlinear behavior using the instantaneous and gradual polarization switch model are compared. Gradual polarization switch model was used to model a SENB fracture specimen to obtain the near tip strain field and compare it

  10. Implementation of Single Phase Soft Switched PFC Converter for Plug-in-Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiswariya Sekar


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new soft switching boost converter with a passive snubber cell without additional active switches for battery charging systems. The proposed snubber finds its application in the front-end ac-dc converter of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV battery chargers. The proposed auxiliary snubber circuit consists of an inductor, two capacitors and two diodes. The new converter has the advantages of continuous input current, low switching stresses, high voltage gain without extreme duty cycle, minimized charger size and charging time and fewer amounts of cost and electricity drawn from the utility at higher switching frequencies. The switch is made to turn ON by Zero Current Switching (ZCS and turn OFF by Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS. The detailed steady state analysis of the novel ac-dc Zero Current- Zero Voltage Switching (ZC-ZVS boost Power Factor Correction (PFC converter is presented with its operating principle. The experimental prototype of 20 kHz, 100 W converter verifies the theoretical analysis. The power factor of the prototype circuit reaches near unity with an efficiency of 97%, at nominal output power for a ±10% variation in the input voltage and ±20% variation in the snubber component values.

  11. Picosecond Electric-Field-Induced Threshold Switching in Phase-Change Materials. (United States)

    Zalden, Peter; Shu, Michael J; Chen, Frank; Wu, Xiaoxi; Zhu, Yi; Wen, Haidan; Johnston, Scott; Shen, Zhi-Xun; Landreman, Patrick; Brongersma, Mark; Fong, Scott W; Wong, H-S Philip; Sher, Meng-Ju; Jost, Peter; Kaes, Matthias; Salinga, Martin; von Hoegen, Alexander; Wuttig, Matthias; Lindenberg, Aaron M


    Many chalcogenide glasses undergo a breakdown in electronic resistance above a critical field strength. Known as threshold switching, this mechanism enables field-induced crystallization in emerging phase-change memory. Purely electronic as well as crystal nucleation assisted models have been employed to explain the electronic breakdown. Here, picosecond electric pulses are used to excite amorphous Ag_{4}In_{3}Sb_{67}Te_{26}. Field-dependent reversible changes in conductivity and pulse-driven crystallization are observed. The present results show that threshold switching can take place within the electric pulse on subpicosecond time scales-faster than crystals can nucleate. This supports purely electronic models of threshold switching and reveals potential applications as an ultrafast electronic switch.

  12. Moessbauer Study of Discoloration of Synthetic Resin Covered Electric Switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Muzsay, I.; Homonnay, Z.; Vertes, A.


    57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry were used to investigate brown discoloration and sediments formed on the surface of synthetic resin product covered electronic switches. The Moessbauer measurement revealed that alloyed steels and iron-containing corrosion products are associated with the discolored layers. Iron, and iron corrosion products were shown by both MS and XRD in the sediments formed eventually during the finishing of the synthetic resin products after machining and washing with water solution.

  13. Electrical Switching in Thin Film Structures Based on Transition Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pergament


    Full Text Available Electrical switching, manifesting itself in the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics with S- and N-type NDR (negative differential resistance, is inherent in a variety of materials, in particular, transition metal oxides. Although this phenomenon has been known for a long time, recent suggestions to use oxide-based switching elements as neuristor synapses and relaxation-oscillation circuit components have resumed the interest in this area. In the present review, we describe the experimental facts and theoretical models, mainly on the basis of the Mott transition in vanadium dioxide as a model object, of the switching effect with special emphasis on the emerging applied potentialities for oxide electronics.

  14. Electrical tuning and switching of an optical frequency comb generated in aluminum nitride microring resonators. (United States)

    Jung, Hojoong; Fong, King Y; Xiong, Chi; Tang, Hong X


    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has been shown to possess both strong Kerr nonlinearity and electro-optic Pockels effect. By combining these two effects, here we demonstrate on-chip reversible on/off switching of the optical frequency comb generated by an AlN microring resonator. We optimize the design of gating electrodes and the underneath resonator structure to effectively apply an electric field without increasing the optical loss. The switching of the comb is monitored by measuring one of the frequency comb peaks while varying the electric field. The controlled comb electro-optic response is investigated for direct comparison with the transient thermal effect.

  15. Experimental Studies of Electronic Transport of Chalcogenide Glass Electrical Switches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Emin, Dave; Edwards, Arthur


    The electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall coefficient of 3 micron thick films of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 have been measured as functions of temperature from room temperature down to as low as 200 K...

  16. Machine learning based switching model for electricity load forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Shu; Chen Luonan; Lee, Weijen


    In deregulated power markets, forecasting electricity loads is one of the most essential tasks for system planning, operation and decision making. Based on an integration of two machine learning techniques: Bayesian clustering by dynamics (BCD) and support vector regression (SVR), this paper proposes a novel forecasting model for day ahead electricity load forecasting. The proposed model adopts an integrated architecture to handle the non-stationarity of time series. Firstly, a BCD classifier is applied to cluster the input data set into several subsets by the dynamics of the time series in an unsupervised manner. Then, groups of SVRs are used to fit the training data of each subset in a supervised way. The effectiveness of the proposed model is demonstrated with actual data taken from the New York ISO and the Western Farmers Electric Cooperative in Oklahoma

  17. Evaluation of the contact switch materials in high voltage power supply for generate of underwater shockwave by electrical discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Higa


    Full Text Available We have developed the high voltage power-supply unit by Cockcroft-Walton circuit for ingenerate high pressure due to underwater shockwave by electrical discharge. This high voltage power supply has the problem of the metal contact switch operation that contact switch stop by melting and bonding due to electrical spark. We have studied the evaluation of materials of contact switch for the reducing electrical energy loss and the problem of contact switch operation. In this research, measurement of discharge voltage and high pressure due to underwater shockwave was carried out using the contact switch made of different materials as brass plate, brass-carbon plate-brass and carbon block. The contact switch made of carbon is effective to reduce energy loss and problem of contactor switch operation.

  18. Optical switching of electric charge transfer pathways in porphyrin: a light-controlled nanoscale current router. (United States)

    Thanopulos, Ioannis; Paspalakis, Emmanuel; Yannopapas, Vassilios


    We introduce a novel molecular junction based on a thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivative with two almost energetically degenerate equilibrium configurations. We show that each equilibrium structure defines a pathway of maximal electric charge transfer through the molecular junction and that these two conduction pathways are spatially orthogonal. We further demonstrate computationally how to switch between the two equilibrium structures of the compound by coherent light. The optical switching mechanism is presented in the relevant configuration subspace of the compound, and the corresponding potential and electric dipole surfaces are obtained by ab initio methods. The laser-induced isomerization takes place in two steps in tandem, while each step is induced by a two-photon process. The effect of metallic electrodes on the electromagnetic irradiation driving the optical switching is also investigated. Our study demonstrates the potential for using thiol-functionalized porphyrin derivatives for the development of a light-controlled nanoscale current router.

  19. Behavioral aspects of regulation: A discussion on switching and demand response in Turkish electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirin, Selahattin Murat; Gonul, Mustafa Sinan


    Electricity sector has been transformed from state-owned monopolistic utilities to competitive markets with an aim to promote incentives for improving efficiency, reducing costs and increasing service quality to customers. One of the cardinal assumptions of the liberalized and competitive electricity markets is the rational actor, and decision-makers are assumed to make the best decisions that maximize their utility. However, a vast literature on behavioral economics has shown the weakness of economic theory in explaining and predicting individuals’ decision-making behavior. This issue is quite important for competition in electricity markets in which consumers’ preferences have a significant role. Despite its importance, this issue has almost been neglected in Turkey, which has taken major steps in electricity sector restructuring. Therefore, this paper aims to examine switching and demand response behavior in Turkish electricity market by using multiple correspondence and panel data analysis, and findings are discussed in light of the neoclassical and behavioral economics literature. Analyses’ results show that consumers’ switching and demand response behavior is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent; however, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions. Furthermore, there are systemic problems that hinder effective functioning of the electricity market and restrict competition. - Highlights: • Behavioral economics can provide insights for consumer’ decisions. • Switching and demand response behavior is examined by econometric methods. • Results is consistent with the neoclassical literature to some extent • However, behavioral factors are also affecting consumers’ decisions.

  20. Electric field-triggered metal-insulator transition resistive switching of bilayered multiphasic VOx (United States)

    Won, Seokjae; Lee, Sang Yeon; Hwang, Jungyeon; Park, Jucheol; Seo, Hyungtak


    Electric field-triggered Mott transition of VO2 for next-generation memory devices with sharp and fast resistance-switching response is considered to be ideal but the formation of single-phase VO2 by common deposition techniques is very challenging. Here, VOx films with a VO2-dominant phase for a Mott transition-based metal-insulator transition (MIT) switching device were successfully fabricated by the combined process of RF magnetron sputtering of V metal and subsequent O2 annealing to form. By performing various material characterizations, including scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy, the film is determined to have a bilayer structure consisting of a VO2-rich bottom layer acting as the Mott transition switching layer and a V2O5/V2O3 mixed top layer acting as a control layer that suppresses any stray leakage current and improves cyclic performance. This bilayer structure enables excellent electric field-triggered Mott transition-based resistive switching of Pt-VOx-Pt metal-insulator-metal devices with a set/reset current ratio reaching 200, set/reset voltage of less than 2.5 V, and very stable DC cyclic switching upto 120 cycles with a great set/reset current and voltage distribution less than 5% of standard deviation at room temperature, which are specifications applicable for neuromorphic or memory device applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Study on Power Switching Process of a Hybrid Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Wang


    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles with in-wheel motors (IWM achieve a variety of driving modes by two power sources—the engine and the IWM. One of the critical problems that exists in such vehicle is the different transient characteristics between the engine and the IWM. Therefore, switching processes between the power sources have noteworthy impacts on vehicle dynamics and driving performance. For the particular switching process of the pure electric mode to the engine driving mode, a specific control strategy coordinating clutch torque, motor torque, and engine torque was proposed to solve drivability issues caused by inconsistent responses of different power sources during the mode transition. The specific switching process could be described as follows: the engine was started by IWM with the clutch serving as a key enabling actuator, dynamic torque compensation through IWM was implemented after engine started, and, meanwhile, engine speed was controlled to track the target speed through the closed loop PID control strategy. The bench tests results showed that the vehicle jerk caused during mode switching was reduced and fast and smooth mode switching was realized, which leads to the improvement of vehicle’s riding comfort.

  2. Electrical and switching properties of InSe amorphous thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenawy, M.A.; Zayed, H.A.; El-Zahid, H.A. (Univ. Coll. for Girls, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt)); El-Shazly, A.F.; Afifi, M.A. (Faculty of Education, Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt))


    In this work electrical and switching properties of InSe thin films have been studied. The semiconductor compound InSe was obtained by direct synthesis from stoichiometric amounts of spectroscopically pure indium and selenium. By slow cooling of the synthesized InSe a polycrystalline material is obtained. The amorphous films were obtained by thermal evaporation under vacuum of the polycrystalline material on glass or pyrographite substrates. From electrical measurements, it was found that for all films the dark electrical resistivity decreases with an increase in film thickness and temperature. The InSe compound exhibits non-linear I-V characteristics and switching phenomena. The threshold voltage decreases with increasing annealing temperature and increases with increasing film thickness. (orig.).

  3. The loyalty of industrial clients of gas and electricity: the value rol and switching barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Acebron, C.; Vazquez Castelles, R.; Iglesias Arguelles, V.


    This paper deals with perceived value and loyalty in a B2 B environment taking account switching barriers. The Spanish energy market has been newly liberalized and many companies offer supply services of natural gas and electricity. The research examines the casual relations between perceived value and two dimensions of loyalty: repurchase intentions and price tolerance. Although our results indicate that suppliers achieve better repurchase intentions by providing value to their customers, they also show that this is insufficient when the aim is to increase customer price tolerance. In this case another moderating variable must be included: the switching barriers. (Author)

  4. In-plane magnetic field dependence of electric field-induced magnetization switching (United States)

    Kanai, S.; Nakatani, Y.; Yamanouchi, M.; Ikeda, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.


    Electric field-induced magnetization switching through magnetization precession is investigated as a function of in-plane component of external magnetic field for a CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular easy axis. The switching probability is an oscillatory function of the duration of voltage pulses and its magnitude and period depend on the magnitude of in-plane magnetic field. Experimental results are compared with simulated ones by using Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Langevin equation, and possible factors determining the probability are discussed.

  5. Effects of biofeedback versus switch-triggered functional electrical stimulation on sciatica-related foot drop. (United States)

    Sardaru, Dragos Petrica; Matei, Daniela; Zaharia-Kezdi, Dan; Pendefunda, Liviu


    Sciatica-related Foot Drop is a peripheral nervous condition that produces a loss of power in the ankle dorsiflexion muscles. Functional electrical stimulation is a modality of electrical stimulation that produces muscle contraction in a functional movement of the limb. This technique was utilized with positive effects in central nervous afflictions but it is not known whether or not it has any influence in motor recovery following peripheral nervous system problems. This study aims to clarify the effects of functional electrical stimulation on foot drop caused by peripheral nerve compression resulting from lumbar disc herniation. Fifty patients were enrolled in our study; of whom 25 were treated with EMG triggered electrical stimulation (EMG-FES) and 25 with heel-floor sensor triggered electrical stimulation (SWITCH-FES) during normal gait cycle. Patients received functional electrical stimulation (with a pulse of 60 Hz and phase duration of 200 ms) once a day, for 30 minutes during 5 consecutive days, over a period of 4 weeks. Electrical diagnostic tests (nerve conduction velocity/NCV and the amplitude of compound muscle action potential/CMAP), dynamometry and Osvestry Disability Index scores were measured at baseline and after treatment. We found that axonal loss was lower in the EMG-FES group than in the SWITCH-FES group (pelectrical stimulation technique had a higher influence on the quality of the muscle action control. For patients who cannot yet produce minimal muscle active contraction we recommend switch triggered stimulation first and then, immediately after the recovery of the motor control, to change to EMG triggered functional electrical stimulation.

  6. Electrically tunable sign of capacitance in planar W-doped vanadium dioxide micro-switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Soltani, Mohamed Chaker and Joelle Margot


    Full Text Available Negative capacitance (NC in a planar W-doped VO2 micro-switch was observed at room temperature in the low-frequency range 1 kHz–10 MHz. The capacitance changed from positive to negative values as the W-doped VO2 active layer switched from semiconducting to metallic state under applied voltage. In addition, a capacitance–voltage hysteresis was observed as the applied voltage was cycled from −35 to 35 V. These observations suggest that NC results from the increase of the electrically induced conductivity in the active layer. This NC phenomenon could be exploited in advanced multifunctional devices including ultrafast switches, field-effect transistors and memcapacitive systems.

  7. A Soft-Switching Inverter for High-Temperature Advanced Hybrid Electric Vehicle Traction Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Jason [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Yu, Wensong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Sun, Pengwei [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Leslie, Scott [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Prusia, Duane [Powerex, Inc., Harrison, OH (United States); Arnet, Beat [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Smith, Chris [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States); Cogan, Art [Azure Dynamics, Oak Park, MI (United States)


    The state-of-the-art hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) require the inverter cooling system to have a separate loop to avoid power semiconductor junction over temperatures because the engine coolant temperature of 105°C does not allow for much temperature rise in silicon devices. The proposed work is to develop an advanced soft-switching inverter that will eliminate the device switching loss and cut down the power loss so that the inverter can operate at high-temperature conditions while operating at high switching frequencies with small current ripple in low inductance based permanent magnet motors. The proposed tasks also include high-temperature packaging and thermal modeling and simulation to ensure the packaged module can operate at the desired temperature. The developed module will be integrated with the motor and vehicle controller for dynamometer and in-vehicle testing to prove its superiority. This report will describe the detailed technical design of the soft-switching inverters and their test results. The experiments were conducted both in module level for the module conduction and switching characteristics and in inverter level for its efficiency under inductive and dynamometer load conditions. The performance will be compared with the DOE original specification.

  8. Switching individual quantum dot emission through electrically controlling resonant energy transfer to graphene. (United States)

    Lee, Jiye; Bao, Wei; Ju, Long; Schuck, P James; Wang, Feng; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander


    Electrically controlling resonant energy transfer of optical emitters provides a novel mechanism to switch nanoscale light sources on and off individually for optoelectronic applications. Graphene's optical transitions are tunable through electrostatic gating over a broad wavelength spectrum, making it possible to modulate energy transfer from a variety of nanoemitters to graphene at room temperature. We demonstrate photoluminescence switching of individual colloidal quantum dots by electrically tuning their energy transfer to graphene. The gate dependence of energy transfer modulation confirms that the transition occurs when the Fermi level is shifted over half the emitter's excitation energy. The modulation magnitude decreases rapidly with increasing emitter-graphene distance (d), following the 1/d(4) rate trend unique to the energy transfer process to two-dimensional materials.

  9. Coupled simulations of electric arcs for switching devices with MpCCI and ANSYS


    Bayrasy, Pascal


    Electric arcs occur in various industrial applications from melting, welding, and lighting to switching devices. The discharge phenomenon is governed by the magneto-hydrodynamic equations, considering the Lorentz forces, Ohmic heating and radiation transport. The resulting arc is coupled with the dynamics of the compressible flow of the gas. This simulation procedure is well established in the swichting devices industry. In the present case a multi-physics framework solution MpCCI is applied ...

  10. Development of High-Speed Switched Reluctance Motor for Electric Power Tools (United States)

    Nakamura, Kenji; Kumasaka, Yuya; Ichinokura, Osamu


    This paper presents design and experimental evaluation of a switched reluctance (SR) motor used for electric power tools. First, characteristics of a previous designed 6/4-pole SR motor is shown and compared to a permanent magnet (PM) motor used in present electric power tools. Next, to further improve characteristics, a 12/8-pole SR motor is designed and evaluated in experiment. It is proved that the performance of the prototype 12/8-pole SR motor is almost comparable or superior to the present PM motor.

  11. A regime-switching stochastic volatility model for forecasting electricity prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Exterkate, Peter; Knapik, Oskar

    In a recent review paper, Weron (2014) pinpoints several crucial challenges outstanding in the area of electricity price forecasting. This research attempts to address all of them by i) showing the importance of considering fundamental price drivers in modeling, ii) developing new techniques...... for probabilistic (i.e. interval or density) forecasting of electricity prices, iii) introducing an universal technique for model comparison. We propose new regime-switching stochastic volatility model with three regimes (negative jump, normal price, positive jump (spike)) where the transition matrix depends...

  12. Kinetics of Domain Switching by Mechanical and Electrical Stimulation in Relaxor-Based Ferroelectrics (United States)

    Chen, Zibin; Hong, Liang; Wang, Feifei; An, Xianghai; Wang, Xiaolin; Ringer, Simon; Chen, Long-Qing; Luo, Haosu; Liao, Xiaozhou


    Ferroelectric materials have been extensively explored for applications in high-density nonvolatile memory devices because of their ferroelectric-ferroelastic domain-switching behavior under electric loading or mechanical stress. However, the existence of ferroelectric and ferroelastic backswitching would cause significant data loss, which affects the reliability of data storage. Here, we apply in situ transmission electron microscopy and phase-field modeling to explore the unique ferroelastic domain-switching kinetics and the origin of this in relaxor-based Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-33 % PbTiO3 single-crystal pillars under electrical and mechanical stimulations. Results showed that the electric-mechanical hysteresis loop shifted for relaxor-based single-crystal pillars because of the low energy levels of domains in the material and the constraint on the pillars, resulting in various mechanically reversible and irreversible domain-switching states. The phenomenon can potentially be used for advanced bit writing and reading in nonvolatile memories, which effectively overcomes the backswitching problem and broadens the types of ferroelectric materials for nonvolatile memory applications.

  13. Marginal abatement cost curve for nitrogen oxides incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching. (United States)

    Loughlin, Daniel H; Macpherson, Alexander J; Kaufman, Katherine R; Keaveny, Brian N


    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs are typically developed by sorting control technologies by their relative cost-effectiveness. Other potentially important abatement measures such as renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching (RE/EE/FS) are often not incorporated into MACCs, as it is difficult to quantify their costs and abatement potential. In this paper, a U.S. energy system model is used to develop a MACC for nitrogen oxides (NO x ) that incorporates both traditional controls and these additional measures. The MACC is decomposed by sector, and the relative cost-effectiveness of RE/EE/FS and traditional controls are compared. RE/EE/FS are shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone. Furthermore, a portion of RE/EE/FS appear to be cost-competitive with traditional controls. Renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching can be cost-competitive with traditional air pollutant controls for abating air pollutant emissions. The application of renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching is also shown to have the potential to increase emission reductions beyond what is possible when applying traditional controls alone.

  14. Evaluation of ocular hazards due to electric arc flash at an in-line switch. (United States)

    Chou, B R; Cullen, A P


    We investigated the ocular damage resulting from operation of a solid blade pole-mounted in-line electrical switch at between 16 and 17 kV with current loads between 38 A and 340 A. Spectroradiometric data for the electric arcs produced as the switch was opened were obtained over the waveband 200 to 1500 nm. The eyes of adult pigmented rabbits were exposed to the arc flash at a distance of 2 m. The ocular tissues were assessed clinically and histologically up to 48 h postexposure. Threshold damage was clinically detectable only in eyes exposed to a 340 A arc. We conclude that at the normal current loads on a 17-kV electric power transmission line, the principal oculovisual hazards are due to molten metal fulminated from the switch by the arc, and after-images due to the bright visible light flash. At a working distance of 2 m, the ultraviolet ocular hazard is negligible. Adequate eye protection is provided by clear polycarbonate safety lenses.

  15. Electrically-driven chiroptical switches based on axially dissymmetric 1,1'-binaphthyl and electrochromic viologens: synthesis and optical properties. (United States)

    Deng, Jian; Song, Naiheng; Zhou, Qifeng; Su, Zhixing


    A novel redox type of chiral molecular switch based on axially dissymmetric 1,1'-binaphthyl and electrochromic 4,4'-bipyridinium exhibits drastic changes in absorption and circular dichroism spectra upon electrochemical redox reaction and is fully characterized for the electrically driven chiroptical switching properties.

  16. Electric polarization switching in an atomically thin binary rock salt structure (United States)

    Martinez-Castro, Jose; Piantek, Marten; Schubert, Sonja; Persson, Mats; Serrate, David; Hirjibehedin, Cyrus F.


    Inducing and controlling electric dipoles is hindered in the ultrathin limit by the finite screening length of surface charges at metal-insulator junctions1-3, although this effect can be circumvented by specially designed interfaces4. Heterostructures of insulating materials hold great promise, as confirmed by perovskite oxide superlattices with compositional substitution to artificially break the structural inversion symmetry5-8. Bringing this concept to the ultrathin limit would substantially broaden the range of materials and functionalities that could be exploited in novel nanoscale device designs. Here, we report that non-zero electric polarization can be induced and reversed in a hysteretic manner in bilayers made of ultrathin insulators whose electric polarization cannot be switched individually. In particular, we explore the interface between ionic rock salt alkali halides such as NaCl or KBr and polar insulating Cu2N terminating bulk copper. The strong compositional asymmetry between the polar Cu2N and the vacuum gap breaks inversion symmetry in the alkali halide layer, inducing out-of-plane dipoles that are stabilized in one orientation (self-poling). The dipole orientation can be reversed by a critical electric field, producing sharp switching of the tunnel current passing through the junction.

  17. Electric Drive Discrete Control System with Automatic Switching-On Reserve for Autonomous Settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsytovich L.I.


    Full Text Available The paper aims at developing of control the water supply system’s electric drives for autonomous settlement. The system provides automatic switching to a reserve control channel at refusal of any of the functional elements of the working regulation channel. Usually, such systems have a test signal generator and analyzer to system response to their impact. This result to an increase in the structural redundancy of the system, increase its cost and increase the requirements for the staff qualification. A specific feature of the system is its ability to self-diagnosis of catastrophic malfunctions of scheme’s components and an automatic switching-on the reserve control channels, without applying any test signals to the whole complex of electrical equipment. Multi-zone integrating regulator with frequency-pulse-width modulation realizes this technical solution. Control system structure and signals timing diagrams are presented. The construction principle of adaptive interval-code synchronization device with improved noise stability to control the voltage regulators serving for smooth start-up of asynchronous motors of water pumps is considered as well. Such solution allowing increase noise stability and reliability work of the system in conditions of limited power electrical networks, which is characteristic for the autonomous settlements. The article may be of interest to specialists in the field of power electronics and information electronics, electric drives and process automation.

  18. Nanoscale x-ray magnetic circular dichroism probing of electric-field-induced magnetic switching in multiferroic nanostructures (United States)

    Zhao, T.; Scholl, A.; Zavaliche, F.; Zheng, H.; Barry, M.; Doran, A.; Lee, K.; Cruz, M. P.; Ramesh, R.


    The magnetic structure as well as its response to an external electric field were studied in ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 nanopillars embedded in an epitaxial ferroelectric BiFeO3 film using photoemission electron microscopy and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism. Magnetic switching was observed in both Co and Fe magnetic sublattices after application of an electric field. About 50% of the CoFe2O4 nanopillars were measured to switch their magnetization with the electric field, implying an elastic-mediated electric-field-induced magnetic anisotropy change.

  19. Reversible electrical resistance switching in GeSbTe thin films : An electrolytic approach without amorphous-crystalline phase-change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Kooi, Bart J.; Palasantzas, George; De Hosson, Jeff Th. M.; Wouters, DJ; Hong, S; Soss, S; Auciello, O


    Besides the well-known resistance switching originating from the amorphous-crystalline phase-change in GeSbTe thin films, we demonstrate another switching mechanism named 'polarity-dependent resistance (PDR) switching'. 'Me electrical resistance of the film switches between a low- and high-state

  20. Cyclic Parameter Refinement of 4S-10 Hybrid Flux-Switching Motor for Lightweight Electric Vehicle (United States)

    Rani, J. Abd; Sulaiman, E.; Kumar, R.


    A great deal of attention has been given to the reduction of lighting the vehicle because the lighter the vehicle the energy consumption is comparatively low. Hence, the lightweight electric vehicle was introduced for lower carbon footprint and the sizing of the vehicle itself. One of the components to reduce the weight of the vehicle is the propulsion system which comprised of electric motor functioning as the source of torque to drive the propulsion system of the machine. This paper presents the refinement methodology for the optimized design of the 4S-10P E-Core hybrid excitation flux switching motor. The purpose of the refinement methodology is to improve the torque production of the optimized motor. The result of the successful improvement of the torque production is justifiable for a lightweight electric vehicle to drive the propulsion system.

  1. A Vector Autoregressive Model for Electricity Prices Subject to Long Memory and Regime Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Nielsen, Frank; Nielsen, Morten Ørregaard


    A regime dependent VAR model is suggested that allows long memory (fractional integration) in each of the regime states as well as the possibility of fractional cointegra- tion. The model is relevant in describing the price dynamics of electricity prices where the transmission of power is subject...... to occasional congestion periods. For a system of bilat- eral prices non-congestion means that electricity prices are identical whereas congestion makes prices depart. Hence, the joint price dynamics implies switching between essen- tially a univariate price process under non-congestion and a bivariate price...... process under congestion. At the same time it is an empirical regularity that electricity prices tend to show a high degree of fractional integration, and thus that prices may be fractionally cointegrated. An empirical analysis using Nord Pool data shows that even though the prices strongly co-move under...

  2. Directional Congestion and Regime Switching in a Long Memory Model for Electricity Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Nielsen, Morten Ø.

    The functioning of electricity markets has experienced increasing complexityas a result of deregulation in recent years. Consequently this affects the multilateral price behaviour across regions with physical exchange of power. It has been documented elsewhere that features such aslong memory...... and regime switching reflecting congestion and non-congestion periods are empirically relevant and hence are features that need to be taken into account when modeling price behavior. In the present paper we further elaborate on the co-existence of long memory and regime switches by focusing on the effect...... that the direction of possible congestion episodes has on the price dynamics. Under non-congestion prices are identical. The direction of possible congestion is identified by the region with excess demand of power through the sign of price differences and hence three different states can be considered: Non...

  3. Electromagnetic Analysis and Design of Switched Reluctance Double-Rotor Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouliang Han


    Full Text Available The double-rotor machine is a kind of multiple input and output electromechanical energy transducer with two electrical ports and two mechanical ports, which is an ideal transmission system for hybrid electric vehicles and has a series of advantages such as integration of power and energy, high efficiency and compaction. In this paper, a switched reluctance double-rotor machine (SRDRM is proposed for hybrid electric vehicles, while no conductor or PM in the middle rotor. This machine not only inherits the merits of switched reluctance machine, such as simple salient rotor structure, high reliability and wide speed range, but also can avoid the outer rotor’s cooling problem effectively. By using an equivalent magnetic circuit model, the function of middle rotor yoke is analyzed. Electromagnetic analyses of the SRDRM are performed with analytical calculations and 2-D finite element methods, including the effects of main parameters on performance. Finally, a 4.4 kW prototype machine is designed and manufactured, and the tests are performed, which validate the proposed design method.

  4. Negative differential conductance and hysteretic current switching of benzene molecular junction in a transverse electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Wen-Huan; Ding, Guo-Hui; Dong, Bing


    We study charge transport through single benzene molecular junction (BMJ) directly sandwiched between two platinum electrodes by using a tight-binding model and the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. Pronounced negative differential conductance is observed at finite bias voltage, resulting from charge redistribution in BMJ and a Coulomb blockade effect at the interface of molecule-electrode contacts. In the presence of a transverse electric field, hysteretic switching behavior and large spin-polarization of current are obtained, indicating the potential application of BMJ for acting as a nanoscale current modulator or spintronic molecular device. (paper)

  5. A Novel Concept of Short-Flux Path Switched Reluctance Motor for Electrical Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Diko


    Full Text Available This paper deals with the design of a novel Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM with short flux path for electrical vehicles. Design consists of the segmented water cooled stator with the toroidal winding and the rotor with salient poles also in a form of segments. The SRM dimensions have been calculated on the base of input requirements. The static and dynamic parameters of SRM are obtained from simulation models based on Finite element method and torque, power versus speed characteristics are presented.

  6. Modernization of the Electric Power Systems (transformers, rods and switches) in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Solarzano, J. J.; Gabaldon Martin, M. A.; Pallisa Nunez, J.; Florez Ordeonez, A.; Fernandez Corbeira, A.; Prieto Diez, I.


    Description of the changes made in the Electric Power Systems as a part of the power increase project in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico). The main electrical changes to make, besides the turbo group, are the main generation transformers, the isolated rods and the generation switch.

  7. Terahertz beam switching by electrical control of graphene-enabled tunable metasurface. (United States)

    Zhang, Yin; Feng, Yijun; Zhao, Junming; Jiang, Tian; Zhu, Bo


    Controlling the terahertz wave, especially the dynamical and full control of terahertz wavefront, is highly demanded due to the increasing development of practical devices and application systems. Recently considerable efforts have been made to fill the 'terahertz gap' with the help of artificial metamaterial or metasurface incorporated with graphene material. Here, we propose a scheme to design tunable metasurface consisting of metallic patch array on a grounded polymer substrate embedded with graphene layers to electrically control the electromagnetic beam reflection at terahertz frequency. By adjusting geometric dimension of the patch elements, 360 degree reflection phase range may be achieved, thus abrupt phase shifts can be introduced along the metasurface for tailoring the reflected wavefront. Moreover, the reflective phase gradient over the metasurface can be switched between 90 and 360 degree by controlling the Fermi energy of the embedded graphene through voltage biasing, hence dynamically switching the reflective beam directions. Numerical simulations demonstrate that either single beam or dual beam dynamically switching between normal and oblique reflection angles can be well attained at working frequency. The proposed approach will bring much freedom in the design of beam manipulation devices and may be applied to terahertz radiation control.

  8. A regime-switching copula approach to modeling day-ahead prices in coupled electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pircalabu, Anca; Benth, Fred Espen


    The recent price coupling of many European electricity markets has triggered a fundamental change in the interaction of day-ahead prices, challenging additionally the modeling of the joint behavior of prices in interconnected markets. In this paper we propose a regime-switching AR–GARCH copula...... to model pairs of day-ahead electricity prices in coupled European markets. While capturing key stylized facts empirically substantiated in the literature, this model easily allows us to 1) deviate from the assumption of normal margins and 2) include a more detailed description of the dependence between...... prices. We base our empirical study on four pairs of prices, namely Germany–France, Germany–Netherlands, Netherlands–Belgium and Germany–Western Denmark. We find that the marginal dynamics are better described by the flexible skew t distribution than the benchmark normal distribution. Also, we find...

  9. A programmable high voltage electrical switching analyzer for I-V characterization of phase change materials

    CERN Document Server

    Bhanu Prashanth, S B


    Ovonic Phase-Change Materials have found a renewed interest in the recent times owing to their applications in Non-Volatile Random Access Memories. In the present work, a cost-effective high voltage electrical switching analyzer has been developed to enable investigations on the I-V characteristics and electrical switching of bulk solids, which are necessary for identifying suitable materials for memory and other applications such as power control. The developed set up mainly consists of a PC based programmable High Voltage DC Power Supply which acts as an excitation source and a high speed Digital Storage Oscilloscope. For flexible control options, a Graphical User Interface has also been developed using LabVIEW-6i to control the excitation source through the analog outputs of a data acquisition card. Options are made in the system to sweep the output voltage from 45 to 1750 V or the output current in the range 0-45 mA with resolutions of 1.5 V & 5 or 50 μA at variable rates. I-V characteristics and swi...

  10. Interfacial motion in flexo- and order-electric switching between nematic filled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blow, M L; Telo da Gama, M M


    We consider a nematic liquid crystal, in coexistence with its isotropic phase, in contact with a substrate patterned with rectangular grooves. In such a system the nematic phase may fill the grooves without the occurrence of complete wetting. There may exist multiple (meta)stable filled states, each characterized by the type of distortion (bend or splay) in each corner of the groove and by the shape of the nematic–isotropic interface, and additionally the plateaux that separate the grooves may be either dry or wet with a thin layer of nematic. Using numerical simulations, we analyse the dynamical response of the system to an externally-applied electric field, with the aim of identifying switching transitions between these filled states. We find that order-electric coupling between the fluid and the field provides a means of switching between states where the plateaux between grooves are dry and states where they are wetted by a nematic layer, without affecting the configuration of the nematic within the groove. We find that flexoelectric coupling may change the nematic texture in the groove, provided that the flexoelectric coupling differentiates between the types of distortion at the corners of the substrate. We identify intermediate stages of the transitions, and the role played by the motion of the nematic–isotropic interface. We determine quantitatively the field magnitudes and orientations required to effect each type of transition. (paper)

  11. Electrical Characterization of Temperature Dependent Resistive Switching in Pr0.7C0.3MnO3 (United States)

    Lopez, Melinda; Salvo, Christopher; Tsui, Stephen


    Resistive switching offers a non-volatile and reversible means to possibly create a more physically compact yet larger access capacity in memory technology. While there has been a great deal of research conducted on this electrical property in oxide materials, there is still more to be learned about this at both high voltage pulsing and cryogenic temperatures. In this work, the electrical properties of a PCMO-metal interface switch were examined after application of voltage pulsing varying from 100 V to 1000 V and at temperatures starting at 293 K and lowered to 80 K. What was discovered was that below temperatures of 150 K, the resistive switching began to decrease across all voltage pulsing and that at all temperatures before this cessation, the change in resistive switching increased with higher voltage pulsing. We suggest that a variable density of charge traps at the interface is a likely mechanism, and work continues to extract more details.

  12. Room-Temperature Magnetic Switching of the Electric Polarization in Ferroelectric Nanopillars. (United States)

    Poddar, Shashi; de Sa, Pedro; Cai, Ronggang; Delannay, Laurent; Nysten, Bernard; Piraux, Luc; Jonas, Alain M


    Magnetoelectric layers with a strong coupling between ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism offer attractive opportunities for the design of new device architectures such as dual-channel memory and multiresponsive sensors and actuators. However, materials in which a magnetic field can switch an electric polarization are extremely rare, work most often only at very low temperatures, and/or comprise complex materials difficult to integrate. Here, we show that magnetostriction and flexoelectricity can be harnessed to strongly couple electric polarization and magnetism in a regularly nanopatterned magnetic metal/ferroelectric polymer layer, to the point that full reversal of the electric polarization can occur at room temperature by the sole application of a magnetic field. Experiments supported by finite element simulations demonstrate that magnetostriction produces large strain gradients at the base of the ferroelectric nanopillars in the magnetoelectric hybrid layer, translating by flexoelectricity into equivalent electric fields larger than the coercive field of the ferroelectric polymer. Our study shows that flexoelectricity can be advantageously used to create a very strong magnetoelectric coupling in a nanopatterned hybrid layer.

  13. Short Term Electric Production Technology Switching Under Carbon Cap and Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Larson


    Full Text Available This study examines fuel switching in electricity production following the introduction of the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS for greenhouse gas emissions. A short-run restricted cost equation is estimated with carbon permits, high-carbon fuels, and low carbon fuels as variable inputs. Shadow values and substitution elasticities for carbon-free energy resources from nuclear, hydroelectric and renewable sources are imputed from the cost equation. The empirical analysis examines 12 European countries using monthly data on fuel use, prices, and electricity generation during the first phase of the European Emissions Trading System. Despite low emission permit prices, this study finds statistically significant substitution between fossil fuels and carbon free sources of energy for electric power production. Significant substitution between fossil fuels and nuclear energy also was found. Still, while 18 of the 20 substitution elasticities are statistically significant, they are all less than unity, consistent with limited substitution. Overall, these results suggest that prices for carbon emission permits relative to prices for carbon and carbon free sources of energy do matter but that electric power producers have limited operational flexibility in the short-run to satisfy greenhouse gas emission limits.

  14. Nanomaterials-Enhanced Electrically Switched Ion Exchange Process for Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yuehe; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Jun; Bontha, Jagannadha R.


    The objective of our work is to develop an electrically switched ion exchange (ESIX) system based on conducting polymer/carbon nanotube (CNT) nanocomposites as a new and cost-effective approach for removal of radioactive cesium, chromate, and perchlorate from contaminated groundwater. The ESIX technology combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for the removal of target species from wastewater. In this technique, an electroactive ion exchange layer is deposited on a conducting substrate, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulation of the potential of the layer. ESIX offers the advantages of highly-efficient use of electrical energy combined with no secondary waste generation. Recently, we have improved upon the ESIX process by modifying the conducting substrate with carbon nanotubes prior to the deposition of the electroactive ion exchanger. The nanomaterial-based electroactive ion exchange technology will remove cesium-137, chromate, and perchlorate rapidly from wastewater. The high porosity and high surface area of the electroactive ion exchange nanocomposites results in high loading capacity and minimize interferences for non-target species. Since the ion adsorption/desorption is controlled electrically without generating a secondary waste, this electrically active ion exchange process is a green process technology that will greatly reduce operating costs

  15. Optimal recharging strategy for battery-switch stations for electric vehicles in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, M.; El Hajj Moussa, C.; Adnot, J.; Galli, A.; Riviere, P.


    Most papers that study the recharging of electric vehicles focus on charging the batteries at home and at the work-place. The alternative is for owners to exchange the battery at a specially equipped battery switch station (BSS). This paper studies strategies for the BSS to buy and sell the electricity through the day-ahead market. We determine what the optimal strategies would have been for a large fleet of EVs in 2010 and 2011, for the V2G and the G2V cases. These give the amount that the BSS should offer to buy or sell each hour of the day. Given the size of the fleet, the quantities of electricity bought and sold will displace the market equilibrium. Using the aggregate offers to buy and the bids to sell on the day-ahead market, we compute what the new prices and volumes transacted would be. While buying electricity for the G2V case incurs a cost, it would have been possible to generate revenue in the V2G case, if the arrivals of the EVs had been evenly spaced during the day. Finally, we compare the total cost of implementing the strategies with the cost of buying the same quantity of electricity from EDF. - Highlights: • Optimal strategies for buying/selling electricity through day-ahead auction market. • Given fleet size power bought and sold would change market price and volume. • New prices computed using aggregate offers to buy/sell power in 2010 and 2011. • Timing of arrival of EVs critical in V2G case. If evenly spaced BSS makes money. • Strategies are very robust even when French and German markets were coupled Nov. 2010

  16. Facile synthesis and electrical switching properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Haining; Liu, Dongqing, E-mail:; Cheng, Haifeng; Yang, Lixiang; Zhang, Chaoyang; Zheng, Wenwei


    Highlights: • Single crystal uniform V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders have been synthesized without additional surfactant. • Powders were obtained in only 6 h. • Powders exhibit reversible phase transition properties. • Powders have excellent electrical switching properties with resistance changes as large as 10{sup 4}. - Abstract: V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were synthesized with mercaptoacetic acid (C{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}S) as reducing agent and stabilizer via a facile hydrothermal approach. The crystalline structure, surface morphology, valence state of the derived V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were characterized via X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. It was found that the ratio and reaction time played a duel role in the formation and morphology of the V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders. The metal-insulator transition properties of V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were studied by the differential scanning calorimetry curve and variable temperature Raman spectra. The change in electrical resistance due to the metal-insulator transition was measured from 80 to 240 K using physical property measurement system. The results showed V{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples had excellent electrical switching properties with resistance changes as large as 10{sup 4}. This simple and fast synthesis approach makes the V{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders easily accessible for exploring their fundamental properties and potential applications in novel electronic devices.

  17. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy


    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  18. Coexistence of electric field controlled ferromagnetism and resistive switching for TiO{sub 2} film at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Shaoqing; Qin, Hongwei; Bu, Jianpei; Zhu, Gengchang; Xie, Jihao; Hu, Jifan, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory for Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)


    The Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag device exhibits the coexistence of electric field controlled ferromagnetism and resistive switching at room temperature. The bipolar resistive switching in Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}/Ag device may be dominated by the modulation of Schottky-like barrier with the electron injection-trapped/detrapped process at the interface of TiO{sub 2}/Nb:SrTiO{sub 3}. We suggest that the electric field-induced magnetization modulation originates mainly from the creation/annihilation of lots of oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2}.

