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Sample records for switchable light-input light-output

  1. The light output of BGO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhufang; Ma Wengan; Lin Zhirong; Wang Zhaomin; Xu Zhizong; Fan Yangmei

    1987-01-01

    The dependence of light output on the surface treatment of BGO crystals has been tested. The results of experiments and Monte Carlo calculation indicate that for a tapered BGO crystal the best way to improve the uniformity and the energy resolution and to obtain higher light output is roughing the surface coupled to photomultiplier tube. The authors also observed that different wrapping method can effect its uniformity and resolutoin. Monte Carlo calculation indicates that the higher one of the 'double peaks' is the photoelectron peak of γ rays

  2. The measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Changsong; Zhou Zaiping; Zhang Longfang

    1999-01-01

    The author describes a experiment equipment used for measurement of temperature effect of light output of scintillators; gives some measurement results of temperature effect of light output for NaI(Tl), CsI(Tl), plastic scintillator, ZnS(Ag), anthracene crystal glass scintillator; analyzes the error factors affecting the measurement results. The total uncertainty of the temperature effect measurement for NaI(Tl) and plastic scintillator is 11%

  3. Switchable capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, Xavier; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; Tilmans, Hendrikus; De Raedt, Walter

    2011-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom elecrode, a dielaectric layer deposited on at least part of sai bottum electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to the

  4. Switchable capacitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, X.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, H.A.C.; De Raedt, W.

    2003-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom elecrode, a dielaectric layer deposited on at least part of sai bottum electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to the

  5. Effect of Aspect Ratio on the Light Output of Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Pauwels, Kristof; Gundacker, S.; Knapitsch, A.; Lecoq, P.

    2012-01-01

    The influence of the geometry of the scintillators is presented in this paper. We focus on the effect of narrowing down the section of crystals that have a given length. The light output of a set of crystals with very similar scintillating properties but different geometries measured with several coupling/wrapping configurations is provided. We observe that crystals shaped in thin rods have a lower light output as compared to bulk or sliced crystals. The effect of unpolishing the crystal faces is also investigated, and it is shown that highest light outputs are not necessarily obtained with crystals having all faces polished. Simulation results based on a realistic model of the crystal that implements light scattering on the crystal edges are in agreement with the experimental data. Fine-tuning of this model would allow us to further explore the details of light propagation in scintillators and would be highly valuable to fast timing detection and highly granular detectors.

  6. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji, E-mail: carlos.shimokawa@usp.br [University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, 05508-000, São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Turbino, Míriam Lacalle, E-mail: miturbin@usp.br [University of São Paulo, School of Dentistry, Restorative Dentistry, Avenida Professor Lineu Prestes, 2227, 05508-000, São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Harlow, Jessie Eudora, E-mail: jessie.harlow@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Price, Hannah Louise, E-mail: hannlprice@gmail.com [Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry, Dental Clinical Sciences, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Price, Richard Bengt, E-mail: richard.price@dal.ca [Dalhousie University, School of Biomedical Engineering and Faculty of Dentistry, 5981 University Avenue, B3H 4R2, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20 second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p < 0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p < 0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2 Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. - Highlights: • The six LCUs delivered significantly different light output characteristics. • The use of a single irradiance value does not adequately describe the light output from a curing light. • Small differences in the tip area, or how it is defined, will have a large effect on the calculated irradiance. • In some cases there were large portions of the light tip that emitted less than 400 mW/cm². • The radiant

  7. Light output from six battery operated dental curing lights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimokawa, Carlos Alberto Kenji; Turbino, Míriam Lacalle; Harlow, Jessie Eudora; Price, Hannah Louise; Price, Richard Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Light Curing Units (LCUs) are used daily in almost every dental office to photocure resins, but because the light is so bright, the user is unable to tell visually if there are any differences between different LCUs. This study evaluated the light output from six dental LCUs: Elipar Deep Cure-S (3M ESPE), Bluephase G2 (Ivoclar Vivadent), Translux 2Wave (Heraeus Kulzer), Optilight Prime (Gnatus), Slim Blast (First Medica) and Led.B (Guilin Woodpecker) with a fully charged battery, after 50, and again after 100, 20 second light exposures. For each situation, the radiant power was measured 10 times with a laboratory-grade power meter. Then, the emission spectrum was measured using a fiber-optic spectrometer followed by an analysis of the light beam profile. It was found there were significant differences in the LCU power and the irradiance values between the LCUs (p < 0.01). The Optilight Prime and Slim Blast LCUs showed a significant reduction in light output after a 50 and 100 exposures, while Bluephase G2 exhibited a significant reduction only after 100 exposures (p < 0.01). The Bluephase G2 and Translux 2 Wave delivered an emission spectrum that had two distinct wavelength emission peaks. Only the Elipar Deep Cure-S and Bluephase G2 LCUs displayed homogeneous light beam profiles, the other LCUs exhibited highly non-homogeneous light beam profiles. It was concluded that contemporary LCUs could have very different light output characteristics. Both manufacturers and researchers should provide more information about the light output from LCUs. - Highlights: • The six LCUs delivered significantly different light output characteristics. • The use of a single irradiance value does not adequately describe the light output from a curing light. • Small differences in the tip area, or how it is defined, will have a large effect on the calculated irradiance. • In some cases there were large portions of the light tip that emitted less than 400 mW/cm². • The radiant

  8. A general theory for ball lightning structure and light output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, R.

    2018-03-01

    A general theory for free-floating ball lightning is presented which unifies the phantom plasma ball theory involving the production of very little light, with theories for ball lightning involving light output produced by burning particles from the soil. The mechanism for the formation of plasma balls is shown to be quite general, producing very similar plasma balls independent of initial ion densities over four orders of magnitude. All that is required is an excess of positive ions in the initial ball of ions. The central plasma density after 1 s is shown to be the reciprocal of the ion neutralization coefficient for all cases, both analytically and computationally. Further, the plasma region has zero electric field in all cases. Surrounding the plasma ball is a sphere of positive ions moving away from the centre via their own space-charge field; this space-charge field, which is the same in all cases near the plasma ball, drives negative ions and negative particles towards the plasma centre. The connection with burning particle theories is the proposition that the burning particles are highly-charged which is very likely after a lightning strike. Burning negatively charged particles would be driven into the plasma ball region and trapped while any positively charged particles would be driven away. The plasma ball structure is shown to last more than 10 s and the ‘burnout time’ for a typical coal particle (as an example) has been measured at 5-10 s this is comparable with the lifetimes observed for ball lightning. The light output from a few hundred particles is estimated to be ~1 W, a typical output for ball lightning. Finally, suggestions are made for the generation of ball lightning in the laboratory.

  9. Study on light output and energy resolution of PbWO4 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guanghui; Yue Ke; Sun Zhiyu

    2010-01-01

    The light output and energy resolution of PbWO 4 crystal are studied with different wrapping materials and methods. The Wrapping condition was optimized by analyzing the experimental data to gain higher light output and better energy resolution. A GEANT4-based package has been developed to simulate the corresponding features of PbWO 4 crystal, and the simulation results are consistent with the experimental data. (authors)

  10. Light outputs of LED with various refractive indices and geometrical structures of encapsulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung-Tae [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Kyoung-Woo; Hwang, Jung-Ha; Kwon, Ho-Ki [LG Innotek Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Si-Hyun [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    In this paper we present the results of experiments and simulations for the light output power from LEDs for various refractive indices and the geometrical structures of the LED encapsulants. InGaN-based LED chips were fabricated and were bonded in Ag reflector cups within polyphthalamide (PPA) chip carriers; then, encapsulants with various refractive indices and the geometrical structures were fabricated onto them by using a dispensing method. The light output power with the encapsulant was shown to increase with the refractive index of the encapsulant materials in the case of a spherical encapsulant while it decreased in the case of a flat geometry encapsulant. We performed ray tracing simulations for the LED light output and confirmed that the simulation results were consistent with our experimentally measured results. In addition, the light output with the encapsulant rapidly increased with the sidewall angle of the chip carrier in the case of the flat encapsulant while it was not affected by the sidewall angle, remaining constant, in the case of the spherical geometry.

  11. Light outputs of LED with various refractive indices and geometrical structures of encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung-Tae; Jo, Kyoung-Woo; Hwang, Jung-Ha; Kwon, Ho-Ki; Park, Si-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of experiments and simulations for the light output power from LEDs for various refractive indices and the geometrical structures of the LED encapsulants. InGaN-based LED chips were fabricated and were bonded in Ag reflector cups within polyphthalamide (PPA) chip carriers; then, encapsulants with various refractive indices and the geometrical structures were fabricated onto them by using a dispensing method. The light output power with the encapsulant was shown to increase with the refractive index of the encapsulant materials in the case of a spherical encapsulant while it decreased in the case of a flat geometry encapsulant. We performed ray tracing simulations for the LED light output and confirmed that the simulation results were consistent with our experimentally measured results. In addition, the light output with the encapsulant rapidly increased with the sidewall angle of the chip carrier in the case of the flat encapsulant while it was not affected by the sidewall angle, remaining constant, in the case of the spherical geometry.

  12. Characterising the light output from Argon bombs by two simultaneous diagnostic techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The light output from Argon-bombs was investigated by means of ultra high speed photography (Cordin Model 550-32 camera) and locally developed photodiode sensors. Tubes of various sizes were inflated with Argon gas, and were detonated on one side...

  13. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  14. Optically switchable photonic metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R. F.; MacDonald, K. F. [Centre for Photonic Metamaterials and Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hobson, P. A. [QinetiQ Ltd., Cody Technology Park, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 0LX (United Kingdom); Zheludev, N. I. [Centre for Photonic Metamaterials and Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies and The Photonics Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)

    2015-08-24

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically switchable gallium-based metasurface, in which a reversible light-induced transition between solid and liquid phases occurring in a confined nanoscale surface layer of the metal drives significant changes in reflectivity and absorption. The metasurface architecture resonantly enhances the metal's “active plasmonic” phase-change nonlinearity by an order of magnitude, offering high contrast all-optical switching in the near-infrared range at low, μW μm{sup −2}, excitation intensities.

  15. Construction of a test stand for the measurement of the light output uniformity of CALIFA crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susenburger, Markus; Ignatov, Alexander; Kroell, Thorsten [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Currently, the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt is under construction. One experiment at GSI and FAIR is called Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams (R{sup 3}B). A key component of the R{sup 3}B is the CALorimeter for In Flight detection of γ-rays and light charged pArticles (CALIFA), which will surround the R{sup 3}B target chamber and will be capable of the detection of γ-rays in a wide energy range from 100 keV to 30 MeV as well as of light charged particles. CALIFA is built out of two parts, the so called CALIFA barrel and CALIFA endcap. The barrel consists of 1952 CsI(Tl) detector crystals which have to fulfill several specifications. One of these specifications is the uniformity of the light output. Depending on the location of the deposited energy, the crystal's light output varies due to optical focusing effects. This behavior can be manipulated by lapping the crystal's surface. The aim of this work is the development of a test stand which will check if the crystals match the requirements according to the light output uniformity. Because of the large number of crystals needed to be tested, the stand automates the test procedure, which guarantees comparable test measurement for all crystals. The development and construction of this stand is reported.

  16. Switchable Bragg gratings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marckmann, Carl Johan

    2003-01-01

    Research Center (MIC) at the Technical University of Denmark. The Bragg gratings were fabricated at COM using UV irradiation of the planar waveguides using the phase mask method. The induction of a frozen-in DC electric field into the samples was performed by thermal poling of the Bragg gratings...... layers, it becam possible to investigate the symmetry properties of the third-order nonlinearities. Contrary to the expectations for an amorphous material, the measurements indicated an almost polarization independent third-order nonlinearity - the most probable explanation being electrostriction......The subject of this ph.d. thesis was the development of an electrically switchable Bragg grating made in an optical waveguide using thermal poling to be applied within optical telecommunication systems. The planar waveguides used in this thesis were fabricated at the Micro- and Nanotechnology...

  17. Enhanced light output from the nano-patterned InP semiconductor substrate through the nanoporous alumina mask.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Seok; Jang, Byung Jin; Lee, Woo Young; Oh, Yoo-Mi; Park, Sun-Woo; Woo, Deokha

    2012-07-01

    A significant enhancement in the light output from nano-patterned InP substrate covered with a nanoporous alumina mask was observed. A uniform nanohole array on an InP semiconductor substrate was fabricated by inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE), using the nanoporous alumina mask as a shadow mask. The light output property of the semiconductor substrate was investigated via photoluminescence (PL) intensity measurement. The InP substrate with a nanohole array showed a more enhanced PL intensity compared with the raw InP substrate without a nanohole structure. After ICP-RIE etching, the light output from the nanoporous InP substrate covered with a nanoporous alumina mask showed fourfold enhanced PL intensity compared with the raw InP substrate. These results can be used as a prospective method for increasing the light output efficiency of optoelectronic devices.

  18. Simulated and measured neutron/gamma light output distribution for poly-energetic neutron/gamma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. A.; Zangian, M.; Aghabozorgi, S.

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, the light output distribution due to poly-energetic neutron/gamma (neutron or gamma) source was calculated using the developed MCNPX-ESUT-PE (MCNPX-Energy engineering of Sharif University of Technology-Poly Energetic version) computational code. The simulation of light output distribution includes the modeling of the particle transport, the calculation of scintillation photons induced by charged particles, simulation of the scintillation photon transport and considering the light resolution obtained from the experiment. The developed computational code is able to simulate the light output distribution due to any neutron/gamma source. In the experimental step of the present study, the neutron-gamma discrimination based on the light output distribution was performed using the zero crossing method. As a case study, 241Am-9Be source was considered and the simulated and measured neutron/gamma light output distributions were compared. There is an acceptable agreement between the discriminated neutron/gamma light output distributions obtained from the simulation and experiment.

  19. Scintillator-CCD camera system light output response to dosimetry parameters for proton beam range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daftari, Inder K., E-mail: idaftari@radonc.ucsf.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States); Castaneda, Carlos M.; Essert, Timothy [Crocker Nuclear Laboratory,1 Shields Avenue, University of California-Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Phillips, Theodore L.; Mishra, Kavita K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, 1600 Divisadero Street, Suite H1031, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 (United States)

    2012-09-11

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the luminescence light output response in a plastic scintillator irradiated by a 67.5 MeV proton beam using various dosimetry parameters. The relationship of the visible scintillator light with the beam current or dose rate, aperture size and the thickness of water in the water-column was studied. The images captured on a CCD camera system were used to determine optimal dosimetry parameters for measuring the range of a clinical proton beam. The method was developed as a simple quality assurance tool to measure the range of the proton beam and compare it to (a) measurements using two segmented ionization chambers and water column between them, and (b) with an ionization chamber (IC-18) measurements in water. We used a block of plastic scintillator that measured 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 Multiplication-Sign 5 cm{sup 3} to record visible light generated by a 67.5 MeV proton beam. A high-definition digital video camera Moticam 2300 connected to a PC via USB 2.0 communication channel was used to record images of scintillation luminescence. The brightness of the visible light was measured while changing beam current and aperture size. The results were analyzed to obtain the range and were compared with the Bragg peak measurements with an ionization chamber. The luminescence light from the scintillator increased linearly with the increase of proton beam current. The light output also increased linearly with aperture size. The relationship between the proton range in the scintillator and the thickness of the water column showed good linearity with a precision of 0.33 mm (SD) in proton range measurement. For the 67.5 MeV proton beam utilized, the optimal parameters for scintillator light output response were found to be 15 nA (16 Gy/min) and an aperture size of 15 mm with image integration time of 100 ms. The Bragg peak depth brightness distribution was compared with the depth dose distribution from ionization chamber measurements

  20. Solid polystyrene and deuterated polystyrene light output response to fast neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.; Danly, C.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Hurlbut, C.

    2016-01-01

    The Neutron Imaging System has proven to be an important diagnostic in studying DT implosion characteristics at the National Ignition Facility. The current system depends on a polystyrene scintillating fiber array, which detects fusion neutrons born in the DT hotspot as well as neutrons that have scattered to lower energies in the surrounding cold fuel. Increasing neutron yields at NIF, as well as a desire to resolve three-dimensional information about the fuel assembly, have provided the impetus to build and install two additional next-generation neutron imaging systems. We are currently investigating a novel neutron imaging system that will utilize a deuterated polystyrene (CD) fiber array instead of standard hydrogen-based polystyrene (CH). Studies of deuterated xylene or deuterated benzene liquid scintillator show an improvement in imaging resolution by a factor of two [L. Disdier et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2134 (2004)], but also a reduction in light output [V. Bildstein et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 729, 188 (2013); M. I. Ojaruega, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2009; M. T. Febbraro, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2014] as compared to standard plastic. Tests of the relative light output of deuterated polystyrene and standard polystyrene were completed using 14 MeV fusion neutrons generated through implosions of deuterium-tritium filled capsules at the OMEGA laser facility. In addition, we collected data of the relative response of these two scintillators to a wide energy range of neutrons (1-800 MeV) at the Weapons Neutrons Research Facility. Results of these measurements are presented.

  1. Solid polystyrene and deuterated polystyrene light output response to fast neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, R., E-mail: raspberry@lanl.gov; Danly, C.; Merrill, F. E.; Volegov, P. L.; Wilde, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Glebov, V. Yu. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Hurlbut, C. [Eljen Technology, Sweetwater, Texas 79556 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    The Neutron Imaging System has proven to be an important diagnostic in studying DT implosion characteristics at the National Ignition Facility. The current system depends on a polystyrene scintillating fiber array, which detects fusion neutrons born in the DT hotspot as well as neutrons that have scattered to lower energies in the surrounding cold fuel. Increasing neutron yields at NIF, as well as a desire to resolve three-dimensional information about the fuel assembly, have provided the impetus to build and install two additional next-generation neutron imaging systems. We are currently investigating a novel neutron imaging system that will utilize a deuterated polystyrene (CD) fiber array instead of standard hydrogen-based polystyrene (CH). Studies of deuterated xylene or deuterated benzene liquid scintillator show an improvement in imaging resolution by a factor of two [L. Disdier et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 2134 (2004)], but also a reduction in light output [V. Bildstein et al., Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. A 729, 188 (2013); M. I. Ojaruega, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2009; M. T. Febbraro, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, 2014] as compared to standard plastic. Tests of the relative light output of deuterated polystyrene and standard polystyrene were completed using 14 MeV fusion neutrons generated through implosions of deuterium-tritium filled capsules at the OMEGA laser facility. In addition, we collected data of the relative response of these two scintillators to a wide energy range of neutrons (1-800 MeV) at the Weapons Neutrons Research Facility. Results of these measurements are presented.

  2. Numerical study of the light output intensity of the bilayer organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Feiping

    2017-02-01

    The structure of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one of most important issues that influence the light output intensity (LOI) of OLEDs. In this paper, based on a simple but accurate optical model, the influences of hole and electron transport layer thickness on the LOI of bilayer OLEDs, which with N,N0- bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N0- bis(phenyl)- benzidine (NPB) or N,N'- diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4-diamine (TPD) as hole transport layer, with tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) as electron transport and light emitting layers, were investigated. The laws of LOI for OLEDs under different organic layer thickness values were obtained. The results show that the LOI of devices varies in accordance with damped cosine or sine function as the increasing of organic layer thickness, and the results show that the bilayer OLEDs with the structure of Glass/ITO/NPB (55 nm)/Alq3 (75 nm)/Al and Glass/ITO/TPB (60 nm)/Alq3 (75 nm)/Al have most largest LOI. When the thickness of Alq3 is less than 105 nm, the OLEDs with TPD as hole transport layer have larger LOI than that with NPB as hole transport layer. The results obtained in this paper can present an in-depth understanding of the working mechanism of OLEDs and help ones fabricate high efficiency OLEDs.

  3. Effects of Photonic Crystals on the Light Output of Heavy Inorganic Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Knapitsch, Arno; Fabjan, Christian W; Leclercq, Jean-Louis; Letartre, Xavier; Mazurczyk, Radoslaw; Lecoq, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) are optical materials which can affect the propagation of light in multiple ways. In recent years PhCs contributed to major technological developments in the field of semiconductor lasers, light emitting diodes and photovoltaic applications. In our case we are investigating the capabilities of photonic crystal slabs with the aim to improve the performance of heavy inorganic scintillators. To study the combination of scintillators and PhCs we use a Monte-Carlo program to simulate the light propagation inside a scintillator and a rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) framework to analyse the optical PhC properties. The simulations show light output improvements of a wide range of scintillating materials due to light scattering effects of the PhC slabs. First samples have been produced on top of 1.2 × 2.6 × 5 mm LSO (cerium-doped Lutetium Oxyorthosilicate, Lu_2SiO_5:Ce^3+) scintillators using electron beam lithography and reactive ion etching (RIE). Our samples show a 30-60% light outp...

  4. The nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl) detectors in the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasco, B.C., E-mail: crasco@lsu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Fijałkowska, A.; Karny, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, PL-02093 Warszawa (Poland); Rykaczewski, K.P. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wolińska-Cichocka, M. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, Warsaw PL-02-093 (Poland); Grzywacz, R.; Goetz, K.C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37966 (United States)

    2015-07-11

    A new detector array, the Modular Total Absorption Spectrometer (MTAS), was commissioned at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) at Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL). Total absorption gamma spectra measured with MTAS are expected to improve beta-feeding patterns and beta strength functions in fission products. MTAS is constructed out of hexagonal NaI(Tl) detectors with a unique central module surrounded by 18 identical crystals assembled in three rings. The total NaI(Tl) mass of MTAS is over 1000 kg. The response of the central and other 18 MTAS modules to γ-radiation was simulated using the GEANT4 toolkit modified to analyze the nonlinear light output of NaI(Tl). A detailed description of the GEANT4 modifications made is discussed. Simulated energy resolution of MTAS modules is found to agree well with the measurements for single γ transitions of 662 keV ({sup 137}Cs) with 8.2% full width half maximum (FWHM), 835 keV ({sup 54}Mn) with FWHM of 7.5% FWHM, and 1115 keV ({sup 65}Zn) with FWHM of 6.5%. Simulations of single and multiple γ-rays from {sup 60}Co are also discussed.

  5. Switchable Hydrophobic-Hydrophilic Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bunker, B C; Huber, D L; Kent, M S; Kushmerick, J G; Lopez, G P; Manginell, R P; Méndez, S E; Yim, H

    2002-01-01

    Tethered films of poly n-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAM) films have been developed as materials that can be used to switch the chemistry of a surface in response to thermal activation. In water, PNIPAM exhibits a thermally-activated phase transition that is accompanied by significant changes in polymer volume, water contact angle, and protein adsorption characteristics. New synthesis routes have been developed to prepare PNIPAM films via in-situ polymerization on self-assembled monolayers. Swelling transitions in tethered films have been characterized using a wide range of techniques including surface plasmon resonance, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy, interfacial force microscopy, neutron reflectivity, and theoretical modeling. PNIPAM films have been deployed in integrated microfluidic systems. Switchable PNIPAM films have been investigated for a range of fluidic applications including fluid pumping via surface energy switching and switchable protein traps for pre-concentrating and separating...

  6. Light output measurements and computational models of microcolumnar CsI scintillators for x-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nillius, Peter, E-mail: nillius@mi.physics.kth.se; Klamra, Wlodek; Danielsson, Mats [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm SE-100 44 (Sweden); Sibczynski, Pawel [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock 05-400 (Poland); Sharma, Diksha; Badano, Aldo [Division of Imaging, Diagnostics, and Software Reliability, Office of Science and Engineering Laboratories, Center for Devices and Radiological Health, FDA, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The authors report on measurements of light output and spatial resolution of microcolumnar CsI:Tl scintillator detectors for x-ray imaging. In addition, the authors discuss the results of simulations aimed at analyzing the results of synchrotron and sealed-source exposures with respect to the contributions of light transport to the total light output. Methods: The authors measured light output from a 490-μm CsI:Tl scintillator screen using two setups. First, the authors used a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to measure the response of the scintillator to sealed-source exposures. Second, the authors performed imaging experiments with a 27-keV monoenergetic synchrotron beam and a slit to calculate the total signal generated in terms of optical photons per keV. The results of both methods are compared to simulations obtained with hybridMANTIS, a coupled x-ray, electron, and optical photon Monte Carlo transport package. The authors report line response (LR) and light output for a range of linear absorption coefficients and describe a model that fits at the same time the light output and the blur measurements. Comparing the experimental results with the simulations, the authors obtained an estimate of the absorption coefficient for the model that provides good agreement with the experimentally measured LR. Finally, the authors report light output simulation results and their dependence on scintillator thickness and reflectivity of the backing surface. Results: The slit images from the synchrotron were analyzed to obtain a total light output of 48 keV{sup −1} while measurements using the fast PMT instrument setup and sealed-sources reported a light output of 28 keV{sup −1}. The authors attribute the difference in light output estimates between the two methods to the difference in time constants between the camera and PMT measurements. Simulation structures were designed to match the light output measured with the camera while providing good agreement with the

  7. Switchable bio-inspired adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroner, Elmar

    2015-03-01

    Geckos have astonishing climbing abilities. They can adhere to almost any surface and can run on walls and even stick to ceilings. The extraordinary adhesion performance is caused by a combination of a complex surface pattern on their toes and the biomechanics of its movement. These biological dry adhesives have been intensely investigated during recent years because of the unique combination of adhesive properties. They provide high adhesion, allow for easy detachment, can be removed residue-free, and have self-cleaning properties. Many aspects have been successfully mimicked, leading to artificial, bio-inspired, patterned dry adhesives, and were addressed and in some aspects they even outperform the adhesion capabilities of geckos. However, designing artificial patterned adhesion systems with switchable adhesion remains a big challenge; the gecko's adhesion system is based on a complex hierarchical surface structure and on advanced biomechanics, which are both difficult to mimic. In this paper, two approaches are presented to achieve switchable adhesion. The first approach is based on a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer, where adhesion can be switched on and off by applying a low and a high compressive preload. The switch in adhesion is caused by a reversible mechanical instability of the adhesive silicone structures. The second approach is based on a composite material consisting of a Nickel- Titanium (NiTi) shape memory alloy and a patterned adhesive PDMS layer. The NiTi alloy is trained to change its surface topography as a function of temperature, which results in a change of the contact area and of alignment of the adhesive pattern towards a substrate, leading to switchable adhesion. These examples show that the unique properties of bio-inspired adhesives can be greatly improved by new concepts such as mechanical instability or by the use of active materials which react to external stimuli.

  8. Theoretical analysis of enhanced light output from a GaN light emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Feng; Liu Deming; Huang Lirong

    2010-01-01

    The enhancement of the light output of an embedded photonic crystal light emitting diode is investigated based on the finite-difference time-domain modeling. The embedded photonic crystal (PC) lattice type, multi-layer embedded PC, distance between the multiple quantum well and the embedded PC are studied. It is found that the embedded one dimensional PC can act as well as embedded two dimensional PCs. The emitted light flux in the up direction can be increased by a new kind of multi-layer embedded PC. Also, we show that the light output in the up direction for the LED with both surfaces and embedded PC could be as high as five times that of a conventional LED. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Theoretical analysis of enhanced light output from a GaN light emitting diode with an embedded photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Feng; Liu Deming; Huang Lirong, E-mail: hlr5649@163.co [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, College of Opto-Electronics Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The enhancement of the light output of an embedded photonic crystal light emitting diode is investigated based on the finite-difference time-domain modeling. The embedded photonic crystal (PC) lattice type, multi-layer embedded PC, distance between the multiple quantum well and the embedded PC are studied. It is found that the embedded one dimensional PC can act as well as embedded two dimensional PCs. The emitted light flux in the up direction can be increased by a new kind of multi-layer embedded PC. Also, we show that the light output in the up direction for the LED with both surfaces and embedded PC could be as high as five times that of a conventional LED. (semiconductor devices)

  10. Monte Carlo and Lambertian light guide models of the light output from scintillation crystals at megavoltage energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Philip M.; Mosleh-Shirazi, M. Amin; Harris, Emma J.; Seco, Joao

    2006-01-01

    A new model of the light output from single-crystal scintillators in megavoltage energy x-ray beams has been developed, based on the concept of a Lambertian light guide model (LLG). This was evaluated in comparison with a Monte Carlo (MC) model of optical photon transport, previously developed and reported in the literature, which was used as a gold standard. The LLG model was developed to enable optimization of scintillator detector design. In both models the dose deposition and light propagation were decoupled, the scintillators were cuboids, split into a series of cells as a function of depth, with Lambertian side and entrance faces, and a specular exit face. The signal in a sensor placed 1 and 1000 mm beyond the exit face was calculated. Cesium iodide (CSI) crystals of 1.5 and 3 mm square cross section and 1, 5, and 10 mm depth were modeled. Both models were also used to determine detector signal and optical gain factor as a function of CsI scintillator thickness, from 2 to 10 mm. Results showed a variation in light output with position of dose deposition of a factor of up to approximately 5, for long, thin scintillators (such as 10x1.5x1.5 mm 3 ). For short, fat scintillators (such as 1x3x3 mm 3 ) the light output was more uniform with depth. MC and LLG generally agreed to within 5%. Results for a sensor distance of 1 mm showed an increase in light output the closer the light originates to the exit face, while a distance of 1000 mm showed a decrease in light output the closer the light originates to the exit face. For a sensor distance of 1 mm, the ratio of signal for a 10 mm scintillator to that for a 2 mm scintillator was 1.98, whereas for the 1000 mm distance the ratio was 3.00. The ratio of quantum efficiency (QE) between 10 and 2 mm thicknesses was 4.62. We conclude that these models may be used for detector optimization, with the light guide model suitable for parametric study

  11. Valuation of switchable tariff for wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Wang; Sheble, Gerald B.; Lopes, Joao A. Pecas; Matos, Manuel Antonio

    2006-01-01

    The current fixed tariff remuneration for wind energy is not compatible with the deregulation of the electric power industry. The time-varying and location-dependent value of renewable energy is not acknowledged. The newly announced switchable tariff for wind energy in the Spanish electricity market provides a promising solution to compensating renewable energy within the deregulated electric power industry. The new switchable tariff provides wind generators more flexibility in operating wind generation assets. Such flexibilities provide option value in coordinating the seasonality of wind energy, demand on electric power and electricity prices movement. This paper models and valuates the flexibility on switching tariff as real compound options for wind generators. Numerical examples valuate wind generation assets under fixed tariff, spot market price taking, and yearly and monthly switchable tariffs. The optimal switching strategies are identified. The impacts of the switchable tariff on sitting criteria and values of wind generation assets are investigated. An improvement on the yearly switchable tariff is suggested to further reduce the operation risk of wind generators and fully explore the efficiency provided by competitive electricity markets. (author)

  12. Measurements of the proton light output function of the organic liquid scintillator NE213 in several detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkes, N.P.; Adams, J.M.; Bond, D.S.; Croft, S; Jarvis, O.N. E-mail: onj@jet.uk; Watkins, N

    2002-01-01

    When using an organic liquid scintillator such as NE213 for neutron spectrometry, the light output as a function of proton energy is needed in order to unfold the neutron spectrum from the scintillator's pulse height distribution. We have measured this function for several detectors over the range 1.5-16 MeV approximately, using monoenergetic neutrons from the Harwell 5 MV Van de Graaff accelerator. Results were obtained for a wide variety of sizes and shapes of the scintillator cell, and were found to be essentially in agreement within errors. The results were also compared with those of several other workers (amongst whom there is considerable disagreement). Below 10 MeV, there is excellent agreement with one worker and moderate or poor agreement with others; above 10 MeV, agreement is moderate in all cases. We conclude that workers wishing to unfold neutron spectra from NE213 pulse height distributions would be advised to make measurements with their own particular detector configuration, rather than use published functions.

  13. Switchable antifouling coatings and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Michele L. Baca; Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2017-02-28

    The present invention relates to antifouling coatings capable of being switched by using heat or ultraviolet light. Prior to switching, the coating includes an onium cation component having antimicrobial and antibacterial properties. Upon switching, the coating is converted to a conjugated polymer state, and the cationic component is released with any adsorbed biofilm layer. Thus, the coatings herein have switchable and releasable properties. Methods of making and using such coatings are also described.

  14. Stability of the Light Output, Oral Cavity Tip Accessibility in Posterior Region and Emission Spectrum of Light-Curing Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C B; Nima, G; Sebold, M; Giannini, M; Price, R B

    2018-04-09

    This study evaluated the light output from six light-emitting diode dental curing lights after 25 consecutive light exposures without recharging the battery, tip accessibility in the posterior region, and light beam spread from light-curing units. Irradiance, spectral peak, and radiant exposure were measured with the battery fully charged (Bluephase Style, ESPE Cordless, Elipar S10, Demi Ultra, Valo Cordless, and Radii-Cal) and monitored for 25 light exposures (each lasting 10 seconds). The tip diameter was measured to identify the beam size and the ability of the six light-curing units to irradiate all areas of the lower second molar in the standard output setting. Four curing lights delivered a single peak wavelength from 454 to 462 nm, and two (Bluephase Style and Valo Cordless) delivered multiple emission peaks (at 410 and 458 nm and 400, 450, and 460 nm, respectively). The irradiance and radiant exposure always decreased after 25 exposures by 2% to 8%, depending on the light unit; however, only ESPE Cordless, Valo Cordless, and Radii-Cal presented a statistical difference between the first and the last exposure. The tip diameter ranged from 6.77 mm to 9.40 mm. The Radii-Cal delivered the lowest radiant exposure and irradiance. This light was also unable to access all the teeth with the tip parallel to the occlusal surface of the tooth. Not all of the blue-emitting lights deliver the same emission spectra, and some curing lights delivered a lower irradiance (as much as 8% lower) after the 25th exposure.

  15. SU-E-T-782: Using Light Output From Doped Plastic Scintillators to Resolve the Linear Energy Transfer Spectrum of Clinical Electron Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusrat, H; Pang, G; Ahmad, S; Keller, B; Sarfehnia, A

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This research seeks to develop a portable, clinically-suitable linear energy transfer (LET) detector. In radiotherapy, absorbed dose is commonly used to measure the amount of delivered radiation, though, it is not a good indicator of actual biological damage. LET is the energy absorbed per unit length by a medium along charged particle’s pathway; studies have shown that LET correlates well with relative biological effectiveness (RBE). Methods: According to Birks’ law, light output of plastic scintillators is stopping-power dependent. This dependency can be varied through doping by various high-Z elements. By measuring light output signals of differently doped plastic scintillators (represented by column vector S, where each row corresponds to different scintillator material), the fluence of charged particles of a given LET (represented by column vector Φ, where each row corresponds to different LET bins) can be unfolded by S=R*Φ where R is system response matrix (each row represents a different scintillator, each column corresponds to different electron LET). Monte Carlo (MC) GEANT4.10.1 was used to evaluate ideal detector response of BC408 scintillating material doped with various concentrations of several high Z dopants. Measurements were performed to validate MC. Results: Signal for 1%-lead doped BC408 and the non-doped scintillator was measured experimentally by guiding light emitted by the scintillator (via in-house made taper, fiber system) to a PMT and then an electrometer. Simulations of 1%Pb-doped scintillator to non-doped scintillator revealed 9.3% reduction in light output for 6 MeV electrons which compared well (within uncertainty) with measurements showing 10% reduction (6MeV electrons). Conclusion: Measurements were used to validate MC simulation of light output from doped scintillators. The doping of scintillators is a viable technique to induce LET dependence. Our goal is to use this effect to resolve the LET spectrum of an incident

  16. Enhanced Light Output of Dipole Source in GaN-Based Nanorod Light-Emitting Diodes by Silver Localized Surface Plasmon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamao Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The light output of dipole source in three types of light-emitting diodes (LEDs, including the conventional planar LED, the nanorod LED, and the localized surface plasmon (LSP assisted LED by inserting silver nanoparticles in the gaps between nanorods, was studied by use of two-dimensional finite difference time domain method. The height of nanorod and the size of silver nanoparticles were variables for discussion. Simulation results show that a large height of nanorod induces strong wavelength selectivity, which can be significantly enhanced by LSP. On condition that the height of nanorod is 400 nm, the diameter of silver nanoparticle is 100 nm, and the wavelength is 402.7 nm, the light-output efficiency for LSP assisted LED is enhanced by 190% or 541% as compared to the nanorod counterpart or the planar counterpart, respectively. The space distribution of Poynting vector was present to demonstrate the significant enhancement of light output at the resonant wavelength of LSP.

  17. Statistical studies on the light output and energy resolution of small LSO single crystals with different surface treatments combined with various reflector materials

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrichs, U; Bussmann, N; Engels, R; Kemmerling, G; Weber, S; Ziemons, K

    2002-01-01

    The optimization of light output and energy resolution of scintillators is of special interest for the development of high resolution and high sensitivity PET. The aim of this work is to obtain statistically reliable results concerning optimal surface treatment of scintillation crystals and the selection of reflector material. For this purpose, raw, mechanically polished and etched LSO crystals (size 2x2x10 mm sup 3) were combined with various reflector materials (Teflon tape, Teflon matrix, BaSO sub 4) and exposed to a sup 2 sup 2 Na source. In order to ensure the statistical reliability of the results, groups of 10 LSO crystals each were measured for all combinations of surface treatment and reflector material. Using no reflector material the light output increased up to 551+-35% by mechanical polishing the surface compared to 100+-5% for raw crystals. Etching the surface increased the light output to 441+-29%. The untreated crystals had an energy resolution of 24.6+-4.0%. By mechanical polishing the surfac...

  18. RdgB2 is required for dim-light input into intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Marquis T; Rupp, Alan; Elsaesser, Rebecca; Güler, Ali D; Sheng, Wenlong; Weng, Shijun; Berson, David M; Hattar, Samer; Montell, Craig

    2015-10-15

    A subset of retinal ganglion cells is intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) and contributes directly to the pupillary light reflex and circadian photoentrainment under bright-light conditions. ipRGCs are also indirectly activated by light through cellular circuits initiated in rods and cones. A mammalian homologue (RdgB2) of a phosphoinositide transfer/exchange protein that functions in Drosophila phototransduction is expressed in the retinal ganglion cell layer. This raised the possibility that RdgB2 might function in the intrinsic light response in ipRGCs, which depends on a cascade reminiscent of Drosophila phototransduction. Here we found that under high light intensities, RdgB2(-/-) mutant mice showed normal pupillary light responses and circadian photoentrainment. Consistent with this behavioral phenotype, the intrinsic light responses of ipRGCs in RdgB2(-/-) were indistinguishable from wild-type. In contrast, under low-light conditions, RdgB2(-/-) mutants displayed defects in both circadian photoentrainment and the pupillary light response. The RdgB2 protein was not expressed in ipRGCs but was in GABAergic amacrine cells, which provided inhibitory feedback onto bipolar cells. We propose that RdgB2 is required in a cellular circuit that transduces light input from rods to bipolar cells that are coupled to GABAergic amacrine cells and ultimately to ipRGCs, thereby enabling ipRGCs to respond to dim light. © 2015 Walker et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  19. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693

  20. Safer Battery with Switchable Polymer Coating, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) proposes to utilize a switchable polymer (SWP) to prevent catastrophic failure due to internal shorting or overdischarge in lithium-ion...

  1. Block copolymer micelles as switchable templates for nanofabrication

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnamoorthy, S; Pugin, R; Brugger, J; Heinzelmann, H; Hoogerwerf, A C; Hinderling, C

    2006-01-01

    Block copolymer inverse micelles from polystyrene-block-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P2VP) deposited as monolayer films onto surfaces show responsive behavior and are reversibly switchable between two states of different topography and surface chemistry. The as-coated films are in the form of arrays of nanoscale bumps, which can be transformed into arrays of nanoscale holes by switching through exposure to methanol. The use of these micellar films to act as switchable etch masks for the structu...

  2. Switchable cell trapping using superparamagnetic beads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M. T.; Smith, K. H.; Real, M. E.; Bashir, M. A.; Fry, P. W.; Fischer, P.; Im, M.-Y.; Schrefl, T.; Allwood, D. A.; Haycock, J. W.

    2010-04-30

    Ni{sub 81}Fe{sub 19} microwires are investigated as the basis of a switchable template for positioning magnetically-labeled neural Schwann cells. Magnetic transmission X-ray microscopy and micromagnetic modeling show that magnetic domain walls can be created or removed in zigzagged structures by an applied magnetic field. Schwann cells containing superparamagnetic beads are trapped by the field emanating from the domain walls. The design allows Schwann cells to be organized on a surface to form a connected network and then released from the surface if required. As aligned Schwann cells can guide nerve regeneration, this technique is of value for developing glial-neuronal co-culture models in the future treatment of peripheral nerve injuries.

  3. An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Martin, Paul C.; Schaef, Todd; Bowden, Mark E.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dang, Liem; Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-08-01

    Crystalline metal organic framework (MOF) materials containing interconnected porosity can be chemically modified to promote stimulus-driven (light, magnetic or electric fields) structural transformations that can be used in a number of devices. Innovative research strategies are now focused on understanding the role of chemical bond manipulation to reversibly alter the free volume in such structures of critical importance for electro-catalysis, molecular electronics, energy storage technologies, sensor devices and smart membranes. In this letter, we study the mechanism for which an electrically switchable MOF composed of Cu(TCNQ) (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) transitions from a high-resistance state to a conducting state in a reversible fashion by an applied potential. The actual mechanism for this reversible electrical switching is still not understood even though a number of reports are available describing the application of electric-field-induced switching of Cu(TCNQ) in device fabrication.

  4. Switchable and Tunable Aerodynamic Drag on Cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttag, Mark; Lopéz Jiménez, Francisco; Upadhyaya, Priyank; Kumar, Shanmugam; Reis, Pedro

    We report results on the performance of Smart Morphable Surfaces (Smporhs) that can be mounted onto cylindrical structures to actively reduce their aerodynamic drag. Our system comprises of an elastomeric thin shell with a series of carefully designed subsurface cavities that, once depressurized, lead to a dramatic deformation of the surface topography, on demand. Our design is inspired by the morphology of the giant cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) which possesses an array of axial grooves, thought to help reduce aerodynamic drag, thereby enhancing the structural robustness of the plant under wind loading. We perform systematic wind tunnel tests on cylinders covered with our Smorphs and characterize their aerodynamic performance. The switchable and tunable nature of our system offers substantial advantages for aerodynamic performance when compared to static topographies, due to their operation over a wider range of flow conditions.

  5. Bridging “green gap” of LEDs: Giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin; Liu, Che-Yu; Krishnan, Chirenjeevi; Lin, Da-Wei; Chu, You-Chen; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Shen, Tien-Lin; Kao, Tsung-Sheng; Charlton, Martin; Yu, Peichen; Lin, Chien-Chung; Kuo, Hao-Chung; He, Jr-Hau

    2015-01-01

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is so-called “green gap”. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boosting light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimating the view angle of LEDs from 131.5゜to 114.0゜. This could be because the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs points the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  6. Bridging “green gap” of LEDs: Giant light output enhancement and directional control of LEDs via embedded nano-void photonic crystals

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Yu-Lin

    2015-11-23

    Green LEDs do not show the same level of performance as their blue and red cousins, greatly hindering the solid-state lighting development, which is so-called “green gap”. In this work, nano-void photonic crystals (NVPCs) were fabricated to embed within the GaN/InGaN green LEDs by using epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) and nano-sphere lithography techniques. The NVPCs act as an efficient scattering back-reflector to outcouple the guided and downward photons, which not only boosting light extraction efficiency of LEDs with an enhancement of 78% but also collimating the view angle of LEDs from 131.5゜to 114.0゜. This could be because the highly scattering nature of NVPCs which reduce the interference giving rise to Fabry-Perot resonance. Moreover, due to the threading dislocation suppression and strain relief by the NVPCs, the internal quantum efficiency was increased by 25% and droop behavior was reduced from 37.4% to 25.9%. The enhancement of light output power can be achieved as high as 151% at a driving current of 350 mA. Giant light output enhancement and directional control via NVPCs points the way towards a promising avenue of solid-state lighting.

  7. Light output response of EJ-309 liquid organic scintillator to 2.86-3.95 MeV carbon recoil ions due to neutron elastic and inelastic scatter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsworthy, Mark A.; Ruch, Marc L.; Hamel, Michael C.; Clarke, Shaun D.; Hausladen, Paul A.; Pozzi, Sara A.

    2018-03-01

    We present the first measurements of energy-dependent light output from carbon recoils in the liquid organic scintillator EJ-309. For this measurement, neutrons were produced by an associated particle deuterium-tritium generator and scattered by a volume of EJ-309 scintillator into stop detectors positioned at four fixed angles. Carbon recoils in the scintillator were isolated using triple coincidence among the associated particle detector, scatter detector, and stop detectors. The kinematics of elastic and inelastic scatter allowed data collection at eight specific carbon recoil energies between 2.86 and 3.95 MeV. We found the light output caused by carbon recoils in this energy range to be approximately 1.14% of that caused by electrons of the same energy, which is comparable to the values reported for other liquid organic scintillators. A comparison of the number of scattered neutrons at each angle to a Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended simulation indicates that the ENDF/B-VII.1 evaluation of differential cross sections for 14.1 MeV neutrons on carbon has discrepancies with the experiment as large as 55%, whereas those reported in the JENDL-4.0u evaluation agree with experiment.

  8. Further improvement in the light output power of InGaN-based light emitting diodes by reflective current blocking design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Chun-Fu; Su, Yan-Kuin; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the fabrication and characterization of InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with further improvement by the design of a reflective current blocking layer (CBL) were described, and these are demonstrated to be an inexpensive and feasible way for improving the performance of LEDs. With the reflective CBL, not only was the injected current forced to spread outside instead of flowing directly downward under a p-pad, but the light generated from the active region could also be extracted outside of the LED by reflection under the p-pad. At 20 mA, as compared to the conventional LED, the light output power of the LEDs with the normal and reflective CBL can be increased by 15.7% and 25.8%, respectively. We found that the forward voltages of the LEDs with CBL structure were both about 3.7 V at 20 mA, which was slightly higher than that of the conventional LED (3.6 V). In our experiment, the further increase in the light output power of the reflective CBL LED could be attributed to more current injection into the light-emitting active region outside of the p-pad by the CBL and a reduction in optical absorption at the p-pad with more extraction by the reflective design

  9. 2000 survey of window manufacturers on the subject of switchable glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Michael R.; Sottile, Gregory M.

    2001-11-01

    The results of a 2000 survey of United States window manufacturers on the subject of switchable glass are discussed. The areas covered in this paper include awareness of the overall product category of switchable glass and various types of switchable glass, attitudes toward specific features of switchable glass, expectations for manufacturer production of such products, expectations for market penetration rates among end-product consumers, levels of price sensitivity among window manufacturers regarding switchable glass, and expectations for the pace of new product development within the window industry over the next five years.

  10. Light Output Enhancement of InGaN/GaN Light-Emitting Diodes with Contrasting Indium Tin-Oxide Nanopatterned Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Various nanopatterns on the transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO layer are investigated to enhance the light extraction efficiency of the InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs. Triangular, square, and circular nanohole patterns with the square and hexagonal lattices are fabricated on the ITO layer by an electron beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma dry etching processes. The circular hole pattern with a hexagonal geometry is found to be the most effective among the studied structures. Light output intensity measurements reveal that the circular hole nanopatterned ITO LEDs with a hexagonal lattice show up to 35.6% enhancement of output intensity compared to the sample without nanopatterns.

  11. Ferroelectric based catalysis: Switchable surface chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    2015-03-01

    We describe a new class of catalysts that uses an epitaxial monolayer of a transition metal oxide on a ferroelectric substrate. The ferroelectric polarization switches the surface chemistry between strongly adsorptive and strongly desorptive regimes, circumventing difficulties encountered on non-switchable catalytic surfaces where the Sabatier principle dictates a moderate surface-molecule interaction strength. This method is general and can, in principle, be applied to many reactions, and for each case the choice of the transition oxide monolayer can be optimized. Here, as a specific example, we show how simultaneous NOx direct decomposition (into N2 and O2) and CO oxidation can be achieved efficiently on CrO2 terminated PbTiO3, while circumventing oxygen (and sulfur) poisoning issues. One should note that NOx direct decomposition has been an open challenge in automotive emission control industry. Our method can expand the range of catalytically active elements to those which are not conventionally considered for catalysis and which are more economical, e.g., Cr (for NOx direct decomposition and CO oxidation) instead of canonical precious metal catalysts. Primary support from Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing, North America, Inc.

  12. Block copolymer micelles as switchable templates for nanofabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Sivashankar; Pugin, Raphaël; Brugger, Juergen; Heinzelmann, Harry; Hoogerwerf, Arno C; Hinderling, Christian

    2006-04-11

    Block copolymer inverse micelles from polystyrene-block-poly-2-vinylpyridine (PS-b-P2VP) deposited as monolayer films onto surfaces show responsive behavior and are reversibly switchable between two states of different topography and surface chemistry. The as-coated films are in the form of arrays of nanoscale bumps, which can be transformed into arrays of nanoscale holes by switching through exposure to methanol. The use of these micellar films to act as switchable etch masks for the structuring of the underlying material to form either pillars or holes depending on the switching state is demonstrated.

  13. Switchable capacitor and method of making the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, Xavier; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, Hendrikus; De Raedt, Walter

    2006-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom electrode, a dielectric layer deposited on at least part of said bottom electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to

  14. Switchable capacitor and method of making the same

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rottenberg, Xavier; Jansen, Henricus V.; Tilmans, Hendrikus; De Raedt, Walter

    2003-01-01

    A micro electromechanical switchable capacitor is disclosed, comprising a substrate, a bottom electrode, a dielectric layer deposited on at least part of said bottom electrode, a conductive floating electrode deposited on at least part of said dielectric layer, an armature positioned proximate to

  15. Switchable host-guest systems on surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying-Wei; Sun, Yu-Long; Song, Nan

    2014-07-15

    CONSPECTUS: For device miniaturization, nanotechnology follows either the "top-down" approach scaling down existing larger-scale devices or the "bottom-up' approach assembling the smallest possible building blocks to functional nanoscale entities. For synthetic nanodevices, self-assembly on surfaces is a superb method to achieve useful functions and enable their interactions with the surrounding world. Consequently, adaptability and responsiveness to external stimuli are other prerequisites for their successful operation. Mechanically interlocked molecules such as rotaxanes and catenanes, and their precursors, that is, molecular switches and supramolecular switches including pseudorotaxanes, are molecular machines or prototypes of machines capable of mechanical motion induced by chemical signals, biological inputs, light or redox processes as the external stimuli. Switching of these functional host-guest systems on surfaces becomes a fundamental requirement for artificial molecular machines to work, mimicking the molecular machines in nature, such as proteins and their assemblies operating at dynamic interfaces such as the surfaces of cell membranes. Current research endeavors in material science and technology are focused on developing either a new class of materials or materials with novel/multiple functionalities by shifting host-guest chemistry from solution phase to surfaces. In this Account, we present our most recent attempts of building monolayers of rotaxanes/pseudorotaxanes on surfaces, providing stimuli-induced macroscopic effects and further understanding on the switchable host-guest systems at interfaces. Biocompatible versions of molecular machines based on synthetic macrocycles, such as cucurbiturils, pillararenes, calixarenes, and cyclodextrins, have been employed to form self-assembled monolayers of gates on the surfaces of mesoporous silica nanoparticles to regulate the controlled release of cargo/drug molecules under a range of external stimuli

  16. Plasma-based localized defect for switchable coupling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varault, Stefan; Gabard, Benjamin; Sokoloff, Jerome; Bolioli, Sylvain

    2011-01-01

    We report in this paper experimental measurements in order to validate the concept of switchable electromagnetic band gap filters based on plasma capillaries in the microwave regime. The plasma tube is embedded inside the structure to create a bistable (plasma on or off) punctual defect. We first investigate two kinds of discharge tubes: Ar-Hg and pure Ne, which we then use to experimentally achieve plasma-based reconfigurable applications, namely, a two-port coupler and a two-port demultiplexer.