  19. Impact of variable renewable production on electricity prices in Germany: a Markov switching model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin de Lagarde, Cyril; Lantz, Frederic


    This paper aims at assessing the impact of renewable energy sources (RES) production on electricity spot prices. To do so, we use a two-regime Markov Switching (MS) model, that enables to disentangle the so-called 'merit-order effect' due to wind and solar photovoltaic productions (used in relative share of the electricity demand), depending on the price being high or low. We find that there are effectively two distinct price regimes that are put to light thanks to an inverse hyperbolic sine transformation that allows to treat negative prices. We also show that these two regimes coincide quite well with two regimes for the electricity demand (load). Indeed, when demand is low, prices are low and the merit-order effect is lower than when prices are high, which is consistent with the fact that the inverse supply curve is convex (i.e. has increasing slope). To illustrate this, we computed the mean marginal effects of RES production and load. On average, an increase of 1 GW of wind will decrease the price in regime 1 (resp. 2) by 0.77 euro /MWh (resp. 1 euro /MWh). The influence of solar is slightly weaker, as an extra gigawatt lowers the price of 0.73 euro /MWh in period 1, and 0.96 euro /MWh in regime 2. On the contrary, if the demand increases by 1 GW in regime 1 (resp. 2), the price increases on average by 0.93 euro /MWh (resp. 1.18 euro /MWh). Although we made sure these marginal effects are significantly different from one another, they are much more variable than the estimated coefficients of the model. Also, note that these marginal effects are only valid inside each regime when there is no switching. The latter regime partly corresponds to the high load regime, at the exception of periods during which RES production is high. The impact on volatility could also be observed: the variance of the (transformed) price is higher during the high-price regime than in the low-price one. In addition to the switching of the coefficients, we allowed the

  20. Electric field induced strain, switching and energy storage behaviour of lead free Barium Zirconium Titanate ceramic (United States)

    Badapanda, T.; Chaterjee, S.; Mishra, Anupam; Ranjan, Rajeev; Anwar, S.


    There is a huge demand of lead-free high performance ceramics with large strain, low hysteresis loss and high-energy storage ability at room temperature. In this context, we investigated the large electric field induced strain, switching behaviour and energy storage properties of BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3 ceramic (BZT) prepared by high energy ball milling technique, reportedly exhibiting a triple point transition near the room temperature. The X-ray diffraction of the BZT ceramic confirms orthorhombic symmetry with space group Amm2 at room temperature. The room temperature dielectric study reveals that there is a negligible variation of dielectric constant and dielectric loss with frequency. The polarization behaviour at various applied electric fields was studied and the energy storage densities were obtained from the integral area of P-E loops. Electric field induced strain behaviour has been studied with due emphasis on the electrostrictive response at room temperature. The ferroelectric and electromechanical properties derived from the P-E and S-E loops suggest that the present ceramic encompass the properties of actuation and energy storage simultaneously.

  1. Vibration effect and control of In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor for electric vehicle (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Li, Yinong; Huang, Jingying; Zhang, Nong


    The Switched Reluctance Motor (SRM) processes favorable driving capacity and great application potential in In-Wheel Motor (IWM) Electric Vehicle (EV). However vibration and noise problems are always the disadvantages of SRM. This paper investigates the vibration and noise issues and corresponding control methodology for the IWM application of SRM. By utilizing the analytical Fourier fitting method, a convenience method for modeling In-Wheel Switched Reluctance Motor (IW SRM) is proposed and the characteristics of the unbalanced residual lateral force related to vibration excitation are analyzed. Then the dynamic negative effect of IW SRM on vehicle is analyzed with a quarter driving and vibration vehicle model. It is found that the vertical shock occurs under the vehicle starting condition and high frequency force excitation exists under the constant speed condition. To address these issues, corresponding control methods are proposed, modified and compared. The proposed combined vibration feedback control of current chopping with PWM can effectively reduce the SRM residual force and ensure the required vehicle speed, though some slight low frequency forces are induced.

  2. Magnetization switching in a CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction by combining spin-transfer torque and electric field-effect (United States)

    Kanai, S.; Nakatani, Y.; Yamanouchi, M.; Ikeda, S.; Sato, H.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.


    We propose and demonstrate a scheme for magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions, in which two successive voltage pulses are applied to utilize both spin-transfer torque and electric field effect. Under this switching scheme, a CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular magnetic easy axis is shown to switch faster than by spin-transfer torque alone and more reliably than that by electric fields alone.

  3. The Control of Fluxes of Electric Power in Networks by Means of Phase-switching Booster Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govorov F.P.


    Full Text Available roblems of increasing the efficiency of the operation of electrical networks based on the utilization of booster transformers (BT with electronic control, applied on the base of active elements in smart electric grids of power systems and giving the function of automatic correction of the parameters of the network, assuring the conditions of optimal common operation are studied in the paper. The mathematic model of the processes in the electric networks with booster transformer has been developed; the opportunity of control by means of the phase-switching BT for power fluxes in the networks has been established. It has been shown that for the groups of switching the windings 1-5 of BT occurs additional consumption of power from the supply network, but for the groups 7-11 its recuperation to the load network. Respectively, switching the windings of BT to the group 1-5 assures the shift of load current to the direction of lag, but in the case of switching to the group 7-11 – towards the outrunning. Wherein, for the groups of switching 10-11 and 1-2 one can observe the increasing of the voltage at the output of BT, but for the groups 7-8 and 4-5 it is decreasing. Based on the analysis of the results of research the diagram and constructive models of the transformer have been proposed. The quasi-stationary and transient regimes were investigated and the conditions of reliable operation at these the regimes have been determined. The ways for increasing the efficient common operation for the transformer and network in the case of switching the thyristors into the circuit of the primary winding of the transformer have been proposed.

  4. Stackelberg Game Model of Wind Farm and Electric Vehicle Battery Switch Station (United States)

    Jiang, Zhe; Li, Zhimin; Li, Wenbo; Wang, Mingqiang; Wang, Mengxia


    In this paper, a cooperation method between wind farm and Electric vehicle battery switch station (EVBSS) was proposed. In the pursuit of maximizing their own benefits, the cooperation between wind farm and EVBSS was formulated as a Stackelberg game model by treating them as decision makers in different status. As the leader, wind farm will determine the charging/discharging price to induce the charging and discharging behavior of EVBSS reasonably. Through peak load shifting, wind farm could increase its profits by selling more wind power to the power grid during time interval with a higher purchase price. As the follower, EVBSS will charge or discharge according to the price determined by wind farm. Through optimizing the charging /discharging strategy, EVBSS will try to charge with a lower price and discharge with a higher price in order to increase its profits. Since the possible charging /discharging strategy of EVBSS is known, the wind farm will take the strategy into consideration while deciding the charging /discharging price, and will adjust the price accordingly to increase its profits. The case study proved that the proposed cooperation method and model were feasible and effective.

  5. Intra-day and regime-switching dynamics in electricity price formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakatsani, Nektaria V.; Bunn, Derek W.


    This paper analyses the complex, non-linear effects of spot price drivers in wholesale electricity markets: their intra-day dynamics and transient irregularities. The context is the UK market, after the reforms introduced in March 2001, analysed with an original set of price drivers reflecting economic, technical, strategic, risk, behavioural and market design effects. Models are estimated separately as daily time-series of the 48 half-hourly trading periods. All coefficients exhibit substantial intra-day variation, relating to the heterogeneity of operating plants and market design aspects. This reveals a market responding to economic fundamentals and plant operating properties, with learning and emergent financial characteristics, as well as some strategic manipulation of capacity, most effectively exercised by the more flexible plants. Using regime-switching parameters, the effects of capacity margin and inter-day capacity adjustment are elucidated, suggesting rent-seeking behaviour, despite the relatively low prices at the time. Overall, high-frequency, aggregate fundamental price models can usefully uncover critical aspects of market performance, evolution and agent behaviour. (author)

  6. Electrical switch to the resonant magneto-phonon effect in graphene. (United States)

    Leszczynski, Przemyslaw; Han, Zheng; Nicolet, Aurelien A L; Piot, Benjamin A; Kossacki, Piotr; Orlita, Milan; Bouchiat, Vincent; Basko, Denis M; Potemski, Marek; Faugeras, Clement


    We report a comprehensive study of the tuning with electric fields of the resonant magneto-exciton optical phonon coupling in gated graphene. For magnetic fields around B ∼ 25 T that correspond to the range of the fundamental magneto-phonon resonance, the electron-phonon coupling can be switched on and off by tuning the position of the Fermi level in order to Pauli block the two fundamental inter-Landau level excitations. The effects of such a profound change in the electronic excitation spectrum are traced through investigations of the optical phonon response in polarization resolved magneto-Raman scattering experiments. We report on the observation of a splitting of the phonon feature with satellite peaks developing at particular values of the Landau level filling factor on the low or on the high energy side of the phonon, depending on the relative energy of the discrete electronic excitation and of the optical phonon. Shifts of the phonon energy as large as ±60 cm(-1) are observed close to the resonance. The intraband electronic excitation, the cyclotron resonance, is shown to play a relevant role in the observed spectral evolution of the phonon response.

  7. Electric-field-induced magnetization switching in CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with high junction resistance (United States)

    Kanai, S.; Matsukura, F.; Ohno, H.


    We show the electric-field induced magnetization switching for CoFeB/MgO magnetic tunnel junctions with thick MgO barrier layer of 2.8 nm, whose resistance-area product is 176 kΩ μm2, and achieve the small switching energy of 6.3 fJ/bit. The increase of the junction resistance is expected to suppress the energy consumption due to the Joule heating during the switching; however, the energy is still dominated by the Joule energy rather than the charging energy. This is because the junction resistance decreases more rapidly for junctions with thicker MgO as bias voltage increases.

  8. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jiquan [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)


    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  9. Column Generation for Transmission Switching of Electricity Networks with Unit Commitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, Andy B.


    This paper presents the problem of finding the minimum cost dispatch and commitment of power generation units in a transmission network with active switching.We use the term active switching to denote the use of switches to optimize network topology in an operational context. We propose a Dantzig......-Wolfe reformulation and a novel column generation framework to solve the problem efficiently. Preliminary results are presented for the IEEE-118 bus network with 19 generator units. Active switching is shown to reduce total cost by up to 15 % for a particular 24-hour period. Furthermore, the need for generator...

  10. Dipolar molecules inside C-70: an electric field-driven room-temperature single-molecule switch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foroutan-Nejad, C.; Andrushchenko, Valery; Straka, Michal


    Roč. 18, č. 48 (2016), s. 32673-32677 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-03564S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : room-temperature single-molecule switch * electric field * endohedral fullerene * density functional calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  11. Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule interfaces studied by electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Pan Lijia; Pu Lin; Shi Yi; Liu Chuan; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito


    Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule (SAM) interfaces is studied by the electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure, where interfacial charge trapping tunes the potential barrier of the SAM layer. The sample with rubrene exhibits the write-once read-many-times memory effect, which is due to the interfacial charges trapped at deep states. On the other hand, the sample with 2-amino-4,5-dicyanoimidazole presents recyclable conduction transition, which results from the trapped charges distributed at shallow states. Moreover, the percentage of the charges trapped at shallow states can be estimated from electrical transition levels. (paper)

  12. Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule interfaces studied by electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure (United States)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Chuan; Pan, Lijia; Pu, Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Shi, Yi


    Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule (SAM) interfaces is studied by the electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure, where interfacial charge trapping tunes the potential barrier of the SAM layer. The sample with rubrene exhibits the write-once read-many-times memory effect, which is due to the interfacial charges trapped at deep states. On the other hand, the sample with 2-amino-4,5-dicyanoimidazole presents recyclable conduction transition, which results from the trapped charges distributed at shallow states. Moreover, the percentage of the charges trapped at shallow states can be estimated from electrical transition levels.

  13. Torque Coordination Control during Braking Mode Switch for a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang


    Full Text Available Hybrid vehicles usually have several braking systems, and braking mode switches are significant events during braking. It is difficult to coordinate torque fluctuations caused by mode switches because the dynamic characteristics of braking systems are different. In this study, a new type of plug-in hybrid vehicle is taken as the research object, and braking mode switches are divided into two types. The control strategy of type one is achieved by controlling the change rates of clutch hold-down and motor braking forces. The control strategy of type two is achieved by simultaneously changing the target braking torque during different mode switch stages and controlling the motor to participate in active coordination control. Finally, the torque coordination control strategy is modeled in MATLAB/Simulink, and the results show that the proposed control strategy has a good effect in reducing the braking torque fluctuation and vehicle shocks during braking mode switches.

  14. Laboratory and field tests on photo-electric probes and ultrasonic Doppler flow switch for remote control of turbidity and flowrate of a water-sand mixture flow (United States)

    Pellegrini, M.; Saccani, C.


    The paper describes the experimental apparatus and field tests carried on to remotely control through non-invasive and non-intrusive instruments turbidity and flowrate of a water-sand mixture flow conveyed by a pipeline. The mixture flow was produced by an innovative plant for seabed management. The turbidity was monitored by thru-beam infra-red photo-electric sensors, while flowrate was monitored by an ultrasonic Doppler flow switch. In a first phase, a couple of photo-electric sensors and a mechanical flow switch were preliminary tested in laboratory to verify installations concerns and measurement repeatability and precision. After preliminary test completion, photo-electric sensors and mechanical flow switch were installed in the real scale plant. Since the mechanical flow switch did not reach high reliability, an ultrasonic Doppler flow switch was identified and tested as alternative. Then, two couple of photo-electric sensors and ultrasonic Doppler flow switch were installed and tested on two pipelines of the plant. Turbidity and minimum flow signals produced by the instruments were integrated in the PLC logic for the automatic management of the plant. The paper also shows how ultrasonic Doppler flow switch measurement repeatability was negatively affected by the presence of the other ultrasonic Doppler flow switch working in a close pipeline and installed inside a steel casing.

  15. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    which removes the heat produced In the core and the colis. I represents an Isolator which is a kind of. 'switch' used to isolate the station from the grid. Note the huge Insulators (marked I) that are used. The steel structures marked S support the conductors through insulators (courtesy: Kirloskar Electric Company, Bangalore).

  16. In Situ Observation of Reversible Nanomagnetic Switching Induced by Electric Fields (United States)


    theory firmly establishes aconnection between electric and magnetic fieldswhen either has an explicit time dependence, but magnetism and electricity...implementation of this electrically tunable uniaxial anisotropy. Demonstrated and proposed MRAM technologies make use of either Oersted fields21,22 or spin

  17. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix D, Conservation, Load Management and Fuel Switching Analysis : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.


    Various conservation, load management, and fuel switching programs were considered as ways to reduce or shift system peak load. These programs operate at the end-use level, such as residential water heat. Figure D-1a shows what electricity consumption for water heat looks like on normal and extreme peak days. Load management programs, such as water heat control, are designed to reduce electricity consumption at the time of system peak. On the coldest day in average winter, system load peaks near 8:00 a.m. In a winter with extremely cold weather, electricity consumption increases fr all hours, and the system peak shifts to later in the morning. System load shapes in the Puget Sound area are shown in Figure D-1b for a normal winter peak day (February 2, 1988) and extreme peak day (February 3, 1989). Peak savings from any program are calculated to be the reduction in loads on the entire system at the hour of system peak. Peak savings for all programs are measured at 8:00 a.m. on a normal peak day and 9:00 a.m. on an extreme peak day. On extremely cold day, some water heat load shifts to much later in the morning, with less load available for shedding at the time of system peak. Models of hourly end-use consumption were constructed to simulate the impact of conservation, land management, and fuel switching programs on electricity consumption. Javelin, a time-series simulating package for personal computers, was chosen for the hourly analysis. Both a base case and a program case were simulated. 15 figs., 7 tabs.

  18. Design study and performance analysis of 12S-14P field excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicle (United States)

    Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Khan, Faisal; Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed


    This paper presents a new structure of 12slot-14pole field excitation flux switching motor (FEFSM) as an alternative candidate of non-Permanent Magnet (PM) machine for HEV drives. Design study, performance analysis and optimization of field excitation flux switching machine with non-rare-earth magnet for hybrid electric vehicle drive applications is done. The stator of projected machine consists of iron core made of electromagnetic steels, armature coils and field excitation coils as the only field mmf source. The rotor is consisted of only stack of iron and hence, it is reliable and appropriate for high speed operation. The design target is a machine with the maximum torque, power and power density, more than 210Nm, 123kW and 3.5kW/kg, respectively, which competes with interior permanent magnet synchronous machine used in existing hybrid electric vehicle. Some design feasibility studies on FEFSM based on 2D-FEA and deterministic optimization method will be applied to design the proposed machine.

  19. Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of a Switched Reluctance Motor in a Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle


    Siavash Sadeghi; Mojtaba Mirsalim; Arash Hassanpour Isfahani


    Dynamic behavior analysis of electric motors is required in order to accuratelyevaluate the performance, energy consumption and pollution level of hybrid electricvehicles. Simulation tools for hybrid electric vehicles are divided into steady state anddynamic models. Tools with steady-state models are useful for system-level analysiswhereas tools that utilize dynamic models give in-depth information about the behavior ofsublevel components. For the accurate prediction of hybrid electric vehicl...

  20. Involvement of the middle frontal gyrus in language switching as revealed by electrical stimulation mapping and functional magnetic resonance imaging in bilingual brain tumor patients. (United States)

    Sierpowska, Joanna; Fernandez-Coello, Alejandro; Gomez-Andres, Alba; Camins, Àngels; Castañer, Sara; Juncadella, Montserrat; Gabarrós, Andreu; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni


    Neural basis of language switching and the cognitive models of bilingualism remain controversial. We explored the functional neuroanatomy of language switching implementing a new multimodal protocol assessing neuropsychological, functional magnetic resonance and intraoperative electrical stimulation mapping results. A prospective series of 9 Spanish-Catalan bilingual candidates for awake brain surgery underwent a specific language switching paradigm implemented both before and after surgery, throughout the electrical stimulation procedure and during functional magnetic resonance both pre- and postoperatively. All patients were harboring left-hemispheric intrinsic brain lesions and were presenting functional language-related activations within the affected hemisphere. Language functional maps were reconstructed on the basis of the intraoperative electrical stimulation results and compared to the functional magnetic resonance findings. Single language-naming sites (Spanish and Catalan), as well as language switching naming sites were detected by electrical stimulation mapping in 8 patients (in one patient only Spanish related sites were detected). Single naming points outnumbered the switching points and did not overlap with each other. Within the frontal lobe, the single language naming sites were found significantly more frequently within the inferior frontal gyrus as compared to the middle frontal gyrus [X 2 (1) = 20.3, p electrical stimulation mapping findings. After surgery, patients did not report involuntary language switching and their neuropsychological scores did not differ significantly from the pre-surgical examinations. Our results suggest a functional division of the frontal cortex between naming and language switching functions, supporting that non-language specific cognitive control prefrontal regions (middle frontal gyrus) are essential to maintain an effective communication together with the classical language-related sites (inferior frontal

  1. An ultrafast programmable electrical tester for enabling time-resolved, sub-nanosecond switching dynamics and programming of nanoscale memory devices (United States)

    Shukla, Krishna Dayal; Saxena, Nishant; Manivannan, Anbarasu


    Recent advancements in commercialization of high-speed non-volatile electronic memories including phase change memory (PCM) have shown potential not only for advanced data storage but also for novel computing concepts. However, an in-depth understanding on ultrafast electrical switching dynamics is a key challenge for defining the ultimate speed of nanoscale memory devices that demands for an unconventional electrical setup, specifically capable of handling extremely fast electrical pulses. In the present work, an ultrafast programmable electrical tester (PET) setup has been developed exceptionally for unravelling time-resolved electrical switching dynamics and programming characteristics of nanoscale memory devices at the picosecond (ps) time scale. This setup consists of novel high-frequency contact-boards carefully designed to capture extremely fast switching transient characteristics within 200 ± 25 ps using time-resolved current-voltage measurements. All the instruments in the system are synchronized using LabVIEW, which helps to achieve various programming characteristics such as voltage-dependent transient parameters, read/write operations, and endurance test of memory devices systematically using short voltage pulses having pulse parameters varied from 1 ns rise/fall time and 1.5 ns pulse width (full width half maximum). Furthermore, the setup has successfully demonstrated strikingly one order faster switching characteristics of Ag5In5Sb60Te30 (AIST) PCM devices within 250 ps. Hence, this novel electrical setup would be immensely helpful for realizing the ultimate speed limits of various high-speed memory technologies for future computing.

  2. Switching of Magnons by Electric and Magnetic Fields in Multiferroic Borates (United States)

    Kuzmenko, A. M.; Szaller, D.; Kain, Th.; Dziom, V.; Weymann, L.; Shuvaev, A.; Pimenov, Anna; Mukhin, A. A.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Gudim, I. A.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Pimenov, A.


    Electric manipulation of magnetic properties is a key problem of materials research. To fulfill the requirements of modern electronics, these processes must be shifted to high frequencies. In multiferroic materials, this may be achieved by electric and magnetic control of their fundamental excitations. Here we identify magnetic vibrations in multiferroic iron borates that are simultaneously sensitive to external electric and magnetic fields. Nearly 100% modulation of the terahertz radiation in an external field is demonstrated for SmFe3 (BO3)4 . High sensitivity can be explained by a modification of the spin orientation that controls the excitation conditions in multiferroic borates. These experiments demonstrate the possibility to alter terahertz magnetic properties of materials independently by external electric and magnetic fields.

  3. Fast magnetization switching in GaMnAs induced by electrical fields

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balestriere, P.; Devolder, T.; Kim, J.-V.; Lecoeur, P.; Wunderlich, Joerg; Novák, Vít; Jungwirth, Tomáš; Chappert, C.


    Roč. 99, č. 24 (2011), 242505/1-242505/3 ISSN 0003-6951 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E08087 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 214499 - NAMASTE; European Commission(XE) 268066 - 0MSPIN Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) AP0801 Program:Akademická prémie - Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : magnet ization switching * ferromagnetic semiconductors Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnet ism Impact factor: 3.844, year: 2011

  4. Fast electrical switching of spin injection in nonlocal spin transport devices (United States)

    Fuhrer, A.; Alvarado, S. F.; Salis, G.; Allenspach, R.


    We present spin-injection experiments in a nonlocal spin transport device where spin is injected from a ferromagnetic FeCo electrode into a GaAs epilayer. The magnetization of the injection contact is switched by Oersted fields generated by alternating current pulses. This enables fast and offset-free measurements of nonlocal spin signals. Due to a negligible time-averaged electron spin polarization, dynamic nuclear polarization effects are small and Hanle curves measured down to T =3 K can be fit very accurately by drift-diffusion theory if a small constant Overhauser field BN=0.4 mT is accounted for.

  5. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)


    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  6. Design comparison of single phase outer and inner-rotor hybrid excitation flux switching motor for hybrid electric vehicles (United States)

    Mazlan, Mohamed Mubin Aizat; Sulaiman, Erwan; Husin, Zhafir Aizat; Othman, Syed Muhammad Naufal Syed; Khan, Faisal


    In hybrid excitation machines (HEMs), there are two main flux sources which are permanent magnet (PM) and field excitation coil (FEC). These HEMs have better features when compared with the interior permanent magnet synchronous machines (IPMSM) used in conventional hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Since all flux sources including PM, FEC and armature coils are located on the stator core, the rotor becomes a single piece structure similar with switch reluctance machine (SRM). The combined flux generated by PM and FEC established more excitation fluxes that are required to produce much higher torque of the motor. In addition, variable DC FEC can control the flux capabilities of the motor, thus the machine can be applied for high-speed motor drive system. In this paper, the comparisons of single-phase 8S-4P outer and inner rotor hybrid excitation flux switching machine (HEFSM) are presented. Initially, design procedures of the HEFSM including parts drawing, materials and conditions setting, and properties setting are explained. Flux comparisons analysis is performed to investigate the flux capabilities at various current densities. Then the flux linkages of PM with DC FEC of various DC FEC current densities are examined. Finally torque performances are analyzed at various armature and FEC current densities for both designs. As a result, the outer-rotor HEFSM has higher flux linkage of PM with DC FEC and higher average torque of approximately 10% when compared with inner-rotor HEFSM.

  7. Three-Phase High-Power and Zero-Current-Switching OBC for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Shan Wang


    Full Text Available In this paper, an interleaved high-power zero-current-switching (ZCS onboard charger (OBC based on the three-phase single-switch buck rectifier is proposed for application to plug-in electric vehicles (EVs. The multi-resonant structure is used to achieve high efficiency and high power density, which are necessary to reduce the volume and weight of the OBC. This study focuses on the border conditions of ZCS converting with a battery load, which means the variation ranges of the output voltage and current are very large. Furthermore, a novel hybrid control method combining pulse frequency modulation (PFM and pulse width modulation (PWM together is presented to ensure a driving frequency higher than 10 kHz, and this will reduce the unexpected inner resonant power flow and decrease the total harmonic distortion (THD of the input current under a light load at the end of the charging process. Finally, a prototype is established, and experiments are carried out. According to the experimental results, the conversion efficiency is higher than 93.5%, the THD about 4.3% and power factor (PF 0.98 under the maximum power output condition. Besides, a three-stage charging process is also carried out the experimental platform.

  8. Multiobjective optimal placement of switches and protective devices in electric power distribution systems using ant colony optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippachon, Wiwat; Rerkpreedapong, Dulpichet [Department of Electrical Engineering, Kasetsart University, 50 Phaholyothin Rd., Ladyao, Jatujak, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand)


    This paper presents a multiobjective optimization methodology to optimally place switches and protective devices in electric power distribution networks. Identifying the type and location of them is a combinatorial optimization problem described by a nonlinear and nondifferential function. The multiobjective ant colony optimization (MACO) has been applied to this problem to minimize the total cost while simultaneously minimize two distribution network reliability indices including system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI) and system interruption duration index (SAIDI). Actual distribution feeders are used in the tests, and test results have shown that the algorithm can determine the set of optimal nondominated solutions. It allows the utility to obtain the optimal type and location of devices to achieve the best system reliability with the lowest cost. (author)

  9. Electrically tunable switching based on photonic-crystal waveguide loaded graphene stacks (United States)

    Liu, Hanqing; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Li-an; Liu, Chenxi; Zhou, Qihui; Dong, Yanfei


    Through applying gate voltage to tune the chemical potential of graphene, the relative permittivity of multilayer graphene/Al2O3 stack can be dynamically adjusted over a wide range. In this paper, we mainly design novel photonic-crystal waveguides based on graphene stacks including a side-coupled waveguide with two defect cavities as well as a two-channel multiport waveguide, and aim to modulate the propagation of incident light wave via controlling the permittivity of graphene stack. It is demonstrated according to simulations that tunable switching property can be achieved in our proposed structures, such as blue shift of resonant stopband, adjustable coupled-resonator-induced transparency, and tunability of output quantity. These results could be very instructive for the potential applications in high-density integrated optical devices, photoelectric transducer, and laser pulse limiters.

  10. Electric field as a novel switch for magnetization of Fe/graphene system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Kyung-Han; Lee, Minho; Chung, Yong-Chae


    The magnetic property of a graphene-adsorbed Fe adatom was observed under an external electric field effect (−0.3–0.3 eV/Å) using density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In this study, it was demonstrated that the magnetic moment of Fe on graphene was changed linearly according to the electric field. The density of states and differential planar-averaged charge-density indicated that the changing electronic structure was due to a redistribution of valence electrons under external electric field that induces a continuous change in the localized magnetic moment of the Fe adatom. This research suggests that the magnetic property of the adatom on graphene is tunable by an electric field. Furthermore, these results may be applicable to the spintronic memory device industry. - Highlights: • E-field effect on the magnetic property of Fe/graphene was investigated. • Magnetic moment of Fe adatom changed continuously according to E-field. • Change in magnetic property is caused by the charge redistribution in Fe/graphene system. • Understanding of E-field effect offers a clear view for spintronics applications

  11. Hydrogen-induced electrical and optical switching in Pd capped Pr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. In this study, modification in the properties of hydrogen-induced switchable mirror based on Pr nanoparticle layers is reported. The reversible changes in hydrogen-induced electrical and optical properties of Pd capped Pr nanoparticle layers have been studied as a function of hydrogenation time and compared.

  12. Control Methods of the Switched Reluctance Motor in Electric Vehicle During Acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy El Sayed ABDEL-KADER


    Full Text Available In this paper, the equations describing the performance of the electric vehicle are derived. Performance characteristics for each part in the vehicle system are obtained when the vehicle is accelerated under voltage, turn on and turn off angle control. A comparison between the different methods of control is established.

  13. Tailored emails prompt electric vehicle owners to engage with tariff switching information (United States)

    Nicolson, Moira; Huebner, Gesche M.; Shipworth, David; Elam, Simon


    The carbon intensity of the electricity used to charge an electric vehicle (EV) is dependent on when in the day charging occurs. However, persuading EV owners to adopt incentives to charge during off-peak hours is challenging. Here we show that governments could exploit the 'window of opportunity' created when people purchase their first EV to promote time-of-use tariffs. Email recipients (n = 7,038 EV owners) were more likely to click-through to an information webpage when the email emphasized specific reductions in home-charging costs versus general bill savings. However, the 'window of opportunity' for maximizing potential adoption is short; email open rates declined from over 70% immediately after purchase to 40% for recipients owning their EV for over three months. These results demonstrate the potential of prompts to change behaviours for which opt-out enrolment (where enrolment is automatic unless people explicitly opt out) would be unethical or less effective.

  14. Switched causual modeling of transmission with clutch in hybrid electric vehicles




    Certain difficulties arise when attempting to model a clutch in a power train transmission due to its nonlinear behavior. Two different states have to be taken into account-the first being when the clutch is locked and the second being when the clutch is slipping. In this paper, a clutch model is developed using the Energetic Macroscopic Representation, which is, in turn, used in the modeling of complete hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Two different models are used, and a specific condition ...

  15. Use of Rapid Reduced Electric Field Switching to Enhance Compound Specificity for Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry. (United States)

    González-Méndez, Ramón; Watts, Peter; Reich, D Fraser; Mullock, Stephen J; Cairns, Stuart; Hickey, Peter; Brookes, Matthew; Mayhew, Chris Anthony


    The high sensitivity of Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) makes it a suitable analytical tool for detecting trace compounds. Its specificity is primarily determined by the accuracy of identifying the m/z of the product ions specific to a particular compound. However, specificity can be enhanced by changing the product ions (concentrations and types) through modifying the reduced electric field. For current PTR-MS systems this is not possible for trace compounds that would only be present in the reaction chamber of a PTR-MS for a short time (seconds). For such circumstances it is necessary to change the reduce electric field swiftly if specificity enhancements are to be achieved. In this paper we demonstrate such a novel approach, which permits any compound that may only be present in the drift tube for seconds to be thoroughly investigated. Specifically, we have developed hardware and software which permits the reaction region's voltages to be rapidly switched at a frequency of 0.1-5 Hz. We show how this technique can be used to provide a higher confidence in the identification of compounds than is possible by keeping to one reduced electric field value through illustrating the detection of explosives. Although demonstrated for homeland security applications, this new technique has applications in other analytical areas and disciplines where rapid changes in a compound's concentration can occur, e.g. in the Earth's atmosphere, plant emissions and in breath. Importantly, this adaptation provides a method for improved selectivity without expensive instrumental changes or the need for high mass resolution instruments.

  16. Feasibility of Imaging Tissue Electrical Conductivity by Switching Field Gradients with MRI. (United States)

    Gibbs, Eric; Liu, Chunlei


    Tissue conductivity is a biophysical marker of tissue structure and physiology. Present methods of measuring tissue conductivity are limited. Electrical impedance tomography, and magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography rely on passing external current through the object being imaged, which prevents its use in most human imaging. Recently, the RF field used for MR excitation has been used to non-invasively measure tissue conductivity. This technique is promising, but conductivity at higher frequencies is less sensitive to tissue structure. Measuring tissue conductivity non-invasively at low frequencies remains elusive. It has been proposed that eddy currents generated during the rise and decay of gradient pulses could act as a current source to map low-frequency conductivity. This work centers on a gradient echo pulse sequence that uses large gradients prior to excitation to create eddy currents. The electric and magnetic fields during a gradient pulse are simulated by a finite-difference time-domain simulation. The sequence is also tested with a phantom and an animal MRI scanner equipped with gradients of high gradient strengths and slew rate. The simulation demonstrates that eddy currents in materials with conductivity similar to biological tissue decay with a half-life on the order of nanoseconds and any eddy currents generated prior to excitation decay completely before influencing the RF signal. Gradient-induced eddy currents can influence phase accumulation after excitation but the effect is too small to image. The animal scanner images show no measurable phase accumulation. Measuring low-frequency conductivity by gradient-induced eddy currents is presently unfeasible.

  17. Magnetoelectric assisted 180° magnetization switching for electric field addressable writing in magnetoresistive random-access memory. (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguang; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Yaojin; Li, Yanxi; Luo, Haosu; Li, Jiefang; Viehland, Dwight


    Magnetization-based memories, e.g., hard drive and magnetoresistive random-access memory (MRAM), use bistable magnetic domains in patterned nanomagnets for information recording. Electric field (E) tunable magnetic anisotropy can lower the energy barrier between two distinct magnetic states, promising reduced power consumption and increased recording density. However, integration of magnetoelectric heterostructure into MRAM is a highly challenging task owing to the particular architecture requirements of each component. Here, we show an epitaxial growth of self-assembled CoFe2O4 nanostripes with bistable in-plane magnetizations on Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates, where the magnetic switching can be triggered by E-induced elastic strain effect. An unprecedented magnetic coercive field change of up to 600 Oe was observed with increasing E. A near 180° magnetization rotation can be activated by E in the vicinity of the magnetic coercive field. These findings might help to solve the 1/2-selection problem in traditional MRAM by providing reduced magnetic coercive field in E field selected memory cells.

  18. Influence of Different Rotor Teeth Shapes on the Performance of Flux Switching Permanent Magnet Machines Used for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao


    Full Text Available This paper investigated a 12-slot/11-pole flux switching permanent magnet (FSPM machine used for electric vehicles (EVs. Five novel rotor teeth shapes are proposed and researched to reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple of the FSPM machine. These rotor teeth shapes are notched teeth, stepped teeth, eccentric teeth, combination of notched and stepped teeth, and combination of notched and eccentric teeth. They are applied on the rotor and optimized, respectively. The influences of different rotor teeth shapes on cogging torque, torque ripple and electromagnetic torque are analyzed by the 2-D finite-element method (FEM. Then, the performance of FSPMs with different rotor teeth shapes are compared and evaluated comprehensively from the points of view of cogging torque, torque ripple, electromagnetic torque, flux linkage, back electromotive force (EMF, and so on. The results show that the presented rotor teeth shapes, especially the combination of stepped and notched teeth, can greatly reduce the cogging torque and torque ripple with only slight changes in the average electromagnetic torque.

  19. Vibration mitigation for in-wheel switched reluctance motor driven electric vehicle with dynamic vibration absorbing structures (United States)

    Qin, Yechen; He, Chenchen; Shao, Xinxin; Du, Haiping; Xiang, Changle; Dong, Mingming


    This paper presents a new approach for vibration mitigation based on a dynamic vibration absorbing structure (DVAS) for electric vehicles (EVs) that use in-wheel switched reluctance motors (SRMs). The proposed approach aims to alleviate the negative effects of vibration caused by the unbalanced electromagnetic force (UMEF) that arises from road excitations. The analytical model of SRMs is first formulated using Fourier series, and then a model of the coupled longitudinal-vertical dynamics is developed taking into consideration the external excitations consisting of the aerodynamic drag force and road unevenness. In addition, numerical simulations for a conventional SRM-suspension system and two novel DVASs are carried out for varying road levels specified by ISO standards and vehicle velocities. The results of the comparison reveal that a 35% improvement in ride comfort, 30% improvement of road handling, and 68% improvement in air gap between rotor and stator can be achieved by adopting the novel DVAS compared to the conventional SRM-suspension system. Finally, multi-body simulation (MBS) is performed using LMS Motion to validate the feasibility of the proposed DVAS. Analysis of the results shows that the proposed method can augment the effective application of SRMs in EVs.

  20. Electric and Mechanical Switching of Ferroelectric and Resistive States in Semiconducting BaTiO3-δ Films on Silicon. (United States)

    Gómez, Andrés; Vila-Fungueiriño, José Manuel; Moalla, Rahma; Saint-Girons, Guillaume; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Bachelet, Romain; Gich, Martí; Rivadulla, Francisco; Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián


    Materials that can couple electrical and mechanical properties constitute a key element of smart actuators, energy harvesters, or many sensing devices. Within this class, functional oxides display specific mesoscale responses which often result in great sensitivity to small external stimuli. Here, a novel combination of molecular beam epitaxy and a water-based chemical-solution method is used for the design of mechanically controlled multilevel device integrated on silicon. In particular, the possibility of adding extra functionalities to a ferroelectric oxide heterostructure by n-doping and nanostructuring a BaTiO 3 thin film on Si(001) is explored. It is found that the ferroelectric polarization can be reversed, and resistive switching can be measured, upon a mechanical load in epitaxial BaTiO 3- δ /La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 /SrTiO 3 /Si columnar nanostructures. A flexoelectric effect is found, stemming from substantial strain gradients that can be created with moderate loads. Simultaneously, mechanical effects on the local conductivity can be used to modulate a nonvolatile resistive state of the BaTiO 3- δ heterostructure. As a result, three different configurations of the system become accessible on top of the usual voltage reversal of polarization and resistive states. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel two output nine switch-inverter is proposed in order to increase the synchronization speed of induction motors used in electric vehicles (EVs while improving the efficiency and controllability of the system. The number of switches in the proposed inverter is reduced by 25% compared to double six-switch inverters which conventionally used in EVs. The main characteristics of the considered inverter can be noted as follows: sinusoidal input and outputs, unity output power factor, and specifically, low construction cost due to active switch number reduction. The classical direct torque control method causes torque ripple and speed fluctuations. Therefore, in order to increase accuracy and dynamics of drive system, the SVM-DTC method is proposed, leading to less torque ripple and constant switching frequency. The obtained torque ripple is 2% which is less than the existing structures In order to illustrate advantages of the proposed approach, performance of the EVs in the standard cycles is evaluated.

  2. Investigation of a Co-Axial Dual-Mechanical Ports Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet Machine for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hua


    Full Text Available In this paper, a co-axial dual-mechanical ports flux-switching permanent magnet (CADMP-FSPM machine for hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs is proposed and investigated, which is comprised of two conventional co-axial FSPM machines, namely one high-speed inner rotor machine and one low-speed outer rotor machine and a non-magnetic ring sandwiched in between. Firstly, the topology and operation principle of the CADMP-FSPM machine are introduced; secondly, the control system of the proposed electronically-controlled continuously-variable transmission (E-CVT system is given; thirdly, the key design specifications of the CADMP-FSPM machine are determined based on a conventional dual-mechanical ports (DMP machine with a wound inner rotor. Fourthly, the performances of the CADMP-FSPM machine and the normal DMP machine under the same overall volume are compared, and the results indicate that the CADMP-FSPM machine has advantages over the conventional DMP machine in the elimination of brushes and slip rings, improved thermal dissipation conditions for the inner rotor, direct-driven operation, more flexible modes, lower cogging torque and torque ripple, lower total harmonic distortion (THD values of phase PM flux linkage and phase electro-motive force (EMF, higher torque output capability and is suitable for the E-CVT systems. Finally, the pros and cons of the CADMP-FSPM machine are highlighted. This paper lays a theoretical foundation for further research on CADMP-FSPM machines used for HEVs.

  3. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College and Graduate School, The City University of New York, 250 Bedford Park Boulevard West, Bronx, New York 10468-1589 (United States); Jaafar, Reem [Department of Mathematics, Engineering and Computer Science, LaGuardia Community College, The City University of New York, 31-10 Thomson Avenue, Long Island City, New York 11101 (United States)


    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained.

  4. Electromechanical magnetization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, Eugene M.; Jaafar, Reem


    We show that the magnetization of a torsional oscillator that, in addition to the magnetic moment also possesses an electrical polarization, can be switched by the electric field that ignites mechanical oscillations at the frequency comparable to the frequency of the ferromagnetic resonance. The 180° switching arises from the spin-rotation coupling and is not prohibited by the different symmetry of the magnetic moment and the electric field as in the case of a stationary magnet. Analytical equations describing the system have been derived and investigated numerically. Phase diagrams showing the range of parameters required for the switching have been obtained

  5. Addendum to "Switching effect and the metal-insulator transition in electric field" by A.L. Pergament et al. [J. Phys. Chem. Solids 71 (2010) 874 (United States)

    Pergament, A. L.; Velichko, A. A.; Stefanovich, G. B.


    In the paper mentioned above we reported on the switching mechanism in vanadium dioxide which was shown to be based on the electronically-induced Mott insulator-to-metal transition occurring in conditions of the non-equilibrium carrier density excess in the applied electric field, and the proposed model involved the dependence of the carrier density n on electric field (the Poole-Frenkel effect), as well as the dependence of the critical electric field on n. The data on the n(T) dependence were obtained on the assumption of a temperature-independent carrier mobility μ, and the problem of n reduction at lower temperatures was not fully understood. In this Letter we revisit this problem in the light of some recent data on the μ(T) dependence for VO2. It is shown that the adjusted values of n, taking into account this μ(T), correspond to the Mott critical density within an order of magnitude.

  6. Battery switch for downhole tools (United States)

    Boling, Brian E.


    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  7. Heavy metal multilayers for switching of magnetic unit via electrical current without magnetic field, method and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qinli; Li, Yufan; Chien, Chia-ling


    Provided is an electric-current-controllable magnetic unit, including: a substrate, an electric-current channel disposed on the substrate, the electric-current channel including a composite heavy-metal multilayer comprising at least one heavy-metal; a capping layer disposed over the electric-current channel; and at least one ferromagnetic layer disposed between the electric-current channel and the capping layer.

  8. CRADA Final Report for CRADA Number ORNL98-0521 : Development of an Electric Bus Inverter Based on ORNL Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART) Soft-Switching Technology; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, C.W.


    The Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has for many years been developing technologies for power converters for motor drives and many other applications. Some of the research goals are to improve efficiency and reduce audible and electromagnetic interference noise generation for inverters and the driven loads. The converters are being required to produce more power with reduced weight and volume, which requires improvements in heat removal from the electronics, as well as improved circuit designs that have fewer electrical losses. PEEMRC has recently developed and patented a soft-switching inverter topology called an Auxiliary Resonant Tank (ART), and this design has been tested and proven at ORNL using a 10-kW laboratory prototype. The objective of this project was to develop, test, and install the ART inverter technology in an electric transit bus with the final goal of evaluating performance of the ORNL inverter under field conditions in a vehicle. A scaled-up inverter with the capacity to drive a 22-e bus was built based on the 10-kW ORNL laboratory prototype ART soft-switching inverter. Most (if not all) commercially available inverters for traction drive and other applications use hard-switching inverters. A Cooperative Research and Development Agreement was established with the Chattanooga Area Regional Transit Authority (CARTA), the Electric Transit Vehicle Institute (ETVI), and Advanced Vehicle Systems (AVS), all of Chattanooga, along with ORNL. CARTA, which maintains and operates the public transit system in Chattanooga, provided an area for testing the vehicle alongside other similar vehicles in the normal operating environment. ETVI offers capabilities in standardized testing and reporting and also provides exposure in the electric transit vehicle arena for ORNL's technologies. The third Chattanooga partner, (AVS) manufactures all-electric and hybrid electric transit buses using

  9. The nanocoherer: an electrically and mechanically resettable resistive switching device based on gold clusters assembled on paper (United States)

    Minnai, Chloé; Mirigliano, Matteo; Brown, Simon A.; Milani, Paolo


    We report the realization of a resettable resistive switching device based on a nanostructured film fabricated by supersonic cluster beam deposition of gold clusters on plain paper substrates. Through the application of suitable voltage ramps, we obtain, in the same device, either a complex pattern of resistive switchings, or reproducible and stable switchings between low resistance and high resistance states, with an amplitude up to five orders of magnitude. Our device retains a state of internal resistance following the history of the applied voltage similar to that reported for memristors. The two different switching regimes in the same device are both stable, the transition between them is reversible, and it can be controlled by applying voltage ramps or by mechanical deformation of the substrate. The device behavior can be related to the formation, growth and breaking of junctions between the loosely aggregated gold clusters forming the nanostructured films. The fact that our cluster-assembled device is mechanically resettable suggests that it can be considered as the analog of the coherer: a switching device based on metallic powders used for the first radio communication system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shvets


    Full Text Available The method of automated diagnostics of electric motors is offered. It uses a neural network revealing the electric motor faults on the basis of analysis of frequency spectrum of current flowing through the motor.

  11. The evolution of electricity price on the German day-ahead market before and after the energy switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Khoshrou (Abdolrahman); E.J. Pauwels (Eric); A.B. Dorsman (Andre)


    textabstractIn Europe, Germany is taking the lead in the switch from fossil and nuclear energy to renewables. This creates new challenges as wind and solar energy are fundamentally intermittent and to some degree, unpredictable. It is therefore of considerable interest to investigate what effect

  12. The influence of the switch from fossil fuels to solar and wind energy on the electricity prices in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Dorsman (Andre); A. Khoshrou (Abdolrahman); E.J. Pauwels (Eric)


    textabstractGermany is actively pursuing a switch from fossil fuel to renewables, the so-called Energiewende (energy transition). Due to the fact that the supply of wind and solar energy is less predictable than the supply of fossil fuel, stabilizing the grid has become more challenging. On sunny

  13. Switching Device Dead Time Optimization of Resonant Double-Sided LCC Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Zhang


    Full Text Available Aiming at the reduction of the influence of the dead time setting on power level and efficiency of the inverter of double-sided LCC resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system, a dead time soft switching optimization method for metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET is proposed. At first, the mathematic description of double-sided LCC resonant wireless charging system is established, and the operating mode is analyzed as well, deducing the quantitative characteristic that the secondary side compensation capacitor C2 can be adjusted to ensure that the circuit is inductive. A dead time optimization design method is proposed, contributing to achieving zero-voltage switching (ZVS of the inverter, which is closely related to the performance of the WPT system. In the end, a prototype is built. The experimental results verify that dead time calculated by this optimized method can ensure the soft switching of the inverter MOSFET and promote the power and efficiency of the WPT.

  14. Electric Substations (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  15. Electrical and switching properties of the Se{sub 90}Te{sub 10-x}Ag{sub x} (0<=x<=6) films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afifi, M.A.; Hegab, N.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Bekheet, A.E., E-mail: [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt); Sharaf, E.R. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Roxy, Cairo (Egypt)


    Amorphous Se{sub 90}Te{sub 10-x}Ag{sub x} (0<=x<=6) films are obtained by thermal evaporation technique under vacuum from the synthesized bulk materials on pyrographite and glass substrates. X-ray analysis shows the amorphous nature of the obtained films. The dc electrical conductivity was studied for different thicknesses (165-711 nm) as a function of temperature in the range (298-323 K) below the corresponding T{sub g} for the studied films. The obtained results show that the conduction activation energy has a single value through the investigated range of temperature which can be explained in accordance with Mott and Davis model. The I-V characteristic curves for the film compositions are found to be typical for a memory switch. The mean value of the threshold voltage V{sub th}-bar increases linearly with increasing film thickness (165-711 nm), while it decreases exponentially with increasing temperature in the investigated range for the studied compositions. The results are explained in accordance with the electrothermal model for the switching process. The effect of Ag on the studied parameters is also investigated.

  16. Development and application of an empirical formula for the high temperature behavior of ferroelectric ceramics switched by electric field at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Won Ji


    Full Text Available The strain changes during temperature rise of a poled lead titanate zirconate rectangular parallelepiped switched by electric field at room temperature are obtained by integrating thermal expansion coefficients that are measured using an invar-specimen. By estimating and analyzing pyroelectric and thermal expansion coefficients, first-order differential equations are constructed for polarization and strain changes during temperature increase. The solutions to the differential equations are found and used to calculate the high temperature behavior of the materials. It is shown that the predictions are well compared with measured responses. Finally, the developed formulae are applied to calculate strain butterfly loops from a polarization hysteresis loop at a high temperature.

  17. BROOKHAVEN: Switched power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)



    Hosted by Brookhaven's Center for Accelerator Physics, a recent workshop on switched power techniques attracted a group of specialists to Shelter Island, New York, location of several important physics meetings, including the famous 1947 sessions which helped mould modern quantum electrodynamics. The current interest in switched power stemmed from a series of papers by W. Willis of CERN, starting in 1984. The idea is for stored electrical energy to be suddenly switched on to a transmission line, producing a very short (about 10 ps) electromagnetic pulse in a region traversed by a particle beam

  18. Electric-field control of tri-state phase transformation with a selective dual-ion switch (United States)

    Lu, Nianpeng; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Qinghua; Qiao, Ruimin; He, Qing; Li, Hao-Bo; Wang, Yujia; Guo, Jingwen; Zhang, Ding; Duan, Zheng; Li, Zhuolu; Wang, Meng; Yang, Shuzhen; Yan, Mingzhe; Arenholz, Elke; Zhou, Shuyun; Yang, Wanli; Gu, Lin; Nan, Ce-Wen; Wu, Jian; Tokura, Yoshinori; Yu, Pu


    Materials can be transformed from one crystalline phase to another by using an electric field to control ion transfer, in a process that can be harnessed in applications such as batteries, smart windows and fuel cells. Increasing the number of transferrable ion species and of accessible crystalline phases could in principle greatly enrich material functionality. However, studies have so far focused mainly on the evolution and control of single ionic species (for example, oxygen, hydrogen or lithium ions). Here we describe the reversible and non-volatile electric-field control of dual-ion (oxygen and hydrogen) phase transformations, with associated electrochromic and magnetoelectric effects. We show that controlling the insertion and extraction of oxygen and hydrogen ions independently of each other can direct reversible phase transformations among three different material phases: the perovskite SrCoO3-δ (ref. 12), the brownmillerite SrCoO2.5 (ref. 13), and a hitherto-unexplored phase, HSrCoO2.5. By analysing the distinct optical absorption properties of these phases, we demonstrate selective manipulation of spectral transparency in the visible-light and infrared regions, revealing a dual-band electrochromic effect that could see application in smart windows. Moreover, the starkly different magnetic and electric properties of the three phases—HSrCoO2.5 is a weakly ferromagnetic insulator, SrCoO3-δ is a ferromagnetic metal, and SrCoO2.5 is an antiferromagnetic insulator—enable an unusual form of magnetoelectric coupling, allowing electric-field control of three different magnetic ground states. These findings open up opportunities for the electric-field control of multistate phase transformations with rich functionalities.

  19. The impact of etched trenches geometry and dielectric material on the electrical behaviour of silicon-on-insulator self-switching diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhi, G; Charlebois, S A [Departement de genie electrique et genie informatique, et Institut interdisciplinaire d' innovation technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, Boulevard de l' Universite, J1K 2R1, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Morris, D [Departement de physique et Institut interdisciplinaire d' innovation technologique (3IT), Universite de Sherbrooke, 2500, Boulevard de l' Universite, J1K 2R1, Sherbrooke, QC (Canada); Raskin, J-P, E-mail: [Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Universite catholique de Louvain, Place du Levant, 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    Hole electrical transport in a p-doped nanochannel defined between two L-shape etched trenches made on a silicon-on-insulator substrate is investigated using a TCAD-Medici simulator. We study the impact of the etched trenches' geometry and dielectric filling materials on the current-voltage characteristics of the device. Carrier accumulation on frontiers defined by the trenches causes a modulation of the hole density inside the conduction channel as the bias voltage varies and this gives rise to a diode-like characteristic. For a 1.2 {mu}m-long channel, plots of the electric field distribution show that a nonlinear transport regime is reached at a moderate reverse and forward bias of {+-} 2 V. Plots of the carrier velocity along the conduction channel show that holes remain hot for a few hundreds of nm outside the nanometre-wide channel, at a bias of {+-} 10 V. Filling the etched trenches with a high-{kappa} dielectric material gives rise to a lower threshold voltage, V{sub th}. A similar decrease of V{sub th} is also achieved by reducing the longitudinal and/or the transverse trench width. Our simulation results provide useful design guidelines for future integrated self-switching-diode-based circuits.

  20. Scenarios for Deep Carbon Emission Reductions from Electricity by 2050 in Western North America using the Switch Electric Power Sector Planning Model: California's Carbon Challenge Phase II, Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, James; Mileva, Ana; Johnston, Josiah; Kammen, Daniel; Wei, Max; Greenblatt, Jeffrey


    This study used a state-of-the-art planning model called SWITCH for the electric power system to investigate the evolution of the power systems of California and western North America from present-day to 2050 in the context of deep decarbonization of the economy. Researchers concluded that drastic power system carbon emission reductions were feasible by 2050 under a wide range of possible futures. The average cost of power in 2050 would range between $149 to $232 per megawatt hour across scenarios, a 21 to 88 percent increase relative to a business-as-usual scenario, and a 38 to 115 percent increase relative to the present-day cost of power. The power system would need to undergo sweeping change to rapidly decarbonize. Between present-day and 2030 the evolution of the Western Electricity Coordinating Council power system was dominated by implementing aggressive energy efficiency measures, installing renewable energy and gas-fired generation facilities and retiring coal-fired generation. Deploying wind, solar and geothermal power in the 2040 timeframe reduced power system emissions by displacing gas-fired generation. This trend continued for wind and solar in the 2050 timeframe but was accompanied by large amounts of new storage and long-distance high-voltage transmission capacity. Electricity storage was used primarily to move solar energy from the daytime into the night to charge electric vehicles and meet demand from electrified heating. Transmission capacity over the California border increased by 40 - 220 percent by 2050, implying that transmission siting, permitting, and regional cooperation will become increasingly important. California remained a net electricity importer in all scenarios investigated. Wind and solar power were key elements in power system decarbonization in 2050 if no new nuclear capacity was built. The amount of installed gas capacity remained relatively constant between present-day and 2050, although carbon capture and sequestration was

  1. All printed transparent electrodes through an electrical switching mechanism: A convincing alternative to indium-tin-oxide, silver and vacuum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Søndergaard, Roar; Norrman, Kion


    Here we show polymer solar cells manufactured using only printing and coating of abundant materials directly on flexible plastic substrates or barrier foil using only roll-to-roll methods. Central to the development is a particular roll-to-roll compatible post-processing step that converts...... the pristine and non-functional multilayer-coated stack into a functional solar cell through formation of a charge selective interface, in situ, following a short electrical pulse with a high current density. After the fast post-processing step the device stack becomes active and all devices are functional...

  2. The loyalty of industrial clients of gas and electricity: the value rol and switching barriers; La fidelizacion de clientes industriales de gas natural y electricidad: El papel del valor recibido y las barreras al cambio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Acebron, C.; Vazquez Castelles, R.; Iglesias Arguelles, V.


    This paper deals with perceived value and loyalty in a B2 B environment taking account switching barriers. The Spanish energy market has been newly liberalized and many companies offer supply services of natural gas and electricity. The research examines the casual relations between perceived value and two dimensions of loyalty: repurchase intentions and price tolerance. Although our results indicate that suppliers achieve better repurchase intentions by providing value to their customers, they also show that this is insufficient when the aim is to increase customer price tolerance. In this case another moderating variable must be included: the switching barriers. (Author)

  3. All-metallic electrically gated 2H-TaSe2 thin-film switches and logic circuits (United States)

    Renteria, J.; Samnakay, R.; Jiang, C.; Pope, T. R.; Goli, P.; Yan, Z.; Wickramaratne, D.; Salguero, T. T.; Khitun, A. G.; Lake, R. K.; Balandin, A. A.


    We report the fabrication and performance of all-metallic three-terminal devices with tantalum diselenide thin-film conducting channels. For this proof-of-concept demonstration, the layers of 2H-TaSe2 were exfoliated mechanically from single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Devices with nanometer-scale thicknesses exhibit strongly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room temperature. We have found that the drain-source current in thin-film 2H-TaSe2-Ti/Au devices reproducibly shows an abrupt transition from a highly resistive to a conductive state, with the threshold tunable via the gate voltage. Such current-voltage characteristics can be used, in principle, for implementing radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. These results may open new application space for thin films of van der Waals materials.

  4. All-metallic electrically gated 2H-TaSe2 thin-film switches and logic circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C.; Yan, Z.; Samnakay, R.; Goli, P.; Pope, T. R.; Salguero, T. T.; Wickramaratne, D.; Lake, R. K.; Khitun, A. G.; Balandin, A. A.


    We report the fabrication and performance of all-metallic three-terminal devices with tantalum diselenide thin-film conducting channels. For this proof-of-concept demonstration, the layers of 2H-TaSe 2 were exfoliated mechanically from single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Devices with nanometer-scale thicknesses exhibit strongly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room temperature. We have found that the drain-source current in thin-film 2H-TaSe 2 –Ti/Au devices reproducibly shows an abrupt transition from a highly resistive to a conductive state, with the threshold tunable via the gate voltage. Such current-voltage characteristics can be used, in principle, for implementing radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. These results may open new application space for thin films of van der Waals materials

  5. All-metallic electrically gated 2H-TaSe{sub 2} thin-film switches and logic circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renteria, J.; Jiang, C.; Yan, Z. [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Samnakay, R.; Goli, P. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Pope, T. R.; Salguero, T. T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States); Wickramaratne, D.; Lake, R. K. [Laboratory for Terascale and Terahertz Electronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Khitun, A. G. [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Materials Science and Engineering Program, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Balandin, A. A., E-mail: [Nano-Device Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Bourns College of Engineering, University of California–Riverside, Riverside, California 92521 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)


    We report the fabrication and performance of all-metallic three-terminal devices with tantalum diselenide thin-film conducting channels. For this proof-of-concept demonstration, the layers of 2H-TaSe{sub 2} were exfoliated mechanically from single crystals grown by the chemical vapor transport method. Devices with nanometer-scale thicknesses exhibit strongly non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room temperature. We have found that the drain-source current in thin-film 2H-TaSe{sub 2}–Ti/Au devices reproducibly shows an abrupt transition from a highly resistive to a conductive state, with the threshold tunable via the gate voltage. Such current-voltage characteristics can be used, in principle, for implementing radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. These results may open new application space for thin films of van der Waals materials.

  6. Application of multi-model control with fuzzy switching to a micro hydro-electrical power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salhi, Issam; Doubabi, Said [Laboratory of Electric Systems and Telecommunications (LEST), Faculty of Sciences and Technologies of Marrakesh, Cadi Ayyad University, BP 549, Av Abdelkarim Elkhattabi, Gueliz, Marrakesh (Morocco); Essounbouli, Najib; Hamzaoui, Abdelaziz [CReSTIC, Reims University, 9, rue de Quebec B.P. 396, F-10026 Troyes cedex (France)


    Modelling hydraulic turbine generating systems is not an easy task because they are non-linear and uncertain where the operating points are time varying. One way to overcome this problem is to use Takagi-Sugeno (TS) models, which offer the possibility to apply some tools from linear control theory, whereas those models are composed of linear models connected by a fuzzy activation function. This paper presents an approach to model and control a micro hydro power plant considered as a non-linear system using TS fuzzy systems. A TS fuzzy system with local models is used to obtain a global model of the studied plant. Then, to combine efficiency and simplicity of design, PI controllers are synthesised for each considered operating point to be used as conclusion of an electrical load TS Fuzzy controller. The latter ensures the global stability and desired performance despite the change of operating point. The proposed approach (model and controller) is tested on a laboratory prototype, where the obtained results show their efficiency and their capability to ensure good performance despite the non-linear nature of the plant. (author)

  7. Recent developments in switching theory

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Amar


    Electrical Science Series: Recent Developments in Switching Theory covers the progress in the study of the switching theory. The book discusses the simplified proof of Post's theorem on completeness of logic primitives; the role of feedback in combinational switching circuits; and the systematic procedure for the design of Lupanov decoding networks. The text also describes the classical results on counting theorems and their application to the classification of switching functions under different notions of equivalence, including linear and affine equivalences. The development of abstract har

  8. Pseudospark switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billault, P.; Riege, H.; Gulik, M. van; Boggasch, E.; Frank, K.


    The pseudospark discharge is bound to a geometrical structure which is particularly well suited for switching high currents and voltages at high power levels. This type of discharge offers the potential for improvement in essentially all areas of switching operation: peak current and current density, current rise, stand-off voltage, reverse current capability, cathode life, and forward drop. The first pseudospark switch was built at CERN at 1981. Since then, the basic switching characteristics of pseudospark chambers have been studied in detail. The main feature of a pseudospark switch is the confinement of the discharge plasma to the device axis. The current transition to the hollow electrodes is spread over a rather large surface area. Another essential feature is the easy and precise triggering of the pseudospark switch from the interior of the hollow electrodes, relatively far from the main discharge gap. Nanosecond delay and jitter values can be achieved with trigger energies of less than 0.1 mJ, although cathode heating is not required. Pseudospark gaps may cover a wide range of high-voltage, high-current, and high-pulse-power switching at repetition rates of many kilohertz. This report reviews the basic researh on pseudospark switches which has been going on at CERN. So far, applications have been developed in the range of thyratron-like medium-power switches at typically 20 to 40 kV and 0.5 to 10 kA. High-current pseudospark switches have been built for a high-power 20 kJ pulse generator which is being used for long-term tests of plasma lenses developed for the future CERN Antiproton Collector (ACOL). The high-current switches have operated for several hundred thousand shots, with 20 to 50 ns jitter at 16 kV charging voltage and more than 100 kA peak current amplitude. (orig.)

  9. Low inductance gas switching.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.


    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and

  10. Switching antidepressants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    depressive disorder, with response rates of 50-60%. Switching within or between classes of antidepressants is often required in patients with an insufficient response to SSRIs.12 Because they share a similar mechanism of action, the immediate substitution of one SSRI for another is probably the easiest switching option.

  11. Can switching fuels save water? A life cycle quantification of freshwater consumption for Texas coal- and natural gas-fired electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubert, Emily A; Beach, Fred C; Webber, Michael E


    Thermal electricity generation is a major consumer of freshwater for cooling, fuel extraction and air emissions controls, but the life cycle water impacts of different fossil fuel cycles are not well understood. Much of the existing literature relies on decades-old estimates for water intensity, particularly regarding water consumed for fuel extraction. This work uses contemporary data from specific resource basins and power plants in Texas to evaluate water intensity at three major stages of coal and natural gas fuel cycles: fuel extraction, power plant cooling and power plant emissions controls. In particular, the water intensity of fuel extraction is quantified for Texas lignite, conventional natural gas and 11 unconventional natural gas basins in Texas, including major second-order impacts associated with multi-stage hydraulic fracturing. Despite the rise of this water-intensive natural gas extraction method, natural gas extraction appears to consume less freshwater than coal per unit of energy extracted in Texas because of the high water intensity of Texas lignite extraction. This work uses new resource basin and power plant level water intensity data to estimate the potential effects of coal to natural gas fuel switching in Texas’ power sector, a shift under consideration due to potential environmental benefits and very low natural gas prices. Replacing Texas’ coal-fired power plants with natural gas combined cycle plants (NGCCs) would reduce annual freshwater consumption in the state by an estimated 53 billion gallons per year, or 60% of Texas coal power’s water footprint, largely due to the higher efficiency of NGCCs. (letter)

  12. Electricity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AC power generation, its transmission and distribution. The well known observations made by Oersted that an electric current produces a magnetic field led a number of researchers to investigate whether the converse was true i.e. whether electric current can be produced from a magnetic field. Michael Faraday of England ...

  13. Magnetic switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirbie, H.C.


    Magnetic switching is a pulse compression technique that uses a saturable inductor (reactor) to pass pulses of energy between two capacitors. A high degree of pulse compression can be achieved in a network when several of these simple, magnetically switched circuits are connected in series. Individual inductors are designed to saturate in cascade as a pulse moves along the network. The technique is particularly useful when a single-pulse network must be very reliable or when a multi-pulse network must operate at a high pulse repetition frequency (PRF). Today, magnetic switches trigger spark gaps, sharpen the risetimes of high energy pulses, power large lasers, and drive high PRF linear induction accelerators. This paper will describe the technique of magnetic pulse compression using simple networks and design equations. A brief review of modern magnetic materials and of their role in magnetic switch design will be presented. 12 refs., 8 figs

  14. Modeling of rf MEMS switches (United States)

    Robertson, Barbara; Ho, Fat D.; Hudson, Tracy D.


    The microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch offers many benefits in radio frequency (RF) applications. These benefits include low insertion loss, high quality factor (Q), low power, RF isolation, and low cost. The ability to manufacture mechanical switches on a chip with electronics can lead to higher functionality, such as single-chip arrays, and smart switches. The MEMS switch is also used as a building block in devices such as phase shifters, filters, and switchable antenna elements. The MEMS designer needs models of these basic elements in order to incorporate them into their applications. The objective of this effort is to develop lumped element models for MEMS RF switches, which are incorporated into a CAD software. Tanner Research Inc.'s Electronic Design Automation (EDA) software is being used to develop a suite of mixed-signal RF switch models. The suite will include switches made from cantilever beams and fixed-fixed beams. The switches may be actuated by electrostatic, piezoelectric or electromagnetic forces. The effort presented in this paper concentrates on switches actuated by electrostatic forces. The lumped element models use a current-force electrical-mechanical analogy. Finite element modeling and device testing will be used to verify the Tanner models. The effects of materials, geometries, temperature, fringing fields, and mounting geometries are considered.

  15. Molecular Rotors as Switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang L. Wang


    Full Text Available The use of a functional molecular unit acting as a state variable provides an attractive alternative for the next generations of nanoscale electronics. It may help overcome the limits of conventional MOSFETd due to their potential scalability, low-cost, low variability, and highly integratable characteristics as well as the capability to exploit bottom-up self-assembly processes. This bottom-up construction and the operation of nanoscale machines/devices, in which the molecular motion can be controlled to perform functions, have been studied for their functionalities. Being triggered by external stimuli such as light, electricity or chemical reagents, these devices have shown various functions including those of diodes, rectifiers, memories, resonant tunnel junctions and single settable molecular switches that can be electronically configured for logic gates. Molecule-specific electronic switching has also been reported for several of these device structures, including nanopores containing oligo(phenylene ethynylene monolayers, and planar junctions incorporating rotaxane and catenane monolayers for the construction and operation of complex molecular machines. A specific electrically driven surface mounted molecular rotor is described in detail in this review. The rotor is comprised of a monolayer of redox-active ligated copper compounds sandwiched between a gold electrode and a highly-doped P+ Si. This electrically driven sandwich-type monolayer molecular rotor device showed an on/off ratio of approximately 104, a read window of about 2.5 V, and a retention time of greater than 104 s. The rotation speed of this type of molecular rotor has been reported to be in the picosecond timescale, which provides a potential of high switching speed applications. Current-voltage spectroscopy (I-V revealed a temperature-dependent negative differential resistance (NDR associated with the device. The analysis of the device

  16. A Piezoelectric Cryogenic Heat Switch (United States)

    Jahromi, Amir E.; Sullivan, Dan F.


    We have measured the thermal conductance of a mechanical heat switch actuated by a piezoelectric positioner, the PZHS (PieZo electric Heat Switch), at cryogenic temperatures. The thermal conductance of the PZHS was measured between 4 K and 10 K, and on/off conductance ratios greater than 100 were achieved when the positioner applied its maximum force of 8 N. We discuss the advantages of using this system in cryogenic applications, and estimate the ultimate performance of an optimized PZHS.

  17. Modernization of the Electric Power Systems (transformers, rods and switches) in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico); Modernizacion de los Sistemas Electricos de Potencia (Transformadores de Principales, Interruptor de Generacion, Barras de Fase Aislada) de la Central Nuclear de Laguna Verde (Mexico)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Solarzano, J. J.; Gabaldon Martin, M. A.; Pallisa Nunez, J.; Florez Ordeonez, A.; Fernandez Corbeira, A.; Prieto Diez, I.


    Description of the changes made in the Electric Power Systems as a part of the power increase project in the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant (Mexico). The main electrical changes to make, besides the turbo group, are the main generation transformers, the isolated rods and the generation switch.

  18. A 12-month, randomized, controlled study to evaluate exposure and cardiovascular risk factors in adult smokers switching from conventional cigarettes to a second-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system. (United States)

    Roethig, Hans J; Feng, Shixia; Liang, Qiwei; Liu, Jianmin; Rees, William A; Zedler, Barbara K


    This randomized, controlled, forced-switching, open-label, parallel-group study in 97 adult male and female smokers of conventional cigarettes evaluated biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure and cardiovascular risk factors. After baseline measurements, smokers were either switched to a second-generation electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS) or continued smoking conventional cigarettes for 12 months. Biomarkers of exposure and cardiovascular risk factors were measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, and 12 months. There was a rapid and sustained reduction in all biomarkers of exposure after switching to the EHCSS, with statistically significant reductions from baseline in nicotine equivalents (-18%), plasma cotinine (-16%), total 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (-73%), total 1-hydroxypyrene (-53%), urine mutagenicity (-52%), 4-aminobiphenyl hemoglobin adducts (-43%), carboxyhemoglobin AUC7-23 h (-80%), and 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (-35%). These reductions in exposure in the EHCSS group were associated with statistically significant and pathophysiologically favorable changes in several cardiovascular risk factors, including white blood cell count (-0.78 x 10(3)/microL), hemoglobin (-0.16 g/dL), hematocrit (-0.44%), urine 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 (-374 ng/24 h), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5 mg/dL).

  19. Resistive switching in Ag-TiO{sub 2} contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghenzi, N., E-mail: [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Stoliar, P. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnologia, Campus Migueletes, UNSAM, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fuertes, M.C. [Gerencia Quimica, CAC, CNEA, (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Marlasca, F.G.; Levy, P. [Gerencia de Investigacion y Aplicaciones, CAC, CNEA, (1650) San Martin, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    We study the electric pulse induced resistance switching of TiO{sub 2}-Ag contacts at room temperature, exploring both unipolar and bipolar switching modes. Initially we observed unipolar response. After hundred pulsing cycles the unipolar switching response vanishes but the device can still be operated in bipolar switching regime. The underlying mechanism for resistance switching is modeled in terms of formation and rupture of filament, and movement of oxygen vacancies.

  20. Optical fiber switch (United States)

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.


    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Bezruchenko


    Full Text Available The analytical study of switching of the tractive engines of electric locomotives is conducted. It is found that the obtained curves of change of current of the sections commuted correspond to the theory of average rectilinear switching. By means of the proposed method it is possible on the stage of design of tractive engines to forecast the quality of switching and to correct it timely.

  2. Switching X-Ray Tubes Remotely (United States)

    Bulthuis, Ronald V.


    Convenient switch and relay circuit reduces risk of accidents. Proposed switching circuit for x-ray inspection system enables operator to change electrical connections to x-ray tubes remotely. Operator simply flips switch on conveniently-located selector box to change x-ray heads. Indicator lights on selector box show whether 160 or 320-kV head connected. Relays in changeover box provides proper voltages and coolants. Chance of making wrong connections and damaging equipment eliminated.

  3. Novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Fiorini, P.; De Raedt, W.; Tilmans, H.A.C.


    This paper reports on novel RF-MEMS capacitive switching devices implementing an electrically floating metal layer covering the dielectric to ensure intimate contact with the bridge in the down state. This results in an optimal switch down capacitance and allows optimisation of the down/up

  4. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion


    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  5. Microstrip PIN diode microwave switch


    Usanov, Dmitry A.; Skripal, A. V.; Kulikov, M. Yu.


    A possibility of creating narrow-band electrically controlled microwave breakers and switches with enhanced attenuation level in the blocking mode has been considered. The specified devices are based on the structure containing a short-circuited microstrip link with connected capacitor and the loop coupler, in the center of which is located a PIN diode.

  6. Nanomechanics of flexoelectric switching (United States)

    Očenášek, J.; Lu, H.; Bark, C. W.; Eom, C. B.; Alcalá, J.; Catalan, G.; Gruverman, A.


    We examine the phenomenon of flexoelectric switching of polarization in ultrathin films of barium titanate induced by a tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM). The spatial distribution of the tip-induced flexoelectricity is computationally modeled both for perpendicular mechanical load (point measurements) and for sliding load (scanning measurements), and compared with experiments. We find that (i) perpendicular load does not lead to stable ferroelectric switching in contrast to the load applied in the sliding contact load regime, due to nontrivial differences between the strain distributions in both regimes: ferroelectric switching for the perpendicular load mode is impaired by a strain gradient inversion layer immediately underneath the AFM tip; while for the sliding load regime, domain inversion is unimpaired within a greater material volume subjected to larger values of the mechanically induced electric field that includes the region behind the sliding tip; (ii) beyond a relatively small value of an applied force, increasing mechanical pressure does not increase the flexoelectric field inside the film, but results instead in a growing volume of the region subjected to such field that aids domain nucleation processes; and (iii) the flexoelectric coefficients of the films are of the order of few nC/m, which is much smaller than for bulk BaTi O3 ceramics, indicating that there is a "flexoelectric size effect" that mirrors the ferroelectric one.

  7. Streamer model for high voltage water switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sazama, F.J.; Kenyon, V.L. III


    An electrical switch model for high voltage water switches has been developed which predicts streamer-switching effects that correlate well with water-switch data from Casino over the past four years and with switch data from recent Aurora/AMP experiments. Preclosure rounding and postclosure resistive damping of pulseforming line voltage waveforms are explained in terms of spatially-extensive, capacitive-coupling of the conducting streamers as they propagate across the gap and in terms of time-dependent streamer resistance and inductance. The arc resistance of the Casino water switch and of a gas switch under test on Casino was determined by computer fit to be 0.5 +- 0.1 ohms and 0.3 +- 0.06 ohms respectively, during the time of peak current in the power pulse. Energy lost in the water switch during the first pulse is 18% of that stored in the pulseforming line while similar energy lost in the gas switch is 11%. The model is described, computer transient analyses are compared with observed water and gas switch data and the results - switch resistance, inductance and energy loss during the primary power pulse - are presented

  8. Intensifying the density of a horizontal electric field to improve light efficiency in a fringe-field switching liquid crystal display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, In Ho; Song, Il Sub; Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Seung Hee [Research Center of Advanced Material Development, School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Chonju, Chonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)


    The transmittance in fringe-field switching liquid crystal (LC) displays, which show a wide viewing angle, is dependent on the position along the electrode position. The reason for this is that the dielectric torque (and hence the twist angle) varies with position. This effect depends on the type of LC: a display using an LC with positive dielectric anisotropy has less transmittance than one with negative dielectric anisotropy. Furthermore, the transmittance decreases with decreasing cell gap. The difference between the LC types can be reduced and the transmittance can be improved greatly even for a low cell gap by optimizing the electrode structure to enhance the region of in-plane twist.

  9. Stochastic multistep polarization switching in ferroelectrics (United States)

    Genenko, Y. A.; Khachaturyan, R.; Schultheiß, J.; Ossipov, A.; Daniels, J. E.; Koruza, J.


    Consecutive stochastic 90° polarization switching events, clearly resolved in recent experiments, are described by a nucleation and growth multistep model. It extends the classical Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi approach and includes possible consecutive 90°- and parallel 180° switching events. The model predicts the results of simultaneous time-resolved macroscopic measurements of polarization and strain, performed on a tetragonal Pb (Zr ,Ti ) O3 ceramic in a wide range of electric fields over a time domain of seven orders of magnitude. It allows the determination of the fractions of individual switching processes, their characteristic switching times, activation fields, and respective Avrami indices.

  10. A Mechanical Switch Using Spectral Microshifts (United States)

    Mitchell, Gordon L.; Saaski, Elric W.; Hartl, James C.


    Among the simplest fiber optic sensors, are those which operate in a binary fashion; they were the first sensor types to be developed. Early experiments with fiber bundles and shutters produced demonstrations of, for example, displacement sensors. Typical applications range from position sensing for aircraft landing gear to counting objects on a production line. Because they frequently replace electrical snap action switches, binary sensors are generally called optical switches. Optical switch applications account for a much larger market than the more complex analog measurements discussed in the balance of this volume. This paper presents an optical switch concept that uses a single fiber and is tolerant of back reflections. The sensor element is a low finesse Fabry-Perot pressure sensor which replaces the electrical contact in a conventional snap action switch.

  11. Electricity of machine tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gijeon media editorial department


    This book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with electricity machine, which can taints from generator to motor, motor a power source of machine tool, electricity machine for machine tool such as switch in main circuit, automatic machine, a knife switch and pushing button, snap switch, protection device, timer, solenoid, and rectifier. The second part handles wiring diagram. This concludes basic electricity circuit of machine tool, electricity wiring diagram in your machine like milling machine, planer and grinding machine. The third part introduces fault diagnosis of machine, which gives the practical solution according to fault diagnosis and the diagnostic method with voltage and resistance measurement by tester.

  12. Vehicle electrical system state controller (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.


    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  13. Electric-pulse-induced resistance switching effect in the bulk of La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Wu


    Full Text Available In the majority of contributions, the electrical–pulse-induced resistance (EPIR switching effect of perovskite manganites is thought to originate from the extrinsic interfacial Schottky barrier between the metal electrode and the surface of sample. In this work, La0.5Ca0.5MnO3 (LCMO ceramic samples were synthesized by solid state reaction and the transport properties, especially, the EPIR effect and memristor behavior were investigated under 4-wire method using silver-glue as electrodes. Although the I-V characteristic of LCMO shows an ohmic linearity under the 4-wire mode at room temperature, a stable and remarkable EPIR can still be observed when the pulse voltage is more than a critical value. This bulk EPIR effect is novel for rare - earth doped manganites.

  14. Mechanical switching of ferroelectric domains beyond flexoelectricity (United States)

    Chen, Weijin; Liu, Jianyi; Ma, Lele; Liu, Linjie; Jiang, G. L.; Zheng, Yue


    The resurgence of interest in flexoelectricity has prompted discussions on the feasibility of switching ferroelectric domains 'non-electrically'. In this work, we perform three-dimensional thermodynamic simulations in combination with ab initio calculations and effective Hamiltonian simulations to demonstrate the great effects of surface screening and surface bonding on ferroelectric domain switching triggered by local tip loading. A three-dimensional simulation scheme has been developed to capture the tip-induced domain switching behavior in ferroelectric thin films by adequately taking into account the surface screening effect and surface bonding effect of the ferroelectric film, as well as the finite elastic stiffness of the substrate and the electrode layers. The major findings are as follows. (i) Compared with flexoelectricity, surface effects can be overwhelming and lead to much more efficient mechanical switching caused by tip loading. (ii) The surface-assisted mechanical switching can be bi-directional without the necessity of reversing strain gradients. (iii) A mode transition from local to propagating domain switching occurs when the screening below a critical value. A ripple effect of domain switching appears with the formation of concentric loop domains. (iv) The ripple effect can lead to 'domain interference' and a deterministic writing of confined loop domain patterns by local excitations. Our study reveals the hidden switching mechanisms of ferroelectric domains and the possible roles of surface in mechanical switching. The ripple effect of domain switching, which is believed to be general in dipole systems, broadens our current knowledge of domain engineering.

  15. Analytical Modeling and Simulation of Four-Switch Hybrid Power Filter Working with Sixfold Switching Symmetry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tlustý, J.; Škramlík, Jiří; Švec, J.; Valouch, Viktor


    Roč. 2012, č. 292178 (2012), s. 1-17 ISSN 1024-123X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : analytical modeling * four-switch hybrid power filter * sixfold switching symmetry Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.383, year: 2012

  16. Switched on!

    CERN Multimedia


    Like a star arriving on stage, impatiently followed by each member of CERN personnel and by millions of eyes around the world, the first beam of protons has circulated in the LHC. After years in the making and months of increasing anticipation, today the work of hundreds of people has borne fruit. WELL DONE to all! Successfully steered around the 27 kilometres of the world’s most powerful particle accelerator at 10:28 this morning, this first beam of protons circulating in the ring marks a key moment in the transition from over two decades of preparation to a new era of scientific discovery. "It’s a fantastic moment," said the LHC project leader Lyn Evans, "we can now look forward to a new era of understanding about the origins and evolution of the universe". Starting up a major new particle accelerator takes much more than flipping a switch. Thousands of individual elements have to work in harmony, timings have to be synchronize...

  17. IGBT: a solid state switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Maury, J.; Hennevin, B.


    A Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply has been designed using a solid state switch consisting in eighteen Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT), -1200 volts, 400 Amps, each-in parallel. This paper presents the Isolated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBTs) replaced in the Power Electronic components evolution, and describes the IGBT conduction mechanism, presents the parallel association of IGBTs, and studies the application of these components to a Copper Vapour Laser Power Supply. The storage capacitor voltage is 820 volts, the peak current of the solid state switch is 17.000 Amps. The switch is connected on the primary of a step-up transformer, followed by a magnetic modulator. The reset of the magnetic modulator is provided by part of the laser reflected energy with a patented circuit. The charging circuit is a resonant circuit with a charge controlled by an IGBT switch. When the switch is open, the inductance energy is free-wheeled by an additional winding and does not extend the charging phase of the storage capacitor. The design allows the storage capacitor voltage to be very well regulated. This circuit is also patented. The electric pulse in the laser has 30.000 Volt peak voltage, 2000 Amp peak current, and is 200 nanoseconds long, for a 200 Watt optical power Copper Vapour Laser

  18. Resistive Switching Assisted by Noise


    Patterson, G. A.; Fierens, P. I.; Grosz, D. F.


    We extend results by Stotland and Di Ventra on the phenomenon of resistive switching aided by noise. We further the analysis of the mechanism underlying the beneficial role of noise and study the EPIR (Electrical Pulse Induced Resistance) ratio dependence with noise power. In the case of internal noise we find an optimal range where the EPIR ratio is both maximized and independent of the preceding resistive state. However, when external noise is considered no beneficial effect is observed.

  19. Polarization switching kinetics in ultrathin ferroelectric barium titanate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaynutdinov, R., E-mail: [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Minnekaev, M., E-mail: [NRNU Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Mitko, S., E-mail: [NT-MDT Co., Moscow 124482 (Russian Federation); Tolstikhina, A., E-mail: [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation); Zenkevich, A., E-mail: [NRNU Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ducharme, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy and Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, NE 68588-0299 (United States); Fridkin, V., E-mail: [Institute of Crystallography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119333 (Russian Federation)


    The investigation of polarization switching kinetics in an ultrathin barium titanate film reveals true threshold switching at a large coercive electric field, evidence that switching is of intrinsic thermodynamic nature, rather than of extrinsic nature initiated by thermal nucleation, which has no true threshold field. The switching speed of a 7 nm thick epitaxial film exhibits a critical slowing as the threshold is approached from above, a key characteristic of intrinsic switching. In contrast, a bulk crystal exhibits nucleation-initiated switching, which has no threshold, and proceeds even at fields well below the nominal coercive field, which was determined independently from the polarization-electric field hysteresis loop. Previously, this phenomenon was only reported for ultrathin ferroelectric polymer Langmuir–Blodgett films. Since both the thermodynamic coercive field and the intrinsic switching kinetics are derived from the mean field theory of ferroelectricity, we expect that these phenomena will be found in other ferroelectric films at the nanoscale.

  20. Granular acoustic switches and logic elements (United States)

    Li, Feng; Anzel, Paul; Yang, Jinkyu; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara


    Electrical flow control devices are fundamental components in electrical appliances and computers; similarly, optical switches are essential in a number of communication, computation and quantum information-processing applications. An acoustic counterpart would use an acoustic (mechanical) signal to control the mechanical energy flow through a solid material. Although earlier research has demonstrated acoustic diodes or circulators, no acoustic switches with wide operational frequency ranges and controllability have been realized. Here we propose and demonstrate an acoustic switch based on a driven chain of spherical particles with a nonlinear contact force. We experimentally and numerically verify that this switching mechanism stems from a combination of nonlinearity and bandgap effects. We also realize the OR and AND acoustic logic elements by exploiting the nonlinear dynamical effects of the granular chain. We anticipate these results to enable the creation of novel acoustic devices for the control of mechanical energy flow in high-performance ultrasonic devices.