  17. High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

    2011-11-15

    We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

  18. Switchable and responsive surfaces and materials for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Surface modification of biomaterials can ultimately determine whether a material is accepted or rejected from the human body, and a responsive surface can further make the material ""smart"" and ""intelligent"". Switchable and Responsive Surfaces and Materials for Biomedical Applications outlines synthetic and biological materials that are responsive under different stimuli, their surface design and modification techniques, and applicability in regenerative medicine/tissue engineering,  drug delivery, medical devices, and biomedical diagnostics. Part one provides a detailed overview of swit

  19. All-Silicon Switchable Magnetoelectric Effect through Interlayer Exchange Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hang; Sun, Jia-Tao; Fu, Hui-Xia; Sun, Pei-Jie; Feng, Y P; Meng, Sheng

    2017-07-19

    The magnetoelectric (ME) effect originating from the effective coupling between electric field and magnetism is an exciting frontier in nanoscale science such as magnetic tunneling junction (MTJ), ferroelectric/piezoelectric heterojunctions etc. The realization of switchable ME effect under external electric field in d0 semiconducting materials of single composition is needed especially for all-silicon spintronics applications because of its natural compatibility with current industry. We employ density functional theory (DFT) to reveal that the pristine Si(111)-3×3 R30° (Si3 hereafter) reconstructed surfaces of thin films with a thickness smaller than eleven bilayers support a sizeable linear ME effect with switchable direction of magnetic moment under external electric field. This is achieved through the interlayer exchange coupling effect in the antiferromagnetic regime, where the spin-up and spin-down magnetized density is located on opposite surfaces of Si3 thin films. The obtained coefficient for the linear ME effect can be four times larger than that of ferromagnetic Fe films, which fail to have the reversal switching capabilities. The larger ME effect originates from the spin-dependent screening of the spin-polarized Dirac fermion. The prediction will promote the realization of well-controlled and switchable data storage in all-silicon electronics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Mechanics of responsive polymers via conformationally switchable molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Roberto; Artoni, Federico; Vernerey, Franck; Torelli, Martina; Pedrini, Alessandro; Domenichelli, Ilaria; Dalcanale, Enrico

    2018-04-01

    Active materials are those capable of giving some physical reaction under external stimuli coming from the environment such as temperature, pH, light, mechanical stress, etc. Reactive polymeric materials can be obtained through the introduction of switchable molecules in their network, i.e. molecules having two distinct stable conformations: if properly linked to the hosting polymer chains, the switching from one state to the other can promote a mechanical reaction of the material, detectable at the macroscale, and thus enables us to tune the response according to a desired functionality. In the present paper, the main aspects of the mechanical behavior of polymeric materials with embedded switchable molecules-properly linked to the polymer's chains-are presented and discussed. Starting from the micro mechanisms occurring in such active material, a continuum model is developed, providing a straightforward implementation in computational approaches. Finally, some experimental outcomes related to a switchable molecules (known as quinoxaline cavitands) added to an elastomeric PDMS under chemical stimuli, are presented and quantitatively discussed through the use of the developed mechanical framework.

  1. Light output improvement of GaN-based light-emitting diodes grown on Si (111) by a via-thin-film structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zengcheng; Feng, Bo; Deng, Biao; Liu, Legong; Huang, Yingnan; Feng, Meixin; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Hanmin; Sun, Qian; Wang, Huaibing; Yang, Xiaoli; Yang, Hui

    2018-04-01

    This work reports the fabrication of via-thin-film light-emitting diode (via-TF-LED) to improve the light output power (LOP) of blue/white GaN-based LEDs grown on Si (111) substrates. The as-fabricated via-TF-LEDs were featured with a roughened n-GaN surface and the p-GaN surface bonded to a wafer carrier with a silver-based reflective electrode, together with an array of embedded n-type via pillar metal contact from the p-GaN surface etched through the multiple-quantum-wells (MQWs) into the n-GaN layer. When operated at 350 mA, the via-TF-LED gave an enhanced blue LOP by 7.8% and over 3.5 times as compared to the vertical thin-film LED (TF-LED) and the conventional lateral structure LED (LS-LED). After covering with yellow phosphor that converts some blue photons into yellow light, the via-TF-LED emitted an enhanced white luminous flux by 13.5% and over 5 times, as compared with the white TF-LED and the white LS-LED, respectively. The significant LOP improvement of the via-TF-LED was attributed to the elimination of light absorption by the Si (111) epitaxial substrate and the finger-like n-electrodes on the roughened emitting surface. Project supported by the National Key R&D Program (Nos. 2016YFB0400100, 2016YFB0400104), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61534007, 61404156, 61522407, 61604168, 61775230), the Key Frontier Scientific Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. QYZDB-SSW-JSC014), the Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Key R&D Program of Jiangsu Province (No. BE2017079), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province (No. BK20160401), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2016M591944). This work was also supported by the Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications (No. SKLA-2016-01), the Open Fund of the State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics (Nos. IOSKL2016KF04, IOSKL2016KF07), and the Seed Fund from SINANO

  2. Ferroelectric nanostructure having switchable multi-stable vortex states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumov, Ivan I [Fayetteville, AR; Bellaiche, Laurent M [Fayetteville, AR; Prosandeev, Sergey A [Fayetteville, AR; Ponomareva, Inna V [Fayetteville, AR; Kornev, Igor A [Fayetteville, AR

    2009-09-22

    A ferroelectric nanostructure formed as a low dimensional nano-scale ferroelectric material having at least one vortex ring of polarization generating an ordered toroid moment switchable between multi-stable states. A stress-free ferroelectric nanodot under open-circuit-like electrical boundary conditions maintains such a vortex structure for their local dipoles when subject to a transverse inhomogeneous static electric field controlling the direction of the macroscopic toroidal moment. Stress is also capable of controlling the vortex's chirality, because of the electromechanical coupling that exists in ferroelectric nanodots.

  3. On/off-switchable anti-neoplastic nanoarchitecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Hirak K.; Imani, Roghayeh; Jangamreddy, Jaganmohan R.; Pazoki, Meysam; Iglič, Aleš; Turner, Anthony P. F.; Tiwari, Ashutosh

    2015-09-01

    Throughout the world, there are increasing demands for alternate approaches to advanced cancer therapeutics. Numerous potentially chemotherapeutic compounds are developed every year for clinical trial and some of them are considered as potential drug candidates. Nanotechnology-based approaches have accelerated the discovery process, but the key challenge still remains to develop therapeutically viable and physiologically safe materials suitable for cancer therapy. Here, we report a high turnover, on/off-switchable functionally popping reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator using a smart mesoporous titanium dioxide popcorn (TiO2 Pops) nanoarchitecture. The resulting TiO2 Pops, unlike TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs), are exceptionally biocompatible with normal cells. Under identical conditions, TiO2 Pops show very high photocatalytic activity compared to TiO2 NPs. Upon on/off-switchable photo activation, the TiO2 Pops can trigger the generation of high-turnover flash ROS and can deliver their potential anticancer effect by enhancing the intracellular ROS level until it crosses the threshold to open the ‘death gate’, thus reducing the survival of cancer cells by at least six times in comparison with TiO2 NPs without affecting the normal cells.

  4. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  5. Ferroelectrics: A pathway to switchable surface chemistry and catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakekhani, Arvin; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Altman, Eric I.

    2016-08-01

    It has been known for more than six decades that ferroelectricity can affect a material's surface physics and chemistry thereby potentially enhancing its catalytic properties. Ferroelectrics are a class of materials with a switchable electrical polarization that can affect surface stoichiometry and electronic structure and thus adsorption energies and modes; e.g., molecular versus dissociative. Therefore, ferroelectrics may be utilized to achieve switchable surface chemistry whereby surface properties are not fixed but can be dynamically controlled by, for example, applying an external electric field or modulating the temperature. Several important examples of applications of ferroelectric and polar materials in photocatalysis and heterogeneous catalysis are discussed. In photocatalysis, the polarization direction can control band bending at water/ferroelectric and ferroelectric/semiconductor interfaces, thereby facilitating charge separation and transfer to the electrolyte and enhancing photocatalytic activity. For gas-surface interactions, available results suggest that using ferroelectrics to support catalytically active transition metals and oxides is another way to enhance catalytic activity. Finally, the possibility of incorporating ferroelectric switching into the catalytic cycle itself is described. In this scenario, a dynamic collaboration of two polarization states can be used to drive reactions that have been historically challenging to achieve on surfaces with fixed chemical properties (e.g., direct NOx decomposition and the selective partial oxidation of methane). These predictions show that dynamic modulation of the polarization can help overcome some of the fundamental limitations on catalytic activity imposed by the Sabatier principle.

  6. Chromogenic switchable glazing: Towards the development of the smart window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M.

    1995-06-01

    The science and technology of chromogenic materials for switchable glazings in building applications is discussed. These glazings can be used for dynamic control of solar and visible energy. Currently many researchers and engineers are involved with the development of products in this field. A summary of activities in Japan, Europe, Australia, USA and Canada is made. The activities of the International Energy Agency are included. Both non-electrically activated and electrically activated glazings are discussed. Technologies covered in the first category are photochromics, and thermochromics and thermotropics. A discussion of electrically activated chromogenic glazings includes dispersed liquid crystals, dispersed particles and electrochromics. A selection of device structures and performance characteristics are compared. A discussion of transparent conductors is presented. Technical issues concerning large-area development of smart windows are discussed.

  7. A power-efficient switchable CML driver at 10 Gbps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Peipei; Li Lei; Liu Huihua

    2016-01-01

    High static power limits the application of conventional current-mode logic(CML). This paper presents a power-efficient switchable CML driver, which achieves a significant current saving by 75% compared with conventional ones. Implemented in the 130 nm CMOS technology process, the proposed CML driver just occupies an area about 0.003 mm 2 and provides a robust differential signal of 1600 mV for 10 Gbps optical line terminal (OLT) with a total current of 10 mA. The peak-to-peak jitter is about 4 ps (0.04T UI ) and the offset voltage is 347.2 mV @ 1600 mV PP . (paper)

  8. A power-efficient switchable CML driver at 10 Gbps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipei, Chen; Lei, Li; Huihua, Liu

    2016-02-01

    High static power limits the application of conventional current-mode logic(CML). This paper presents a power-efficient switchable CML driver, which achieves a significant current saving by 75% compared with conventional ones. Implemented in the 130 nm CMOS technology process, the proposed CML driver just occupies an area about 0.003 mm2 and provides a robust differential signal of 1600 mV for 10 Gbps optical line terminal (OLT) with a total current of 10 mA. The peak-to-peak jitter is about 4 ps (0.04TUI) and the offset voltage is 347.2 mV @ 1600 mVPP.

  9. Digitally switchable multi-focal lens using freeform optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Qin, Yi; Hua, Hong; Lee, Yun-Han; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2018-04-16

    Optical technologies offering electrically tunable optical power have found a broad range of applications, from head-mounted displays for virtual and augmented reality applications to microscopy. In this paper, we present a novel design and prototype of a digitally switchable multi-focal lens (MFL) that offers the capability of rapidly switching the optical power of the system among multiple foci. It consists of a freeform singlet and a customized programmable optical shutter array (POSA). Time-multiplexed multiple foci can be obtained by electrically controlling the POSA to switch the light path through different segments of the freeform singlet rapidly. While this method can be applied to a broad range of imaging and display systems, we experimentally demonstrate a proof-of-concept prototype for a multi-foci imaging system.

  10. Photo-switchable two-dimensional nanofluidic ionic diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lili; Feng, Yaping; Zhou, Yi; Jia, Meijuan; Wang, Guojie; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Lei

    2017-06-01

    The bottom-up assembly of ion-channel-mimetic nanofluidic devices and materials with two-dimensional (2D) nano-building blocks paves a straightforward way towards the real-world applications of the novel transport phenomena on a nano- or sub-nanoscale. One immediate challenge is to provide the 2D nanofluidic systems with adaptive responsibilities and asymmetric ion transport characteristics. Herein, we introduce a facile and general strategy to provide a graphene-oxide-based 2D nanofluidic system with photo-switchable ionic current rectification (ICR). The degree of ICR can be prominently enhanced upon UV irradiation and it can be perfectly retrieved under irradiation with visible light. A maximum ICR ratio of about 48 was achieved. The smart and functional nanofluidic devices have applications in energy conversion, chemical sensing, water treatment, etc .

  11. Enhancement of light output power of GaN-based light-emitting diodes with photonic quasi-crystal patterned on p-GaN surface and n-side sidewall roughing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, GaN-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with photonic quasi-crystal (PQC) structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing by nano-imprint lithography are fabricated and investigated. At an injection current of 20 mA, the LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing increased the light output power of the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well LEDs by a factor of 1.42, and the wall-plug efficiency is 26% higher than the conventional GaN-based LED type. After 500-h life test (55°C/50 mA), it was found that the normalized output power of GaN-based LED with PQC structure on p-GaN surface and n-side roughing only decreased by 6%. These results offer promising potential to enhance the light output powers of commercial light-emitting devices using the technique of nano-imprint lithography. PMID:23683526

  12. Switchable Adhesion in Vacuum Using Bio-Inspired Dry Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purtov, Julia; Frensemeier, Mareike; Kroner, Elmar

    2015-11-04

    Suction based attachment systems for pick and place handling of fragile objects like glass plates or optical lenses are energy-consuming and noisy and fail at reduced air pressure, which is essential, e.g., in chemical and physical vapor deposition processes. Recently, an alternative approach toward reversible adhesion of sensitive objects based on bioinspired dry adhesive structures has emerged. There, the switching in adhesion is achieved by a reversible buckling of adhesive pillar structures. In this study, we demonstrate that these adhesives are capable of switching adhesion not only in ambient air conditions but also in vacuum. Our bioinspired patterned adhesive with an area of 1 cm(2) provided an adhesion force of 2.6 N ± 0.2 N in air, which was reduced to 1.9 N ± 0.2 N if measured in vacuum. Detachment was induced by buckling of the structures due to a high compressive preload and occurred, independent of air pressure, at approximately 0.9 N ± 0.1 N. The switch in adhesion was observed at a compressive preload between 5.6 and 6.0 N and was independent of air pressure. The difference between maximum adhesion force and adhesion force after buckling gives a reasonable window of operation for pick and place processes. High reversibility of the switching behavior is shown over 50 cycles in air and in vacuum, making the bioinspired switchable adhesive applicable for handling operations of fragile objects.

  13. Ion beam analysis of oxidation and hydrogenation of switchable mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, M.C.; Jongerden, M.R.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of Y, La or rare earth (RE) hydrides exhibit a metal insulator transition between their di- and trihydride phase. After H loading lateral diffusion samples of these materials contain an overview of all hydride phases present in the thin film phase diagram. In this paper the thin film YH x system will be investigated. The unexpected presence of a lateral oxygen profile in the YH x sample necessitates a careful interpretation of local hydrogen concentration differences. In this paper the potential of ion beam analysis will be discussed with respect to the investigation of oxidation and hydrogenation of YH x switchable mirrors. The results of the measurements will be discussed in terms of differences between bulk- and thin-film-phase diagrams of YH x . The experimental methods used are 1 H ( 4 He, 1 H) 4 He elastic recoil detection at 5 MeV and 16 O( 4 He, 4 He) 16 O resonant backscattering around 3.036 MeV

  14. Ion beam analysis of oxidation and hydrogenation of switchable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, M.C. E-mail: huisman@nat.vu.nl; Jongerden, M.R.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D

    2001-07-01

    Thin films of Y, La or rare earth (RE) hydrides exhibit a metal insulator transition between their di- and trihydride phase. After H loading lateral diffusion samples of these materials contain an overview of all hydride phases present in the thin film phase diagram. In this paper the thin film YH{sub x} system will be investigated. The unexpected presence of a lateral oxygen profile in the YH{sub x} sample necessitates a careful interpretation of local hydrogen concentration differences. In this paper the potential of ion beam analysis will be discussed with respect to the investigation of oxidation and hydrogenation of YH{sub x} switchable mirrors. The results of the measurements will be discussed in terms of differences between bulk- and thin-film-phase diagrams of YH{sub x}. The experimental methods used are {sup 1}H ({sup 4}He, {sup 1}H){sup 4}He elastic recoil detection at 5 MeV and {sup 16}O({sup 4}He, {sup 4}He){sup 16}O resonant backscattering around 3.036 MeV.

  15. Temperature-responsive PLLA/PNIPAM nanofibers for switchable release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elashnikov, Roman; Slepička, Petr [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic); Rimpelova, Silvie; Ulbrich, Pavel [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Chemistry and Technology, 16628 Prague (Czech Republic); Švorčík, Vaclav [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic); Lyutakov, Oleksiy, E-mail: lyutakoo@vscht.cz [Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague 166 28 (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    Smart antimicrobial materials with on-demand drug release are highly desired for biomedical applications. Herein, we report about temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) nanospheres doped with crystal violet (CV) and incorporated into the poly-L-lactide (PLLA) nanofibers. The nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning, using different initial polymers ratios. The morphology of the nanofibers and polymers distribution in the nanofibers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The interaction between PNIPAM and PLLA in the nanofibers was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and its effect on the PNIPAM phase transition was also investigated. It was shown that by the changing of the environmental temperature across the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of PNIPAM, the switchable wettability and controlled CV release can be achieved. The temperature-dependent release kinetics of CV from polymer nanofibers was investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis). The temperature-responsive release of antibacterial CV was also tested for triggering of antibacterial activity, which was examined on Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). Thus, the proposed material is promising value for controllable drug-release.

  16. A large, switchable optical clearing skull window for cerebrovascular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Feng, Wei; Zhao, Yanjie; Yu, Tingting; Li, Pengcheng; Xu, Tonghui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Rationale: Intravital optical imaging is a significant method for investigating cerebrovascular structure and function. However, its imaging contrast and depth are limited by the turbid skull. Tissue optical clearing has a great potential for solving this problem. Our goal was to develop a transparent skull window, without performing a craniotomy, for use in assessing cerebrovascular structure and function. Methods: Skull optical clearing agents were topically applied to the skulls of mice to create a transparent window within 15 min. The clearing efficacy, repeatability, and safety of the skull window were then investigated. Results: Imaging through the optical clearing skull window enhanced both the contrast and the depth of intravital imaging. The skull window could be used on 2-8-month-old mice and could be expanded from regional to bi-hemispheric. In addition, the window could be repeatedly established without inducing observable inflammation and metabolic toxicity. Conclusion: We successfully developed an easy-to-handle, large, switchable, and safe optical clearing skull window. Combined with various optical imaging techniques, cerebrovascular structure and function can be observed through this optical clearing skull window. Thus, it has the potential for use in basic research on the physiopathologic processes of cortical vessels. PMID:29774069

  17. Small Square Reconfigurable Antenna with Switchable Single/Tri-Band Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Borhani Kakhki

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel frequency reconfigurable slot antenna for suitable switchable radiations at WLAN and a tri-band at Bluetooth, WiMAX and upper WLAN applications is designed and fabricated. Switchable frequency responses are achieved by implementation of a PIN diode within the antenna ground plane. The antenna structure is consist of a square radiation patch with an E-shaped slot, a modified ground plane with an inverted T-shaped strip that act as a parasitic stub and two parallel slots and a protruded strip which is connected to the parasitic stub with a PIN diode. The presented antenna has a compact size of 20×20 mm2 while providing switchable radiations at 2.36-2.5 GHz Bluetooth, 3.51-3.79 GHz WiMAX, and 5.47-5.98 GHz WLAN when diode is ON and 5.04-6.13 GHz WLAN when diode is OFF.

  18. Optimal control and performance of photovoltachromic switchable glazing for building integration in temperate climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favoino, Fabio; Fiorito, Francesco; Cannavale, Alessandro; Ranzi, Gianluca; Overend, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The features and properties of photovoltachromic switchable glazing are presented. • The different possible control strategies for the switchable glazing are presented. • Thermal and daylight performance are co-simulated for rule-based and optimal control. • A novel building performance simulation framework is developed for this aim. • Switchable glazing performance is compared for different controls and climates. - Abstract: The development of adaptive building envelope technologies, and particularly of switchable glazing, can make significant contributions to decarbonisation targets. It is therefore essential to quantify their effect on building energy use and indoor environmental quality when integrated into buildings. The evaluation of their performance presents new challenges when compared to conventional “static” building envelope systems, as they require design and control aspects to be evaluated together, which are also mutually interrelated across thermal and visual physical domains. This paper addresses these challenges by presenting a novel simulation framework for the performance evaluation of responsive building envelope technologies and, particularly, of switchable glazing. This is achieved by integrating a building energy simulation tool and a lighting simulation one, in a control optimisation framework to simulate advanced control of adaptive building envelopes. The performance of a photovoltachromic glazing is evaluated according to building energy use, Useful Daylight Illuminance, glare risk and load profile matching indicators for a sun oriented office building in different temperate climates. The original architecture of photovoltachromic cell provides an automatic control of its transparency as a function of incoming solar irradiance. However, to fully explore the building integration potential of photovoltachromic technology, different control strategies are evaluated, from passive and simple rule based controls, to

  19. A redox-switchable Au8-cluster sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Te-Haw; Hsu, Yu-Yen; Lin, Shu-Yi

    2012-07-09

    The proof of concept of a simple sensing platform based on the fluorescence of a gold cluster consisting of eight atoms, which is easily manipulated by reduction and oxidation of a specific molecule in the absence of chemical linkers, is demonstrated. Without using any coupling reagents to arrange the distance of the donor-acceptor pair, the fluorescence of the Au(8) -cluster is immediately switched off in the presence of 2-pyridinethiol (2-PyT) quencher. Through an upward-curving Stern-Volmer plot, the system shows complex fluorescence quenching with a combination of static and dynamic quenching processes. To analyze the static quenching constant (V) by a "sphere of action" model, the collisional encounter between the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT presents a quenching radius (r) ≈5.8 nm, which is larger than the sum of the radii of the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT. This implies that fluorescence quenching can occur even though the Au(8) -cluster and 2-PyT are not very close to each other. The quenching pathway may be derived from a photoinduced electron-transfer process of the encounter pair between the Au(8) -cluster (as an electron donor) and 2-PyT (as an electron acceptor) to allow efficient fluorescence quenching in the absence of coupling reagents. Interestingly, the fluorescence is restored by oxidation of 2-PyT to form the corresponding disulfide compound and then quenched again after the reduction of the disulfide. This redox-switchable fluorescent Au(8) -cluster platform is a novel discovery, and its utility as a promising sensor for detecting H(2) O(2) -generating enzymatic transformations is demonstrated. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.C.; van der Molen, S.J.; Vis, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Switchable mirrors made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in

  1. Construction of a 4 Zeptoliters Switchable 3D DNA Box Origami

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadegan, Reza Mohammad; Jepsen, Mette DE; Thomsen, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    The DNA origami technique is a recently developed self-assembly method that allows construction of 3D objects at the nanoscale for various applications. In the current study we report the production of a 18 × 18 × 24 nm3 hollow DNA box origami structure with a switchable lid. The structure...

  2. Electrically Reversible Redox-Switchable Polydopamine Films for Regulating Cell Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guoxin; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yuxuan; Ouyang, Kongyou; Zhou, Lei; Yu, Peng; Liao, Jinwen; Ning, Chengyun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The phenolic/quinone groups on polydopamine can redox-switchable reversible under electrical stimulation. • The quinone groups on PDA (oxidized PDA) enhanced cell spreading and proliferation. • The phenolic groups on PDA (reduced PDA) induced cell differentiation. - Abstract: Switchable surfaces that respond to external stimuli are important for regulating cell behavior. The results herein suggest that the redox process of polydopamine (PDA) is a switching reaction between oxidized polydopamine and reduced polydopamine, involving an interconversion of coupled two-proton (2H + ) and two-electron (2e − ) processes. The redox-switchable reversible surface potential arising from the potential-tunable redox reaction of the phenolic and quinone groups on PDA on titanium induced both cell adhesion and spreading. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the quinone groups on PDA greatly enhanced pre-osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 cell spreading and proliferation. Phenolic groups enhanced the induction of differentiation. The proposed methodology may allow further investigation of switchable surfaces for biological and medical applications.

  3. HMSIW-based switchable units using super compact loaded shunt stubs and its applications on SIW/HMSIW switches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haidong; Che, Wenquan; Zhang, Tianyu; Cao, Yue; Feng, Wenjie

    2018-06-01

    Half-mode substrate integrated waveguide (HMSIW) switchable unit, built by HMSIW section with loaded single or multi-microstrip shunt stub(s), was proposed in this work. Both shorted and opened stubs were studied, investigated and compared, bandwidth enhancement method for proposed switchable units was proposed and demonstrated. Based on these switchable units, narrowband and broadband HMSIW single-pole-single-through (SPST) switches, SIW SPST switch and SIW/HMSIW-based single-pole-double-through (SPDT) switch were designed, fabricated and measured. Good performances were observed experimentally for these proposed circuits, showing the advantages of proposed concept and an excellent candidate for switchable or reconfigurable SIW/HMSIW circuits or systems.

  4. Switchable photovoltaic windows enabled by reversible photothermal complex dissociation from methylammonium lead iodide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Lance M; Moore, David T; Ihly, Rachelle; Stanton, Noah J; Miller, Elisa M; Tenent, Robert C; Blackburn, Jeffrey L; Neale, Nathan R

    2017-11-23

    Materials with switchable absorption properties have been widely used for smart window applications to reduce energy consumption and enhance occupant comfort in buildings. In this work, we combine the benefits of smart windows with energy conversion by producing a photovoltaic device with a switchable absorber layer that dynamically responds to sunlight. Upon illumination, photothermal heating switches the absorber layer-composed of a metal halide perovskite-methylamine complex-from a transparent state (68% visible transmittance) to an absorbing, photovoltaic colored state (less than 3% visible transmittance) due to dissociation of methylamine. After cooling, the methylamine complex is re-formed, returning the absorber layer to the transparent state in which the device acts as a window to visible light. The thermodynamics of switching and performance of the device are described. This work validates a photovoltaic window technology that circumvents the fundamental tradeoff between efficient solar conversion and high visible light transmittance that limits conventional semitransparent PV window designs.

  5. Fast switchable ferroelectric liquid crystal gratings with two electro-optical modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ying; Srivastava, A. K.; Chigrinov, V. G.; Kwok, H.-S.; Wang, Xiaoqian

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we reveal a theoretical and experimental illustration of the Ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) grating fabricated by mean of patterned alignment based on photo-alignment. The complexity related to the mismatching of the predefined alignment domains on the top and bottom substrate has been avoided by incorporating only one side photo aligned substrate while the other substrate does not have any alignment layer. Depending on the easy axis in the said alignment domains and the azimuth plane of the impinging polarized light, the diffracting element can be tuned in two modes i.e. DIFF/OFF switchable and DIFF/TRANS switchable modes, which can be applied to different applications. The diffraction profile has been illustrated theoretically that fits well with the experimental finding and thus the proposed diffraction elements with fast response time and high diffraction efficiency could find application in many modern devices.

  6. Switchable coupling for superconducting qubits using double resonance in the presence of crosstalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashhab, S.; Nori, Franco

    2007-01-01

    Several methods have been proposed recently to achieve switchable coupling between superconducting qubits. We discuss some of the main considerations regarding the feasibility of implementing one of those proposals: The double-resonance method. We analyze mainly issues related to the achievable effective coupling strength and the effects of crosstalk on this coupling mechanism. We also find a crosstalk-assisted coupling channel that can be an attractive alternative when implementing the double-resonance coupling proposal

  7. Electrically switchable holographic liquid crystal/polymer Fresnel lens using a Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jashnsaz, Hossein; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Nemati, Hossein; Razavi, Seyed Hossein; Alidokht, Isa Ahmad

    2011-06-10

    A holographic technique for fabricating an electrically switchable liquid crystal/polymer composite Fresnel lens is reported. A Michelson interferometer is used to produce the required Fresnel pattern, by placing a convex lens into one path of the interferometer. Simplicity of the method and the possibility of fabricating different focal length lenses in a single arrangement are advantages of the method. The performance of the fabricated lens was demonstrated and its electro-optical properties were investigated for its primary focal length.

  8. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin; Wang, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  9. Grafted membranes and substrates having surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity and applications thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lianbin

    2013-10-10

    Disclosed herein are surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates exhibiting switchable oleophobicity and oleophilicity in aqueous media. These membranes and substrates may be used for variety of applications, including controllable oil/water separation processes, oil spill cleanup, and oil/water purification. Also provided are the making and processing of such surface-modified membranes and other surface-modified substrates.

  10. 2004 Survey of United States architects on the subject of switchable glazings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sottile, G.M.

    2005-01-01

    The 21st century has ushered in an era marked by the growing integration of technology and other scientific advances into commercial buildings and residential homes. Of particular interest to many architects, developers and builders are 'switchable' glazing, a new category of technologically advanced glass and plastic building materials that can be used to control light, glare and heat entering an office or a home. Interest in switchable glazing technology is influenced by a variety of factors, including a growing movement to offer sustainable, energy-efficient building solutions, and the emerging desire by users to maintain greater control over their working and living environments. This paper examines the movement toward sustainable development and the end-user needs that are driving it. Further, it presents the results of a proprietary survey research study of United States architects on the subject of switchable glazing. This study includes an examination of the attributes most desired by architects regarding smart window technology, and provides additional insight into the potential application of this smart material to the building community

  11. Temperature-Switchable Agglomeration of Magnetic Particles Designed for Continuous Separation Processes in Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Anja S; Heinzler, Raphael; Ooi, Huey Wen; Franzreb, Matthias

    2015-07-08

    The purpose of this work was the synthesis and characterization of thermally switchable magnetic particles for use in biotechnological applications such as protein purification and enzymatic conversions. Reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization was employed to synthesize poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) brushes via a "graft-from" approach on the surface of magnetic microparticles. The resulting particles were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis and their temperature-dependent agglomeration behavior was assessed. The influence of several factors on particle agglomeration (pH, temperature, salt type, and particle concentration) was evaluated. The results showed that a low pH value (pH 3-4), a kosmotropic salt (ammonium sulfate), and a high particle concentration (4 g/L) resulted in improved agglomeration at elevated temperature (40 °C). Recycling of particles and reversibility of the temperature-switchable agglomeration were successfully demonstrated for ten heating-cooling cycles. Additionally, enhanced magnetic separation was observed for the modified particles. Ionic monomers were integrated into the polymer chain to create end-group functionalized particles as well as two- and three-block copolymer particles for protein binding. The adsorption of lactoferrin, bovine serum albumin, and lysozyme to these ion exchange particles was evaluated and showed a binding capacity of up to 135 mg/g. The dual-responsive particles combined magnetic and thermoresponsive properties for switchable agglomeration, easy separability, and efficient protein adsorption.

  12. Switchable polarity solvent for liquid phase microextraction of Cd(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate chelates from environmental samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, Erkan, E-mail: kimyager_erkan@hotmail.com; Soylak, Mustafa, E-mail: soylak@erciyes.edu.tr

    2015-07-30

    A switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO{sub 2} (Dry ice) via proton transfer reaction has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) chelate. Cd(II)-APDC chelate was extracted into the switchable polarity solvent drops by adding 2 mL 10 M sodium hydroxide solution. Analytical parameters affecting the complex formation and microextraction efficiency such as pH, amount of ligand, volume of switchable polarity solvent and NaOH, sample volume were optimized. The effects of foreign ions were found tolerably. Under optimum conditions, the detection limit was 0.16 μg L{sup −1} (3Sb/m, n = 7) and the relative standard deviation was 5.4% (n = 7). The method was validated by the analysis of certified reference materials (TMDA-51.3 fortified water, TMDA-53.3 fortified water and SPS-WW2 waste water, 1573a Tomato Leaves and Oriental Basma Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5)) and addition/recovery tests. The method was successfully applied to determination of cadmium contents of water, vegetable, fruit and cigarette samples. - Highlights: • Switchable polarity solvent was synthesized from triethylamine (TEA)/water/CO{sub 2}. • The switchable polarity solvent has been used for the microextraction of cadmium(II). • The important factors were optimized. • The method was applied to determination of cadmium in real samples.

  13. Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La, Mao [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Sha, Ren, E-mail: sr@imnu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Inner Mongolia Normal University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, 010020 (China); Bao, Shanhu, E-mail: shanhu.bao@mail.sic.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China); Jin, Ping [State Key Laboratory of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, 200050 (China)

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • The PTFE films was prepared for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. • The PTFE as an antireflection layer to improve the luminous transmission, and also to enhance the switching durability of the switchable mirrors. • The PTFE film has a superhydrophobic surface, which endows the Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors with self-cleaning properties. - Abstract: The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium–yttrium (Mg–Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  14. Improved performance of Mg–Y alloy thin film switchable mirrors after coating with a superhydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, Mao; Zhou, Huaijuan; Li, Ning; Xin, Yunchuan; Sha, Ren; Bao, Shanhu; Jin, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The PTFE films was prepared for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. • The PTFE as an antireflection layer to improve the luminous transmission, and also to enhance the switching durability of the switchable mirrors. • The PTFE film has a superhydrophobic surface, which endows the Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors with self-cleaning properties. - Abstract: The magnesium based switchable mirrors can reversibly change their optical properties between the transparent and the reflective state as a result of hydrogenation and dehydrogenation. These films can potentially be applied as new energy-saving windows, by controlling the transmittance of solar radiation through the regulation of their reflective state. In this study, magnesium–yttrium (Mg–Y) alloy thin films were prepared using a DC magnetron sputtering method. However, the luminous transmittance in the transparent state and the switching durability of switchable mirrors are too poor to satisfy practical demands. In order to improve the films switching durability, luminous transmittance and the surface functionalization, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) was coated with thermal vacuum deposition for use as the top layer of Mg–Y/Pd switchable mirrors. The PTFE layer had a porous network structure and exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of approximately 152°. By characterization, PTFE thin films shows the excellent protection role against the oxidization of Mg, the switching durability of the films were improved 3 times, and also shows the antireflection role the luminous transmission of films was enhanced by 7% through the top covered with PTFE.

  15. Title: Studies on drug switchability showed heterogeneity in methodological approaches: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleudi, Valeria; Trotta, Francesco; Vecchi, Simona; Amato, Laura; Addis, Antonio; Davoli, Marina

    2018-05-16

    Several drugs share the same therapeutic indication, including those undergoing patent expiration. Concerns on the interchangeability are frequent in clinical practice, challenging the evaluation of switchability through observational research. To conduct a scoping review of observational studies on drug switchability to identify methodological strategies adopted to deal with bias and confounding. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science (updated 1/31/2017) to identify studies evaluating switchability in terms of effectiveness/safety outcomes or compliance. Three reviewers independently screened studies extracting all characteristics. Strategies to address confounding, particularly, previous drug use and switching reasons were considered. All findings were summarized in descriptive analyses. Thirty-two studies, published in the last 10 years, met the inclusion criteria. Epilepsy, cardiovascular and rheumatology were the most frequently represented clinical areas. 75% of the studies reported data on effectiveness/safety outcomes. The most frequent study design was cohort (65.6%) followed by case-control (21.9%) and self-controlled (12.5%). Case-control and case-crossover studies showed homogeneous methodological strategies to deal with bias and confounding. Among cohort studies, the confounding associated with previous drug use was addressed introducing variables in multivariate model (47.3%) or selecting only adherent patients (14.3%). Around 30% of cohort studies did not report reasons for switching. In the remaining 70%, clinical parameters or previous occurrence of outcomes were measured to identify switching connected with lack of effectiveness or adverse events. This study represents a starting point for researchers and administrators who are approaching the investigation and assessment of issues related to interchangeability of drugs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Smart window using a thermally and optically switchable liquid crystal cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Won; Kim, Sang-Hyeok; Baek, Jong-Min; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Light shutter technologies that can control optical transparency have been studied extensively for developing curtain-free smart windows. We introduce thermally and optically switchable light shutters using LCs doped with push-pull azobenzene, which is known to speed up thermal relaxation. The liquid crystal light shutter can be switched between translucent and transparent states or transparent and opaque states by phase transition through changing temperature or photo-isomerization of doped azobenzene. The liquid crystal light shutter can be used for privacy windows with an initial translucent state or energy-saving windows with an initial transparent state.

  17. Switchable reconfiguration of nucleic acid nanostructures by stimuli-responsive DNA machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Lu, Chun-Hua; Willner, Itamar

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: The base sequence in DNA dictates structural and reactivity features of the biopolymer. These properties are implemented to use DNA as a unique material for developing the area of DNA nanotechnology. The design of DNA machines represents a rapidly developing research field in the area of DNA nanotechnology. The present Account discusses the switchable reconfiguration of nucleic acid nanostructures by stimuli-responsive DNA machines, and it highlights potential applications and future perspectives of the area. Programmed switchable DNA machines driven by various fuels and antifuels, such as pH, Hg(2+) ions/cysteine, or nucleic acid strands/antistrands, are described. These include the assembly of DNA tweezers, walkers, a rotor, a pendulum, and more. Using a pH-oscillatory system, the oscillatory mechanical operation of a DNA pendulum is presented. Specifically, the synthesis and "mechanical" properties of interlocked DNA rings are described. This is exemplified with the preparation of interlocked DNA catenanes and a DNA rotaxane. The dynamic fuel-driven reconfiguration of the catenane/rotaxane structures is followed by fluorescence spectroscopy. The use of DNA machines as functional scaffolds to reconfigurate Au nanoparticle assemblies and to switch the fluorescence features within fluorophore/Au nanoparticle conjugates between quenching and surface-enhanced fluorescence states are addressed. Specifically, the fluorescence features of the different DNA machines are characterized as a function of the spatial separation between the fluorophore and Au nanoparticles. The experimental results are supported by theoretical calculations. The future development of reconfigurable stimuli-responsive DNA machines involves fundamental challenges, such as the synthesis of molecular devices exhibiting enhanced complexities, the introduction of new fuels and antifuels, and the integration of new payloads being reconfigured by the molecular devices, such as enzymes or

  18. Development of design of a radioisotope switchable neutron source and new portable detector of smuggling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskhi, L.; Kurdadze, L.

    2010-01-01

    Development of simple and cheap radioisotope switchable neutron source for application in the portable device of detecting of smuggling is presented. Detailed calculations (Monte-Carlo modeling) for the purpose of optimization of a design of the source and the detector module are carried out. The sufficient an yield of neutrons, about 2 o 105 n/s provides the source with the sizes of approx 25 x 25 x 60 mm 3. Results of simulation of scanning smuggling areas (polyethylene 10 x 10 x 5 cm 3) behind the thick steel wall (1.2 cm) gave the relation of signal/ background 7-8

  19. Switchable multiwavelength fiber laser by using a compact in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qianwu; Zeng, Xianglong; Pang, Fufei; Wang, Min; Wang, Tingyun

    2012-01-01

    We propose a simple and compact method for implementing an in-fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer, which is constructed with two optical paths, propagating through the core and the ring-shaped silica cladding modes in the double-cladding fibers. Strong cladding-mode resonance across the thin inner cladding is used to excite the cladding modes. The measured spectra fringe presents high-contrast interference from cascading a pair of well-overlapped resonant spectra dips. In combination with the nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique, switchable and tunable multi-channel laser outputs are experimentally demonstrated with a fluctuation of less than 0.1 dB. (paper)

  20. Bioinspired Layer-by-Layer Microcapsules Based on Cellulose Nanofibers with Switchable Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulraj, Thomas; Riazanova, Anastasia V; Yao, Kun

    2017-01-01

    Green, all-polysaccharide based microcapsules with mechanically robust capsule walls and fast, stimuli-triggered, and switchable permeability behavior show great promise in applications based on selective and timed permeability. Taking a cue from nature, the build-up and composition of plant......-by-layer technique on sacrificial CaCO3 templates, using plant polysaccharides (pectin, cellulose nanofibers, and xyloglucan) only. In water, the capsule wall was permeable to labeled dextrans with a hydrodynamic diameter of ∼6.6 nm. Upon exposure to NaCl, the porosity of the capsule wall quickly changed allowing...

  1. A Planar Switchable 3-D-Coverage Phased Array Antenna and Its User Effects for 28-GHz Mobile Terminal Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shuai; Chen, Xiaoming; Syrytsin, Igor A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a planar switchable 3D-coverage phased array for 28 GHz mobile terminal applications. In order to realize 3D-coverage beam scan with a simple planar array, chassis surface waves are efficiently excited and controlled by three identical slot subarrays. Three subarrays switch...

  2. A Multi-Addressable Dyad with Switchable CMY Colors for Full-Color Rewritable Papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tianyou; Han, Jiaqi; Geng, Yue; Ju, Le; Sheng, Lan; Zhang, Sean Xiao-An

    2018-06-23

    Reversible multicolor displays on solid media using single molecule pigments have been a long-awaited goal. Herein, a new and simple molecular dyad, which can undergo switchable CMY color changes both in solution and solid substrate upon exposure to light, water/acid, and nucleophiles, is designed and synthesized. The stimuli used in this work can be applied independent of each other, which is beneficial for color changes without mutual interference. As a comparison, the mixtures of the two molecular switching motifs forming the basis of the dyad were also studied. The dyad greatly outperforms the corresponding mixed system with respect to reversible color-switching on the paper substrate. Its potential for full-color rewritable paper with excellent reversibility has been demonstrated. Legible multicolor prints, that is, high color contrast and resolution, good dispersion, excellent reversibility, were achieved using common water-jet and light-based printers. This work provides a very promising approach for further development of full-color switchable molecules, materials and displays. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Temperature-dependent transformation thermotics for unsteady states: Switchable concentrator for transient heat flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying, E-mail: 13110290008@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Shen, Xiangying, E-mail: 13110190068@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang, Jiping, E-mail: jphuang@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ni, Yushan, E-mail: niyushan@fudan.edu.cn [Department of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2016-04-22

    For manipulating heat flow efficiently, recently we established a theory of temperature-dependent transformation thermotics which holds for steady-state cases. Here, we develop the theory to unsteady-state cases by considering the generalized Fourier's law for transient thermal conduction. As a result, we are allowed to propose a new class of intelligent thermal metamaterial — switchable concentrator, which is made of inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. When environmental temperature is below or above a critical value, the concentrator is automatically switched on, namely, it helps to focus heat flux in a specific region. However, the focusing does not affect the distribution pattern of temperature outside the concentrator. We also perform finite-element simulations to confirm the switching effect according to the effective medium theory by assembling homogeneous isotropic materials, which bring more convenience for experimental fabrication than inhomogeneous anisotropic materials. This work may help to figure out new intelligent thermal devices, which provide more flexibility in controlling heat flow, and it may also be useful in other fields that are sensitive to temperature gradient, such as the Seebeck effect. - Highlights: • Established the unsteady-state temperature dependent transformation thermotics. • A thermal concentrator with switchable functionality. • An effective-medium design for experimental realization.

  4. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercjak, Agnieszka; Gutierrez, Junkal; Ocando, Connie; Mondragon, Iñaki

    2010-03-16

    Conductive properties of different thermosetting materials modified with nematic 4'-(hexyl)-4-biphenyl-carbonitrile (HBC) liquid crystal and rutile TiO(2) nanoparticles were successfully studied by means of tunneling atomic force miscroscopy (TUNA). Taking into account the liquid crystal state of the HBC at room temperature, depending on both the HBC content and the presence of TiO(2) nanoparticles, designed materials showed different TUNA currents passed through the sample. The addition of TiO(2) nanoparticles into the systems multiply the detected current if compared to the thermosetting systems without TiO(2) nanoparticles and simultaneously stabilized the current passed through the sample, making the process reversible since the absolute current values were almost the same applying both negative and positive voltage. Moreover, thermosetting systems modified with liquid crystals with and without TiO(2) nanoparticles are photoluminescence switchable materials as a function of temperature gradient during repeatable heating/cooling cycle. Conductive properties of switchable photoluminescence thermosetting systems based on liquid crystals can allow them to find potential application in the field of photoresponsive devices, with a high contrast ratio between transparent and opaque states.

  5. Smart surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media: Toward controllable oil/water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.

    2012-02-01

    Advanced materials with surfaces that have controllable oil wettability when submerged in aqueous media have great potential for various underwater applications. Here we have developed smart surfaces on commonly used materials, including non-woven textiles and polyurethane sponges, which are able to switch between superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media. The smart surfaces are obtained by grafting a block copolymer, comprising blocks of pH-responsive poly(2-vinylpyridine) and oleophilic/hydrophobic polydimethylsiloxane (i.e., P2VP-b-PDMS) on these materials. The P2VP block can alter its wettability and its conformation via protonation and deprotonation in response to the pH of the aqueous media, which provides controllable and switchable access of oil by the PDMS block, resulting in the switchable surface oil wettability in the aqueous media. On the other hand, the high flexibility of the PDMS block facilitates the reversible switching of the surface oil wettability. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrate that materials functionalized with our smart surfaces can be used for highly controllable oil/water separation processes.

  6. Synthesis and Guest Recognition of Switchable Pt-Salphen Based Molecular Tweezers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorien Benda

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Molecular tweezers are artificial receptors that have an open cavity generated by two recognition units pre-organized by a spacer. Switchable molecular tweezers, using a stimuli-responsive spacer, are particularly appealing as prototypes of the molecular machines that combine mechanical motion and allosteric recognition properties. In this present study, the synthesis of switchable molecular tweezers composed of a central terpyridine unit substituted in 4,4″ positions by two Pt(II-salphen complexes is reported. The terpyridine ligand can be reversibly converted upon Zn(II coordination from a free ‘U’-shaped closed form to a coordinated ‘W’ open form. This new substitution pattern enables a reverse control of the mechanical motion compared to the previously reported 6,6″ substituted terpyridine-based tweezers. Guest binding studies with aromatic guests showed an intercalation of coronene in the cavity created by the Pt-salphen moieties in the closed conformation. The formation of 1:1 host-guest complex was investigated by a combination of NMR studies and DFT calculations.

  7. A Switchable Linker-Based Immunoassay for Ultrasensitive Visible Detection of Salmonella in Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Jungwoo; Kim, Eunghee; You, Young Sang; Gunasekaran, Sundaram; Lim, Seokwon; Choi, Young Jin

    2017-10-01

    On-site detection for sensitive identification of foodborne pathogens on fresh produce with minimal use of specialized instrumentation is crucial to the food industry. A switchable linker (SL)-based immunoassay was designed for ultrasensitive on-site detection of Salmonella in tomato samples. The assay is based on large-scale aggregation of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), induced by a quantitative relationship among the biotinylated Salmonella polyclonal antibody (b-Ab) used as the SL, the functionalized GNPs, and Salmonella. Important factors such as the concentration of SLs, time required for large-scale aggregation, and selectivity of b-Ab were optimized to minimize the detection time (within 45 min with gentle agitation) and achieve the lowest limit of detection (LOD; 10 CFU/g in tomato samples) possible. This SL-based immunoassay with its relatively low LOD and short detection time may meet the need for rapid, simple, on-site analysis of pathogens in fresh produce. The novel switchable linker-based immunoassay is a rapid, specific, and sensitive method that has potential applications for routine diagnostics of Salmonella in tomato products. These advantages make it a practical approach for general use in the processing industry to detect Salmonella rapidly and to implement appropriate regulatory procedures. Furthermore, it could be applied to other fresh products including cantaloupe, strawberry, and cucumbers. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. A ferroelectric switchable tunnel junction: KNbO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahmanizadeh, Kourosh; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Wortmann, Daniel; Bluegel, Stefan [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-1) and Institute for Advanced Simulation (IAS-1), Forschungszentrum Juelich and JARA, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The properties of thin oxide films and multilayers are strongly influenced by defects and, therefore, can be controllably tuned by the defect concentration at the interface. For example, due to the charge discontinuity at the SrTiO{sub 3}/KO-KNbO{sub 3}-NbO{sub 2}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface only one direction of polarization in KNbO{sub 3} film is stable. A switchable polarization in KNbO{sub 3} can be realized by creating (oxygen) defects at the interfaces. We carried out density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the full potential linearized augmented planewave (FLAPW) method as implemented in the FLEUR code for studying the polar interface SrTiO{sub 3}/KNbO{sub 3} and a SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}/KNbO{sub 3} tunnel junction. The electronic transport properties of the switchable multiferroic SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}/KO-KNbO{sub 3}-NbO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}/SrRuO{sub 3} heterostructure have been investigated using an embedded Green-function approach. A strong dependence of the (magneto electric) transport properties on the polarization is observed.

  9. Borophene as a Promising Material for Charge-Modulated Switchable CO2 Capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2017-06-14

    Ideal carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) capture materials for practical applications should bind CO 2 molecules neither too weakly to limit good loading kinetics nor too strongly to limit facile release. Although charge-modulated switchable CO 2 capture has been proposed to be a controllable, highly selective, and reversible CO 2 capture strategy, the development of a practical gas-adsorbent material remains a great challenge. In this study, by means of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we have examined the possibility of conductive borophene nanosheets as promising sorbent materials for charge-modulated switchable CO 2 capture. Our results reveal that the binding strength of CO 2 molecules on negatively charged borophene can be significantly enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At saturation CO 2 capture coverage, the negatively charged borophene achieves CO 2 capture capacities up to 6.73 × 10 14 cm -2 . In contrast to the other CO 2 capture methods, the CO 2 capture/release processes on negatively charged borophene are reversible with fast kinetics and can be easily controlled via switching on/off the charges carried by borophene nanosheets. Moreover, these negatively charged borophene nanosheets are highly selective for separating CO 2 from mixtures with CH 4 , H 2 , and/or N 2 . This theoretical exploration will provide helpful guidance for identifying experimentally feasible, controllable, highly selective, and high-capacity CO 2 capture materials with ideal thermodynamics and reversibility.

  10. Development and characterization of amorphous acrylate networks for use as switchable adhesives inspired from shapememory behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Nishant

    Several types of insects and animals such as spiders and geckos are inherently able to climb along vertical walls and ceilings. This remarkable switchable adhesive behavior has been attributed to the fibrillar structures on their feet, with size ranging from few nanometers to a few micrometers depending on the species. Several studies have attempted to create synthetic micro-patterned surfaces trying to imitate this adhesive behavior seen in nature. The experimental procedures are scattered, with sole purpose of trying to increase adhesion, thereby making direct comparison between studies very difficult. There is a lack of fundamental understanding on adhesion of patterned surfaces. The influence of critical parameters like material modulus, glass transition temperature, viscoelastic effects, temperature and water absorption on adhesion is not fully explored and characterized. These parameters are expected to have a decisive influence on adhesion behavior of the polymer. Previous studies have utilized conventional "off-the-shelf" materials like epoxy, polyurethanes etc. It is however, impossible to change the material modulus, glass transition temperature etc. of these polymer systems without changing the base constituents itself, thereby explaining the gaps in the current research landscape. The purpose of this study was to use acrylate shape-memory polymers (SMPs) for their ability to be tailored to specific mechanical properties by control of polymer chemistry, without changing the base constituents. Polymer networks with tailorable glass transition, material modulus, water absorption etc. were developed and adhesion studies were performed to investigate the influence of temperature, viscoelastic effects, material modulus on the adhesion behavior of flat acrylate polymer surfaces. The knowledge base gained from these studies was utilized to better understand the fundamental mechanisms associated with adhesion behavior of patterned acrylate surfaces. Thermally

  11. Surface induces different crystal structures in a room temperature switchable spin crossover compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Liscio, Fabiola; Demitri, Nicola; Schäfer, Bernhard; Borgatti, Francesco; Torelli, Piero; Gobaut, Benoit; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio; Degli Esposti, Alessandra; Gazzano, Massimo; Milita, Silvia; Bergenti, Ilaria; Ruani, Giampiero; Šalitroš, Ivan; Ruben, Mario; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2016-01-07

    We investigated the influence of surfaces in the formation of different crystal structures of a spin crossover compound, namely [Fe(L)2] (LH: (2-(pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)pyridine), which is a neutral compound thermally switchable around room temperature. We observed that the surface induces the formation of two different crystal structures, which exhibit opposite spin transitions, i.e. on heating them up to the transition temperature, one polymorph switches from high spin to low spin and the second polymorph switches irreversibly from low spin to high spin. We attributed this inversion to the presence of water molecules H-bonded to the complex tetrazolyl moieties in the crystals. Thin deposits were investigated by means of polarized optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro Raman spectroscopy; moreover the analysis of the Raman spectra and the interpretation of spin inversion were supported by DFT calculations.

  12. Achieving dynamic switchable filter based on a transmutable metasurface using SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose a switchable filter composed of transmutable array using shape memory alloys (SMA. It could exhibit a temperature induced morphology change spontaneously like the biological excitability, acting as a shutter that allows the incident energy to be selectively transmitted or reflected with in excess of 12dB isolation at the certain frequencies for both polarizations. Equivalent circuit models describe the operational principle qualitatively and the switching effect is underpinned by the full-wave analysis. A further physical mechanism is shown by contrasting the distributions of electric field and surface current on the surface at the same frequency for the two working modes. The experimental results consist with the theoretical simulations, indicating that the metasurface could serve as one innovative solution for manipulating the electromagnetic waves and enlighten the next generation of advanced electromagnetic materials with more freedom in the processes of design and manufacturing.

  13. Rational Design of a Green-Light-Mediated Unimolecular Platform for Fast Switchable Acidic Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunyun; Zou, Qi; Qiu, Jing; Wang, Linjun; Zhu, Liangliang

    2018-02-01

    A controllable sensing ability strongly connects to complex and precise events in diagnosis and treatment. However, imposing visible light into the molecular-scale mediation of sensing processes is restricted by the lack of structural relevance. To address this critical challenge, we present the rational design, synthesis, and in vitro studies of a novel cyanostyryl-modified azulene system for green-light-mediated fast switchable acidic sensing. The advantageous features of the design include a highly efficient green-light-driven Z/E-isomerization (a quantum yield up to 61.3%) for fast erasing chromatic and luminescent expressions and a superior compatibility with control of ratiometric protonation. Significantly, these merits of the design enable the development of a microfluidic system to perform a green-light-mediated reusable sensing function toward a gastric acid analyte in a miniaturized platform. The results may provide new insights for building future integrated green materials.

  14. Achieving dynamic switchable filter based on a transmutable metasurface using SMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Jinsong; Kang, Bonan

    2017-09-01

    We propose a switchable filter composed of transmutable array using shape memory alloys (SMA). It could exhibit a temperature induced morphology change spontaneously like the biological excitability, acting as a shutter that allows the incident energy to be selectively transmitted or reflected with in excess of 12dB isolation at the certain frequencies for both polarizations. Equivalent circuit models describe the operational principle qualitatively and the switching effect is underpinned by the full-wave analysis. A further physical mechanism is shown by contrasting the distributions of electric field and surface current on the surface at the same frequency for the two working modes. The experimental results consist with the theoretical simulations, indicating that the metasurface could serve as one innovative solution for manipulating the electromagnetic waves and enlighten the next generation of advanced electromagnetic materials with more freedom in the processes of design and manufacturing.

  15. Switchable semiconductor optical fiber laser incorporating AWG and broadband FBG with high SMSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, H; Zulkifli, M Z; Thambiratnam, K; Latiff, A A; Harun, S W

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose and demonstrate a switchable wavelength fiber laser (SWFL) using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) together with an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG). The proposed SOA-based SWFL is capable of generating up to 14 lasing channels from 1530.1 nm to 1534.9 nm at a channel spacing of 0.8 nm (100 GHz) and a bandwidth of 11.8 and 10.2 nm respectively. The EDFA-based SWFL has a higher peak power at –5 dBm, while to SOA-based SWFL has a peak power of only –10 dBm. However, the SOA-based SWFL exhibits a much better SMSR of between 10 to 20 dB as compared to the SMSR of the EDFA-based SWFL due to the inhomogeneous broadening properties of the SOA

  16. Designing switchable near room-temperature multiferroics via the discovery of a novel magnetoelectric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, J. S.; Xu, Ke; Bellaiche, Laurent; Xiang, H. J.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is the key ingredient for realizing the cross-control of magnetism and ferroelectricity in multiferroics. However, multiferroics are not only rare, especially at room-temperature, in nature but also the overwhelming majority of known multiferroics do not exhibit highly-desired switching of the direction of magnetization when the polarization is reversed by an electric field. Here, we report group theory analysis and ab initio calculations demonstrating, and revealing the origin of, the existence of a novel form of ME coupling term in a specific class of materials that does allow such switching. This term naturally explains the previously observed electric field control of magnetism in the first known multiferroics, i.e., the Ni–X boracite family. It is also presently used to design a switchable near room-temperature multiferroic (namely, LaSrMnOsO6 perovskite) having rather large ferroelectric polarization and spontaneous magnetization, as well as strong ME coupling.

  17. Switchable diode effect in oxygen vacancy-modulated SrTiO{sub 3} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Xinqiang; Shuai, Yao; Wu, Chuangui; Luo, Wenbo; Sun, Xiangyu; Zeng, Huizhong; Bai, Xiaoyuan; Gong, Chaoguan; Jian, Ke; Zhang, Wanli [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, Chengdu (China); Zhang, Lu; Guo, Hongliang [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, The Center for Robotics, Chengdu (China); Tian, Benlang [26th Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Chongqing (China)

    2017-09-15

    SrTiO{sub 3} (STO) single crystal wafer was annealed in vacuum, and co-planar metal-insulator-metal structure of Pt/Ti/STO/Ti/Pt were formed by sputtering Pt/Ti electrodes onto the surface of STO after annealing. The forming-free resistive switching behavior with self-compliance property was observed in the sample. The sample showed switchable diode effect, which is explained by a simple model that redistribution of oxygen vacancies (OVs) under the external electric field results in the formation of n-n{sup +} junction or n{sup +}-n junction (n donated n-type semiconductor; n{sup +} donated heavily doped n-type semiconductor). The self-compliance property is also interpreted by the formation of n-n{sup +}/n{sup +}-n junction caused by the migration of the OVs under the electric field. (orig.)

  18. Leaf venation, as a resistor, to optimize a switchable IR absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, M E; Barber, R

    2016-08-24

    Leaf vascular patterns are the mechanisms and mechanical support for the transportation of fluidics for photosynthesis and leaf development properties. Vascular hierarchical networks in leaves have far-reaching functions in optimal transport efficiency of functional fluidics. Embedding leaf morphogenesis as a resistor network is significant in the optimization of a translucent thermally functional material. This will enable regulation through pressure equalization by diminishing flow pressure variation. This paper investigates nature's vasculature networks that exhibit hierarchical branching scaling applied to microfluidics. To enable optimum potential for pressure drop regulation by algorithm design. This code analysis of circuit conduit optimization for transport fluidic flow resistance is validated against CFD simulation, within a closed loop network. The paper will propose this self-optimization, characterization by resistance seeking targeting to determine a microfluidic network as a resistor. To advance a thermally function material as a switchable IR absorber.

  19. Hmb(off/on) as a switchable thiol protecting group for native chemical ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yun-Kun; Tang, Shan; Huang, Yi-Chao; Pan, Man; Zheng, Ji-Shen; Liu, Lei

    2016-05-04

    A new thiol protecting group Hmb(off/on) is described, which has a switchable activity that may be useful in the chemical synthesis of proteins. When placed on the side chain of Cys, Cys(Hmb(off)) is stable to trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in the process of solid-phase peptide synthesis. When Cys(Hmb(off)) is treated with neutral aqueous buffers, it is cleanly converted to acid-labile Cys(Hmb(on)), which can later be fully deprotected by TFA to generate free Cys. The utility of Cys(Hmb(off/on)) is demonstrated by the chemical synthesis of an erythropoietin segment, EPO[Cys(98)-Arg(166)]-OH through native chemical ligation.

  20. Utilizing stretch-tunable thermochromic elastomeric opal films as novel reversible switchable photonic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christian G; Lederle, Christina; Zentel, Kristina; Stühn, Bernd; Gallei, Markus

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the preparation of highly thermoresponsive and fully reversible stretch-tunable elastomeric opal films featuring switchable structural colors is reported. Novel particle architectures based on poly(diethylene glycol methylether methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate) (PDEGMEMA-co-PEA) as shell polymer are synthesized via seeded and stepwise emulsion polymerization protocols. The use of DEGMEMA as comonomer and herein established synthetic strategies leads to monodisperse soft shell particles, which can be directly processed to opal films by using the feasible melt-shear organization technique. Subsequent UV crosslinking strategies open access to mechanically stable and homogeneous elastomeric opal films. The structural colors of the opal films feature mechano- and thermoresponsiveness, which is found to be fully reversible. Optical characterization shows that the combination of both stimuli provokes a photonic bandgap shift of more than 50 nm from 560 nm in the stretched state to 611 nm in the fully swollen state. In addition, versatile colorful patterns onto the colloidal crystal structure are produced by spatial UV-induced crosslinking by using a photomask. This facile approach enables the generation of spatially cross-linked switchable opal films with fascinating optical properties. Herein described strategies for the preparation of PDEGMEMA-containing colloidal architectures, application of the melt-shear ordering technique, and patterned crosslinking of the final opal films open access to novel stimuli-responsive colloidal crystal films, which are expected to be promising materials in the field of security and sensing applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  2. Highly Sensitive Switchable Heterojunction Photodiode Based on Epitaxial Bi2FeCrO6 Multiferroic Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Chakrabartty, Joyprokash; Harnagea, Catalin; Gedamu, Dawit; Ka, Ibrahima; Chaker, Mohamed; Rosei, Federico; Nechache, Riad

    2018-04-18

    Perovskite multiferroic oxides are promising materials for the realization of sensitive and switchable photodiodes because of their favorable band gap (heterojunction was fabricated by pulsed laser deposition. The heterojunction photodiode exhibits a large ideality factor ( n = ∼5.0) and a response time as fast as 68 ms, thanks to the effective charge carrier transport and collection at the BFCO/SRO interface. The diode can switch direction when the electric polarization is reversed by an external voltage pulse. The time-resolved photoluminescence decay of the device measured at ∼500 nm demonstrates an ultrafast charge transfer (lifetime = ∼6.4 ns) in BFCO/SRO heteroepitaxial structures. The estimated responsivity value at 500 nm and zero bias is 0.38 mA W -1 , which is so far the highest reported for any FE thin film photodiode. Our work highlights the huge potential for using multiferroic oxides to fabricate highly sensitive and switchable photodiodes.

  3. Switchable Diastereoselectivity in the Fluoride Promoted Vinylogous Mukaiyama-Michael Reaction of 2-Trimethylsilyloxyfuran Catalyzed by Crown Ethers

    KAUST Repository

    Della Sala, Giorgio

    2017-05-31

    The fluoride promoted vinylogous Mukaiyama-Michael reaction (VMMR) of 2-trimethylsilyloxyfuran with diverse α,β-unsaturated ketones is described. The TBAF catalyzed VMMR afforded high anti-diastereoselectivity irrespective of the solvents used. The KF/crown ethers catalytic systems proved to be highly efficient in terms of yields and resulted in a highly diastereoselective unprecedented solvent/catalyst switchable reaction. Anti-adducts were obtained as single diastereomers or with excellent diastereoselectivities when benzo-15-crown-5 in CH2Cl2 was employed. On the other hand, high syn-diastereoselectivities (from 76:24 to 96:4) were achieved by employing dicyclohexane-18-crown-6 in toluene. Based on DFT calculations, the catalysts/solvents-dependent switchable diastereoselectivities are proposed to be the result of loose or tight cation-dienolate ion pairs.

  4. Reverse engineering of an affinity-switchable molecular interaction characterized by atomic force microscopy single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmetti, Dario; Bartels, Frank Wilco; Becker, Anke; Decker, Björn; Eckel, Rainer; McIntosh, Matthew; Mattay, Jochen; Plattner, Patrik; Ros, Robert; Schäfer, Christian; Sewald, Norbert

    2008-02-19

    Tunable and switchable interaction between molecules is a key for regulation and control of cellular processes. The translation of the underlying physicochemical principles to synthetic and switchable functional entities and molecules that can mimic the corresponding molecular functions is called reverse molecular engineering. We quantitatively investigated autoinducer-regulated DNA-protein interaction in bacterial gene regulation processes with single atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecule force spectroscopy in vitro, and developed an artificial bistable molecular host-guest system that can be controlled and regulated by external signals (UV light exposure and thermal energy). The intermolecular binding functionality (affinity) and its reproducible and reversible switching has been proven by AFM force spectroscopy at the single-molecule level. This affinity-tunable optomechanical switch will allow novel applications with respect to molecular manipulation, nanoscale rewritable molecular memories, and/or artificial ion channels, which will serve for the controlled transport and release of ions and neutral compounds in the future.

  5. Tunable and switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber and polarization controllers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, X M; Lin, A; Zhao, W; Lu, K Q; Wang, Y S; Zhang, T Y; Chung, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have proposed a novel multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser by using two polarization controllers and a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating(SC-FBG). On the assistance of SC-FBG, the proposed fiber lasers with excellent stability and uniformity are tunable and switchable by adjusting the polarization controllers. Our laser can stably lase two waves and up to eight waves simultaneously at room temperature

  6. Enhanced Switchable Ferroelectric Photovoltaic Effects in Hexagonal Ferrite Thin Films via Strain Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyeon; Kim, Donghoon; Chu, Kanghyun; Park, Jucheol; Nam, Sang Yeol; Heo, Seungyang; Yang, Chan-Ho; Jang, Hyun Myung

    2018-01-17

    Ferroelectric photovoltaics (FPVs) are being extensively investigated by virtue of switchable photovoltaic responses and anomalously high photovoltages of ∼10 4 V. However, FPVs suffer from extremely low photocurrents due to their wide band gaps (E g ). Here, we present a promising FPV based on hexagonal YbFeO 3 (h-YbFO) thin-film heterostructure by exploiting its narrow E g . More importantly, we demonstrate enhanced FPV effects by suitably exploiting the substrate-induced film strain in these h-YbFO-based photovoltaics. A compressive-strained h-YbFO/Pt/MgO heterojunction device shows ∼3 times enhanced photovoltaic efficiency than that of a tensile-strained h-YbFO/Pt/Al 2 O 3 device. We have shown that the enhanced photovoltaic efficiency mainly stems from the enhanced photon absorption over a wide range of the photon energy, coupled with the enhanced polarization under a compressive strain. Density functional theory studies indicate that the compressive strain reduces E g substantially and enhances the strength of d-d transitions. This study will set a new standard for determining substrates toward thin-film photovoltaics and optoelectronic devices.

  7. Durability of switchable QR code carriers under hydrolytic and photolytic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ecker, Melanie; Pretsch, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Following a guest diffusion approach, the surface of a shape memory poly(ester urethane) (PEU) was either black or blue colored. Bowtie-shaped quick response (QR) code carriers were then obtained from laser engraving and cutting, before thermo-mechanical functionalization (programming) was applied to stabilize the PEU in a thermo-responsive (switchable) state. The stability of the dye within the polymer surface and long-term functionality of the polymer were investigated against UVA and hydrolytic ageing. Spectrophotometric investigations verified UVA ageing-related color shifts from black to yellow-brownish and blue to petrol-greenish whereas hydrolytically aged samples changed from black to greenish and blue to light blue. In the case of UVA ageing, color changes were accompanied by dye decolorization, whereas hydrolytic ageing led to contrast declines due to dye diffusion. The Michelson contrast could be identified as an effective tool to follow ageing-related contrast changes between surface-dyed and laser-ablated (undyed) polymer regions. As soon as the Michelson contrast fell below a crucial value of 0.1 due to ageing, the QR code was no longer decipherable with a scanning device. Remarkably, the PEU information carrier base material could even then be adequately fixed and recovered. Hence, the surface contrast turned out to be the decisive parameter for QR code carrier applicability. (paper)

  8. Investigation of a Switchable Textile Communication System on the Human Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Bai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a switchable textile communication system working at 2.45 GHz ISM band is presented and studied for different locations within a realistic on-body environment. A 3D laser scanner is used to generate a numerical phantom of the measured subject to improve the accuracy of the simulations which are carried out for different body postures. For the off-body communications, the system is acting as an aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna with a boresight gain of 1.48 dBi. On-body communication is achieved by using a textile stripline, which gives approximately 5 dB transmission loss over 600 mm distance. The system is switched between on and off-body modes by PIN diodes. Common issues, such as shape distortion and body detuning effects which the textile antenna may experience in realistic use are fully discussed. Robust antenna performance is noted in the on-body tests, and an additional 3 dB transmission coefficient deduction was noticed in the most severe shape distortion case.

  9. Charge Modulation in Graphitic Carbon Nitride as a Switchable Approach to High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Kou, Liangzhi; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2015-11-01

    Electrical charging of graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets (g-C4 N3 and g-C3 N4 ) is proposed as a strategy for high-capacity and electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we found that the adsorption energy of H2 molecules on graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets is dramatically enhanced by injecting extra electrons into the adsorbent. At full hydrogen coverage, the negatively charged graphitic carbon nitride achieves storage capacities up to 6-7 wt %. In contrast to other hydrogen storage approaches, the storage/release occurs spontaneously once extra electrons are introduced or removed, and these processes can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charging voltage. Therefore, this approach promises both facile reversibility and tunable kinetics without the need of specific catalysts. Importantly, g-C4 N3 has good electrical conductivity and high electron mobility, which can be a very good candidate for electron injection/release. These predictions may prove to be instrumental in searching for a new class of high-capacity hydrogen storage materials. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Durability of switchable QR code carriers under hydrolytic and photolytic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Melanie; Pretsch, Thorsten

    2013-09-01

    Following a guest diffusion approach, the surface of a shape memory poly(ester urethane) (PEU) was either black or blue colored. Bowtie-shaped quick response (QR) code carriers were then obtained from laser engraving and cutting, before thermo-mechanical functionalization (programming) was applied to stabilize the PEU in a thermo-responsive (switchable) state. The stability of the dye within the polymer surface and long-term functionality of the polymer were investigated against UVA and hydrolytic ageing. Spectrophotometric investigations verified UVA ageing-related color shifts from black to yellow-brownish and blue to petrol-greenish whereas hydrolytically aged samples changed from black to greenish and blue to light blue. In the case of UVA ageing, color changes were accompanied by dye decolorization, whereas hydrolytic ageing led to contrast declines due to dye diffusion. The Michelson contrast could be identified as an effective tool to follow ageing-related contrast changes between surface-dyed and laser-ablated (undyed) polymer regions. As soon as the Michelson contrast fell below a crucial value of 0.1 due to ageing, the QR code was no longer decipherable with a scanning device. Remarkably, the PEU information carrier base material could even then be adequately fixed and recovered. Hence, the surface contrast turned out to be the decisive parameter for QR code carrier applicability.

  11. A Planar UWB Antenna with Switchable Single/Double Band-Rejection Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Sharbati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this Paper, a reconfigurable antenna with capability to operate in the ultrawideband (UWB mode from 2.85 to 14.4 GHz with switchable notch bands of 3.25–4.26 GHz, 5.1–5.9 GHz or 7.1-7.8 GHz, is presented. The proposed antenna has a simple configuration and compact size of 17 × 14 mm2. To make the band-notches, three methods (methods of slot antenna, parasitic patches and backplane structure are used. To achieve the reconfigurability, three PIN diode are placed on the proposed antenna. A PIN diode is inserted over the L-shaped parasitic element and the rectangular patch, another one is placed between the two parasitic elements on the ground plane, and other across the square ring-shaped slot, respectively. Antenna performance can be changed by adjusting the status of the PIN diodes that make the band-notches in applications bands (WLAN, WiMAX/C-band and X-band. Good group delay and monopole-like radiation pattern characteristics are achieved in the frequency band of interest. The antenna performance both by simulation and by experiment indicates that it is suitable and a good candidate for UWB applications.

  12. Monochromatic and electrochemically switchable electrochemiluminescence of perovskite CsPbBr3 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Fang, Mingxiang; Zou, Guizheng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Huaisheng

    2016-11-10

    Cubic-shaped perovskite CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals (NCs) could be electrochemically injected with holes (or electrons) to produce several charged states under different oxidizing and reducing potentials, and then bring out electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of higher color purity than traditional ECL chemicals and metal chalcogenide NCs, in both annihilation and co-reactant routes. The difference of electrochemical gaps between varied hole and electron injecting potentials displayed little effect on the ECL spectrum and colour purity of CsPbBr 3 NCs. All the excited states generated under different oxidizing and reducing potential couples in ECL of CsPbBr 3 NCs were the same as those in photoluminescence, as all the ECL spectra were almost identical to the CsPbBr 3 NCs' photoluminescence spectrum. Importantly, the ECL of CsPbBr 3 NCs was electrochemically switchable and displayed an obvious "on/off" type feature by changing the sequence of hole injecting and electron injecting processes, as strong ECL could be obtained by injecting holes onto the electron injected NCs, while no or very weak ECL was obtained in the reversed way.

  13. Tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter using a PBS-based two-stage cascaded Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Chao; Luo, Ai-Ping; Xu, Wen-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel tunable and switchable all-fiber comb filter by employing a polarization beam splitter (PBS)-based two-stage cascaded Mach-Zehnder (M-Z) interferometer. The proposed comb filter consists of a rotatable polarizer, a fiber PBS, a non-3-dB coupler and a 3-dB coupler. By simply adjusting the polarization state of the input light, the dual-function of channel spacing tunable and wavelength switchable (interleaving) operations can be efficiently obtained. The theoretical analysis is verified by the experimental results. A comb filter with both the channel spacing tunable from 0.18 nm to 0.36 nm and the wavelength switchable functions is experimentally demonstrated.

  14. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, A-P; Luo, Z-C; Xu, W-C; Dvoyrin, V V; Mashinsky, V M; Dianov, E M

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate a tunable and switchable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked Bi-doped all-fiber ring laser by using nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) technique. Exploiting the spectral filtering effect caused by the combination of the polarizer and intracavity birefringence, the wavelength separation of dual-wavelength mode-locked pulses can be flexibly tuned between 2.38 and 20.45 nm. Taking the advantage of NPR-induced intensity-dependent loss to suppress the mode competition, the stable dual-wavelength pulses output is obtained at room temperature. Moreover, the dual-wavelength switchable operation is achieved by simply rotating the polarization controllers (PCs)

  15. Strategy for Enhanced Light Output from Luminescent Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Fabrication and scintillation response of rare earth doped transparent ceramics”, 2010 Glass & Optical Materials Division Annual Meeting of the...5 Self-assembled, almond-shaped colloidal GdVO4:Eu 3+ nanocrystals ~60 nm long and ~10 nm wide were synthesized in aqueous solutions. The as...t SiO2 =6nm) Core/Triple-shell (t SiO2 =17nm) Fig. 10 Nanocomposites (1 vol%) consisting of a silica core with a Gd2O3:Eu 3+ luminescent single

  16. Photonic Crystals: Enhancing the Light Output of Scintillation Based Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Knapitsch, Arno Richard

    A scintillator is a material which emits light when excited by ionizing radiation. Such materials are used in a diverse range of applications; From high energy particle physics experiments, X-ray security, to nuclear cameras or positron emission tomography. Future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments as well as next generation medical imaging applications are more and more pushing towards better scintillation characteristics. One of the problems in heavy scintillating materials is related to their high index of refraction. As a consequence, most of the scintillation light produced in the bulk material is trapped inside the crystal due to total internal reflection. The same problem also occurs with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and has for a long time been considered as a limiting factor for their overall efficiency. Recent developments in the area of nanophotonics were showing now that those limitations can be overcome by introducing a photonic crystal (PhC) slab at the outcoupling surface of the substrate. P...

  17. Conductive Boron-Doped Graphene as an Ideal Material for Electrocatalytically Switchable and High-Capacity Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A; Smith, Sean C

    2016-12-07

    Electrocatalytic, switchable hydrogen storage promises both tunable kinetics and facile reversibility without the need for specific catalysts. The feasibility of this approach relies on having materials that are easy to synthesize, possessing good electrical conductivities. Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C 4 N 3 ) has been predicted to display charge-responsive binding with molecular hydrogen-the only such conductive sorbent material that has been discovered to date. As yet, however, this conductive variant of graphitic carbon nitride is not readily synthesized by scalable methods. Here, we examine the possibility of conductive and easily synthesized boron-doped graphene nanosheets (B-doped graphene) as sorbent materials for practical applications of electrocatalytically switchable hydrogen storage. Using first-principle calculations, we find that the adsorption energy of H 2 molecules on B-doped graphene can be dramatically enhanced by removing electrons from and thereby positively charging the adsorbent. Thus, by controlling charge injected or depleted from the adsorbent, one can effectively tune the storage/release processes which occur spontaneously without any energy barriers. At full hydrogen coverage, the positively charged BC 5 achieves high storage capacities up to 5.3 wt %. Importantly, B-doped graphene, such as BC 49 , BC 7 , and BC 5 , have good electrical conductivity and can be easily synthesized by scalable methods, which positions this class of material as a very good candidate for charge injection/release. These predictions pave the route for practical implementation of electrocatalytic systems with switchable storage/release capacities that offer high capacity for hydrogen storage.

  18. A Switchable Molecular Dielectric with Two Sequential Reversible Phase Transitions: [(CH3)4P]4[Mn(SCN)6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Shi, Ping-Ping; Ye, Qiong; Wang, Hui-Ting; Wu, De-Hong; Ye, Heng-Yun; Fu, Da-Wei; Zhang, Yi

    2015-11-16

    A new organic-inorganic hybrid switchable and tunable dielectric compound, [(CH3)4P]4[Mn(SCN)6] (1), exhibits three distinct dielectric states above room temperature and undergoes two reversible solid-state phase transitions, including a structural phase transition at 330 K and a ferroelastic phase transition with the Aizu notation of mmmF2/m at 352 K. The variable-temperature structural analyses disclose that the origin of the phase transitions and dielectric anomalies can be ascribed to the reorientation or motion of both the [(CH3)4P](+) cations and [Mn(SCN)6](4-) anions in solid-state crystals.

  19. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huisman, M.C.; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    Switchable mirrors [J.N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, J.P. Dekker, D.G. de Groot, N.J. Koeman, Nature 380 (1996) 231; J.N Huiberts, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, S. Jetten, D. de Groot, B. Dam, N.J.. Koeman, R. Griessen, B. Hjoervarsson, S Olafsson, Y.S. Cho, J. Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 158; F.J.A. den Broeder, S.J. van der Molen, M. Kremers, J. N. Huiberts, D.G. Nagengast, A.T.M. van Gogh, W.H. Huisman, N. J. Koeman, B. Dam, J.H. Rector, S. Plota, M. Haaksma, R.M.N. Hanzen, R.M. Jungblut, P.A. Duine, R. Griessen, Nature 394 (1998) 656] made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in these materials. In this paper elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is used as a tool to measure hydrogen concentrations on a micrometer scale. The measurements have been performed using a 4 He 2+ ion beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. The ion beam can be focused routinely to a spot size of approximately 10 μm 2 . The experimental set-up enables the simultaneous measurement of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as well as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra, which provide complementary information. The results of ERDA measurements on laterally diffused YH x (0< x<3) samples with a qualitatively known hydrogen concentration profile are presented and discussed. The calibration of the microbeam set-up and possible improvement of the measurement technique are described

  20. Elastic recoil detection analysis for the determination of hydrogen concentration profiles in switchable mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, M.C. E-mail: huisman@nat.vu.nl; Molen, S.J. van der; Vis, R.D

    1999-09-02

    Switchable mirrors [J.N. Huiberts, R. Griessen, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, J.P. Dekker, D.G. de Groot, N.J. Koeman, Nature 380 (1996) 231; J.N Huiberts, J.H. Rector, R.J. Wijngaarden, S. Jetten, D. de Groot, B. Dam, N.J.. Koeman, R. Griessen, B. Hjoervarsson, S Olafsson, Y.S. Cho, J. Alloys and Compounds 239 (1996) 158; F.J.A. den Broeder, S.J. van der Molen, M. Kremers, J. N. Huiberts, D.G. Nagengast, A.T.M. van Gogh, W.H. Huisman, N. J. Koeman, B. Dam, J.H. Rector, S. Plota, M. Haaksma, R.M.N. Hanzen, R.M. Jungblut, P.A. Duine, R. Griessen, Nature 394 (1998) 656] made of thin films of Y, La or rare-earth (RE) metals exhibit spectacular changes in their optical and electrical properties upon hydrogen loading. The study of these materials has indicated that the occurring phenomena are highly sensitive to the actual hydrogen concentration in these materials. In this paper elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) is used as a tool to measure hydrogen concentrations on a micrometer scale. The measurements have been performed using a {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ion beam from a 1.7 MV Pelletron accelerator. The ion beam can be focused routinely to a spot size of approximately 10 {mu}m{sup 2}. The experimental set-up enables the simultaneous measurement of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) as well as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) spectra, which provide complementary information. The results of ERDA measurements on laterally diffused YH{sub x} (0

  1. Trapping of quantum particles and light beams by switchable potential wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, Eduard; Malomed, Boris A.; Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2010-09-01

    We consider basic dynamical effects in settings based on a pair of local potential traps that may be effectively switched on and off, or suddenly displaced, by means of appropriate control mechanisms, such as scanning tunneling microscopy or photo-switchable quantum dots. The same models, based on the linear Schrödinger equation with time-dependent trapping potentials, apply to the description of optical planar systems designed for the switching of trapped light beams. The analysis is carried out in the analytical form, using exact solutions of the Schrödinger equation. The first dynamical problem considered in this work is the retention of a particle released from a trap which was suddenly turned off, while another local trap was switched on at a distance—immediately or with a delay. In this case, we demonstrate that the maximum of the retention rate is achieved at a specific finite value of the strength of the new trap, and at a finite value of the temporal delay, depending on the distance between the two traps. Another problem is retrapping of the bound particle when the addition of the second trap transforms the single-well setting into a double-well potential (DWP). In that case, we find probabilities for the retrapping into the ground or first excited state of the DWP. We also analyze effects entailed by the application of a kick to a bound particle, the most interesting one being a kick-induced transition between the DWP’s ground and excited states. In the latter case, the largest transition probability is achieved at a particular strength of the kick.

  2. Trapping of quantum particles and light beams by switchable potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonkin, Eduard; Malomed, Boris A.; Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2010-01-01

    We consider basic dynamical effects in settings based on a pair of local potential traps that may be effectively switched on and off, or suddenly displaced, by means of appropriate control mechanisms, such as scanning tunneling microscopy or photo-switchable quantum dots. The same models, based on the linear Schroedinger equation with time-dependent trapping potentials, apply to the description of optical planar systems designed for the switching of trapped light beams. The analysis is carried out in the analytical form, using exact solutions of the Schroedinger equation. The first dynamical problem considered in this work is the retention of a particle released from a trap which was suddenly turned off, while another local trap was switched on at a distance--immediately or with a delay. In this case, we demonstrate that the maximum of the retention rate is achieved at a specific finite value of the strength of the new trap, and at a finite value of the temporal delay, depending on the distance between the two traps. Another problem is retrapping of the bound particle when the addition of the second trap transforms the single-well setting into a double-well potential (DWP). In that case, we find probabilities for the retrapping into the ground or first excited state of the DWP. We also analyze effects entailed by the application of a kick to a bound particle, the most interesting one being a kick-induced transition between the DWP's ground and excited states. In the latter case, the largest transition probability is achieved at a particular strength of the kick.

  3. Apolipoprotein L1 confers pH-switchable ion permeability to phospholipid vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Jonathan; Pozzi, Nicola; Oliva, Jonathan; Edwards, John C

    2017-11-03

    Apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1) is a human serum protein conferring resistance to African trypanosomes, and certain ApoL1 variants increase susceptibility to some progressive kidney diseases. ApoL1 has been hypothesized to function like a pore-forming colicin and has been reported to have permeability effects on both intracellular and plasma membranes. Here, to gain insight into how ApoL1 may function in vivo , we used vesicle-based ion permeability, direct membrane association, and intrinsic fluorescence to study the activities of purified recombinant ApoL1. We found that ApoL1 confers chloride-selective permeability to preformed phospholipid vesicles and that this selectivity is strongly pH-sensitive, with maximal activity at pH 5 and little activity above pH 7. When ApoL1 and lipid were allowed to interact at low pH and were then brought to neutral pH, chloride permeability was suppressed, and potassium permeability was activated. Both chloride and potassium permeability linearly correlated with the mass of ApoL1 in the reaction mixture, and both exhibited lipid selectivity, requiring the presence of negatively charged lipids for activity. Potassium, but not chloride, permease activity required the presence of calcium ions in both the association and activation steps. Direct assessment of ApoL1-lipid associations confirmed that ApoL1 stably associates with phospholipid vesicles, requiring low pH and the presence of negatively charged phospholipids for maximal binding. Intrinsic fluorescence of ApoL1 supported the presence of a significant structural transition when ApoL1 is mixed with lipids at low pH. This pH-switchable ion-selective permeability may explain the different effects of ApoL1 reported in intracellular and plasma membrane environments. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. Smart candle soot coated membranes for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixture and emulsion switchable separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Zhao, Zhihong; Li, Dianming; Tian, Haifeng; Zha, Fei; Feng, Hua; Guo, Lin

    2017-09-21

    Oil/water separation is of great importance for the treatment of oily wastewater, including immiscible light/heavy oil-water mixtures, oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsions. Smart surfaces with responsive wettability have received extensive attention especially for controllable oil/water separation. However, traditional smart membranes with a switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity are limited to certain responsive materials and continuous external stimuli, such as pH, electrical field or light irradiation. Herein, a candle soot coated mesh (CSM) with a larger pore size and a candle soot coated PVDF membrane (CSP) with a smaller pore size with underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity were successfully fabricated, which can be used for on-demand immiscible oil/water mixtures and surfactants-stabilized oil/water emulsion separation, respectively. Without any continuous external stimulus, the wettability of our membranes could be reversibly switched between underwater superoleophobicity and underoil superhydrophobicity simply by drying and washing alternately, thus achieving effective and switchable oil/water separation with excellent separation efficiency. We believe that such smart materials will be promising candidates for use in the removal of oil pollutants in the future.

  5. Evidence for oxygen vacancy or ferroelectric polarization induced switchable diode and photovoltaic effects in BiFeO3 based thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yiping; Guo Bing; Dong Wen; Li Hua; Liu Hezhou

    2013-01-01

    The diode and photovoltaic effects of BiFeO 3 and Bi 0.9 Sr 0.1 FeO 3−δ polycrystalline thin films were investigated by poling the films with increased magnitude and alternating direction. It was found that both electromigration of oxygen vacancies and polarization flipping are able to induce switchable diode and photovoltaic effects. For the Bi 0.9 Sr 0.1 FeO 3−δ thin films with high oxygen vacancy concentration, reversibly switchable diode and photovoltaic effects can be observed due to the electromigration of oxygen vacancies under an electric field much lower than its coercive field. However, for the pure BiFeO 3 thin films with lower oxygen vacancy concentration, the reversibly switchable diode and photovoltaic effect is hard to detect until the occurrence of polarization flipping. The switchable diode and photovoltaic effects can be explained well using the concepts of Schottky-like barrier-to-Ohmic contacts resulting from the combination of oxygen vacancies and polarization. The sign of photocurrent could be independent of the direction of polarization when the modulation of the energy band induced by oxygen vacancies is large enough to offset that induced by polarization. The photovoltaic effect induced by the electromigration of oxygen vacancies is unstable due to the diffusion of oxygen vacancies or the recombination of oxygen vacancies with hopping electrons. Our work provides deep insights into the nature of diode and photovoltaic effects in ferroelectric films, and will facilitate the advanced design of switchable devices combining spintronic, electronic, and optical functionalities. (paper)

  6. Fluoropolymer/SiO2 composite films with switchable superoleophilicity and high oleophobicity for “on–off” oil permeation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hao; Hu, Xiaojing; Chen, Rong; Liu, Shantang; Pi, Pihui; Yang, Zhuo-ru

    2013-01-01

    In this work, fluoropolymer/SiO 2 composite films with switchable superoleophilicity and high oleophobicity have been successfully prepared on stainless steel mesh. Tunable wettability could be easily realized by merely reversing the feeding order of the perfluorinated monomer in the polymerization. The effects of surface roughness and chemical composition on the wettability of the films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that the distribution of low surface energy groups plays a crucial role in determining the surface oleophobicity or oleophilicity. The porous stainless steel mesh with fluoropolymer/SiO 2 composite could construct dual-scale roughness, leading to less wetting of the solid. The stainless steel mesh coated with the proposed as-prepared polymer films may lead to an oil–water separation membrane. This work provides an interesting insight into the design of novel functional devices that are relevant to oil/water separation.

  7. Reversed thermo-switchable molecular sieving membranes composed of two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuerui; Chi, Chenglong; Zhang, Kang; Qian, Yuhong; Gupta, Krishna M.; Kang, Zixi; Jiang, Jianwen; Zhao, Dan

    2017-02-01

    It is highly desirable to reduce the membrane thickness in order to maximize the throughput and break the trade-off limitation for membrane-based gas separation. Two-dimensional membranes composed of atomic-thick graphene or graphene oxide nanosheets have gas transport pathways that are at least three orders of magnitude higher than the membrane thickness, leading to reduced gas permeation flux and impaired separation throughput. Here we present nm-thick molecular sieving membranes composed of porous two-dimensional metal-organic nanosheets. These membranes possess pore openings parallel to gas concentration gradient allowing high gas permeation flux and high selectivity, which are proven by both experiment and molecular dynamics simulation. Furthermore, the gas transport pathways of these membranes exhibit a reversed thermo-switchable feature, which is attributed to the molecular flexibility of the building metal-organic nanosheets.

  8. Wavelength switchable high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG Laser around 2µm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caili; Du, Shifeng; Niu, Yanxiong; Wang, Zhichao; Zhang, Chao; Bian, Qi; Guo, Chuan; Xu, Jialin; Bo, Yong; Peng, Qinjun; Cui, Dafu; Zhang, Jingyuan; Lei, Wenqiang; Xu, Zuyan

    2013-03-25

    We report a high-power diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser operated at either 2.07 or 2.02 µm depending on the transmission of pumped output coupler. The laser yields 115W of continuous-wave output power at 2.07 µm with 5% output coupling, which is the highest output power for all solid-state 2.07 μm cw rod Tm:YAG laser reported so far. With an output coupler of 10% transmission, the center wavelength of the laser is switched to 2.02 μm with an output power of 77.1 W. This is the first observation of high-power wavelength switchable diode-side-pumped rod Tm:YAG laser around 2 µm.

  9. Produced Water Treatment Using the Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) Desalination Process: Preliminary Engineering Design Basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel; Adhikari, Birendra; Orme, Christopher; Wilson, Aaron

    2016-05-01

    Switchable Polarity Solvent Forward Osmosis (SPS FO) is a semi-permeable membrane-based water treatment technology. INL is currently advancing SPS FO technology such that a prototype unit can be designed and demonstrated for the purification of produced water from oil and gas production operations. The SPS FO prototype unit will used the thermal energy in the produced water as a source of process heat, thereby reducing the external process energy demands. Treatment of the produced water stream will reduce the volume of saline wastewater requiring disposal via injection, an activity that is correlated with undesirable seismic events, as well as generate a purified product water stream with potential beneficial uses. This paper summarizes experimental data that has been collected in support of the SPS FO scale-up effort, and describes how this data will be used in the sizing of SPS FO process equipment. An estimate of produced water treatment costs using the SPS FO process is also provided.

  10. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser with a simple linear cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoying; Fang, Xia; Liao, Changrui; Wang, D N; Sun, Junqiang

    2009-11-23

    A simple linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser based on a Fabry-Perot filter which consists of a pair of fiber Bragg gratings is proposed for tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength operation. The single-longitudinal-mode is obtained by the saturable absorption of an unpumed erbium-doped fiber together with a narrow-band fiber Bragg grating. Under the high pump power (>166 mW) condition, the stable dual-wavelength oscillation with uniform amplitude can be realized by carefully adjusting the polarization controller in the cavity. Wavelength selection and switching are achieved by tuning the narrow-band fiber Bragg grating in the system. The spacing of the dual-wavelength can be selected at 0.20 nm (approximately 25.62 GHz), 0.22 nm (approximately 28.19 GHz) and 0.54 nm (approximately 69.19 GHz).

  11. Chitosan-Gated Magnetic-Responsive Nanocarrier for Dual-Modal Optical Imaging, Switchable Drug Release, and Synergistic Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Mu, Qingxin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Revia, Richard [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Wang, Kui [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Zhou, Xuezhe [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Pauzauskie, Peter J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA; Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99354 USA; Zhou, Shuiqin [Department of Chemistry, The College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island NY 10314 USA; Zhang, Miqin [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 USA

    2017-01-25

    In this study, we present a multifunctional yet structurally simple nanocarrier that has a high drug loading capacity, releases drug in response to onset of an AC magnetic field, and can serve as a long-term imaging contrast agent and effectively kills cancer cells by synergistic action. This nanocarrier (HMMC-NC) has a spherical shell structure with a center cavity of 80 nm in diameter. The shell is comprised of two layers: an inner layer of magnetite that exhibits superparamagnetism and an outer layer of mesoporous carbon embedded with carbon dots that exhibit photoluminescence property. Thus in addition to being a drug carrier, HMMC-NC is also a contrast agent for bioimaging. The switchable drug release is enabled by the chitosan molecules attached on the nanocarrier as the switching material which turns on or off the drug release in response to the application or withdrawal of an AC magnetic field.

  12. A glucose-responsive pH-switchable bioelectrocatalytic sensor based on phenylboronic acid-diol specificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Peiyi; Wang, Zhihua; Yang, Lele; Ma, Tengfei; Yang, Ling; Guo, Qianqiong; Huang, Shasheng

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A pH-switchable bioelectrocatayltic sensor was developed, which exhibited an obvious anodic current in acidic conditions as “ON” state, yet a prohibited signal in alkaline conditions as “OFF” state. With the change of pH and/or the presence of glucose, our proposed biosensor produced the corresponding amplified signal, providing a better sensitivity. - Abstract: Aminophenylboronic acid moieties were covalently grafted onto mercaptobenzoic acid moieties, and glucose oxidase was then immobilized through boronic acid-diol specific recognition to form a pH-sensitive electrosensor switching between pH 5.8 and pH 8.0 base solution. Using potassium ferricyanide as electroactive probe, the response was intensified in acidic condition while hindered in alkaline condition. The sharp and stable contrast in current was performed alternately upon the change of pH like a “pH switch”. In the presence of glucose, the response to glucose was further amplified catalytically by glucose oxidase on “ON” state, while electron transfer was inhibited on “OFF” state. Furthermore, when our sensor was on “ON” state, it showed a good linearity ranging from 0 to 30 μmol L −1 of glucose, with a detection limit of 348 nmol L −1 (S/B = 3) and a dynamic range extending to 50 μmol L −1 . Glucose-responsive, pH-switchable and catalytically-amplified, our biosensor provided a new method for the detection of glucose in the form of pH switch in human serum sample, and was promising to more complicated environment

  13. Integrated power-heat-cold-coupling by switchable Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehl, Hans-Detlev

    2017-01-01

    experimental effort, a similarity-theoretical scaling was carried out while keeping all dimensionless parameters relevant to the internal gas circulation process constant. Although the experimental results presented in this article therefore require a correction due to some external, not correctly scalable friction and insulation losses, they nevertheless prove that the realization of such switchable systems for decentralized, demand-oriented energy supply of buildings in a practical size and performance class is possible. In coordinated operation of a larger number of such systems - e.g. via ripple control or network load-dependent power consumption tariffs and power feed-in tariffs - can respond by appropriate switching between the operating conditions on load fluctuations in the public grid and so valuable, short-term retrievable control energy can be provided. Furthermore, applications in the field of drive-independent air conditioning, heating and power supply of vehicles are conceivable. [de

  14. In situ alcoholysis of triacylglycerols by application of switchable-polarity solvents. A new derivatization procedure for the gas-chromatographic analysis of vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, Francesco; Orlandi, Marco

    2013-10-01

    We describe a new use of switchable-polarity solvents for the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of triacylglycerols from vegetable oils before gas-chromatographic analysis. Different equimolecular mixtures of the commercially available amidine 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene and n-alkyl alcohols were tested. Triolein was used as a model compound. Very good results were achieved by using butanol (recovery of butyl oleate was 89 ± 4%). The procedure was applied for the characterization of the fatty acid profile of different vegetable oils. No statistically significant differences from the results obtained with the application of two traditional methods were evidenced. Moreover, the use of switchable-polarity solvents showed many advantages: owing to the basicity of the amidines, no catalyst was required; the transterification reaction was conducted under mild conditions, one step and in situ; no particular matrix interferences were evidenced; the solvent was recovered.

  15. Glassy carbon electrode modified with gold nanoparticles and hemoglobin in a chitosan matrix for improved pH-switchable sensing of hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yang; Shi, Liang; Gong, Jin; Fang, Yu-Ting; Bao, Ning; Gu, Hai-Ying; Zeng, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Hemoglobin (Hb) has been demonstrated to endow electrochemical sensors with pH-switchable response because of the presence of carboxyl and amino groups. Hb was deposited in a chitosan matrix on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) that was previously coated with clustered gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) by electrodeposition. The switching behavior is active (“on”) to the negatively charged probe [Fe(CN) 6 3− ] at pH 4.0, but inactive (“off”) to the probe at pH 8.0. This switch is fully reversible by simply changing the pH value of the solution and can be applied for pH-controlled reversible electrochemical reduction of H 2 O 2 catalyzed by Hb. The modified electrode was tested for its response to the different electroactive probes. The response to these species strongly depends on pH which was cycled between 4 and 8. The effect is also attributed to the presence of pH dependent charges on the surface of the electrode which resulted in either electrostatic attraction or repulsion of the electroactive probes. The presence of Hb, in turn, enhances the pH-controllable response, and the electrodeposited Au-NPs improve the capability of switching. This study reveals the potential of protein based pH-switchable materials and also provides a simple and effective strategy for fabrication of switchable chemical sensors as exemplified in a pH-controllable electrode for hydrogen peroxide. (author)

  16. pH-switchable electrochemical sensing platform based on chitosan-reduced graphene oxide/concanavalin a layer for assay of glucose and urea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yonghai; Liu, Hongyu; Tan, Hongliang; Xu, Fugang; Jia, Jianbo; Zhang, Lixue; Li, Zhuang; Wang, Li

    2014-02-18

    A facile and effective electrochemical sensing platform for the detection of glucose and urea in one sample without separation was developed using chitosan-reduced graphene oxide (CS-rGO)/concanavalin A (Con A) as a sensing layer. The CS-rGO/Con A with pH-dependent surface net charges exhibited pH-switchable response to negatively charged Fe(CN)6(3-). The principle for glucose and urea detection was essentially based on in situ pH-switchable enzyme-catalyzed reaction in which the oxidation of glucose catalyzed by glucose oxidase or the hydrolyzation of urea catalyzed by urease resulted in a pH change of electrolyte solution to give different electrochemical responses toward Fe(CN)6(3-). It was verified by cyclic voltammograms, differential pulse voltammograms, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The resistance to charge transfer or amperometric current changed proportionally toward glucose concentration from 1.0 to 10.0 mM and urea concentration from 1.0 to 7.0 mM. On the basis of human serum experiments, the sensing platform was proved to be suitable for simultaneous assay of glucose and urea in a practical biosystem. This work not only gives a way to detect glucose and urea in one sample without separation but also provides a potential strategy for the detection of nonelectroactive species based on the enzyme-catalyzed reaction and pH-switchable biosensor.

  17. Zipper-like magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres for on/off-switchable recognition and extraction of 17β-estradiol from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wenting; Peng, Hailong; Luo, Mei; Yu, Ningxiang; Xiong, Hua; Wang, Ronghui; Li, Yanbin

    2018-09-30

    Zipper-like on/off-switchable and magnetic molecularly imprinted microspheres (SM-MIMs) were constructed using acrylamide (AAm) and 2-acrylamide-2-methyl propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) as functional monomers for 17β-estradiol (17β-E 2 ) recognition and extraction. The imprinted polymer interactions between poly(AAm) (PAAm) and poly(AMPS) (PAMPS) with on/off-switchable property to temperature, exhibited dissociation at relatively higher temperatures (such as 30 °C) and helped 17β-E 2 enter into imprinted sites, leading to higher binding capability. Conversely, the interpolymer complexes between PAAm and PAMPS formed and blocked 17β-E 2 access to imprinted sites at lower temperature (such as 20 °C). SM-MIMs were used as dispersive solid phase extraction (SPE) adsorbent with HPLC for 17β-E 2 pretreatment and detection in food samples, and low limit detection (2.52 µg L -1 ) and quantification (10.76 µg L -1 ) with higher recovery were obtained. Therefore, SM-MIMs may be a promising adsorbent for 17β-E 2 pretreatment in food samples owing to its advantages of on/off-switchable recognition, eco-friendly elution, and efficient separation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Switchable Super-Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) Film Surfaces on Reactive Ion Etching (RIE) Textured Si Wafer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwa-Min; Litao, Yao; Kim, Bonghwan

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a surface texturing process for pyramidal surface features along with an indium tin oxide (ITO) coating process to fabricate super-hydrophilic conductive surfaces. The contact angle of a water droplet was less than 5 degrees, which means that an extremely high wettability is achievable on super-hydrophilic surfaces. We have also fabricated a super-hydrophobic conductive surface using an additional coating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) on the ITO layer coated on the textured Si surface; the ITO and PTFE films were deposited by using a conventional sputtering method. We found that a super-hydrophilic conductive surface is produced by ITO coated on the pyramidal Si surface (ITO/Si), with contact angles of approximately 0 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm. These values are highly dependent on the substrate temperature during the sputtering process. We also found that the super-hydrophobic conductive surface produced by the additional coating of PTFE on the pyramidal Si surface with an ITO layer (PTFE/ITO/Si) has a contact angle of almost 160 degrees and a resistivity of 3 x 10(-4) Ω x cm, with a reflectance lower than 9%. Therefore, these processes can be used to fabricate multifunctional features of ITO films for switchable super-hydrophilic and super-hydrophobic surfaces.

  19. Nonlinear Polarization Rotation-Based Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Laser with Three Switchable Operation States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiu Zian Cheak; Tan Sin Jin; Zarei Arman; Ahmad Harith; Harun Sulaiman Wadi

    2014-01-01

    A simple mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) with three switchable operation states is proposed and demonstrated based on nonlinear polarization rotation. The EDFL generates a stable square pulse at a third harmonic pulse repetition rate of 87 kHz as the 1480 nm pump power increases from the threshold of 17.5 mW to 34.3 mW. The square pulse duration increases from 105 ns to 245 ns as the pump power increases within this region. The pulse operation switches to the second operation state as the pump power is varied from 48.2 mW to 116.7 mW. The laser operates at a fundamental repetition rate of 29 kHz with a fixed pulse width of 8.5 μs within the pump power region. At a pump power of 116.7 mW, the average output power is 3.84 mW, which corresponds to the pulse energy of 131.5 nJ. When the pump power continues to increase, the pulse train experiences unstable oscillation before it reaches the third stable operation state within a pump power region of 138.9 mW to 145.0 mW. Within this region, the EDFL produces a fixed pulse width of 2.8 μs and a harmonic pulse repetition rate of 58 kHz. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  20. Warm/cool-tone switchable thermochromic material for smart windows by orthogonally integrating properties of pillar[6]arene and ferrocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai; Xu, Zuqiang; Wang, Tingting; Xiao, Tangxin; Hu, Xiao-Yu; Shen, Ying-Zhong; Wang, Leyong

    2018-04-30

    Functional materials play a vital role in the fabrication of smart windows, which can provide a more comfortable indoor environment for humans to enjoy a better lifestyle. Traditional materials for smart windows tend to possess only a single functionality with the purpose of regulating the input of solar energy. However, different color tones also have great influences on human emotions. Herein, a strategy for orthogonal integration of different properties is proposed, namely the thermo-responsiveness of ethylene glycol-modified pillar[6]arene (EGP6) and the redox-induced reversible color switching of ferrocene/ferrocenium groups are orthogonally integrated into one system. This gives rise to a material with cooperative and non-interfering dual functions, featuring both thermochromism and warm/cool tone-switchability. Consequently, the obtained bifunctional material for fabricating smart windows can not only regulate the input of solar energy but also can provide a more comfortable color tone to improve the feelings and emotions of people in indoor environments.

  1. Three-Dimensional Graphene Supported Bimetallic Nanocomposites with DNA Regulated-Flexibly Switchable Peroxidase-Like Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Fang; Zhao, Huimin; Zang, Hongmei; Ye, Fei; Quan, Xie

    2016-04-20

    A synergistic bimetallic enzyme mimetic catalyst, three-dimensional (3D) graphene/Fe3O4-AuNPs, was successfully fabricated which exhibited flexibly switchable peroxidase-like activity. Compared to the traditional 2D graphene-based monometallic composite, the introduced 3D structure, which was induced by the addition of glutamic acid, and bimetallic anchoring approach dramatically improved the catalytic activity, as well as the catalysis velocity and its affinity for substrate. Herein, Fe3O4NPs acted as supporters for AuNPs, which contributed to enhance the efficiency of electron transfer. On the basis of the measurement of Mott-Schottky plots of graphene and metal anchored hybrids, the catalysis mechanism was elucidated by the decrease of Fermi level resulted from the chemical doping behavior. Notably, the catalytic activity was able to be regulated by the adsorption and desorption of single-stranded DNA molecules, which laid a basis for its utilization in the construction of single-stranded DNA-based colorimetric biosensors. This strategy not only simplified the operation process including labeling, modification, and imprinting, but also protected the intrinsic affinity between the target and biological probe. Accordingly, based on the peroxidase-like activity and its controllability, our prepared nanohybrids was successfully adopted in the visualized and label-free sensing detections of glucose, sequence-specific DNA, mismatched nucleotides, and oxytetracycline.

  2. A pre-protective strategy for precise tumor targeting and efficient photodynamic therapy with a switchable DNA/upconversion nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengze; Ge, Yegang; Sun, Qiaoqiao; Pan, Wei; Wan, Xiuyan; Li, Na; Tang, Bo

    2018-04-14

    Tumor-specific targeting based on folic acid (FA) is one of the most common and significant approaches in cancer therapy. However, the expression of folate receptors (FRs) in normal tissues will lead to unexpected targeting and unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. To address this issue, we develop a pre-protective strategy for precise tumor targeting and efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a switchable DNA/upconversion nanocomposite, which can be triggered in the acidic tumor microenvironment. The DNA/upconversion nanocomposite is composed of polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), the surface of which is modified using FA and chlorin e6 (Ce6) functionalized DNA sequences with different lengths. Initially, FA on the shorter DNA was protected by a longer DNA to prevent the bonding to FRs on normal cells. Once reaching the acidic tumor microenvironment, C base-rich longer DNA forms a C-quadruplex, resulting in the exposure of the FA groups and the bonding of FA and FRs on cancer cell membranes to achieve precise targeting. Simultaneously, the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) gets close to the surface of UCNPs, enabling the excitation of Ce6 to generate singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ) under near infrared light via Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). In vivo experiments indicated that higher tumor targeting efficiency was achieved and the tumor growth was greatly inhibited through the pre-protective strategy.