  1. Ring oscillator switching noise under NBTI wearout


    Fernández García, Raúl; Gil Galí, Ignacio; Ruiz, José María; Morata Cariñena, Marta


    In this paper the switching noise of a CMOS ring oscillator has been analysed when their pFETs are subjected to negative bias temperature instability (NBTI). The impact of pFET under NBTI has been experimentally quantified whereas CMOS ring oscillator frequency and the switching noise has been analysed by means of electrical full-model simulation. The results show that the impact on the electromagnetic compatibility behaviour increases with NBTI wearout. Peer Reviewed

  2. Electric engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byeong Won; Eom, Sang Ho


    It is divided into nine chapters, which includes electricity theory such as structure of material and current, nature of electricity, static, magnetic force and magnetic attraction, attraction of current and a storage battery, electric circuit on a direct current circuit, single phase circuit and 3-phase current circuit electricity machine like DC generator, DC motor, alternator, electric transformer, single-phase induction motor, 3-phase induction motor, synchronous motor, synchro electric machine, semiconductor such as diode, transistor, FET, UJT, silicon symmetrical switch, electronic circuit like smoothing circuit and Bistable MV. circuit, automatic control, measurement of electricity, electric application and safety.

  3. A solid-state dielectric elastomer switch for soft logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chau, Nixon [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); Slipher, Geoffrey A., E-mail:; Mrozek, Randy A. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, Maryland 20783 (United States); O' Brien, Benjamin M. [StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Anderson, Iain A. [Biomimetics Laboratory, Auckland Bioengineering Institute, The University of Auckland, Level 6, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand); StretchSense, Ltd., 27 Walls Rd., Penrose, Auckland 1061 (New Zealand); Department of Engineering Science, School of Engineering, The University of Auckland, Level 3, 70 Symonds Street, Auckland 1010 (New Zealand)


    In this paper, we describe a stretchable solid-state electronic switching material that operates at high voltage potentials, as well as a switch material benchmarking technique that utilizes a modular dielectric elastomer (artificial muscle) ring oscillator. The solid-state switching material was integrated into our oscillator, which self-started after 16 s and performed 5 oscillations at a frequency of 1.05 Hz with 3.25 kV DC input. Our materials-by-design approach for the nickel filled polydimethylsiloxane based switch has resulted in significant improvements over previous carbon grease-based switches in four key areas, namely, sharpness of switching behavior upon applied stretch, magnitude of electrical resistance change, ease of manufacture, and production rate. Switch lifetime was demonstrated to be in the range of tens to hundreds of cycles with the current process. An interesting and potentially useful strain-based switching hysteresis behavior is also presented.

  4. Isolated and soft-switched power converter (United States)

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe


    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  5. Method and system for operating an electric motor (United States)

    Gallegos-Lopez, Gabriel; Hiti, Silva; Perisic, Milun


    Methods and systems for operating an electric motor having a plurality of windings with an inverter having a plurality of switches coupled to a voltage source are provided. A first plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The first plurality of switching vectors includes a first ratio of first magnitude switching vectors to second magnitude switching vectors. A direct current (DC) current associated with the voltage source is monitored during the applying of the first plurality of switching vectors to the plurality of switches. A second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors is selected based on the monitoring of the DC current associated with the voltage source. A second plurality of switching vectors is applied to the plurality of switches. The second plurality of switching vectors includes the second ratio of the first magnitude switching vectors to the second magnitude switching vectors.

  6. Proceedings of the switched power workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernow, R.C.


    These proceedings contain most of the presentations given at a workshop on the current state of research in techniques for switched power acceleration. The proceedings are divided, as was the workshop itself, into two parts. Part 1, contains the latest results from a number of groups active in switched power research. The major topic here is a method for switching externally supplied power onto a transmission line. Advocates for vacuum photodiode switching, solid state switching, gas switching, and synthetic pulse generation are all presented. Other important areas of research described in this section concern: external electrical and laser pulsing systems; the properties of the created electromagnetic pulse; structures used for transporting the electromagnetic pulse to the region where the electron beam is located; and possible applications. Part 2 of the proceedings considers the problem of designing a high brightness electron gun using switched power as the power source. This is an important first step in demonstrating the usefulness of switched power techniques for accelerator physics. In addition such a gun could have immediate practical importance for advanced acceleration studies since the brightness could exceed that of present sources by several orders of magnitude. I would like to take this opportunity to thank Kathleen Tuohy and Patricia Tuttle for their assistance in organizing and running the workshop. Their tireless efforts contribute greatly to a very productive meeting

  7. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)


    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  8. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage (United States)

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.


    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  9. Intrinsic nanofilamentation in resistive switching

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Xing


    Resistive switching materials are promising candidates for nonvolatile data storage and reconfiguration of electronic applications. Intensive studies have been carried out on sandwiched metal-insulator-metal structures to achieve high density on-chip circuitry and non-volatile memory storage. Here, we provide insight into the mechanisms that govern highly reproducible controlled resistive switching via a nanofilament by using an asymmetric metal-insulator-semiconductor structure. In-situ transmission electron microscopy is used to study in real-time the physical structure and analyze the chemical composition of the nanofilament dynamically during resistive switching. Electrical stressing using an external voltage was applied by a tungsten tip to the nanosized devices having hafnium oxide (HfO2) as the insulator layer. The formation and rupture of the nanofilaments result in up to three orders of magnitude change in the current flowing through the dielectric during the switching event. Oxygen vacancies and metal atoms from the anode constitute the chemistry of the nanofilament.

  10. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6HSiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators.

  11. Controller Architectures for Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    This paper investigate different controller architectures in connection with controller switching. The controller switching is derived by using the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization. A number of different architectures for the implementation of the YJBK parameterization...... are described and applied in connection with controller switching. An architecture that does not include inversion of the coprime factors is introduced. This architecture will make controller switching particular simple....

  12. Architectures of electro-optical packet switched networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Michael Stubert


    This thesis focuses on network- andn ode architectuers for electrical and optical packet switched networks. Future packet switched networks could evolve towards many small, distributed units or towards fewer large, centralised switch units. This work assumes the latter evolution scenario and exam......This thesis focuses on network- andn ode architectuers for electrical and optical packet switched networks. Future packet switched networks could evolve towards many small, distributed units or towards fewer large, centralised switch units. This work assumes the latter evolution scenario...... from optics and electronics. An overview of the DAVID network architecture is given, focusing on the MAN and WAN architecture as well as the MPLS based network hierarchy. A statistical model of the optical slot generation process is presented and utilised to evaluate delay vs. efficiency. Furthermore...

  13. Large aperture optical switching devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.


    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs

  14. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.


    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  15. Photo-stimulated resistive switching of ZnO nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jinjoo; Lee, Seunghyup; Yong, Kijung


    Resistive switching memory devices are promising candidates for emerging memory technologies because they yield outstanding device performance. Storage mechanisms for achieving high-density memory applications have been developed; however, so far many of them exhibit typical resistive switching behavior from the limited controlling conditions. In this study, we introduce photons as an unconventional stimulus for activating resistive switching behaviors. First, we compare the resistive switching behavior in light and dark conditions to describe how resistive switching memories can benefit from photons. Second, we drive the switching of resistance not by the electrical stimulus but only by the modulation of photon. ZnO nanorods were employed as a model system to demonstrate photo-stimulated resistive switching in high-surface-area nanomaterials, in which photo-driven surface states strongly affect their photoconductivity and resistance states. (paper)

  16. 49 CFR 236.732 - Controller, circuit; switch. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Controller, circuit; switch. 236.732 Section 236.732 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... § 236.732 Controller, circuit; switch. A device for opening and closing electric circuits, operated by a...

  17. Adaptive switching gravitational search algorithm: an attempt to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Synchronous update allows convergence, while switching to asynchronous update causes disruption to the population's convergence. ... Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka, Malaysia; Faculty of Electrical ...

  18. Minimization of switching frequency oscillation of voltage inverter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Večerka, Tomáš


    Roč. 56, č. 2 (2011), s. 125-140 ISSN 0001-7043 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : switching frequency * pulse-width modulation * induction motors Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  19. Multiple application coded switch development report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, E.L.; Kestly, J.D.


    The development of the Multiple Application Coded Switch (MACS) and its related controller are documented; the functional and electrical characteristics are described; the interface requirements defined, and a troubleshooting guide provided. The system was designed for the Safe Secure Trailer System used for secure transportation of nuclear material

  20. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah


    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  1. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter (United States)

    Su, Gui-Jia; Peng, Fang Z.


    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  2. Mathematical modeling of a passively Q-switched diode laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.


    A mathematical model describing the dynamic emission of the intracavity frequency doubling (IFD) of a gain-switched InGaAs/GaAs/KTP and a gain-switched mode-locked two-sections tapered ridge-waveguide InGaAs/GaAs diode laser has been presented. The IFD of a gain-switched and a gain-switched mode-locked two-sections diode laser is modeled where one section is electrically pumped to proved gain while the second section is unpumped (reverse biased) to provide a saturable absorber. (author)

  3. FreeSWITCH Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Minessale, Anthony


    This is a problem-solution approach to take your FreeSWITCH skills to the next level, where everything is explained in a practical way. If you are a system administrator, hobbyist, or someone who uses FreeSWITCH on a regular basis, this book is for you. Whether you are a FreeSWITCH expert or just getting started, this book will take your skills to the next level.

  4. Atomic battery with beam switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edling, E.A.; McKenna, R.P.; Peterick, E.Th. Jr.; Trexler, F.D.


    An electric power generating apparatus that is powered primarily by the emission of electrically charged particles from radio-active materials enclosed in an evacuated vessel of glass or the like. An arrangement of reflecting electrodes causes a beam of particles to switch back and forth at a high frequency between two collecting electrodes that are connected to a resonating tuned primary circuit consisting of an inductor with resonating capacitor. The reflecting electrodes are energized in the proper phase relationship to the collecting electrodes to insure sustained oscillation by means of a secondary winding coupled inductively to the primary winding and connected to the reflecting electrodes. Power may be drawn from the circuit at a stepped down voltage from a power take-off winding that is coupled to the primary winding. The disclosure also describes a collecting electrode arrangement consisting of multiple spatially separated electrodes which together serve to capture a maximum of the available particle energy. A self-starting arrangement for start of oscillations is described. A specially adapted version of the invention utilizes two complementary beams of oppositely charged particles which are switched alternatingly between the collecting electrodes

  5. multilevel buck converter for automotive electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    of the switching devices are established. A pulse width modulated (PWM) feedback is applied, in adaptively adjusting the duty cycle of the switches to maintain the required output voltage. The duty cycle is used as the gate signal to drive the switching devices, thereby satisfying the requirement of the changing electric load.

  6. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches (United States)

    Sullivan, James Stephen

    Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches Semi-insulating Gallium Nitride, 4H and 6H Silicon Carbide are attractive materials for compact, high voltage, extrinsic, photoconductive switches due to their wide bandgap, high dark resistance, high critical electric field strength and high electron saturation velocity. These wide bandgap semiconductors are made semi-insulating by the addition of vanadium (4H and 6H-SiC) and iron (2H-GaN) impurities that form deep acceptors. These deep acceptors trap electrons donated from shallow donor impurities. The electrons can be optically excited from these deep acceptor levels into the conduction band to transition the wide bandgap semiconductor materials from a semi-insulating to a conducting state. Extrinsic photoconductive switches with opposing electrodes have been constructed using vanadium compensated 6H-SiC and iron compensated 2H-GaN. These extrinsic photoconductive switches were tested at high voltage and high power to determine if they could be successfully used as the closing switch in compact medical accelerators. The successful development of a vanadium compensated, 6H-SiC extrinsic photoconductive switch for use as a closing switch for compact accelerator applications was realized by improvements made to the vanadium, nitrogen and boron impurity densities. The changes made to the impurity densities were based on the physical intuition outlined and simple rate equation models. The final 6H-SiC impurity 'recipe' calls for vanadium, nitrogen and boron densities of 2.5 e17 cm-3, 1.25e17 cm-3 and ≤ 1e16 cm-3, respectively. This recipe was originally developed to maximize the quantum efficiency of the vanadium compensated 6H-SiC, while maintaining a thermally stable semi-insulating material. The rate equation models indicate that, besides increasing the quantum efficiency, the impurity recipe should be expected to also increase the carrier recombination time. Three generations of 6H-SiC materials were tested. The

  7. Resistance switching in silver - manganite contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez-Marlasca, F; Levy, P


    We investigate the electric pulse induced resistance switching in a transition metal oxide-metal contact at room temperature - a non volatile, reversible and multilevel memory device. Using a simple multiterminal configuration, we find that the complementary effect -in which the contact resistance of each pulsed electrode displays variations of opposite sign- is strongly influenced by the history of the pulsing procedure. Loops performed by varying the magnitude and sign of the stimulus at each pulsed electrode allow to disentangle their sole contribution at different stages of the process. Electromigration of oxygen ions and vacancies is discussed as participating at the core of the underlying mechanisms for resistance switching.

  8. Plasma erosion switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W. Jr.; Goldstein, S.A.; Miller, P.A.


    The plasma erosion switch is a device capable of initially carrying high currents, and then of opening in nanoseconds to stand off high voltages. It depends upon the erosion of a plasma which initially fills the switch. The sheath between the plasma and the cathode behaves as a diode with a rapidly increasing A-K gap. Preliminary tests of the switch on the Proto I accelerator at Sandia will be described. In these tests, the switch consisted of a cylinder of highly ionized plasma four inches in diameter and one-inch thick surrounding a one-inch cathode. The switch shorted out prepulse voltages and allowed energy to be stored in the diode inductance outside the switch until the accelerator current reached 75 kA. The switch impedance then rose rapidly to approximately 100 ω in 5 nanoseconds, whereupon the accelerator current transferred to the cathode. Current rise rates of 3.10 13 A/sec were limited by cathode turn-on. Voltage rise rates of 10 15 V/sec were achieved. The elimination of prepulse and machine turn-on transients allowed A-K gaps of 2 mm to be used with 2.5 MV pulses, yielding average E fields of 12 MV/cm. Staged versions of the device are being built and should improve rise rates. The switch shows promise for use with future, higher power, lower inductance machines

  9. Switched reluctance motor drives

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Davis RM, Ray WF, Blake RJ 1981 Inverter drive for switched reluctance: circuits and component ratings. Inst. Elec. Eng. Proc. B128: 126-136. Ehsani M. 1991 Position Sensor elimination technique for the switched reluctance motor drive. US Patent No. 5,072,166. Ehsani M, Ramani K R 1993 Direct control strategies based ...

  10. Switch on, switch off: stiction in nanoelectromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Wagner, Till J W


    We present a theoretical investigation of stiction in nanoscale electromechanical contact switches. We develop a mathematical model to describe the deflection of a cantilever beam in response to both electrostatic and van der Waals forces. Particular focus is given to the question of whether adhesive van der Waals forces cause the cantilever to remain in the \\'ON\\' state even when the electrostatic forces are removed. In contrast to previous studies, our theory accounts for deflections with large slopes (i.e. geometrically nonlinear). We solve the resulting equations numerically to study how a cantilever beam adheres to a rigid electrode: transitions between \\'free\\', \\'pinned\\' and \\'clamped\\' states are shown to be discontinuous and to exhibit significant hysteresis. Our findings are compared to previous results from linearized models and the implications for nanoelectromechanical cantilever switch design are discussed. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. A High Isolation Series-Shunt RF MEMS Switch (United States)

    Yu, Yuan-Wei; Zhu, Jian; Jia, Shi-Xing; Shi, Yi


    This paper presents a wide band compact high isolation microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) switch implemented on a coplanar waveguide (CPW) with three ohmic switch cells, which is based on the series-shunt switch design. The ohmic switch shows a low intrinsic loss of 0.1 dB and an isolation of 24.8 dB at 6 GHz. The measured average pull-in voltage is 28 V and switching time is 47 μs. In order to shorten design period of the high isolation switch, a structure-based small-signal model for the 3-port ohmic MEMS switch is developed and parameters are extracted from the measured results. Then a high isolation switch has been developed where each 3-port ohmic MEMS switch is closely located. The agreement of the measured and modeled radio frequency (RF) performance demonstrates the validity of the electrical equivalent model. Measurements of the series-shunt switch indicate an outstanding isolation of more than 40 dB and a low insertion loss of 0.35 dB from DC to 12 GHz with total chip size of 1 mm × 1.2 mm. PMID:22408535

  12. Switching overvoltages in offshore wind power grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Ivan

    Switching transients in wind turbines, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid in offshore wind farms, during normal or abnormal operation, are the most important phenomena when conducting insulation coordination studies. However, the recommended models and methods from...... electrical systems and the topic of transients is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2 it is described how the component and sub-system models are developed and used from an applied point of view, where common and detail models are mentioned. In Chapter 3 results from frequency domain measurement on transformers...... and cables are presented. In Chapter 4 results from time domain measurements and simulations of switching operations in offshore wind power grids are described. Specifically, switching operations on a single wind turbine, the collection grid, the export system and the external grid measured in several real...

  13. Switch mode power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hui Jun


    This book concentrates on switch mode power supply. It has four parts, which are introduction of switch mode power supply with DC-DC converter such as Buck converter boost converter, Buck-boost converter and PWM control circuit, explanation for SMPS with DC-DC converter modeling and power mode control, resonance converter like resonance switch, converter, multi resonance converter and series resonance and parallel resonance converters, basic test of SMPS with PWM control circuit, Buck converter, Boost converter, flyback converter, forward converter and IC for control circuit.

  14. JUNOS Enterprise Switching

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, Harry


    JUNOS Enterprise Switching is the only detailed technical book on Juniper Networks' new Ethernet-switching EX product platform. With this book, you'll learn all about the hardware and ASIC design prowess of the EX platform, as well as the JUNOS Software that powers it. Not only is this extremely practical book a useful, hands-on manual to the EX platform, it also makes an excellent study guide for certification exams in the JNTCP enterprise tracks. The authors have based JUNOS Enterprise Switching on their own Juniper training practices and programs, as well as the configuration, maintenanc

  15. Resistance switching at the nanometre scale in amorphous carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, Abu; Rossel, Christophe; Pozidis, Haralampos; Eleftheriou, Evangelos; Pauza, Andrew; Shelby, Robert M; RodrIguez, Arantxa Fraile


    The electrical transport and resistance switching mechanism in amorphous carbon (a-C) is investigated at the nanoscale. The electrical conduction in a-C thin films is shown to be captured well by a Poole-Frenkel transport model that involves nonisolated traps. Moreover, at high electric fields a field-induced threshold switching phenomenon is observed. The following resistance change is attributed to Joule heating and subsequent localized thermal annealing. We demonstrate that the mechanism is mostly due to clustering of the existing sp 2 sites within the sp 3 matrix. The electrical conduction behaviour, field-induced switching and Joule-heating-induced rearrangement of atomic order resulting in a resistance change are all reminiscent of conventional phase-change memory materials. This suggests the potential of a-C as a similar nonvolatile memory candidate material.

  16. Operation of a homeostatic sleep switch. (United States)

    Pimentel, Diogo; Donlea, Jeffrey M; Talbot, Clifford B; Song, Seoho M; Thurston, Alexander J F; Miesenböck, Gero


    Sleep disconnects animals from the external world, at considerable risks and costs that must be offset by a vital benefit. Insight into this mysterious benefit will come from understanding sleep homeostasis: to monitor sleep need, an internal bookkeeper must track physiological changes that are linked to the core function of sleep. In Drosophila, a crucial component of the machinery for sleep homeostasis is a cluster of neurons innervating the dorsal fan-shaped body (dFB) of the central complex. Artificial activation of these cells induces sleep, whereas reductions in excitability cause insomnia. dFB neurons in sleep-deprived flies tend to be electrically active, with high input resistances and long membrane time constants, while neurons in rested flies tend to be electrically silent. Correlative evidence thus supports the simple view that homeostatic sleep control works by switching sleep-promoting neurons between active and quiescent states. Here we demonstrate state switching by dFB neurons, identify dopamine as a neuromodulator that operates the switch, and delineate the switching mechanism. Arousing dopamine caused transient hyperpolarization of dFB neurons within tens of milliseconds and lasting excitability suppression within minutes. Both effects were transduced by Dop1R2 receptors and mediated by potassium conductances. The switch to electrical silence involved the downregulation of voltage-gated A-type currents carried by Shaker and Shab, and the upregulation of voltage-independent leak currents through a two-pore-domain potassium channel that we term Sandman. Sandman is encoded by the CG8713 gene and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to dopamine. dFB-restricted interference with the expression of Shaker or Sandman decreased or increased sleep, respectively, by slowing the repetitive discharge of dFB neurons in the ON state or blocking their entry into the OFF state. Biophysical changes in a small population of neurons are thus linked to the

  17. Electric-Field-Tunable Ferroelastic Control of Nonvolatile Resistivity and Ferromagnetic Switching in Multiferroic La0.67Ca0.33MnO3/[PbMg1/3Nb2/3O3] 0.7[PbTiO3]0.3 Heterostructures (United States)

    Zheng, Ming; Zheng, Ren-Kui


    The electric-field-modulated nonvolatile resistivity and magnetization switching in elastically coupled La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films grown on (111)-oriented 0.7 Pb (Mg1 /3Nb2 /3)O3-0.3 PbTiO3 substrates is achieved through the ferroelastic effect. By taking advantage of the 180° ferroelectric and non-180° ferroelastic domain switching, we identify that such changes in order parameters stem from domain-switching-induced strain rather than accumulation or depletion of charge carriers at the interface. Specifically, the strong correlation between the ferroelastic strain and the magnetic field is manifested not only by the strain-tunable magnetoresistance effect but also by the magnetically manipulated strain effect, which is essentially driven by the electronic phase separation. These findings present a potential strategy for elucidating the essential physics of the ferroelastic-strain effect and delivering prototype devices for energy-efficient and nonvolatile information storage.

  18. Complementary resistive switching in BaTiO{sub 3}/NiO bilayer with opposite switching polarities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Shuo [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Institut d’Electronique de Micro-électronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), CNRS, Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, avenue Poincaré, BP 60069, 59652, Villeneuve d’Ascq cedex (France); Wei, Xianhua, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Lei, Yao [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yuan, Xincai [State Key Laboratory Cultivation Base for Nonmetal Composites and Functional Materials, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Zeng, Huizhong [State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronics Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)


    Graphical abstract: Au/BaTiO{sub 3}/NiO/Pt bilayer device shows complementary resistive switching (CRS) without electroforming which is mainly ascribed to anti-serial stack of two RRAM cells with bipolar behaviors. - Highlights: • Complementary resistive switching (CRS) has been investigated in Au/BaTiO{sub 3}/NiO/Pt by stacking the two elements with different switching types. • The realization of complementary resistive switching (CRS) is mainly ascribed to the anti-serial stack of two RRAM cells with bipolar behaviors. • Complementary resistive switching (CRS) in bilayer is effective to solve the sneak current problem briefly and economically. - Abstract: Resistive switching behaviors have been investigated in the Au/BaTiO{sub 3}/NiO/Pt structure by stacking the two elements with different switching types. The conducting atomic force microscope measurements on BaTiO{sub 3} thin films and NiO thin films suggest that with the same active resistive switching region, the switching polarities in the two semiconductors are opposite to each other. It is in agreement with the bipolar hysteresis I–V curves with opposite switching polarities for single-layer devices. The bilayer devices show complementary resistive switching (CRS) without electroforming and unipolar resistive switching (URS) after electroforming. The coexistence of CRS and URS is mainly ascribed to the co-effect of electric field and Joule heating mechanisms, indicating that changeable of resistance in this device is dominated by the redistribution of oxygen vacancies in BaTiO{sub 3} and the formation, disruption, restoration of conducting filaments in NiO. CRS in bilayer with opposite switching polarities is effective to solve the sneak current without the introduction of any selector elements or an additional metal electrode.

  19. Dielectric breakdown of fast switching LCD shutters (United States)

    Mozolevskis, Gatis; Sekacis, Ilmars; Nitiss, Edgars; Medvids, Arturs; Rutkis, Martins


    Fast liquid crystal optical shutters due to fast switching, vibrationless control and optical properties have found various applications: substitutes for mechanical shutters, 3D active shutter glasses, 3D volumetric displays and more. Switching speed depends not only on properties of liquid crystal, but also on applied electric field intensity. Applied field in the shutters can exceed >10 V/micron which may lead to dielectric breakdown. Therefore, a dielectric thin film is needed between transparent conductive electrodes in order to reduce breakdown probability. In this work we have compared electrical and optical properties of liquid crystal displays with dielectric thin films with thicknesses up to few hundred nanometers coated by flexo printing method and magnetron sputtering. Dielectric breakdown values show flexographic thin films to have higher resistance to dielectric breakdown, although sputtered coatings have better optical properties, such as higher transmission and no coloration.

  20. uv preilluminated gas switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.


    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10/sup 12/ amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters.

  1. Switching power supply filter (United States)

    Kumar, Prithvi R. (Inventor); Abare, Wayne (Inventor)


    A filter for a switching power supply. The filter includes a common mode inductor with coil configurations allowing differential mode current from a dc source to pass through but attenuating common mode noise from the power supply so that the noise does not reach the dc source. The invention also includes the use of feed through capacitors at the switching power supply input terminals to provide further high-frequency noise attenuation.

  2. uv preilluminated gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, L.P.; Orham, E.L.; Stowers, I.F.; Braucht, J.R.


    We have designed, built, and characterized uv preilluminated gas switches for a trigger circuit and a low inductance discharge circuit. These switches have been incorporated into a 54 x 76 x 150 cm pulser module to produce a 1 Ma output current rising at 5 x 10 12 amps/sec with 1 ns jitter. Twenty such modules will be used on the Nova Inertial Confinement Fusion Laser System for plasma retropulse shutters

  3. Photonics in switching

    CERN Document Server

    Midwinter, John E; Kelley, Paul


    Photonics in Switching provides a broad, balanced overview of the use of optics or photonics in switching, from materials and devices to system architecture. The chapters, each written by an expert in the field, survey the key technologies, setting them in context and highlighting their benefits and possible applications. This book is a valuable resource for those working in the communications industry, either at the professional or student level, who do not have extensive background knowledge or the underlying physics of the technology.

  4. Electricity and Man (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asimov, Isaac


    Our whole industrial civilization depends upon cheap energy streaking out in all directions and under fingertip controls—and that would be very difficult without electric current. It would take enormous ingenuity to find substitutes. If all electricity were shut off, then all electronic devices would be dead. Electric lights would darken. Aluminum would become a rare metal. All factories would have to develop power sources on the spot and would have to switch to primitive, mechanical controls. Every house and every farm would have to give up items we have come to take for granted—not only electric lights, but electric irons, electric toasters, electric water pumps, electric control of furnaces, and so on.

  5. Particle in cell simulation of peaking switch for breakdown evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umbarkar, Sachin B.; Bindu, S.; Mangalvedekar, H.A.; Saxena, A.; Singh, N.M., E-mail: [Department of Electric Engineering, Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute, Mumbai (India); Sharma, Archana; Saroj, P.C.; Mittal, K.C. [Accelerator Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)


    Marx generator connected to peaking capacitor and peaking switch can generate Ultra-Wideband (UWB) radiation. A new peaking switch is designed for converting the existing nanosecond Marx generator to a UWB source. The paper explains the particle in cell (PIC) simulation for this peaking switch, using MAGIC 3D software. This peaking switch electrode is made up of copper tungsten material and is fixed inside the hermitically sealed derlin material. The switch can withstand a gas pressure up to 13.5 kg/cm{sup 2}. The lower electrode of the switch is connected to the last stage of the Marx generator. Initially Marx generator (without peaking stage) in air; gives the output pulse with peak amplitude of 113.75 kV and pulse rise time of 25 ns. Thus, we design a new peaking switch to improve the rise time of output pulse and to pressurize this peaking switch separately (i.e. Marx and peaking switch is at different pressure). The PIC simulation gives the particle charge density, current density, E counter plot, emitted electron current, and particle energy along the axis of gap between electrodes. The charge injection and electric field dependence on ionic dissociation phenomenon are briefly analyzed using this simulation. The model is simulated with different gases (N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and Air) under different pressure (2 kg/cm{sup 2}, 5 kg/cm{sup 2}, 10 kg/cm{sup 2}). (author)

  6. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian


    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  7. Understanding and Supporting Window Switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, S.


    Switching between windows on a computer is a frequent activity, but finding and switching to the target window can be inefficient. This thesis aims to better un-derstand and support window switching. It explores two issues: (1) the lack of knowledge of how people currently interact with and switch

  8. A radiation hard vacuum switch (United States)

    Boettcher, G.E.


    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  9. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings (United States)

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN


    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  10. Submicrosecond Power-Switching Test Circuit (United States)

    Folk, Eric N.


    A circuit that changes an electrical load in a switching time shorter than 0.3 microsecond has been devised. This circuit can be used in testing the regulation characteristics of power-supply circuits . especially switching power-converter circuits that are supposed to be able to provide acceptably high degrees of regulation in response to rapid load transients. The combination of this power-switching circuit and a known passive constant load could be an attractive alternative to a typical commercially available load-bank circuit that can be made to operate in nominal constant-voltage, constant-current, and constant-resistance modes. The switching provided by a typical commercial load-bank circuit in the constant-resistance mode is not fast enough for testing of regulation in response to load transients. Moreover, some test engineers do not trust the test results obtained when using commercial load-bank circuits because the dynamic responses of those circuits are, variously, partly unknown and/or excessively complex. In contrast, the combination of this circuit and a passive constant load offers both rapid switching and known (or at least better known) load dynamics. The power-switching circuit (see figure) includes a signal-input section, a wide-hysteresis Schmitt trigger that prevents false triggering in the event of switch-contact bounce, a dual-bipolar-transistor power stage that drives the gate of a metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), and the MOSFET, which is the output device that performs the switching of the load. The MOSFET in the specific version of the circuit shown in the figure is rated to stand off a potential of 100 V in the "off" state and to pass a current of 20 A in the "on" state. The switching time of this circuit (the characteristic time of rise or fall of the potential at the drain of the MOSFET) is .300 ns. The circuit can accept any of three control inputs . which one depending on the test that one seeks to perform: a

  11. Energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.


    We report observation of energy reversible switching from amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch. For ultra-low power electronics, NEM switches can be used as a complementary switching element in many nanoelectronic system applications. Its inherent zero power consumption because of mechanical detachment is an attractive feature. However, its operating voltage needs to be in the realm of 1 volt or lower. Appropriate design and lower Young\\'s modulus can contribute achieving lower operating voltage. Therefore, we have developed amorphous metal with low Young\\'s modulus and in this paper reporting the energy reversible switching from a laterally actuated double electrode NEM switch. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM; Schare, Joshua M [Albuquerque, NM; Bunch, Kyle [Albuquerque, NM


    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  13. Switching power supply (United States)

    Mihalka, A.M.


    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  14. Optical computer switching network (United States)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.


    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  15. High frequency modulation circuits based on photoconductive wide bandgap switches (United States)

    Sampayan, Stephen


    Methods, systems, and devices for high voltage and/or high frequency modulation. In one aspect, an optoelectronic modulation system includes an array of two or more photoconductive switch units each including a wide bandgap photoconductive material coupled between a first electrode and a second electrode, a light source optically coupled to the WBGP material of each photoconductive switch unit via a light path, in which the light path splits into multiple light paths to optically interface with each WBGP material, such that a time delay of emitted light exists along each subsequent split light path, and in which the WBGP material conducts an electrical signal when a light signal is transmitted to the WBGP material, and an output to transmit the electrical signal conducted by each photoconductive switch unit. The time delay of the photons emitted through the light path is substantially equivalent to the time delay of the electrical signal.

  16. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  17. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs

  18. Optical Packet Switching Demostrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert


    In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the m......In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set...

  19. Plasma Switch Development. (United States)


    ACCION NO. 3. RCIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED PLASMA SWITCH DEVELOPMENT Final Report: 02/26/82 thru...with an inductive energy store. At present, the are summarized state-of-he- art of high-power repetitive opening or doming switches is limited to...Alexandria, VA 22304. Figure 7 Is a circuit diagram of the proposed system. The desired load pulse parameters art -100- e References 1. R.D. Ford, 0. Jenkins

  20. Bearingless switched reluctance motor (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R. (Inventor)


    A switched reluctance motor has a stator with a first set of poles directed toward levitating a rotor horizontally within the stator. A disc shaped portion of a hybrid rotor is affected by the change in flux relative to the current provided at these levitation poles. A processor senses the position of the rotor and changes the flux to move the rotor toward center of the stator. A second set of poles of the stator are utilized to impart torque upon a second portion of the rotor. These second set of poles are driven in a traditional switched reluctance manner by the processor.

  1. Learning the Ropes with Electricity (United States)

    Carrier, Sarah; Rex, Ted


    This article presents a lesson plan that uses materials such as rope, drinking water, and straws in a classroom activity to teach elementary students about electrical circuits in a "hands on/minds on" fashion. Students first experiment with bulbs, wires, and switches, then they do an activity with simulating electricity through a circuit…

  2. Analysis of aceismatic properties of switch boards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabuchi, Yoji; Nishikawa, Atsushi


    Recently, in order to limit the disaster at the time of earthquakes to the minimum, the aseismatic properties of electric facilities have been regarded as important. By the development and spread of CAE simulation and experimental modal analysis, aseismatic analysis has become feasible also in design section. Taking an example of the switch boards of rigid construction, which have been used mainly for nuclear power plants, the analysis of the aseismatic properties is explained. In the switch boards of rigid construction, the probability of causing resonance behavior due to earthquakes is decreased by making the structure rigid, thus the aseismatic properties are heightened. In the switch boards of rigid construction, the primary natural frequency is heightened usually to above 20 Hz considering earthquake movement and the response of buildings (in the range from 0.5 to 10 Hz). Since the switch boards of rigid construction can be treated as a rigid body in the examination of structural strength, generally static analysis is carried out. The dimensions and weight tend to be large for increasing the rigidity. In most cases, standard equipment can be adopted if the fixing is made strong. The modal analysis of the natural vibration, static stress analysis and time history response analysis were carried out by finite element method. Also the vibration test on a large vibration table was made. The results are reported. (Kako, I.)

  3. Modeling of charge switching in ferroelectric capacitors. (United States)

    Sun, Shunming; Kalkur, Thottam S


    To simulate charge switching in ferroelectric capacitors, a pair of exponential growth and decay currents is mapped to the process of polarization reversal. This is based on the fact that these exponential currents [i.e., i = I(m) e(t/tau) (t or = 0)], are completely specified by two constants I(m) and tau and each accommodates an integral charge Q = I(m) x tau. Equating this charge to the remanent spontaneous polarization allows for the modeling of switching current. For practical circuit simulations for charge switching, this modeling of switching current is simplified to an exponential decay current whose integral charge is set equal to the total reversed spontaneous polarization. This is because an exponential decay current can be conveniently implemented by charging a series resistor and capacitor (RC) circuit with a pulse-voltage source. The voltage transitions of the pulse source are associated with the polarization reversal and can be controlled with a noninverting Schmitt trigger that toggles at the positive and negative coercive voltages of a ferroelectric capacitor. The final circuit model incorporates such electrical and geometrical parameters as capacitance, remanent spontaneous polarization, coercive field, electrode area, and film thickness of a ferroelectric, thin-film capacitor.

  4. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.


    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes Khz at > 100 kV/m E field

  5. Photonic MEMS switch applications (United States)

    Husain, Anis


    As carriers and service providers continue their quest for profitable network solutions, they have shifted their focus from raw bandwidth to rapid provisioning, delivery and management of revenue generating services. Inherently transparent to data rate the transmission wavelength and data format, MEMS add scalability, reliability, low power and compact size providing flexible solutions to the management and/or fiber channels in long haul, metro, and access networks. MEMS based photonic switches have gone from the lab to commercial availability and are now currently in carrier trials and volume production. 2D MEMS switches offer low up-front deployment costs while remaining scalable to large arrays. They allow for transparent, native protocol transmission. 2D switches enable rapid service turn-up and management for many existing and emerging revenue rich services such as storage connectivity, optical Ethernet, wavelength leasing and optical VPN. As the network services evolve, the larger 3D MEMS switches, which provide greater scalability and flexibility, will become economically viable to serve the ever-increasing needs.

  6. Search and switching costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siekman, Wilhelm Henricus


    This thesis analyses markets with search and with switching costs. It provides insights in several important issues in search markets, including how loss aversion may affect consumer behavior and firm conduct, and how prices, welfare, and profits may change when an intermediating platform orders

  7. The Octopus switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.


    This chapter1 discusses the interconnection architecture of the Mobile Digital Companion. The approach to build a low-power handheld multimedia computer presented here is to have autonomous, reconfigurable modules such as network, video and audio devices, interconnected by a switch rather than by a

  8. Stochastic Switching Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Maria

    mode control. It is investigated how to understand and interpret solutions to models of switched systems, which are exposed to discontinuous dynamics and uncertainties (primarily) in the form of white noise. The goal is to gain knowledge about the performance of the system by interpreting the solution...

  9. Low-Loss, High-Isolation Microwave Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) Switches Being Developed (United States)

    Ponchak, George E.


    Switches, electrical components that either permit or prevent the flow of electricity, are the most important and widely used electrical devices in integrated circuits. In microwave systems, switches are required for switching between the transmitter and receiver; in communication systems, they are needed for phase shifters in phased-array antennas, for radar and communication systems, and for the new class of digital or software definable radios. Ideally, switches would be lossless devices that did not depend on the electrical signal's frequency or power, and they would not consume electrical power to change from OFF to ON or to maintain one of these two states. Reality is quite different, especially at microwave frequencies. Typical switches in microwave integrated circuits are pin diodes or gallium arsenide (GaAs) field-effect transistors that are nonlinear, with characteristics that depend on the power of the signal. In addition, they are frequency-dependent, lossy, and require electrical power to maintain a certain state. A new type of component has been developed that overcomes most of these technical difficulties. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) switches rely on mechanical movement as a response to an applied electrical force to either transmit or reflect electrical signal power. The NASA Glenn Research Center has been actively developing MEMS for microwave applications for over the last 5 years. Complete fabrication procedures have been developed so that the moving parts of the switch can be released with near 100-percent yield. Moreover, the switches fabricated at Glenn have demonstrated state-of-the-art performance. A typical MEMS switch is shown. The switch extends over the signal and ground lines of a finite ground coplanar waveguide, a commonly used microwave transmission line. In the state shown, the switch is in the UP state and all the microwave power traveling along the transmission line proceeds unimpeded. When a potential difference is applied

  10. Control synthesis of switched systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Xudong; Niu, Ben; Wu, Tingting


    This book offers its readers a detailed overview of the synthesis of switched systems, with a focus on switching stabilization and intelligent control. The problems investigated are not only previously unsolved theoretically but also of practical importance in many applications: voltage conversion, naval piloting and navigation and robotics, for example. The book considers general switched-system models and provides more efficient design methods to bring together theory and application more closely than was possible using classical methods. It also discusses several different classes of switched systems. For general switched linear systems and switched nonlinear systems comprising unstable subsystems, it introduces novel ideas such as invariant subspace theory and the time-scheduled Lyapunov function method of designing switching signals to stabilize the underlying systems. For some typical switched nonlinear systems affected by various complex dynamics, the book proposes novel design approaches based on inte...

  11. Review of opening switch technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, M.; Schoenbach, K.M.; Schaefer, G.


    Review of opening switch technology is given. Classification of open switches applied in pulsed power technology is presented. The most familiar opening switches are fuses. It is shown that a strong oxidizer (H 2 O 2 in water), especially in combination with wires of Al, increases the maximum voltage. Thermally driven opening switches are the result of attempts to achive the speed and economy of fuse opening switches but with added advantage of repetitive operation. The search for coordinate materials for this type of opening switch is in its infancy and it is difficult to predict how successful such a switch may be. Explosive opening switches offer the possibility of precise timing and permit the delay before explosion to be controlled independently of current flowing through the switch. Plasma guns, dense plasma focus and MHD switches are also considered. Diffuse discharge opening switches are attractive for repetitive operation. The plasma erosion switch operates on a very short time scale of 10 ns to 100 ns, both to regard to conduction and opening times

  12. Analysis of Soft Switched Electronic Ballast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavol Spanik


    Full Text Available One of most perspective light sources are based on principle of electric discharge in gases. Feature of this phenomena is nonlinear impedance characteristic. Ballast interconnected between line and light source adapts requirements of light source to possibilities/requirements of the line. Today solution of modern ballast is based is based upon high frequency switch mode power supply, the cuts many disadvantages of standartd magnetic ballast off. The article describes development of high frequency electronic ballast for linear fluorescent tube in the frame of grant project 1/9025/02 with accent to soft switching. The most important advantages of this solutions are compactness, flicker-free lumen effeciency increase and reduced EMI interferencies.

  13. Abacus switch: a new scalable multicast ATM switch (United States)

    Chao, H. Jonathan; Park, Jin-Soo; Choe, Byeong-Seog


    This paper describes a new architecture for a scalable multicast ATM switch from a few tens to thousands of input ports. The switch, called Abacus switch, has a nonblocking memoryless switch fabric followed by small switch modules at the output ports; the switch has input and output buffers. Cell replication, cell routing, output contention resolution, and cell addressing are all performed distributedly in the Abacus switch so that it can be scaled up to thousnads input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to resolve output port contention while achieving input and output ports. A novel algorithm has been proposed to reolve output port contention while achieving input buffers sharing, fairness among the input ports, and multicast call splitting. The channel grouping concept is also adopted in the switch to reduce the hardware complexity and improve the switch's throughput. The Abacus switch has a regular structure and thus has the advantages of: 1) easy expansion, 2) relaxed synchronization for data and clock signals, and 3) building the switch fabric using existing CMOS technology.

  14. Response switching and self-efficacy in Peer Instruction classrooms (United States)

    Miller, Kelly; Schell, Julie; Ho, Andrew; Lukoff, Brian; Mazur, Eric


    Peer Instruction, a well-known student-centered teaching method, engages students during class through structured, frequent questioning and is often facilitated by classroom response systems. The central feature of any Peer Instruction class is a conceptual question designed to help resolve student misconceptions about subject matter. We provide students two opportunities to answer each question—once after a round of individual reflection and then again after a discussion round with a peer. The second round provides students the choice to "switch" their original response to a different answer. The percentage of right answers typically increases after peer discussion: most students who answer incorrectly in the individual round switch to the correct answer after the peer discussion. However, for any given question there are also students who switch their initially right answer to a wrong answer and students who switch their initially wrong answer to a different wrong answer. In this study, we analyze response switching over one semester of an introductory electricity and magnetism course taught using Peer Instruction at Harvard University. Two key features emerge from our analysis: First, response switching correlates with academic self-efficacy. Students with low self-efficacy switch their responses more than students with high self-efficacy. Second, switching also correlates with the difficulty of the question; students switch to incorrect responses more often when the question is difficult. These findings indicate that instructors may need to provide greater support for difficult questions, such as supplying cues during lectures, increasing times for discussions, or ensuring effective pairing (such as having a student with one right answer in the pair). Additionally, the connection between response switching and self-efficacy motivates interventions to increase student self-efficacy at the beginning of the semester by helping students develop early mastery or

  15. Beyond the switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliakseyeu, Dzmitry; Meerbeek, Bernt; Mason, Jon


    The commercial introduction of connected lighting that can be integrated with sensors and other devices is opening up new possibilities in creating responsive and intelligent environments. The role of lighting in such systems goes beyond simply functional illumination. In part due to the large...... is to explore new ways of interacting with light where lighting can not only be switched on or off, but is an intelligent system embedded in the environment capable of creating a variety of effects. The connectivity between multiple systems and other ecosystems, for example when transitioning from your home...... and established lighting network, and with the advent of the LED, new types of lighting output are now possible. However, the current approach for controlling such systems is to simply replace the light switch with a somewhat more sophisticated smartphone-based remote control. The focus of this workshop...

  16. Laser activated superconducting switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.A.


    A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity

  17. Coulomb Blockade Plasmonic Switch. (United States)

    Xiang, Dao; Wu, Jian; Gordon, Reuven


    Tunnel resistance can be modulated with bias via the Coulomb blockade effect, which gives a highly nonlinear response current. Here we investigate the optical response of a metal-insulator-nanoparticle-insulator-metal structure and show switching of a plasmonic gap from insulator to conductor via Coulomb blockade. By introducing a sufficiently large charging energy in the tunnelling gap, the Coulomb blockade allows for a conductor (tunneling) to insulator (capacitor) transition. The tunnelling electrons can be delocalized over the nanocapacitor again when a high energy penalty is added with bias. We demonstrate that this has a huge impact on the plasmonic resonance of a 0.51 nm tunneling gap with ∼70% change in normalized optical loss. Because this structure has a tiny capacitance, there is potential to harness the effect for high-speed switching.

  18. 49 CFR 236.757 - Lock, electric. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lock, electric. 236.757 Section 236.757... Lock, electric. A device to prevent or restrict the movement of a lever, a switch or a movable bridge, unless the locking member is withdrawn by an electrical device, such as an electromagnet, solenoid or...

  19. Practical switching power supply design

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Martin C


    Take the ""black magic"" out of switching power supplies with Practical Switching Power Supply Design! This is a comprehensive ""hands-on"" guide to the theory behind, and design of, PWM and resonant switching supplies. You'll find information on switching supply operation and selecting an appropriate topology for your application. There's extensive coverage of buck, boost, flyback, push-pull, half bridge, and full bridge regulator circuits. Special attention is given to semiconductors used in switching supplies. RFI/EMI reduction, grounding, testing, and safety standards are also deta

  20. Python Switch Statement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The Python programming language does not have a built in switch/case control structure as found in many other high level programming languages. It is thought by some that this is a deficiency in the language, and the control structure should be added. This paper demonstrates that not only is the control structure not needed, but that the methods available in Python are more expressive than built in case statements in other high level languages.

  1. "Platform switching": Serendipity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Kalavathy


    Full Text Available Implant dentistry is the latest developing field in terms of clinical techniques, research, material science and oral rehabilitation. Extensive work is being done to improve the designing of implants in order to achieve better esthetics and function. The main drawback with respect to implant restoration is achieving good osseointegration along with satisfactory stress distribution, which in turn will improve the prognosis of implant prosthesis by reducing the crestal bone loss. Many concepts have been developed with reference to surface coating of implants, surgical techniques for implant placement, immediate and delayed loading, platform switching concept, etc. This article has made an attempt to review the concept of platform switching was in fact revealed accidentally due to the nonavailability of the abutment appropriate to the size of the implant placed. A few aspect of platform switching, an upcoming idea to reduce crestal bone loss have been covered. The various methods used for locating and preparing the data were done through textbooks, Google search and related articles.

  2. Conductivity switching of labyrinth metal films at the percolation threshold (United States)

    Gushchin, M. G.; Gladskikh, I. A.; Vartanyan, T. A.


    Electrical properties of silver, gold and copper films at the percolation threshold were investigated experimentally. A convenient method to obtain films at the percolation threshold that consists of two phases: deposition of metal in vacuum on a dielectric substrate and subsequent thermal annealing has been developed. The metallic films produced in this way exist in two different states: a low-conductivity state and a high-conductivity state. The films can be switched between these states by the applied voltage with hysteresis of current-voltage characteristic curves. The conductivity difference between the states reaches seven orders of magnitude. The switching threshold voltage depends on the annealing time. The switching times differ considerably for different metals. They were 200 ns for silver, 2 µs for gold, and 60 µs for copper. A plausible explanation of the switching mechanism based on the voltage induced fine mechanical deformations is suggested and discussed.

  3. Carbon nanotube network-silicon oxide non-volatile switches. (United States)

    Liao, Albert D; Araujo, Paulo T; Xu, Runjie; Dresselhaus, Mildred S


    The integration of carbon nanotubes with silicon is important for their incorporation into next-generation nano-electronics. Here we demonstrate a non-volatile switch that utilizes carbon nanotube networks to electrically contact a conductive nanocrystal silicon filament in silicon dioxide. We form this device by biasing a nanotube network until it physically breaks in vacuum, creating the conductive silicon filament connected across a small nano-gap. From Raman spectroscopy, we observe coalescence of nanotubes during breakdown, which stabilizes the system to form very small gaps in the network~15 nm. We report that carbon nanotubes themselves are involved in switching the device to a high resistive state. Calculations reveal that this switching event occurs at ~600 °C, the temperature associated with the oxidation of nanotubes. Therefore, we propose that, in switching to a resistive state, the nanotube oxidizes by extracting oxygen from the substrate.

  4. Neutron and gamma irradiation effects on power semiconductor switches (United States)

    Schwarze, G. E.; Frasca, A. J.


    The performance characteristics of high power semiconductor switches subjected to high levels of neutron fluence and gamma dose must be known by the designer of the power conditioning, control and transmission subsystem of space nuclear power systems. Location and the allowable shielding mass budget will determine the level of radiation tolerance required by the switches to meet performance and reliability requirements. Neutron and gamma ray interactions with semiconductor materials and how these interactions affect the electrical and switching characteristics of solid state power switches is discussed. The experimental measurement system and radiation facilities are described. Experimental data showing the effects of neutron and gamma irradiation on the performance characteristics are given for power-type NPN Bipolar Junction Transistors (BJTs), and Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MOSFETs). BJTs show a rapid decrease in gain, blocking voltage, and storage time for neutron irradiation, and MOSFETs show a rapid decrease in the gate threshold voltage for gamma irradiation.

  5. Helical EMG module with explosive current opening switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernyshev, V.K.; Vakhrushev, V.V.; Volkov, G.I.; Ivanov, V.A.; Fetisov, I.K.


    To carry out the experimental work to study plasma properties, electromagnetic sources with 10 6 to 10 8 J of stored energy delivered to the load in microsecond time, are required. Among the current electromagnetic storage devices, the explosive magnetic generators (EMG) are of the largest energy capacity. The disadvantages of this type of generators is relatively long time (ten of microseconds) of electromagnetic energy cumulation in the deformable circuit. To reduce the time of energy transfer to the load to a microsecond range the switching scheme is generally used, where the cumulation circuit and that of the load are separated and connected in parallel via a switching element (opening switch) providing generation of desired power. In this paper, some ways and means of designing opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches to generate high current pulses have been investigated. The opening switches which operation is based on mechanic destruction of the conductor using high explosive, have the highest and most reliable performance. The authors have explored the mechanic disruption of a thin conductor (foil), the technique based on throwing the foil at the ribbed barrier of electric insulator material. The report presents the data obtained in studying the operation of this type of opening switch having cylindrical shape, 200 mm in diameter and 200 mm long, designed for generation of 5.5 MA current pulse in the load

  6. Scaling Effect on Unipolar and Bipolar Resistive Switching of Metal Oxides (United States)

    Yanagida, Takeshi; Nagashima, Kazuki; Oka, Keisuke; Kanai, Masaki; Klamchuen, Annop; Park, Bae Ho; Kawai, Tomoji


    Electrically driven resistance change in metal oxides opens up an interdisciplinary research field for next-generation non-volatile memory. Resistive switching exhibits an electrical polarity dependent “bipolar-switching” and a polarity independent “unipolar-switching”, however tailoring the electrical polarity has been a challenging issue. Here we demonstrate a scaling effect on the emergence of the electrical polarity by examining the resistive switching behaviors of Pt/oxide/Pt junctions over 8 orders of magnitudes in the areas. We show that the emergence of two electrical polarities can be categorised as a diagram of an electric field and a cell area. This trend is qualitatively common for various oxides including NiOx, CoOx, and TiO2-x. We reveal the intrinsic difference between unipolar switching and bipolar switching on the area dependence, which causes a diversity of an electrical polarity for various resistive switching devices with different geometries. This will provide a foundation for tailoring resistive switching behaviors of metal oxides. PMID:23584551

  7. A Critical Analysis and Assessment of High Power Switches (United States)


    Wendelstein VII A, and Laboratory Tests of the Next Breaker Generation," Proc. 7th Symp. on Engineering Problems of Fusion Research, Oct. 1977. [5] W...areas, such as lasers and fusion , often require electrical switching capabilities beyond what are currently available. New requirements may result in new...for Fusion Reactors," EPRI ER-o376-SR, July, 1977, (M. Kristiansen, Editor), Electric Power Research, Institute. [4] P. Felsenthal and J. M. Proud

  8. Bipolar resistive switching behaviours in ZnMn2O4 film deposited on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ohm's law, trap-filled-limited and Child's law conduction procedure at room temperature. Keywords. ZnMn2O4; bipolar; resistive switching; chemical solution deposition. 1. Introduction. Non-volatile memories (NVMs) based on resistive switch- ing between two-terminal electrodes induced by an exter- nal electric field were ...

  9. Nanoscale mechanical switching of ferroelectric polarization via flexoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yijia; Hong, Zijian; Britson, Jason; Chen, Long-Qing [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)


    Flexoelectric coefficient is a fourth-rank tensor arising from the coupling between strain gradient and electric polarization and thus exists in all crystals. It is generally ignored for macroscopic crystals due to its small magnitude. However, at the nanoscale, flexoelectric contributions may become significant and can potentially be utilized for device applications. Using the phase-field method, we study the mechanical switching of electric polarization in ferroelectric thin films by a strain gradient created via an atomic force microscope tip. Our simulation results show good agreement with existing experimental observations. We examine the competition between the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects and provide an understanding of the role of flexoelectricity in the polarization switching. Also, by changing the pressure and film thickness, we reveal that the flexoelectric field at the film bottom can be used as a criterion to determine whether domain switching may happen under a mechanical force.

  10. Nanoscale mechanical switching of ferroelectric polarization via flexoelectricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yijia; Hong, Zijian; Britson, Jason; Chen, Long-Qing


    Flexoelectric coefficient is a fourth-rank tensor arising from the coupling between strain gradient and electric polarization and thus exists in all crystals. It is generally ignored for macroscopic crystals due to its small magnitude. However, at the nanoscale, flexoelectric contributions may become significant and can potentially be utilized for device applications. Using the phase-field method, we study the mechanical switching of electric polarization in ferroelectric thin films by a strain gradient created via an atomic force microscope tip. Our simulation results show good agreement with existing experimental observations. We examine the competition between the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects and provide an understanding of the role of flexoelectricity in the polarization switching. Also, by changing the pressure and film thickness, we reveal that the flexoelectric field at the film bottom can be used as a criterion to determine whether domain switching may happen under a mechanical force

  11. Nanoscale mechanical switching of ferroelectric polarization via flexoelectricity (United States)

    Gu, Yijia; Hong, Zijian; Britson, Jason; Chen, Long-Qing


    Flexoelectric coefficient is a fourth-rank tensor arising from the coupling between strain gradient and electric polarization and thus exists in all crystals. It is generally ignored for macroscopic crystals due to its small magnitude. However, at the nanoscale, flexoelectric contributions may become significant and can potentially be utilized for device applications. Using the phase-field method, we study the mechanical switching of electric polarization in ferroelectric thin films by a strain gradient created via an atomic force microscope tip. Our simulation results show good agreement with existing experimental observations. We examine the competition between the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects and provide an understanding of the role of flexoelectricity in the polarization switching. Also, by changing the pressure and film thickness, we reveal that the flexoelectric field at the film bottom can be used as a criterion to determine whether domain switching may happen under a mechanical force.

  12. Rotation sensor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.


    A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops is comprised of a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal

  13. Properties of high gain GaAs switches for pulsed power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zutavern, F.J.; Loubriel, G.M.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Mar, A.; Helgeson, W.D.; O'Malley, M.W.; Ruebush, M.H.; Falk, R.A.


    High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) are being used in a variety of electrical and optical short pulse applications. The highest power application, which the authors are developing, is a compact, repetitive, short pulse linear induction accelerator. The array of PCSS, which drive the accelerator, will switch 75 kA and 250 kV in 30 ns long pulses at 50 Hz. The accelerator will produce a 700 kV, 7kA electron beam for industrial and military applications. In the low power regime, these switches are being used to switch 400 A and 5 kV to drive laser diode arrays which produce 100 ps optical pulses. These short optical pulses are for military and commercial applications in optical and electrical range sensing, 3D laser radar, and high speed imaging. Both types of these applications demand a better understanding of the switch properties to increase switch lifetime, reduce jitter, optimize optical triggering, and improve overall switch performance. These applications and experiments on the fundamental behavior of high gain GaAs switches will be discussed. Open shutter, infra-red images and time-resolved images of the current filaments, which form during high gain switching, will be presented. Results from optical triggering experiments to produce multiple, diffuse filaments for high current repetitive switching will be described

  14. Properties of high gain GaAs switches for pulsed power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zutavern, F.J.; Loubriel, G.M.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Mar, A.; Helgeson, W.D.; O`Malley, M.W.; Ruebush, M.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Falk, R.A. [OptoMetrix, Inc., Renton, WA (United States)


    High gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) are being used in a variety of electrical and optical short pulse applications. The highest power application, which the authors are developing, is a compact, repetitive, short pulse linear induction accelerator. The array of PCSS, which drive the accelerator, will switch 75 kA and 250 kV in 30 ns long pulses at 50 Hz. The accelerator will produce a 700 kV, 7kA electron beam for industrial and military applications. In the low power regime, these switches are being used to switch 400 A and 5 kV to drive laser diode arrays which produce 100 ps optical pulses. These short optical pulses are for military and commercial applications in optical and electrical range sensing, 3D laser radar, and high speed imaging. Both types of these applications demand a better understanding of the switch properties to increase switch lifetime, reduce jitter, optimize optical triggering, and improve overall switch performance. These applications and experiments on the fundamental behavior of high gain GaAs switches will be discussed. Open shutter, infra-red images and time-resolved images of the current filaments, which form during high gain switching, will be presented. Results from optical triggering experiments to produce multiple, diffuse filaments for high current repetitive switching will be described.

  15. Development of inter- and intragranular stresses during switching of ferroelectric polycrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haug, Anja; Onck, Patrick R.; Van der Giessen, Erik


    Ferroelectrics are crystalline inorganic materials consisting of domains with different directions of spontaneous polarization. By application of sufficiently high electric fields, these domains can switch into a common direction, thus making the material piezoelectric. Due to ferroelasticity, the

  16. Switching speed limitations of high power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Incau, Bogdan Ioan; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    for the blocking dc-link voltage. Switching losses are analyzed upon a considerable variation of resistor value from turn-on gate driver side. Short circuit operations are investigated along with safe operating area for entire module to validate electrical capabilities under extreme conditions....

  17. Spin Switching via Quantum Dot Spin Valves (United States)

    Gergs, N. M.; Bender, S. A.; Duine, R. A.; Schuricht, D.


    We develop a theory for spin transport and magnetization dynamics in a quantum dot spin valve, i.e., two magnetic reservoirs coupled to a quantum dot. Our theory is able to take into account effects of strong correlations. We demonstrate that, as a result of these strong correlations, the dot gate voltage enables control over the current-induced torques on the magnets and, in particular, enables voltage-controlled magnetic switching. The electrical resistance of the structure can be used to read out the magnetic state. Our model may be realized by a number of experimental systems, including magnetic scanning-tunneling microscope tips and artificial quantum dot systems.

  18. High voltage fast switches for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatroux, D.; Lausenaz, Y.; Villard, J.F.; Lafore, D.


    SILVA process consists in a selective ionization of the 235 uranium isotope, using laser beams generated by dye lasers pumped by copper vapour laser (C.V.L.). SILVA involves power electronic for 3 power supplies: - copper vapour laser power supply, - extraction power supply to generate the electric field in the vapour, and - electron beam power supply for vapour generation. This article reviews the main switches that are proposed on the market or are on development and that could be used in SILVA power supplies. The SILVA technical requirements are: high power, high voltage and very short pulses (200 ns width). (A.C.)

  19. Setup Aid for Electrical-Discharge Machining (United States)

    Lines, G.; Duca, J.


    Interlock assures that workpiece is correctly assembled in machining fixture. A Plunger in a Hollow Shaft actuates a switch, allowing a power supply to produce current for electrical-discharge machining. Plunger operates only when necessary parts are position.

  20. Fuel Savings from Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Thornton, M.


    NREL's study shows that hybrid electric vehicles can significantly reduce oil imports for use in light-duty vehicles, particularly if drivers switch to smaller, more fuel-efficient vehicles overall.

  1. High field electrical behaviour in lithium–phospho–vanadate glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. High field electrical behaviour; lithium–phospho–vanadate glass system. 1. Introduction. High field electrical switching behaviour is one of the fascinating properties in oxide glasses, since it exhibits reversible threshold and irreversible memory states. Several investigations have been initiated to study switching ...

  2. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin


    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2 kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1 μJ arrival, the structure with thickness of 650 μm reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (∼4 kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ∼4 kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed

  3. Electrically Tunable Plasmonic Resonances with Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting-Fung; Ni, Xingjie


    Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance.......Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance....

  4. Method and device for current driven electric energy conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Device comprising an electric power converter circuit for converting electric energy. The converter circuit comprises a switch arrangement with two or more controllable electric switches connected in a switching configuration and controlled so as to provide a current drive of electric energy from...... an associated electric source connected to a set of input terminals. This is obtained by the two or more electric swiches being connected and controlled to short-circuit the input terminals during a part of a switching period. Further, a low pass filter with a capacitor and an inductor are provided to low pass...... distance transmission of electric energy. In many applications the total size of filter components (capacitors and inductors) can be reduced compared to voltage driven topologies. One application is an audio amplifier arranged to drive a loudspeaker....

  5. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...... plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. It is furthermore shown how to include model uncertainty to robustify the results. By appropriate filtering, it is only necessary to evaluate...

  6. Safe LPV Controller Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, K


    Before switching to a new controller it is crucial to assure that the new closed loop will be stable. In this paper it is demonstrated how stability can be checked with limited measurement data available from the current closed loop. The paper extends an existing method to linear parameter varying...... plants and controllers. Rather than relying on frequency domain methods as done in the LTI case, it is shown how to use standard LPV system identification methods. By identifying a filtered closed-loop operator rather than directly identifying the plant, more reliable results are obtained....

  7. Electrostatically actuated resonant switches for earthquake detection

    KAUST Repository

    Ramini, Abdallah H.


    The modeling and design of electrostatically actuated resonant switches (EARS) for earthquake and seismic applications are presented. The basic concepts are based on operating an electrically actuated resonator close to instability bands of frequency, where it is forced to collapse (pull-in) if operated within these bands. By careful tuning, the resonator can be made to enter the instability zone upon the detection of the earthquake signal, thereby pulling-in as a switch. Such a switching action can be functionalized for useful functionalities, such as shutting off gas pipelines in the case of earthquakes, or can be used to activate a network of sensors for seismic activity recording in health monitoring applications. By placing a resonator on a printed circuit board (PCB) of a natural frequency close to that of the earthquake\\'s frequency, we show significant improvement on the detection limit of the EARS lowering it considerably to less than 60% of the EARS by itself without the PCB. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Quantum switching of polarization in mesoscopic ferroelectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa de Melo, C.A.


    A single domain of a uniaxial ferroelectric grain may be thought of as a classical permanent memory. At the mesoscopic level this system may experience considerable quantum fluctuations due to tunneling between two possible memory states, thus destroying the classical permanent memory effect. To study these quantum effects the concrete example of a mesoscopic uniaxial ferroelectric grain is discussed, where the orientation of the electric polarization determines two possible memory states. The possibility of quantum switching of the polarization in mesoscopic uniaxial ferroelectric grains is thus proposed. To determine the degree of memory loss, the tunneling rate between the two polarization states is calculated at zero temperature both in the absence and in the presence of an external static electric field. In addition, a discussion of crossover temperature between thermally activated behavior and quantum tunneling behavior is presented. And finally, environmental effects (phonons, defects, and surfaces) are also considered. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  10. Software Switching for Data Acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Malone, David


    In this talk we discuss the feasibility of replacing telecom-class routers with a topology of commodity servers acting as software switches in data acquisition. We extend the popular software switch, Open vSwitch, with a dedicated, throughput-oriented buffering mechanism. We compare the performance under heavy many-to-one congestion to typical Ethernet switches and evaluate the scalability when building larger topologies, exploiting the integration with software-defined networking technologies. Please note that David Malone will speak on behalf of Grzegorz Jereczek.

  11. Line Capacity Expansion and Transmission Switching in Power Systems With Large-Scale Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Bronmo, Geir; Philpott, Andy B.


    In 2020 electricity production from wind power should constitute nearly 50% of electricity demand in Denmark. In this paper we look at optimal expansion of the transmission network in order to integrate 50% wind power in the system, while minimizing total fixed investment cost and expected cost...... of power generation. We allow for active switching of transmission elements to reduce congestion effects caused by Kirchhoff's voltage law. Results show that actively switching transmission lines may yield a better utilization of transmission networks with large-scale wind power and increase wind power...... penetration. Furthermore, it is shown that transmission switching is likely to affect the optimal line capacity expansion plan....

  12. Resistance switching in polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pramod, K.; Sahu, Binaya Kumar; Gangineni, R. B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, R. V. Nagar, Kalapet, Puducherry – 605014 (India)


    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PDVF), one of the best electrically active polymer material & an interesting candidate to address the electrical control of its functional properties like ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity etc. In the current work, with the help of spin coater and DC magnetron sputtering techniques, semi-crystallized PVDF thin films prominent in alpha phase is prepared in capacitor like structure and their electrical characterization is emphasized. In current-voltage (I-V) and resistance-voltage (R-V) measurements, clear nonlinearity and resistance switching has been observed for films prepared using 7 wt% 2-butanone and 7 wt% Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO) solvents.

  13. Improved Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.


    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a bearingless switched-reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in a prior bearingless switched-reluctance motor, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motor, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation in that it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration-suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that the stator contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. A prototype includes six rotor poles and eight stator poles (see figure). During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative lengths of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to levitation load capacity and stiffness, and vice versa.

  14. Bearingless Switched-Reluctance Motor Improved (United States)

    Morrison, Carlos R.


    The Morrison rotor, named after its inventor, is a hybrid rotor for use in a switched reluctance electric motor. The motor is characterized as bearingless in the sense that it does not rely on conventional mechanical bearings: instead, it functions as both a magnetic bearing and a motor. Bearingless switched-reluctance motors are attractive for use in situations in which large variations in temperatures and/or other extreme conditions preclude the use of conventional electric motors and mechanical bearings. In the Morrison motor, as in prior bearingless switched-reluctance motors, a multipole rotor is simultaneously levitated and rotated. In the prior motors, simultaneous levitation and rotation are achieved by means of two kinds of stator windings: (1) main motor windings and (2) windings that exert levitating forces on a multipole rotor. The multipole geometry is suboptimum for levitation because it presents a discontinuous surface to the stator pole faces, thereby degrading the vibration suppression capability of the magnetic bearing. The Morrison rotor simplifies the stator design in that it contains only one type of winding. The rotor is a hybrid that includes both (1) a circular lamination stack for levitation and (2) a multipole lamination stack for rotation. Simultaneous levitation and rotation at 6000 rpm were achieved with a prototype that included six rotor poles and eight stator poles. During normal operation, two of the four pairs of opposing stator poles (each pair at right angles to the other pair) levitate the rotor. The remaining two pairs of stator poles exert torque on the six-pole rotor lamination stack to produce rotation. The relative length of the circular and multipole lamination stacks on the rotor can be chosen to tailor the performance of the motor for a specific application. For a given overall length, increasing the length of the multipole stack relative to the circular stack results in an increase in torque relative to the levitation

  15. Switching of Photonic Crystal Lasers by Graphene. (United States)

    Hwang, Min-Soo; Kim, Ha-Reem; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Jeong, Kwang-Yong; Park, Jin-Sung; Choi, Jae-Hyuck; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Lee, Jung Min; Park, Won Il; Song, Jung-Hwan; Seo, Min-Kyo; Park, Hong-Gyu


    Unique features of graphene have motivated the development of graphene-integrated photonic devices. In particular, the electrical tunability of graphene loss enables high-speed modulation of light and tuning of cavity resonances in graphene-integrated waveguides and cavities. However, efficient control of light emission such as lasing, using graphene, remains a challenge. In this work, we demonstrate on/off switching of single- and double-cavity photonic crystal lasers by electrical gating of a monolayer graphene sheet on top of photonic crystal cavities. The optical loss of graphene was controlled by varying the gate voltage V g , with the ion gel atop the graphene sheet. First, the fundamental properties of graphene were investigated through the transmittance measurement and numerical simulations. Next, optically pumped lasing was demonstrated for a graphene-integrated single photonic crystal cavity at V g below -0.6 V, exhibiting a low lasing threshold of ∼480 μW, whereas lasing was not observed at V g above -0.6 V owing to the intrinsic optical loss of graphene. Changing quality factor of the graphene-integrated photonic crystal cavity enables or disables the lasing operation. Moreover, in the double-cavity photonic crystal lasers with graphene, switching of individual cavities with separate graphene sheets was achieved, and these two lasing actions were controlled independently despite the close distance of ∼2.2 μm between adjacent cavities. We believe that our simple and practical approach for switching in graphene-integrated active photonic devices will pave the way toward designing high-contrast and ultracompact photonic integrated circuits.

  16. Multi-polar resistance switching and memory effect in copper phthalocyanine junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiao Shi-Zhu; Kang Shi-Shou; Li Qiang; Zhong Hai; Kang Yun; Yu Shu-Yun; Han Guang-Bing; Yan Shi-Shen; Mei Liang-Mo; Qin Yu-Feng


    Copper phthalocyanine junctions, fabricated by magnetron sputtering and evaporating methods, show multi-polar (unipolar and bipolar) resistance switching and the memory effect. The multi-polar resistance switching has not been observed simultaneously in one organic material before. With both electrodes being cobalt, the unipolar resistance switching is universal. The high resistance state is switched to the low resistance state when the bias reaches the set voltage. Generally, the set voltage increases with the thickness of copper phthalocyanine and decreases with increasing dwell time of bias. Moreover, the low resistance state could be switched to the high resistance state by absorbing the phonon energy. The stability of the low resistance state could be tuned by different electrodes. In Au/copper phthalocyanine/Co system, the low resistance state is far more stable, and the bipolar resistance switching is found. Temperature dependence of electrical transport measurements demonstrates that there are no obvious differences in the electrical transport mechanism before and after the resistance switching. They fit quite well with Mott variable range hopping theory. The effect of Al 2 O 3 on the resistance switching is excluded by control experiments. The holes trapping and detrapping in copper phthalocyanine layer are responsible for the resistance switching, and the interfacial effect between electrodes and copper phthalocyanine layer affects the memory effect. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Phenotypic switching in bacteria (United States)

    Merrin, Jack

    Living matter is a non-equilibrium system in which many components work in parallel to perpetuate themselves through a fluctuating environment. Physiological states or functionalities revealed by a particular environment are called phenotypes. Transitions between phenotypes may occur either spontaneously or via interaction with the environment. Even in the same environment, genetically identical bacteria can exhibit different phenotypes of a continuous or discrete nature. In this thesis, we pursued three lines of investigation into discrete phenotypic heterogeneity in bacterial populations: the quantitative characterization of the so-called bacterial persistence, a theoretical model of phenotypic switching based on those measurements, and the design of artificial genetic networks which implement this model. Persistence is the phenotype of a subpopulation of bacteria with a reduced sensitivity to antibiotics. We developed a microfluidic apparatus, which allowed us to monitor the growth rates of individual cells while applying repeated cycles of antibiotic treatments. We were able to identify distinct phenotypes (normal and persistent) and characterize the stochastic transitions between them. We also found that phenotypic heterogeneity was present prior to any environmental cue such as antibiotic exposure. Motivated by the experiments with persisters, we formulated a theoretical model describing the dynamic behavior of several discrete phenotypes in a periodically varying environment. This theoretical framework allowed us to quantitatively predict the fitness of dynamic populations and to compare survival strategies according to environmental time-symmetries. These calculations suggested that persistence is a strategy used by bacterial populations to adapt to fluctuating environments. Knowledge of the phenotypic transition rates for persistence may provide statistical information about the typical environments of bacteria. We also describe a design of artificial

  18. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters (United States)

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong


    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  19. Aspects Regarding SF6 Switch Disconnector Framework Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu NEAMT


    Full Text Available The complexity of the designing process of a switch disconnector framework comes from the almost impossible task to appreciate the discrepancy between the ideal and practical electric strength. Complicated geometries characterized by nonuniform fields are predesigned based on a set of analytical relations and corrected/optimized based on numerical methods and high voltage testing on prototypes. This paper suggest some approaches to minimize the effort and the steps required to achieve an acceptable stainless steel housing, in the insulators area, for a medium voltage SF6 switch disconnector. The results are based on simple analytical evaluation and finite element analysis in both 2D and 3D configurations.

  20. Integral optoelectronic switch based on DMOS-transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Politanskyy L. F.


    Full Text Available The characteristics of optoelectronic couples photodiodes-DMOS-transistor are studied in the paper. There was developed a mathematical model of volt-ampere characteristic of the given optoelectronic couple which allows to determine interrelation of its electric parameters with constructive and electrophysical parameters of photodiodes and DMOS-transistors. There was suggested a construction of integral optoelectronic switch, based on DMOS-transistors on the silicon with dielectric insulation structures (SDIS. Possible is the optic control of executive devices, connected both to the source and drain circuits of the switching transistor.

  1. PD control for robot manipulators actuated by switched reluctance motors (United States)

    Hernández-Guzmán, Victor M.; Carrillo-Serrano, Roberto V.; Silva-Ortigoza, Ramón


    This article is concerned with position regulation in direct-drive n degrees of freedom rigid robots equipped only with revolute joints when actuated by switched reluctance motors. Our controller represents an extension to this case of a previous work in the literature which was proposed for a single-switched reluctance motor when moving a simple linear mechanical load. We show how to avoid a singularity present in such a previous controller. We also introduce some simplifications since the number of terms to be fedback is smaller. Further, a linear proportional inner electric current loop is included instead of a velocity dependent one.

  2. A Radical Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport


    Full Text Available Architecture is the most vulnerable part of culture, almost doomed to destruction of its fundamentals, while the rise of its intellectual and creative level is badly needed. However, neither the resort to postmarxist French philosophy nor bringing the results of development of science and technology into architecture, neither computerization nor peculiarities of parametricism and deconstructivism are helpful. It can be stated that in the beginning of the third millennium architecture and architectural education are in stalemate. The way out is in a “radical” switch from comprehension of object space to the time and to the processes of thinking, designing and historical change in professional mentality. The interests must be focused not on the object, but on the process enabling the use of return reflexive strokes as well.

  3. Improved switch-resistor packaging (United States)

    Redmerski, R. E.


    Packaging approach makes resistors more accessible and easily identified with specific switches. Failures are repaired more quickly because of improved accessibility. Typical board includes one resistor that acts as circuit breaker, and others are positioned so that their values can be easily measured when switch is operated. Approach saves weight by using less wire and saves valuable panel space.

  4. Task Switching: A PDP Model (United States)

    Gilbert, Sam J.; Shallice, Tim


    When subjects switch between a pair of stimulus-response tasks, reaction time is slower on trial N if a different task was performed on trial N--1. We present a parallel distributed processing (PDP) model that simulates this effect when subjects switch between word reading and color naming in response to Stroop stimuli. Reaction time on "switch…

  5. A CMOS Switched Transconductor Mixer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Louwsma, S.M.; Wienk, Gerhardus J.M.; Nauta, Bram

    A new CMOS active mixer topology can operate at low supply voltages by the use of switches exclusively connected to the supply voltages. Such switches require less voltage headroom and avoid gate-oxide reliability problems. Mixing is achieved by exploiting two transconductors with cross-coupled

  6. Semi-conductor switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Methods are described of improving certain electrical characteristics of bidirectional thyristors by selective irradiation of the boundary region between current-carrying portions of the device. Irradiation, preferably by electrons but also by neutrons, gamma radiation or protons, causes carrier lifetime reducing lattice defects. (U.K.)

  7. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.


    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Switching Phenomena in a System with No Switches (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Stanley, H. Eugene


    It is widely believed that switching phenomena require switches, but this is actually not true. For an intriguing variety of switching phenomena in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. For example, financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating increasing trends ("bubble formation") and decreasing trends ("financial collapse"). Such switching occurs on time scales ranging from macroscopic bubbles persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic bubbles persisting only for a few seconds. We analyze a database containing 13,991,275 German DAX Future transactions recorded with a time resolution of 10 msec. For comparison, a database providing 2,592,531 of all S&P500 daily closing prices is used. We ask whether these ubiquitous switching phenomena have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the volatility after each switching occurs. We interpret our findings as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in transaction volume and time intervals between trades. We show that these financial market switching processes have properties similar to those of phase transitions. We suggest that the well-known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales—such as the most recent financial crisis—are no outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the switching between upward and downward trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large (≈102 days) down to very small (≈10 ms).

  9. Model Reduction of Switched Systems Based on Switching Generalized Gramians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Wisniewski, Rafal


    In this paper, a general method for model order reduction of discrete-time switched linear systems is presented. The proposed technique uses switching generalized gramians. It is shown that several classical reduction methods can be developed into the generalized gramian framework for the model...... reduction of linear systems and for the reduction of switched systems. Discrete-time balanced reduction within a specified frequency interval is taken as an example within this framework. To avoid numerical instability and to increase the numerical efficiency, a generalized gramian-based Petrov...

  10. Method and system for a gas tube switch-based voltage source high voltage direct current transmission system (United States)

    She, Xu; Chokhawala, Rahul Shantilal; Zhou, Rui; Zhang, Di; Sommerer, Timothy John; Bray, James William


    A voltage source converter based high-voltage direct-current (HVDC) transmission system includes a voltage source converter (VSC)-based power converter channel. The VSC-based power converter channel includes an AC-DC converter and a DC-AC inverter electrically coupled to the AC-DC converter. The AC-DC converter and a DC-AC inverter include at least one gas tube switching device coupled in electrical anti-parallel with a respective gas tube diode. The VSC-based power converter channel includes a commutating circuit communicatively coupled to one or more of the at least one gas tube switching devices. The commutating circuit is configured to "switch on" a respective one of the one or more gas tube switching devices during a first portion of an operational cycle and "switch off" the respective one of the one or more gas tube switching devices during a second portion of the operational cycle.

  11. [Design of a flyback switch mode power supply for multichannel electrophysiological stimulators]. (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Fang, Zu-Xiang; Li, Wei-Jiao; Liu, Zu-Wang


    In order to supply the multichannel electrical stimulator, a DC-DC flyback switch mode power supply based on a high-performance current mode controller UC3845 has been designed. The experimental results indicate that the power supply has satisfied the demands and can supply the multichannel electrical stimulator and similar apparatuses.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Totok Budisantoso


    Full Text Available Abstract: Determinant of Downward Auditor Switching. This study examines the factors that influence downward auditor switching in five ASEAN countries. Fixed effect logistic regression was used as analytical method. This study found that opinion shopping occurred in ASEAN, especially in distress companies. Companies with complex businesses will retain the Big Four auditors to reduce complexity and audit costs. Audit and public committees serve as guardians of auditor quality. On the other hand, shareholders failed to maintain audit quality. It indicates that there is entrenchment effect in auditor switching.

  13. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia


    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  14. Solid state bistable power switch (United States)

    Bartko, J.; Shulman, H.


    Tin and copper provide high current and switching time capabilities for high-current resettable fuses. They show the best performance for trip current and degree of reliability, and have low coefficients of thermal expansion.

  15. Electron collisions in gas switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.


    Many technologies rely on the conduction/insulation properties of gaseous matter for their successful operation. Many others (e.g., pulsed power technologies) rely on the rapid change (switching or modulation) of the properties of gaseous matter from an insulator to a conductor and vice versa. Studies of electron collision processes in gases aided the development of pulsed power gas switches, and in this paper we shall briefly illustrate the kind of knowledge on electron collision processes which is needed to optimize the performance of such switching devices. To this end, we shall refer to three types of gas switches: spark gap closing, self-sustained diffuse discharge closing, and externally-sustained diffuse discharge opening. 24 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, James S. [State Univ. of New York (SUNY), Plattsburgh, NY (United States); Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)


    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  17. Progress in UWB generation with linear silicon switches (United States)

    Cardwell, Kendall W.; Giorgi, David M.; McIntyre, Iain A.; Solone, Paul J.; Stuurman, K.; Zucker, Oved S. F.


    The use of linear photoconductive switches rather than nonlinear switches for the generation of Ultra-Wide-Band (UWB) pulses provides advantages such as jitter-free operation, low losses, and a reduction of the electrical and mechanical stresses in the switch. These advantages lead to the operation of many switches in series and/or parallel, higher average powers and longer lifetimes. Energy Compression Research Corporation (ECR) has demonstrated an advanced UWB source based on light activated silicon switches (LASS). The UWB source consists of a single LASS device mounted on a low impedance (microstrip transmission line and a high fidelity impedance transformer connected to a 50 (Omega) coaxial connection. The voltage was measured at low impedance and 50 (Omega) to verify the efficiency and fidelity of the impedance transformer. After a transformation of 110:1 in impedance, the measurement at the end of the transformer verified that pulse rise-time was less than 100 ps and the overall efficiency was 50%. The system was tested up to 10 kV into 50 (Omega) before connector breakdown limited further increase. Larger powers can be radiated if the transformer is directly connected to the antenna.

  18. Millimeter-scale liquid metal droplet thermal switch (United States)

    Yang, Tianyu; Kwon, Beomjin; Weisensee, Patricia B.; Kang, Jin Gu; Li, Xuejiao; Braun, Paul; Miljkovic, Nenad; King, William P.


    Devices capable of actively controlling heat flow have been desired by the thermal management community for decades. The need for thermal control has become particularly urgent with power densification resulting in devices with localized heat fluxes as high as 1 kW/cm2. Thermal switches, capable of modulating between high and low thermal conductances, enable the partitioning and active control of heat flow pathways. This paper reports a millimeter-scale thermal switch with a switching ratio >70, at heat fluxes near 10 W/cm2. The device consists of a silicone channel filled with a reducing liquid or vapor and an immersed liquid metal Galinstan slug. Galinstan has a relatively high thermal conductivity (≈16.5 W/mK at room temperature), and its position can be manipulated within the fluid channel, using either hydrostatic pressure or electric fields. When Galinstan bridges the hot and cold reservoirs (the "ON" state), heat flows across the channel. When the hot and cold reservoirs are instead filled with the encapsulating liquid or vapor (the "OFF" state), the cross-channel heat flow significantly reduces due to the lower thermal conductivity of the solution (≈0.03-0.6 W/mK). We demonstrate switching ratios as high as 15.6 for liquid filled channels and 71.3 for vapor filled channels. This work provides a framework for the development of millimeter-scale thermal switches and diodes capable of spatial and temporal control of heat flows.

  19. A smart microelectromechanical sensor and switch triggered by gas

    KAUST Repository

    Bouchaala, Adam M.


    There is an increasing interest to realize smarter sensors and actuators that can deliver a multitude of sophisticated functionalities while being compact in size and of low cost. We report here combining both sensing and actuation on the same device based on a single microstructure. Specifically, we demonstrate a smart resonant gas (mass) sensor, which in addition to being capable of quantifying the amount of absorbed gas, can be autonomously triggered as an electrical switch upon exceeding a preset threshold of absorbed gas. Toward this, an electrostatically actuated polymer microbeam is fabricated and is then functionalized with a metal-organic framework, namely, HKUST-1. The microbeam is demonstrated to absorb vapors up to a certain threshold, after which is shown to collapse through the dynamic pull-in instability. Upon pull-in, the microstructure can be made to act as an electrical switch to achieve desirable actions, such as alarming.

  20. Dedication of Stotz-Kontakt switches for Spanish utility owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Vergara, T.; Martin de la Torre, M.; Alminana, J.


    The Spanish Utility Owners Group commissioned Empresarios Agrupados to perform the work for the dedication of the S280 series of Stotz-KONTAKT switches and two of its possible accessories. As a results of this process, the components can be used in safety-related applications in the conditions and locations expected. This article describes the different phases of the dedication process: Technical Evaluation considering the application of switches as new or alternative elements, Acceptance Process and Purchasing Documentation. It sets out the main conclusion drawn from each phase. It also includes details of the activities performed by Empresarios Agrupados as part of the seismic qualification of components: selection of the sample to be tested, the definition of electrical tests before and after the seismic test, and the mounting, electrical powering, operating requirements and monitoring of components during seismic tests. (Author)

  1. Chromatic interocular-switch rivalry (United States)

    Christiansen, Jens H.; D'Antona, Anthony D.; Shevell, Steven K.