  3. Layered Metal Nanoparticle Structures on Electrodes for Sensing, Switchable Controlled Uptake/Release, and Photo-electrochemical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-Vered, Ran; Kahn, Jason S; Willner, Itamar

    2016-01-06

    Layered metal nanoparticle (NP) assemblies provide highly porous and conductive composites of unique electrical and optical (plasmonic) properties. Two methods to construct layered metal NP matrices are described, and these include the layer-by-layer deposition of NPs, or the electropolymerization of monolayer-functionalized NPs, specifically thioaniline-modified metal NPs. The layered NP composites are used as sensing matrices through the use of electrochemistry or surface plasmon resonance (SPR) as transduction signals. The crosslinking of the metal NP composites with molecular receptors, or the imprinting of molecular recognition sites into the electropolymerized NP matrices lead to selective and chiroselective sensing interfaces. Furthermore, the electrosynthesis of redox-active, imprinted, bis-aniline bridged Au NP composites yields electrochemically triggered "sponges" for the switchable uptake and release of electron-acceptor substrates, and results in conductive surfaces of electrochemically controlled wettability. Also, photosensitizer-relay-crosslinked Au NP composites, or electrochemically polymerized layered semiconductor quantum dot/metal NP matrices on electrodes, are demonstrated as functional nanostructures for photoelectrochemical applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Smart multifunctional nanoagents for in situ monitoring of small molecules with a switchable affinity towards biomedical targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Konstantin G.; Cherkasov, Vladimir R.; Nikitina, Irina L.; Babenyshev, Andrey V.; Nikitin, Maxim P.

    2018-02-01

    The great diversity of nanomaterials provides ample opportunities for constructing effective agents for biomedical applications ranging from biosensing to drug delivery. Multifunctional nanoagents that combine several features in a single particle are of special interest due to capabilities that substantially exceed those of molecular drugs. An ideal theranostic agent should simultaneously be an advanced biosensor to identify a disease and report the diagnosis and a biomedical actuator to treat the disease. While many approaches were developed to load a nanoparticle with various drugs for actuation of the diseased cells (e.g., to kill them), the nanoparticle-based approaches for the localized biosensing with real-time reporting of the marker concentration severely lag behind. Here, we show a smart in situ nanoparticle-based biosensor/actuator system that dynamically and reversibly changes its structural and optical properties in response to a small molecule marker to allow real-time monitoring of the marker concentration and adjustment of the system ability to bind its biomedical target. Using the synergistic combination of signal readout based on the localized surface plasmon resonance and an original method of fabrication of smart ON/OFF-switchable nanoagents, we demonstrate reversible responsiveness of the system to a model small molecule marker (antibiotic chloramphenicol) in a wide concentration range. The proposed approach can be used for the development of advanced multifunctional nanoagents for theranostic applications.

  5. Characterization of Anthraquinone-DerivedRedox Switchable Ionophores and Their Complexes with Li+, Na+, K+, Ca+, and Mg+ Metal Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishali Vyas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthraquinone derived redox switchable ionophores 1,5 bis (2-(2-(2-ethoxy ethoxy ethoxyanthracene-9,10-dione (V1 and 1,8-bis(2-(2-(2-ethoxyethoxyethoxy anthracene—9,10-dione (V2 have been used for isolation, extraction and liquid membrane transport studies of Li+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ metal ions. These isolated complexes were characterized by melting point determination, CV and IR, 1H NMR spectral analysis. Ionophore V2 shows maximum shift in reduction potential (ΔE with Ca(Pic2. The observed sequence for the shifting in reduction potential (ΔE between V2 and their complexes is V2 calcium picrate (42 mV > V2 potassium picrate (33 mV > V2 lithium picrate (25 mV > V2 sodium picrate (18 mV > V2 magnesium picrate (15 mV. These findings are also supported by results of extraction, back extraction and transport studies. Ionophore V2 complexed with KPic and showed much higher extractability and selectivity towards K+ than V1. These synthetic ionophores show positive and negative cooperativity towards alkali and alkaline earth metal ions in reduced and oxidized state. Hence, this property can be used in selective separation and enrichment of metal ions using electrochemically driven ion transport.

  6. Switchable transport strategy to deposit active Fe/Fe3C cores into hollow microporous carbons for efficient chromium removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Guo, Yue; Zhang, Lu-Hua; Li, Wen-Cui; Sun, Tao; Lu, An-Hui

    2013-11-25

    Magnetic hollow structures with microporous shell and highly dispersed active cores (Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles) are rationally designed and fabricated by solution-phase switchable transport of active iron species combined with a solid-state thermolysis technique, thus allowing selective encapsulation of functional Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles in the interior cavity. These engineered functional materials show high loading (≈54 wt%) of Fe, excellent chromium removal capability (100 mg g(-1)), fast adsorption rate (8766 mL mg(-1) h(-1)), and easy magnetic separation property (63.25 emu g(-1)). During the adsorption process, the internal highly dispersed Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles supply a driving force for facilitating Cr(VI) diffusion inward, thus improving the adsorption rate and the adsorption capacity. At the same time, the external microporous carbon shell can also efficiently trap guest Cr(VI) ions and protect Fe/Fe3 C nanoparticles from corrosion and subsequent leaching problems. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. A versatile light-switchable nanorod memory: Wurtzite ZnO on perovskite SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Anup Bera

    2013-04-25

    Integrating materials with distinct lattice symmetries and dimensions is an effective design strategy toward realizing novel devices with unprecedented functionalities, but many challenges remain in synthesis and device design. Here, a heterojunction memory made of wurtzite ZnO nanorods grown on perovskite Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) is reported, the electronic properties of which can be drastically reconfigured by applying a voltage and light. Despite of the distinct lattice structures of ZnO and NSTO, a consistent nature of single crystallinity is achieved in the heterojunctions via the low-temperature solution-based hydrothermal growth. In addition to a high and persistent photoconductivity, the ZnO/NSTO heterojunction diode can be turned into a versatile light-switchable resistive switching memory with highly tunable ON and OFF states. The reversible modification of the effective interfacial energy barrier in the concurrent electronic and ionic processes most likely gives rise to the high susceptibility of the ZnO/NSTO heterojunction to external electric and optical stimuli. Furthermore, this facile synthesis route is promising to be generalized to other novel functional nanodevices integrating materials with diverse structures and properties. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Switchable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium fiber laser utilizing a dual-ring scheme with a saturable absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Qing; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Chang, Yao-Jen; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Chow, Chi-Wai; Chen, Jing-Heng; Chen, Kun-Huang

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser with stable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) output. Here, a dual-ring (DR) structure with an unpumped EDF of 2 m is designed to achieve SLM oscillation. Five fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) are applied in the laser cavity serving as the reflective element to generate different dual-wavelength outputs. In the measurement, six sets of generated dual-wavelengths with various mode-spacing (Δλ) can be achieved via the five FBGs. Additionally, the stability performance of the proposed EDF DR laser is also demonstrated.

  9. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO{sub 2} Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngjune [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City (China); Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Petit, Camille, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    CO{sub 2} capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO{sub 2} capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO{sub 2} capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO{sub 2} capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO{sub 2} capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO{sub 2}-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO{sub 2}-binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO{sub 2} capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO{sub 2} capture media.

  10. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOUNGJUNE ePARK

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available CO2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO2 capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO2 capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions, as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO2 capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO2 capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include: Ionic Liquids (ILs, CO2-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO2 Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs, Reversible Ionic Liquids (RevILs, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials (NOHMs. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO2 capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO2 absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO2 capture media.

  11. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO2 Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Youngjune; Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa; Petit, Camille

    2015-01-01

    CO 2 capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO 2 capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO 2 capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO 2 capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO 2 capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO 2 capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO 2 capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO 2 -triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO 2 -binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO 2 capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO 2 absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO 2 capture media.

  12. Switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a tapered in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuxin; Wang, Xin; Tang, Zijuan; Lou, Shuqin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a switchable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber ring laser based on a tapered in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer is proposed. The in-line Mach–Zehnder interferometer is fabricated by splicing a large-core fiber between two segments of single mode fibers, in which the first splicing point is tapered and the second splicing point is connected directly. By carefully rotating the polarization controller, switchable single-, dual-, triple- and quad-wavelength lasing outputs can be obtained with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 50 dB. The maximal peak power difference of multi-wavelength lasing is 3.67 dB, demonstrating a good power equalization performance. Furthermore, the proposed laser is proven to be very stable at room temperature. The wavelength shifts and peak power fluctuations are less than 0.02 nm and 1.3 dB over half an hour. In addition, stable quintuple-wavelength lasing with a side mode suppression ratio higher than 50 dB can also be realized when the filter length is changed.

  13. Hexagonal boron nitride and graphene in-plane heterostructures: An experimentally feasible approach to charge-induced switchable CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xin; Tahini, Hassan A.; Smith, Sean C., E-mail: sean.smith@unsw.edu.au

    2016-10-20

    Hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) has been proposed as a sorbent material for charge-induced switchable CO{sub 2} capture. However, h-BN is a wide-gap semiconductor, hindering injection of the requisite charge. Here, we employ first-principle calculations to support the proposal that in-plane h-BN/graphene (P-BN/G) heterostructures, consisting of alternating strips of h-BN and graphene, may provide an experimentally feasible material platform for voltage-induced charging of h-BN strips to realize switchable CO{sub 2} capture. Our results show that a significant amount of injected negative charges are distributed onto h-BN strips of P-BN/G, such that CO{sub 2} capture/release can be simply controlled by switching on/off the charge states of P-BN/G system. At saturation CO{sub 2} capture coverage, the negatively charged P-BN/G heterostructures achieve CO{sub 2} capture capacities up to 2.27 × 10{sup 14} cm{sup −2}, which is twice that which can be achieved on stacked h-BN/graphene (S-BN/G) nanosheets.

  14. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth SLM erbium-doped fiber laser based on a PM-CMFBG filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Bin; Feng, Suchun; Liu, Zhibo; Bai, Yunlong; Jian, Shuisheng

    2014-09-22

    A tunable and switchable dual-wavelength single polarization narrow linewidth single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser based on polarization-maintaining chirped moiré fiber Bragg grating (PM-CMFBG) filter is proposed and demonstrated. For the first time as we know, the CMFBG inscribed on the PM fiber is applied for the wavelength-tunable and-switchable dual-wavelength laser. The PM-CMFBG filter with ultra-narrow transmission band (0.1 pm) and a uniform polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PM-FBG) are used to select the laser longitudinal mode. The stable single polarization SLM operation is guaranteed by the PM-CMFBG filter and polarization controller. A tuning range of about 0.25 nm with about 0.075 nm step is achieved by stretching the uniform PM-FBG. Meanwhile, the linewidth of the fiber laser for each wavelength is approximate 6.5 and 7.1 kHz with a 20 dB linewidth, which indicates the laser linewidth is approximate 325 Hz and 355 Hz FWHM.

  15. Detection of nitro-based and peroxide-based explosives by fast polarity-switchable ion mobility spectrometer with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qinghua; Peng, Liying; Jiang, Dandan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Haiyang

    2015-05-29

    Ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) has been widely deployed for on-site detection of explosives. The common nitro-based explosives are usually detected by negative IMS while the emerging peroxide-based explosives are better detected by positive IMS. In this study, a fast polarity-switchable IMS was constructed to detect these two explosive species in a single measurement. As the large traditional Faraday detector would cause a trailing reactant ion peak (RIP), a Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity was developed by reducing the detector radius to 3.3 mm and increasing the voltage difference between aperture grid and its front guard ring to 591 V, which could remove trailing peaks from RIP without loss of signal intensity. This fast polarity-switchable IMS with ion focusing in vicinity of Faraday detector was employed to detect a mixture of 10 ng 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 50 ng hexamethylene triperoxide diamine (HMTD) by polarity-switching, and the result suggested that [TNT-H](-) and [HMTD+H](+) could be detected in a single measurement. Furthermore, the removal of trailing peaks from RIP by the Faraday detector with ion focusing in vicinity also promised the accurate identification of KClO4, KNO3 and S in common inorganic explosives, whose product ion peaks were fairly adjacent to RIP.

  16. Switchable insulation for using solar energy in buildings. Final report; Schaltbare Waermedaemmung (SWD) zur Nutzung der Sonnenenergie in Gebaeuden. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, C.; Horn, R.; Hetfleisch, J.; Fricke, J.

    2003-02-25

    Solar energy can be used in buildings via use of transparent insulations. But thereby problems occur, like overheating of building walls in summer and heat losses in the cold season. To solve these problems ZAE Bayern has designed and optimized the switchable insulation SWD, the thermal conductivity of which can be changed from highly insulating to conducting. A computer routine was developed to calculate and to optimize the heat gains. The SWD is switched by desorbing/adsorbing as small amount of hydrogen gas. Desorption is facilitated with an electric heating element. The thermal conductivity of the filling can be varied by about a factor of 40. Several SWD-modules were produced and installed in an outside measuring facility. The heat gains and the durability were investigated for three years. The results of the simulation could be verified and ageing did not occur. For an optimal system the heat gains are in the range of 150 kWh/(m{sup 2}a). The mounting of these panels at south facades is simple, especially for post bolt systems. Contrary to transparent systems the loss of heat in winter is very small and the overheating of the walls behind the SWD in summer can be avoided. (orig.) [German] Zur Nutzung der Sonnenenergie in Gebaeuden werden bisher transparente Waermedaemmsysteme eingebaut, die jedoch oft mit Problemen wie Wandueberhitzung im Sommer und Waermeverlusten in der kalten Jahreszeit behaftet sind. Zur Loesung dieser Probleme wurde am ZAE Bayern eine schaltbare Waermedaemmung entwickelt und optimiert, deren Daemmeigenschaft je nach Sonneneinstrahlung und Waermebedarf variiert werden kann. Es wurde ein Programm entwickelt, mit dem die Waermegewinne berechnet und optimiert werden koennen. Die Schaltbarkeit wird durch einen Getter ermoeglicht, der eine ungefaehrliche Menge Wasserstoffgas reversibel aufnehmen und abgeben kann. Die Wasserstoff-Austreibung erfolgt mittels elektrischer Heizung und veraendert die Waermeleitfaehigkeit der Fuellung um einen

  17. Relationship of light-output nonlinearities and light-output spikes in proton-bombarded stripe-geometry double-heterostructure (Al,Ga)As lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, R.W.; Joyce, W.B.; Miller, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    By using a fast photodetector and a simple spatial filtering technique, the relationship between the optical spike which frequently appears at the leading edge of a pulsed-GaAs-laser response and the optical nonlinearities called kinks has been investigated. It is suggested that the spike can be viewed consistently as a transition period during which the lasing mode distortion, which has been previously associated with kinks, occurs. It is the time taken for the kink to become established. During the spike, light emisson occurs with a spatial and angular intensity distribution consistent with the lasing which would be appropriate if the kink did not exist. It is shown that the experimental technique can also be used to investigate sustained laser optical-intensity oscillations

  18. Electric-field switchable magnetization via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction: FeTiO3 versus BiFeO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ederer, Claude; Fennie, Craig J

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we review and discuss a mechanism for coupling between electric polarization and magnetization that can ultimately lead to electric-field switchable magnetization. The basic idea is that a ferroelectric distortion in an antiferromagnetic material can 'switch on' the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction which leads to a canting of the antiferromagnetic sublattice magnetizations, and thus to a net magnetization. This magnetization M-vector is coupled to the polarization P-vector via a trilinear free energy contribution of the form P-vector·(M-vectorxxL-vector), where L-vector is the antiferromagnetic order parameter. In particular, we discuss why such an invariant is present in R3c FeTiO 3 but not in the isostructural multiferroic BiFeO 3 . Finally, we construct symmetry groups that in general allow for this kind of ferroelectrically-induced weak ferromagnetism.

  19. Reversible hydrogen storage using CO2 and a proton-switchable iridium catalyst in aqueous media under mild temperatures and pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Jonathan F; Himeda, Yuichiro; Wang, Wan-Hui; Hashiguchi, Brian; Periana, Roy; Szalda, David J; Muckerman, James T; Fujita, Etsuko

    2012-03-18

    Green plants convert CO(2) to sugar for energy storage via photosynthesis. We report a novel catalyst that uses CO(2) and hydrogen to store energy in formic acid. Using a homogeneous iridium catalyst with a proton-responsive ligand, we show the first reversible and recyclable hydrogen storage system that operates under mild conditions using CO(2), formate and formic acid. This system is energy-efficient and green because it operates near ambient conditions, uses water as a solvent, produces high-pressure CO-free hydrogen, and uses pH to control hydrogen production or consumption. The extraordinary and switchable catalytic activity is attributed to the multifunctional ligand, which acts as a proton-relay and strong π-donor, and is rationalized by theoretical and experimental studies.

  20. Reversible conversion of valence-tautomeric copper metal-organic frameworks dependent single-crystal-to-single-crystal oxidation/reduction: a redox-switchable catalyst for C-H bonds activation reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Wu, Jie; Song, Chuanjun; Ding, Ran; Qiao, Yan; Hou, Hongwei; Chang, Junbiao; Fan, Yaoting

    2015-06-28

    Upon single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) oxidation/reduction, reversible structural transformations take place between the anionic porous zeolite-like Cu(I) framework and a topologically equivalent neutral Cu(I)Cu(II) mixed-valent framework. The unique conversion behavior of the Cu(I) framework endowed it as a redox-switchable catalyst for the direct arylation of heterocycle C-H bonds.

  1. High-Resolution Ultrasound-Switchable Fluorescence Imaging in Centimeter-Deep Tissue Phantoms with High Signal-To-Noise Ratio and High Sensitivity via Novel Contrast Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bingbing; Bandi, Venugopal; Wei, Ming-Yuan; Pei, Yanbo; D'Souza, Francis; Nguyen, Kytai T; Hong, Yi; Yuan, Baohong

    2016-01-01

    For many years, investigators have sought after high-resolution fluorescence imaging in centimeter-deep tissue because many interesting in vivo phenomena-such as the presence of immune system cells, tumor angiogenesis, and metastasis-may be located deep in tissue. Previously, we developed a new imaging technique to achieve high spatial resolution in sub-centimeter deep tissue phantoms named continuous-wave ultrasound-switchable fluorescence (CW-USF). The principle is to use a focused ultrasound wave to externally and locally switch on and off the fluorophore emission from a small volume (close to ultrasound focal volume). By making improvements in three aspects of this technique: excellent near-infrared USF contrast agents, a sensitive frequency-domain USF imaging system, and an effective signal processing algorithm, for the first time this study has achieved high spatial resolution (~ 900 μm) in 3-centimeter-deep tissue phantoms with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and high sensitivity (3.4 picomoles of fluorophore in a volume of 68 nanoliters can be detected). We have achieved these results in both tissue-mimic phantoms and porcine muscle tissues. We have also demonstrated multi-color USF to image and distinguish two fluorophores with different wavelengths, which might be very useful for simultaneously imaging of multiple targets and observing their interactions in the future. This work has opened the door for future studies of high-resolution centimeter-deep tissue fluorescence imaging.

  2. Redox control of ferrocene-based complexes with systematically extended π-conjugated connectors: switchable and tailorable second order nonlinear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Yong; Ma, Na-Na; Sun, Shi-Ling; Qiu, Yong-Qing

    2014-03-14

    The studies of geometrical structures, thermal stabilities, redox properties, nonlinear responses and optoelectronic properties have been carried out on a series of novel ferrocenyl (Fc) chromophores with the view of assessing their switchable and tailorable second order nonlinear optics (NLO). The use of a constant Fc donor and a 4,4'-bipyridinium acceptor and varied conjugated bridges makes it possible to systematically determine the contribution of organic connectors to chromophore nonlinear optical activities. The structures reveal that both the reduction reactions and organic connectors have a significant influence on 4,4'-bipyridinium. The potential energy surface maps along with plots of reduced density gradient mirror the thermal stabilities of the Fc-based chromophores. The first and second reductions take place preferentially at the 4,4'-bipyridinium moieties. Significantly, the reduction processes result in the molecular switches with large NLO contrast varying from zero or very small to a large value. Moreover, time-dependent density functional theory results indicate that the absorption peaks are mainly attributed to Fc to 4,4'-bipyridinium charge transfer and the mixture of intramolecular charge transfer within the two respective 4,4'-bipyridinium moieties coupled with interlayer charge transfer between the two 4,4'-bipyridinium moieties. This provides us with comprehensive information on the effect of organic connectors on the NLO properties.

  3. "On-off" switchable tool for food sample preparation: merging molecularly imprinting technology with stimuli-responsive blocks. Current status, challenges and highlighted applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Raquel; Gomes da Silva, Marco D R; Cabrita, Maria João

    2018-01-01

    Sample preparation still remains a great challenge in the analytical workflow representing the most time-consuming and laborious step in analytical procedures. Ideally, sample pre-treatment procedures must be more selective, cheap, quick and environmental friendly. Molecular imprinting technology is a powerful tool in the development of highly selective sample preparation methodologies enabling to preconcentrate the analytes from a complex food matrix. Actually, the design and development of molecularly imprinted polymers-based functional materials that merge an enhancement of selectivity with a controllable and switchable mode of action by means of specific stimulus constitutes a hot research topic in the field of food analysis. Thus, combining the stimuli responsive mechanism and imprinting technology a new generation of materials are emerging. The application of these smart materials in sample preparation is in early stage of development, nevertheless new improvements will promote a new driven in the demanding field of food sample preparation. The new trends in the advancement of food sample preparation using these smart materials will be presented in this review and highlighted the most relevant applications in this particular area of knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of disposable infection control barriers on light output from dental curing lights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Barbara A; Felix, Corey A; Price, Richard B T

    2004-02-01

    To prevent contamination of the light guide on a dental curing light, barriers such as disposable plastic wrap or covers may be used. This study compared the effect of 3 disposable barriers on the spectral output and power density from a curing light. The hypothesis was that none of the barriers would have a significant clinical effect on the spectral output or the power density from the curing light. Three disposable barriers were tested against a control (no barrier). The spectra and power from the curing light were measured with a spectrometer attached to an integrating sphere. The measurements were repeated on 10 separate occasions in a random sequence for each barrier. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's protected least significant difference test showed that the power density was significantly less than control (by 2.4% to 6.1%) when 2 commercially available disposable barriers were used (p 0.05). The effect of each of the barriers on the power output was small and probably clinically insignificant. ANOVA comparisons of mean peak wavelength values indicated that none of the barriers produced a significant shift in the spectral output relative to the control ( p > 0.05). Two of the 3 disposable barriers produced a significant reduction in power density from the curing light. This drop in power was small and would probably not adversely affect the curing of composite resin. None of the barriers acted as light filters.

  5. Is it viable to improve light output efficiency by nano-light-emitting diodes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yu-Wen [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Shang-En [Genesis Photonics Incorporation, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Liu, Chuan-Pu, E-mail: cpliu@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Center for Micro/Nano Science and Technology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2013-12-02

    Nanopillar arrays with InGaN/GaN multiple-quantum-disks (MQDs) are fabricated by focused-ion-beam milling with surface damage layer removed by KOH wet etching. Nano-light-emitting diodes (Nano-LEDs) made of the InGaN/GaN MQD nanopillars are found to have 19.49% less output power than that of a conventional LED. The reasons are analyzed in detail and considering their current-voltage and electroluminescence characteristics, internal quantum efficiency, external quantum efficiency, light extraction, and wall-plug efficiency. Our results suggest that nanopillar-LED can outperform if the density can be increased to 2.81 × 10{sup 9} cm{sup −2} with the size unchanged or the size can be increased to 854.4 nm with the density unchanged.

  6. Photoflash unit having optical system including aspheric lens to enhance light output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.J.

    1984-01-01

    A photoflash unit employing an optical system or apparatus with improved center beam candle power seconds and zonal lumen seconds from the flash lamp therein, said unit also employing a minimized utilization ratio of lamp-to-package cross-sectional area. Each individual lamp capsule comprises a reflective element, a refractive element (lens), and at least one photoflash lamp (light source). The lens provides for lamp shred magnification so as to fill the cell (capsule) width to thus provide maximum transfer of light to the subject on axis. One embodiment has the light source fused (glued) to the reflector and lens while a second embodiment has an air interface between the source and the optical elements. In both embodiments, the lens is aspheric and substantially covers both the reflector and source

  7. The efficiency of the agricultural sector in Poland in the light output-input model1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czyżewski Andrzej

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study turns attention to the use of the input-output model (account of interbranch flows in macroeconomic assessments of the effectiveness of the agricultural sector. In the introductory part the essence of the account of interbranch flows has been specified, pointing to its historical origin and place in the economic theory, and the morphological structure of the individual parts (quarters of the model has been presented. Then the study discusses the application of the account of interbranch flows in macroeconomic assessments of the effectiveness of the agricultural sector, defining and characterizing a number of indicators which allow to conclude on the effectiveness of the agricultural sector on the basis of the account of interbranch flows. The last, empirical part of the study assesses the effectiveness of the agricultural sector in Poland on the basis of interbranch flows statistics for the years 2000 and 2005. The analyses allowed to demonstrate increased efficiency of the agricultural sector in Poland after Poland joined the EU, and also to say that the account of interbranch flows is an important tool enabling comprehensive assessment of the effectiveness of the agricultural sector in the macro-scale, through the prism of the effect - disbursement, which accounts for its exceptional suitability in this kind of analyses.

  8. Light output optimization for the Cherenkov strips of the Barrel detector of FOPI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovici, M; Gobbi, A; Hildenbrand, K D [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Kirejczyk, M; Sikora, B [Warsaw Univ. (Poland); Chelepov, V; Dulin, M; Frolov, S; Judentsov, A; Krylov, V; Nikitin, A; Smolyankin, V; Zhilin, A [Institute for Theoretical and Expermental Physics - ITEP, B. Chermushkinskaya ulitsa 25, RU-117 259 Moskva, (Russian Federation); Mgebrishvili, G; Vasiliev, M [I.V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Ulitsa Kurchatova 46, RU-123 182 Moskva, (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Available as short communication only. A systematic study on how to increase the number of the photoelectrons (PE) in the phototubes at the end of the bent light guides has been undertaken prior to the final assembly of the Cherenkov strips of the Barrel detector for the 4{pi} facility FOPI at GSI-Darmstadt. This was motivated by the observation that with the mass-produced strips only 0.8 PE were found for cosmic rays incident at the center of the 240 cm long strips, a value too low to ensure a decent detection of even {beta}=1 particles. The method used was based on a careful calibration of the amplitude spectra by means of measuring single-electron peaks in the attached tubes. As the consequence of these studies the wave-length shifter (amino G salt) concentration in the distilled water of strips was optimized and a cell of 1000 mm with a mirror on one side has been used. These changes brought a improvement factor of 9 in the number of PE at 85 cm distance from the light guide. This results led to the decision of changing the former design of the Cherenkov layer. In addition during production of these final modules it has been observed that variances between different strips in terms of the number of PE could be minimized by an outer polishing of the plexiglas cells. Finally, during mounting of the detectors the used phototubes were selected according to their performance in peak to valley ratio of the single electron peaks spectrum. (Author) 3 Figs., 2 Refs.

  9. Performance analysis of photoresistor and phototransistor for automotive’s halogen and xenon bulbs light output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, A.; Kumar, C. Ramesh

    2017-11-01

    Illumination of any light is measured using a different kind of calibrated equipment’s available in the market such as a goniometer, spectral radiometer, photometer, Lux meter and camera based systems which directly display the illumination of automotive headlights light distribution in the unit of lux, foot-candles, lumens/sq. ft. and Lambert etc., In this research, we dealt with evaluating the photo resistor or Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) and phototransistor whether it is useful for sensing light patterns of Automotive Halogen and Xenon bulbs. The experiments are conducted during night hours under complete dark space. We have used the headlamp setup available in TATA SUMO VICTA vehicle in the Indian market and conducted the experiments separately for Halogen and Xenon bulbs under low and high beam operations at various degrees and test points within ten meters of distance. Also, we have compared the light intensity of halogen and xenon bulbs to prove the highest light intensity between halogen and Xenon bulbs. After doing a rigorous test with these two sensors it is understood both are good to sensing beam pattern of automotive bulbs and even it is good if we use an array of sensors or a mixed combination of sensors for measuring illumination purposes under perfect calibrations.

  10. Photonic crystals: A novel approach to enhance the light output of scintillation based detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Knapitsch, A; Leclercq, J L; Letartre, X; Auffray, E; Fabjan, C W

    2011-01-01

    Future high-energy physics (HEP) experiments as well as next generation medical imaging applications are more and more pushing towards better scintillation characteristics. One of the problems in heavy scintillating materials is related to their high electronic density, resulting in a large index of refraction. As a consequence, most of the scintillation light produced in the bulk material is trapped inside the crystal due to total internal reflection. The same problem also occurs with light emitting diodes (LEDs) and has for a long time been considered as a limiting factor for their overall efficiency. Recent studies have shown that those limits can be overcome by means of light scattering effects of photonic crystals (PhCs). In our simulations we could show light yield improvements between 90\\% and 110\\% when applying PhC structures to different scintillator materials. To evaluate the results, a PhC modified scintillator was produced in cooperation with the NIL (Nanotechnology Institute of Lyon). By using s...

  11. Preparation of novel cotton fabric composites with pH controlled switchable wettability for efficient water-in-oil and oil-in-water emulsions separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Wu, Jianning; Meng, Guihua; Wang, Yixi; Liu, Zhiyong; Guo, Xuhong

    2018-06-01

    The wetting materials with the ability of controllable oil/water separation have drawn more and more public attention. In this article, the novel cotton fabric (CF) with pH controlled wettability transition was designed by a simple, environmentally friendly coating copolymer/SiO2 nanoparticles, poly(heptadecafluorodecyl methacrylate- co-3-trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate- co-2-vinilpiridine) (PHDFDMA- co-PTMSPMA- co-P2VP). Furthermore, the structures and morphologies of coated CF were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), NMR, GPC, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The coated CF exhibits switchable wettability between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity via adjusting pH value. When the coated CF is placed in the neutral aqueous (pH = 7.0), it is superhydrophobic in the air and superoleophilic. It allows oil to go through but blocking water. However, in acidic aqueous environment (pH = 3.0), it turns superhydrophilic and underwater superoleophobic, which allows water to penetrate but blocking oil. Therefore, the coated CF could be applied to separate oil/water mixtures, ternary oil/water/water mixtures continuously and different surfactant stabilized emulsions (oil-in-water, water-in-oil) and displays the superior separation capacity for oil-water mixtures with a high efficiency of 99.8%. Moreover, the cycling tests demonstrate that the coated CF possesses excellent recyclability and durability. Such an eminent, controllable water/oil permeation feature makes coated CF could be selected as an ideal candidate for oil/water separation.

  12. RGB-Switchable Porous Electrospun Nanofiber Chemoprobe-Filter Prepared from Multifunctional Copolymers for Versatile Sensing of pH and Heavy Metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fang-Cheng; Kuo, Chi-Ching; Chen, Bo-Yu; Cho, Chia-Jung; Hung, Chih-Chien; Chen, Wen-Chang; Borsali, Redouane

    2017-05-17

    Novel red-green-blue (RGB) switchable probes based on fluorescent porous electrospun (ES) nanofibers exhibiting high sensitivity to pH and mercury ions (Hg 2+ ) were prepared with one type of copolymer (poly(methyl methacrylatete-co-1,8-naphthalimide derivatives-co-rhodamine derivative); poly(MMA-co-BNPTU-co-RhBAM)) by using a single-capillary spinneret. The MMA, BNPTU, and RhBAM moieties were designed to (i) permit formation of porous fibers, (ii) fluoresce for Hg 2+ detection, and (iii) fluoresce for pH, respectively. The fluorescence emission of BNPTU (fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) donor) changed from green to blue as it detected Hg 2+ . The fluorescence emission of RhBAM (FRET acceptor) was highly selective for pH, changing from nonfluorescent (pH 7) to exhibiting strong red fluorescence (pH 2). The full-color emission of the ES nanofibers included green, red, blue, purple, and white depending on the particular pH and Hg 2+ -concentration combination of the solution. The porous ES nanofibers with 30 nm pores were fabricated using hydrophobic MMA, low-boiling-point solvent, and at a high relative humidity (80%). These porous ES nanofibers had a higher surface-to-volume ratio than did the corresponding thin films, which enhanced their performance. The present study demonstrated that the FRET-based full-color-fluorescence porous nanofibrous membranes, which exhibit on-off switching and can be used as naked eye probes, have potential for application in water purification sensing filters.

  13. Effect of the Z- and Macro-R-Group on the Thermal Desulfurization of Polymers Synthesized with Acid/Base "Switchable" Dithiocarbamate RAFT Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stace, Sarah J; Fellows, Christopher M; Moad, Graeme; Keddie, Daniel J

    2018-05-11

    Thermolysis is examined as a method for complete desulfurization of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT)-synthesized polymers prepared with acid/base "switchable" N-methyl-N-pyridyldithiocarbamates [RS 2 CZ or RS 2 CZH + ]. Macro-RAFT agents from more activated monomers (MAMs) (i.e., styrene (St), N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm), and methyl methacrylate (MMA)) with RS 2 CZH + and less activated monomers (LAMs) (i.e., vinyl acetate (VAc) and N-vinylpyrolidone (NVP)) with RS 2 CZ are prepared by RAFT polymerization and analyzed by thermogravimetric analysis. In all cases, a mass loss consistent with loss of the end group (ZCS 2 H) is observed at temperatures lower than, and largely discrete from, that required for further degradation of the polymer. The temperatures for end group loss and the new end groups formed are strongly dependent on the identity of the R(P) n and the state of the pyridyl Z group; increasing in the series poly(MMA) < poly(St) ∼ poly(NIPAm) < poly(VAc) ∼ poly(NVP) for S 2 CZ and poly(MMA) < poly(St) ∼ poly(NIPAm) for S 2 CZH + . Clean end group removal is possible for poly(St) and poly(NVP). For poly(NIPAm), the thiocarbonyl chain end is removed, but the end group identity is less certain. For poly(MMA) and poly(VAc), some degradation of the polymer accompanies end group loss under the conditions used and further refinement of the process is required. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Morning and Evening Oscillators Cooperate to Reset Circadian Behavior in Response to Light Input

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Lamba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Light is a crucial input for circadian clocks. In Drosophila, short light exposure can robustly shift the phase of circadian behavior. The model for this resetting posits that circadian photoreception is cell autonomous: CRYPTOCHROME senses light, binds to TIMELESS (TIM, and promotes its degradation, which is mediated by JETLAG (JET. However, it was recently proposed that interactions between circadian neurons are also required for phase resetting. We identify two groups of neurons critical for circadian photoreception: the morning (M and the evening (E oscillators. These neurons work synergistically to reset rhythmic behavior. JET promotes acute TIM degradation cell autonomously in M and E oscillators but also nonautonomously in E oscillators when expressed in M oscillators. Thus, upon light exposure, the M oscillators communicate with the E oscillators. Because the M oscillators drive circadian behavior, they must also receive inputs from the E oscillators. Hence, although photic TIM degradation is largely cell autonomous, neural cooperation between M and E oscillators is critical for circadian behavioral photoresponses.

  15. Method and apparatus for wavefront sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Seung-Whan

    2018-03-20

    A method for performing optical wavefront sensing includes providing an amplitude transmission mask having a light input side, a light output side, and an optical transmission axis passing from the light input side to the light output side. The amplitude transmission mask is characterized by a checkerboard pattern having a square unit cell of size .LAMBDA.. The method also includes directing an incident light field having a wavelength $ \\lamda $ to be incident on the light input side and propagating the incident light field through the amplitude transmission mask. The method further includes producing a plurality of diffracted light fields on the light output side and detecting, at a detector disposed a distance L from the amplitude transmission mask, an interferogram associated with the plurality of diffracted light fields.

  16. Observation of Switchable Photoresponse of a Monolayer WSe2-MoS2 Lateral Heterostructure via Photocurrent Spectral Atomic Force Microscopic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youngwoo; Li, Ming-Yang; Cheng, Chia-Chin; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Liu, Pingwei; Wang, Qing Hua; Li, Lain-Jong; Strano, Michael S

    2016-06-08

    In the pursuit of two-dimensional (2D) materials beyond graphene, enormous advances have been made in exploring the exciting and useful properties of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as a permanent band gap in the visible range and the transition from indirect to direct band gap due to 2D quantum confinement, and their potential for a wide range of device applications. In particular, recent success in the synthesis of seamless monolayer lateral heterostructures of different TMDCs via chemical vapor deposition methods has provided an effective solution to producing an in-plane p-n junction, which is a critical component in electronic and optoelectronic device applications. However, spatial variation of the electronic and optoelectonic properties of the synthesized heterojunction crystals throughout the homogeneous as well as the lateral junction region and the charge carrier transport behavior at their nanoscale junctions with metals remain unaddressed. In this work, we use photocurrent spectral atomic force microscopy to image the current and photocurrent generated between a biased PtIr tip and a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructure. Current measurements in the dark in both forward and reverse bias reveal an opposite characteristic diode behavior for WSe2 and MoS2, owing to the formation of a Schottky barrier of dissimilar properties. Notably, by changing the polarity and magnitude of the tip voltage applied, pixels that show the photoresponse of the heterostructure are observed to be selectively switched on and off, allowing for the realization of a hyper-resolution array of the switchable photodiode pixels. This experimental approach has significant implications toward the development of novel optoelectronic technologies for regioselective photodetection and imaging at nanoscale resolutions. Comparative 2D Fourier analysis of physical height and current images shows high spatial frequency variations in substrate/MoS2 (or WSe2) contact that

  17. Centrifuge-less dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction base on the solidification of switchable solvent for rapid on-site extraction of four pyrethroid insecticides in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lu; Wang, Huazi; Qian, Heng; Liu, Chaoran; Lu, Runhua; Zhang, Sanbing; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-11-11

    An on-site dispersive liquid liquid microextraction base on the solidification of switchable solvent has been developed as a simple, rapid and eco-friendly sample extraction method for the fast determination of pyrethroid insecticides in aqueous samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. In this extraction method, medium-chain saturated fatty acids (n≥10), which can rapidly solidify at low temperatures (centrifugation. The microextraction process was performed in a 10mL syringe and the pretreatment process could thus be finished in 5min. No external energy resources were required in this method, which makes it a potential method for on-site extraction. The optimal experimental parameters were as follows: 350μL of decanoic acid (1mol/L) was used as the extraction solvent, 150μL of sulfuric acid (2mol/L) was used to decrease the pH of the samples, no salt was added, and the temperature of the samples was in the range of 20-40°C. Finally, the sample was cooled in an ice bath for three minutes. Under these optimal conditions, good responses for four pyrethroid insecticides were obtained in the concentration ranges of 1-500μg/L, with coefficients of determination greater than 0.9993. The recoveries of the four pyrethroid insecticides ranged from 84.7 to 95.3%, with relative standard deviations ranging from 1.6 to 4.6%. The limits of detection based on a signal-to-noise ratio of 3 were in the range of 0.24-0.68μg/L, and the enrichment factors were in the range of 121-136. The results demonstrate that this method was successfully applied to determine pyrethroid insecticides in real water samples. No centrifugation or any special apparatus are required, make this a promising method for rapid field-sampling procedures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Observation of Switchable Photoresponse of a Monolayer WSe 2 –MoS 2 Lateral Heterostructure via Photocurrent Spectral Atomic Force Microscopic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Son, Youngwoo

    2016-04-27

    In the pursuit of two-dimensional (2D) materials beyond graphene, enormous advances have been made in exploring the exciting and useful properties of transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), such as a permanent band gap in the visible range and the transition from indirect to direct band gap due to 2D quantum confinement, and their potential for a wide range of device applications. In particular, recent success in the synthesis of seamless monolayer lateral heterostructures of different TMDCs via chemical vapor deposition methods has provided an effective solution to producing an in-plane p-n junction, which is a critical component in electronic and optoelectronic device applications. However, spatial variation of the electronic and optoelectonic properties of the synthesized heterojunction crystals throughout the homogeneous as well as the lateral junction region and the charge carrier transport behavior at their nanoscale junctions with metals remain unaddressed. In this work, we use photocurrent spectral atomic force microscopy to image the current and photocurrent generated between a biased PtIr tip and a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructure. Current measurements in the dark in both forward and reverse bias reveal an opposite characteristic diode behavior for WSe2 and MoS2, owing to the formation of a Schottky barrier of dissimilar properties. Notably, by changing the polarity and magnitude of the tip voltage applied, pixels that show the photoresponse of the heterostructure are observed to be selectively switched on and off, allowing for the realization of a hyper-resolution array of the switchable photodiode pixels. This experimental approach has significant implications toward the development of novel optoelectronic technologies for regioselective photodetection and imaging at nanoscale resolutions. Comparative 2D Fourier analysis of physical height and current images shows high spatial frequency variations in substrate/MoS2 (or WSe2) contact that

  19. Switchable photovoltaic effect in Au/Bi{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}/La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} heterostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Rongli, E-mail: gaorongli2008@163.com [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing, 401331 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Composite Materials and Devices, Chongqing, 401331 (China); Fu, Chunlin; Cai, Wei; Chen, Gang; Deng, Xiaoling; Cao, Xianlong [School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Chongqing University of Science and Technology, Chongqing, 401331 (China); Chongqing Key Laboratory of Nano/Micro Composite Materials and Devices, Chongqing, 401331 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Bi{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} (BLFO) films were fabricated on La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO)/SrTiO{sub 3}(STO)(001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The ferroelectric photovoltaic characteristics of Au/BLFO/LSMO heterostructures were studied under green light illumination. The open circuit voltage and short circuit current were observed to be positive and negative values under weak light illumination in the as-grown self-poled downward BLFO thin films, while they changed the signs when the light intensity is strong. On the contrary, this photovoltaic properties can be switched when the BLFO films were in poled up state. The photovoltaic effect was also strongly dependent on the polarization direction, incident light intensity and the distribution of oxygen vacancies. As a result, the sign of open circuit voltage and short circuit current could be independent of the direction of polarization. We believe that the switchable diode and photovoltaic effects can be explained well using the concepts of Schottky barrier modulation by polarization flipping and of oxygen vacancies and the distribution of oxygen vacancies at Au/BLFO or BLFO/LSMO interface. Our work provides deep insights into the nature of diode and photovoltaic effects in ferroelectric films, implying an effective approach to improve photovoltaic effect by tuning oxygen vacancies in ferroelectric materials. - Highlights: • Pure phase Bi{sub 0.9}La{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3} thin films were grown using pulsed laser deposition. • The as grown films were self poled and the polarization direction is downward. • The switchable photovoltaic effect depend on ferroelectric polarization directions. • Photovoltaic effect can be switched by changing the intensity of incident radiation. • Depolarization field and oxygen vacancies together induce the photovoltaic effect.

  20. Switchable Materials for Smart Windows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Runnerstrom, Evan L; Milliron, Delia J

    2016-06-07

    This article reviews the basic principles of and recent developments in electrochromic, photochromic, and thermochromic materials for applications in smart windows. Compared with current static windows, smart windows can dynamically modulate the transmittance of solar irradiation based on weather conditions and personal preferences, thus simultaneously improving building energy efficiency and indoor human comfort. Although some smart windows are commercially available, their widespread implementation has not yet been realized. Recent advances in nanostructured materials provide new opportunities for next-generation smart window technology owing to their unique structure-property relations. Nanomaterials can provide enhanced coloration efficiency, faster switching kinetics, and longer lifetime. In addition, their compatibility with solution processing enables low-cost and high-throughput fabrication. This review also discusses the importance of dual-band modulation of visible and near-infrared (NIR) light, as nearly 50% of solar energy lies in the NIR region. Some latest results show that solution-processable nanostructured systems can selectively modulate the NIR light without affecting the visible transmittance, thus reducing energy consumption by air conditioning, heating, and artificial lighting.

  1. Switchable lasing in multimode microcavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhukovsky, Sergei V.; Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2007-01-01

    can be caused by injecting an appropriate optical pulse at the onset of laser action (injection seeding). Temporal mode-to-mode switching by reseeding the cavity after a short cooldown period is demonstrated by direct numerical solution. A qualitative analytical explanation of the mode switching...

  2. Integrated power-heat-cold-coupling by switchable Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Machines; Integrierte Kraft-Waerme-Kaelte-Kopplung durch umschaltbare Stirling-Vuilleumier-Hybrid-Maschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehl, Hans-Detlev [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Thermodynamik

    2017-07-01

    experimental effort, a similarity-theoretical scaling was carried out while keeping all dimensionless parameters relevant to the internal gas circulation process constant. Although the experimental results presented in this article therefore require a correction due to some external, not correctly scalable friction and insulation losses, they nevertheless prove that the realization of such switchable systems for decentralized, demand-oriented energy supply of buildings in a practical size and performance class is possible. In coordinated operation of a larger number of such systems - e.g. via ripple control or network load-dependent power consumption tariffs and power feed-in tariffs - can respond by appropriate switching between the operating conditions on load fluctuations in the public grid and so valuable, short-term retrievable control energy can be provided. Furthermore, applications in the field of drive-independent air conditioning, heating and power supply of vehicles are conceivable. [German] Ein Stirlingmotor besteht in seiner sogenannten Gamma-Bauart zum einen aus einem thermischen Verdichter, in dem ein doppelseitig wirkender Verdraengerkolben das Arbeitsgas zwischen einem heissen'' und einem ''warmen'' (d. h. auf dem Waermenutzungstemperaturniveau der KWK-Anwendung befindlichen) Zylinderraum isochor ueber einen Regenerator periodisch hin- und herschiebt. Zum anderen besitzt er ein hiervon raeumlich getrenntes, einseitig wirkendes Arbeitskolben-Zylinder-System, das mit der ''warmen'' Seite des thermischen Verdichters durch einen Ueberstroemkanal verbunden ist und sich somit auf aehnlichem Temperaturniveau befindet. Fuegt man in diesen Ueberstroemkanal einen zusaetzlichen Regenerator ein, so kommt es zu einer Trennung der Temperaturniveaus, da die Waermeabgabe des Prozesses primaer ueber den warmen Zylinderraum des Verdraengersystems erfolgt, waehrend der Zylinderraum des Arbeitskolbens eine Waermesenke darstellt

  3. A fast, high light output scintillator for gamma ray and neutron detection. Fifth Semi-Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entine, Gerald; Kanai, S.; Shah, M.S.; Leonard Cirignano, M.S.; Jarek Glodo; Van Loef, Edgar V.

    2003-01-01

    In view of the attractive properties of RbGd2Br7:Ce for gamma-ray and thermal neutron detection, and the lack of larger volume crystals, the goal of the Phase I project was to perform a rigorous investigation of the crystal growth of this exciting material and explore its capabilities for gamma-ray and thermal neutron detection. The Phase I research was very successful. All technical objectives were met and in many cases exceeded expectations. We were able to produce large (>1 cm3) RbGd2Br7:Ce crystals with excellent scintillation properties and demonstrated the possibility to detect thermal neutrons. As far as we are aware, our Phase I experiment was the first to demonstrate thermal neutron detection with RbGd2Br7:Ce. Clearly, the feasibility of the proposed research was adequately proven. The Phase II research builds on the successful results obtained during Phase I. Phase II will initially focus on optimizing the RbGd2Br7:Ce growth process to produce high quality, larger volume RbGd2Br7:Ce crystals. We will continue to use the versatile Bridgman technique. During this process, crystal growth parameters will be adjusted for optimal growth conditions. Our goal is to produce high quality RbGd2Br7:Ce crystals of size 1 inch x 1 inch x 1 inch (∼16 cm3). We will work on packaging aspects that allow efficient light collection and prevent crystal degradation. We will study and measure emission spectra, light yield, scintillation decay, energy and time resolution. The effects of variation in Ce concentration on the scintillation properties of RbGd2Br7:Ce will be examined in detail. Comprehensive gamma-ray spectroscopic and imaging studies will be conducted. Also, optimization of RbGd2Br7:Ce for thermal neutron detection will be addressed. Our initial studies will determine the optimal geometry of the RbGd2Br7:Ce crystals for neutron detection. For thermal neutron detection experiments, we will produce large area, thin samples in order to minimize gamma-ray sensitivity without compromising thermal neutron detection efficiency. Thermal neutron detection will be conducted with samples coupled to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) and silicon avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Finally, thermal neutron imaging studies will be performed by coupling RbGd2Br7:Ce scintillators to APD arrays available at RMD

  4. SU-F-T-239: Evaluation of Plastic Scintillator Light Output for Various Lead Doping Concentrations: Towards LET Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusrat, H; Pang, G; Sarfehnia, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This work seeks to develop a beam quality meter using multiple differently doped plastic scintillators that are thus intrinsically beam-quality dependent. Plastic scintillators spontaneously emit visible light upon irradiation; the amount of light produced is dependent on stopping power (closely related to LET) according to Birks’ law. Doping plastic scintillators can be used to tune their sensitivity to specific LET ranges. Methods: GEANT4.10.1 Monte Carlo (MC) was used to evaluate the response of various scintillator dopant combinations. MC radiation transport and scintillator light response were validated against previously published literature. Current work involves evaluating detector response experimentally; to that end, a detector prototype with interchangeable scintillator housing was constructed. Measurement set-up guides light emitted by the scintillator to a photomultiplier tube via a glass taper junction coupled to an optical fiber. The resulting signal is measured by an electrometer, and normalized to dose readout from a diode. Measurements have been done using clinical electron and orthovoltage beams. MC response (simulated scintillator light normalized to dose scored inside the scintillating volume) was evaluated for four different LET radiations for an undoped and 1%Pb doped scintillator (σ=0.85%). Simulated incident electrons included: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 6, 12, and 18 MeV; these energies correspond to a range of stopping power (related to LET) values ranging from 1.824 to 11.09 MeVcm"2g"−"1 (SCOL from NIST-ESTAR). Results: Initial MC results show a distinct divergence in scintillator response as LET increases. The response for undoped plastic scintillator indicated a 35.0% increase in signal when going from 18 MeV (low LET) to 0.05 MeV (high LET) while 1%-Pb doped scintillator indicated a 100.9% increase. Conclusion: After validating MC against measurement, simulations will be used to test various concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%) of different high-Z material dopants (W, Mo) to optimize the scintillator types for the beam quality meter. NSERC Discovery Grant RGPIN-435608

  5. SU-F-T-239: Evaluation of Plastic Scintillator Light Output for Various Lead Doping Concentrations: Towards LET Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusrat, H [Ryerson University, Toronto, ON (Canada); Pang, G; Sarfehnia, A [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This work seeks to develop a beam quality meter using multiple differently doped plastic scintillators that are thus intrinsically beam-quality dependent. Plastic scintillators spontaneously emit visible light upon irradiation; the amount of light produced is dependent on stopping power (closely related to LET) according to Birks’ law. Doping plastic scintillators can be used to tune their sensitivity to specific LET ranges. Methods: GEANT4.10.1 Monte Carlo (MC) was used to evaluate the response of various scintillator dopant combinations. MC radiation transport and scintillator light response were validated against previously published literature. Current work involves evaluating detector response experimentally; to that end, a detector prototype with interchangeable scintillator housing was constructed. Measurement set-up guides light emitted by the scintillator to a photomultiplier tube via a glass taper junction coupled to an optical fiber. The resulting signal is measured by an electrometer, and normalized to dose readout from a diode. Measurements have been done using clinical electron and orthovoltage beams. MC response (simulated scintillator light normalized to dose scored inside the scintillating volume) was evaluated for four different LET radiations for an undoped and 1%Pb doped scintillator (σ=0.85%). Simulated incident electrons included: 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 6, 12, and 18 MeV; these energies correspond to a range of stopping power (related to LET) values ranging from 1.824 to 11.09 MeVcm{sup 2}g{sup −1} (SCOL from NIST-ESTAR). Results: Initial MC results show a distinct divergence in scintillator response as LET increases. The response for undoped plastic scintillator indicated a 35.0% increase in signal when going from 18 MeV (low LET) to 0.05 MeV (high LET) while 1%-Pb doped scintillator indicated a 100.9% increase. Conclusion: After validating MC against measurement, simulations will be used to test various concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%) of different high-Z material dopants (W, Mo) to optimize the scintillator types for the beam quality meter. NSERC Discovery Grant RGPIN-435608.