    Interocular-switch rivalry (also known as stimulus rivalry) is a kind of binocular rivalry in which two rivalrous images are swapped between the eyes several times a second. The result is stable periods of one image and then the other, with stable intervals that span many eye swaps (Logothetis, Leopold, & Sheinberg, 1996). Previous work used this close kin of binocular rivalry with rivalrous forms. Experiments here test whether chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, in which the swapped stimuli differ in only chromaticity, results in slow alternation between two colors. Swapping equiluminant rivalrous chromaticities at 3.75 Hz resulted in slow perceptual color alternation, with one or the other color often continuously visible for two seconds or longer (during which there were 15+ eye swaps). A well-known theory for sustained percepts from interocular-switch rivalry with form is inhibitory competition between binocular neurons driven by monocular neurons with matched orientation tuning in each eye; such binocular neurons would produce a stable response when a given orientation is swapped between the eyes. A similar model can account for the percepts here from chromatic interocular-switch rivalry and is underpinned by the neurophysiological finding that color-preferring binocular neurons are driven by monocular neurons from each eye with well-matched chromatic selectivity (Peirce, Solomon, Forte, & Lennie, 2008). In contrast to chromatic interocular-switch rivalry, luminance interocular-switch rivalry with swapped stimuli that differ in only luminance did not result in slowly alternating percepts of different brightnesses. PMID:28510624

  2. Magnetically switched power supply system for lasers (United States)

    Pacala, Thomas J. (Inventor)


    A laser power supply system is described in which separate pulses are utilized to avalanche ionize the gas within the laser and then produce a sustained discharge to cause the gas to emit light energy. A pulsed voltage source is used to charge a storage device such as a distributed capacitance. A transmission line or other suitable electrical conductor connects the storage device to the laser. A saturable inductor switch is coupled in the transmission line for containing the energy within the storage device until the voltage level across the storage device reaches a predetermined level, which level is less than that required to avalanche ionize the gas. An avalanche ionization pulse generating circuit is coupled to the laser for generating a high voltage pulse of sufficient amplitude to avalanche ionize the laser gas. Once the laser gas is avalanche ionized, the energy within the storage device is discharged through the saturable inductor switch into the laser to provide the sustained discharge. The avalanche ionization generating circuit may include a separate voltage source which is connected across the laser or may be in the form of a voltage multiplier circuit connected between the storage device and the laser.

  3. Controllable resistive switching in Au/Nb:SrTiO3 microscopic Schottky junctions (United States)

    Wang, Yuhang; Shi, Xiaolan; Zhao, Kehan; Xie, Guanlin; Huang, Siyu; Zhang, Liuwan


    The reversible resistive switching effect at oxide interface shows promising applications in information storage and artificial intelligence. However, the microscopic switching mechanism is still elusive due to the difficulty of direct observation of the electrical and chemical behavior at the buried interface, which becomes a major barrier to design reliable, scalable, and reproducible devices. Here we used a gold-coated AFM tip as a removable electrode to investigate the resistive switching effect in a microscopic Au/Nb:SrTiO3 Schottky junction. We found that unlike the inhomogeneous random resistive switching in the macroscopic Schottky junctions, the high and low resistance states can be reversibly switched in a controllable way on the Nb-doped SrTiO3 surface by the conductive tip. The switching between the high and low resistance states in vacuum is accompanied by the reversible shift of the surface Fermi level. We indicate that the transfer of the interface oxygen ion in a double-well potential is responsible for the resistive switching in both macroscopic and microscopic Schottky junctions. Our findings provide a guide to optimize the key performance parameters of a resistive switching device such as operation voltage, switching speed, on/off ratio, and state retention time by proper electrode selection and fabrication strategy.

  4. Switching methods in magnetic random access memory for low power applications (United States)

    Guchang, Han; Jiancheng, Huang; Cheow Hin, Sim; Tran, Michael; Sze Ter, Lim


    Effect of saturation magnetization (Ms) of the free layer (FL) on the switching current is analyzed for spin transfer torque (STT) magnetic random access memory (MRAM). For in-plane FL, critical switching current (Ic0) decreases as Ms decreases. However, reduction in Ms also results in a low thermal stability factor (Δ), which must be compensated through increasing shape anisotropy, thus limiting scalability. For perpendicular FL, Ic0 reduction by using low-Ms materials is actually at the expense of data retention. To save energy consumed by STT current, two electric field (EF) controlled switching methods are proposed. Our simulation results show that elliptical FL can be switched by an EF pulse with a suitable width. However, it is difficult to implement this type of switching in real MRAM devices due to the distribution of the required switching pulse widths. A reliable switching method is to use an Oersted field guided switching. Our simulation and experimental results show that the bi-directional magnetization switching could be realized by an EF with an external field as low as  ±5 Oe if the offset field could be removed.

  5. The mechanism of electroforming of metal oxide memristive switches (United States)

    Joshua Yang, J.; Miao, Feng; Pickett, Matthew D.; Ohlberg, Douglas A. A.; Stewart, Duncan R.; Lau, Chun Ning; Williams, R. Stanley


    Metal and semiconductor oxides are ubiquitous electronic materials. Normally insulating, oxides can change behavior under high electric fields—through 'electroforming' or 'breakdown'—critically affecting CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) logic, DRAM (dynamic random access memory) and flash memory, and tunnel barrier oxides. An initial irreversible electroforming process has been invariably required for obtaining metal oxide resistance switches, which may open urgently needed new avenues for advanced computer memory and logic circuits including ultra-dense non-volatile random access memory (NVRAM) and adaptive neuromorphic logic circuits. This electrical switching arises from the coupled motion of electrons and ions within the oxide material, as one of the first recognized examples of a memristor (memory-resistor) device, the fourth fundamental passive circuit element originally predicted in 1971 by Chua. A lack of device repeatability has limited technological implementation of oxide switches, however. Here we explain the nature of the oxide electroforming as an electro-reduction and vacancy creation process caused by high electric fields and enhanced by electrical Joule heating with direct experimental evidence. Oxygen vacancies are created and drift towards the cathode, forming localized conducting channels in the oxide. Simultaneously, O2- ions drift towards the anode where they evolve O2 gas, causing physical deformation of the junction. The problematic gas eruption and physical deformation are mitigated by shrinking to the nanoscale and controlling the electroforming voltage polarity. Better yet, electroforming problems can be largely eliminated by engineering the device structure to remove 'bulk' oxide effects in favor of interface-controlled electronic switching.

  6. Conductive polymer switch for controlling superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDevitt, J.T.; Haupt, S.G.; Riley, D.R.; Zhao, J.; Grassi, J.; Lo, K.; Jones, C.


    The preparation of a hybrid conducting polymer/high-temperature superconductor device consisting of a polypyrrole coated YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ microbridge is reported. Electrochemical techniques are exploited to alter the oxidation state of the polymer and, in doing so, it is found for the first time that superconductivity can be modulated in a controllable and reproducible fashion by a polymer layout. Whereas the neutral (insulating) polypyrrole only slightly influences the electrical properties of the underlying YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-σ film, the oxidized (conductive) polymer depresses T c by up to 50K. In a similar fashion, the oxidation state of the polymer is found to reversibly modulate the magnitude of J c , the superconducting critical current. Thus, a new type of molecule switch for controlling superconductivity is demonstrated

  7. Magnetic-fluid-based smart centrifugal switch

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatt, R P


    A new type of centrifugal switch, which we call 'smart centrifugal switch' is designed and developed utilizing the novel properties of magnetic fluid. No mechanical movement is involved in the sensing and switching operations of this centrifugal switch and both these operations are achieved in a smart way. The performance of the switch is studied. This switch has several important advantages over conventional centrifugal switches like smart and non-contact type operation, sparkless and hence explosion proof working and inertia-less simple structure.

  8. Transparent ceramic photo-optical semiconductor high power switches (United States)

    Werne, Roger W.; Sullivan, James S.; Landingham, Richard L.


    A photoconductive semiconductor switch according to one embodiment includes a structure of sintered nanoparticles of a high band gap material exhibiting a lower electrical resistance when excited by light relative to an electrical resistance thereof when not exposed to the light. A method according to one embodiment includes creating a mixture comprising particles, at least one dopant, and at least one solvent; adding the mixture to a mold; forming a green structure in the mold; and sintering the green structure to form a transparent ceramic. Additional system, methods and products are also presented.

  9. Isolating switch of a high voltage metalclad installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, J.


    The object of this invention is to enable an isolating switch of a metal-clad substation to be operated without any flashover to the earthed enclosure. The switch of the invention comprises a movable contact in the form of a sliding pin capable of moving to a closed position engaged with an aligned stationary contact, and to an open position separated from the stationary contact by an isolation gap. A field distribution shield in the form of a fixed cover is provided to cover the end of the stationary contact to which it is electrically connected. The shield has a central opening for the movable contact pin to pass through in the closed position of the isolating switch. A field distribution shield in the form of a cover is associated with the movable contact and arranged to cover the end of the movable contact in the open position, and is electrically connected to the movable contact. An annular electrode in the shape of a ring having its axis aligned with the contacts is disposed coaxially around the isolation gap, and is fitted between this gap and the metal enclosure to pick up an arc liable to migrate from the gap to the enclosure. The ring is electrically connected to the stationary contact and has an axial length equivalent to that of the gap so as to surround it over its whole length. 1 fig.

  10. Fluctuation-induced switching and the switching path distribution. (United States)

    Dykman, Mark


    Fluctuation-induced switching is at the root of diverse phenomena currently studied in Josephson junctions, nano-mechanical systems, nano-magnets, and optically trapped atoms. In a fluctuation leading to switching the system must overcome an effective barrier, making switching events rare, for low fluctuation intensity. We will provide an overview of the methods of finding the switching barrier for systems away from thermal equilibrium. Generic features of the barrier, such as scaling with the system parameters, will be discussed. We will also discuss the motion of the system in switching and the ways of controlling it. Two major classes of systems will be considered: dynamical systems, where fluctuations are induced by noise, and birth-death systems. Even though the motion during switching is random, the paths followed in switching form a narrow tube in phase space of the system centered at the most probable path. The paths distribution is generally Gaussian and has specific features, which have been seen in the experiment [1]. Finding the most probable path itself can be reduced to solving a problem of Hamiltonian dynamics of an auxiliary noise-free system. The solution also gives the switching barrier. The barrier can be found explicitly close to parameter values where the number of stable states of the system changes and the dynamics is controlled by a slow variable. The scaling of the barrier height depends on the type of the corresponding bifurcation. We show that, both for birth-death and for Gaussian noise driven systems, the presence of even weak non-Gaussian noise can strongly modify the switching rate. The effect is described in a simple explicit form [2,3]. Weak deviations of the noise statistics from Gaussian can be sensitively detected using balanced dynamical bridge, where this deviation makes the populations of coexisting stable states different from each other; a realization of such a bridge will be discussed. We will also discuss the sharp

  11. Resistive switching in TiO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Lin


    The continuing improved performance of the digital electronic devices requires new memory technologies which should be inexpensively fabricated for higher integration capacity, faster operation, and low power consumption. Resistive random access memory has great potential to become the front runner as the non volatile memory technology. The resistance states stored in such cell can remain for long time and can be read out none-destructively by a very small electrical pulse. In this work the typically two terminal memory cells containing a thin TiO{sub 2} layer are studied. Polycrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films are deposited with atomic layer deposition and magnetron reactive sputtering processes, which are both physically and electrically characterized. The resistive switching cells are constructed in a metal/TiO{sub 2}/metal structure. Electroforming process initiate the cell from the beginning good insulator to a real memory cell to program the resistive states. Multilevel resistive bipolar switching controlled by current compliance is the common characteristic observed in these cells, which is potentially to be used as so called multi-bit memory cells to improve the memory capacity. With different top electrodes of Pt, Cu, Ag the resistive switching behaviors are studied. The switching behaviors are different depending on the top metal such as the minimum current compliance, the endurance of the programmed resistance states and the morphology change during the switching. The temperature dependence of different resistance states are investigated. A reduction of the activation energy and their possible conduction mechanisms is discussed on the base of the basic current conduction models. It is found that the resistance state transfers from semiconductor to metallic property with the reducing resistances. The calculated temperature coefficients of their metallic states on the Cu/TiO{sub 2}/Pt and Ag/TiO{sub 2}/Pt are very close to the reported literature data

  12. Switch on to sustainability

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso


    Following a series of measures taken to foster a green policy for the Laboratory, CERN Management has recently appointed an Energy Issues Coordinator. While it's hard to imagine magic solutions that would substantially decrease the energy consumption of the research accelerators, it is certainly within our reach to re-use thermal “waste” energy and to optimise infrastructure to become more sustainable and eco-friendly. Real eco-projects are in the making.   CERN's electricity consumption is considerable, equivalent to a third of Geneva's. Over 95% is used by the accelerators and other research facilities. CERN also consumes gas for heating, fuel and gas for cars, and water for sanitary use and accelerator cooling. “It's our responsibility to keep our energy consumption and hence our impact on the environment as low as possible,” says Helfried Burckhart, recently appointed as CERN’s Energy Issues Coordinator. &am...

  13. A Switch Is Not a Switch: Syntactically-Driven Bilingual Language Control (United States)

    Gollan, Tamar H.; Goldrick, Matthew


    The current study investigated the possibility that language switches could be relatively automatically triggered by context. "Single-word switches," in which bilinguals switched languages on a single word in midsentence and then immediately switched back, were contrasted with more complete "whole-language switches," in which…

  14. Investigations and Simulations of All optical Switches in linear state Based on Photonic Crystal Directional Coupler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Maktoobi


    Full Text Available Switching is a principle process in digital computers and signal processing systems. The growth of optical signal processing systems, draws particular attention to design of ultra-fast optical switches. In this paper, All Optical Switches in linear state Based On photonic crystal Directional coupler is analyzed and simulated. Among different methods, the finite difference time domain method (FDTD is a preferable method and is used. We have studied the application of photonic crystal lattices, the physics of optical switching and photonic crystal Directional coupler. In this paper, Electric field intensity and the power output that are two factors to improve the switching performance and the device efficiency are investigated and simulated. All simulations are performed by COMSOL software.

  15. Switching Activity Estimation of CIC Filter Integrators


    Abbas, Muhammad; Gustafsson, Oscar


    In this work, a method for estimation of the switching activity in integrators is presented. To achieve low power, it is always necessary to develop accurate and efficient methods to estimate the switching activity. The switching activities are then used to estimate the power consumption. In our work, the switching activity is first estimated for the general purpose integrators and then it is extended for the estimation of switching activity in cascaded integrators in CIC filters. ©2010 I...

  16. Principles of broadband switching and networking

    CERN Document Server

    Liew, Soung C


    An authoritative introduction to the roles of switching and transmission in broadband integrated services networks Principles of Broadband Switching and Networking explains the design and analysis of switch architectures suitable for broadband integrated services networks, emphasizing packet-switched interconnection networks with distributed routing algorithms. The text examines the mathematical properties of these networks, rather than specific implementation technologies. Although the pedagogical explanations in this book are in the context of switches, many of the fundamenta

  17. 30 CFR 57.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 57.19017... Hoisting Hoists § 57.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a manually-operable switch that will initiate emergency braking action to bring the conveyance and...

  18. 30 CFR 56.19017 - Emergency braking for electric hoists. (United States)


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency braking for electric hoists. 56.19017... Hoisting Hoists § 56.19017 Emergency braking for electric hoists. Each electric hoist shall be equipped with a manually-operable switch that will initiate emergency braking action to bring the conveyance and...

  19. Switching dynamics of TaOx-based threshold switching devices (United States)

    Goodwill, Jonathan M.; Gala, Darshil K.; Bain, James A.; Skowronski, Marek


    Bi-stable volatile switching devices are being used as access devices in solid-state memory arrays and as the active part of compact oscillators. Such structures exhibit two stable states of resistance and switch between them at a critical value of voltage or current. A typical resistance transient under a constant amplitude voltage pulse starts with a slow decrease followed by a rapid drop and leveling off at a low steady state value. This behavior prompted the interpretation of initial delay and fast transition as due to two different processes. Here, we show that the entire transient including incubation time, transition time, and the final resistance values in TaOx-based switching can be explained by one process, namely, Joule heating with the rapid transition due to the thermal runaway. The time, which is required for the device in the conducting state to relax back to the stable high resistance one, is also consistent with the proposed mechanism.

  20. Inverter for Installations with Intermittent Electricity Production


    Ermuraki Iu.; Berzan V.


    A new architecture of the inverter used in the convertion of electric energy generated by renewable energy sources is studied in this paper. The distinctive features of this inverter is the special block which compensates pulsing of the current with double frequency, characteristic for these inverters. The switching of electronic keys is realized using the method TCM In this block, like in the inverter, which assures the switching at the voltages near to zero (ZVC). The proposed algorithm of ...

  1. Photoresistance switching of plasmonic nanopores. (United States)

    Li, Yi; Nicoli, Francesca; Chen, Chang; Lagae, Liesbet; Groeseneken, Guido; Stakenborg, Tim; Zandbergen, Henny W; Dekker, Cees; Van Dorpe, Pol; Jonsson, Magnus P


    Fast and reversible modulation of ion flow through nanosized apertures is important for many nanofluidic applications, including sensing and separation systems. Here, we present the first demonstration of a reversible plasmon-controlled nanofluidic valve. We show that plasmonic nanopores (solid-state nanopores integrated with metal nanocavities) can be used as a fluidic switch upon optical excitation. We systematically investigate the effects of laser illumination of single plasmonic nanopores and experimentally demonstrate photoresistance switching where fluidic transport and ion flow are switched on or off. This is manifested as a large (∼ 1-2 orders of magnitude) increase in the ionic nanopore resistance and an accompanying current rectification upon illumination at high laser powers (tens of milliwatts). At lower laser powers, the resistance decreases monotonically with increasing power, followed by an abrupt transition to high resistances at a certain threshold power. A similar rapid transition, although at a lower threshold power, is observed when the power is instead swept from high to low power. This hysteretic behavior is found to be dependent on the rate of the power sweep. The photoresistance switching effect is attributed to plasmon-induced formation and growth of nanobubbles that reversibly block the ionic current through the nanopore from one side of the membrane. This explanation is corroborated by finite-element simulations of a nanobubble in the nanopore that show the switching and the rectification.

  2. Three-terminal resistive switching memory in a transparent vertical-configuration device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ungureanu, Mariana; Llopis, Roger; Casanova, Fèlix; Hueso, Luis E.


    The resistive switching phenomenon has attracted much attention recently for memory applications. It describes the reversible change in the resistance of a dielectric between two non-volatile states by the application of electrical pulses. Typical resistive switching memories are two-terminal devices formed by an oxide layer placed between two metal electrodes. Here, we report on the fabrication and operation of a three-terminal resistive switching memory that works as a reconfigurable logic component and offers an increased logic density on chip. The three-terminal memory device we present is transparent and could be further incorporated in transparent computing electronic technologies

  3. Long-term RF burn-in effects on dielectric charging of MEMS capacitive switches

    KAUST Repository

    Molinero, David G.


    This paper experimentally quantified the long-term effects of RF burn-in, in terms of burn-in and recovery times, and found the effects to be semipermanent. Specifically, most of the benefit could be realized after approximately 20 min of RF burn-in, which would then last for several months. Additionally, since similar effects were observed on both real and faux switches, the effects appeared to be of electrical rather than mechanical nature. These encouraging results should facilitate the application of the switches in RF systems, where high RF power could be periodically applied to rejuvenate the switches. © 2001-2011 IEEE.

  4. A cross-stacked plasmonic nanowire network for high-contrast femtosecond optical switching. (United States)

    Lin, Yuanhai; Zhang, Xinping; Fang, Xiaohui; Liang, Shuyan


    We report an ultrafast optical switching device constructed by stacking two layers of gold nanowires into a perpendicularly crossed network, which works at a speed faster than 280 fs with an on/off modulation depth of about 22.4%. The two stacks play different roles in enhancing consistently the optical switching performance due to their different dependence on the polarization of optical electric fields. The cross-plasmon resonance based on the interaction between the perpendicularly stacked gold nanowires and its Fano-coupling with Rayleigh anomaly is the dominant mechanism for such a high-contrast optical switching device.

  5. 78 FR 803 - Revisions to Electric Reliability Organization Definition of Bulk Electric System and Rules of... (United States)


    ... electric system. 3. We recognize the substantial work invested by NERC and industry participants in... November 18, 2010, the Commission revisited the definition of ``bulk electric system'' in Order No. 743... ``normally open switch'' note at the end of exclusion E1 to address a common network configuration in which...

  6. Analog self-powered harvester achieving switching pause control to increase harvested energy (United States)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Asahina, Kei


    In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog controller circuit to increase the efficiency of electrical energy harvesting from vibrational energy using piezoelectric materials. Although the existing synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI) method is designed to produce efficient harvesting, its switching operation generates a vibration-suppression effect that reduces the harvested levels of electrical energy. To solve this problem, the authors proposed—in a previous paper—a switching method that takes this vibration-suppression effect into account. This method temporarily pauses the switching operation, allowing the recovery of the mechanical displacement and, therefore, of the piezoelectric voltage. In this paper, we propose a self-powered analog circuit to implement this switching control method. Self-powered vibration harvesting is achieved in this study by attaching a newly designed circuit to an existing analog controller for SSHI. This circuit aims to effectively implement the aforementioned new switching control strategy, where switching is paused in some vibration peaks, in order to allow motion recovery and a consequent increase in the harvested energy. Harvesting experiments performed using the proposed circuit reveal that the proposed method can increase the energy stored in the storage capacitor by a factor of 8.5 relative to the conventional SSHI circuit. This proposed technique is useful to increase the harvested energy especially for piezoelectric systems having large coupling factor.

  7. Evidence for thermally assisted threshold switching behavior in nanoscale phase-change memory cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Gallo, Manuel; Athmanathan, Aravinthan; Krebs, Daniel; Sebastian, Abu [IBM Research-Zurich, 8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland)


    In spite of decades of research, the details of electrical transport in phase-change materials are still debated. In particular, the so-called threshold switching phenomenon that allows the current density to increase steeply when a sufficiently high voltage is applied is still not well understood, even though there is wide consensus that threshold switching is solely of electronic origin. However, the high thermal efficiency and fast thermal dynamics associated with nanoscale phase-change memory (PCM) devices motivate us to reassess a thermally assisted threshold switching mechanism, at least in these devices. The time/temperature dependence of the threshold switching voltage and current in doped Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} nanoscale PCM cells was measured over 6 decades in time at temperatures ranging from 40 °C to 160 °C. We observe a nearly constant threshold switching power across this wide range of operating conditions. We also measured the transient dynamics associated with threshold switching as a function of the applied voltage. By using a field- and temperature-dependent description of the electrical transport combined with a thermal feedback, quantitative agreement with experimental data of the threshold switching dynamics was obtained using realistic physical parameters.

  8. Multifunctional Material with Efficient Optoelectronic Integrated Molecular Switches Based on a Flexible Thin Film/Crystal. (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Zhang, Wan-Ying; Ye, Qiong; Fu, Da-Wei


    Switchable materials, due to their potential applications in the fields of sensors, photonic devices, digital processing, etc., have been developed drastically. However, they still face great challenges in effectively inducing multiple molecular switching. Herein organic-inorganic hybrid compounds, an emerging class of hydrosoluble optoelectronic-active materials, welcome a new member with smart unique optical/electrical (fluorescence/dielectric) dual switches (switching ON/OFF), that is, [C 5 H 13 NBr][Cd 3 Br 7 ] (1) in the form of both a bulk crystal and an ultraflexible monodirectional thin film, which simultaneously exhibits fast dielectric/fluorescent dual switching triggered by an optical/thermal/electric signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio of 35 (the highest one in the known optical/dielectric dual molecular switches). Additionally, the exceptional stability/fatigue resistance as well as the fantastic extensibility/compactness of thin films (more than 10000 times folding over 90°), makes 1 an ideal candidate for single-molecule intelligent wearable devices and seamlessly integrated optoelectronic multiswitchable devices. This opens up a new route toward advanced light/electric high-performance switches/memories based on organic-inorganic hybrid compounds.

  9. High field electrical behaviour in lithium–phospho–vanadate glass ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The studied glasses exhibit memory type switching. It is suggested that electrical switching is due to the formation of conducting channels that are due to electronic origin while thermal effects dominate once the channels are formed resulting in crystallization. ... prepared using analar grade lithium carbonate (Li2CO3),.

  10. Computerized precision control of a synchronous high voltage discharge switch for the beam separation system of the LEP e+/e- collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, J.H.; Finnigan, A.; Kalbreier, W.; Keizer, R.L.; Laffin, M.; Mertens, V.


    Electrostatic separators are used to separate the beams in LEP. The counter-rotating beams are eventually brought into collision in the four low beta insertions, using switches to discharge simultaneously four high voltage (HV) circuits. Each switch consists of four spark gaps mounted in a pressure vessel. A reduction of the gap widths below the self ignition instance by electric motors results in the initiation of the discharges. Synchronization is ensured by the electrical coupling of the electrodes connected to the ground. The design and performance of the computerized precision control of the discharge switch are described. The dynamic characteristics of the prototype switch are also presented. 5 refs., 5 figs

  11. Portable Userspace Virtual Filesystem Switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Faber


    Full Text Available Multiple different filesystems — including disk-based, network, distributed, abstract — arean integral part of every operating system. They are usually written as kernel modules and abstracted to the user via a virtual filesystem switch. In this paper we analyse the feasibility of reimplementing the virtual filesystem switch as a userspace daemon and applicability of this approach in real-life usage. Such reimplementation will require a way to virtualise processes behaviour related to filesystem operations. The problem is non-trivial, as we assume limited capabilities of the VFS switch implemented in userspace. We present a layered architecture comprising of a monitoring process, the VFS abstraction and real filesystem implementations. All working in userspace. Then, we evaluate this solution in four areas: portability, feasibility, usability and performance. Our results demonstrate possible gains in using the userspace-based approach with monolithic kernels, but also underline problems that are encountered in this approach.

  12. Time resolved measurements of the multiferroic switching in MnWO4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baum, Max; Finger, Thomas; Braden, Markus [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Leist, Jeannis [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Schmalzl, Karin [Juelich Centre for Neutron Science (JCNS), ILL, Grenoble (France); Regnault, Louis-Pierre [Institut Nanosciences et Cryogenie, CEA-Grenoble (France); Becker, Petra; Bohaty, Ladislav [Institut fuer Kristallographie, Universitaet Koeln (Germany)


    Multiferroic materials or compounds with a strong magnetoelectric effect posses a large application potential in data storage techniques. Quite recently, systems with a peculiar spiral magnetic order were shown to directly induce a spontaneous electric polarisation and to exhibit giant magnetoelectric and magnetocapacitance effects, among them MnWO4. Neutron scattering with spherical polarisation analysis gives direct access to the chiral component of the magnetic structure which is directly linked to the electric polarisation and thus may be tunable by an electric field. In MnWO4 it is possible to drive multiferroic hysteresis loops at constant temperature as a function of the electric field. We broadened our investigations in this topic and present time resolved measurements of magnetoelectric switching. We applied stroboscopic techniques in order to investigate how fast the chiral component of the magnetic structure adapts to an instantaneously switched electric field. The time scale of the response is remarkable slow, in the range of 3 - 20 ms.

  13. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao


    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  14. All-fiber polarization switch (United States)

    Knape, Harald; Margulis, Walter


    We report an all-fiber polarization switch made out of silica-based microstructured fiber suitable for Q-switching all-fiber lasers. Nanosecond high-voltage pulses are used to heat and expand an internal electrode to cause λ/2-polarization rotation in less than 10 ns for 1.5 μm light. The 10 cm long component has an experimentally measured optical insertion loss of 0.2 dB and a 0-10 kHz repetition frequency capacity and has been durability tested for more than 109 pulses.

  15. Industry switching in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Carol; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn


    Firm turnover (i.e., firm entry and exit) is a well-recognized source of sector-level productivity growth. In contrast, the role and importance of firms that switch activities from one sector to another is not well understood. Firm switchers are likely to be unique, differing from both newly...... and behavior than do entry and exit firms. Switchers tend to be labor intensive and to seek competitive opportunities in labor-intensive sectors in response to changes in market environments. Moreover, resource reallocation resulting from switching forms an important component of productivity growth. The topic...

  16. CMOS integrated switching power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Villar-Pique, Gerard


    This book describes the structured design and optimization of efficient, energy processing integrated circuits. The approach is multidisciplinary, covering the monolithic integration of IC design techniques, power electronics and control theory. In particular, this book enables readers to conceive, synthesize, design and implement integrated circuits with high-density high-efficiency on-chip switching power regulators. Topics covered encompass the structured design of the on-chip power supply, efficiency optimization, IC-compatible power inductors and capacitors, power MOSFET switches and effi

  17. Electrical machines & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, J


    A self-contained, comprehensive and unified treatment of electrical machines, including consideration of their control characteristics in both conventional and semiconductor switched circuits. This new edition has been expanded and updated to include material which reflects current thinking and practice. All references have been updated to conform to the latest national (BS) and international (IEC) recommendations and a new appendix has been added which deals more fully with the theory of permanent-magnets, recognising the growing importance of permanent-magnet machines. The text is so arra

  18. Electrical machines and drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, John


    Recent years have brought substantial developments in electrical drive technology, with the appearance of highly rated, very-high-speed power-electronic switches, combined with microcomputer control systems.This popular textbook has been thoroughly revised and updated in the light of these changes. It retains its successful formula of teaching through worked examples, which are put in context with concise explanations of theory, revision of equations and discussion of the engineering implications. Numerous problems are also provided, with answers supplied.The third edition in

  19. Digital to analog resistive switching transition induced by graphene buffer layer in strontium titanate based devices. (United States)

    Wan, Tao; Qu, Bo; Du, Haiwei; Lin, Xi; Lin, Qianru; Wang, Da-Wei; Cazorla, Claudio; Li, Sean; Liu, Sidong; Chu, Dewei


    Resistive switching behaviour can be classified into digital and analog switching based on its abrupt and gradual resistance change characteristics. Realizing the transition from digital to analog switching in the same device is essential for understanding and controlling the performance of the devices with various switching mechanisms. Here, we investigate the resistive switching in a device made with strontium titanate (SrTiO 3 ) nanoparticles using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and direct electrical measurements. It is found that the well-known rupture/formation of Ag filaments is responsible for the digital switching in the device with Ag as the top electrode. To modulate the switching performance, we insert a reduced graphene oxide layer between SrTiO 3 and the bottom FTO electrode owing to its good barrier property for the diffusion of Ag ions and high out-of-plane resistance. In this case, resistive switching is changed from digital to analog as determined by the modulation of interfacial resistance under applied voltage. Based on that controllable resistance, potentiation and depression behaviours are implemented as well. This study opens up new ways for the design of multifunctional devices which are promising for memory and neuromorphic computing applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Two-dimensional modeling of x-ray output from switched foil implosions on Procyon (United States)

    Bowers, R. L.; Nakafuji, G.; Greene, A. E.; McLenithan, K. D.; Peterson, D. L.; Roderick, N. F.


    A series of two-dimensional radiation magnetohydrodynamic calculations are presented of a Z-pinch implosion using a plasma flow switch. Results from a recent experiment using the high explosive driven generator Procyon, which delivered 16.5 MA to a plasma flow switch and switched about 15 MA into a static load, are used to study the implosion of a 29 mg load foil [J. H. Goforth et al., ``Review of the Procyon Explosive Pulsed Power System,'' in Ninth IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, June 1993, Albuquerque, edited by K. R. Prestwich and W. L. Baker (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Piscataway, NJ, 1993), p. 36]. The interaction of the switch with the load plasma and the effects of background plasma on the total radiation output is examined. Models which assume ideal switching are also included. Also included are the effects of perturbations in the load plasma which may be associated with initial vaporization of the load foil. If the background plasma density in the switch region and in the load region does not affect the dynamics, the pinch is predicted to produce a total radiation output of about 4 MJ. Including perturbations of the load plasma associated with switching and assuming a background plasma density after switching in excess of 10-7 g/cm3 results in a total output from the pinch of about 0.6 MJ.

  1. Thermal switching of the electrical conductivity of Si(111)([Formula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wells, J W; Kallehauge, Jesper; Hofmann, Ph


    The temperature-dependent surface conductivity of the Si(111)([Formula: see text])Ag surface was measured using a microscopic four-point probe. The conductivity was found to undergo a sharp increase of about three orders of magnitude when the system was heated above about 220 K. This strong...

  2. Wavelength conversion in optical packet switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Stubkjær, Kristian


    A detailed traffic analysis of optical packet switch design is performed. Special consideration is given to the complexity of the optical buffering and the overall switch block structure is considered in general. Wavelength converters are shown to improve the traffic performance of the switch...... blocks for both random and bursty traffic. Furthermore, the traffic performance of switch blocks with add-drop switches has been assessed in a Shufflenetwork showing the advantage of having converters at the inlets. Finally, the aspect of synchronization is discussed through a proposal to operate...... the packet switch block asynchronously, i.e. without packet alignment at the input...

  3. Electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    We demonstrate a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber based polarizer integrated in a double silicon v-groove assembly. The polarizer axis can be electrically controlled as well as switched on and off.......We demonstrate a liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber based polarizer integrated in a double silicon v-groove assembly. The polarizer axis can be electrically controlled as well as switched on and off....

  4. Nonvolatile data storage using mechanical force-induced polarization switching in ferroelectric polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Xiang-Zhong; Chen, Yu-Lei; Shen, Qun-Dong; Guo, Xu; Ge, Hai-Xiong


    Ferroelectric polymers offer the promise of low-cost and flexible electronic products. They are attractive for information storage due to their spontaneous polarization which is usually switched by electric field. Here, we demonstrate that electrical signals can be readily written on ultra-thin ferroelectric polymer films by strain gradient-induced polarization switching (flexoelectric effect). A force with magnitude as small as 64nN is enough to induce highly localized (40 nm feature size) change in the polarization states. The methodology is capable of realizing nonvolatile memory devices with miniaturized cell size and storage density of tens to hundreds Gbit per square inch

  5. Resistive switching via the converse magnetoelectric effect in ferromagnetic multilayers on ferroelectric substrates. (United States)

    Pertsev, N A; Kohlstedt, H


    A voltage-controlled resistive switching is predicted for ferromagnetic multilayers and spin valves mechanically coupled to a ferroelectric substrate. The switching between low- and high-resistance states results from the strain-driven magnetization reorientations by about 90°, which are shown to occur in ferromagnetic layers with a high magnetostriction and weak cubic magnetocrystalline anisotropy. Such reorientations, not requiring external magnetic fields, can be realized experimentally by applying moderate electric field to a thick substrate (bulk or membrane type) made of a relaxor ferroelectric having ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients. The proposed multiferroic hybrids exhibiting giant magnetoresistance may be employed as electric-write nonvolatile magnetic memory cells with nondestructive readout.

  6. Filament growth and resistive switching in hafnium oxide memristive devices. (United States)

    Dirkmann, Sven; Kaiser, Jan; Wenger, Christian; Mussenbrock, Thomas


    We report on the resistive switching in TiN/Ti/HfO 2 /TiN memristive devices. A resistive switching model for the device is proposed, taking into account important experimental and theoretical findings. The proposed switching model is validated using 2D and 3D kinetic Monte Carlo simulation models. The models are consistently coupled to the electric field and different current transport mechanisms as direct tunneling, trap assisted tunneling (TAT), ohmic transport, and transport through a quantum point contact (QPC) have been considered. We find that the numerical results are in excellent agreement with experimentally obtained data. Important device parameters, which are difficult or impossible to measure in experiments, are calculated. This includes the shape of the conductive filament, width of filament constriction, current density, and temperature distribution. To obtain insights in the operation of the device, consecutive cycles have been simulated. Furthermore, the switching kinetic for the forming and set process for different applied voltages is investigated. Finally, the influence of an annealing process on the filament growth, especially on the filament growth direction, is discussed.

  7. Electrical Injuries (United States)

    ... how quickly you get treatment. Causes of electrical injuries include Lightning strikes Faulty electrical appliances Work-related exposures Contact with household wiring or power lines Accidents in small children, when they bite or suck on electrical cords, ...

  8. Multiuser switched diversity scheduling schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad


    Multiuser switched-diversity scheduling schemes were recently proposed in order to overcome the heavy feedback requirements of conventional opportunistic scheduling schemes by applying a threshold-based, distributed, and ordered scheduling mechanism. The main idea behind these schemes is that slight reduction in the prospected multiuser diversity gains is an acceptable trade-off for great savings in terms of required channel-state-information feedback messages. In this work, we characterize the achievable rate region of multiuser switched diversity systems and compare it with the rate region of full feedback multiuser diversity systems. We propose also a novel proportional fair multiuser switched-based scheduling scheme and we demonstrate that it can be optimized using a practical and distributed method to obtain the feedback thresholds. We finally demonstrate by numerical examples that switched-diversity scheduling schemes operate within 0.3 bits/sec/Hz from the ultimate network capacity of full feedback systems in Rayleigh fading conditions. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Soliton switching in directional couplers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valkering, T.P.; Hoekstra, Hugo; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk


    The mechanism of pulse switching is investigated analytically and numerically for a family of initial conditions with a solitonlike pulse in one channel and no signal on the other channel of the coupler. This investigation is performed directly in the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations that

  10. Switching Costs in Accounting Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koç


    Full Text Available Switching cost is defined as possible costs that customers may encounter when they want to change the firm they buy service, and an important subject in terms of accounting services. Particularly, small business entrepreneurs’ not having knowledge about accounting procedures, and sharing private information with accounting firms make switching costs more important for accounting services. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the concept of switching costs (relational cost, procedural cost and financial cost, its determinants (perceived service quality, service importance, and service failures, and consequences (re-purchasing, and recommen ding to others. Theresearch was conducted on small business entrepreneurs in down-town of Balıkesir in Turkey. Total 405 small business entrepreneur owners were interviewed. According to results of the study, perceived service quality positively affects all dimensions of switching costs, significance of service positively affects procedural and relational costs, and service failures negatively affect procedural and relational costs. The results showed that while procedural and relational costs positively affect re-purchasing and recommending to others variables, financial cost did not have any effect on these variables.

  11. Nanoscale organic ferroelectric resistive switches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khikhlovskyi, V.; Wang, R.; Breemen, A.J.J.M. van; Gelinck, G.H.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Kemerink, M.


    Organic ferroelectric resistive switches function by grace of nanoscale phase separation in a blend of a semiconducting and a ferroelectric polymer that is sandwiched between metallic electrodes. In this work, various scanning probe techniques are combined with numerical modeling to unravel their

  12. Switching processes in financial markets. (United States)

    Preis, Tobias; Schneider, Johannes J; Stanley, H Eugene


    For an intriguing variety of switching processes in nature, the underlying complex system abruptly changes from one state to another in a highly discontinuous fashion. Financial market fluctuations are characterized by many abrupt switchings creating upward trends and downward trends, on time scales ranging from macroscopic trends persisting for hundreds of days to microscopic trends persisting for a few minutes. The question arises whether these ubiquitous switching processes have quantifiable features independent of the time horizon studied. We find striking scale-free behavior of the transaction volume after each switching. Our findings can be interpreted as being consistent with time-dependent collective behavior of financial market participants. We test the possible universality of our result by performing a parallel analysis of fluctuations in time intervals between transactions. We suggest that the well known catastrophic bubbles that occur on large time scales--such as the most recent financial crisis--may not be outliers but single dramatic representatives caused by the formation of increasing and decreasing trends on time scales varying over nine orders of magnitude from very large down to very small.

  13. Androgenic switch in barley microspores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Faria Maraschin, Simone


    Barley androgenesis represents an attractive system to study stress-induced cell differentiation and is a valuable tool for efficient plant breeding. The switch from the pollen developmental pathway towards an androgenic route involves several well-described morphological changes. However, little is

  14. Incorrect predictions reduce switch costs. (United States)

    Kleinsorge, Thomas; Scheil, Juliane


    In three experiments, we combined two sources of conflict within a modified task-switching procedure. The first source of conflict was the one inherent in any task switching situation, namely the conflict between a task set activated by the recent performance of another task and the task set needed to perform the actually relevant task. The second source of conflict was induced by requiring participants to guess aspects of the upcoming task (Exps. 1 & 2: task identity; Exp. 3: position of task precue). In case of an incorrect guess, a conflict accrues between the representation of the guessed task and the actually relevant task. In Experiments 1 and 2, incorrect guesses led to an overall increase of reaction times and error rates, but they reduced task switch costs compared to conditions in which participants predicted the correct task. In Experiment 3, incorrect guesses resulted in faster performance overall and to a selective decrease of reaction times in task switch trials when the cue-target interval was long. We interpret these findings in terms of an enhanced level of controlled processing induced by a combination of two sources of conflict converging upon the same target of cognitive control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The Atlas load protection switch

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, H A; Dorr, G; Martínez, M; Gribble, R F; Nielsen, K E; Pierce, D; Parsons, W M


    Atlas is a high-energy pulsed-power facility under development to study materials properties and hydrodynamics experiments under extreme conditions. Atlas will implode heavy liner loads (m~45 gm) with a peak current of 27-32 MA delivered in 4 mu s, and is energized by 96, 240 kV Marx generators storing a total of 23 MJ. A key design requirement for Atlas is obtaining useful data for 95601130f all loads installed on the machine. Materials response calculations show current from a prefire can damage the load requiring expensive and time consuming replacement. Therefore, we have incorporated a set of fast-acting mechanical switches in the Atlas design to reduce the probability of a prefire damaging the load. These switches, referred to as the load protection switches, short the load through a very low inductance path during system charge. Once the capacitors have reached full charge, the switches open on a time scale short compared to the bank charge time, allowing current to flow to the load when the trigger pu...

  16. Compact electrically controlled broadband liquid crystal photonic bandgap fiber polarizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard


    An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm.......An electrically controlled liquid crystal photonic-bandgap fiber polarizer is experimentally demonstrated. A maximum 21.3dB electrically tunable polarization extinction ratio is achieved with 45° rotatable transmission axis as well as switched on and off in 1300nm–1600nm....