  6. Nanoscale Ferroelectric Switchable Polarization and Leakage Current Behavior in (Ba0.50Sr0.50(Ti0.80Sn0.20O3 Thin Films Prepared Using Chemical Solution Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Sreenivas Puli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoscale switchable ferroelectric (Ba0.50Sr0.50(Ti0.80Sn0.20O3-BSTS polycrystalline thin films with a perovskite structure were prepared on Pt/TiOx/SiO2/Si substrate by chemical solution deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD spectra indicate that a cubic perovskite crystalline structure and Raman spectra revealed that a tetragonal perovskite crystalline structure is present in the thin films. Sr2+ and Sn4+ cosubstituted film exhibited the lowest leakage current density. Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM technique has been employed to acquire out-of-plane (OPP piezoresponse images and local piezoelectric hysteresis loop in polycrystalline BSTS films. PFM phase and amplitude images reveal nanoscale ferroelectric switching behavior at room temperature. Square patterns with dark and bright contrasts were written by local poling and reversible nature of the piezoresponse behavior was established. Local piezoelectric butterfly amplitude and phase hysteresis loops display ferroelectric nature at nanoscale level. The significance of this paper is to present ferroelectric/piezoelectric nature in present BSTS films at nanoscale level and corroborating ferroelectric behavior by utilizing Raman spectroscopy. Thus, further optimizing physical and electrical properties, BSTS films might be useful for practical applications which include nonvolatile ferroelectric memories, data-storage media, piezoelectric actuators, and electric energy storage capacitors.

  7. QUASIMODO, a novel GPI-anchored zona pellucida protein involved in light input to the Drosophila circadian clock

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, K. F.; Peschel, N.; Závodská, Radka; Sehadová, Hana; Stanewsky, R.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 9 (2011), s. 719-729 ISSN 0960-9822 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : QUASIMODO * Drosophila * circadian clock Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 9.647, year: 2011

  8. CO2/N2开关型脒基表面活性剂软模板制备介孔二氧化硅%Synthesis of mesoporous silica using CO2/N2switchable surfactant as soft templates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代利; 郑饶君; 马宇萱; 蒋建中; 崔正刚

    2015-01-01

    模板法是制备介孔 SiO2的常用方法之一,而模板法通常需要脱除模板后才能得到介孔结构.以传统表面活性剂为模板合成介孔二氧化硅,除模板方法还有高温焙烧、溶剂萃取等,但这些方法均存在一定的缺点,如导致结构坍塌、消耗大量溶剂等.本文采用开关型表面活性剂N'-十二烷基-N,N-二甲基乙基脒碳酸氢盐为模板剂,以正硅酸四乙酯(TEOS)为硅源在碱性条件下合成SiO2.与常规除模板法不同,本实验在反应结束后加热并通入N2使表面活性剂分解失去表面活性,用水和丙酮洗涤后得到了形貌规整、孔道有序、具有较高比表面积和孔容的介孔 SiO2.同时还研究了有机盐乙二胺四乙酸二钠(Na2EDTA)对介孔有序度、所得介孔材料比表面积、孔容孔径和模板残留量的影响.%Template method is used widely to synthesize mesoporous silica. However,the mesoporous structure can be obtained only after the templates are removed. Calcination,solvent extraction etc. are frequently used to remove conventional surfactant templates. However,these template removal methods could bring problems such as resulting structure collapse or massive consumption of solvent. In this paper,we synthesized silica using switchable surfactant of N'-dodecyl-N,N-dimethylacetamidinium bicarbonate as templates and tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) as silicon source in alkaline solution. Compared to conventional template removal method,the switchable surfactants decomposed and lost its surface activity by heating the mixture together with N2 injection when the reaction was completed. Mesoporous silica with uniform morphology,ordered mesopore,large specific surface area and pore volume was then obtained after washed with water and acetone. The effect of Na2EDTA on the order of mesopore,specific surface area,pore volume,size of pore and templates residue was discussed.

  9. Shape-Memory PVDF Exhibiting Switchable Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeher, Robin; Raidt, Thomas; Novak, Nikola; Katzenberg, Frank; Tiller, Joerg C

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a material is designed which combines the properties of shape-memory and electroactive polymers. This is achieved by covalent cross-linking of polyvinylidene fluoride. The resulting polymer network exhibits excellent shape-memory properties with a storable strain of 200%, and fixity as well as recovery values of 100%. Programming upon rolling induces the transformation from the nonelectroactive α-phase to the piezoelectric β-phase. The highest β-phase content is found to be 83% for a programming strain of 200% affording a d33 value of -30 pm V(-1). This is in good accordance with literature known values for piezoelectric properties. Thermal triggering this material does not only result in a shape change but also renders the material nonelectroactive. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Switchable Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) Thermal Materials

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Materials and systems are being designed and developed to meet complex operational requirements while being kept lightweight, efficient, and robust. Multifunctional...

  11. Switchable nanoskin: separates the good oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middelberg, Anton; Dexter, Annette

    2006-01-01

    Most of us are familiar with detergents - or surfactants -from their uses around the home. However, these ubiquitous ''single-use'' chemicals have hardly changed in decades, and offer little control once added to a solution. We still cannot easily separate oil or fat from our domestic grey water because the same properties that make chemical surfactants so good at cleaning also make them extremely stable. In the Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, we have developed a new class of bio-inspired surfactants that is challenging conventional thinking around surfactant-stabilised systems. Inspired by observing the properties of proteins that bind DNA, we have developed peptides that form a skin, only nanometres thick, at oil-water and air-water interfaces. The strength of this nano-material can be designed for a given h application, and also switched to zero through the addition of simple chemicals. Switching the skin off allows oil s and water to demix in seconds, offering y unprecedented control over surfactante based products and processes

  12. Silica nanoparticles with a substrate switchable luminescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkova, O D; Mustafina, A R; Fedorenko, S V; Konovalov, A I

    2011-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles with visible (Tb and Ru doped), near IR (Yb doped) and dual visible-near IR luminescence (Ru-Yb doped) were obtained by reverse w/o microemulsion procedure. Plenty of luminescent complexes (from 4900 to 10000) encapsulated into each nanoparticle ensures the intensive luminescence of nanoparticles and their applicability as biomarkers. The silica surface decoration by definite anchor groups is the required step for the gaining to these nanoparticles marking and sensing functions. Thus covalent and non-covalent surface modification of these nanoparticles was developed to provide the binding with biotargets and sensing of anions. The dicationic surfactant coating of negatively charged Tb(III)-TCAS doped silica nanoparticles was chosen as the basis for the anion responsible system. The reversible insertion of the quenching anions (namely phenol red) into the surfactant based layer at the surface of luminescent nanoparticles switches off the Tb-centered luminescence. In turn the reversible reestablishment of the luminescence results from the competitive insertion of the non-quenching anions into the surfactant layer at the silica/water interface. The hydrophobic anions exemplified by dodecylsulfates versus hydrophilic ones (hydrophosphates) are preferable in the competition with phenol red anions.

  13. Switchable Polarization in Mn Embedded Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor-A-Alam, Mohammad; Ullah, Hamid; Shin, Young-Han

    2018-03-14

    Graphene, despite its many unique properties, is neither intrinsically polar due to inversion symmetry nor magnetic. However, based on density functional theory, we find that Mn, one of transition metals, embedded in single or double vacancy (Mn@SV and Mn@DV) in a graphene monolayer induces a dipole moment perpendicular to the sheet, which can be switched from up to down by Mn penetration through the graphene. Such switching could be realized by an external stimuli introduced through the tip of a scanning probe microscope, as already utilized in the studies of molecular switches. We estimate the energy barriers for dipole switching, which are found to be 2.60 eV and 0.28 eV for Mn@SV and Mn@DV, respectively. However, by applying biaxial tensile strain, we propose a mechanism for tuning the barrier. We find that 10% biaxial tensile strain, which is already experimentally achievable in graphene-like two-dimensional materials, can significantly reduce the barrier to 0.16 eV in Mn@SV. Moreover, in agreement with previous studies, we find a high magnetic moment of 3 μ B for both Mn@SV and Mn@DV, promising the potential of these structures in spintronics as well as in nanoscale electro-mechanical or memory devices.

  14. Switchable adhesion by chemical functionality and topography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamperman, M.M.G.; Synytska, A.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in adhesion technology over the last few decades has led to widespread replacement of mechanical fasteners with adhesive bonds. Despite the advances, it remains challenging to produce materials that are sticky on demand. In this feature article we highlight recent efforts to develop

  15. Development of Switchable Polarity Solvent Draw Solutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Aaron D.

    2016-11-01

    Results of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD) study of flow and heat transfer in a printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) geometry are presented. CFD results obtained from a two-plate model are compared to corresponding experimental results for the validation. This process provides the basis for further application of the CFD code to PCHE design and performance analysis in a variety of internal flow geometries. As a part of the code verification and validation (V&V) process, CFD simulation of a single semicircular straight channel under laminar isothermal conditions was also performed and compared to theoretical results. This comparison yielded excellent agreement with the theoretical values. The two-plate CFD model based on the experimental PCHE design overestimated the effectiveness and underestimated the pressure drop. However, it is found that the discrepancy between the CFD result and experimental data was mainly caused by the uncertainty in the geometry of heat exchanger during the fabrication. The CFD results obtained using a slightly smaller channel diameter yielded good agreement with the experimental data. A separate investigation revealed that the average channel diameter of the OSU PCHE after the diffusion-bonding was 1.93 mm on the cold fluid side and 1.90 mm on the hot fluid side which are both smaller than the nominal design value. Consequently, the CFD code was shown to have sufficient capability to evaluate the heat exchanger thermal-hydraulic performance.

  16. Improvement in light-output efficiency of near-ultraviolet InGaN-GaN LEDs fabricated on stripe patterned sapphire substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.J.; Hsu, T.C.; Kuo, H.C.; Wang, S.C.; Yang, Y.L.; Yen, S.N.; Chu, Y.T.; Shen, Y.J.; Hsieh, M.H.; Jou, M.J.; Lee, B.J.

    2005-01-01

    InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated on a patterned sapphire substrate (PSS) with parallel stripe along the sapphire direction by using low-pressure metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The forward- and reverse-bias electrical characteristics of the stripe PSS LEDs are, respectively, similar and better than those of conventional LEDs on sapphire substrate. The output power of the epoxy package of stripe PSS LED was 20% higher than that of the conventional LEDs. The enhancement of output power is due not only to the reduction of dislocation density but also to the release of the guided light in LEDs by the geometric shape of the stripe PSS, according to the ray-tracing analysis

  17. Fast photo-switchable surfaces for boiling heat transfer applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, C. N.; Glavin, N. R.; Voevodin, A. A.; Turner, D. B.; Check, M. H.; Jespersen, M. L.; Borton, P. T.

    2012-01-01

    Several milligrams of the ruthenium-centered organometallic complex, ruthenium bis-4,4′-di(thiomethyl)-2,2′-bipyridine, mono-2 -(2-pyridyl)-1,3-oxathiane ([Ru{(HS-CH 2 ) 2 -bpy} 2 {pox}](PF 6 ) 2 ) were synthesized and used to produce a self assembled monolayer film on a gold substrate. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the film detected the presence of bound thiolate, which is an indication of a chemisorbed film. Water contact angle measurements were performed before and after 5 min of visible light irradiation using an ozone-free 1000 W Xe(Hg) arc source with a 425-680 nm long pass mirror. The contact angle changed from 52° pre-irradiation (hydrophilic state) to 95° post-irradiation (hydrophobic state).

  18. Switchable static friction of piezoelectric composite-silicon wafer contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Fischer, H.R.; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2013-01-01

    The meso-scale surface roughness of piezoelectric fiber composites can be manipulated by applying an electric field to a piezocomposite with a polished surface. In the absence of an applied voltage, the tips of the embedded piezoelectric ceramic fibers are below the surface of the piezocomposite and

  19. Switchable static friction of piezoelectric composite—silicon wafer contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Ende, D.A.; Fischer, H.R.; Groen, W.A.; Van der Zwaag, S.

    2013-01-01

    The meso-scale surface roughness of piezoelectric fiber composites can be manipulated by applying an electric field to a piezocomposite with a polished surface. In the absence of an applied voltage, the tips of the embedded piezoelectric ceramic fibers are below the surface of the piezocomposite and

  20. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  1. Predicting the switchable screw sense in fluorene-based polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietropaolo, Adriana; Wang, Yue; Nakano, Tamaki

    2015-02-23

    A chirality-switching free-energy landscape was reconstructed on a 43-mer of poly(9,9-dioctylfluoren-2,7-diyl) (PDOF). The simulations were conducted on amorphous silica surface as well as in the vacuum phase for a single chain or for a group of sixteen chains. The achiral-to-chiral transition occurs only on amorphous silica (activation free-energy 35 kcal mol(-1) ), where the enantiomeric (homochiral) basins are detected. This was supported by the experiments where effective chirality induction to PDOF using circularly polarized light (CPL) was attained only for a film deposited on a quartz glass and not for a solution or a suspension. These results indicate that interactions of PDOF with amorphous silica play a crucial role in chirality switching. Importance of chain assembling was also indicated. Theoretical ECD spectra of the enantiomeric basins containing a 51 helix reproduce the experimental spectra. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Light and redox switchable molecular components for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular and organic electronics has seen rapid progress in recent years, developing from concept and design to actual demonstration devices in which both single molecules and self-assembled monolayers are employed as light-responsive components. Research in this field has seen numerous unexpected challenges that have slowed progress and the initial promise of complex molecular-based computers has not yet been realised. Primarily this has been due to the realisation at an early stage that molecular-based nano-electronics brings with it the interface between the hard (semiconductor) and soft (molecular) worlds and the challenges which accompany working in such an environment. Issues such as addressability, cross-talk, molecular stability and perturbation of molecular properties (e.g., inhibition of photochemistry) have nevertheless driven development in molecular design and synthesis as well as our ability to interface molecular components with bulk metal contacts to a very high level of sophistication. Numerous groups have played key roles in progressing this field not least teams such as those led by Whitesides, Aviram, Ratner, Stoddart and Heath. In this short review we will however focus on the contributions from our own group and those of our collaborators, in employing diarylethene based molecular components.

  3. Light and Redox Switchable Molecular Components for Molecular Electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    The field of molecular and organic electronics has seen rapid progress in recent years, developing from concept and design to actual demonstration devices in which both single molecules and self-assembled monolayers are employed as light-responsive components. Research in this field has seen

  4. Threshold Switchable Particles (TSP) to Control Internal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    particle size. One method of preparing biocompatible iron oxide was to add poly( acrylic ) acid (PAA) to the particles’ surface. However, addition of...dense granules, and their resulting X-Ray microspectrum is quasi-identical, except for the presence of a small K peak. However, potassium was not...microspectrum is quasi-identical, except for the presence of a small K peak.18 However, potassium was not used here for PolyP nanoprecipitation

  5. Core-to-core dimers forming switchable mesophase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horčic, M.; Svoboda, J.; Novotná, Vladimíra; Pociecha, D.; Gorecka, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 18 (2017), s. 2721-2724 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-02843S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : liquid crystals * bent- core mesogens * dimers Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties) Impact factor: 6.319, year: 2016

  6. Switchable narrow band reflectors produced in a single curing step

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    A method to produce a multiphase polymer-based film by polymg. monomer in the presence of a non-reactive liq. crystal and a dichroic photoinitiator whereby the polymn. is initiated by the use of linearly polarized light, the initial mixt. being cholesteric before polymn. is described. A multiphase

  7. Threshold-Switchable Particles (TSPs) to Control Internal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    μg/ml near sites of trauma. Control experiments were performed with bare polyP NPs and 10 μg/ml sPLA2 from bee venom (bvsPLA2) to identify any... journals : (1) Hebbard CF, Wang Y, Baker CJ, and Morrissey JH. Synthesis and evaluation of chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates for high-throughput...Biomac © 2014 American Chemical Society 3190 dx.doi.org/10.1021/bm500872g | Biomacromolecules 2014, 15, 3190−3196 Open Access on 07/07/2015 phatase

  8. A switchable spin-wave signal splitter for magnonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussner, F.; Serga, A. A.; Brächer, T.; Hillebrands, B.; Pirro, P.

    2017-09-01

    The influence of an inhomogeneous magnetization distribution on the propagation of caustic-like spin-wave beams in unpatterned magnetic films has been investigated by utilizing micromagnetic simulations. Our study reveals a locally controllable and reconfigurable tractability of the beam directions. This feature is used to design a device combining split and switch functionalities for spin-wave signals on the micrometer scale. A coherent transmission of spin-wave signals through the device is verified. This attests the applicability in magnonic networks where the information is encoded in the phase of the spin waves.

  9. Switchable Liquid Crystal Contact Lenses for the Correction of Presbyopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Bailey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presbyopia is an age-related disorder where the lens of the eye hardens so that focusing on near objects becomes increasingly difficult. This complaint affects everyone over the age of 50. It is becoming progressively more relevant, as the average age of the global population continues to rise. Bifocal or varifocal spectacles are currently the best solution for those that require near and far vision correction. However, many people prefer not to wear spectacles and while multifocal contact lenses are available, they are not widely prescribed and can require significant adaptation by wearers. One possible solution is to use liquid crystal contact lenses that can change focal power by applying a small electric field across the device. However, the design of these contact lenses must be carefully considered as they must be comfortable for the user to wear and able to provide the required change in focal power (usually about +2D. Progress towards different lens designs, which includes lens geometry, liquid crystal choices and suitable alignment modes, are reviewed. Furthermore, we also discuss suitable electrode materials, possible power sources and suggest some methods for switching the lenses between near and far vision correction.

  10. Switchable charge injection barrier in an organic supramolecular semiconductor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorbunov, A.V.; Haedler, A.T.; Putzeys, T.; Zha, R.H.; Schmidt, H.W.; Kivala, M.; Urbanavičiutec, I.; Wübbenhorst, M.; Meijer, E.W.; Kemerink, M.

    2016-01-01

    We disclose a supramolecular material that combines semiconducting and dipolar functionalities. The material consists of a discotic semiconducting carbonyl-bridged triarylamine core, which is surrounded by three dipolar amide groups. In thin films, the material self-organizes in a hexagonal columnar

  11. Design considerations for a backlight with switchable viewing angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Takagi, Yoshihiko; Rahadian, Fanny

    2006-08-01

    Small-sized liquid crystal displays are widely used for mobile applications such as cell phones. Electronic control of a viewing angle range is desired in order to maintain privacy for viewing in public as well as to provide wide viewing angles for solitary viewing. Conventionally, a polymer-dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) panel is inserted between a backlight and a liquid crystal panel. The PDLC layer either transmits or scatters the light from the backlight, thus providing an electronic control of viewing angles. However, such a display system is obviously thick and expensive. Here, we propose to place an electronically-controlled, light-deflecting device between an LED and a light-guide of a backlight. For example, a liquid crystal lens is investigated for other applications and its focal length is controlled electronically. A liquid crystal phase grating either transmits or diffracts an incoming light depending on whether or not a periodic phase distribution is formed inside its liquid crystal layer. A bias applied to such a device will control the angular distribution of the light propagating inside a light-guide. Output couplers built in the light-guide extract the propagating light to outside. They can be V-shaped grooves, pyramids, or any other structures that can refract, reflect or diffract light. When any of such interactions occur, the output couplers translate the changes in the propagation angles into the angular distribution of the output light. Hence the viewing-angle characteristic can be switched. The designs of the output couplers and the LC devices are important for such a backlight system.

  12. Dynamic, electronically switchable surfaces for membrane protein microarrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C S; Dusseiller, M; Makohliso, S; Heuschkel, M; Sharma, S; Keller, B; Vörös, J

    2006-02-01

    Microarray technology is a powerful tool that provides a high throughput of bioanalytical information within a single experiment. These miniaturized and parallelized binding assays are highly sensitive and have found widespread popularity especially during the genomic era. However, as drug diagnostics studies are often targeted at membrane proteins, the current arraying technologies are ill-equipped to handle the fragile nature of the protein molecules. In addition, to understand the complex structure and functions of proteins, different strategies to immobilize the probe molecules selectively onto a platform for protein microarray are required. We propose a novel approach to create a (membrane) protein microarray by using an indium tin oxide (ITO) microelectrode array with an electronic multiplexing capability. A polycationic, protein- and vesicle-resistant copolymer, poly(l-lysine)-grafted-poly(ethylene glycol) (PLL-g-PEG), is exposed to and adsorbed uniformly onto the microelectrode array, as a passivating adlayer. An electronic stimulation is then applied onto the individual ITO microelectrodes resulting in the localized release of the polymer thus revealing a bare ITO surface. Different polymer and biological moieties are specifically immobilized onto the activated ITO microelectrodes while the other regions remain protein-resistant as they are unaffected by the induced electrical potential. The desorption process of the PLL-g-PEG is observed to be highly selective, rapid, and reversible without compromising on the integrity and performance of the conductive ITO microelectrodes. As such, we have successfully created a stable and heterogeneous microarray of biomolecules by using selective electronic addressing on ITO microelectrodes. Both pharmaceutical diagnostics and biomedical technology are expected to benefit directly from this unique method.

  13. Redox control of molecular motion in switchable artificial nanoscale devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credi, Alberto; Semeraro, Monica; Silvi, Serena; Venturi, Margherita

    2011-03-15

    The design, synthesis, and operation of molecular-scale systems that exhibit controllable motions of their component parts is a topic of great interest in nanoscience and a fascinating challenge of nanotechnology. The development of this kind of species constitutes the premise to the construction of molecular machines and motors, which in a not-too-distant future could find applications in fields such as materials science, information technology, energy conversion, diagnostics, and medicine. In the past 25 years the development of supramolecular chemistry has enabled the construction of an interesting variety of artificial molecular machines. These devices operate via electronic and molecular rearrangements and, like the macroscopic counterparts, they need energy to work as well as signals to communicate with the operator. Here we outline the design principles at the basis of redox switching of molecular motion in artificial nanodevices. Redox processes, chemically, electrically, or photochemically induced, can indeed supply the energy to bring about molecular motions. Moreover, in the case of electrically and photochemically induced processes, electrochemical and photochemical techniques can be used to read the state of the system, and thus to control and monitor the operation of the device. Some selected examples are also reported to describe the most representative achievements in this research area.

  14. Switchable polarization rotation of visible light using a plasmonic metasurface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart K. Earl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A metasurface comprising an array of silver nanorods supported by a thin film of the phase change material vanadium dioxide is used to rotate the primary polarization axis of visible light at a pre-determined wavelength. The dimensions of the rods were selected such that, across the two phases of vanadium dioxide, the two lateral localized plasmon resonances (in the plane of the metasurface occur at the same wavelength. Illumination with linearly polarized light at 45° to the principal axes of the rod metasurface enables excitation of both of these resonances. Modulating the phase of the underlying substrate, we show that it is possible to reversibly switch which axis of the metasurface is resonant at the operating wavelength. Analysis of the resulting Stokes parameters indicates that the orientation of the principal linear polarization axis of the reflected signal is rotated by 90° around these wavelengths. Dynamic metasurfaces such as these have the potential to form the basis of an ultra-compact, low-energy multiplexer or router for an optical signal.

  15. Fabrication of superhydrophobic polyaniline films with rapidly switchable wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Men, Xuehu; Yang, Jin; Xu, Xianghui; Zhu, Xiaotao; Xue, Qunji

    2011-10-01

    A superhydrophobic polyaniline (PANI) film has been fabricated by using a facile one-step spraying method. The PANI was synthesized via in situ doping polymerization in the presence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) as the dopant. The water contact angle of this superhydrophobic surface reaches to 156°. Both the surface chemical compositions and morphological structures were analyzed. A granular morphology of PANI with a moderate amount of nanofibers was obtained. Moreover, a rapid surface wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity can be observed when it is doped with PFOA and de-doped with base. The mechanism for this tunable wettability has been discussed in detail.

  16. Induction Motor with Switchable Number of Poles and Toroidal Winding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNTEANU, A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of an induction motor provided with toroidal stator winding. The ring-type coils offer a higher versatility in obtaining a different number of pole pairs by means of delta/star and series/parallel connections respectively. As consequence, the developed torque can vary within large limits and the motor can be utilized for applications that require, for example, high load torque values for a short time. The study involves experimental tests and FEM simulation for an induction machine with three configurations of pole pairs. The conclusions attest the superiority of the toroidal winding for certain applications such as electric vehicles or lifting machines.

  17. Switchable directional excitation surface plasmon polaritons with dielectric nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinev, I.; Komissarenko, F.; Bogdanov, A.

    We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin goldfilm with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation, which is driven by the mutual interference of magnetic and elect......We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin goldfilm with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation, which is driven by the mutual interference of magnetic...

  18. Electronically switchable sham transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumiko Hoeft

    Full Text Available Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS is increasingly being used to demonstrate the causal links between brain and behavior in humans. Further, extensive clinical trials are being conducted to investigate the therapeutic role of TMS in disorders such as depression. Because TMS causes strong peripheral effects such as auditory clicks and muscle twitches, experimental artifacts such as subject bias and placebo effect are clear concerns. Several sham TMS methods have been developed, but none of the techniques allows one to intermix real and sham TMS on a trial-by-trial basis in a double-blind manner. We have developed an attachment that allows fast, automated switching between Standard TMS and two types of control TMS (Sham and Reverse without movement of the coil or reconfiguration of the setup. We validate the setup by performing mathematical modeling, search-coil and physiological measurements. To see if the stimulus conditions can be blinded, we conduct perceptual discrimination and sensory perception studies. We verify that the physical properties of the stimulus are appropriate, and that successive stimuli do not contaminate each other. We find that the threshold for motor activation is significantly higher for Reversed than for Standard stimulation, and that Sham stimulation entirely fails to activate muscle potentials. Subjects and experimenters perform poorly at discriminating between Sham and Standard TMS with a figure-of-eight coil, and between Reverse and Standard TMS with a circular coil. Our results raise the possibility of utilizing this technique for a wide range of applications.

  19. Detection and size analysis of proteins with switchable DNA layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Pringsheim, Erika; Kaiser, Wolfgang; Arinaga, Kenji; Knezevic, Jelena; Tornow, Marc; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    We introduce a chip-compatible scheme for the label-free detection of proteins in real-time that is based on the electrically driven conformation switching of DNA oligonucleotides on metal surfaces. The switching behavior is a sensitive indicator for the specific recognition of IgG antibodies and antibody fragments, which can be detected in quantities of less than 10(-18) mol on the sensor surface. Moreover, we show how the dynamics of the induced molecular motion can be monitored by measuring the high-frequency switching response. When proteins bind to the layer, the increase in hydrodynamic drag slows the switching dynamics, which allows us to determine the size of the captured proteins. We demonstrate the identification of different antibody fragments by means of their kinetic fingerprint. The switchDNA method represents a generic approach to simultaneously detect and size target molecules using a single analytical platform.

  20. Switchable directional excitation surface plasmon polaritons with dielectric nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinev, I.; Komissarenko, F.; Bogdanov, A.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate directional launching of surface plasmon polaritons on thin goldfilm with a single silicon nanosphere. The directivity pattern of the excited surface waves exhibits rapid switching from forward to backward excitation, which is driven by the mutual interference of magnetic and elect...... and electric dipole moments supported by the dielectric nanoantenna....

  1. Threshold Switchable Particles (TSPs) To Control Internal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    will not significantly activate the intrinsic pathway. Furthermore, iron oxide can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) technology to...on 2 1/ 09 /2 01 6 21 :4 0: 57 . View Article Online cryopreservation of cells and as solvent for pharmaceuticals in clinical applications. The... pharmaceuticals and foreign substances,28 tightly regulates serum pH,29 and robustly and competitively binds to metal cations,30−35 most notably Ca2

  2. Near-unity transparency of a continuous metal film via cooperative effects of double plasmonic arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhengqi; Liu Guiqiang; Liu Xiaoshan; Huang Kuan; Chen Yuanhao; Fu Guolan; Zhou Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Metal structures with high optical transparency and conductivity are of great importance for practical applications in optoelectronic devices. Here we investigate the transparency response of a continuous metal film sandwiched by double plasmonic nanoparticle arrays. The upper nanoparticle array shows efficient light trapping of the incident field, acting as a light input coupler, and the lower nanoparticle array shows a light release gate opening at the other side, acting as the light output coupler. The strong near-field light–matter interactions of the nano-scale separated plasmonic nanoparticles, the excitation of surface plasmon waves of the metal film, and their cooperative coupling effects result in broadband scattering cancellation and near-unity transparency (up to 96%) in the optical regime. The transparency response in such a structure can be efficiently modified by varying the gap distance of adjacent nanoparticles, dielectric environments, and the distance between the plasmonic array and the metal film. This motif may provide a new alternative approach to obtain transparent and highly conducting metal structures with potential applications in transparent conductors, plasmonic filters, and highly integrated light input and output components. (paper)

  3. Switchable DNA wire: deposition-stripping of copper nanoclusters as an "ON-OFF" nanoswitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Siyu; Cao, Jiepei; Mao, Xiaoxia; Li, Genxi

    2016-01-19

    Today, a consensus that DNA working as a molecular wire shows promise in nanoscale electronics is reached. Considering that the "ON-OFF" switch is the basis of a logic circuit, the switch of DNA-mediated charge transport (DNA CT) should be conquered. Here, on the basis of chemical or electrochemical deposition and stripping of DNA-templated copper nanoclusters (CuNCs), we develop an "ON-OFF" nanoswitch for DNA CT. While CuNCs are deposited, the DNA CT is blocked, which can be also recovered after stripping the CuNCs. A switch cycle can be completed in a few seconds and can be repeated for many times. Moreover, by regulating the amount of reagents, deposition/stripping time, applied potential, etc., the switch is adjustable to make the wire at either an "ON-OFF" state or an intermediate state. We believe that this concept and the successful implementation will promote the practical application of DNA wire one step further.

  4. Switchable DNA wire: deposition-stripping of copper nanoclusters as an “ON-OFF” nanoswitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoli; Liu, Siyu; Cao, Jiepei; Mao, Xiaoxia; Li, Genxi

    2016-01-01

    Today, a consensus that DNA working as a molecular wire shows promise in nanoscale electronics is reached. Considering that the “ON-OFF” switch is the basis of a logic circuit, the switch of DNA-mediated charge transport (DNA CT) should be conquered. Here, on the basis of chemical or electrochemical deposition and stripping of DNA-templated copper nanoclusters (CuNCs), we develop an “ON-OFF” nanoswitch for DNA CT. While CuNCs are deposited, the DNA CT is blocked, which can be also recovered after stripping the CuNCs. A switch cycle can be completed in a few seconds and can be repeated for many times. Moreover, by regulating the amount of reagents, deposition/stripping time, applied potential, etc., the switch is adjustable to make the wire at either an “ON-OFF” state or an intermediate state. We believe that this concept and the successful implementation will promote the practical application of DNA wire one step further. PMID:26781761

  5. Hybrid waveguide-bulk multi-path interferometer with switchable amplitude and phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Keil

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We design and realise a hybrid interferometer consisting of three paths based on integrated as well as on bulk optical components. This hybrid construction offers a good compromise between stability and footprint on one side and means of intervention on the other. As experimentally verified by the absence of higher-order interferences, amplitude and phase can be manipulated in all paths independently. In conjunction with single photons, the setup can, therefore, be applied for fundamental investigations on quantum mechanics.

  6. Light controlled friction at a liquid crystal polymer coating with switchable patterning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, D.; Broer, D.J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new methodology that enables dynamically control of motion through modulating friction at coating surfaces by exposing with UV light. The principle is based on reversibly switching the surface topographies of the coating by light. The coating surface transfers from flat in the dark to

  7. Carbohydrate-actuated nanofluidic diode: switchable current rectification in a nanopipette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilozny, Boaz; Wollenberg, Alexander L; Actis, Paolo; Hwang, Daniel; Singaram, Bakthan; Pourmand, Nader

    2013-10-07

    Nanofluidic structures share many properties with ligand-gated ion channels. However, actuating ion conductance in artificial systems is a challenge. We have designed a system that uses a carbohydrate-responsive polymer to modulate ion conductance in a quartz nanopipette. The cationic polymer, a poly(vinylpyridine) quaternized with benzylboronic acid groups, undergoes a transition from swollen to collapsed upon binding to monosaccharides. As a result, the current rectification in nanopipettes can be reversibly switched depending on the concentration of monosaccharides. Such molecular actuation of nanofluidic conductance may be used in novel sensors and drug delivery systems.

  8. CO2-switchable fluorescence of a dendritic polymer and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chunmei; Lü, Shaoyu; Liu, Mingzhu; Wu, Can; Xiong, Yun

    2015-12-01

    The synthesis and properties of CO2 responsive and fluorescent dendritic polymers, poly(amido amine)/Pluronic F127 (PAMAM/F127), are reported in this paper. The morphologies and sizes of PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers showed unimolecular micelle morphologies at low concentrations, and changed to multimolecular micelles at higher concentrations. Additionally, fluorescence spectra and confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers exhibited a fluorescent enhancement response to the presence of CO2. Apart from that, the release behavior of PAMAM/F127 gels under simulated body fluids was investigated by choosing curcumin as the hydrophobic drug. The results indicated that PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers can be used to improve the solubility of curcumin, and the drug released faster in the presence of CO2. Such CO2 responsive fluorescent dendritic polymers are potentially applicable in cellular imaging or drug controlled release.The synthesis and properties of CO2 responsive and fluorescent dendritic polymers, poly(amido amine)/Pluronic F127 (PAMAM/F127), are reported in this paper. The morphologies and sizes of PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers showed unimolecular micelle morphologies at low concentrations, and changed to multimolecular micelles at higher concentrations. Additionally, fluorescence spectra and confocal laser scanning microscopy images showed that PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers exhibited a fluorescent enhancement response to the presence of CO2. Apart from that, the release behavior of PAMAM/F127 gels under simulated body fluids was investigated by choosing curcumin as the hydrophobic drug. The results indicated that PAMAM/F127 dendritic polymers can be used to improve the solubility of curcumin, and the drug released faster in the presence of CO2. Such CO2 responsive fluorescent dendritic polymers are potentially applicable in cellular imaging or drug controlled release. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06729d

  9. Technical Design of Flexible Thin-Film Solar Heating Clothes with Switchable Output Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Yu Xiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focuses on the research and development of thermal clothes through technical design, by adopting unique removable electronic equipment and applying carbon fiber material to thermal clothes against cold, so as to meet the requirements of active heating and passive warmth retention. Firstly, the specification of power supply system was determined in accordance with the requirements of power system, and the specification of charging system was determined according to the specification of power system. Then circuit system was designed and tested. Fianlly, the electronic device was configured on the clothes appropriately, so that it should be conforms to ergonomic principles, convenient and fast.

  10. Reversibly Switchable, pH-Dependent Peptide Ligand Binding via 3,5-Diiodotyrosine Substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngambenjawong, Chayanon; Sylvestre, Meilyn; Gustafson, Heather H; Pineda, Julio Marco B; Pun, Suzie H

    2018-04-20

    Cell type-specific targeting ligands utilized in drug delivery applications typically recognize receptors that are overexpressed on the cells of interest. Nonetheless, these receptors may also be expressed, to varying extents, on off-target cells, contributing to unintended side effects. For the selectivity profile of targeting ligands in cancer therapy to be improved, stimuli-responsive masking of these ligands with acid-, redox-, or enzyme-cleavable molecules has been reported, whereby the targeting ligands are exposed in specific environments, e.g., acidic tumor hypoxia. One possible drawback of these systems lies in their one-time, permanent trigger, which enables the "demasked" ligands to bind off-target cells if released back into the systemic circulation. A promising strategy to address the aforementioned problem is to design ligands that show selective binding based on ionization state, which may be microenvironment-dependent. In this study, we report a systematic strategy to engineer low pH-selective targeting peptides using an M2 macrophage-targeting peptide (M2pep) as an example. 3,5-Diiodotyrosine mutagenesis into native tyrosine residues of M2pep confers pH-dependent binding behavior specific to acidic environment (pH 6) when the amino acid is protonated into the native tyrosine-like state. At physiological pH of 7.4, the hydroxyl group of 3,5-diiodotyrosine on the peptide is deprotonated leading to interruption of the peptide native binding property. Our engineered pH-responsive M2pep (Ac-Y-Î-Î) binds target M2 macrophages more selectively at pH 6 than at pH 7.4. In addition, 3,5-diiodotyrosine substitutions also improve serum stability of the peptide. Finally, we demonstrate pH-dependent reversibility in target binding via a postbinding peptide elution study. The strategy presented here should be applicable for engineering pH-dependent functionality of other targeting peptides with potential applications in physiology-dependent in vivo targeting applications (e.g., targeting hypoxic tumor/inflammation) or in in vitro receptor identification.

  11. Photoinduced switchable wettability of bismuth coating with hierarchical dendritic structure between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Chunping; Lu, Zhong; Zhao, Huiping; Yang, Hao, E-mail: hyangwit@hotmail.com; Chen, Rong, E-mail: rchenhku@hotmail.com

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Hierarchical bismuth nanostructures were synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction. • The bismuth coating shows superhydrophobicity after being modified by stearic acid. • Wetting transition could be realized by alternation of irradiation and modification. - Abstract: Special wettability such as superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity has aroused considerable attention in recent years, especially for the surface that can be switched between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity. In this work, hierarchical bismuth nanostructures with hyperbranched dendritic architectures were synthesized via the galvanic replacement reaction between zinc plate and BiCl{sub 3} in ethylene glycol solution, which was composed of a trunk, branches (secondary branch), and leaves (tertiary branch). After being modified by stearic acid, the as-prepared bismuth coating shows superhydrophobicity with a high water contact angle of 164.8° and a low sliding angle of 3°. More importantly, a remarkable surface wettability transition between superhydrophobicity and superhydrophilicity could be easily realized by the alternation of UV–vis irradiation and modification with stearic acid. The tunable wetting behavior of bismuth coating could be used as smart materials to make a great application in practice.

  12. Switchable geometric frustration in an artificial-spin-ice-superconductor heterosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Ma, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jing; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Snezhko, Alexey; Divan, Ralu; Ocola, Leonidas E; Pearson, John E; Janko, Boldizsar; Kwok, Wai-Kwong

    2018-06-11

    Geometric frustration emerges when local interaction energies in an ordered lattice structure cannot be simultaneously minimized, resulting in a large number of degenerate states. The numerous degenerate configurations may lead to practical applications in microelectronics 1 , such as data storage, memory and logic 2 . However, it is difficult to achieve very high degeneracy, especially in a two-dimensional system 3,4 . Here, we showcase in situ controllable geometric frustration with high degeneracy in a two-dimensional flux-quantum system. We create this in a superconducting thin film placed underneath a reconfigurable artificial-spin-ice structure 5 . The tunable magnetic charges in the artificial-spin-ice strongly interact with the flux quanta in the superconductor, enabling switching between frustrated and crystallized flux quanta states. The different states have measurable effects on the superconducting critical current profile, which can be reconfigured by precise selection of the spin-ice magnetic state through the application of an external magnetic field. We demonstrate the applicability of these effects by realizing a reprogrammable flux quanta diode. The tailoring of the energy landscape of interacting 'particles' using artificial-spin-ices provides a new paradigm for the design of geometric frustration, which could illuminate a path to control new functionalities in other material systems, such as magnetic skyrmions 6 , electrons and holes in two-dimensional materials 7,8 , and topological insulators 9 , as well as colloids in soft materials 10-13 .

  13. Understanding and Controlling Living/Inorganic Interfaces to Enable Reconfigurable Switchable Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-01

    Mater Res. 2015;4:297–310. Invited. Dong H, Sarkes DA, Rice JJ , Hurley MM, Fu A, Stratis-Cullum D. Functionalization of living bacterial cells with...presentation. Dong H, Sarkes DA, Rice JJ , Hurley MM, Fu A, Stratis-Cullum D. Living composites: Viable bacteria-nanoparticle hybrids mediated through...surface- displayed peptides. Langmuir. Forthcoming 2017. Dong H, Sarkes DA, Rice JJ , Hurley MM, Fu A, Stratis-Cullum DN. Living bacteria/nanoparticle

  14. Polyimide-polyether mixed conductors as switchable materials for electrochromic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michot, C; Baril, D; Armand, M [Laboratoire d` Ionique et d` Electrochimie du Solide, ENSEEG, Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, Saint-Martin d` Heres (France)

    1995-12-01

    A new family of redox-active polymers have been obtained by polycondensation of {alpha},{omega}-diamino oligopolyethers with various aromatic tetracarboxylic acid anhydrides. The polyether blocks retain the usual cation co-ordination ability leading to solid-state ionic conduction while the relatively large electron affinity of the bis-imide moieties formed in the block polymers allows the reversible formation of stable radical anions ({sup -} and {sup 2-}) in the range 2-2.6 V vs. Li. Either slow-scan or microelectrode voltammetry indicate that the totality of the redox centres in such materials are readily accessible for all polyether spacer lengths tested (6-22 ether fragments), suggesting both a fast electron-exchange mechanism between anion radicals and a tendency for self assembly (stacking) of the planar aromatic groups. When increasing the number of atoms in the aromatic ring, the peak separation became smaller (benzene>naphthalene>perylene), resulting ultimately in simultaneous 2-electrons injection. These materials, due to the high coloration efficiency of the reduced state and their ready processability in thin films are excellent candidate for the realisation of laminated solid-state electrochromic devices

  15. Prediction of a Large-Gap and Switchable Kane-Mele Quantum Spin Hall Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrazzo, Antimo; Gibertini, Marco; Campi, Davide; Mounet, Nicolas; Marzari, Nicola

    2018-03-01

    Fundamental research and technological applications of topological insulators are hindered by the rarity of materials exhibiting a robust topologically nontrivial phase, especially in two dimensions. Here, by means of extensive first-principles calculations, we propose a novel quantum spin Hall insulator with a sizable band gap of ˜0.5 eV that is a monolayer of jacutingaite, a naturally occurring layered mineral first discovered in 2008 in Brazil and recently synthesized. This system realizes the paradigmatic Kane-Mele model for quantum spin Hall insulators in a potentially exfoliable two-dimensional monolayer, with helical edge states that are robust and that can be manipulated exploiting a unique strong interplay between spin-orbit coupling, crystal-symmetry breaking, and dielectric response.

  16. Electrically switchable photonic liquid crystal devices for routing of a polarized light wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushnova, Irina I.; Melnikova, Elena A.; Tolstik, Alexei L.; Muravsky, Alexander A.

    2018-04-01

    The new mode of LC alignment based on photoalignment AtA-2 azo dye where the refractive interface between orthogonal orientations of the LC director exists without voltage and disappeared or changed with critical voltage has been proposed. The technology to fabricate electrically controlled liquid crystal elements for spatial separation and switching of linearly polarized light beams on the basis of the total internal reflection effect has been significantly improved. Its distinctive feature is the application of a composite alignment material comprising two sublayers of Nylon-6 and AtA-2 photoalignment azo dye offering patterned liquid crystal director orientation with high alignment quality value q = 0 . 998. The fabricated electrically controlled spatially structured liquid crystal devices enable implementation of propagation directions separation for orthogonally polarized light beams and their switching with minimal crosstalk.

  17. Bifurcation properties of nematic liquid crystals exposed to an electric field: Switchability, bistability, and multistability

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.

    2013-07-01

    Bistable liquid crystal displays (LCDs) offer the potential for considerable power savings compared with conventional (monostable) LCDs. The existence of two (or more) stable field-free states that are optically distinct means that contrast can be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine the basic physical principles involved in generating multiple stable states and the switching between these states. We consider a two-dimensional geometry in which variable surface anchoring conditions are used to control the steady-state solutions and explore how different anchoring conditions can influence the number and type of solutions and whether or not switching is possible between the states. We find a wide range of possible behaviors, including bistability, tristability, and tetrastability, and investigate how the solution landscape changes as the boundary conditions are tuned. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  18. Enantiopure Functional Molecular Motors Obtained by a Switchable Chiral-Resolution Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Thomas; Gan, Jefri; Kistemaker, Jos C. M.; Pizzolato, Stefano F.; Chang, Mu-Chieh; Feringa, Ben L.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular switches, rotors, and motors play an important role in the development of nano-machines and devices, as well as responsive and adaptive functional materials. For unidirectional rotors based on chiral overcrowded alkenes, their stereochemical homogeneity is of crucial importance. Herein, a

  19. A concept for switchable, energy-generating ‘smart’ windows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debije, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Smart’ windows, mostly based on chromogenic events triggered chemically, electrically or otherwise, are able to variably control the amount of light that passes into a room space, but make no use of the rejected light. Photovoltaic ‘windows’ such as those based on thin films or tiled photovoltaic

  20. Operation mode switchable charge-trap memory based on few-layer MoS2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Yan, Xiao; Liu, Chunsen; Ding, Shijin; Zhang, David Wei; Zhou, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Ultrathin layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors like MoS2 and WSe2 have received a lot of attention because of their excellent electrical properties and potential applications in electronic devices. We demonstrate a charge-trap memory with two different tunable operation modes based on a few-layer MoS2 channel and an Al2O3/HfO2/Al2O3 charge storage stack. Our device shows excellent memory properties under the traditional three-terminal operation mode. More importantly, unlike conventional charge-trap devices, this device can also realize the memory performance with just two terminals (drain and source) because of the unique atomic crystal electrical characteristics. Under the two-terminal operation mode, the erase/program current ratio can reach up to 104 with a stable retention property. Our study indicates that the conventional charge-trap memory cell can also realize the memory performance without the gate terminal based on novel two dimensional materials, which is meaningful for low power consumption and high integration density applications.

  1. Remote Control of Tissue Interactions via Engineered Photo-switchable Cell Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Pulsipher, Abigail; Dutta, Debjit; Lamb, Brian M.; Yousaf, Muhammad N.

    2014-09-01

    We report a general cell surface molecular engineering strategy via liposome fusion delivery to create a dual photo-active and bio-orthogonal cell surface for remote controlled spatial and temporal manipulation of microtissue assembly and disassembly. Cell surface tailoring of chemoselective functional groups was achieved by a liposome fusion delivery method and quantified by flow cytometry and characterized by a new cell surface lipid pull down mass spectrometry strategy. Dynamic co-culture spheroid tissue assembly in solution and co-culture tissue multilayer assembly on materials was demonstrated by an intercellular photo-oxime ligation that could be remotely cleaved and disassembled on demand. Spatial and temporal control of microtissue structures containing multiple cell types was demonstrated by the generation of patterned multilayers for controlling stem cell differentiation. Remote control of cell interactions via cell surface engineering that allows for real-time manipulation of tissue dynamics may provide tools with the scope to answer fundamental questions of cell communication and initiate new biotechnologies ranging from imaging probes to drug delivery vehicles to regenerative medicine, inexpensive bioreactor technology and tissue engineering therapies.

  2. Multimodal Sensing Strategy Using pH Dependent Fluorescence Switchable System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthurasu, A.; Ganesh, V.

    2016-12-01

    Biomolecules assisted preparation of fluorescent gold nanoparticles (FL-Au NPs) has been reported in this work using glucose oxidase enzyme as both reducing and stabilizing agent and demonstrated their application through multimodal sensing strategy for selective detection of cysteine (Cys). Three different methods namely fluorescence turn OFF-ON strategy, naked eye detection and electrochemical methods are used for Cys detection by employing FL-Au NPs as a common probe. In case of fluorescence turn-OFF method a strong interaction between Au NPs and thiol results in quenching of fluorescence due to replacement of glucose oxidase by Cys at neutral pH. Second mode is based on fluorescence switch-ON strategy where initial fluorescence is significantly quenched by either excess acid or base and further addition of Cys results in appearance of rosy-red and green fluorescence respectively. Visual colour change and fluorescence emission arises due to etching of Au atoms on the surface by thiol leading to formation of Au nanoclusters. Finally, electrochemical sensing of Cys is also carried out using cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 M PBS solution. These findings provide a suitable platform for Cys detection over a wide range of pH and concentration levels and hence the sensitivity can also be tuned accordingly.

  3. A Proton-Switchable Bifunctional Ruthenium Complex That Catalyzes Nitrile Hydroboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geri, Jacob B; Szymczak, Nathaniel K

    2015-10-14

    A new bifunctional pincer ligand framework bearing pendent proton-responsive hydroxyl groups was prepared and metalated with Ru(II) and subsequently isolated in four discrete protonation states. Stoichiometric reactions with H2 and HBPin showed facile E-H (E = H or BPin) activation across a Ru(II)-O bond, providing access to unusual Ru-H species with strong interactions with neighboring proton and boron atoms. These complexes were found to promote the catalytic hydroboration of ketones and nitriles under mild conditions, and the activity was highly dependent on the ligand's protonation state. Mechanistic experiments revealed a crucial role of the pendent hydroxyl groups for catalytic activity.

  4. STIR: Redox-Switchable Olefin Polymerization Catalysis: Electronically Tunable Ligands for Controlled Polymer Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    production of polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP) topped 53 billion pounds in 2011.1 This extreme demand has ensured that olefin polymerization...is an ideal starting monomer as it is a liquid at room temperature facilitating rapid screening and data collection without the need for cumbersome...elastomers, binders, thermoplastic elastomers, rheology modifiers, permeation selective membranes, and high strength, light-weight structural materials

  5. Switchable Opening and Closing of a Liquid Marble via Ultrasonic Levitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Duyang; Li, Jun; Chen, Zhen; Zhai, Zhicong; Geng, Xingguo; Binks, Bernard P

    2015-10-27

    Liquid marbles have promising applications in the field of microreactors, where the opening and closing of their surfaces plays a central role. We have levitated liquid water marbles using an acoustic levitator and, thereby, achieved the manipulation of the particle shell in a controlled manner. Upon increasing the sound intensity, the stable levitated liquid marble changes from a quasi-sphere to a flattened ellipsoid. Interestingly, a cavity on the particle shell can be produced on the polar areas, which can be completely healed when decreasing the sound intensity, allowing it to serve as a microreactor. The integral of the acoustic radiation pressure on the part of the particle surface protruding into air is responsible for particle migration from the center of the liquid marble to the edge. Our results demonstrate that the opening and closing of the liquid marble particle shell can be conveniently achieved via acoustic levitation, opening up a new possibility to manipulate liquid marbles coated with non-ferromagnetic particles.

  6. Water resistant surfaces using zinc oxide structured nanorod arrays with switchable wetting property

    OpenAIRE

    Ennaceri, H.; Wang, L.; Erfurt, D.; Riedel, W.; Mangalgiri, G.; Khaldoun, A.; El Kenz, A.; Benyoussef, A.; Ennaoui, A

    2016-01-01

    This study presents an experimental approach for fabricating super hydrophobic coatings based on a dual roughness structure composed of zinc oxide nanorod arrays coated with a sputtered zinc oxide nano layer. The ZnO nanorod arrays were grown by means of a low temperature electrochemical deposition technique 75 C on FTO substrates. The ZnO nanorods show a 002 orientation along the c axis, and have a hexagonal structure, with an average length of 710 nm, and average width of 156 nm. On th...

  7. The design of an electron gun switchable between immersed and Brillouin flowa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R.; Kester, O.

    2012-02-01

    An electron gun, which can be switched from immersed flow to Brillouin flow during operation, may have advantages for charge breeders as well as for electron beam ion sources and traps (EBISTs). For EBISTs this allows to change the current density according to the repetition frequency and charge state, for charge breeders and EBISTs a lower current density in immersed flow provides higher acceptance for injected ions, while the higher current density in Brillouin flow results in shorter breeding times and a lower emittance for the extracted beam. Therefore, we have designed such a gun for an EBIS with 5 T central magnetic field and without the use of iron and moving the gun. The gun was placed in the axial fringing field of the 5 T solenoid in such a position that a gate valve can be placed between the gun and the cryostat to allow for simple maintenance. The field at the cathode surface turned out to be only 0.05 T, which is not enough to focus 50 A/cm2 at a few kV. However, if a small normal conducting solenoid is placed over the vacuum tube in position of the gun, a field of 0.1 T may be obtained. With this the use of LaB6 as cathode material results in a magnetic compression of 44 and therewith in a focused current density in the trap region of more than 2000 A/cm2. By reversing the current in the gun solenoid the cathode field can easily compensated to zero. By proper design of the electrodes and the compression region, the gun will be able to deliver a beam in Brillouin flow. While this is interesting by itself - remember the "super-compression" reported on CRYEBIS-I - any magnetic field between zero and the value for immersed flow will result in an electron beam with a wide range of adjustable high current densities. The design tools used have been INTMAG(C) for the calculation of magnetic fields, EGN2(C) for the simulation of the gun and ANALYSE(C) for detailed analysis of the results (for more information see www.egun-igun.com).

  8. The design of an electron gun switchable between immersed and Brillouin flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, R; Kester, O

    2012-02-01

    An electron gun, which can be switched from immersed flow to Brillouin flow during operation, may have advantages for charge breeders as well as for electron beam ion sources and traps (EBISTs). For EBISTs this allows to change the current density according to the repetition frequency and charge state, for charge breeders and EBISTs a lower current density in immersed flow provides higher acceptance for injected ions, while the higher current density in Brillouin flow results in shorter breeding times and a lower emittance for the extracted beam. Therefore, we have designed such a gun for an EBIS with 5 T central magnetic field and without the use of iron and moving the gun. The gun was placed in the axial fringing field of the 5 T solenoid in such a position that a gate valve can be placed between the gun and the cryostat to allow for simple maintenance. The field at the cathode surface turned out to be only 0.05 T, which is not enough to focus 50 A∕cm(2) at a few kV. However, if a small normal conducting solenoid is placed over the vacuum tube in position of the gun, a field of 0.1 T may be obtained. With this the use of LaB(6) as cathode material results in a magnetic compression of 44 and therewith in a focused current density in the trap region of more than 2000 A∕cm(2). By reversing the current in the gun solenoid the cathode field can easily compensated to zero. By proper design of the electrodes and the compression region, the gun will be able to deliver a beam in Brillouin flow. While this is interesting by itself--remember the "super-compression" reported on CRYEBIS-I--any magnetic field between zero and the value for immersed flow will result in an electron beam with a wide range of adjustable high current densities. The design tools used have been INTMAG(C) for the calculation of magnetic fields, EGN2(C) for the simulation of the gun and ANALYSE(C) for detailed analysis of the results (for more information see www.egun-igun.com).

  9. Ultrafast water sensing and thermal imaging by a metal-organic framework with switchable luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Ye, Jia-Wen; Wang, Hai-Ping; Pan, Mei; Yin, Shao-Yun; Wei, Zhang-Wen; Zhang, Lu-Yin; Wu, Kai; Fan, Ya-Nan; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2017-06-01

    A convenient, fast and selective water analysis method is highly desirable in industrial and detection processes. Here a robust microporous Zn-MOF (metal-organic framework, Zn(hpi2cf)(DMF)(H2O)) is assembled from a dual-emissive H2hpi2cf (5-(2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-4,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-imidazol-1-yl)isophthalic acid) ligand that exhibits characteristic excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). This Zn-MOF contains amphipathic micropores (behaviour. The interconversion between the hydrated and dehydrated phases can turn the ligand ESIPT process on or off, resulting in sensitive two-colour photoluminescence switching over cycles. Therefore, this Zn-MOF represents an excellent PL water-sensing material, showing a fast (on the order of seconds) and highly selective response to water on a molecular level. Furthermore, paper or in situ grown ZnO-based sensing films have been fabricated and applied in humidity sensing (RH<1%), detection of traces of water (<0.05% v/v) in various organic solvents, thermal imaging and as a thermometer.

  10. Transient and Switchable (Triethylsilyl)ethynyl Protection of DNA against Cleavage by Restriction Endonucleases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kielkowski, Pavel; Macíčková-Cahová, Hana; Pohl, Radek; Hocek, Michal

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 37 (2011), s. 8727-8730 ISSN 1433-7851 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0317 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : alkynes * DNA * protecting groups * nucleotides * restriction endonucleases Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 13.455, year: 2011

  11. Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in inorganic-organic hybrids with mixed halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Vijaya Prakash, G.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2013-01-01

    Room-temperature tunable excitonic photoluminescence is demonstrated in alloy-tuned layered Inorganic-Organic (IO) hybrids, (C 12 H 25 NH 3 ) 2 PbI 4(1−y) Br 4y (y = 0 to 1). These perovskite IO hybrids adopt structures with alternating stacks of low-dimensional inorganic and organic layers, considered to be naturally self-assembled multiple quantum wells. These systems resemble stacked monolayer 2D semiconductors since no interlayer coupling exists. Thin films of IO hybrids exhibit sharp and strong photoluminescence (PL) at room-temperature due to stable excitons formed within the low-dimensional inorganic layers. Systematic variation in the observed exciton PL from 510 nm to 350 nm as the alloy composition is changed, is attributed to the structural readjustment of crystal packing upon increase of the Br content in the Pb-I inorganic network. The energy separation between exciton absorption and PL is attributed to the modified exciton density of states and diffusion of excitons from relatively higher energy states corresponding to bromine rich sites towards the lower energy iodine sites. Apart from compositional fluctuations, these excitons show remarkable reversible flips at temperature-induced phase transitions. All the results are successfully correlated with thermal and structural studies. Such structural engineering flexibility in these hybrids allows selective tuning of desirable exciton properties within suitable operating temperature ranges. Such wide-range PL tunability and reversible exciton switching in these novel IO hybrids paves the way to potential applications in new generation of optoelectronic devices

  12. Structural tunability and switchable exciton emission in inorganic-organic hybrids with mixed halides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Shahab; Baumberg, Jeremy J.; Vijaya Prakash, G.

    2013-12-01

    Room-temperature tunable excitonic photoluminescence is demonstrated in alloy-tuned layered Inorganic-Organic (IO) hybrids, (C12H25NH3)2PbI4(1-y)Br4y (y = 0 to 1). These perovskite IO hybrids adopt structures with alternating stacks of low-dimensional inorganic and organic layers, considered to be naturally self-assembled multiple quantum wells. These systems resemble stacked monolayer 2D semiconductors since no interlayer coupling exists. Thin films of IO hybrids exhibit sharp and strong photoluminescence (PL) at room-temperature due to stable excitons formed within the low-dimensional inorganic layers. Systematic variation in the observed exciton PL from 510 nm to 350 nm as the alloy composition is changed, is attributed to the structural readjustment of crystal packing upon increase of the Br content in the Pb-I inorganic network. The energy separation between exciton absorption and PL is attributed to the modified exciton density of states and diffusion of excitons from relatively higher energy states corresponding to bromine rich sites towards the lower energy iodine sites. Apart from compositional fluctuations, these excitons show remarkable reversible flips at temperature-induced phase transitions. All the results are successfully correlated with thermal and structural studies. Such structural engineering flexibility in these hybrids allows selective tuning of desirable exciton properties within suitable operating temperature ranges. Such wide-range PL tunability and reversible exciton switching in these novel IO hybrids paves the way to potential applications in new generation of optoelectronic devices.

  13. Smart surfaces with switchable superoleophilicity and superoleophobicity in aqueous media: Toward controllable oil/water separation

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Wang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    Advanced materials with surfaces that have controllable oil wettability when submerged in aqueous media have great potential for various underwater applications. Here we have developed smart surfaces on commonly used materials, including non

  14. Switchable pH-responsive polymeric membranes prepared via block copolymer micelle assembly

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2011-05-24

    A process is described to manufacture monodisperse asymmetric pH-responsive nanochannels with very high densities (pore density >2 × 10 14 pores per m2), reproducible in m2 scale. Cylindric pores with diameters in the sub-10 nm range and lengths in the 400 nm range were formed by self-assembly of metal-block copolymer complexes and nonsolvent-induced phase separation. The film morphology was tailored by taking into account the stability constants for a series of metal-polymer complexes and confirmed by AFM. The distribution of metal-copolymer micelles was imaged by transmission electron microscopy tomography. The pH response of the polymer nanochannels is the strongest reported with synthetic pores in the nm range (reversible flux increase of more than 2 orders of magnitude when switching the pH from 2 to 8) and could be demonstrated by cryo-field emission scanning electron microscopy, SAXS, and ultra/nanofiltration experiments. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Off–on switchable chemosensor based on rhodamine armed with morpholine moiety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhara, Anamika; Guchhait, Nikhil, E-mail: nguchhait@yahoo.com; Kar, Susanta K., E-mail: skkar_cu@yahoo.co.in

    2015-12-15

    We have synthesized a novel morpholine functionalized rhodamine derivative RBM which specifically binds to Fe{sup 3+} in the presence of large excess of other competing metal ions. The chemosensor is highly selective for Fe{sup 3+} over other cations. Meanwhile, the distinct color changes and rapid switch-on fluorescence also provide “naked eyes” detection for Fe{sup 3+} over a broad pH range. The chemosensor also displays 1:1 complex formation with Fe{sup 3+} ion, with a detection limit of 2.1 µM in aqueous CH{sub 3}CN solution, showing that it may offer potential as a chemosensor for the detection of submillimolar Fe{sup 3+} ions in physiological environments. - Highlights: • Design and synthesis of morpholine functionalized rhodamine derivative RBM. • RBM is a highly selective fluorescence sensor for Fe{sup 3+} via reversible CHEF mechanism. • Distinct color changes “naked-eye” and rapid switch-on fluorescence detection for Fe{sup 3+}. • Detection limit was calculated to be 2.1 μM for Fe{sup 3+} ion.

  16. Switchable Photonic Crystals Using One-Dimensional Confined Liquid Crystals for Photonic Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Gim, Min-Jun; Lee, Wonsuk; Choi, Suk-Won; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2017-01-25

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have recently attracted considerable attention, with much effort devoted to photonic bandgap (PBG) control for varying the reflected color. Here, fabrication of a modulated one-dimensional (1D) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) PC with a periodic porous structure is reported. The PBG of the fabricated PC can be reversibly changed by switching the ultraviolet (UV) light on/off. The AAO nanopores contain a mixture of photoresponsive liquid crystals (LCs) with irradiation-activated cis/trans photoisomerizable azobenzene. The resultant mixture of LCs in the porous AAO film exhibits a reversible PBG, depending on the cis/trans configuration of azobenzene molecules. The PBG switching is reliable over many cycles, suggesting that the fabricated device can be used in optical and photonic applications such as light modulators, smart windows, and sensors.

  17. Switchable Phased Antenna Array with Passive Elements for 5G Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Syrytsin, Igor A.; Zhang, Shuai; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a reconfigurable phased antenna array system is constructed for the mobile terminals in the context of 5G communication system. The proposed antenna system operates at the resonance frequency of 28 GHz. The reconfigurability of the antenna element is achieved by using a passive slot...

  18. Mathematical Modeling of a Transient Vibration Control Strategy Using a Switchable Mass Stiffness Compound System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Francisco Ledezma-Ramirez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical control strategy for residual vibration control resulting from a shock pulse is studied. The semiactive control strategy is applied in a piecewise linear compound model and involves an on-off logic to connect and disconnect a secondary mass stiffness system from the primary isolation device, with the aim of providing high energy dissipation for lightly damped systems. The compound model is characterized by an energy dissipation mechanism due to the inelastic collision between the two masses and then viscous damping is introduced and its effects are analyzed. The objective of the simulations is to evaluate the transient vibration response in comparison to the results for a passive viscously damped single degree-of-freedom system considered as the benchmark or reference case. Similarly the decay in the compound system is associated with an equivalent decay rate or logarithmic decrement for direct comparison. It is found how the compound system provides improved isolation compared to the passive system, and the damping mechanisms are explained.

  19. Switchable CO2 electroreduction via engineering active phases of Pd nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dunfeng Gao; Fan Yang; Shu Miao; Jianguo Wang; Guoxiong Wang; Xinhe Bao; Hu Zhou; Fan Cai; Dongniu Wang; Yongfeng Hu; Bei Jiang; Wen-Bin Cai; Xiaoqi Chen; Rui Si

    2017-01-01

    Active-phase engineering is regularly utilized to tune the selectivity of metal nanoparticles (NPs) in heterogeneous catalysis.However,the lack of understanding of the active phase in electrocatalysis has hampered the development of efficient catalysts for CO2 electroreduction.Herein,we report the systematic engineering of active phases of Pd NPs,which are exploited to select reaction pathways for CO2 electroreduction.In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy,in situ attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy,and density functional theory calculations suggest that the formation of a hydrogen-adsorbed Pd surface on a mixture of the α-and β-phases of a palladium-hydride core (α+β PdHx@PdHx) above-0.2 V (vs.a reversible hydrogen electrode) facilitates formate production via the HCOO* intermediate,whereas the formation of a metallic Pd surface on the β-phase Pd hydride core (β PdHx@Pd) below-0.5 V promotes CO production via the COOH* intermediate.The main product,which is either formate or CO,can be selectively produced with high Faradaic efficiencies (>90%) and mass activities in the potential window of 0.05 to-0.9 V with scalable application demonstration.

  20. Aldehyde-functionalized chitosan-montmorillonite films as dynamically-assembled, switchable-chemical release bioplastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbi, Jamal; Jennah, Oumayma; Katir, Nadia; Lahcini, Mohamed; Bousmina, Mosto; El Kadib, Abdelkrim

    2018-03-01

    Temporal release of synergistic and/or complementary chemicals (e.g.: drugs) is recognized as extremely challenging because of their frequently intertwined kinetic delivery and presently, straightforward concepts enabling to circumvent this bottleneck are missing in the open literature. In this framework, we report herein on aldehyde-functionalized, transparent and flexible chitosan-montmorillonite hybrid films that act as a new generation of eco-friendly, controlled-chemical release bioplastics. These dynamically-assembled nanomaterials are designed by a ternary assembly from biowaste derived chitin biopolymer, aromatic aldehydes and layered clay nanoparticles. On the basis of their geometrical and conformational properties, the oxygenated groups on the grafted aromatics interact preferentially with either the base Schiff belonging to the carbohydrate (via intramolecular CNHO-Ar known as "imine clip") or with the hydroxyl groups belonging to the clay surface (via intermolecular Si-OHO-Ar). The exfoliated clay nanoparticles within the carbohydrate polymer enables either accelerating or slowing down of the imine (CN) hydrolysis depending on the interaction of the conjugated aromatics. This provides the driving force for fine tuning host-guest interactions at the molecular level and constitutes an entry toward subtle discrimination of different chemicals (e.g. complementary fertilizers, synergistic drugs) during their sequential release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Switchable Gold Catalyst by Encapsulation in a Self-Assembled Cage

    KAUST Repository

    Jans, Anne C. H.

    2016-08-19

    Dinuclear gold complexes have the ability to interact with one or more substrates in a dual-activation mode, leading to different reactivity and selectivity than their mononuclear relatives. In this contribution, this difference was used to control the catalytic properties of a gold-based catalytic system by site-isolation of mononuclear gold complexes by selective encapsulation. The typical dual-activation mode is prohibited by this catalyst encapsulation, leading to typical behavior as a result of mononuclear activation. This strategy can be used as a switch (on/off) for a catalytic reaction and also permits reversible control over the product distribution during the course of a reaction.

  2. In-situ Manipulation and Imaging of Switchable Two-dimensional Electron Gas at Oxide Heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-30

    hierarchies on (001)- and (111)-oriented quantum well structures. Our results demonstrate the unprecedented capability of electron holographic...SrTiO3” Feng Bi, Mengchen Huang, Chung-Wung Bark, Sangwoo Ryu, Sanghan Lee, Chang-Beom Eom, Patrick Irvin and Jeremy Levy, J. Appl . Phys. 119

  3. CO2-Switchable Membranes Prepared by Immobilization of CO2-Breathing Microgels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zhenwu; Lei, Lei; Tang, Jun; Wang, Jianli; Zhu, Shiping

    2017-12-20

    Herein, we report the development of a novel CO 2 -responsive membrane system through immobilization of CO 2 -responsive microgels into commercially available microfiltration membranes using a method of dynamic adsorption. The microgels, prepared from soap-free emulsion polymerization of CO 2 -responsive monomer 2-(diethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DEA), can be reversibly expanded and shrunken upon CO 2 /N 2 alternation. When incorporated into the membranes, this switching behavior was preserved and further led to transformation between microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes, as indicated from the dramatic changes on water flux and BSA rejection results. This CO 2 -regulated performance switching of membranes was caused by the changes of water transportation channel, as revealed from the dynamic water contact angle tests and SEM observation. This work represents a simple yet versatile strategy for making CO 2 -responsive membranes.

  4. Bismuth ferrite as low-loss switchable material for plasmonic waveguide modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2014-01-01

    We propose new designs of plasmonic modulators, which can beused for dynamic signal switching in photonic integrated circuits. We studyperformance of a plasmonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as atunable material. The bismuth ferrite core is sandwiched between metalplates (metal...

  5. Switchable DNA interfaces for the highly sensitive detection of label-free DNA targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Scherer, Simon; Pringsheim, Erika; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Tornow, Marc; Abstreiter, Gerhard

    2007-10-30

    We report a method to detect label-free oligonucleotide targets. The conformation of surface-tethered probe nucleic acids is modulated by alternating electric fields, which cause the molecules to extend away from or fold onto the biased surface. Binding (hybridization) of targets to the single-stranded probes results in a pronounced enhancement of the layer-height modulation amplitude, monitored optically in real time. The method features an exceptional detection limit of <3 x 10(8) bound targets per cm(2) sensor area. Single base-pair mismatches in the sequences of DNA complements may readily be identified; moreover, binding kinetics and binding affinities can be determined with high accuracy. When driving the DNA to oscillate at frequencies in the kHz regime, distinct switching kinetics are revealed for single- and double-stranded DNA. Molecular dynamics are used to identify the binding state of molecules according to their characteristic kinetic fingerprints by using a chip-compatible detection format.

  6. Threshold-Switchable Particles (TSP’s) to Control Internal Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Ismagilov and Morrissey groups for threshold testing. TSPs will be formed from porous and solid nanoparticles with a low-size dispersion optimized for...samples by HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells). Ag NP concentration – 10 µg/ml; Kaolin concentration - 10 µg/ml; MCF-26 concentration 100...µg/ml. (Right) Uptake of various samples by HDFs. Ag NP concentration – 20 µg/ml; Kaolin concentration - 20 µg/ml; MCF-26 concentration 100 µg/ml

  7. Characterization of a switchable chimeric antigen receptor platform in a pre-clinical solid tumor model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishali Bejestani, Elham; Cartellieri, Marc; Bergmann, Ralf; Ehninger, Armin; Loff, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Spehr, Johannes; Dietrich, Antje; Feldmann, Anja; Albert, Susann; Wermke, Martin; Baumann, Michael; Krause, Mechthild; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bachmann, Michael; von Bonin, Malte

    2017-01-01

    The universal modular chimeric antigen receptor (UniCAR) platform redirects CAR-T cells using a separated, soluble targeting module with a short half-life. This segregation allows precise controllability and flexibility. Herein we show that the UniCAR platform can be used to efficiently target solid cancers in vitro and in vivo using a pre-clinical prostate cancer model which overexpresses prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA). Short-term administration of the targeting module to tumor bearing immunocompromised mice engrafted with human UniCAR-T cells significantly delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival of recipient mice both in a low and high tumor burden model. In addition, we analyzed phenotypic and functional changes of cancer cells and UniCAR-T cells in association with the administration of the targeting module to reveal potential immunoevasive mechanisms. Most notably, UniCAR-T cell activation induced upregulation of immune-inhibitory molecules such as programmed death ligands. In conclusion, this work illustrates that the UniCAR platform mediates potent anti-tumor activity in a relevant in vitro and in vivo solid tumor model.

  8. Bifurcation properties of nematic liquid crystals exposed to an electric field: Switchability, bistability, and multistability

    KAUST Repository

    Cummings, L. J.; Cai, C.; Kondic, L.

    2013-01-01

    be maintained in a display without an externally applied electric field. An applied field is required only to switch the device from one state to the other, as needed. In this paper we examine the basic physical principles involved in generating multiple stable

  9. A Switchable 3D-Coverage Phased Array Antenna Package for 5G Mobile Terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ojaroudiparchin, Naser; Shen, Ming; Zhang, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript proposes a new design of a millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) array antenna package with beam steering characteristic for the fifth generation (5G) mobile applications. In order to achieve a broad 3D scanning coverage of the space with high-gain beams, three identical sub arrays of patch a...... and efficiency, which is suitable for 5G mobile communications. In addition, the impact of user’s hand on the antenna performance has been investigated....... antennas have been compactly arranged along the edge region of the mobile phone PCB to form the antenna package. By switching the feeding to one of the sub arrays, the desired direction of coverage can be achieved. The proposed design has >10 dB gain in the upper spherical space, good directivity......This manuscript proposes a new design of a millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) array antenna package with beam steering characteristic for the fifth generation (5G) mobile applications. In order to achieve a broad 3D scanning coverage of the space with high-gain beams, three identical sub arrays of patch...

  10. A Switchable Gold Catalyst by Encapsulation in a Self-Assembled Cage

    KAUST Repository

    Jans, Anne C. H.; Gó mez-Suá rez, Adriá n; Nolan, Steven P.; Reek, Joost N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Dinuclear gold complexes have the ability to interact with one or more substrates in a dual-activation mode, leading to different reactivity and selectivity than their mononuclear relatives. In this contribution, this difference was used to control the catalytic properties of a gold-based catalytic system by site-isolation of mononuclear gold complexes by selective encapsulation. The typical dual-activation mode is prohibited by this catalyst encapsulation, leading to typical behavior as a result of mononuclear activation. This strategy can be used as a switch (on/off) for a catalytic reaction and also permits reversible control over the product distribution during the course of a reaction.

  11. Nanophotonic Modulator with Bismuth Ferrite as Low-loss Switchable Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Zhukovsky, Sergei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. Due to near-zero losses in bismuth ferrite, modulation with up to 20 dB/μm extinction ratio and 12 μm propagation length is achieved.......We propose a nanophotonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. Due to near-zero losses in bismuth ferrite, modulation with up to 20 dB/μm extinction ratio and 12 μm propagation length is achieved....

  12. Opportunities for switchable solvents for lipid extraction from wet algal biomass: an energy evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, Derk Willem Frederik

    2015-01-01

    Algae are considered an important sustainable feedstock for lipid extraction to produce food ingredients, cosmetics, pharmaceutical products and biofuels. Next to the costs for cultivation, this route is especially hindered by the energy intensity of drying algae prior to extraction and solvent

  13. Facile way in fabricating a cotton fabric membrane for switchable oil/water separation and water purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Feng, Ziliang; He, Yi; Fan, Yi; Ma, Jing; Yin, Xiangying

    2018-05-01

    With dopamine and NiFe2O4 particles, a novel modified cotton fabric (PDA-NiFe2O4@CF) was prepared by one-pot method. Surface morphology, composition of the PDA-NiFe2O4@CF were investigated with SEM, EDX, XRD and FT-IR, respectively. According to the results, the cotton fiber surface was well coated with NiFe2O4 particles. Subsequently, wetting behavior of the modified cotton fabric was determined. The PDA-NiFe2O4@CF is superamphiphilic in air, and a dual lyophobic behavior was indicated with an oil contact angle (OCA) of 153° under water and a water contact angle (WCA) of 145° under oil. The rough micro-nano scale surface structure and high-surface-energy compositions of the PDA-NiFe2O4@CF makes the surface to be easily covered by one medium and enables it to repel other unmixable medium simultaneously. Therefore, water-oil mixtures can be separated on demand. Besides, with the unusual dual lyophobic surface of PDA-NiFe2O4@CF, both two types of emulsions were separated by gravity driven. On the other hand, it was also found that the as-prepared PDA-NiFe2O4@CF had good adsorption performance for methylene blue.

  14. Incorporation of amphiphilic ruthenium(II) ammine complexes into Langmuir-Blodgett thin films with switchable quadratic nonlinear optical behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekeur-Lecaque, Leïla; Coe, Benjamin J; Harris, James A; Helliwell, Madeleine; Asselberghs, Inge; Clays, Koen; Foerier, Stijn; Verbiest, Thierry

    2011-12-19

    Nine nonlinear optical (NLO) chromophores with pyridinium electron acceptors have been synthesized by complexing new proligands with {Ru(II)(NH(3))(5)}(2+) electron-donor centers. The presence of long alkyl/fluoroalkyl chain substituents imparts amphiphilic properties, and these cationic complexes have been characterized as their PF(6)(-) salts by using various techniques including electronic absorption spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Each complex shows three reversible/quasireversible redox processes; a Ru(III/II) oxidation and two ligand-based reductions. The energies of the intense visible d → π* metal-to-ligand charge-transfer (MLCT) absorptions correlate to some extent with the ligand reduction potentials. (1)H NMR spectroscopy also provides insights into the relative electron-withdrawing strengths of the new ligands. Single crystal X-ray structures have been determined for two of the proligand salts and one complex salt, [Ru(II)(NH(3))(5)(4-C(16)H(33)PhQ(+))]Cl(3)·3.25H(2)O (PhQ(+) = N-phenyl-4,4'-bipyridinium), showing centrosymmetric packing structures in each case. The PF(6)(-) analogue of the latter complex has been used to deposit reproducibly high-quality, multilayered Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) thin films. These films show a strong second harmonic generation (SHG) response from a 1064 nm laser; their MLCT absorbance increases linearly with the number of layers (N) and I(2ω)/I(ω)(2) (I(2ω) = intensity at 532 nm; I(ω) = intensity at 1064 nm) scales quadratically with N, consistent with homogeneous deposition. LB films on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass show electrochemically induced switching of the SHG response, with a decrease in activity of about 50% on Ru(II) → Ru(III) oxidation. This effect is reversible, but reproducible over only a few cycles before the signal from the Ru(II) species diminishes. This work extrapolates our original solution studies (Coe, B. J. et al. Angew. Chem., Int. Ed.1999, 38, 366) to the first demonstration of redox-switching of NLO activity in a molecular material. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  15. New non-chemically amplified molecular resist design with switchable sensitivity for multi-lithography applications and nanopatterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Neha; Guruprasad Reddy, Pulikanti; Nandi, Santu; Yogesh, Midathala; Sharma, Satinder K.; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P.; Ghosh, Subrata; Gonsalves, Kenneth E.

    2017-12-01

    The development of new photoresist materials for multi-lithography applications is crucial but a challenging task for semiconductor industries. During the last few decades, given the need for new resists to meet the requirements of semiconductor industries, several research groups have developed different resist materials for specific lithography applications. In this context, we have successfully synthesized a new molecular non-chemically amplified resist (n-CAR) (C3) based on the functionalization of aromatic hydroxyl core (4,4‧-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)diphenol) with radiation sensitive sulfonium triflates for various lithography applications. While, micron scale features have been developed using i-line (365 nm) and DUVL (254 nm) exposure tools, electron beam studies on C3 thin films enabled us to pattern 20 nm line features with L/3S (line/space) characteristics on the silicon substrate. The sensitivity and contrast were calculated from the contrast curve analysis as 280 µC cm-2 and 0.025 respectively. Being an important parameter for any newly developed resists, the line edge roughness (LER) of 30 nm (L/5S) features were calculated, using SUMMIT metrology package, to be 3.66  ±  0.3 nm and found to be within the acceptable range. AFM analysis further confirmed 20 nm line width with smooth pattern wall. No deformation of patterned features was observed during AFM analysis which indicated good adhesion property between patterned resists and silicon substrates.

  16. "On-off-on" switchable sensor: a fluorescent spiropyran responds to extreme pH conditions and its bioimaging applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Shulin; Zheng, Yang; Shen, Jie; Yang, Wantai; Yin, Meizhen

    2014-11-26

    A novel spiropyran that responds to both extreme acid and extreme alkali and has an "on-off-on" switch is reported. Benzoic acid at the indole N-position and carboxyl group at the indole 6-position contribute to the extreme acid response. The ionizations of carboxyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups cause the extreme alkali response. Moreover, the fluorescent imaging in bacterial cells under extreme pH conditions supports the mechanism of pH response.

  17. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ashleigh L; Doris, Sean E; Li, Longjun; Hughes, Mark A; Qu, Xiaohui; Persson, Kristin A; Helms, Brett A

    2017-05-24

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device's active materials when they enter the membrane's pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane's ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium-sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development.

  18. Indirect amperometric sensing of dopamine using a redox-switchable naphthoquinone-terminated self-assembled monolayer on gold electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, Asma; Raouafi, Noureddine; Sahli, Rihab

    2016-01-01

    We report on the design of a simple yet sensitive and selective electrode for amperometric determination of dopamine at a cathodic potential as low as −0.30 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The electrode was obtained by self-assembly of ω-mercaptopropyl naphthoquinone (NQ-SAM) on the surface of a polycrystalline gold electrode. The presence of dopamine induces an increase of the reduction current peak at −0.30 V corresponding to the reduction of naphthoquinone to hydronaphthoquinone. Dopamine and dopamine-quinone accumulate on the surface to form a 3D network linked by hydrogen bonds. Raman and infrared spectroscopy as well as atomic force microscopy confirmed the multilayer formation. The method allows dopamine to be indirectly detected at a working potential that is lower by 0.50 V than the standard oxidation potential at a bare gold electrode. The sensor shows distinct oxidation potentials for dopamine (120 mV), ascorbic acid (280 mV) and uric acid (520 mV) which makes the method fairly selective. The analytical range extends from 1 to 100 μM concentrations of dopamine, and the limits of detection and quantification are 0.040 and 0.134 μM, respectively. (author)

  19. Spatial-mode switchable ring fiber laser based on low mode-crosstalk all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Yu, Jinyi; Wang, Jianping

    2018-05-01

    We report an all-fiber ring laser that emits linearly polarized (LP) modes based on the intracavity all-fiber mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX). Multiple LP modes in ring fiber laser are generated by taking advantage of mode MUX/DEMUX. The all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX are composed of cascaded mode-selective couplers (MSCs). The output lasing mode of the ring fiber laser can be switched among the three lowest-order LP modes by employing combination of a mode MUX and a simple N × 1 optical switch. The slope efficiencies, optical spectra and mode profiles are measured.

  20. Nanodiamonds as pH-switchable oxidation and reduction catalysts with enzyme-like activities for immunoassay and antioxidant applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T M; Tian, X M; Huang, L; Xiao, J; Yang, G W

    2017-10-19

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have recently become a focus of interest from the viewpoints of both science and technology. Their intriguing properties make them suitable as biologically active substrates, in biosensor applications as well as diagnostic and therapeutic biomedical imaging probes. Here, we demonstrate that NDs, as oxidation and reduction catalysts, possess intrinsic enzyme mimetic properties of oxidase, peroxidase and catalase, and these behaviors can be switched by modulating the pH value. NDs not only catalyze the reduction of oxygen (O 2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at acidic pH, but also catalyze the dismutation decomposition of H 2 O 2 to produce O 2 at alkaline pH. It was proposed that the molecular mechanism of their peroxidase-like activity is electron-transfer acceleration, the source of which is likely derived from oxygen containing functional groups on their surface. Based on the color reaction, a nanodiamond-based enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established for the detection of immunoglobulin G (IgG). Surprisingly, NDs display an excellent antioxidant activity due to the protective effect against H 2 O 2 -induced cellular oxidative damage. These findings make NDs a promising enzyme mimetic candidate and expand their applications in biocatalysis, bioassays and nano-biomedicine.

  1. In situ Charge Density Imaging of Metamaterials made with Switchable Two dimensionalElectron Gas at Oxide Heterointerfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-28

    engineering of complex oxide systems. This work has been accepted for publication in Nature Nanotechnology (“Direct Imaging of the Electron Liquid at Oxide...mail address: eom@engr.wisc.edu - Institution: University of Wisconsin-Madison - Mailing Address: 2166 ECB, 1550 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706...Interfaces” K. Song et al., in press, Nature Nanotechnology (2018)) Figure 1. Direct imaging of the 2DELs at oxide interfaces. a, b, 2-D surface

  2. Taking Orders from Light: Photo-Switchable Working/Inactive Smart Surfaces for Protein and Cell Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junji; Ma, Wenjing; He, Xiao-Peng; Tian, He

    2017-03-15

    Photoresponsive smart surfaces are promising candidates for a variety of applications in optoelectronics and sensing devices. The use of light as an order signal provides advantages of remote and noninvasive control with high temporal and spatial resolutions. Modification of the photoswitches with target biomacromolecules, such as peptides, DNA, and small molecules including folic acid derivatives and sugars, has recently become a popular strategy to empower the smart surfaces with an improved detection efficiency and specificity. Herein, we report the construction of photoswitchable self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) based on sugar (galactose/mannose)-decorated azobenzene derivatives and determine their photoswitchable, selective protein/cell adhesion performances via electrochemistry. Under alternate UV/vis irradiation, interconvertible high/low recognition and binding affinity toward selective lectins (proteins that recognize sugars) and cells that highly express sugar receptors are achieved. Furthermore, the cis-SAMs with a low binding affinity toward selective proteins and cells also exhibit minimal response toward unselective protein and cell samples, which offers the possibility in avoiding unwanted contamination and consumption of probes prior to functioning for practical applications. Besides, the electrochemical technique used facilitates the development of portable devices based on the smart surfaces for on-demand disease diagnosis.

  3. A compact O-plus C-band switchable quad-wavelength fiber laser using arrayed waveguide grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, A A; Zulkifli, M Z; Hassan, N A; Ahmad, H; Harun, S W; Ghani, Z A

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a design of a quad-wavelength fiber laser (QWFL) operating in two different regions namely the O-band covering from 1302 nm to1317.4 nm and C-band from 1530.5 nm to 1548.0 nm is presented. Two different ASE sources from semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) are used, one at 1310 nm and the other at1550 nm. By using a 1×24 channels arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) with 100 GHz interchannel spacing, the system is capable of generating 24 different wavelengths in more than 24 ways of quad-wavelength fiber laser with 0.6 nm and 0.8 nm of interval channel for O-band and C-band regions, respectively

  4. HER2 Targeted Breast Cancer Therapy with Switchable "Off/On" Multifunctional "Smart" Magnetic Polymer Core-Shell Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, Raju; Thangam, Ramar; Kumar, Selvaraj Rajesh; Rejeeth, Chandrababu; Kumar, Gopal Senthil; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Vincent, Savariar; Gopi, Dhanaraj; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2016-01-27

    Multifunctional magnetic polymer nanocombinations are gaining importance in cancer nanotheranostics due to their safety and their potential in delivering targeted functions. Herein, we report a novel multifunctional core-shell magnetic polymer therapeutic nanocomposites (NCs) exhibiting pH dependent "Off-On" release of drug against breast cancer cells. The NCs are intact in blood circulation ("Off" state), i.e., at physiological pH, whereas activated ("On" state) at intracellular acidic pH environment of the targeted breast cancer cells. The NCs are prepared by coating the cannonball (iron nanocore) with hydrophobic nanopockets of pH-responsive poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer nanoshell that allows efficient loading of therapeutics. Further, the nanocore-polymer shell is stabilized by poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and functionalized with a targeting HER2 ligand. The prepared Her-Fe3O4@PLGA-PVP nanocomposites facilitate packing of anticancer drug (Tamoxifen) without premature release in the bloodstream, recognizing the target cells through binding of Herceptin antibody to HER2, a cell surface receptor expressed by breast cancer cells to promote HER2 receptor mediated endocytosis and finally releasing the drug at the intracellular site of tumor cells ("On" state) to induce apoptosis. The therapeutic efficiency of hemo/cytocompatible NCs drug delivery system (DDS) in terms of targeted delivery and sustained release of therapeutic agent against breast cancer cells was substantiated by in vitro and in vivo studies. The multifunctional properties of Her-Tam-Fe3O4@PLGA-PVP NCs may open up new avenues in cancer therapy through overcoming the limitations of conventional cancer therapy.

  5. InP femtosecond mode-locked laser in a compound feedback cavity with a switchable repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2018-02-01

    A monolithically integrated mode-locked semiconductor laser is proposed. The compound ring cavity is composed of a colliding pulse mode-locking (ML) subcavity and a passive Fabry-Perot feedback subcavity. These two 1.6 mm long subcavities are coupled by using on-chip reflectors at both ends, enabling harmonic mode locking. By changing DC-bias conditions, optical mode spacing from 50 to 450 GHz is experimentally demonstrated. Ultrafast pulses shorter than 0.3 ps emitted from this laser diode are shown in autocorrelation traces.

  6. Materials Genomics Screens for Adaptive Ion Transport Behavior by Redox-Switchable Microporous Polymer Membranes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Selective ion transport across membranes is critical to the performance of many electrochemical energy storage devices. While design strategies enabling ion-selective transport are well-established, enhancements in membrane selectivity are made at the expense of ionic conductivity. To design membranes with both high selectivity and high ionic conductivity, there are cues to follow from biological systems, where regulated transport of ions across membranes is achieved by transmembrane proteins. The transport functions of these proteins are sensitive to their environment: physical or chemical perturbations to that environment are met with an adaptive response. Here we advance an analogous strategy for achieving adaptive ion transport in microporous polymer membranes. Along the polymer backbone are placed redox-active switches that are activated in situ, at a prescribed electrochemical potential, by the device’s active materials when they enter the membrane’s pore. This transformation has little influence on the membrane’s ionic conductivity; however, the active-material blocking ability of the membrane is enhanced. We show that when used in lithium–sulfur batteries, these membranes offer markedly improved capacity, efficiency, and cycle-life by sequestering polysulfides in the cathode. The origins and implications of this behavior are explored in detail and point to new opportunities for responsive membranes in battery technology development. PMID:28573201

  7. Extensively Reversible Thermal Transformations of a Bistable, Fluorescence-Switchable Molecular Solid: Entry into Functional Molecular Phase-Change Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srujana, P; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2015-06-15

    Functional phase-change materials (PCMs) are conspicuously absent among molecular materials in which the various attributes of inorganic solids have been realized. While organic PCMs are primarily limited to thermal storage systems, the amorphous-crystalline transformation of materials like Ge-Sb-Te find use in advanced applications such as information storage. Reversible amorphous-crystalline transformations in molecular solids require a subtle balance between robust supramolecular assembly and flexible structural elements. We report novel diaminodicyanoquinodimethanes that achieve this transformation by interlinked helical assemblies coupled with conformationally flexible alkoxyalkyl chains. They exhibit highly reversible thermal transformations between bistable (crystalline/amorphous) forms, along with a prominent switching of the fluorescence emission energy and intensity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Oligo-m-phenyleneoxalamide copper(II) mesocates as electro-switchable ferromagnetic metal-organic wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Emilio; Ferrando-Soria, Jesús; Dul, Marie-Claire; Lescouëzec, Rodrigue; Journaux, Yves; Ruiz-García, Rafael; Cano, Joan; Julve, Miguel; Lloret, Francesc; Cañadillas-Delgado, Laura; Pasán, Jorge; Ruiz-Pérez, Catalina

    2010-11-15

    Double-stranded copper(II) string complexes of varying nuclearity, from di- to tetranuclear species, have been prepared by the Cu(II)-mediated self-assembly of a novel family of linear homo- and heteropolytopic ligands that contain two outer oxamato and either zero (1 b), one (2 b), or two (3 b) inner oxamidato donor groups separated by rigid 2-methyl-1,3-phenylene spacers. The X-ray crystal structures of these Cu(II) (n) complexes (n=2 (1 d), 3 (2 d), and 4 (3 d)) show a linear array of metal atoms with an overall twisted coordination geometry for both the outer CuN(2)O(2) and inner CuN(4) chromophores. Two such nonplanar all-syn bridging ligands 1 b-3 b in an anti arrangement clamp around the metal centers with alternating M and P helical chiralities to afford an overall double meso-helicate-type architecture for 1 d-3 d. Variable-temperature (2.0-300 K) magnetic susceptibility and variable-field (0-5.0 T) magnetization measurements for 1 d-3 d show the occurrence of S=nS(Cu) (n=2-4) high-spin ground states that arise from the moderate ferromagnetic coupling between the unpaired electrons of the linearly disposed Cu(II) ions (S(Cu)=1/2) through the two anti m-phenylenediamidate-type bridges (J values in the range of +15.0 to 16.8 cm(-1)). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for 1 d-3 d evidence a sign alternation of the spin density in the meta-substituted phenylene spacers in agreement with a spin polarization exchange mechanism along the linear metal array with overall intermetallic distances between terminal metal centers in the range of 0.7-2.2 nm. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and rotating-disk electrode (RDE) electrochemical measurements for 1 d-3 d show several reversible or quasireversible one- or two-electron steps that involve the consecutive metal-centered oxidation of the inner and outer Cu(II) ions (S(Cu)=1/2) to diamagnetic Cu(III) ones (S(Cu)=0) at relatively low formal potentials (E values in the range of +0.14 to 0.25 V and of +0.43 to 0.67 V vs. SCE, respectively). Further developments may be envisaged for this family of oligo-m-phenyleneoxalamide copper(II) double mesocates as electroswitchable ferromagnetic 'metal-organic wires' (MOWs) on the basis of their unique ferromagnetic and multicenter redox behaviors.

  9. A highly stable and switchable dual-wavelength laser using coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer as an optical filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim, A. A.; Ahmad, H.

    2017-12-01

    The generation and switching of dual-wavelength laser based on compact coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (CM-MZI) is reported. The CM-MZI is constructed by overlapping two portions of a single tapered optical fiber which has a diameter of 9 μm as to create multi-mode interference and also to produce spatial mode beating as to suppress mode competition in the homogeneous gain medium. The system is able to generate a dual-wavelength laser output that can be switched with the aid of the polarization rotation technique. Four dual-wavelength oscillation pairs are obtained from the interference fringe peaks of the CM-MZI comb filter with a switched channel spacing of 1.5 nm, 3.0 nm, and 6.0 nm. The wavelength spacing is stable at different pump powers. The lasing wavelength has a 3-dB linewidth of about 30 pm and peak-to-floor ration of about 55 dB at a pump power of 38 mW.

  10. Parafoveal retinal cone mosaic imaging in children with ultra-compact switchable SLO/OCT handheld probe (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRocca, Francesco; Nankivil, Derek; DuBose, Theodore B.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Farsiu, Sina; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2016-03-01

    In vivo photoreceptor imaging has enhanced the way vision scientists and ophthalmologists understand the retinal structure, function, and etiology of numerous retinal pathologies. However, the complexity and large footprint of current systems capable of resolving photoreceptors has limited imaging to patients who are able to sit in an upright position and fixate for several minutes. Unfortunately, this excludes an important fraction of patients including bedridden patients, small children, and infants. Here, we show that our dual-modality, high-resolution handheld probe with a weight of only 94 g is capable of visualizing photoreceptors in supine children. Our device utilizes a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) scanner and a novel telescope design to achieve over an order of magnitude reduction in size compared to similar systems. The probe has a 7° field of view and a lateral resolution of 8 µm. The optical coherence tomography (OCT) system has an axial resolution of 7 µm and a sensitivity of 101 dB. High definition scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and OCT images were acquired from children ranging from 14 months to 12 years of age with and without pathology during examination under anesthesia in the operating room. Parafoveal cone imaging was shown using the SLO arm of this device without adaptive optics using a 3° FOV for the first time in children under 4 years old. This work lays the foundation for pediatric research, which will improve understanding of retinal development, maldevelopment and early onset of diseases at the cellular level during the beginning stages of human growth.

  11. Ultrathin reduced graphene oxide films as transparent top-contacts for light switchable solid-state molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Jevric, Martyn; Hauptmann, Jonas Rahlf

    2013-01-01

    A new type of solid-state molecular junction is introduced, which employs reduced graphene oxide as a transparent top contact that permits a self-assembled molecular monolayer to be photoswitched in situ, while simultaneously enabling charge-transport measurements across the molecules. The electr......A new type of solid-state molecular junction is introduced, which employs reduced graphene oxide as a transparent top contact that permits a self-assembled molecular monolayer to be photoswitched in situ, while simultaneously enabling charge-transport measurements across the molecules...

  12. Effect of the strong metal-support interaction on hydrogen sorption kinetics of Pd-capped switchable mirrors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgschulte, A.; Westerwaal, R.J.; Rector, J.H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.P.; Schoenes, J.

    2004-01-01

    The morphology and electronic structure of Pd clusters grown on oxidized yttrium surfaces are investigated by scanning tunneling microscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. The hydrogen sorption mediated by the Pd clusters is determined from the optically monitored switching kinetics of

  13. Operational Analysis of Distribution Systems Featuring Large-scale Variable RES: Contributions of Energy Storage Systems and Switchable Capacitor Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Mário Pascoal Santos Pereira

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the level of variable renewable energy sources (RESs) integrated in distribution network systems have been continuously growing. This adds more uncertainty to these systems, which also face many traditional sources of uncertainty, and those pertaining to other emerging technologies such as demand response and electric vehicles. As a result, distribution system operators are finding it increasingly difficult to maintain an optimal operation of such network systems. These ch...

  14. Light-switchable polymer from cationic to zwitterionic form: synthesis, characterization, and interactions with DNA and bacterial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolčiak, Patrik; Spírek, Mário; Katrlík, Jaroslav; Gemeiner, Peter; Lacík, Igor; Kasák, Peter

    2013-04-25

    A novel cationic polymer poly(N,N-dimethyl-N-[3-(methacroylamino) propyl]-N-[2-[(2-nitrophenyl)methoxy]-2-oxo-ethyl]ammonium chloride) is synthesized by free-radical polymerization of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] methacrylamide and subsequent quaternization with o-nitrobenzyl 2-chloroacetate. The photolabile o-nitrobenzyl carboxymethyl pendant moiety is transformed to the zwitterionic carboxybetaine form upon the irradiation at 365 nm. This feature is used to condense and, upon the light irradiation, to release double-strand DNA tested by gel electrophoresis and surface plasmon resonance experiments as well as to switch the antibacterial activity to non-toxic character demonstrated for Escherichia coli bacterial cells in solution and at the surface using the self-assembled monolayers. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Protecting group and switchable pore-discriminating adsorption properties of a hydrophilic-hydrophobic metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohideen, M Infas H; Xiao, Bo; Wheatley, Paul S; McKinlay, Alistair C; Li, Yang; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Aldous, David W; Cessford, Naomi F; Düren, Tina; Zhao, Xuebo; Gill, Rachel; Thomas, K Mark; Griffin, John M; Ashbrook, Sharon E; Morris, Russell E

    2011-04-01

    Formed by linking metals or metal clusters through organic linkers, metal-organic frameworks are a class of solids with structural and chemical properties that mark them out as candidates for many emerging gas storage, separation, catalysis and biomedical applications. Important features of these materials include their high porosity and their flexibility in response to chemical or physical stimuli. Here, a copper-based metal-organic framework has been prepared in which the starting linker (benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid) undergoes selective monoesterification during synthesis to produce a solid with two different channel systems, lined by hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces, respectively. The material reacts differently to gases or vapours of dissimilar chemistry, some stimulating subtle framework flexibility or showing kinetic adsorption effects. Adsorption can be switched between the two channels by judicious choice of the conditions. The monoesterified linker is recoverable in quantitative yield, demonstrating possible uses of metal-organic frameworks in molecular synthetic chemistry as 'protecting groups' to accomplish selective transformations that are difficult using standard chemistry techniques.

  16. Multiplexed and Switchable Release of Distinct Fluids from Microneedle Platforms via Conducting Polymer Nanoactuators for Potential Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Windmiller, Joshua R.; Claussen, Jonathan C.; Martinez, Alexandra G.; Kuralay, Filiz; Zhou, Ming; Zhou, Nandi; Polsky, Ronen; Miller, Philip R.; Narayan, Roger; Wang, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    We report on the development of a microneedle-based multiplexed drug delivery actuator that enables the controlled delivery of multiple therapeutic agents. Two individually-addressable channels on a single microneedle array, each paired with its own reservoir and conducting polymer nanoactuator, are used to deliver various permutations of two unique chemical species. Upon application of suitable redox potentials to the selected actuator, the conducting polymer is able to undergo reversible volume changes, thereby serving to release a model chemical agent in a controlled fashion through the corresponding microneedle channels. Time-lapse videos offer direct visualization and characterization of the membrane switching capability and, along with calibration investigations, confirm the ability of the device to alternate the delivery of multiple reagents from individual microneedles of the array with higher precision and temporal resolution than conventional drug delivery actuators. Analytical modeling offers prediction of the volumetric flow rate through a single microneedle and accordingly can be used to assist in the design of subsequent microneedle arrays. The robust solid-state design and lack of mechanical components circumvent reliability issues that challenge fragile conventional microelectromechanical drug delivery devices. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the potential of the drug delivery actuator system to aid in the rapid administration of multiple therapeutic agents and indicates the potential to counteract diverse biomedical conditions. PMID:24174709

  17. Switchable Q-switched and modelocked operation in ytterbium doped fiber laser under all-normal-dispersion configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, Pranb K., E-mail: pkm@rrcat.gov.in; Gupta, Pradeep K.; Singh, Chandra Pal; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Sunil K.; Bindra, Kushvinder S.; Oak, Shrikant M. [Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore, M.P. 452013 (India)

    2015-03-15

    We have constructed an Yb-doped fiber laser in all-normal-dispersion configuration which can be independently operated in Q-switched or modelocked configuration with the help of a simple fiber optic ring resonator (FORR). In the presence of FORR, the laser operates in Q-switched mode producing stable pulses in the range of 1 μs-200 ns with repetition rate in the range of 45 kHz-82 kHz. On the other hand, the laser can be easily switched to mode-locked operation by disjoining the FORR loop producing train of ultrashort pulses of ∼5 ps duration (compressible to ∼150 fs) at ∼38 MHz repetition rate. The transmission characteristics of FORR in combination with the nonlinear polarization rotation for passive Q-switching operation is numerically investigated and experimentally verified. The laser can serve as a versatile seed source for power amplifier which can be easily configured for application in the fields that require different pulsed fiber lasers.

  18. Switchable Diastereoselectivity in the Fluoride Promoted Vinylogous Mukaiyama-Michael Reaction of 2-Trimethylsilyloxyfuran Catalyzed by Crown Ethers

    KAUST Repository

    Della Sala, Giorgio; Sicignano, Marina; Schettini, Rosaria; De Riccardis, Francesco; Cavallo, Luigi; Minenkov, Yury; Batisse, Chloé ; Hanquet, Gilles; Leroux, Frederic; IZZO, Irene

    2017-01-01

    diastereoselectivities when benzo-15-crown-5 in CH2Cl2 was employed. On the other hand, high syn-diastereoselectivities (from 76:24 to 96:4) were achieved by employing dicyclohexane-18-crown-6 in toluene. Based on DFT calculations, the catalysts

  19. Switchable optical layers. From the atomistic understanding of the gasochromous switching of tungsten oxide to the industrial application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinga, C.L.

    2005-01-01

    The present thesis describes studies, which make an understanding of the gasochromous colouring process of tungsten dioxide films. Finally all results and their interpretations are summarized, which arose in the framework of the analyses

  20. Stable C-band fiber laser with switchable multi-wavelength output using coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Jasim, A. A.

    2017-07-01

    A compact coupled microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (CM-MZI) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for C-band region multi-wavelength tuning and switching in a fiber laser. The CM-MZI is fabricated using a 9 μm single tapered silica optical microfiber fabricated by flame-drawing technique and exploits multi-mode interference to produce spatial mode beating and suppress mode competition of the homogeneous gain medium. The output wavelength spacing is immune to changes in the external environment, but can be changed from 1.5 nm to 1.4 nm by slightly modifying the path-length difference of the CM-MZI. The proposed laser is capable of generating single, dual, triple, quintuple, and sextuple stabilize wavelengths outputs over a range of more than 32 nm using polarization rotation (PR) and macro-bending. The lasers having a 3 dB line-width of less than ∼30 pm and peak-to-floor of about 55 dB at a pump power of 38 mW.

  1. Solvent/oxidant-switchable synthesis of multisubstituted quinazolines and benzimidazoles via metal-free selective oxidative annulation of arylamidines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Feng-Hua; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2014-06-06

    A fast and simple divergent synthesis of multisubstituted quinazolines and benzimidazoles was developed from readily available amidines, via iodine(III)-promoted oxidative C(sp(3))-C(sp(2)) and C(sp(2))-N bond formation in nonpolar and polar solvents, respectively. Further selective synthesis of quinazolines in polar solvent was realized by TEMPO-catalyzed sp(3)C-H/sp(2)C-H direct coupling of the amidine with K2S2O8 as the oxidant. No metal, base, or other additives were needed.

  2. Thermally switchable adhesions of polystyrene-block-poly(n-isopropylacrylamide) copolymer pillar array mimicking climb attitude of geckos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jem-Kun; Wang, Jing-Hong; Chang, Jia-Yaw; Fan, Shih-Kang

    2012-09-01

    Inspired by the gecko foot pad, we fabricated polystyrene-block-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PS-b-PNIPAAm) copolymer pillar array to mimic climbing attitude of a gecko, alternately attach to and detach from a surface. The pillar array structure of the PS segment significantly enhances both of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic property of PNIPAAm segment tips at 25 and 50 °C, respectively, which could generate alternating adhesive forces of approximately 120 and 11 nN. The dramatic change in adhesive and friction force difference at 25 and 50 °C may guide the design of bio-inspired artificial analogues, which could approach gecko's climbing behavior.