  17. Sliding mode control for synchronous electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Ryvkin, Sergey E


    This volume presents the theory of control systems with sliding mode applied to electrical motors and power converters. It demonstrates the methodology of control design and the original algorithms of control and observation. Practically all semiconductor devices are used in power converters, that feed electrical motors, as power switches. A switching mode offers myriad attractive, inherent properties from a control viewpoint, especially a sliding mode. Sliding mode control supplies high dynamics to systems, invariability of systems to changes of their parameters and of exterior loads in combi

  18. Impact Analysis of Electrical Current Characteristics in Relay Function for Electrical and Electronic Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawadi Hasim


    This paper is to study effect of electrical current on relay reaction, which has coil and switch inside the relay. An analysis on the electrical current will be conducted to determine current limitation for relay activation purpose. The result of analysis showing that current characteristic of relay and applied load will present their affect to the relay function performance. Finding from this result will bring the idea to develop a suitable design circuit for electrical and electronic protection. (author)

  19. Switch-connected HyperX network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip


    A network system includes a plurality of sub-network planes and global switches. The sub-network planes have a same network topology as each other. Each of the sub-network planes includes edge switches. Each of the edge switches has N ports. Each of the global switches is configured to connect a group of edge switches at a same location in the sub-network planes. In each of the sub-network planes, some of the N ports of each of the edge switches are connected to end nodes, and others of the N ports are connected to other edge switches in the same sub-network plane, other of the N ports are connected to at least one of the global switches.

  20. Fault tolerant operation of switched reluctance machine (United States)

    Wang, Wei

    The energy crisis and environmental challenges have driven industry towards more energy efficient solutions. With nearly 60% of electricity consumed by various electric machines in industry sector, advancement in the efficiency of the electric drive system is of vital importance. Adjustable speed drive system (ASDS) provides excellent speed regulation and dynamic performance as well as dramatically improved system efficiency compared with conventional motors without electronics drives. Industry has witnessed tremendous grow in ASDS applications not only as a driving force but also as an electric auxiliary system for replacing bulky and low efficiency auxiliary hydraulic and mechanical systems. With the vast penetration of ASDS, its fault tolerant operation capability is more widely recognized as an important feature of drive performance especially for aerospace, automotive applications and other industrial drive applications demanding high reliability. The Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), a low cost, highly reliable electric machine with fault tolerant operation capability, has drawn substantial attention in the past three decades. Nevertheless, SRM is not free of fault. Certain faults such as converter faults, sensor faults, winding shorts, eccentricity and position sensor faults are commonly shared among all ASDS. In this dissertation, a thorough understanding of various faults and their influence on transient and steady state performance of SRM is developed via simulation and experimental study, providing necessary knowledge for fault detection and post fault management. Lumped parameter models are established for fast real time simulation and drive control. Based on the behavior of the faults, a fault detection scheme is developed for the purpose of fast and reliable fault diagnosis. In order to improve the SRM power and torque capacity under faults, the maximum torque per ampere excitation are conceptualized and validated through theoretical analysis and

  1. 49 CFR 236.822 - Switch, spring. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch, spring. 236.822 Section 236.822... Switch, spring. A switch equipped with a spring device which forces the points to their original position after being trailed through and holds them under spring compression. ...

  2. A gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chris J; Van der Slot, Peter J M; Boller, Klaus-J


    We report on a gain-coefficient switched Alexandrite laser. An electro-optic modulator is used to switch between high and low gain states by making use of the polarization dependent gain of Alexandrite. In gain-coefficient switched mode, the laser produces 85 ns pulses with a pulse energy of 240 mJ at a repetition rate of 5 Hz.

  3. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper


    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  4. A CW Gunn diode bistable switching element. (United States)

    Hurtado, M.; Rosenbaum, F. J.


    Experiments with a current-controlled bistable switching element using a CW Gunn diode are reported. Switching rates of the order of 10 MHz have been obtained. Switching is initiated by current pulses of short duration (5-10 ns). Rise times of the order of several nanoseconds could be obtained.

  5. Caffeine improves anticipatory processes in task switching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieges, Zoe; Snel, Jan; Kok, Albert; Wijnen, Jasper G.; Lorist, Monicque M.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard

    We studied the effects of moderate amounts of caffeine on task switching and task maintenance using mixed-task (AABB) blocks, in which participants alternated predictably between two tasks, and single-task (AAAA, BBBB) blocks. Switch costs refer to longer reaction times (RT) on task switch trials

  6. Switching antidepressants | Outhoff | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... worsening depression or unpleasant discontinuation reactions. Switching strategies to minimise these risks include immediate switching, cross-tapering or incorporating a washout period. Immediate switching is generally possible when substituting a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor or a serotonin and noradrenaline ...

  7. 47 CFR 69.106 - Local switching. (United States)


    ... foreign services that use local exchange switching facilities. (c) If end users of an interstate or... local exchange carriers shall establish rate elements for local switching as follows: (1) Price cap... use local exchange switching facilities for the provision of interstate or foreign services. The...

  8. Degree of Conversational Code-Switching Enhances Verbal Task Switching in Cantonese-English Bilinguals (United States)

    Yim, Odilia; Bialystok, Ellen


    The study examined individual differences in code-switching to determine the relationship between code-switching frequency and performance in verbal and non-verbal task switching. Seventy-eight Cantonese-English bilinguals completed a semi-structured conversation to quantify natural code-switching, a verbal fluency task requiring language…

  9. Resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bogusz


    Full Text Available We report a unipolar, nonvolatile resistive switching in polycrystalline YMnO3 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition and sandwiched between Au top and Ti/Pt bottom electrodes. The ratio of the resistance in the OFF and ON state is larger than 103. The observed phenomena can be attributed to the formation and rupture of conductive filaments within the multiferroic YMnO3 film. The generation of conductive paths under applied electric field is discussed in terms of the presence of grain boundaries and charged domain walls inherently formed in hexagonal YMnO3. Our findings suggest that engineering of the ferroelectric domains might be a promising route for designing and fabrication of novel resistive switching devices.

  10. A nonlinear HP-type complementary resistive switch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Radtke


    Full Text Available Resistive Switching (RS is the change in resistance of a dielectric under the influence of an external current or electric field. This change is non-volatile, and the basis of both the memristor and resistive random access memory. In the latter, high integration densities favor the anti-serial combination of two RS-elements to a single cell, termed the complementary resistive switch (CRS. Motivated by the irregular shape of the filament protruding into the device, we suggest a nonlinearity in the resistance-interpolation function, characterized by a single parameter p. Thereby the original HP-memristor is expanded upon. We numerically simulate and analytically solve this model. Further, the nonlinearity allows for its application to the CRS.

  11. Rapid interhemispheric switching during vocal production in a songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Z H Wang


    Full Text Available To generate complex bilateral motor patterns such as those underlying birdsong, neural activity must be highly coordinated across the two cerebral hemispheres. However, it remains largely elusive how this coordination is achieved given that interhemispheric communication between song-control areas in the avian cerebrum is restricted to projections received from bilaterally connecting areas in the mid- and hindbrain. By electrically stimulating cerebral premotor areas in zebra finches, we find that behavioral effectiveness of stimulation rapidly switches between hemispheres. In time intervals in which stimulation in one hemisphere tends to distort songs, stimulation in the other hemisphere is mostly ineffective, revealing an idiosyncratic form of motor dominance that bounces back and forth between hemispheres like a virtual ping-pong ball. The intervals of lateralized effectiveness are broadly distributed and are unrelated to simple spectral and temporal song features. Such interhemispheric switching could be an important dynamical aspect of neural coordination that may have evolved from simpler pattern generator circuits.

  12. Resistance switching in epitaxial SrCoOx thin films (United States)

    Tambunan, Octolia T.; Parwanta, Kadek J.; Acharya, Susant K.; Lee, Bo Wha; Jung, Chang Uk; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Bae Ho; Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong; Cho, Myung Rae; Park, Yun Daniel; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jin, Hyunwoo; Lee, Suyoun; Song, Seul Ji; Kang, Sung-Jin; Kim, Miyoung; Hwang, Cheol Seong


    We observed bipolar switching behavior from an epitaxial strontium cobaltite film grown on a SrTiO3 (001) substrate. The crystal structure of strontium cobaltite has been known to undergo topotactic phase transformation between two distinct phases: insulating brownmillerite (SrCoO2.5) and conducting perovskite (SrCoO3-δ) depending on the oxygen content. The current-voltage characteristics of the strontium cobaltite film showed that it could have a reversible insulator-to-metal transition triggered by electrical bias voltage. We propose that the resistance switching in the SrCoOx thin film could be related to the topotactic phase transformation and the peculiar structure of SrCoO2.5.

  13. Resistance switching in epitaxial SrCoOx thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambunan, Octolia T.; Parwanta, Kadek J.; Acharya, Susant K.; Lee, Bo Wha; Jung, Chang Uk; Kim, Yeon Soo; Park, Bae Ho; Jeong, Huiseong; Park, Ji-Yong; Cho, Myung Rae; Park, Yun Daniel; Choi, Woo Seok; Kim, Dong-Wook; Jin, Hyunwoo; Lee, Suyoun; Song, Seul Ji; Kang, Sung-Jin; Kim, Miyoung; Hwang, Cheol Seong


    We observed bipolar switching behavior from an epitaxial strontium cobaltite film grown on a SrTiO 3 (001) substrate. The crystal structure of strontium cobaltite has been known to undergo topotactic phase transformation between two distinct phases: insulating brownmillerite (SrCoO 2.5 ) and conducting perovskite (SrCoO 3−δ ) depending on the oxygen content. The current–voltage characteristics of the strontium cobaltite film showed that it could have a reversible insulator-to-metal transition triggered by electrical bias voltage. We propose that the resistance switching in the SrCoO x thin film could be related to the topotactic phase transformation and the peculiar structure of SrCoO 2.5

  14. Fuselage panel noise attenuation by piezoelectric switching control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makihara, Kanjuro; Onoda, Junjiro; Minesugi, Kenji; Miyakawa, Takeya


    This paper describes a problem that we encountered in our noise attenuation project and our solution for it. We intend to attenuate low-frequency noise that transmits through aircraft fuselage panels. Our method of noise attenuation is implemented with a piezoelectric semi-active system having a selective switch instead of an active energy-supply system. The semi-active controller is based on the predicted sound pressure distribution obtained from acoustic emission analysis. Experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate that the semi-active method attenuates acoustic levels of not only the simple monochromatic noise but also of broadband noise. We reveal that tuning the electrical parameters in the circuit is the key to effective noise attenuation, to overcome the acoustic excitation problem due to sharp switching actions, as well as to control chattering problems. The results obtained from this investigation provide meaningful insights into designing noise attenuation systems for comfortable aircraft cabin environments

  15. Electrostatically actuated thermal switch device for caloric film (United States)

    Almanza, Morgan; Depreux, Lucas; Parrain, Fabien; LoBue, Martino


    An innovative thermal switch device using a thin metallic film electrostatically actuated by an electrode mainly conceived for caloric cooling is studied. Our study focuses on the characterization of the thermal conductance at the interface for the "on" and "off" states. Our setup uses the current passing through the metallization of the film as a heater, while the temperature is deduced from the measurement of its electrical resistivity. Using a thermal diffusion model and our measurements, we deduce the on and off state thermal conductances, and we achieve an on/off conductance ratio of 103. Lastly, we use a simple finite-time thermodynamic model to estimate the efficiency at maximum power, and we would obtain by integrating a standard electrocaloric film in our thermal switch. The result is a micro-refrigerator working at 85% of Carnot efficiency with a power density of 228 W g-1 which is far more than what it has been currently demonstrated.

  16. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches (United States)

    Cooper, James A.


    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  17. Electrical contacts principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Slade, Paul G


    Covering the theory, application, and testing of contact materials, Electrical Contacts: Principles and Applications, Second Edition introduces a thorough discussion on making electric contact and contact interface conduction; presents a general outline of, and measurement techniques for, important corrosion mechanisms; considers the results of contact wear when plug-in connections are made and broken; investigates the effect of thin noble metal plating on electronic connections; and relates crucial considerations for making high- and low-power contact joints. It examines contact use in switch

  18. Charge transport and bipolar switching mechanism in a Cu/HfO2/Pt resistive switching cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Tingting; Guo Tingting; Wu Zhihui; Liu Zhengtang


    Bipolar resistance switching characteristics are investigated in Cu/sputtered-HfO 2 /Pt structure in the application of resistive random access memory (RRAM). The conduction mechanism of the structure is characterized to be SCLC conduction. The dependence of resistances in both high resistance state (HRS) and low resistance state (LRS) on the temperature and device area are studied. Then, the composition and chemical bonding state of Cu and Hf at Cu/HfO 2 interface region are analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Combining the electrical characteristics and the chemical structure at the interface, a model for the resistive switching effect in Cu/HfO 2 /Pt stack is proposed. According to this model, the generation and recovery of oxygen vacancies in the HfO 2 film are responsible for the resistance change. (paper)

  19. Shape memory thermal conduction switch (United States)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajan (Inventor); Krishnan, Vinu (Inventor); Notardonato, William U. (Inventor)


    A thermal conduction switch includes a thermally-conductive first member having a first thermal contacting structure for securing the first member as a stationary member to a thermally regulated body or a body requiring thermal regulation. A movable thermally-conductive second member has a second thermal contacting surface. A thermally conductive coupler is interposed between the first member and the second member for thermally coupling the first member to the second member. At least one control spring is coupled between the first member and the second member. The control spring includes a NiTiFe comprising shape memory (SM) material that provides a phase change temperature <273 K, a transformation range <40 K, and a hysteresis of <10 K. A bias spring is between the first member and the second member. At the phase change the switch provides a distance change (displacement) between first and second member by at least 1 mm, such as 2 to 4 mm.

  20. Switch for Good Community Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Tabitha [Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management LLC, Newtown Square, PA (United States); Amran, Martha [WattzOn, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States)


    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective. The program was delivered on-time and on-budget, and its success is based on the teamwork of local BB staff and the WattzOn team. The following graphic shows Switch4Good “by the numbers”, e.g. the scale of operations achieved during Phase I.

  1. Negation switching invariant signed graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Sinha


    Full Text Available A signed graph (or, $sigraph$ in short is a graph G in which each edge x carries a value $\\sigma(x \\in \\{-, +\\}$ called its sign. Given a sigraph S, the negation $\\eta(S$ of the sigraph S is a sigraph obtained from S by reversing the sign of every edge of S. Two sigraphs $S_{1}$ and $S_{2}$ on the same underlying graph are switching equivalent if it is possible to assign signs `+' (`plus' or `-' (`minus' to vertices of $S_{1}$ such that by reversing the sign of each of its edges that has received opposite signs at its ends, one obtains $S_{2}$. In this paper, we characterize sigraphs which are negation switching invariant and also see for what sigraphs, S and $\\eta (S$ are signed isomorphic.

  2. Switching strategies to optimize search (United States)

    Shlesinger, Michael F.


    Search strategies are explored when the search time is fixed, success is probabilistic and the estimate for success can diminish with time if there is not a successful result. Under the time constraint the problem is to find the optimal time to switch a search strategy or search location. Several variables are taken into account, including cost, gain, rate of success if a target is present and the probability that a target is present.

  3. Molecular wires, switches and memories (United States)

    Chen, Jia

    Molecular electronics, an emerging field, makes it possible to build individual molecules capable of performing functions identical or analogous to present- day conductors, switches, or memories. These individual molecules, with a nano-meter scale characteristic length, can be designed and chemically synthesized with specific atoms, geometries and charge distribution. This thesis focuses on the design, and measurements of molecular wires, and related strategically engineered structures-molecular switches and memories. The experimental system relies on a thermodynamically driven self-assembling process to attach molecules onto substrate surfaces without intervention from outside. The following topics will be discussed: directed nanoscale manipulation of self-assembled molecules using scanning tunneling microscope; investigation on through-bond transport of nanoscale symmetric metal/conjugated self- assembled monolayers (SAM)/metal junctions, where non- Ohmic thermionic emission was observed to be the dominant process, with isocyanide-Pd contacts showing the lowest thermionic barrier of 0.22 eV; the first realization of robust and large reversible switching behavior in an electronic device that utilizes molecules containing redox centers as the active component, exhibiting negative differential resistance (NDR) and large on-off peak-to-valley ratio (PVR); observation of erasable storage of higher conductivity states in these redox- center containing molecular devices, and demonstration of a two-terminal electronically programmable and erasable molecular memory cell with long bit retention time.

  4. Multilevel resistive switching in TiO2/Al2O3 bilayers at low temperature (United States)

    Andreeva, N.; Ivanov, A.; Petrov, A.


    We report an approach to design a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure exhibiting multilevel resistive switching. Toward this end, two oxide layers (TiO2 and Al2O3) were combined to form a bilayer structure. MIM structures demonstrate stable bipolar switching relative to the resistive state determined by the bias voltage. The resistive state of such bilayer structures can be electrically tuned over seven orders of magnitude. The resistance is determined by the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the active layer of Al2O3. To elucidate a possible mechanism for resistive switching, structural studies and measurements have been made in the temperature range 50-295 K. Resistive switching occurs over the entire temperature range, which assumes the electronic character of the process in the Al2O3 layer. The experimental results indicate that hopping transport with variable-length jumps is the most probable transport mechanism in these MIM structures.

  5. Characterization on Contacting Surfaces of MEMS Electrostatic Switches by SEM, EDXA, and XPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Afinogenov


    Full Text Available We focus on the origin and sources of surface contamination and defects causing the failure of MEMS electrostatic switches. The morphology, and elemental and chemical compositions of the contacting surfaces, conducting paths, and other parts of switches have been characterized by means of SEM, EDXA, and XPS in order to understand the difference between the data collected for the devices that had passed the electrical conductivity test and those found to be defective. C, O, Al, Ca, Ti, Cu, and some other impurities were detected on the details of defective switches. Contrariwise, the working switches were found to be clean, at least on the level of EDXA and XPS sensitivity. The main sources of surface contamination and defects were incompletely deleted sacrificial layers, substrate materials, and electrolytes employed for Rh plating of the contacts. The negative influence of foreign microparticles, especially alumina and copper oxides, on the conductivity and porosity of contacts was highlighted.

  6. Design and finite element method analysis of laterally actuated multi-value nano electromechanical switches

    KAUST Repository

    Kloub, Hussam


    We report on the design and modeling of novel nano electromechanical switches suitable for implementing reset/set flip-flops, AND, NOR, and XNOR Boolean functions. Multiple logic operations can be implemented using only one switching action enabling parallel data processing; a feature that renders this design competitive with complementary metal oxide semiconductor and superior to conventional nano-electromechanical switches in terms of functionality per device footprint. The structural architecture of the newly designed switch consists of a pinned flexural beam structure which allows low strain lateral actuation for enhanced mechanical integrity. Reliable control of on-state electrical current density is achieved through the use of metal-metal contacts, true parallel beam deflection, and lithographically defined contact area to prevent possible device welding. Dynamic response as a function of device dimensions numerically investigated using ANSYS and MatLab Simulink. © 2011 The Japan Society of Applied Physics.

  7. Non-oxidized porous silicon-based power AC switch peripheries (United States)

    Menard, Samuel; Fèvre, Angélique; Valente, Damien; Billoué, Jérôme; Gautier, Gaël


    We present in this paper a novel application of porous silicon (PS) for low-power alternating current (AC) switches such as triode alternating current devices (TRIACs) frequently used to control small appliances (fridge, vacuum cleaner, washing machine, coffee makers, etc.). More precisely, it seems possible to benefit from the PS electrical insulation properties to ensure the OFF state of the device. Based on the technological aspects of the most commonly used AC switch peripheries physically responsible of the TRIAC blocking performances (leakage current and breakdown voltage), we suggest to isolate upper and lower junctions through the addition of a PS layer anodically etched from existing AC switch diffusion profiles. Then, we comment the voltage capability of practical samples emanating from the proposed architecture. Thanks to the characterization results of simple Al-PS-Si(P) structures, the experimental observations are interpreted, thus opening new outlooks in the field of AC switch peripheries.

  8. Analytical Performance Evaluation of Different Switch Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sans


    Full Text Available The virtualization of the network access layer has opened new doors in how we perceive networks. With this virtualization of the network, it is possible to transform a regular PC with several network interface cards into a switch. PC-based switches are becoming an alternative to off-the-shelf switches, since they are cheaper. For this reason, it is important to evaluate the performance of PC-based switches. In this paper, we present a performance evaluation of two PC-based switches, using Open vSwitch and LiSA, and compare their performance with an off-the-shelf Cisco switch. The RTT, throughput, and fairness for UDP are measured for both Ethernet and Fast Ethernet technologies. From this research, we can conclude that the Cisco switch presents the best performance, and both PC-based switches have similar performance. Between Open vSwitch and LiSA, Open vSwitch represents a better choice since it has more features and is currently actively developed.

  9. Software-Controlled Next Generation Optical Circuit Switching for HPC and Cloud Computing Datacenters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran


    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the performance of optical circuit switching (OCS systems designed for data center networks by using network-level simulation. Recent proposals have used OCS in data center networks but the relatively slow switching times of OCS-MEMS switches (10–100 ms and the latencies of control planes in these approaches have limited their use to the largest data center networks with workloads that last several seconds. Herein, we extend the applicability and generality of these studies by considering dynamically changing short-lived circuits in software-controlled OCS switches, using the faster switching technologies that are now available. The modelled switch architecture features fast optical switches in a single hop topology with a centralized, software-defined optical control plane. We model different workloads with various traffic aggregation parameters to investigate the performance of such designs across usage patterns. Our results show that, with suitable choices for the OCS system parameters, delay performance comparable to that of electrical data center networks can be obtained.

  10. Synchronization in complex networks with switching topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Qing-guo


    This Letter investigates synchronization issues of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. By constructing a common Lyapunov function, we show that local and global synchronization for a linearly coupled network with switching topology can be evaluated by the time average of second smallest eigenvalues corresponding to the Laplacians of switching topology. This result is quite powerful and can be further used to explore various switching cases for complex dynamical networks. Numerical simulations illustrate the effectiveness of the obtained results in the end. -- Highlights: → Synchronization of complex networks with switching topology is investigated. → A common Lyapunov function is established for synchronization of switching network. → The common Lyapunov function is not necessary to monotonically decrease with time. → Synchronization is determined by the second smallest eigenvalue of its Laplacian. → Synchronization criterion can be used to investigate various switching cases.

  11. Pinning Synchronization of Switched Complex Dynamical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Du


    Full Text Available Network topology and node dynamics play a key role in forming synchronization of complex networks. Unfortunately there is no effective synchronization criterion for pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology. In this paper, pinning synchronization of complex dynamical networks with switching topology is studied. Two basic problems are considered: one is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks under arbitrary switching; the other is pinning synchronization of switched complex networks by design of switching when synchronization cannot achieved by using any individual connection topology alone. For the two problems, common Lyapunov function method and single Lyapunov function method are used respectively, some global synchronization criteria are proposed and the designed switching law is given. Finally, simulation results verify the validity of the results.

  12. A Modified DTC with Capability of Regenerative Braking Energy in BLDC driven Electric Vehicles Using Adaptive Control Theory


    Geraee, Shiva; Mohammadbagherpoor, Hamed; Shafiei, Mehdi; Valizadehdeh, Majid; Montazeri, Farshad; Feyzi, Mohammad Reza


    This paper represents a novel regenerative braking approach for the Electric Vehicles. The proposed method solves the short-range problem which is corresponding to the charge of the battery pack. The DTC switching algorithm has been modified to recover the electrical energy from Electrical Vehicle (EV), driven by Brushless DC motor, without using the additional power converter or the other electrical energy storage devices. During regenerative braking process, different switching pattern is a...

  13. Resistance switching of an individual Ag2S/Ag nanowire heterostructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Changhao; Terabe, Kazuya; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Aono, Masakazu


    Ag/Cu-based chalcogenide ionic conductors are candidates for use in applications in resistance-switching and nonvolatile memory devices. We report the investigation of the electrical properties of individual Ag 2 S/Ag heteronanowires (HNWs) by atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a nanoscale-tip electrode. Hysteretic current-voltage (IV) curves and the polarity-dependent resistance-switching phenomenon in an individual Ag 2 S/Ag HNW were observed. A local impedance spectroscopy measurement of Ag 2 S/Ag HNWs was performed to reveal the interface-related electrical characteristics. The DC-bias-dependent impedance spectra suggested the occurrence of charge and mass transfer at the interface of the electrode/mixed conductor. It is proposed that reversible resistance switching originates from the creation and rupture of filament-like conducting pathways inside the Ag 2 S/Ag HNW

  14. Control of switching between metastable superconducting states in δ-MoN nanowires. (United States)

    Buh, Jože; Kabanov, Viktor; Baranov, Vladimir; Mrzel, Aleš; Kovič, Andrej; Mihailovic, Dragan


    The superconducting state in one-dimensional nanosystems is very delicate. While fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting wave function lead to the spontaneous decay of persistent supercurrents in thin superconducting wires and nanocircuits, discrete phase-slip fluctuations can also lead to more exotic phenomena, such as the appearance of metastable superconducting states in current-bearing wires. Here we show that switching between different metastable superconducting states in δ-MoN nanowires can be very effectively manipulated by introducing small amplitude electrical noise. Furthermore, we show that deterministic switching between metastable superconducting states with different numbers of phase-slip centres can be achieved in both directions with small electrical current pulse perturbations of appropriate polarity. The observed current-controlled bi-stability is in remarkable agreement with theoretically predicted trajectories of the system switching between different limit cycle solutions of a model one-dimensional superconductor.

  15. Modeling spot markets for electricity and pricing electricity derivatives (United States)

    Ning, Yumei

    Spot prices for electricity have been very volatile with dramatic price spikes occurring in restructured market. The task of forecasting electricity prices and managing price risk presents a new challenge for market players. The objectives of this dissertation are: (1) to develop a stochastic model of price behavior and predict price spikes; (2) to examine the effect of weather forecasts on forecasted prices; (3) to price electricity options and value generation capacity. The volatile behavior of prices can be represented by a stochastic regime-switching model. In the model, the means of the high-price and low-price regimes and the probabilities of switching from one regime to the other are specified as functions of daily peak load. The probability of switching to the high-price regime is positively related to load, but is still not high enough at the highest loads to predict price spikes accurately. An application of this model shows how the structure of the Pennsylvania-New Jersey-Maryland market changed when market-based offers were allowed, resulting in higher price spikes. An ARIMA model including temperature, seasonal, and weekly effects is estimated to forecast daily peak load. Forecasts of load under different assumptions about weather patterns are used to predict changes of price behavior given the regime-switching model of prices. Results show that the range of temperature forecasts from a normal summer to an extremely warm summer cause relatively small increases in temperature (+1.5%) and load (+3.0%). In contrast, the increases in prices are large (+20%). The conclusion is that the seasonal outlook forecasts provided by NOAA are potentially valuable for predicting prices in electricity markets. The traditional option models, based on Geometric Brownian Motion are not appropriate for electricity prices. An option model using the regime-switching framework is developed to value a European call option. The model includes volatility risk and allows changes

  16. Fuel switching in power-plants: Modelling and impact on the analysis of energy projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varympopiotis, G.; Tolis, A.; Rentizelas, A.


    Highlights: • The impact of fuel-switching in electricity generation is researched. • 15 Scenarios of fuel-technology combinations are compared using a computational model. • Fuel-switching results to higher yields compared to single-fuelled plants. • Plants with natural gas combined cycle and solid fuel supercritical boilers are optimal. • Fuel-switching, offers higher flexibility and security of fuel supply. - Abstract: In electricity markets, where conditions are uncertain, the choice of the best technology and the optimisation of production processes may not anymore be enough to ensure optimal investment yield of energy business plans. Providing some aspects of flexibility might enhance their financial performance; fuel switching may prove to be an alternative option, offering operational flexibility over time, as well as significant financial benefits. Traditional investment analysis methods are considered marginally useful to analyse this case. Instead, the recent tools of time-dependent investment analysis are more appropriate, since they are not inherently restricted to immediate, irreversible decisions. In the present work, a time-dependent computational model is presented and applied in the case study of the Greek Power Sector, in order to estimate the potential advantages of the fuel switching concept. Moreover, the optimal timing of switching is derived, to ensure increasing yields of an average-capacity power-plant. The results of the research indicate significant financial benefits anticipated in most scenarios from applying fuel switching, compared to single-fuelled electricity generation units. Security of fuel supply and enhanced flexibility may also be offered to the power plant since more than one technology and fuels may be engaged


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov


    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.



    Henry Lim; Glenn Jenkins


    The estimation of the demand for electricity is important in the appraisal of power projects because it often affects the benefits of the projects. For projects that involve a decision about the timing of investment- when to install new capacity to meet the demand- the precision of the electricity demand forecast can be critical. For others, when electric tariff policy is involved, it is essential to relate the demand for electricity with tariffs through the use of an electricity demand model...

  19. Architecture and evaluation of software-defined optical switching matrix for hybrid data centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    A software architecture is proposed for hybrid packet/optical data centers employing programmable NETCONF-enabled optical switching matrix, and a performance evaluation is presented comparing hybrid and electrical-only architectures for elephant flows under different traffic patterns. Network...

  20. Some studies on the deformation of the membrane in an RF MEMS switch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ambati, Vijaya Raghav; Asheim, Andreas; van den Berg, Jan Bouwe; van Gennip, Yves; Gerasimov, Tymofiy; Hlod, Andriy; Planqué, Bob; van der Schans, Martin; van der Stelt, Sjors; Vargas Rivera, Michelangelo; Vondenhoff, Erwin; Bokhove, Onno; Hurink, Johann; Meinsma, Gjerrit; Stolk, Chris; Vellekoop, Michel


    Radio Frequency (RF) switches of Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) are appealing to the mobile industry because of their energy efficiency and ability to accommodate more frequency bands. However, the electromechanical coupling of the electrical circuit to the mechanical components in RF MEMS

  1. Development and analysis of double U-core switched reluctance machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Simon Staal; Jæger, Rasmus; Rasmussen, Peter Omand


    The switched reluctance technology offers some distinct advantages compared to conventional electric machines, such as simple and cheap construction, robust design, fault tolerant operation and high-speed capabilities. In the last couple of decades, improvements to the conventional SRM have been...

  2. General Analysis of Vacuum Circuit Breaker Switching Overvoltages in Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghafourian, S. M.; Arana, I.; Holbøll, Joachim


    Understanding mechanisms of switching transient overvoltages in modern electrical power systems is a necessity to ensure a proper design of power plants and switchgear and the required level of reliable and secure system operation. High fidelity plant modelling and accurate transient analysis is ...

  3. A switched-reluctance motor for aerospace application: Design, analysis and results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tursini, M.; Villani, M.; Fabri, G.; Di Leonardo, L.


    This paper presents a five-phase switched reluctance motor designed to satisfy the requirements of flap actuators in medium size aircrafts, a real example of the more electric aircraft trend. In normal conditions the machine operates with two phases conducting simultaneously but it is designed to

  4. Analytical closed-form solution of three-phase four-switch PWM rectifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škramlík, Jiří; Valouch, Viktor; Klíma, J.; Pecha, I.


    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2010), s. 223-235 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA MPO FT-TA5/123 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : four-switch PWM rectifier * space vector modulation * closed-form analytical solution Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  5. Floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches: A different actuation mechanism (United States)

    Papaioannou, G.; Giacomozzi, F.; Papandreou, E.; Margesin, B.


    The paper investigates the actuation mechanism in floating electrode microelectromechanical system capacitive switches. It is demonstrated that in the pull-in state, the device operation turns from voltage to current controlled actuation. The current arises from Poole-Frenkel mechanism in the dielectric film and Fowler-Nordheim in the bridge-floating electrode air gap. The pull-out voltage seems to arise from the abrupt decrease of Fowler-Nordheim electric field intensity. This mechanism seems to be responsible for the very small difference with respect to the pull-in voltage.

  6. Current-Driven Switch-Mode Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Buhl, Niels Christian; Andersen, Michael A. E.


    The conversion of electrical energy into sound waves by electromechanical transducers is proportional to the current through the coil of the transducer. However virtually all audio power amplifiers provide a controlled voltage through the interface to the transducer. This paper is presenting...... a switch-mode audio power amplifier not only providing controlled current but also being supplied by current. This results in an output filter size reduction by a factor of 6. The implemented prototype shows decent audio performance with THD + N below 0.1 %....

  7. Non-local domain switching in ferroelectric nanostructures (United States)

    Jeong, Seuri; Kim, Kwang-Eun; Yang, Chan-Ho

    Nanoscale ferroic materials have attracted considerable interest due to their novel properties including electronic, electromachanical and magnetoelectric properties. Until now, exotic ferroelectric structures have been described theoretically such as flux-closure domains, but experimental studies for ferroelectric multi-domains in nanostructures have been a lack of research due to their large domain wall energy. In this study, we realized the radial-quadrant domain structures using strain relaxation known as flexoelectricity. Moreover, we observed that local electric polarization switching can affect distant domain regions to minimize free energy. Our findings provide basic concepts to demonstrate and understand ferroelectric nano-scale multi-domain structures.

  8. Prediction of Acoustic Noise in Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B


    Prediction of acoustic noise distribution generated by electric machines has become an integral part of design and control in noise sensitive applications. This paper presents a fast and precise acoustic noise imaging technique for switched reluctance machines (SRMs). This method is based on distribution of radial vibration in the stator frame of the SRM. Radial vibration of the stator frame, at a network of probing points, is computed using input phase current and phase voltage waveforms. Sequentially, the acceleration of the probing network will be expanded to predict full acceleration on the stator frame surface, using which acoustic noise emission caused by the stator can be calculated using the boundary element method.

  9. Contribution to high voltage matrix switches reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausenaz, Yvan


    Nowadays, power electronic equipment requirements are important, concerning performances, quality and reliability. On the other hand, costs have to be reduced in order to satisfy the market rules. To provide cheap, reliability and performances, many standard components with mass production are developed. But the construction of specific products must be considered following these two different points: in one band you can produce specific components, with delay, over-cost problems and eventuality quality and reliability problems, in the other and you can use standard components in a adapted topologies. The CEA of Pierrelatte has adopted this last technique of power electronic conception for the development of these high voltage pulsed power converters. The technique consists in using standard components and to associate them in series and in parallel. The matrix constitutes high voltage macro-switch where electrical parameters are distributed between the synchronized components. This study deals with the reliability of these structures. It brings up the high reliability aspect of MOSFETs matrix associations. Thanks to several homemade test facilities, we obtained lots of data concerning the components we use. The understanding of defects propagation mechanisms in matrix structures has allowed us to put forwards the necessity of robust drive system, adapted clamping voltage protection, and careful geometrical construction. All these reliability considerations in matrix associations have notably allowed the construction of a new matrix structure regrouping all solutions insuring reliability. Reliable and robust, this product has already reaches the industrial stage. (author) [fr

  10. Monitor For Electrical-Discharge Machining (United States)

    Burley, Richard K.


    Circuit monitors electrical-discharge-machining (EDM) process to detect and prevent abnormal arcing, which can produce unacceptable "burn" marks on workpiece. When voltage between EDM electrode and workpiece behaves in manner indicative of abnormal arcing, relay made to switch off EDM power, which remains off until operator attends to EDM setup and resets monitor.

  11. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.


    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  12. Electricity Customers (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  13. Switching model photovoltaic pumping system (United States)

    Anis, Wagdy R.; Abdul-Sadek Nour, M.

    Photovoltaic (PV) pumping systems are widely used due to their simplicity, high reliability and low cost. A directly-coupled PV pumping system is the most reliable and least-cost PV system. The d.c. motor-pump group is not, however, working at its optimum operating point. A battery buffered PV pumping system introduces a battery between the PV array and the d.c. motor-pump group to ensure that the motor-pump group is operating at its optimum point. The size of the battery storage depends on system economics. If the battery is fully charged while solar radiation is available, the battery will discharge through the load while the PV array is disconnected. Hence, a power loss takes place. To overcome the above mentioned difficulty, a switched mode PV pumping is proposed. When solar radiation is available and the battery is fully charged, the battery is disconnected and the d.c. motor-pump group is directly coupled to the PV array. To avoid excessive operating voltage for the motor, a part of the PV array is switched off to reduce the voltage. As a result, the energy loss is significantly eliminated. Detailed analysis of the proposed system shows that the discharged water increases by about 10% when compared with a conventional battery-buffered system. The system transient performance just after the switching moment shows that the system returns to a steady state in short period. The variations in the system parameters lie within 1% of the rated values.

  14. Optical bistability in electrically coupled SOA-BJT devices (United States)

    Costanzo-Caso, Pablo A.; Jin, Yiye; Gehl, Michael; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad


    A novel optical bistable device based on an electrically coupled semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and a bipolar juncture transistor (BJT) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The measured switching time is about 0.9-1.0 us, mainly limited by the electrical capacitance of the SOA and the parasitic inductance of the electrical connections. However, the effects of parasitic components can be reduced employing current electronic-photonic integration circuits (EPIC). Numerical simulations confirm that for capacitance values in tens of femtofarads switching speed can reach tens of GHz.

  15. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.


    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit has a light emitting diode which supplies light to a photo-transistor, the light being interrupted from time to time. When the photo-transistor is illuminated, current builds up and when this current reaches a predetermined value, a trigger circuit changes state. The peak output of the photo-transistor is measured and the trigger circuit is arranged to change state when the output of the device is a set proportion of the peak output, so as to allow for aging of the components. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  16. Radiation-sensitive switching circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, J.H.; Cockshott, C.P.


    A radiation-sensitive switching circuit includes a light emitting diode which from time to time illuminates a photo-transistor, the photo-transistor serving when its output reaches a predetermined value to operate a trigger circuit. In order to allow for aging of the components, the current flow through the diode is increased when the output from the transistor falls below a known level. Conveniently, this is achieved by having a transistor in parallel with the diode, and turning the transistor off when the output from the phototransistor becomes too low. The circuit is designed to control the ignition system in an automobile engine.

  17. Laser-triggered vacuum switch (United States)

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.


    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  18. A light incident angle switchable ZnO nanorod memristor: reversible switching behavior between two non-volatile memory devices. (United States)

    Park, Jinjoo; Lee, Seunghyup; Lee, Junghan; Yong, Kijung


    A light incident angle selectivity of a memory device is demonstrated. As a model system, the ZnO resistive switching device has been selected. Electrical signal is reversibly switched between memristor and resistor behaviors by modulating the light incident angle on the device. Moreover, a liquid passivation layer is introduced to achieve stable and reversible exchange between the memristor and WORM behaviors. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Threshold Switching Induced by Controllable Fragmentation in Silver Nanowire Networks. (United States)

    Wan, Tao; Pan, Ying; Du, Haiwei; Qu, Bo; Yi, Jiabao; Chu, Dewei


    Silver nanowire (Ag NW) networks have been widely studied because of a great potential in various electronic devices. However, nanowires usually undergo a fragmentation process at elevated temperatures due to the Rayleigh instability that is a result of reduction of surface/interface energy. In this case, the nanowires become completely insulating due to the formation of randomly distributed Ag particles with a large distance and further applications are hindered. Herein, we demonstrate a novel concept based on the combination of ultraviolet/ozone irradiation and a low-temperature annealing process to effectively utilize and control the fragmentation behavior to realize the resistive switching performances. In contrast to the conventional fragmentation, the designed Ag/AgO x interface facilitates a unique morphology of short nanorod-like segments or chains of tiny Ag nanoparticles with a very small spacing distance, providing conduction paths for achieving the tunneling process between the isolated fragments under the electric field. On the basis of this specific morphology, the Ag NW network has a tunable resistance and shows volatile threshold switching characteristics with a high selectivity, which is the ON/OFF current ratio in selector devices. Our concept exploits a new function of Ag NW network, i.e., resistive switching, which can be developed by designing a controllable fragmentation.

  20. 'Memristive' switches enable 'stateful' logic operations via material implication. (United States)

    Borghetti, Julien; Snider, Gregory S; Kuekes, Philip J; Yang, J Joshua; Stewart, Duncan R; Williams, R Stanley


    The authors of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors-the industry consensus set of goals established for advancing silicon integrated circuit technology-have challenged the computing research community to find new physical state variables (other than charge or voltage), new devices, and new architectures that offer memory and logic functions beyond those available with standard transistors. Recently, ultra-dense resistive memory arrays built from various two-terminal semiconductor or insulator thin film devices have been demonstrated. Among these, bipolar voltage-actuated switches have been identified as physical realizations of 'memristors' or memristive devices, combining the electrical properties of a memory element and a resistor. Such devices were first hypothesized by Chua in 1971 (ref. 15), and are characterized by one or more state variables that define the resistance of the switch depending upon its voltage history. Here we show that this family of nonlinear dynamical memory devices can also be used for logic operations: we demonstrate that they can execute material implication (IMP), which is a fundamental Boolean logic operation on two variables p and q such that pIMPq is equivalent to (NOTp)ORq. Incorporated within an appropriate circuit, memristive switches can thus perform 'stateful' logic operations for which the same devices serve simultaneously as gates (logic) and latches (memory) that use resistance instead of voltage or charge as the physical state variable.

  1. Graphene and its derivatives: switching ON and OFF. (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Gang; Zhuang, Xiaodong; Kang, En-Tang


    As the thinnest material ever known in the universe, graphene has been attracting tremendous amount of attention in both materials science and condensed-matter physics since its successful isolation a few years ago. This one-atom-thick two-dimensional pseudo-infinite nano-crystal consists of sp(2)-hybridized aromatic carbon atoms covalently packed into a continuous hexagonal lattice. Graphene exhibits a range of unique properties, viz., high three-dimensional aspect ratio and large specific surface area, superior mechanical stiffness and flexibility, remarkable optical transmittance, extraordinary thermal response and excellent electronic transport properties, promising its applications in the next generation electronics. To switch graphene and its derivatives between ON and OFF states in nanoelectronic memory devices, various techniques have been developed to manipulate the carbon atomic sheets via introducing the valence-conduction bandgap and to enhance their processability. In this article, we review the utilization of electrically, thermally and chemically modified graphene and its polymer-functionalized derivatives for switching and information storage applications. The challenges posed on the development of novel graphene materials and further enhancements of the device switching performance have also been discussed.