  3. Redox control of capillary filling speed in poly(ferrocenylsilane)-modified microfluidic channels for switchable delay valves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Ramos, Lionel; Lajoinie, Guillaume Pierre Rene; Kieviet, B.D.; de Beer, Sissi; Versluis, Michel; Hempenius, Mark A.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to reversibly change the wetting of gold-coated microchannel walls, and, as a result, alter the capillary filling speed of water inside such modified microchannels. To this end, we employ the redox-response of surface-anchored poly(ferrocenylsilane) (PFS) films, which allows for

  4. A versatile light-switchable nanorod memory: Wurtzite ZnO on perovskite SrTiO3

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Anup Bera; Peng, Haiyang; Lourembam, James; Shen, Youde; Sun, Xiaowei; Wu, Tao

    2013-01-01

    heterojunction memory made of wurtzite ZnO nanorods grown on perovskite Nb-doped SrTiO3 (NSTO) is reported, the electronic properties of which can be drastically reconfigured by applying a voltage and light. Despite of the distinct lattice structures of Zn

  5. Switchable Synthesis of 4,5-Functionalized 1,2,3-Thiadiazoles and 1,2,3-Triazoles from 2-Cyanothioacetamides under Diazo Group Transfer Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Valeriy O; Dianova, Lidia N; Galata, Kristina A; Beryozkina, Tetyana V; Novikov, Mikhail S; Berseneva, Vera S; Eltsov, Oleg S; Lebedev, Albert T; Slepukhin, Pavel A; Bakulev, Vasiliy A

    2017-04-21

    High yield solvent-base-controlled, transition metal-free synthesis of 4,5-functionalized 1,2,3-thiadiazoles and 1,2,3-triazoles from 2-cyanothioacetamides and sulfonyl azides is described. Under diazo transfer conditions in the presence of a base in an aprotic solvent 2-cyanothioacetamides operating as C-C-S building blocks produce 5-amino-4-cyano-1,2,3-thiadiazoles exclusively. The use of alkoxide/alcohol system completely switches the reaction course due to the change of one of the reaction centers in the 2-cyanothioacetamide (C-C-N building block) resulting in the formation of 5-sulfonamido-1,2,3-triazole-4-carbothioamide sodium salts as the only products. The latter serve as good precursors for 5-amino-1,2,3-thiadiazole-4-carboximidamides, the products of Cornforth-type rearrangement occurring in neutral protic medium or under acid conditions. According to DFT calculations (B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p)) the rearrangement proceeds via intermediate formation of a diazo compound, and can be catalyzed by acids via the protonation of oxygen atom of the sulfonamide group.

  6. Logic gate system with three outputs and three inputs based on switchable electrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase entrapped in chitosan films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Lei; Lian, Wenjing; Liu, Hongyun; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A logic-gate system with three outputs and three inputs was developed based on the bioelectrocatalysis of glucose by glucose oxidase (GOx) entrapped in chitosan films on the electrode surface by means of ferrocenedicarboxylic acid (Fc(COOH)2 ). Cyclic voltammetric (CV) signals of Fc(COOH)2 exhibited pH-triggered on/off behavior owing to electrostatic interactions between the film and the probe at different pH levels. The addition of glucose greatly increased the oxidation peak current (Ipa ) through the electrocatalytic reaction. pH and glucose were selected as two inputs. As a reversible inhibitor of GOx, Cu(2+) was chosen as the third input. The combination of three inputs led to Ipa with different values according to different mechanisms, which were defined as three outputs with two thresholds. The logic gate with three outputs by using one type of enzyme provided a novel model to build logic circuits based on biomacromolecules, which might be applied to the intelligent medical diagnostics as smart biosensors in the future. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Required Equipment for Photo-Switchable Donor-Acceptor (D-A) Dyad Interfacial Self-Assembled Monolayers for Organic Photovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-24

    Interfacial Tuning via Electron-Blocking/Hole-Transport Layers and Indium Tin Oxide Surface Treatment in Bulk- Heterojunction Organic Photovoltaic Cells...devices Figure 3 shows the compounds we prepared to assemble on gold (Au) surfaces. Results of TPA-C60 dyads (1 and 2) self-assembled on Au electrodes...surface hydroxyl groups, respectively, we decided to prepare compounds 5-7 to attach as SAMs, see Figure 5. Difficulties and unexpected problems

  8. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction time was required for maximum yield at room temperature and a solvent/feed ratio of 1:1 (w/w). For fresh water (FW), nonstressed, nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans, 13.1 wt % of lipid extraction yield (based on dry algae mass) was achieved, which could be improved to 61.3 wt % for FW stressed algae after four extractions, illustrating that a combination of stressing the algae and applying the solvent N-ethylbutylamine in multiple stages of extraction results in almost 5 times higher yield and is very promising for further development of energy-efficient lipid extraction technology targeting nonbroken wet microalgae. PMID:28781427

  9. Strain effects in topological insulators: Topological order and the emergence of switchable topological interface states in Sb2Te3/Bi2Te3 heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramberri, H.; Muñoz, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the effects of strain on the topological order of the Bi2Se3 family of topological insulators by ab initio first-principles methods. Strain can induce a topological phase transition and we present the phase diagram for the 3D topological insulators, Bi2Te3 , Sb2Te3 , Bi2Se3 , and Sb2Se3 , under combined uniaxial and biaxial strain. Their phase diagram is universal and shows metallic and insulating phases, both topologically trivial and nontrivial. In particular, uniaxial tension can drive the four compounds into a topologically trivial insulating phase. We propose a Sb2Te3/Bi2Te3 heterojunction in which a strain-induced topological interface state arises in the common gap of this normal insulator-topological insulator heterojunction. Unexpectedly, the interface state is confined in the topologically trivial subsystem and is physically protected from ambient impurities. It can be switched on or off by means of uniaxial strain and therefore Sb2Te3 /Bi2Te3 heterojunctions provide a topological system which hosts tunable robust helical interface states with promising spintronic applications.

  10. A Fast pH-Switchable and Self-Healing Supramolecular Hydrogel Carrier for Guided, Local Catheter Injection in the Infarcted Myocardium

    OpenAIRE

    Bastings, Maartje M. C.; Koudstaal, Stefan; Kieltyka, Roxanne E.; Nakano, Yoko; Pape, A. C. H.; Feyen, Dries A. M.; van Slochteren, Frebus J.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Sluijter, Joost P. G.; Meijer, E. W.; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; Dankers, Patricia Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive intervention strategies after myocardial infarction use state-of-the-art catheter systems that are able to combine mapping of the infarcted area with precise, local injection of drugs. To this end, catheter delivery of drugs that are not immediately pumped out of the heart is still challenging, and requires a carrier matrix that in the solution state can be injected through a long catheter, and instantaneously gelates at the site of injection. To address this unmet need, a ...

  11. Rational design of a conformation-switchable Ca2+- and Tb3+-binding protein without the use of multiple coupled metal-binding sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shunyi; Yang, Wei; Maniccia, Anna W; Barrow, Doyle; Tjong, Harianto; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Yang, Jenny J

    2008-10-01

    Ca2+, as a messenger of signal transduction, regulates numerous target molecules via Ca2+-induced conformational changes. Investigation into the determinants for Ca2+-induced conformational change is often impeded by cooperativity between multiple metal-binding sites or protein oligomerization in naturally occurring proteins. To dissect the relative contributions of key determinants for Ca2+-dependent conformational changes, we report the design of a single-site Ca2+-binding protein (CD2.trigger) created by altering charged residues at an electrostatically sensitive location on the surface of the host protein rat Cluster of Differentiation 2 (CD2).CD2.trigger binds to Tb3+ and Ca2+ with dissociation constants of 0.3 +/- 0.1 and 90 +/- 25 microM, respectively. This protein is largely unfolded in the absence of metal ions at physiological pH, but Tb3+ or Ca2+ binding results in folding of the native-like conformation. Neutralization of the charged coordination residues, either by mutation or protonation, similarly induces folding of the protein. The control of a major conformational change by a single Ca2+ ion, achieved on a protein designed without reliance on sequence similarity to known Ca2+-dependent proteins and coupled metal-binding sites, represents an important step in the design of trigger proteins.

  12. Maximizing Lipid Yield in Neochloris oleoabundans Algae Extraction by Stressing and Using Multiple Extraction Stages with N-Ethylbutylamine as Switchable Solvent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Brilman, Derk W.F.

    2017-01-01

    (Graph Presented) The extraction yield of lipids from nonbroken Neochloris oleoabundans was maximized by using multiple extraction stages and using stressed algae. Experimental parameters that affect the extraction were investigated. The study showed that with wet algae (at least) 18 h extraction

  13. Switchable field-tuned control of magnetic domain wall pinning along Co microwires by 3D e-beam lithographed structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco-Roldán, C., E-mail: c.blanco@cinn.es [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología CINN (CSIC, Universidad de Oviedo), Avenida de la Vega 4-6, 33940 El Entrego (Spain); Quirós, C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, G.; Vélez, M.; Martín, J.I.; Alameda, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Oviedo, Avenida Calvo Sotelo s/n, 33007 Oviedo (Spain); Centro de Investigación en Nanomateriales y Nanotecnología CINN (CSIC, Universidad de Oviedo), Avenida de la Vega 4-6, 33940 El Entrego (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Three-dimensional magnetic circuits composed of Co microwires crossed by elevated Co bridges have been patterned on Si substrate by e-beam lithography and lift-off process. The lithographic procedure includes a double resist procedure that optimizes the shape of the bridge, so that 200 nm air gaps can be routinely achieved in between the wire and bridge elements. Microwire magnetization reversal processes have been analyzed by magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy with different remanent bridge configurations. When the Co bridge is magnetized along the in-plane direction parallel to the wire axis, its stray field induces a marked pinning effect on domain wall propagation along the wire below it, even without being in contact. Changing the sign of the remanent state of the bridge, domain wall pinning can be selected to occur in either the ascending or descending branches of the wire hysteresis loop. Thus, these wire-bridge 3D circuits provide a simple system for tunable domain wall pinning controllable through the pre-recorded bridge remanent state. - Highlights: • Electron beam lithography is used to fabricate a tridimensional magnetic circuit. • Proposed circuit is made of a Co bridge overcrossing a non-contacted Co microwire. • Domain wall propagation can be controlled by previous magnetization of the system. • Domain wall pinning in the wire depends on the applied magnetic field sign.

  14. A Switchable Magnetic Low-Index Metamaterial for Use in a Dynamically Reconfigurable Beam-Scanning Lens Antenna with a Single Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Metamaterial Resonators and Unit Cell The active element of the reconfigurable metamaterial must be selected for its ability to generate the desired...arbitrary curvilin- ear geometrical shapes required to implement a metamaterial unit cell . Common PCB design rules require that traces follow...buffers inside the lens itself to regenerate the clock, at least every 7-8 unit cells . The green borders in Fig. 5.3 illustrate the location of the

  15. Enantioselective route to 5-methyl- and 5,7-dimethyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepine: secondary amines with switchable axial chirality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, Silvain L; Wallace, Timothy W; Graham, Jonathan P

    2009-04-02

    (-)-5-Methyl-6,7-dihydro-5H-dibenz[c,e]azepine 4, a new secondary amine featuring an axis-center stereochemical relay, was prepared enantioselectively from 2'-acetylbiphenyl-2-carboxylic acid, using (R)-2-phenylglycinol as an auxiliary for the control of both elements of chirality. The biaryl axis in 4 preferentially adopts the aS-configuration, with the methyl substituent pseudoequatorial, but conversion into the corresponding N-Boc derivative locks the axis into the aR-configuration, as predicted on the basis of molecular mechanics calculations.

  16. Demonstration of a switchable damping system to allow low-noise operation of high-Q low-mass suspension systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Jan-Simon; Barr, Bryan W.; Bell, Angus S.; Cunningham, William; Danilishin, Stefan L.; Dupej, Peter; Gräf, Christian; Hough, James; Huttner, Sabina H.; Jones, Russell; Leavey, Sean S.; Pascucci, Daniela; Sinclair, Martin; Sorazu, Borja; Spencer, Andrew; Steinlechner, Sebastian; Strain, Kenneth A.; Wright, Jennifer; Zhang, Teng; Hild, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Low-mass suspension systems with high-Q pendulum stages are used to enable quantum radiation pressure noise limited experiments. Utilizing multiple pendulum stages with vertical blade springs and materials with high-quality factors provides attenuation of seismic and thermal noise; however, damping of these high-Q pendulum systems in multiple degrees of freedom is essential for practical implementation. Viscous damping such as eddy-current damping can be employed, but it introduces displacement noise from force noise due to thermal fluctuations in the damping system. In this paper we demonstrate a passive damping system with adjustable damping strength as a solution for this problem that can be used for low-mass suspension systems without adding additional displacement noise in science mode. We show a reduction of the damping factor by a factor of 8 on a test suspension and provide a general optimization for this system.

  17. Observation of Switchable Photoresponse of a Monolayer WSe 2 –MoS 2 Lateral Heterostructure via Photocurrent Spectral Atomic Force Microscopic Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Son, Youngwoo; Li, Ming-yang; Cheng, Chia-Chin; Wei, Kung-Hwa; Liu, Pingwei; Wang, Qing Hua; Li, Lain-Jong; Strano, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    spectral atomic force microscopy to image the current and photocurrent generated between a biased PtIr tip and a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral heterostructure. Current measurements in the dark in both forward and reverse bias reveal an opposite characteristic

  18. High-efficiency exfoliation of layered materials into 2D nanosheets in switchable CO2/Surfactant/H2O system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Xu, Qun; Xu, Shanshan; Qi, Yuhang; Chen, Meng; Li, Hongxiang; Han, Buxing

    2015-11-01

    Layered materials present attractive and important properties due to their two-dimensional (2D) structure, allowing potential applications including electronics, optoelectronics, and catalysis. However, fully exploiting the outstanding properties will require a method for their efficient exfoliation. Here we present that a series of layered materials can be successfully exfoliated into single- and few-layer nanosheets using the driving forces coming from the phase inversion, i.e., from micelles to reverse micelles in the emulsion microenvironment built by supercritical carbon dioxide (SC CO2). The effect of variable experimental parameters including CO2 pressure, ethanol/water ratio, and initial concentration of bulk materials on the exfoliation yield have been investigated. Moreover, we demonstrate that the exfoliated 2D nanosheets have their worthwhile applications, for example, graphene can be used to prepare conductive paper, MoS2 can be used as fluorescent label to perform cellular labelling, and BN can effectively reinforce polymers leading to the promising mechanical properties.

  19. Synthesis of Thermally Switchable Chromatographic Materials with Immobilized Ti4+ for Enrichment of Phosphopeptides by Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Cao, Zhihan; Pang, Xinzhu; Deng, Yulin; Li, Bo; Dai, Rongji

    2018-01-01

    Reversible phosphorylation of proteins is one of the most crucial types of post-translational modifications (PTMs). And it shows significant work in diversified biological processes. However, the separation technology of phosphorylated peptides is still an analytical challenge in phosphoproteomics, because phosphopeptides are alway in low stoichiometry. Thus, enrichment of phosphopeptides before detection is indispensable. In this study, a novel temperature regulated separation protocol was developed. Silica@p (NIPAAm-co-IPPA)-Ti4+, a new Ti(IV)-IMAC (Immobilized Metal Affinity chromatography) materials was synthesized by reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT). By the unique thermally responsive properties of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), the captured phosphorylated peptides could be released by changing temperature only without applying any other eluant which could damage the phosphopeptides. We employed isopropanol phosphonic acid (IPPA) as an IMAC ligand for the immobilization of Ti(IV) which could increase the specific adsorption of phosphopeptides. The enrichment and release properties were examined by treatment with pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) and casein phosphopeptides (CPP). Two phosphorylated compounds above have temperature-stimulated binding to Ti4+. Finally, silica@p (NIPAAm-co-IPPA)-Ti4+ was successfully employed in pretreatment of phosphopeptides in a tryptic digest of a-casein and human serum albumin (HSA). The results indicated a great potential of this new temperature-responsive material in phosphoproteomics study.

  20. Visualization of local Ca2+ dynamics with genetically encoded bioluminescent reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kelly L; Stinnakre, Jacques; Agulhon, Cendra; Jublot, Delphine; Shorte, Spencer L; Kremer, Eric J; Brûlet, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    Measurements of local Ca2+ signalling at different developmental stages and/or in specific cell types is important for understanding aspects of brain functioning. The use of light excitation in fluorescence imaging can cause phototoxicity, photobleaching and auto-fluorescence. In contrast, bioluminescence does not require the input of radiative energy and can therefore be measured over long periods, with very high temporal resolution. Aequorin is a genetically encoded Ca(2+)-sensitive bioluminescent protein, however, its low quantum yield prevents dynamic measurements of Ca2+ responses in single cells. To overcome this limitation, we recently reported the bi-functional Ca2+ reporter gene, GFP-aequorin (GA), which was developed specifically to improve the light output and stability of aequorin chimeras [V. Baubet, et al., (2000) PNAS, 97, 7260-7265]. In the current study, we have genetically targeted GA to different microdomains important in synaptic transmission, including to the mitochondrial matrix, endoplasmic reticulum, synaptic vesicles and to the postsynaptic density. We demonstrate that these reporters enable 'real-time' measurements of subcellular Ca2+ changes in single mammalian neurons using bioluminescence. The high signal-to-noise ratio of these reporters is also important in that it affords the visualization of Ca2+ dynamics in cell-cell communication in neuronal cultures and tissue slices. Further, we demonstrate the utility of this approach in ex-vivo preparations of mammalian retina, a paradigm in which external light input should be controlled. This represents a novel molecular imaging approach for non-invasive monitoring of local Ca2+ dynamics and cellular communication in tissue or whole animal studies.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron detection efficiency for NE213 scintillation detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Yinyin; Song Yushou; Chen Zhiqiang; Yang Kun; Zhangsu Yalatu; Liu Xingquan

    2013-01-01

    A NE213 liquid scintillation neutron detector was simulated by using the FLUKA code. The light output of the detector was obtained by transforming the secondary particles energy deposition using Birks formula. According to the measurement threshold, detection efficiencies can be calculated by integrating the light output. The light output, central efficiency and the average efficiency as a function of the front surface radius of the detector, were simulated and the results agreed well with experimental results. (authors)

  2. Research on Control Strategies of an Open-End Winding Permanent Magnet Synchronous Driving Motor (OW-PMSM-Equipped Dual Inverter with a Switchable Winding Mode for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An open-end winding permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has a larger range of speed regulation than normal PMSM with the same DC voltage, and the control method is more flexible. It can also manage energy distribution between two power sources without a DC/DC converter. This paper aims at an electric vehicle equipped with OW-PMSM drive system with dual power sources and dual inverters; based on analyzing the external characteristics of each winding mode, we propose a winding mode switching strategy whose torque saturation judgmental algorithm, which is insensitive to motor’s parameters, could automatically realize upswitching of the winding mode. The proposed multi-level current hysteresis modulation algorithm could set the major power source and switch it at any time in independent mode, which accomplishes energy distribution between two power sources; its two control methods, low switching frequency method and high power difference method, could achieve different energy distribution effects. Simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the winding mode switching strategy and current modulation method. They also show that an electric vehicle under the proposed control methods has better efficiency than one equipped with a traditional OW-PMSM drive system under traditional control.

  3. A Novel Type of Battery-Supercapacitor Hybrid Device with Highly Switchable Dual Performances Based on a Carbon Skeleton/Mg2Ni Free-Standing Hydrogen Storage Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Du, Yi; Feng, Qing-Ping; Huang, Gui-Wen; Xiao, Hong-Mei; Fu, Shao-Yun

    2017-12-27

    The sharp proliferation of high power electronics and electrical vehicles has promoted growing demands for power sources with both high energy and power densities. Under these circumstances, battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices are attracting considerable attention as they combine the advantages of both batteries and supercapacitors. Here, a novel type of hybrid device based on a carbon skeleton/Mg 2 Ni free-standing electrode without the traditional nickel foam current collector is reported, which has been designed and fabricated through a dispersing-freeze-drying method by employing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as a hybrid skeleton. As a result, the Mg 2 Ni alloy is able to deliver a high discharge capacity of 644 mAh g -1 and, more importantly, a high cycling stability with a retention of over 78% after 50 charge/discharge cycles have been achieved, which exceeds almost all the results ever reported on the Mg 2 Ni alloy. Simultaneously, the electrode could also exhibit excellent supercapacitor performances including high specific capacities (296 F g -1 ) and outstanding cycling stability (100% retention after 100 cycles). Moreover, the hybrid device can switch between battery and supercapacitor modes immediately as needed during application. These features make the C skeleton/alloy electrode a highly promising candidate for battery-supercapacitor hybrid devices with high power/energy density and favorable cycling stability.

  4. Design and synthesis of quasi-diastereomeric molecules with unchanging central, regenerating axial and switchable helical chirality via cleavage and formation of Ni(II–O and Ni(II–N coordination bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim A. Soloshonok

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe herein the design and synthesis of asymmetric, pentadentate ligands, which are able to coordinate to Ni(II cations leading to quasi-diastereomeric complexes displaying two new elements of chirality: stereogenic axis and helix along with configurational stabilization of the stereogenic center on the nitrogen. Due to the stereocongested structural characteristics of the corresponding Ni(II complexes, the formation of quasi-diastereomeric products is highly stereoselective providing formation of only two, (Ra*,Mh*,Rc* and (Ra*,Ph*,Rc*, out of the four possible stereochemical combinations. The reversible quasi-diastereomeric transformation between the products (Ra*,Mh*,Rc* and (Ra*,Ph*,Rc* occurs by intramolecular trans-coordination of Ni–NH and Ni–O bonds providing a basis for a chiral switch model.

  5. Cost-effectiveness of different interferon beta products for relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: Decision analysis based on long-term clinical data and switchable treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Sahraian, Mohammad-Ali; Henry, David; Akbari Sari, Ali

    2013-06-22

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a highly debilitating immune mediated disorder and the second most common cause of neurological disability in young and middle-aged adults. Iran is amongst high MS prevalence countries (50/100,000). Economic burden of MS is a topic of important deliberation in economic evaluations study. Therefore determining of cost-effectiveness interferon beta (INF β) and their copied biopharmaceuticals (CBPs) and biosimilars products is significant issue for assessment of affordability in Lower-middle-income countries (LMICs). A literature-based Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of three INF βs products compared with placebo for managing a hypothetical cohort of patients diagnosed with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) in Iran from a societal perspective. Health states were based on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). Disease progression transition probabilities for symptom management and INF β therapies were obtained from natural history studies and multicenter randomized controlled trials and their long term follow up for RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). A cross sectional study has been developed to evaluate cost and utility. Transitions among health states occurred in 2-years cycles for fifteen cycles and switching to other therapies was allowed. Calculations of costs and utilities were established by attachment of decision trees to the overall model. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) of cost/quality adjusted life year (QALY) for all available INF β products (brands, biosimilars and CBPs) were considered. Both costs and utilities were discounted. Sensitivity analyses were done to assess robustness of model. ICER for Avonex, Rebif and Betaferon was 18712, 11832, 15768 US Dollars ($) respectively when utility attained from literature review has been considered. ICER for available CBPs and biosimilars in Iran was $847, $6964 and $11913. The Markov pharmacoeconomics model determined that according to suggested threshold for developing countries by world health organization, all brand INF β products are cost effective in Iran except Avonex. The best strategy among INF β therapies is CBP intramuscular INF β-1a (Cinnovex). Results showed that a policy of encouraging accessibility to CBPs and biosimilars could make even high technology products cost-effective in LMICs.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Different Interferon Beta Products for Relapsing-Remitting and Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: Decision Analysis Based on Long-Term Clinical Data and Switchable Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shekoufeh Nikfar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is a highly debilitating immune mediated disorder and the second most common cause of neurological disability in young and middle-aged adults. Iran is amongst high MS prevalence countries (50/100,000. Economic burden of MS is a topic of important deliberation in economic evaluations study. Therefore determining of cost-effectiveness interferon beta (INF β and their copied biopharmaceuticals (CBPs and biosimilars products is significant issue for assessment of affordability in Lower-middle-income countries (LMICs.Methods:A literature-based Markov model was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of three INF βs products compared with placebo for managing a hypothetical cohort of patients diagnosed with relapsing remitting MS (RRMS in Iran from a societal perspective. Health states were based on the Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS. Disease progression transition probabilities for symptom management and INF β therapies were obtained from natural history studies and multicenter randomized controlled trials and their long term follow up for RRMS and secondary progressive MS (SPMS. A cross sectional study has been developed to evaluate cost and utility. Transitions among health states occurred in 2-years cycles for fifteen cycles and switching to other therapies was allowed. Calculations of costs and utilities were established by attachment of decision trees to the overall model. The incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER of cost/quality adjusted life year (QALY for all available INF β products (brands, biosimilars and CBPs were considered. Both costs and utilities were discounted. Sensitivity analyses were done to assess robustness of model.Results:ICER for Avonex, Rebif and Betaferon was 18712, 11832, 15768 US Dollars ($ respectively when utility attained from literature review has been considered. ICER for available CBPs and biosimilars in Iran was $847, $6964 and $11913.Conclusions:The Markov pharmacoeconomics model determined that according to suggested threshold for developing countries by world health organization, all brand INF β products are cost effective in Iran except Avonex. The best strategy among INF β therapies is CBP intramuscular INF β-1a (Cinnovex. Results showed that a policy of encouraging accessibility to CBPs and biosimilars could make even high technology products cost-effective in LMICs.

  7. Switchable and tunable film bulk acoustic resonator fabricated using barium strontium titanate active layer and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} acoustic reflector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sbrockey, N. M., E-mail: sbrockey@structuredmaterials.com; Tompa, G. S. [Structured Materials Industries, Inc., Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Kalkur, T. S.; Mansour, A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80933 (United States); Khassaf, H.; Yu, H.; Aindow, M.; Alpay, S. P. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    A solidly mounted acoustic resonator was fabricated using a Ba{sub 0.60}Sr{sub 0.40}TiO{sub 3} (BST) film deposited by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. The device was acoustically isolated from the substrate using a Bragg reflector consisting of three pairs of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/SiO{sub 2} layers deposited by chemical solution deposition. Transmission electron microscopy verified that the Bragg reflector was not affected by the high temperatures and oxidizing conditions necessary to process high quality BST films. Electrical characterization of the resonator demonstrated a quality factor (Q) of 320 and an electromechanical coupling coefficient (K{sub t}{sup 2}) of 7.0% at 11 V.

  8. Rectangle Surface Coil Array in a Grid Arrangement for Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-13

    magnet wires with insulating coating for rectangular surface coils. The wires are formed into four one turn 145mm x 32mm rectangular coils...switchable array, RF magnetic field, NQR, MRI, NMR, tuning, decoupling I. INTRODUCTION ESONANCE imaging can be accomplished using Nuclear Magnetic ...grid array. This achieves the switchable array configuration. Later, investigations will have circuit controlled multiplexer for switching to

  9. Development of dose assessment method for high-energy neutrons using intelligent neutron monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Daiki; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Endo, Akira; Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Matsufuji, N.; Sato, S.; Takada, M.

    2006-01-01

    Light output of liquid organic scintillator NE213 has been measured for proton, deuteron, triton, 3 He nucleus and alpha particle. A thick graphite target was bombarded with 400-MeV/u C ions to the produce charged particles. Time-of-flight method was adopted to determine the kinetic energy of the charged particles. Light output for proton was also measured using mono-energy beams of 100 and 160 MeV. The experimental results gave a new database of light output. (author)

  10. Measurement methods for several properties of scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Fengqun; Ji Changsong

    1998-01-01

    The current paper describes the experimental measurement methods for the relative light output, the relative energy conversion efficiency, the intrinsic amplitude resolution and the detection efficiency of the scintillators and their temperature effects

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  12. CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fioretto, E; Viesti, G; Cinausero, M; Zuin, L; Fabris, D; Lunardon, M; Nebbia, G; Prete, G

    2000-01-01

    We report on the performances of CsI(Tl)-photodiode detectors for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. Light output yield and energy resolution have been measured for different crystals and read-out configurations.

  13. Enhancement of polymer dye lasers by multifunctional photonic crystal lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Mads Brøkner; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger

    2009-01-01

    The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser.......The light output of dye doped hybrid polymer band-edge lasers is increased more than 100 times by using a rectangular lattice photonic crystal, which provides both feedback and couples more pump light into the laser....

  14. Mechanism and Regioselectivity of Rh(III)-Catalyzed Intermolecular Annulation of Aryl-Substituted Diazenecarboxylates and Alkenes: DFT Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Ajitha, Manjaly John; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    is identified as the initial C-H activation, consistent with the previous kinetic studies. Notably, DFT studies offered important insights on the ability of the substrate (diazene carboxylate) to promote the switchable coordination site selectivity during

  15. Nanocoatings for Wicking of Low-Viscosity Cryogens

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to investigate and develop smart, switchable materials systems for use in thermal management systems, including the evaluation of wicking...

  16. Tunable and stable in time ferroelectric imprint through polarization coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Anirban; Koster, Gertjan; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a method to tune a ferroelectric imprint, which is stable in time, based on the coupling between the non-switchable polarization of ZnO and switchable polarization of PbZrxTi(1−x)O3. SrRuO3/PbZrxTi(1−x)O3/ZnO/SrRuO3 heterostructures were grown with different ZnO thicknesses. It

  17. Waveguide-Integrated MEMS Concepts for Tunable Millimeter-Wave Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Baghchehsaraei, Zargham

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents two families of novel waveguide-integrated components based on millimeter-wave microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for reconfigurable systems. The first group comprises V-band (50–75 GHz) and W-band (75–110 GHz) waveguide switches and switchable irises, and their application as switchable cavity resonators, and tunable bandpass filters implemented by integration of novel MEMS-reconfigurable surfaces into a rectangular waveguide. The second category comprises MEMS-based ...

  18. Transition metal redox switches for reversible "on/off" and "slow/fast" single-molecule magnet behaviour in dysprosium and erbium bis-diamidoferrocene complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickie, Courtney M; Laughlin, Alexander L; Wofford, Joshua D; Bhuvanesh, Nattamai S; Nippe, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Single-molecule magnets (SMMs) are considered viable candidates for next-generation data storage and quantum computing. Systems featuring switchability of their magnetization dynamics are particularly interesting with respect to accessing more complex logic gates and device architectures. Here we show that transition metal based redox events can be exploited to enable reversible switchability of slow magnetic relaxation of magnetically anisotropic lanthanide ions. Specifically, we report anionic homoleptic bis-diamidoferrocene complexes of Dy 3+ (oblate) and Er 3+ (prolate) which can be reversibly oxidized by one electron to yield their respective charge neutral redox partners (Dy: [1] - , 1 ; Er: [2] - , 2 ). Importantly, compounds 1 and 2 are thermally stable which allowed for detailed studies of their magnetization dynamics. We show that the Dy 3+ [1] - / 1 system can function as an "on"/"off" or a "slow"/"fast" redox switchable SMM system in the absence or presence of applied dc fields, respectively. The Er 3+ based [2] - / 2 system features "on"/"off" switchability of SMM properties in the presence of applied fields. Results from electrochemical investigations, UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy, and 57 Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy indicate the presence of significant electronic communication between the mixed-valent Fe ions in 1 and 2 in both solution and solid state. This comparative evaluation of redox-switchable magnetization dynamics in low coordinate lanthanide complexes may be used as a potential blueprint toward the development of future switchable magnetic materials.

  19. Rectangular-section mirror light pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, P.D.; Lawlor, R. [School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Smith, G.B.; Gentle, A. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Technology, Sydney, Broadway, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2008-08-15

    Using an integrated-ray approach an expression for the transmission of rectangular section mirror light pipe (MLP) has been derived for the case of collimated light input. The transmittance and the irradiance distribution at the exit aperture of rectangular-section MLPs have been measured experimentally and calculated theoretically for the case of collimated light input. The results presented extend the description of MLPs from the cylindrical case. Measured and calculated transmittances and irradiance distributions are in good agreement. (author)

  20. Development of efficient, radiation-insensitive GaAs:Zn LEDs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1977-01-01

    Although amphoterically Si doped GaAs LEDs are commercially popular because of their high light output, they are extremely sensitive to irradiation. Therefore, it would be desirable to have a viable alternative available for radiation environment applications. In this work it is shown that by increasing the hole concentration in the active region of nonamphoterically doped GaAs LEDs, one can simultaneously achieve high light output and low radiation sensitivity. Experimental results indicate that the minority carrier lifetime is smaller in more heavily doped devices so that the lifetime-damage constant, tau/sub o/K, is also smaller. Hence, the heavily doped devices should have greater radiation hardness. Neutron-induced light output degradation data as a function of hole concentration confirm this conclusion. The results also show that the pre-irradiation light output is greatest in the heavily doped LEDs. The accompanying decrease of tau/sub o/ in the heavily doped devices indicates that the total minority carrier lifetime is at least partially controlled by the radiative lifetime; a requirement for simultaneously achieving radiation hardness and high initial light output. Finally, an experimental comparison with amphoterically Si doped LEDs shows that the heavily doped devices are superior for neutron fluences greater than 2 x 10 12 n/cm 2

  1. Energy spectra analysis of the four-layer DOI detector for the brain PET scanner: jPET-D4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Eiji; Kitamura, Keishi; Tsuda, Tomoaki; Shibuya, Kengo; Yamaya, Taiga; Inadama, Naoko; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Murayama, Hideo

    2006-01-01

    A depth of interaction (DOI) detector is being developed for the brain PET scanner, jPET-D4. We introduce a light output correction procedure to compensate for variations among the crystal elements in the DOI detector. Under uniform irradiation with 511 keV gamma rays, we estimate the light output of each crystal element by identifying each crystal element, and generate a look-up table (LUT) for light output correction. We evaluate the energy resolution of all crystal elements. The energy resolution of 16% is achieved after light output correction for all crystal elements. The DOI detector can correct light output variations that are related to the DOI. We analyze the crystal position dependence of the energy spectra due to inter-crystal scattering among the multiple crystal elements in the DOI detector. It is highly possible that gamma rays interacting with central crystal elements in the crystal array are absorbed by surrounding crystal elements and the Compton part of the energy spectrum is decreased. Inter-crystal scattering has less impact on the energy resolution of the DOI detector

  2. New, dense, and fast scintillators based on rare-earth tantalo-niobates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshyna, O.V.; Boiaryntseva, I.A.; Baumer, V.N.; Ivanov, A.I.; Korjik, M.V.; Sidletskiy, O.Ts.

    2014-01-01

    Samples of undoped yttrium and gadolinium tantalo-niobates with common formulae RE(Nb x Ta 1−x )O 4 , where RE=Y or Gd and x=0–1, have been obtained by solid-state reaction. Systematic study of structural, luminescent, and scintillation properties of these compounds was carried out. Lattice parameters and space groups of the mixed compounds were identified. UV- and X-ray luminescence spectra, as well as relative light outputs and scintillation decay times are measured. Gadolinium tantalo-niobate with the formulae GdNb 0.2 Ta 0.8 O 4 showed the light output around 13 times larger than PbWO 4 and fast decay with time constant 12 ns without additional slow component. Gadolinium tantalo-niobates may be considered as promising materials for high energy physics due to extremely high density, substantial light output, and fast decay. -- Highlights: •Structural, optical and scintillation properties of the rare earth tantalo-niobates were studied. •Light output shows about gradual increase with Nb content in GdTa x Nb 1−x O 4 . •Light output increases by 2–7 times relatively to yttrium tantalate and niobate in YTa x Nb 1−x O 4 . •GdTa 0.8 Nb 0.2 O 4 demonstrates the most promising scintillation parameters

  3. Light-induced protein degradation in human-derived cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wansheng; Zhang, Wenyao; Zhang, Chao; Mao, Miaowei; Zhao, Yuzheng; Chen, Xianjun; Yang, Yi

    2017-05-27

    Controlling protein degradation can be a valuable tool for posttranslational regulation of protein abundance to study complex biological systems. In the present study, we designed a light-switchable degron consisting of a light oxygen voltage (LOV) domain of Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) and a C-terminal degron. Our results showed that the light-switchable degron could be used for rapid and specific induction of protein degradation in HEK293 cells by light in a proteasome-dependent manner. Further studies showed that the light-switchable degron could also be utilized to mediate the degradation of secreted Gaussia princeps luciferase (GLuc), demonstrating the adaptability of the light-switchable degron in different types of protein. We suggest that the light-switchable degron offers a robust tool to control protein levels and may serves as a new and significant method for gene- and cell-based therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of a conformational switching aptamer for rapid and specific ex vivo identification of central nervous system lymphoma in a xenograft model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Georges

    Full Text Available Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions such as CNS B-cell lymphoma from operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating immunohistochemical (IHC procedures which require up to 24-48 hours. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of generating rapid ex vivo specific labeling using a novel lymphoma-specific fluorescent switchable aptamer. Our B-cell lymphoma-specific switchable aptamer produced only low-level fluorescence in its unbound conformation and generated an 8-fold increase in fluorescence once bound to its target on CD20-positive lymphoma cells. The aptamer demonstrated strong binding to B-cell lymphoma cells within 15 minutes of incubation as observed by flow cytometry. We applied the switchable aptamer to ex vivo xenograft tissue harboring B-cell lymphoma and astrocytoma, and within one hour specific visual identification of lymphoma was routinely possible. In this proof-of-concept study in human cell culture and orthotopic xenografts, we conclude that a fluorescent switchable aptamer can provide rapid and specific labeling of B-cell lymphoma, and that developing aptamer-based labeling approaches could simplify tissue staining and drastically reduce time to histopathological diagnoses compared with IHC-based methods. We propose that switchable aptamers could enhance expeditious, accurate intraoperative decision-making.

  5. Use of a conformational switching aptamer for rapid and specific ex vivo identification of central nervous system lymphoma in a xenograft model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Joseph F; Liu, Xiaowei; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Nichols, Joshua; Mooney, Michael A; Joy, Anna; Spetzler, Robert F; Feuerstein, Burt G; Preul, Mark C; Anderson, Trent; Yan, Hao; Nakaji, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions such as CNS B-cell lymphoma from operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures which require up to 24-48 hours. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of generating rapid ex vivo specific labeling using a novel lymphoma-specific fluorescent switchable aptamer. Our B-cell lymphoma-specific switchable aptamer produced only low-level fluorescence in its unbound conformation and generated an 8-fold increase in fluorescence once bound to its target on CD20-positive lymphoma cells. The aptamer demonstrated strong binding to B-cell lymphoma cells within 15 minutes of incubation as observed by flow cytometry. We applied the switchable aptamer to ex vivo xenograft tissue harboring B-cell lymphoma and astrocytoma, and within one hour specific visual identification of lymphoma was routinely possible. In this proof-of-concept study in human cell culture and orthotopic xenografts, we conclude that a fluorescent switchable aptamer can provide rapid and specific labeling of B-cell lymphoma, and that developing aptamer-based labeling approaches could simplify tissue staining and drastically reduce time to histopathological diagnoses compared with IHC-based methods. We propose that switchable aptamers could enhance expeditious, accurate intraoperative decision-making.

  6. Use of a conformational switching aptamer for rapid and specific ex vivo identification of central nervous system lymphoma in a xenograft model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georges, Joseph F.; Liu, Xiaowei; Eschbacher, Jennifer; Nichols, Joshua; Mooney, Michael A.; Joy, Anna; Spetzler, Robert F.; Feuerstein, Burt G.; Anderson, Trent; Preul, Mark C.; Yan, Hao; Nakaji, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Improved tools for providing specific intraoperative diagnoses could improve patient care. In neurosurgery, intraoperatively differentiating non-operative lesions can be challenging, often necessitating immunohistochemical (IHC) procedures which require up to 24-48 hours. Here, we evaluate the feasibility of generating rapid ex vivo specific labeling using a novel lymphoma-specific fluorescent switchable aptamer. Our B-cell lymphoma-specific switchable aptamer produced only low-level fluorescence in its unbound conformation and generated an 8-fold increase in fluorescence once bound to its target on CD20-positive lymphoma cells. The aptamer demonstrated strong binding to B-cell lymphoma cells within 10 minutes of incubation. We applied the switchable aptamer to ex vivo xenograft tissue harboring B-cell lymphoma and astrocytoma, and within one hour specific visual identification of lymphoma was routinely possible. In this proof-of-concept study in human cell culture and orthotopic xenografts, we conclude that a fluorescent switchable aptamer can provide rapid and specific labeling of B-cell lymphoma, and that developing aptamer-based labeling approaches could simplify tissue staining and drastically reduce time to histopathological diagnoses compared with IHC-based methods. We propose that switchable aptamers could enhance expeditious, accurate intraoperative decision-making.

  7. Radiation damage in BaF2 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.; Stoll, S.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of radiation damage and recovery have been studied in BaF 2 crystals exposed to 60 Co radiation. The change in optical transmission and scintillation light output have been measured as a function of dose up to 4.7 x 10 6 rad. Although some crystals exhibit a small change in transmission, a greater change in scintillation light output is observed. Several 25 cm long crystals whichhave been irradiated show large changes in both transmission and light output. Recovery from radiation damage has been studied as a function of time and exposure to UV light. A long lived radiation induced phosphorescence has been observed in all irradiated samples which is distinct from the standard fast and slow scintillation emissions. The emission spectrum of the phosphorescence has been measured and shown a peakat ∼330 nm, near the region of the slow scintillation component. Results are given on the dependence of the decay time of the phosphorescence with dose

  8. An Electronically Controlled 8-Element Switched Beam Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.

    2015-02-24

    An 8-element planar antenna array with electronically controlled switchable-beam pattern is proposed. The planar antenna array consists of patch elements and operates in the 2.45 GHz ISM band. The array is integrated with a digitally controlled feed network that provides the required phases to generate 8 fixed beams covering most of the upper hemisphere of the array. Unlike typical switchable beam antenna arrays, which operate only in one plane, the proposed design is the first to provide full 3D switchable beams with simple control. Only a 3-bit digital word is required for the generation of the 8 different beams. The integrated array is designed on a 3-layer PCB on a Taconic substrate (RF60A). The total dimensions of the fabricated array are 187.1 × 261.3 × 1.3mm3.

  9. Study on optical properties of ceramics scintillator for X-ray CT equipment. (Pt. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryouhei; Tsukuda, Yasuo; Nitanda, Humio

    1993-01-01

    The scintillator elements in X-ray CT equipment of the third generation type require high uniformity of distribution of light output as well as quality response characteristic. Parameters responsible for the distribution of light output were studied using the Monte Carlo method. Although the scattering coefficient was neglected, close agreement was obtained between calculated and experimental results. Calculated results indicated that relative output drop at both ends decreased with increasing optical absorption coefficient and was constant for X-ray absorption factor. (author)

  10. Fiber optic spectroscopic digital imaging sensor and method for flame properties monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelepouga, Serguei A [Hoffman Estates, IL; Rue, David M [Chicago, IL; Saveliev, Alexei V [Chicago, IL

    2011-03-15

    A system for real-time monitoring of flame properties in combustors and gasifiers which includes an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end and a spectroscopic imaging system operably connected with the light output end of the imaging fiber optic bundle. Focusing of the light received by the light receiving end of the imaging fiber optic bundle by a wall disposed between the light receiving end of the fiber optic bundle and a light source, which wall forms a pinhole opening aligned with the light receiving end.

  11. Study of a pure CsI crystal readout by APD for Belle II end cap ECL upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y., E-mail: jin@hep.phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aihara, H. [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Borshchev, O.V. [Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya st. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation); Epifanov, D.A. [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Ponomarenko, S.A.; Surin, N.M. [Enikolopov Institute of Synthetic Polymeric Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Profsoyuznaya st. 70, Moscow 117393 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-11

    A scintillation counter consisting of a pure CsI crystal and avalanche photodiodes (Hamamatsu APD S8664-55 and S8664-1010) has been studied for the upgrade of the end cap electromagnetic calorimeter of Belle II detector. An essential increase of the light output was achieved with wavelength shifters based on nanostructured organosilicon luminophores. - Highlights: • A scintillation counter consisting of a pure CsI crystal and avalanche photodiodes has been studied. • The equivalent noise charge and equivalent noise energy of the counter have been measured. • An essential increase of the light output was achieved with wavelength shifters.

  12. Direct observation of fatigue in epitaxially grown Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films using second harmonic piezoresponse force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Nishit M.; Hong, Seungbum; Lee, Ho Nyung; Katiyar, Ram. S.

    2011-08-01

    Here, we present a direct observation of fatigue phenomena in epitaxially grown Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) thin films using second harmonic piezoresponse force microscopy (SH-PFM). We observed strong correlation between the SH-PFM amplitude and phase signals with the remnant piezoresponse at different switching cycles. The SH-PFM results indicate that the average fraction of switchable domains decreases globally and the phase delays of polarization switching differ locally. In addition, we found that the fatigue developed uniformly over the whole area without developing region-by-region suppression of switchable polarization as in polycrystalline PZT thin films.

  13. Application of a 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidine (TMG)/MeOH-CO2 in situ derivatization procedure for the gas chromatographic characterization of the fatty acid profile in olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliu, F; Anzano, M; Franzetti, A

    2015-03-01

    1,1,3,3-Tetramethylguanidine (TMG), methanol and carbon dioxide were investigated as switchable polarity solvents (SPS) in the simultaneous derivatization and extraction of triacylglycerols for the gas chromatographic (GC) characterization of olive oil. Three commercial olive oils were used as test samples. Results of the developed method did not differ statistically from those provided by reference derivatization procedures. The transesterification reaction was carried out under a very mild condition, one step and in situ, and no particular matrix interferences were evidenced. The method represented the first example of the use of a switchable polarity mixture for the preparation of methyl ester derivatives of fatty acids (FAME).

  14. Controlled higher-order transverse mode conversion from a fiber laser by polarization manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bin; Yi, Qian; Yang, Lingling; Zhao, Chujun; Wen, Shuangchun

    2018-02-01

    We report a vectorial fiber laser with controlled transverse mode conversion by intra-cavity polarization manipulation. By combining a q-plate and two quarter-wave plates (QWPs), we can generate a switchable polarization state output represented by the higher-order Poincaré sphere (l = +1, l = -1), and distinguish the fourfold degenerate LP11 mode. The four transverse vector modes can be obtained and switched in a flexible way, and the slope efficiency of the fiber laser can reach up to 39.4%. This compactness, high efficiency, and switchable operation potential will benefit a range of applications, such as materials processing, particle manipulation, etc.

  15. Thin-film VO2 submillimeter-wave modulators and polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, J.C.C.; Fetterman, H.R.; Bachner, F.J.; Zavracky, P.M.; Parker, C.D.

    1977-01-01

    Submillimeter-wave modulators and switchable polarizers have been fabricated from VO 2 thin films deposited on sapphire substrates. By passing electric current pulses through elements made from these films, the films can be thermally cycled through the insulator-to-metal transition that occurs in VO 2 at about 65 degreeC. In the insulating state, the films are found to have negligible effect on the transmission at submillimeter wavelengths, while above the phase transition the transmission is strongly reduced by the free-electron effects characteristic of a metal. Other possible applications of such switchable VO 2 elements include variable bandpass filters and diffraction grating beam-steering devices

  16. Dynamically Babinet-invertible metasurface: a capacitive-inductive reconfigurable filter for terahertz waves using vanadium-dioxide metal-insulator transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urade, Yoshiro; Nakata, Yosuke; Okimura, Kunio; Nakanishi, Toshihiro; Miyamaru, Fumiaki; Takeda, Mitsuo W.; Kitano, Masao

    2016-03-01

    This paper proposes a reconfigurable planar metamaterial that can be switched between capacitive and inductive responses using local changes in the electrical conductivity of its constituent material. The proposed device is based on Babinet's principle and exploits the singular electromagnetic responses of metallic checkerboard structures, which are dependent on the local electrical conductivity. Utilizing the heating-induced metal-insulator transition of vanadium dioxide ($\\mathrm{VO}_2$), the proposed metamaterial is designed to compensate for the effect of the substrate and is experimentally characterized in the terahertz regime. This reconfigurable metamaterial can be utilized as a switchable filter and as a switchable phase shifter for terahertz waves.

  17. Electro-optical properties of a polymer light-emitting diode with an injection-limited hole contact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Woudenbergh, T; Blom, PWM; Huiberts, JN

    2003-01-01

    The electro-optical characteristics of a polymer light-emitting diode with a strongly reduced hole injection have been investigated. A silver contact on poly-dialkoxy-p-phenylene vinylene decreases the hole injection by five orders of magnitude, resulting in both a highly reduced light output and

  18. 3D dysprosium density in the metal-halide lamp measured by emission and laser absorption spectroscopy in a centrifuge at 1-10g

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flikweert, A.J.; Nimalasuriya, T.; Thubé, G.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Stoffels, W.W.

    2007-01-01

    The metal-halide lamp is a High Intensity Discharge (HID) lamp with a high efficiency. The salt additive (DyI3) acts as prime radiator. The present lamp suffers from non-uniform light output, caused by diffusion and convection processes. To gain a better understanding of the lamp, the convection is

  19. Recent results on radiation hardness tests of WLS fibers for the ATLAS Tilecal hadronic calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Varanda, M J; Gómez, A; Maio, A

    2000-01-01

    Three types of fibers, that were candidates to be used in the Tilecal /ATLAS detector were irradiated in a /sup 60/Co gamma source. The degradation of the light output and attenuation length were measured a few hours and several days after the end of the irradiation. The results are presented. (6 refs).

  20. Hollow-Core Fiber Lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lin (Inventor); Tjoelker, Robert L. (Inventor); Burt, Eric A. (Inventor); Huang, Shouhua (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Hollow-core capillary discharge lamps on the millimeter or sub-millimeter scale are provided. The hollow-core capillary discharge lamps achieve an increased light intensity ratio between 194 millimeters (useful) and 254 millimeters (useless) light than conventional lamps. The capillary discharge lamps may include a cone to increase light output. Hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) may also be used.

  1. Surface-Passivated AlGaN Nanowires for Enhanced Luminescence of Ultraviolet Light Emitting Diodes

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Haiding; Shakfa, Mohammad Khaled; Muhammed, Mufasila; Janjua, Bilal; Li, Kuang-Hui; Lin, Ronghui; Ng, Tien Khee; Roqan, Iman S.; Ooi, Boon S.; Li, Xiaohang

    2017-01-01

    investigation on the samples reveals almost intact nanowire structures after the passivation process. We demonstrated an approximately 49.7% enhancement in the ultraviolet light output power after 30-s KOH treatment on AlGaN nanowires grown on titanium

  2. Aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes at an extremely high current density of 3.5 kA cm−2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Pengfei; Liu, Ran; Althumali, Ahmad; Gu, Erdan; Watson, Ian M; Dawson, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The aging characteristics of blue InGaN micro-light emitting diodes (micro-LEDs) with different sizes have been studied at an extremely high current density 3.5 kA cm −2 for emerging micro-LED applications including visible light communication (VLC), micro-LED pumped organic lasers and optogenetics. The light output power of micro-LEDs first increases and then decreases due to the competition of Mg activation in p-GaN layer and defect generation in the active region. The smaller micro-LEDs show less light output power degradation compared with larger micro-LEDs, which is attributed to the lower junction temperature of smaller micro-LEDs. It is found that the high current density without additional junction temperature cannot induce significant micro-LED degradation at room temperature but the combination of the high current density and high junction temperature leads to strong degradation. Furthermore, the cluster LEDs, composed of a micro-LED array, have been developed with both high light output power and less light output degradation for micro-LED applications in solid state lighting and VLC. (paper)

  3. High-power quantum-dot superluminescent diodes with p-doped active region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossetti, M.; Li, L.; Fiore, A.; Occhi, L.; Velez, C.; Mikhrin, S.; Kovsh, A.

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of p-doping in the active region of quantum-dot superluminescent diodes. Modal gain measurements and light output-current characteristics prove that p-doping is beneficial for achieving higher gain, higher output power, and better temperature stability

  4. Low-frequency noise as a diagnostic tool for OLED reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha, P.R.F.; Vandamme, L.K.J.; Meskers, S.C.J.; Gomes, H.L.; Leeuw, de D.M.; Weijer, van de P.

    2013-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLED), either based on polymers or small molecules, suffer from early failure: an unpredictable sudden increase in current with a total loss of light output. This work addresses this problem using small-signal impedance measurements and electrical noise techniques.

  5. InAlGaAs/InP light-emitting transistors operating near 1.55 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Zhang Xuebing; Ryou, Jae-Hyun; Dupuis, Russell D.; Dixon, Forest; Holonyak, Nick Jr.; Feng, Milton

    2008-01-01

    Light-emitting transistors (LETs) operating at around 1.55 μm were investigated using InP/InAlGaAs heterostructures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. By incorporating InGaAs quantum wells (QWs) in the base region of the N-InP/p-InAlGaAs/N-InAlAs heterojunction bipolar transistors, LET structures were achieved with a current gain of 45 and light emission at a wavelength of 1.65 μm. The light output was found to be dependent on the base current. The larger the number of QWs incorporated in the base of the LETs, the larger the light output, with correspondingly reduced current gain. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy shows that the p-type dopant, zinc (Zn), which is commonly used in the growth of InAlGaAs, diffuses into the emitter and the base active QW region, leading to compromised electrical performance and light output intensity. Increasing the Zn doping level in the barrier layers of the QW structure causes the photoluminescence efficiency to decrease rapidly. Consequently, an alternative low-diffusivity dopant, carbon (C), was studied and a LET with a C-doped base was grown and fabricated. The highest light output was demonstrated for the C-doped LETs owing to the improved quality of the active layer

  6. Scintillator quenching effects observed in the AMS-1 TOF data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel, O.; Reyes, T.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.