  2. MEMS switches having non-metallic crossbeams (United States)

    Scardelletti, Maximillian C (Inventor)


    A RF MEMS switch comprising a crossbeam of SiC, supported by at least one leg above a substrate and above a plurality of transmission lines forming a CPW. Bias is provided by at least one layer of metal disposed on a top surface of the SiC crossbeam, such as a layer of chromium followed by a layer of gold, and extending beyond the switch to a biasing pad on the substrate. The switch utilizes stress and conductivity-controlled non-metallic thin cantilevers or bridges, thereby improving the RF characteristics and operational reliability of the switch. The switch can be fabricated with conventional silicon integrated circuit (IC) processing techniques. The design of the switch is very versatile and can be implemented in many transmission line mediums.

  3. On formalism and stability of switched systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, John-Josef; Wisniewski, Rafal


    In this paper, we formulate a uniform mathematical framework for studying switched systems with piecewise linear partitioned state space and state dependent switching. Based on known results from the theory of differential inclusions, we devise a Lyapunov stability theorem suitable for this class...... of switched systems. With this, we prove a Lyapunov stability theorem for piecewise linear switched systems by means of a concrete class of Lyapunov functions. Contrary to existing results on the subject, the stability theorems in this paper include Filippov (or relaxed) solutions and allow infinite switching...... in finite time. Finally, we show that for a class of piecewise linear switched systems, the inertia of the system is not sufficient to determine its stability. A number of examples are provided to illustrate the concepts discussed in this paper....

  4. Galvanotactic behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis under electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dal Hyung; Kim, Paul Seung Soo; Kim, Min Jun; Lee, Kyoungwoo; Kim, JinSeok


    Tetrahymena pyriformis, a eukaryotic ciliate, swims toward a cathode in straight or cross-shaped microchannels under an applied electric field, a behavioral response called cathodal galvanotaxis. In straight channel experiments, a one-dimensional electric field was applied, and the galvanotactic swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis was observed and described in detail while the polarity of this field is switched. In most individual cases, the cell would immediately switch its direction toward the cathode; however, exceptional cases have been observed where cells exhibit a turning delay or do not turn after a polarity switch. In cross-channel experiments, feedback control using vision-based tracking was used to steer a cell in the microchannel intersection using a two-dimensional electric field generated by four electrodes placed at four ends of the cross channel. The motivation for this work is to study the swimming behavior of Tetrahymena pyriformis as a microrobot under the control of electric fields. (paper)

  5. Switching control of an R/C hovercraft: stabilization and smooth switching. (United States)

    Tanaka, K; Iwasaki, M; Wang, H O


    This paper presents stable switching control of an radio-controlled (R/C) hovercraft that is a nonholonomic (nonlinear) system. To exactly represent its nonlinear dynamics, more importantly, to maintain controllability of the system, we newly propose a switching fuzzy model that has locally Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy models and switches them according to states, external variables, and/or time. A switching fuzzy controller is constructed by mirroring the rule structure of the switching fuzzy model of an R/C hovercraft. We derive linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions for ensuring the stability of the closed-loop system consisting of a switching fuzzy model and controller. Furthermore, to guarantee smooth switching of control input at switching boundaries, we also derive a smooth switching condition represented in terms of LMIs. A stable switching fuzzy controller satisfying the smooth switching condition is designed by simultaneously solving both of the LMIs. The simulation and experimental results for the trajectory control of an R/C hovercraft show the validity of the switching fuzzy model and controller design, particularly, the smooth switching condition.

  6. Design and Advanced Control of Switched Reluctance Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    The introduction of mainly power electronics and cheap micro computers have made the Switched Reluctance Machine (SRM), which is in focus in this thesis, a feasible alternative to traditional electrical machines like the induction- and DC-motor which have been the dominating electrical machines...... sensorless method is also analyzed in details both theoretically and in practice on the GPCS. With an implementation on a specific SRM with a speed controller the motor was still operating sensorless at a minimum speed of around 500 rpm. To operate the SRMs in an efficient way the settings of commutation...... strategies to set the commutation angles are also proposed. The developed optimization tools are also used in dynamometer test where the performance of three practical SRMs have been mapped with special attention to the efficiency. One of the three tested motors has dimensions and ratings quite similar...

  7. Optical Multidimensional Switching for Data Center Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamchevska, Valerija


    , the limitations of previously proposed optical subwavelength switching technologies are discussed and a novel concept of optical time division multiplexed switching is proposed. A detailed elaboration of the envisioned scheme is given, with a special focus on the problem of synchronization. A novel...... synchronization algorithm for the Hi-Ring architecture is proposed and experimentally validated. Furthermore, software controlled switching in the data plane is experimentally demonstrated when the proposed algorithm is used for synchronization. Finally, integration is discussed from two different perspectives...

  8. Monitoring Mellanox Infiniband SX6036 switches

    CERN Document Server

    Agapiou, Marinos


    The SX6036 switches addressed by my project, are part of a fully non-blocking fat-tree cluster consisting of 72 servers and 6 Mellanox SX6036 Infiniband switches. My project is about retrieving the appropriate metrics from the Infiniband switch cluster, ingesting the data to Collectd and after my data are being transfered to CERN Database, they are being visualized via Grafana Dashboards.

  9. The Ultrathin Limit and Dead-layer Effects in Local Polarization Switching of BiFeO3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymovych, Petro [ORNL; Huijben, Mark [University of Twente, Netherlands; Pan, Minghu [ORNL; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Balke, Nina [ORNL; Chang, Hye Jung [ORNL; Borisevich, Albina Y [ORNL; Baddorf, Arthur P [ORNL; Rijnders, Guus [MESA+ University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands; Blank, Dave H. A. [University of Twente, Netherlands; Ramesh, R. [University of California, Berkeley; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL


    Using piezoresponse force microscopy in ultra-high vacuum, polarization switching has been detected and quantified in epitaxial BiFeO3 films from 200 down to ~ 4 unit cells. Local remnant piezoresponse was used to infer the applied electric field inside the ferroelectric volume, and account for the elusive effect of dead-layers in ultrathin films. The dead-layer manifested itself in the slower than anticipated decrease of the switching bias with film thickness, yielding apparent Kay-Dunn scaling of the switching field, while the statistical analysis of hysteresis loops revealed lateral variation of the dead-layer with sub-10 nm resolution.

  10. Electrical breakdown of water in microgaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbach, Karl; Kolb, Juergen; Xiao Shu; Katsuki, Sunao; Minamitani, Yasushi; Joshi, Ravindra


    Experimental and modeling studies on electrical breakdown in water in submillimeter gaps between pin and plane electrodes have been performed. Prebreakdown, breakdown and recovery of the water gaps were studied experimentally by using optical and electrical diagnostics with a temporal resolution on the order of one nanosecond. By using Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the electric field distribution in the prebreakdown phase was determined by means of the Kerr effect. Electric fields values in excess of the computed electric fields, which reach >4 MV cm -1 for applied electrical pulses of 20 ns duration, were recorded at the tip of the pin electrode, an effect which can be explained by a reduced permittivity of water at high electric fields. Breakdown of the gaps, streamer-to-arc transition, was recorded by means of high-speed electrical diagnostics, and through high-speed photography. It was shown, through simulations, that breakdown is initiated by field emission at the interface of preexisting microbubbles. Impact ionization within the micro-bubble's gas then contributes to plasma development. Experiments using pulse-probe methods and Schlieren diagnostics allowed us to follow the development of the disturbance caused by the breakdown over a time of more than milliseconds and to determine the recovery time of a water switch. In order to trigger water switches a trigger electrode with a triple point has been utilized. The results of this research have found application in the construction of compact pulse power generators for bioelectric applications.

  11. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael


    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  12. Atomic crystals resistive switching memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunsen; Zhang David Wei; Zhou Peng


    Facing the growing data storage and computing demands, a high accessing speed memory with low power and non-volatile character is urgently needed. Resistive access random memory with 4F 2 cell size, switching in sub-nanosecond, cycling endurances of over 10 12 cycles, and information retention exceeding 10 years, is considered as promising next-generation non-volatile memory. However, the energy per bit is still too high to compete against static random access memory and dynamic random access memory. The sneak leakage path and metal film sheet resistance issues hinder the further scaling down. The variation of resistance between different devices and even various cycles in the same device, hold resistive access random memory back from commercialization. The emerging of atomic crystals, possessing fine interface without dangling bonds in low dimension, can provide atomic level solutions for the obsessional issues. Moreover, the unique properties of atomic crystals also enable new type resistive switching memories, which provide a brand-new direction for the resistive access random memory. (topical reviews)

  13. The increased importance of sector switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Anders; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg


    Sector switching is an important phenomenon that casts light on public–private differences. Yet our knowledge about its prevalence and trends is limited. We study sector switching using unique Danish register-based employer–employee data covering more than 25 years. We find that sector switching...... constitutes 18.5% of all job-to-job mobility, and the trend is increasing both from public to private and from private to public. Sector switching is also generally increasing for middle managers, but for administrative professionals only the flows from private to public increase and for top managers only...

  14. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.


    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  15. Heat switch technology for cryogenic thermal management (United States)

    Shu, Q. S.; Demko, J. A.; E Fesmire, J.


    Systematic review is given of development of novel heat switches at cryogenic temperatures that alternatively provide high thermal connection or ideal thermal isolation to the cold mass. These cryogenic heat switches are widely applied in a variety of unique superconducting systems and critical space applications. The following types of heat switch devices are discussed: 1) magnetic levitation suspension, 2) shape memory alloys, 3) differential thermal expansion, 4) helium or hydrogen gap-gap, 5) superconducting, 6) piezoelectric, 7) cryogenic diode, 8) magneto-resistive, and 9) mechanical demountable connections. Advantages and limitations of different cryogenic heat switches are examined along with the outlook for future thermal management solutions in materials and cryogenic designs.

  16. Mechanism of single atom switch on silicon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quaade, Ulrich; Stokbro, Kurt; Thirstrup, C.


    We demonstrate single atom switch on silicon which operates by displacement of a hydrogen atom on the silicon (100) surface at room temperature. We find two principal effects by which the switch is controlled: a pronounced maximum of the switching probability as function of sample bias...... and a preferred direction of switching as function of STM tip position. Based on first principles calculations, are show that this behaviour is due to a novel mechanism involving an electronic excitation of a localized surface resonance. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  17. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper


    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  18. Selective control of multiple ferroelectric switching pathways using a trailing flexoelectric field. (United States)

    Park, Sung Min; Wang, Bo; Das, Saikat; Chae, Seung Chul; Chung, Jin-Seok; Yoon, Jong-Gul; Chen, Long-Qing; Yang, Sang Mo; Noh, Tae Won


    Flexoelectricity is an electromechanical coupling between electrical polarization and a strain gradient 1 that enables mechanical manipulation of polarization without applying an electrical bias 2,3 . Recently, flexoelectricity was directly demonstrated by mechanically switching the out-of-plane polarization of a uniaxial system with a scanning probe microscope tip 3,4 . However, the successful application of flexoelectricity in low-symmetry multiaxial ferroelectrics and therefore active manipulation of multiple domains via flexoelectricity have not yet been achieved. Here, we demonstrate that the symmetry-breaking flexoelectricity offers a powerful route for the selective control of multiple domain switching pathways in multiaxial ferroelectric materials. Specifically, we use a trailing flexoelectric field that is created by the motion of a mechanically loaded scanning probe microscope tip. By controlling the SPM scan direction, we can deterministically select either stable 71° ferroelastic switching or 180° ferroelectric switching in a multiferroic magnetoelectric BiFeO 3 thin film. Phase-field simulations reveal that the amplified in-plane trailing flexoelectric field is essential for this domain engineering. Moreover, we show that mechanically switched domains have a good retention property. This work opens a new avenue for the deterministic selection of nanoscale ferroelectric domains in low-symmetry materials for non-volatile magnetoelectric devices and multilevel data storage.

  19. Electro-optical switching of liquid crystals of graphene oxide (United States)

    Song, Jang-Kun

    Electric field effects on aqueous graphene-oxide (GO) dispersions are reviewed in this chapter. In isotropic and biphasic regimes of GO dispersions, in which the inter-particle friction is low, GO particles sensitively respond to the application of electric field, producing field-induced optical birefringence. The electro-optical sensitivity dramatically decreases as the phase transits to the nematic phase; the increasing inter-particle friction hinders the rotational switching of GO particles. The corresponding Kerr coefficient reaches the maximum near the isotropic to biphasic transition concentration, at which the Kerr coefficient is found be c.a. 1:8 · 10-5 mV-2, the highest value ever reported in all Kerr materials. The exceptionally large Kerr effect arises from the Maxwell- Wagner polarization of GO particles with an extremely large aspect ratio and a thick electrical double layer (EDL). The polarization sensitively depends on the ratio of surface and bulk conductivities in dispersions. As a result, low ion concentration in bulk solvent is highly required to achieve a quality electro-optical switching in GO dispersions. Spontaneous vinylogous carboxylic reaction in GO particles produces H+ ions, resulting in spontaneous degradation of electro-optical response with time, hence the removal of residual ions by using a centrifuge cleaning process significantly improves the electro-optical sensitivity. GO particle size is another important parameter for the Kerr coefficient and the response time. The best performance is observed in a GO dispersion with c.a. 0.5 μm mean size. Dielectrophoretic migration of GO particles can be also used to manipulate GO particles in solution. Using these unique features of GO dispersions, one can fabricate GO liquid crystal devices similar to conventional liquid crystal displays; the large Kerr effect allows fabricating a low power device working at extremely low electric fields.

  20. Millimeter wave p—i—n-diode switching controlled devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karushkin N. F.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research and development of concentrated type p—i—n-diodes switches providing the switching time units of nanoseconds. To increase lock losses of (~40 dB the authors use a cascade connection of diodes into waveguide and microstrip transmission line of θ = π/2 electric length. Investigation results of creation of switching devices using longitudinally and transversely-distributed p—i—n-structures in the shortwave part of the millimeter wavelength range (f = 300 GHz are presented. When developing switching devices intended to control the level of microwave power in the millimeter wavelength range, a number of special features arise limiting the achievement of optimal parameters. The dimensions of the metal ceramic packaged p—i—n-diodes and the mounting elements of semiconductor structures become comparable with the wavelength. As a result, package cannot be considered in the calculations and in the design as the capacity of the concentrated type. In our case the diode package is considered in the form of radial line which is able to transform the input impedance of the transmission line to the terminals of the diode structures, and realize high-impedance state (parallel resonance in the device circuit in the mode of microwave power transmission. Engineering calculations for the given parameters of the silicon mesostructures showed the possibility of creating high-speed devices for switching microwave power with good characteristics. For diode assembling industrial clockwork ruby jewels with high quality of surface finish, strength and appropriate dimensions are applied as dielectric bushings. Suffice it to say that in the frequency range of 150 GHz, we used the bushings with dimensions of external diameter D = 0.4 mm and a height of h = 0.15 mm. The switches created provide transient units of nanoseconds, isolation more than 40 dB at relative frequency bandwidth of 30-40%. Evaluating progress in the

  1. Switching of a spin-spiral-induced polarization in multiferroic MnWO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Tim; Meier, Dennis; Fiebig, Manfred [HISKP, Universitaet Bonn (Germany); Becker-Bohaty, Petra; Bohaty, Ladislav [Institut fuer Kristallographie, Universitaet zu Koeln (Germany)


    Coexisting ferroic orders become interesting when there is an interaction between them. Especially applying an electric field and thus changing the magnetic order is highly desirable for possible applications. In spite of the declared interest in multiferroics to switch a magnetization by an electric field nothing is known about the dynamics of the actual switching process. The coupling of ferroelectric and magnetic order is intrinsically strong in spin-spiral multiferroics, where ferroelectricity emerges as a consequence of complex magnetic long-range order. Here we observe the manipulation of magnetically-induced ferroelectric domains in MnWO{sub 4} by optical second harmonic generation (SHG). Application of an electric field allows to transform the sample to an electric as well as magnetic single-domain state. Moreover we obtained images of the domain structures during the transition revealing the growth of the domains. When cooled in zero-field, the domains have a bubble-like topology. Interestingly, after recovery from a single domain state the shape changes to a stripe structure and the domain size is significantly increased. Effects of the shape and duration of the electric-field poling pulses are investigated. Furthermore, in contrast to typical ionic ferroelectrics the spontaneous polarization can be switched without fatigue - no defects or pinning effects constrain the movement of domain walls.

  2. N-state random switching based on quantum tunnelling (United States)

    Bernardo Gavito, Ramón; Jiménez Urbanos, Fernando; Roberts, Jonathan; Sexton, James; Astbury, Benjamin; Shokeir, Hamzah; McGrath, Thomas; Noori, Yasir J.; Woodhead, Christopher S.; Missous, Mohamed; Roedig, Utz; Young, Robert J.


    In this work, we show how the hysteretic behaviour of resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) can be exploited for new functionalities. In particular, the RTDs exhibit a stochastic 2-state switching mechanism that could be useful for random number generation and cryptographic applications. This behaviour can be scaled to N-bit switching, by connecting various RTDs in series. The InGaAs/AlAs RTDs used in our experiments display very sharp negative differential resistance (NDR) peaks at room temperature which show hysteresis cycles that, rather than having a fixed switching threshold, show a probability distribution about a central value. We propose to use this intrinsic uncertainty emerging from the quantum nature of the RTDs as a source of randomness. We show that a combination of two RTDs in series results in devices with three-state outputs and discuss the possibility of scaling to N-state devices by subsequent series connections of RTDs, which we demonstrate for the up to the 4-state case. In this work, we suggest using that the intrinsic uncertainty in the conduction paths of resonant tunnelling diodes can behave as a source of randomness that can be integrated into current electronics to produce on-chip true random number generators. The N-shaped I-V characteristic of RTDs results in a two-level random voltage output when driven with current pulse trains. Electrical characterisation and randomness testing of the devices was conducted in order to determine the validity of the true randomness assumption. Based on the results obtained for the single RTD case, we suggest the possibility of using multi-well devices to generate N-state random switching devices for their use in random number generation or multi-valued logic devices.

  3. Polarization control of high transmission/reflection switching by all-dielectric metasurfaces (United States)

    Shibanuma, Toshihiko; Maier, Stefan A.; Albella, Pablo


    Metasurfaces built of high refractive dielectric nanostructures could play a key role in controlling the electromagnetic wave propagation, due to their low energy losses and their ability to excite not only electric but also magnetic resonances. In this study, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate that an array of high-index dielectric nanodimers can perform as tuneable metasurfaces that can be switched from a high transmitter to a high reflector, by just changing the linear polarization of excitation. The incident polarization alters the hybridization mode of the excited electric and magnetic dipoles in the dimer, and this leads to either spectral overlap or separation of the two dipoles. The hybridization of the electric and magnetic modes modifies the effective permittivity and permeability of the tuneable dielectric metasurface, exhibiting the high transmission and reflection that can be easily switched by simply changing the linear polarization.

  4. Formation of failure matrix and failure-free control algorithm for multi-sectioned Switched-reluctance drive (United States)

    Odnokopylov, G.; Rozayev, I.


    We review fault-tolerant switched reluctance drive with sectioning of the three-phase stator winding. In the operating process of an electric drive, there will be continuous monitoring of the operating state on the basis of a developed algorithm to analyse drive operability and formation tabulate a failure matrix. The paper introduces a failure-free control algorithm for multi-section switch - reluctance motor with formation the assignment values of amplitude phase currents taking into account the failure matrix. We show that in an emergency such single failure or multiple failure in switched-reluctance drive it is possible to provide reduction of torque fall and pro-gressively stock depletion with providing fault-tolerance of drive system. A method of residual life evaluation is proposed on the basis of calculating the coefficient of operability of the electric drive system that gives possibility to control the endurance of electric drive in real time from operational to completely unusable.

  5. Low carbon electricity systems. Methodology and results for the EU (European Union)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmelink, M.; Graus, W.; Blok, K.; Voogt, M.


    As background information for its new POWER SWITCH! campaign in the electricity sector WWF (World Wildlife Fund) commissioned Ecofys to determine the possibilities for achieving carbon neutral electricity production. This report discusses the methodology used to determine the possibilities for a low carbon electricity future (the Power Switch scenario) and presents the results for the European Union. In a four-step methodology emission reduction options are determined for a broad range of saving options, both to save electricity demand and to lower the carbon content of electricity production. All emission reductions are analysed against a Business-As-Usual (BAU-scenario)

  6. Integrated optical buffers for packet-switched networks (United States)

    Burmeister, Emily Frances

    Routers form the backbone of the Internet, directing data to the right locations with huge throughput capacity of terabits/second) and very few errors (1 error allowed in 1012 bits). However, as the Internet continues to grow rapidly, so must the capacity of electronic routers, thereby also growing in footprint and power consumption. The energy bill alone has developers looking for an alternate solution. Today's routers can only operate with electrical signals although Internet data is transmitted optically. This requires the data to be converted from the optical domain to the electrical domain and back again. Optical routers have the potential of saving in power by omitting these conversions, but have been held back in part by the lack of a practical optical memory device. This work presents the first integrated optical buffer for next generation optical packet-switched networks. Buffering is required in a router to move packets of data in order to avoid collisions between packets heading to the same destination at the same time. The device presented here uses an InP-based two-by-two switch with a silica waveguide delay to form a recirculating buffer. Packet storage was shown with 98% packet recovery for 5 circulations. Autonomous contention resolution was demonstrated with two buffered channels to show that the technology is a realistic solution for creating multiple element buffers on multiple router ports. This thesis proposes and demonstrates the first integrated optical random access memory, thereby making a great stride toward high capacity optical routers.

  7. Micro optical fiber display switch based on the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principle (United States)

    Lian, Kun; Heng, Khee-Hang


    This paper reports on a research effort to design, microfabricate and test an optical fiber display switch based on magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) principal. The switch is driven by the Lorentz force and can be used to turn on/off the light. The SU-8 photoresist and UV light source were used for prototype fabrication in order to lower the cost. With a magnetic field supplied by an external permanent magnet, and a plus electrical current supplied across the two inert sidewall electrodes, the distributed body force generated will produce a pressure difference on the fluid mercury in the switch chamber. By change the direction of current flow, the mercury can turn on or cut off the light pass in less than 10 ms. The major advantages of a MHD-based micro-switch are that it does not contain any solid moving parts and power consumption is much smaller comparing to the relay type switches. This switch can be manufactured by molding gin batch production and may have potential applications in extremely bright traffic control,, high intensity advertising display, and communication.

  8. Azo biphenyl polyurethane: Preparation, characterization and application for optical waveguide switch (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Da, Zulin; Qiu, Fengxian; Yang, Dongya; Guan, Yijun; Cao, Guorong


    Azo waveguide polymers are of particular interest in the design of materials for applications in optical switch. The aim of this contribution was the synthesis and thermo-optic waveguide switch properties of azo biphenyl polyurethanes. A series of monomers and azo biphenyl polyurethanes (Azo BPU1 and Azo BPU2) were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis spectroscopy and 1H NMR. The physical and mechanical properties of thin polymer films were measured. The refractive index and thermo-optic coefficient (dn/dT) of polymer films were investigated for TE (transversal electric) polarizations by ATR technique. The transmission loss of film was measured using the Charge Coupled Device digital imaging devices. The results showed the Azo BPU2 containing chiral azobenzene chromophore had higher dn/dT and lower transmission loss. Subsequently, a 1 × 2 Y-branch and 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the prepared polymers were designed and simulated. The results showed that the power consumption of all switches was less than 1.0 mW. Compared with 1 × 2 Y-branch optical switch, the 2 × 2 Mach-Zehnder optical switches based on the same polymer have the faster response time, which were about only 1.2 and 2.0 ms, respectively.

  9. Three-tier multi-granularity switching system based on PCE (United States)

    Wang, Yubao; Sun, Hao; Liu, Yanfei


    With the growing demand for business communications, electrical signal processing optical path switching can't meet the demand. The multi-granularity switch system that can improve node routing and switching capabilities came into being. In the traditional network, each node is responsible for calculating the path; synchronize the whole network state, which will increase the burden on the network, so the concept of path calculation element (PCE) is proposed. The PCE is responsible for routing and allocating resources in the network1. In the traditional band-switched optical network, the wavelength is used as the basic routing unit, resulting in relatively low wavelength utilization. Due to the limitation of wavelength continuity, the routing design of the band technology becomes complicated, which directly affects the utilization of the system. In this paper, optical code granularity is adopted. There is no continuity of the optical code, and the number of optical codes is more flexible than the wavelength. For the introduction of optical code switching, we propose a Code Group Routing Entity (CGRE) algorithm. In short, the combination of three-tier multi-granularity optical switching system and PCE can simplify the network structure, reduce the node load, and enhance the network scalability and survivability. Realize the intelligentization of optical network.

  10. The dissimilar resistive switching properties in ZnO-Co and ZnO films (United States)

    Li, Xiaoli; Shi, Yana; Li, Jie; Bai, Yuhao; Jia, Juan; Li, Yanchun; Xu, Xiaohong


    Nanostructured ZnO-Co and ZnO films with Pt, Cu, and Co as top electrodes, and Pt as bottom electrodes were grown by magnetron sputtering. Both ZnO-Co and ZnO films show bipolar resistive switching characteristics. The resistive switching properties of ZnO films are strongly dependent on the top electrode materials. The effect of top electrodes on resistive switching of ZnO-Co films is weakened due to the dominant roles of Co particles in the films. It is different with ZnO films that the ZnO-Co film shows a forming-free process. The calculation from the classical electromagnetism theory indicates that the existence of Co nanoparticles in the ZnO switching matrix can enhance the local electrical field to some extent, and decrease the operating voltages. So the device with a ZnO-Co film as a switching matrix can significantly reduce power consumption, weaken the dependence of the electrode materials, and optimize the resistive switching performance.

  11. 49 CFR 236.6 - Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller. (United States)


    ... controller. 236.6 Section 236.6 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued... switch circuit controller. Hand-operated switch equipped with switch circuit controller connected to the point, or with facing-point lock and circuit controller, shall be so maintained that when point is open...

  12. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  13. Compliance current dependence of conversion between bipolar, unipolar, and threshold resistance switching in Mn3O4 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuxiang Wu


    Full Text Available We report deterministic conversion between bipolar, unipolar and threshold resistance switching in Pt/Mn3O4/Pt memory devices via tuning compliance current. The conversion between bipolar and unipolar switching is reversible, while that between memory switching and threshold switching is irreversible. The nonvolatile bipolar resistance switching behaviors could be attributed to modification of Schottky barrier at Pt/Mn3O4 interface due to the migration of positively charged oxygen vacancies. With the increase of current, the incomplete filament formed in the set operation of bipolar switching could continue to grow and until completely form. The subsequent rupture and formation of filament consisting of oxygen vacancies under electric field are responsible for the unipolar resistance switching. Further increase of compliance current causes the volatile threshold switching behavior in the Pt/Mn3O4/Pt devices, which could be originated from formation and rupture of filament consisting of Mn ions due to the high Joule heat generated by large current.

  14. Characteristics of multilevel storage and switching dynamics in resistive switching cell of Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 sandwich structure (United States)

    Liu, Jian; Yang, Huafeng; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji; Zhang, Xinxin; Huang, Xinfan; Oda, Shunri


    We reported an Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 sandwich structure resistive switching device with significant improvement of multilevel cell (MLC) operation capability, which exhibited that four stable and distinct resistance states (one low resistance state and three high resistance states) can be achieved by controlling the Reset stop voltages (V Reset-stop) during the Reset operation. The improved MLC operation capability can be attributed to the R HRS/R LRS ratio enhancement resulting from increasing of the series resistance and decreasing of leakage current by inserting two Al2O3 layers. For the high-speed switching applications, we studied the initial switching dynamics by using the measurements of the pulse width and amplitude dependence of Set and Reset switching characteristics. The results showed that under the same pulse amplitude conditions, the initial Set progress is faster than the initial Reset progress, which can be explained by thermal-assisted electric field induced rupture model in the oxygen vacancies conductive filament. Thus, proper combination of varying pulse amplitude and width can help us to optimize the device operation parameters. Moreover, the device demonstrated ultrafast program/erase speed (10 ns) and good pulse switching endurance (105 cycles) characteristics, which are suitable for high-density and fast-speed nonvolatile memory applications.

  15. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P


    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Yevdoshenko


    Full Text Available Operation of two designs of compact multigap dischargers has been investigated in a high-frequency switching mode. It is experimentally revealed that the rational length of single discharge gaps in the designs is 0.3 mm, and the maximum switching frequency is 27000 discharges per second under long-term stable operation of the dischargers. It is shown that in pulsed corona discharge reactors, the pulse front sharpening results in increasing the operating electric field strength by 1.3 – 1.8 times.

  17. Study on Resistive Switching Property of Ti Doped Novel NiO Thin Films (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhao, G. Y.; Kou, Z. B.; Liu, J. C.; Zhu, R.


    Ti doped nickel oxide thin films have been fabricated by sol-gel dip-coating process using nickel acetate and tetrabutyl titanate as source materials. The effect of the amount of Ti dopant on the surface roughness, optical, chemical state and electrical properties of NiO: Ti thin films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Uv-vis spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and I-V measurement, respectively. Results show that the Ti doping is an effective ways to improve the resistive switching behaviors and it is a convenient way to understand the mechanism of the resistive switching behaviors.

  18. Switching CdSe quantum dot luminescence with a-Si:H. (United States)

    Di Vece, M; van Duren, S N F; van den Heuvel, D J; Mitoraj, D; Kuang, Y; Gerritsen, H C; Schropp, R E I


    Dynamical control of the luminescence of quantum dots is highly important for technology in the field of telecommunication, displays, and photovoltaics. In this work we use an a-Si:H solar cell structure in which CdSe quantum dots are sandwiched. By applying a positive potential over the device, charge carriers generated in the quantum dots are transported to the a-Si:H layer and transformed into electrical energy, changing the luminescence intensity with a switching time lower than 60 ms. This is a promising new step towards using quantum dots in optical switching devices.

  19. Charge-trap flash memory using zirconium-nitride-based memristor switches (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Dong; Kim, Kyeong Heon; An, Ho-Myoung; Kim, Tae Geun


    Charge-trap flash (CTF) memory using a zirconium nitride (ZrN)-based memristor switch (MRS) is demonstrated for next-generation nonvolatile memory. This device consists of a metal/MRS/nitride/oxide/silicon (M/MRS/N/O/S) structure so that electrical transport via the ZrN-based MRS layer can be utilized. Compared to previous oxide materials used as conduction paths, the proposed CTF device with a ZrN-based MRS exhibits a faster program/erase switching speed (20 ns/7 ns), along with comparable endurance and retention properties.

  20. Intrinsic Resistance Switching in Amorphous Silicon Suboxides: The Role of Columnar Microstructure. (United States)

    Munde, M S; Mehonic, A; Ng, W H; Buckwell, M; Montesi, L; Bosman, M; Shluger, A L; Kenyon, A J


    We studied intrinsic resistance switching behaviour in sputter-deposited amorphous silicon suboxide (a-SiO x ) films with varying degrees of roughness at the oxide-electrode interface. By combining electrical probing measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), we observe that devices with rougher oxide-electrode interfaces exhibit lower electroforming voltages and more reliable switching behaviour. We show that rougher interfaces are consistent with enhanced columnar microstructure in the oxide layer. Our results suggest that columnar microstructure in the oxide will be a key factor to consider for the optimization of future SiOx-based resistance random access memory.

  1. Advanced electrical power system technology for the all electric aircraft (United States)

    Finke, R. C.; Sundberg, G. R.


    The application of advanced electric power system technology to an all electric airplane results in an estimated reduction of the total takeoff gross weight of over 23,000 pounds for a large airplane. This will result in a 5 to 10 percent reduction in direct operating costs (DOC). Critical to this savings is the basic electrical power system component technology. These advanced electrical power components will provide a solid foundation for the materials, devices, circuits, and subsystems needed to satisfy the unique requirements of advanced all electric aircraft power systems. The program for the development of advanced electrical power component technology is described. The program is divided into five generic areas: semiconductor devices (transistors, thyristors, and diodes); conductors (materials and transmission lines); dielectrics; magnetic devices; and load management devices. Examples of progress in each of the five areas are discussed. Bipolar power transistors up to 1000 V at 100 A with a gain of 10 and a 0.5 microsec rise and fall time are presented. A class of semiconductor devices with a possibility of switching up to 100 kV is described. Solid state power controllers for load management at 120 to 1000 V and power levels to 25 kW were developed along with a 25 kW, 20 kHz transformer weighing only 3.2 kg. Previously announced in STAR as N83-24764

  2. Superconducting switch and amplifier device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, S.M.


    An amplifying or switching superconductive device is described whose current-voltage characteristic is drastically altered by heavy injection of excess energetic quasi-particles. In this device, the superconducting bandgap of a superconducting layer is greatly altered by overinjection of energetic quasi-particles so that the bandgap changes greatly with respect to its thermal equilibrium value, and in most cases is made to vanish. In a preferred embodiment, a three electrode device is fabricated where at least one of the electrodes is a superconductor. Tunnel barriers are located between the electrodes. A first tunnel junction is used to heavily inject energetic quasi-particles into the superconducting electrode to change its superconducting bandgap drastically. In turn, this greatly modifies the currentvoltage characteristics of the second tunnel junction. This device can be used to provide logic circuits, or as an amplifier, and has an output sufficiently large that it can drive other similar devices

  3. Unity power factor switching regulator (United States)

    Rippel, Wally E. (Inventor)


    A single or multiphase boost chopper regulator operating with unity power factor, for use such as to charge a battery is comprised of a power section for converting single or multiphase line energy into recharge energy including a rectifier (10), one inductor (L.sub.1) and one chopper (Q.sub.1) for each chopper phase for presenting a load (battery) with a current output, and duty cycle control means (16) for each chopper to control the average inductor current over each period of the chopper, and a sensing and control section including means (20) for sensing at least one load parameter, means (22) for producing a current command signal as a function of said parameter, means (26) for producing a feedback signal as a function of said current command signal and the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, means (28) for sensing current through said inductor, means (18) for comparing said feedback signal with said sensed current to produce, in response to a difference, a control signal applied to the duty cycle control means, whereby the average inductor current is proportionate to the average rectifier voltage output over each period of the chopper, and instantaneous line current is thereby maintained proportionate to the instantaneous line voltage, thus achieving a unity power factor. The boost chopper is comprised of a plurality of converters connected in parallel and operated in staggered phase. For optimal harmonic suppression, the duty cycles of the switching converters are evenly spaced, and by negative coupling between pairs out-of-phase, peak currents through the switches can be reduced while reducing the inductor size and mass.

  4. Modelling switching power converters as complementarity systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, Mehmet; Iannelli, Luigi; Vasca, Francesco


    Switched complementarity models of linear circuits with ideal diodes and/or ideal switches allow one to study well-posedness and stability issues for these circuits by employing the complementarity problems of the mathematical programming. In this paper, we demonstrate that other types of typical

  5. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.


    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  6. Tutorial: Integrated-photonic switching structures (United States)

    Soref, Richard


    Recent developments in waveguided 2 × 2 and N × M photonic switches are reviewed, including both broadband and narrowband resonant devices for the Si, InP, and AlN platforms. Practical actuation of switches by electro-optical and thermo-optical techniques is discussed. Present datacom-and-computing applications are reviewed, and potential applications are proposed for chip-scale photonic and optoelectronic integrated switching networks. Potential is found in the reconfigurable, programmable "mesh" switches that enable a promising group of applications in new areas beyond those in data centers and cloud servers. Many important matrix switches use gated semiconductor optical amplifiers. The family of broadband, directional-coupler 2 × 2 switches featuring two or three side-coupled waveguides deserves future experimentation, including devices that employ phase-change materials. The newer 2 × 2 resonant switches include standing-wave resonators, different from the micro-ring traveling-wave resonators. The resonant devices comprise nanobeam interferometers, complex-Bragg interferometers, and asymmetric contra-directional couplers. Although the fast, resonant devices offer ultralow switching energy, ˜1 fJ/bit, they have limitations. They require several trade-offs when deployed, but they do have practical application.

  7. Internal Backpressure for Terabit Switch Fabrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Anna Manolova; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Rytlig, Andreas


    This paper proposes and analyzes the efficiency of novel backpressure schemes for Terabit switch fabrics. The proposed schemes aim at buffer optimization under uniform traffic distribution with Bernoulli packet arrival process. Results show that a reduction of the needed maximum buffer capacity w...... with up to 47% can be achieved with switch-internal backpressure mechanisms at the expense of a small control overhead....

  8. Ice-release coating for disconnect switches (United States)

    Mundon, J. L.


    Several coatings for ice release, heat dissipation, thermal cycling, and outdoor weathering properties were evaluated. The coating having the most desired performance were applied to full scale switch components. The full scale switches were tested for ice performance and heat dissipation and the results were compared with those on identical switches with uncoated components. The coating chosen for application to switch components was installed on several switches for field evaluation during the winter of 1979 and 1980. It was offered for commercial application for installation to existing switch installations. Results indicate that the coating also exhibits excellent heat dissipation properties and may be used to improve heat dissipation of switch blades and other components. The coating material is unaffected by sunlight; it is a two component, Teflon-filled polyurethane that is available from two sources. The material is currently used for a variety of purposes, such as: aircraft wing and leading edge areas, hydrofoils, conveyor chutes and many others. Light gray in color, it is an excellent heat dissipator and matches the gray insulators used with most switches.

  9. Photonic crystal Fano lasers and Fano switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Yu, Yi; Bekele, Dagmawi Alemayehu


    We show that Fano resonances can be realized in photonic crystal membrane structures by coupling line-defect waveguides and point-defect nanocavities. The Fano resonance can be exploited to realize optical switches with very small switching energy, as well as Fano lasers, that can generate short...

  10. High-explosive driven crowbar switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dike, R.S.; Kewish, R.W. Jr.


    The disclosure relates to a compact explosive driven switch for use as a low resistance, low inductance crowbar switch. A high-explosive charge extrudes a deformable conductive metallic plate through a polyethylene insulating layer to achieve a hard current contact with a supportive annular conductor

  11. Simulation of linear Switched Reluctance Motor drives


    Garcia Amoros, Jordi; Blanqué Molina, Balduino; Andrada Gascón, Pedro


    This paper presents a simulation model of linear switched reluctance motor drives. A Matlab-Simulink environment coupled with finite element analysis is used to perform the simulations. Experimental and simulation results for a double sided linear switched motor drive prototype are reported and compared to verify the simulation model.

  12. The weak π − π interaction originated resonant tunneling and fast switching in the carbon based electronic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun He


    Full Text Available By means of the nonequilibrium Green's functions and the density functional theory, we have investigated the electronic transport properties of C60 based electronic device with different intermolecular interactions. It is found that the electronic transport properties vary with the types of the interaction between two C60 molecules. A fast electrical switching behavior based on negative differential resistance has been found when two molecules are coupled by the weak π − π interaction. Compared to the solid bonding, the weak interaction is found to induce resonant tunneling, which is responsible for the fast response to the applied electric field and hence the velocity of switching.

  13. Fuse Selection for the Two-Stage Explosive Type Switches (United States)

    Muravlev, I. O.; Surkov, M. A.; Tarasov, E. V.; Uvarov, N. F.


    In the two-level explosive switch destruction of a delay happens in the form of electric explosion. Criteria of similarity of electric explosion in transformer oil are defined. The challenge of protecting the power electrical equipment from short circuit currents is still urgent, especially with the growth of unit capacity. Is required to reduce the tripping time as much as possible, and limit the amplitude of the fault current, that is very important for saving of working capacity of life-support systems. This is particularly important when operating in remote stand-alone power supply systems with a high share of renewable energy, working through the inverter transducers, as well as inverter-type diesel generators. The explosive breakers copes well with these requirements. High-speed flow of transformer oil and high pressure provides formation rate of a contact gap of 20 - 100 m/s. In these conditions there is as a rapid increase in voltage on the discontinuity, and recovery of electric strength (Ures) after current interruption.

  14. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement (United States)

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.


    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  15. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver (United States)

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell


    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  16. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan


    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  17. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...... OpenDaylight is presented to control an optical switching matrix based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology....

  18. Implications of Sepedi/English code switching for ASR systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Modipa, TI


    Full Text Available Code switching (the process of switching from one language to another during a conversation) is a common phenomenon in multilingual environments. Where a minority and dominant language coincide, code switching from the minority language...

  19. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia


    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  20. Efficient capture of magnetic microbeads by sequentially switched electroosmotic flow—an experimental study (United States)

    Das, Debarun; Al-Rjoub, Marwan F.; Heineman, William R.; Banerjee, Rupak K.


    Magnetophoretic separation is a commonly used immunoassay technique in microfluidic platforms where magnetic microbeads (mMBs) coated with specific epitopes (antibodies) entrap target pathogens by antigen-antibody kinetics. The mMB-cell complexes are then separated from the continuous flow using an external magnetic field. The goal of this study was to design and test a microfluidic device for efficient separation of fluorescence-tagged mMBs driven by electroosmotic flow (EOF) under steady (time invariant) and switched (time varying) electric field conditions. The EOF was driven at electric fields of 100-180 V cm-1. The mMBs were captured by a neodymium (NdFeB) permanent earth magnet. The capture efficiency (η c) of these mMBs was improved by sequential switching of the applied electric field driven-EOF. The fluorescent images of the captured mMBs, obtained using an inverted epifluorescence microscope, were quantified using image processing tools. In steady EOF, induced by constant electric field, the number of captured mMBs decreased by 72.3% when the electric field was increased from 100 V cm-1 to 180 V cm-1. However, alternating the direction of flow through sequential switching of EOF increased the η c by bringing the escaped mMBs back to the capture zone and increasing their residence time in the area of higher magnetic fields. The average increase in η c was 54.3% for an mMB concentration of 1  ×  106 beads ml-1 (C 1) and 41.6% for a concentration of 2  ×  106 beads ml-1 (C 2). These improvements were particularly significant at higher electric fields where the η c with switching was, on average, ~70% more compared to flow without switching. The technique of sequential switching demonstrates an efficient method for capture of mMBs for application in magnetophoretic immunoassay.