    2001-05-01

    An analytical expression for the light output response of plastic scintillators as a function of the energy and the z identity of the incident ion is proposed. The effect of the δ rays is considered in the calculation of the scintillation efficiency. .

  7. Temperature quenching in LAB based liquid scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, A.; Zuber, K. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear- and Particle Physics, Dresden (Germany); Hans, S.; Yeh, M. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Chemistry Devision, Upton, NY (United States); Junghans, A.R.; Koegler, T.; Wagner, A. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Krosigk, B. v. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear- and Particle Physics, Dresden (Germany); University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Lozza, V. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear- and Particle Physics, Dresden (Germany); Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2018-01-15

    The effect of temperature changes on the light output of LAB based liquid scintillator is investigated in a range from -5 to 30 C with α-particles and electrons in a small scale setup. Two PMTs observe the scintillator liquid inside a cylindrically shaped aluminum cuvette that is heated or cooled and the temperature dependent PMT sensitivity is monitored and corrected. The α-emitting isotopes in dissolved radon gas and in natural Samarium (bound to a LAB solution) excite the liquid scintillator mixtures and changes in light output with temperature variation are observed by fitting light output spectra. Furthermore, also changes in light output by compton electrons, which are generated from external calibration γ-ray sources, is analysed with varying temperature. Assuming a linear behaviour, a combined negative temperature coefficient of (-0.29 ± 0.01)%/ C is found. Considering hints for a particle type dependency, electrons show (-0.17 ± 0.02)%/ C, whereas the temperature dependency seems stronger for α-particles, with (-0.35 ± 0.03)%/ C. Due to a high sampling rate, a pulse shape analysis can be performed and shows an enhanced slow decay component at lower temperatures, pointing to reduced non-radiative triplet state de-excitations. (orig.)

  8. Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Lu3Al5O12 Scintillators Co-Doped with Ce3+ and Tb3+

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogiegło, J.M.; Zych, A.K.; Ivanovskikh, K.; Jüstel, T.; Ronda, R.C.; Meijerink, A.

    2012-01-01

    Lu3Al5O12 (LuAG) doped with Ce3+ is a promising scintillator material with a high density and a fast response time. The light output under X-ray or γ-ray excitation is, however, well below the theoretical limit. In this paper the influence of codoping with Tb3+ is investigated with the aim to

  9. An inverse method for the design of TIR collimators to achieve a uniform color light beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Tukker, T.W.; IJzerman, W.L.

    2012-01-01

    Color over Angle (CoA) variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common and unsolved problem. In this article we introduce a new method to reduce CoA variation using a special collimator. The method is based on analytical inverse design methods. We present a numerical algorithm to solve the

  10. An inverse method for color uniformity in white LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Tukker, T.W.; IJzerman, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Color over Angle (CoA) variation in the light output of white phosphor-converted LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting technology. In this article we propose an inverse method to design an optical element that eliminates the color variation for a point light source. The method in this article is

  11. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.; Tukker, T.W.; IJzerman, W.L.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    LED is a rising technology in the field of lighting. Halogen spotlights are nowadays replaced by LED spotlights because of their energy efficiency and long lifetime. However, color variation in the light output is a common problem. Poorly designed LED spotlights tend to have yellowish or bluish

  12. Color homogeneity in LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.

    2013-01-01

    Color variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting. We aim to design LED spotlights with a uniform color output while keeping the cost of the system low and the energy efficiency high. Therefore we design a special optic to eliminate the color variation of the LED.

  13. An inverse method for the design of TIR collimators to achieve a uniform color light beam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Tukker, T.W.; IJzerman, W.L.

    2013-01-01

    Color-over-angle (CoA) variation in the light output of white LEDs is a common and unsolved problem. In this article we introduce a new method to reduce CoA variation using a special collimator. The method is based on analytical inverse design methods. We present a numerical algorithm to solve the

  14. An inverse method for color uniformity in white LED spotlights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, C.R.; Thije Boonkkamp, ten J.H.M.; Tukker, T.W.; IJzerman, W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Color over Angle (CoA) variation in the light output of white phosphor-converted LEDs is a common problem in LED lighting technology. In this article we propose an inverse method to design an optical element that eliminates the color variation for a point light source. The method in this article is

  15. Numerical modeling of thermal performance: Natural convection and radiation of solid state lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, H.; Gielen, A.W.J.; Zeijl, H.W. van; Werkhoven, R.J.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    The increased electrical currents used to drive light emitting diode (LED) cause significant heat generation in the solid state lighting (SSL) system. As the temperature will directly affect the maximum light output, quality, reliability and the life time of the SSL system, thermal management is a

  16. CALiPER Application Summary Report 22: LED MR16 Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2014-09-01

    An initial sample of 27 LED MR16 lamps and 8 halogen benchmarks underwent photometric testing according to IES LM-79-08. CALiPER Application Summary Report 22 focuses on the initial performance based on light output, efficacy, distribution, color quality, electrical characteristics, and form factor, with comparisons to the benchmarks and ENERGY STAR qualification thresholds.

  17. The chemistry of two-component fluoride crystalline optical media for heavy, fast, radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.P.; Krivandina, E.A.; Fedorov, P.P.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for preparation of two-component dense optical materials for scintillators are shown, using data on phase diagrams of about 300 MF m - RF n (m, n ≤ 4) type systems, formed by metal fluorides. Primary characteristics (decay time and light output of luminescence, radiation hardness, etc.) of some multicomponent crystals are reported

  18. Stars the size of planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehouse, D.

    1984-01-01

    Red dwarf stars, the faintest and smallest stars that can be seen, sometimes host flares of immense violence. The article discusses the energy of these flares in terms of mass, x-rays, brightness, variation in light output, the sun and magnetic phenomena. (U.K.)

  19. Combustion synthesis of Eu and Dy activated Sr3(VO4)2 phosphor ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    phosphor as well as Sr3(VO4)2:Dy is blue and yellow emitting phosphor for solid state lighting i.e. white LEDs. The ... 2004; Pang et al 2004) doped with rare earth has expanded ... controlled since the LED light output (intensity and colour).

  20. A technical study of TLD beta calibration factor for exposures to depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashley, J.C.; Turner, J.E.; McMahan, K.L.; Souleyrette, M.L.; Bogard, R.S.

    1995-06-01

    The beta calibration factor for converting light output (on reading a thermoluminescent dosimeter) to shallow dose equivalent has been reexamined through theoretical calculations and experimental measurements. The results support the previously determined value for contact with a depleted uranium slab but indicate that for many actual workplace situations, the contact value may be overly conservative

  1. Multi-Period Optimization for Voltage Control System in Transmission Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Chen, Si; Liu, Chengxi

    2015-01-01

    Automatic Voltage Control (AVC) systems maintain the voltage in an acceptable range and minimize the power loss of the grid by coordinately regulating the controllable components. Switchable shunts and tap-able transformers are expected to be operated as few times as possible. This paper proposes...

  2. Hydrogen-induced electrical and optical switching in Pd capped Pr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Abstract. In this study, modification in the properties of hydrogen-induced switchable mirror based on Pr nanoparticle layers is reported. The reversible changes in hydrogen-induced electrical and optical properties of Pd capped Pr nanoparticle layers have been studied as a function of hydrogenation time and compared.

  3. Dynamic reconfiguration of van der Waals gaps within GeTe-Sb2Te3 based superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Momand, Jamo; Wang, Ruining; Boschker, Jos E.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Calarco, Raffaella; Kooi, Bart J.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-change materials based on GeSbTe show unique switchable optoelectronic properties and are an important contender for next-generation non-volatile memories. Moreover, they recently received considerable scientific interest, because it is found that a vacancy ordering process is responsible for

  4. Dynamic reconfiguration of van der Waals gaps within GeTe-Sb2-Te3 based superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Momand, J.; Wang, R.; Boschker, J.E.; Verheijen, M.A.; Calarco, R.; Kooi, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Phase-change materials based on GeSbTe show unique switchable optoelectronic properties and are an important contender for next-generation non-volatile memories. Moreover, they recently received considerable scientific interest, because it is found that a vacancy ordering process is responsible for

  5. Charge transport through molecular switches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan van der Molen, Sense; Liljeroth, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology. (topical review)

  6. Charge transport through molecular switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jan van der Molen, Sense [Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Liljeroth, Peter, E-mail: molen@physics.leidenuniv.n [Condensed Matter and Interfaces, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, University of Utrecht, PO Box 80000, 3508 TA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-07

    We review the fascinating research on charge transport through switchable molecules. In the past decade, detailed investigations have been performed on a great variety of molecular switches, including mechanically interlocked switches (rotaxanes and catenanes), redox-active molecules and photochromic switches (e.g. azobenzenes and diarylethenes). To probe these molecules, both individually and in self-assembled monolayers (SAMs), a broad set of methods have been developed. These range from low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) via two-terminal break junctions to larger scale SAM-based devices. It is generally found that the electronic coupling between molecules and electrodes has a profound influence on the properties of such molecular junctions. For example, an intrinsically switchable molecule may lose its functionality after it is contacted. Vice versa, switchable two-terminal devices may be created using passive molecules ('extrinsic switching'). Developing a detailed understanding of the relation between coupling and switchability will be of key importance for both future research and technology. (topical review)

  7. Multistage wet lipid extraction from fresh water stressed Neochloris oleoabundans slurry – Experiments and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, Ying; Schuur, Boelo; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; Brilman, D. W.F.(Wim)

    2018-01-01

    Algae are considered an important renewable feedstock for lipid extraction to produce biofuels. Algae strain Neochloris oleoabundans used in this research can yield a high lipid content under stressed conditions. N-ethyl butylamine (EBA) as a switchable solvent has previously shown outstanding

  8. Optoelectronic switch matrix as a look-up table for residue arithmetic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R I

    1987-10-01

    The use of optoelectronic matrix switches to perform look-up table functions in residue arithmetic processors is proposed. In this application, switchable detector arrays give the advantage of a greatly reduced requirement for optical sources by comparison with previous optoelectronic residue processors.

  9. Ubiquitous Structural Signaling in Bacterial Phytochromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Björling, Alexander; Berntsson, Oskar; Takala, Heikki; Gallagher, Kevin D.; Patel, Hardik; Gustavsson, Emil; St. Peter, Rachael; Duong, Phu; Nugent, Angela; Zhang, Fan; Berntsen, Peter; Appio, Roberto; Rajkovic, Ivan; Lehtivuori, Heli; Panman, Matthijs R.; Hoernke, Maria; Niebling, Stephan; Harimoorthy, Rajiv; Lamparter, Tilman; Stojković, Emina A.; Ihalainen, Janne A.; Westenhoff, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The phytochrome family of light-switchable proteins has long been studied by biochemical, spectroscopic and crystallographic means, while a direct probe for global conformational signal propagation has been lacking. Using solution X-ray scattering, we find that the photosensory cores of several

  10. An Electronically Controlled 8-Element Switched Beam Planar Array

    KAUST Repository

    Sharawi, Mohammad S.; Deif, Sameir; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    network that provides the required phases to generate 8 fixed beams covering most of the upper hemisphere of the array. Unlike typical switchable beam antenna arrays, which operate only in one plane, the proposed design is the first to provide full 3D

  11. Switching wormlike micelles of selenium-containing surfactant using redox reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongmin; Kong, Weiwei; Wang, Cheng; An, Pengyun; Fang, Yun; Feng, Yujun; Qin, Zhirong; Liu, Xuefeng

    2015-10-14

    A novel redox-switchable wormlike micellar system was developed based on a mixture of selenium-containing zwitterionic surfactant and commercially available anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate, which reversibly and quickly responds to H2O2 and vitamin C, and shows circulatory gel/sol transition, reflecting changes in aggregate morphology from entangled worms to vesicles.

  12. Switching of the polarization of ferroelectric-ferroelastic gadolinium molybdate in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushkin, E. D.

    2017-10-01

    A change in the character of the electric switching of polydomain ferroelectric-ferroelastic gadolinium molybdate in an external magnetic field has been detected. This change has been attributed to a magnetically stimulated increase in the pinning of domain walls. Under certain conditions, the loop of switchable polarization is degenerated into an ellipse characteristic of a linear insulator with leakage current.

  13. Spectroscopic investigation of the far-infrared properties of liquid crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, M.; Vieweg, N.; Fischer, B. M.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid crystals are one of the most promising base materials for switchable devices at THz frequencies. Therefore, a precise understanding of the optical parameters is crucial. Here, we present the refractive indices and absorption coefficients for 5 CB and an isothiocyanate terminated liquid...... crystal over a broad frequency range from 0.3 THz to 15 THz....

  14. Tunable coupling and ultrastrong interaction in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baust, Alexander Theodor

    2015-01-01

    For future quantum information and quantum simulation architectures with superconducting circuits, a profound understanding of the coupling mechanisms between the individual building blocks is essential. In our work, we investigate galvanically coupled qubit-resonator systems, demonstrate the phenomenon of ultrastrong coupling and realize qubit mediated tunable and switchable coupling between two frequency-degenerate coplanar microwave resonators.

  15. Robust Fallback Scheme for the Danish Automatic Voltage Control System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Nan; Dmitrova, Evgenia; Lund, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fallback scheme for the Danish automatic voltage control system. It will be activated in case of the local station loses telecommunication to the control center and/or the local station voltage violates the acceptable operational limits. It cuts in/out switchable and tap...... power system....

  16. Luminescence properties of the Mg co–doped Ce:SrHfO_3 ceramics prepared by the Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Hiroyuki; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Harata, Koichi; Murakami, Rikito; Yamaji, Akihiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Pejchal, Jan; Kamada, Kei; Yokota, Yuui; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    1300 or 1400 °C pre–sintered Al/Ce/Mg:SrHfO_3 and Al/Ce:SrHfO_3 ceramics were prepared by the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) in order to search for a new scintillation material with a high–effective atomic number(Z_e_f_f) and good light output. The SrHfO_3 has a high Z_e_f_f of 60, and high gamma–ray detection efficiency is expected. Meanwhile it has a high melting point of over 2500 °C, and single crystal is hard to be grown. On the other hand, high melting materials can be prepared as ceramics, and the SPS method is a simple process to fabricate the ceramics within a few hours. Thus, we prepared the samples using the SPS method, and their optical and scintillation properties were investigated. We found that Al/Ce/Mg:SrHfO_3 and Al/Ce:SrHfO_3 ceramics had an emission wavelength at around 400 nm originating from 5d–4f transition of Ce"3"+. Moreover, Al/Ce/Mg:SrHfO_3 pre-sintered at a temperature of 1400 °C had a light output of approximately 5,000 ph/MeV. In this paper, the light output of Mg-co-doped samples was improved compared with the Mg-free ones. The light output also depends on the pre-sintering temperature. - Highlights: • Luminescence Properties of Al/Ce/Mg:SrHfO_3 ceramics scintillator was investigated. • These ceramics were prepared by the Spark Plasma Sintering Method. • Light output of the Al/Ce/Mg:SrHfO_3 ceramics was approximately 5,000 ph/MeV.

  17. Electrical pulse burnout testing of light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalma, A.H.; Fischer, C.J.

    1975-01-01

    Electrical pulse burnout thresholds were measured in GaAs, GaAsP, and GaP light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by studying the degradation in light output and the change in I-V characteristics both during the pulse and in the steady state. Pulse widths ranging from a few hundred nsec to 100 μsec were used. Light output degradation was the most sensitive parameter and was used to determine the thresholds. Just above threshold, damage is caused by an increase in generation-recombination current in the space-charge retion. This current is non-radiative and the light output drops, but the damage is not catastrophic. At higher power, the junction burns through and shunt resistance paths are formed which more drastically degrade the light output. The experimental data match reasonably with the theoretical Wunsch--Bell/Tasca model if a burnout area of 1 / 10 the junction area is assumed. Both the adiabatic term (At -1 ) and the heat flow term (Bt - /sup 1 / 2 /) contribute in all devices, and the equilibrium term (C) contributes in some GaAsP devices. The scatter in the data for GaAs devices is greater than that for GaAsP devices, apparently because the former types have a significant fraction of mavericks with lower-than-normal thresholds. The use of LEDs to examine electrical pulse burnout is advantageous because the light output is quite sensitive to damage and the combined measurement of optical and electrical properties provides additional information about the mechanisms involved

  18. Charge and field coupling phenomena at metal-oxide interfaces and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voora, Venkata M.

    Heterostructures composed of polar materials, such as ferroelectric and/or piezoelectric, are interesting due to their interface lattice charge coupling (LCC) effects. In this thesis, coupling effects between switchable ferroelectric and non-switchable piezoelectric semiconductor spontaneous polarizations are addressed. Also discussed is a dielectric continuum model approach for studying LCC effects in double layer piezoelectric semiconductor-ferroelectric and triple layer piezoelectric semiconductor-ferroelectric-piezoelectric semiconductor heterostructures. The dielectric continuum model augments the effects of electric field driven switchable polarization due to LCC with depletion layer formation in semiconductor heterostructures. Electrical investigations were used to study a reference single layer (BaTiO3), a double layer (BaTiO3-ZnO), and a triple layer (ZnO-BaTiO 3-ZnO) heterostructure grown by pulsed laser deposition. The coupling between the non-switchable spontaneous polarization of ZnO and the electrically switchable spontaneous polarization of BaTiO3 causes strong asymmetric polarization hysteresis behavior. The n-type ZnO layer within double and triple layered heterostructures reveals hysteresis-dependent capacitance variations upon formation of depletion layers at the ZnO/BaTiO 3 interfaces. Model analysis show very good agreement between the generated data and the experimental results. The dielectric continuum model approach allows for the derivation of the amount and orientation of the spontaneous polarization of the piezoelectric constituents, and can be generalized towards multiple layer piezoelectric semiconductor-ferroelectric heterostructures. Based on experimental results the polarization coupled ZnO-BaTiO 3-ZnO heterostructures is identified as a two-terminal unipolar ferroelectric bi-junction transistor which can be utilized in memory storage devices. Furthermore it is discussed, that the triple layer heterostructure with magnetically

  19. Towards the development of a salinity impact category for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DRINIE

    2003-07-03

    Jul 3, 2003 ... nature from existing categories to warrant a separate salinity impact category. A conceptual method is ... compounds to the environment from all stages of a product's life- cycle are ... Marine. - Terrestrial. • Photo-oxidant formation. • Acidification .... algae. Reduced light input. Oxygen depletion near bottom.

  20. Fiber-tile optical studies at Argonne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, D.G.; Morgan, D.J.; Proudfoot, J.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a fiber-tile calorimeter for SDC, we have done studies on a number of topics. The most basic problems were light output and uniformity of response. Using a small electron beam, we have studied fiber placement, tile preparation, wrapping and masking, fiber splicing, fiber routing, phototube response, and some degradation factors. We found two configurations which produced more light output than the others and reasonably uniform response. We have chosen one of these to go into production for the EM test module on the basis of fiber routing for ease of assembly of the calorimeter. We have also applied some of the tools we developed to CDF end plug tile uniformity, shower max testing and development for a couple of detectors, and development of better techniques for radiation damage studies. 18 figs

  1. Radiation damage in undoped CsI and CsI(Tl)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woody, C.L.; Kierstead, J.A.; Levy, P.W.; Stoll, S.

    1992-01-01

    Radiation damage has been studied in undoped CsI and CsI(TI) crystals using 60 Co gamma radiation for doses up to ∼ 4.2 x 10 6 . Samples from various manufacturers were measured ranging in size from 2.54 cm long cylinders to a 30 cm long block. Measurements were made on the change in optical transmission and scintillation light output as a function of dose. Although some samples showed a small change in transmission, a significant change in light output was observed for all samples. Recovery from damage was also studied as a function of time and exposure to UV light. A short lived phosphorescence was observed in undoped CsI, similar to the phosphorescence seen in CsI(TI)

  2. Fabrication and characterization of pixelated Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb scintillator screens for digital X-ray imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jongyul, E-mail: kjongyul@kaist.ac.kr [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kyoung Cha, Bo; Hyung Bae, Jun; Lee, Chae-hun; Kim, Hyungtaek; Chang, Sungho; Cho, Gyuseong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 335 Gwahangno, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Cheulmuu; Kim, Taejoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Deokjin-dong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    X-ray imaging detectors in combination with scintillator screens have been widely used in digital X-ray imaging applications. Gd{sub 2}O{sub 2}S:Tb was used as scintillation material for pixelated scintillator screens based on silicon substrates (wafer) with a micropore array of various dimensions fabricated using the photolithography and deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) process. The relative light output and the modulation transfer function (MTF) of each fabricated scintillator screen were measured by a cooled CCD and compared with those of Lanex screens. The spatial resolution of our scintillator screens was higher but their light outputs were lower than those of Lanex screen probably due to the loss of light at the wall surfaces. Therefore further treatment of the wall surface, such as reflective coating, seems necessary to compensate the light loss.

  3. Optimisation of ATP determination in drinking water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corfitzen, Charlotte B.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution,...... be separated from the water phase by filtration.......Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) can be used as a relative measure of cell activity, and is measured by the light output from the reaction between luciferin and ATP catalyzed by firefly luciferase. The measurement has potential as a monitoring and surveillance tool within drinking water distribution...... and an Advance Coupe luminometer. The investigations showed a 60 times higher response of the PCP-kit, making it more suitable for measurement of samples with low ATP content. ATP-standard dilutions prepared in tap water were stable for at least 15 months when stored frozen at -80ºC, and storage of large...

  4. Investigation of GaN-based light emitting diodes with nano-hole patterned sapphire substrate (NHPSS) by nano-imprint lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.W.; Lin, C.H.; Huang, J.K.; Lee, K.Y.; Lin, C.F.; Yu, C.C.; Tsai, J.Y.; Hsueh, R.; Kuo, H.C.; Wang, S.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, gallium-nitride (GaN)-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with nano-hole patterned sapphire (NHPSS) by nano-imprint lithography are fabricated and investigated. At an injection current of 20 mA, the LED with NHPSS increased the light output power of the InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well LEDs by a factor of 1.33, and the wall-plug efficiency is 30% higher at 20 mA indicating that the LED with NHPSS had larger light extraction efficiency. In addition, by examining the radiation patterns, the LED with NHPSS shows stronger light extraction with a wider view angle. These results offer promising potential to enhance the light output powers of commercial light-emitting devices using the technique of nano-imprint lithography.

  5. Light yield as a function of gas pressure and electric field in gas scintillation proportional counters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Favata, F.; Smith, A.; Bavdaz, M.; Kowalski, T.Z.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated the dependence of the scintillation light output for Xe on gas pressure in the range 0.14-1.4 bar, using a gas scintillation proportional counter, in different experimental configurations. We have compared our work with that of previous workers, and have shown that both our results and the results of previous authors are compatible with the intrinsic light output being independent of gas pressure, with any observed dependence being a pure experimental effect due to the spectral response of the various UV detectors used. We also use our experimental data for determining the ratio between the cross section of the Xe 2 ** +Xe→Xe 2 * +Xe reaction and the rate of the Xe 2 ** →2Xe+γ UV reaction. (orig.)

  6. Fabrication and optimization of a fiber-optic radiation sensor for proton beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, K.W.; Yoo, W.J.; Seo, J.K.; Heo, J.Y.; Moon, J.; Park, J.-Y.; Hwang, E.J.; Shin, D.; Park, S.-Y.; Cho, H.-S.; Lee, B.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we fabricated a fiber-optic radiation sensor for proton therapy dosimetry and measured the output and the peak-to-plateau ratio of scintillation light with various kinds of organic scintillators in order to select an organic scintillator appropriate for measuring the dose of a proton beam. For the optimization of an organic scintillator, the linearity between the light output and the stopping power of a proton beam was evaluated for two different diameters of the scintillator, and the angular dependency and standard deviation of the light pulses were investigated for four different scintillator lengths. We also evaluated the linearity between the light output and the dose rate and monitor units of a proton generator, respectively. The relative depth-dose curve of the proton beam was obtained and corrected using Birk's theory.

  7. Tailoring of polarization in electron blocking layer for electron confinement and hole injection in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Yu-Hsuan; Pilkuhn, Manfred H.; Fu, Yi-Keng; Chu, Mu-Tao; Huang, Shyh-Jer; Su, Yan-Kuin; Wang, Kang L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of the AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) with graded aluminum composition on electron confinement and hole injection in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The light output power of LED with graded AlGaN EBL was markedly improved, comparing to LED with conventional EBL. In experimental results, a high increment of 86.7% can be obtained in light output power. Simulation analysis shows that via proper modification of the barrier profile from the last barrier of the active region to EBL, not only the elimination of electron overflow to p-type layer can be achieved but also the hole injection into the active region can be enhanced, compared to a conventional LED structure. The dominant factor to the performance improvement is shown to be the modulation of polarization field by the graded Al composition in EBL

  8. Modal gain characteristics of a 2 μm InGaSb/AlGaAsSb passively mode-locked quantum well laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Hong; Qiao, Zhongliang; Guo, Xin; Ng, Geok Ing; Zhang, Yu; Niu, Zhichuan; Tong, Cunzhu; Liu, Chongyang

    2017-12-01

    Passive mode locking with a fundamental repetition rate at ˜18.46 GHz is demonstrated in a two-section InGaSb/AlGaAsSb quantum well laser emitting at 2 μm. Modal gain characteristics of the laser are investigated by performing the Hakki-Paoli method to gain better insight into the impact of the absorber bias voltage (Va) on the light output. The lasing action moves to longer wavelengths markedly with increasing negative Va. The light output contains more longitudinal modes in the mode locking regime if the gain bandwidth is larger at a certain Va. Our findings provide guidelines for output characteristics of the mode-locked laser.

  9. Improving Light Outcoupling Efficiency for OLEDs with Microlens Array Fabricated on Transparent Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low light outcoupling efficiency restricts the wide application of organic light-emitting diodes in solid state light market although the internal quantum efficiency of the device could reach near to 100%. In order to improve the output efficiency, different kinds of microlens array on the substrate emission surface were designed and simulated using light tracing method. Simulation results indicate that the microlens array on the substrate could efficiently improve the light output efficiency and an enhancement of 1.8 could be obtained with optimized microlens structure design. The microlens array with semicircle shape using polymer material was fabricated on glass substrate by a facile approach. Finally, the organic device with microlens array substrate was manufactured and the light output of the device with surface microlens structure could increase to 1.64 times comparing with the device without microlens.

  10. Machining of scintillator tiles for the SDC calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertoldi, M.; Bartosz, E.; Davis, C.; Hagopian, V.; Hernandez, E.; Hu, K.; Immer, C.; Thomaston, J.

    1992-01-01

    This research and development on the grooving methods for the scintillating tiles of the SDC calorimeter was done to maximize the light output of scintillator plates and improve the uniformity among tiles through machining procedures. Grooves for wavelength shifting fibers in SCSN-81 can be machined from 10,000 to 60,000 RPM with a feed rate of more than 30cm/min if the plate is kept cool and the chips are removed quickly by blowing dry, cold, clean air over the cutting tool. BC499-27, a polystyrene-based scintillator, is softer and more difficult to machine. It allows a maximum rotation speed of 20,000 RPM and a maximum feed rate of 15 cm/min. A new half-keyhole shape was used for grooves, allowing safer, faster top-loading of the fibers. Three hundred tiles were machined, achieving a standard deviation of the light output of less than 7%. (Author)

  11. Controversial bulb disks still marketed as energy savers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.

    1982-05-24

    Despite a 1980 DOE study showing that incandescent bulb disks decrease lamp efficiency by reducing light output as well as energy consumption, at least two manufacturers are still marketing the disks. The companies claim that the Power Disc and Lite-Saver will extend bulb life up to 100 times and reduce wattage 42%, although they both acknowledge that light output is reduced as much as 74% for a 53% efficiency drop. Some users claim the life-extension feature is important when bulb replacement is difficult. The DOE study concludes that the disks are not cost-effective if the user wants equivalent lighting, and questions some of the manufacturers' advertising claims. Satisfied users counter with reports of good performance and no problems with shock or other safety hazards. (DCK)

  12. Cerium doped GSO scintillators and its application to position sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, H.; Shimizu, K.; Susa, K.; Kubota, S.

    1989-01-01

    The dependence of the light output and the decay times of Ce doped Gd/sub 2/SiO/sub 5/ on Ce concentration is measured. By using the difference in decay times on Ce concentration for GSO(Ce), the combination of different concentration of GSO(Ce) scintillators is shown to be useful as position sensitive detectors. A Ce doped Gd/sub 2/SiO/sub 5/ (GSO(Ce)) single crystal is an excellent scintillator featuring, a large light output, a short decay time and a high absorption coefficient. Further investigation aimed at its implementation to scintillators has been carried out previously. An application of the GSO(Ce) scintillators to the gamma-ray detectors of positron emission computed tomography has also been shown. The authors have investigated the dependence of its scintillation properties on the Ce concentration and its application to position sensitive detectors

  13. Characteristics of plastic scintillators fabricated by a polymerization reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheol Ho; Son, Jaebum; Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Yong Kyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Three plastic scintillators of 4.5 cm diameter and 2.5-cm length were fabricated for comparison with commercial plastic scintillators using polymerization of the styrene monomer 2.5-diphenyloxazole (PPO) and 1,4-bis benzene (POPOP). Their maximum emission wavelengths were determined at 426.06 nm, 426.06 nm, and 425.00 nm with a standard error of 0.2% using a Varian spectrophotometer (Agilent, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Compton edge spectra were measured using three gamma ray sources [i.e., cesium 137 ({sup 137}Cs), sodium 22 ({sup 22}Na), and cobalt 60 ({sup 60}Co)]. Energy was calibrated by analyzing the Compton edge spectra. The fabricated scintillators possessed more than 99.7% energy linearity. Light output was comparable to that of the BC-408 scintillator (Saint-Gobain, Paris, France). The fabricated scintillators showed a light output of approximately 59–64% of that of the BC-408 scintillator.

  14. Advanced optical design and control of multi-colored SSL system for stage lighting application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita

    , the light output from the light engine is energy and optically efficient as well as environmentally friendly. The light output stability during the operational time is investigated by using the Monte Carlo simulation and a color sensor is implemented along with the pre‐calibrated lookup table to a feedback...... system in order to provide controlled color and intensity variations within certain limits. By implementing the control mechanism, system‐to‐system calibration is possible. The control mechanism can be generalized to be used in any other SSL system. Instead of using a color sensor, the variation......The thesis deals with a novel LED color mixing light engine which is designed, developed, and subsequently demonstrated by making a prototype of the same, which is experimentally investigated. Further, the design optimization solves the problems of achieving collimated high luminous flux in a color...

  15. Monte Carlo analysis of a control technique for a tunable white lighting system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Thorseth, Anders; Jepsen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    A simulated colour control mechanism for a multi-coloured LED lighting system is presented. The system achieves adjustable and stable white light output and allows for system-to-system reproducibility after application of the control mechanism. The control unit works using a pre-calibrated lookup...... table for an experimentally realized system, with a calibrated tristimulus colour sensor. A Monte Carlo simulation is used to examine the system performance concerning the variation of luminous flux and chromaticity of the light output. The inputs to the Monte Carlo simulation, are variations of the LED...... peak wavelength, the LED rated luminous flux bin, the influence of the operating conditions, ambient temperature, driving current, and the spectral response of the colour sensor. The system performance is investigated by evaluating the outputs from the Monte Carlo simulation. The outputs show...

  16. Scalability, Scintillation Readout and Charge Drift in a Kilogram Scale Solid Xenon Particle Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. [Fermilab; Cease, H. [Fermilab; Jaskierny, W. F. [Fermilab; Markley, D. [Fermilab; Pahlka, R. B. [Fermilab; Balakishiyeva, D. [Florida U.; Saab, T. [Florida U.; Filipenko, M. [Erlangen - Nuremberg U., ECAP

    2014-10-23

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  17. Tailoring of polarization in electron blocking layer for electron confinement and hole injection in ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yu-Hsuan; Pilkuhn, Manfred H. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Fu, Yi-Keng; Chu, Mu-Tao [Electronics and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 31040, Taiwan (China); Huang, Shyh-Jer, E-mail: yksu@mail.ncku.edu.tw, E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Su, Yan-Kuin, E-mail: yksu@mail.ncku.edu.tw, E-mail: totaljer48@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Institute of Microelectronics and Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Electronic Engineering, Kun-Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China); Wang, Kang L. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-03-21

    The influence of the AlGaN electron blocking layer (EBL) with graded aluminum composition on electron confinement and hole injection in AlGaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are investigated. The light output power of LED with graded AlGaN EBL was markedly improved, comparing to LED with conventional EBL. In experimental results, a high increment of 86.7% can be obtained in light output power. Simulation analysis shows that via proper modification of the barrier profile from the last barrier of the active region to EBL, not only the elimination of electron overflow to p-type layer can be achieved but also the hole injection into the active region can be enhanced, compared to a conventional LED structure. The dominant factor to the performance improvement is shown to be the modulation of polarization field by the graded Al composition in EBL.

  18. The quest for the ideal inorganic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, S.E.; Weber, M.J.; Bourret-Courchesne, E.; Klintenberg, M.K.

    2002-01-01

    The past half century has witnessed the discovery of many new inorganic scintillator materials and numerous advances in our understanding of the basic physical processes governing the transformation of ionizing radiation into scintillation light. Whereas scintillators are available with a good combination of physical properties, none provides the desired combination of stopping power, light output, and decay time. A review of the numerous scintillation mechanisms of known inorganic scintillators reveals why none of them is both bright and fast. The mechanisms of radiative recombination in wide-bandgap direct semiconductors, however, remain relatively unexploited for scintillators. We describe how suitably doped semiconductor scintillators could provide a combination of high light output, short decay time, and linearity of response that approach fundamental limits

  19. The effect of contaminants on the mercury consumption of fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakk, I P; Nyulaszi, L; Benkoe, N

    2009-01-01

    In order to study the effect of water adsorbed on the alumina coating of fluorescent lamps 35 W tubes were prepared by so setting the manufacturing process as not to fully remove contaminants. The light intensity has been measured along the tubes, showing a fast drop after the initial illumination at switching on. The minimum intensity was followed by a recovery of the light output, the brightening extending gradually from the liquid mercury reservoir of the tube. To explain the observations the reaction between mercury ions and water and its decomposition products (OH and H radicals) were considered, which decreases the free mercury concentration and thus the light output. Density functional calculations indeed indicate a strong binding between these species.

  20. The effect of contaminants on the mercury consumption of fluorescent lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakk, I. P.; Benkö, N.; Nyulászi, L.

    2009-05-01

    In order to study the effect of water adsorbed on the alumina coating of fluorescent lamps 35 W tubes were prepared by so setting the manufacturing process as not to fully remove contaminants. The light intensity has been measured along the tubes, showing a fast drop after the initial illumination at switching on. The minimum intensity was followed by a recovery of the light output, the brightening extending gradually from the liquid mercury reservoir of the tube. To explain the observations the reaction between mercury ions and water and its decomposition products (OH and H radicals) were considered, which decreases the free mercury concentration and thus the light output. Density functional calculations indeed indicate a strong binding between these species.

  1. Light emitting diodes for today's energy conscious world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanier, J

    2000-10-01

    The role played by light emitting diodes in back lighting, decorative illumination, emergency lighting, and automated signage are described as indicators of the many benefits and advantages of LED technology. The basic principles underlying the functioning of LEDs are explained, including the reasons behind their high efficiency in applications requiring colour. The difference between wattage and lumens is clarified; wattage refers to power consumption, whereas lumens measure brightness or light output, the measure most significant in the case of LEDs.

  2. Tests on a digital neutron-gamma pulse shape discriminator with NE213

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Z.W.

    1981-01-01

    A technique using charge sensitive analog-to-digital converters to do neutron-gamma pulse shape discrimination is reported. The converters are gated by short (135 ns) pulses so as to reduce pile-up and the timing is such that the slow and total light output from the scintillator are measured. Preliminary tests indicate that the system performs reasonably well but poorer than some reported analog systems employing gated integrators or cross-over techniques. (orig.)

  3. Luminescence properties and their temperature dependence of Lu.sub.2./sub.Si.sub.2./sub.O.sub.7./sub.:Ce scintillation crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ren, G.; Feng, H.; Ding, D.; Nikl, Martin; Li, H.; Qin, L.; Pan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2010), s. 1291-1294 ISSN 0018-9499. [International Conference on Inorganic Scintillators and their Applications /10./. Cheju Isl, 08.06.2009-12.06.2009] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME08034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : light output * LPS:Ce * luminescence * oxygen vacancy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.519, year: 2010

  4. Salient features in the preparation of gaseous tritium filled luminous light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, K.M.; Ravi, S.; Subramanian, T.K.; Ananthakrishnan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Beta radiation emanating from gaseous tritium in close proximity with copper activated zinc sulphide phosphor provides self sustained light sources and these sources are used for nocturnal illumination of liquid crystal display in digital watches and clocks, product advertisements, exit signs etc. We report herein the preparation of low specific radioactivity gaseous tritium (29.5 Ci/m mole; 1.09 TBq/m mole) filled light sources and its effect on light output. (author)

  5. The Use of Stimulable Bioluminescence from Marine Dinoflagellates as a Means of Detecting Toxicity in the Marine Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    FROM MARINE PR: ME65 DINOFLAGELLATES AS A MEANS OF DETECTING TOXICITY IN THE PE: 060372N MARINE ENVIRONMENT WU: DN288604 6ý AUTHOR(S) Accesion For I...measure the acute and sublethal effects of heavy metals ( tributyltin , copper, and zinc) and storm drain effluent on the light output from marine...Grovhoug 3 THE USE OF STIM1ULABLE BIOLUMINESCENCE FROM MARINE DINOFLAGELLATES AS A MEANS OF DETECTING TOXICITY IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT. REFERENCE

  6. Radiation damage of tile/fiber scintillator modules for the SDC calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, L.; Liu, N.; Mao, H.; Tan, Y.; Wang, G.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zheng, L.; Zhong, X.; Zhou, Y.; Han, S.; Byon, A.; Green, D.; Para, A.; Johnson, K.; Barnes, V.

    1992-02-01

    The measurements of radiation damage of tile/fiber scintillator modules to be used for the SDC calorimeter are described. Four tile/fiber scintillator modules were irradiated up to 6 Mrad with the BEPC 1.1 GeV electron beam. We have studied the light output at different depths in the modules and at different integrated doses, the recovery process and the dependence on the ambient atmosphere

  7. Crystal scintillators for use in check-light source for thermoluminescent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagpal, J. S.; Sabharwal, S. C.; Chougaonkar, M. P.; Godbole, S. V.

    1999-08-01

    Beta ( 63Ni, Emax 0.063 MeV) excited radioluminescence of indigenously grown crystal scintillators CsI(Tl), Bi 4Ge 3O 12 and CdWO 4 has been studied for its use in check-light source needed for thermoluminescence systems. Temperature coefficient of the light output over 298-323 K and the beta-induced TL of the scintillators over 298-553 K are reported.

  8. CALiPER Exploratory Study. Recessed Troffer Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Royer, M. P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poplawski, M. E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This CALiPER study examines the problems and benefits likely to be encountered with LED products intended to replace linear fluorescent lamps. LED dedicated troffers, replacement tubes, and non-tube retrofit kits were evaluated against fluorescent benchmark troffers in a simulated office space for photometric distribution, uniformity of light on the task surface, suitability of light output, flicker, dimming performance, color quality, power quality, safety and certification issues, ease of installation, energy efficiency, and life-cycle cost.

  9. Our lightning world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The article concerns itself with the historical development of electricity. Information is given on various sources of energy, including: coal, gas turbines, hydroelectric power, nuclear energy, solar energy, wave power and wind power. The conclusion is made that we should use light sources which have the highest efficiency, viz the ratio of light output in lumens to the power watts consumed in the whole circuit

  10. Report of TOF for 900 MeV/n Au ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, H J; Flores, I; Lindstrom, P J; Krebs, G

    1986-04-15

    We describe a measurement of the time of flight over an 18.5 m path of 900 MeV/n Au ions from the LBL Bevalac. We used two small scintillators viewed by XP2972 photomultiplier tubes without any light guides. The large light output allowed us to attain a resolution of 58 ps in the flight time and an energy resolution of 3 MeV/n. The system is being used in energy loss and machine performance studies.

  11. Report of TOF for 900 MeV/n Au ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.; Flores, I.; Lindstrom, P.J.; Krebs, G.

    1986-01-01

    We describe a measurement of the time of flight over an 18.5 m path of 900 MeV/n Au ions from the LBL Bevalac. We used two small scintillators viewed by XP2972 photomultiplier tubes without any light guides. The large light output allowed us to attain a resolution of 58 ps in the flight time and an energy resolution of 3 MeV/n. The system is being used in energy loss and machine performance studies. (orig.)

  12. Report of TOF for 900 MeV/n Au ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, H J; Flores, I; Lindstrom, P J; Krebs, G

    1986-04-15

    We describe a measurement of the time of flight over an 18.5 m path of 900 MeV/n Au ions from the LBL Bevalac. We used two small scintillators viewed by XP2972 photomultiplier tubes without any light guides. The large light output allowed us to attain a resolution of 58 ps in the flight time and an energy resolution of 3 MeV/n. The system is being used in energy loss and machine performance studies. (orig.).

  13. Experience with parallel optical link for the CDF silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, S.

    2003-01-01

    The Dense Optical Interface Module (DOIM) is a byte-wide optical link developed for the Run II upgrade of the CDF silicon tracking system [1]. The module consists of a transmitter with a laser-diode array for conversion of digitized detector signals to light outputs, a 22 m optical fiber ribbon cable for light transmission, and a receiver converting the light pulses back to electrical signals. We report on the design feature, characteristics, and radiation tolerance

  14. Radiation effects on light sources and detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.

    1985-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of optoelectronics includes a wide variety of both military and non-military applications in which the systems must meet radiation exposure requirements. Herein, we review the work on radiation effects on sources and detectors for such optoelectronic systems. For sources the principal problem is permanent damage-induced light output degradation, while for detectors it is ionizing radiation-induced photocurrents

  15. White-light-emitting supramolecular gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Vakayil K; Ranjith, Choorikkat; Armaroli, Nicola

    2014-01-07

    Let there be light, let it be white: Recent developments in the use of chromophore-based gels as scaffolds for the assembly of white-light-emitting soft materials have been significant. The main advantage of this approach lies in the facile accommodation of selected luminescent components within the gel. Excitation-energy-transfer processes between these components ultimately generate the desired light output. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dynamic Softening or Stiffening a Supramolecular Hydrogel by Ultraviolet or Near-Infrared Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhao; Hu, Jingjing; Wang, Hui; Huang, Junlin; Yu, Yihua; Zhang, Qiang; Cheng, Yiyun

    2017-07-26

    The development of light-responsive hydrogels that exhibit switchable size and mechanical properties with temporal and spatial resolution is of great importance in many fields. However, it remains challenging to prepare smart hydrogels that dramatically change their properties in response to both ultraviolet (UV) and near-infrared (NIR) lights. Here, we designed a dual-light responsive supramolecular gel by integrating UV light-switchable host-guest recognition, temperature responsiveness, and NIR photothermal ability in the gel. The gel could rapidly self-heal and is capable of both softening and stiffening controlled by UV and NIR lights, respectively. Besides stiffness modulation, the bending direction of the gel can be controlled by UV or NIR light irradiation. The smart gel makes it possible to generate dynamic materials that respond to both UV and NIR lights and represents a useful tool that might be used to modulate cellular microenvironments with spatiotemporal resolution.

  17. Large-area smart glass and integrated photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampert, C.M. [Star Science, 8730 Water Road, Cotati, CA 94931-4252 (United States)

    2003-04-01

    Several companies throughout the world are developing dynamic glazing and large-area flat panel displays. University and National Laboratory groups are researching new materials and processes to improve these products. The concept of a switchable glazing for building and vehicle application is very attractive. Conventional glazing only offers fixed transmittance and control of energy passing through it. Given the wide range of illumination conditions and glare, a dynamic glazing with adjustable transmittance offers the best solution. Photovoltaics can be integrated as power sources for smart windows. In this way a switchable window could be a completely stand alone smart system. A new range of large-area flat panel display including light-weight and flexible displays are being developed. These displays can be used for banner advertising, dynamic pricing in stores, electronic paper, and electronic books, to name only a few applications. This study covers selected switching technologies including electrochromism, suspended particles, and encapsulated liquid crystals.

  18. Study of true-remanent polarization using remanent hysteresis task and resistive leakage analysis in ferroelectric 0.64Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.36PbTiO3 ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Abhilash J.; Kumar, Binay

    2018-03-01

    The conventionally reported value of remanent polarization (Pr) contains contribution from non-remanent components which are not usable for memory device applications. This report presents techniques which extract the true-remanent (intrinsic) component of polarization after eliminating the non-remanent component in ferroelectric ceramics. For this, "remanent hysteresis task" and "positive-up-negative-down technique" were performed which utilized the switchable properties of polarizations to nullify the contributions from the non-remanent (non-switchable) components. The report also addresses the time-dependent leakage behavior of the ceramics focusing on the presence of resistive leakage (a time-dependent parameter) present in the ceramics. The techniques presented here are especially useful for polycrystalline ceramics where leakage current leads to an erroneous estimation of Pr.

  19. SiO2 Nanopillars on Microscale Roughened Surface of GaN-Based Light-Emitting Diodes by SILAR-Based Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. F. Zeng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We reported the SiO2 nanopillars on microscale roughened surface on GaN-based LED to enhance light-extraction efficiency. ZnO nanoparticles were deposited on SiO2 as an etching mask before ICP etching SiO2 by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR, and the different heights of SiO2 nanopillars on microroughened ITO/GaN were obtained after etching. Compared to a regular (flat surface GaN-based LED, the light output power for a LED with microroughening was increased by 33%. Furthermore, the proposed LEDs with SiO2 nanopillars on microroughened surface show the enhancement in light output power by 42.7%–49.1% at 20 mA. The increase in light output power is mostly attributed to reduction in Fresnel reflection by rough surface. The height of SiO2 nanopillars was increasing cause resulting in more rough on the microscale surface of GaN-based LEDs.

  20. Amorphous silicon pixel layers with cesium iodide converters for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing, T.; Cho, G.; Goodman, C.A.

    1993-11-01

    We describe the properties of evaporated layers of Cesium Iodide (Thallium activated) deposited on substrates that enable easy coupling to amorphous silicon pixel arrays. The CsI(Tl) layers range in thickness from 65 to 220μm. We used the two-boat evaporator system to deposit CsI(Tl) layers. This system ensures the formation of the scintillator film with homogenous thallium concentration which is essential for optimizing the scintillation light emission efficiency. The Tl concentration was kept to 0.1--0.2 mole percent for the highest light output. Temperature annealing can affect the microstructure as well as light output of the CsI(Tl) film. 200--300C temperature annealing can increase the light output by a factor of two. The amorphous silicon pixel arrays are p-i-n diodes approximately lμm thick with transparent electrodes to enable them to detect the scintillation light produced by X-rays incident on the CsI(Tl). Digital radiography requires a good spatial resolution. This is accomplished by making the detector pixel size less then 50μm. The light emission from the CsI(Tl) is collimated by techniques involving the deposition process on pattered substrates. We have measured MTF of greater than 12 line pairs per mm at the 10% level

  1. Study of polystyrene scintillators-WLS fiber elements and scintillating tile-WLS prototypes for New CHOD detector of CERN NA-62 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Semenov, Vitaliy; Gorin, Aleksandr; Khudyakov, Aleksey; Rykalin, Vladimir; Yushchenko, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    We measured the light output and the time resolution of few sets comprised of polystyrene scintillator and wavelength shifting (WLS) fibers as readout. The samples of different thickness (7-30 mm) have been made in the shape of bricks and plates with the areas of 25×80, 108×134 and 108×268 of mm2. In addition to samples of “ordinary” scintillator with additions of 2% p- Terphenyl + 0.05% POPOP, the rapid ultraviolet scintillator with single 2% additive PBD was tested. For the light collection WLS-fibers BCF92, Y11 and scintillation fiber SCSF-78M as reemitting were checked. The fibers were glued into the grooves on the front surface of scintillators. As the photo detectors silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) produced by CPTA (Russia) and SensL (Ireland) were used. It is shown that the dependence of light output on the thickness of scintillator is nonlinear and close to the square root function, which is also confirmed by the calculations carried out by Monte Carlo. The measured value of a light output make...

  2. Radiation damage of CsI(Tl) scintillators: blocking of energy transfer process of V sub k centers to Tl sup + activators

    CERN Document Server

    Hamada, M M; Shimizu, S; Kubota, S

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports the emission spectra, light output, transmission and decay curves of CsI(Tl) crystals irradiated with gamma rays at different doses, ranging from 1x10 sup 5 to 5x10 sup 5 Gy. The crystals were coated with black or white tapes. Significant decreases in the emission spectra and light output values were observed for the crystals coated with white tape as the radiation dose increased. The decrease in the degree of the rising part of the decay curve in the irradiated crystals is attributed to the blocking of the energy transfer processes of V sub k lattice disorders, which were produced in irradiated crystals. The scintillation mechanism is affected in the crystal irradiated at 5x10 sup 5 Gy. However for crystals irradiated below 10 sup 5 Gy the mechanism process is not altered, and the decrease in the light output is due to internal transmission loss. It was also observed that the damage for irradiation is not permanent and it obeys a bi-exponential function.

  3. Investigation of the imaging properties of inorganic scintillation screens using high energetic ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberwirth, Alice [TU Darmstadt (Germany); JWG Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Forck, Peter; Sieber, Thomas [GSI Darmstadt (Germany); Ensinger, Wolfgang; Lederer, Stephan [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Kester, Oliver [JWG Universitaet Frankfurt/Main (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Inorganic scintillation screens are a common diagnostics tool in heavy ion accelerators. In order to investigate the imaging properties of various screen materials, four different material compositions were irradiated at GSI, using protons up to Uranium ions as projectiles. Beams were extracted from SIS18 with high energy (300 MeV/u) in slow and fast extraction mode. During irradiation the scintillation response of the screens was simultaneously recorded by two different optical setups to investigate light output, profile characteristics and emission spectra. It was observed, that fast extracted beams induce in general lower light output than slow extracted beams, while the light output per deposited energy decreases with atomic number. The analysis of the spectral emission as well as investigations with classical optical methods showed no significant defect-building in all materials, not even under irradiation with increasing beam intensity or over long time periods. The investigated scintillation screens can be considered as stable under irradiation with high energetic heavy ion pulses and are appropriate for beam diagnostics applications in future accelerator facilities like FAIR. Characteristic properties and application areas of the screens are presented in the poster.

  4. New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnik, M.I.; Yudin, S.G.; Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Golovkin, S.V.; Medvedkov, A.M.; Solovjev, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The scintillation light output of this liquid crystal is about 35% of crystal anthracene, its main decay time constants are 4 and 14 ns, and the maximum of light emission spectrum is about 400 nm. The light output of a dissolution of green emitting light scintillation dopant R6 in the liquid crystal is about 120% of crystal anthracene. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at -112 deg. C is about 2.5 times higher as observed at +20 deg. C. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized. The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors

  5. New scintillating media based on liquid crystals for particle detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Barnik, M I; Vasilchenko, V G; Golovkin, S V; Medvedkov, A M; Soloviev, A S

    2000-01-01

    The study results of optical, photoluminiscent and scintillation properties of a liquid crystal 4-pentyl-4'-cyanobiphenyl are presented. The scintillation light output of this liquid crystal is about 35% of crystal anthracene, its main decay time constants are 4 and 14 ns, and the maximum of light emission spectrum is about 400 nm. The light output of a dissolution of green emitting light scintillation dopant R6 in the liquid crystal is about 120% of crystal anthracene. The light output of the frozen dissolution measured at -112 deg. C is about 2.5 times higher as observed at +20 deg. C. In the uniaxially oriented liquid crystal, the predominant intensity direction of emitted light is pointed perpendicular to the liquid crystal director and an appreciable part of the emitted light is elliptically polarized. The possibility to use scintillation properties of liquid crystals is considered both for the improvement of existing particle detector characteristics and for the creation of new gated particle detectors.

  6. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, William N.; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional...

  7. Method to create gradient index in a polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirk, Shawn M; Johnson, Ross Stefan; Boye, Robert; Descour, Michael R; Sweatt, William C; Wheeler, David R; Kaehr, Bryan James

    2014-10-14

    Novel photo-writable and thermally switchable polymeric materials exhibit a refractive index change of .DELTA.n.gtoreq.1.0 when exposed to UV light or heat. For example, lithography can be used to convert a non-conjugated precursor polymer to a conjugated polymer having a higher index-of-refraction. Further, two-photon lithography can be used to pattern high-spatial frequency structures.

  8. Bimaterial Microcantilevers as a Hybrid Sensing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    alkylthoils, Langmuir – Blodgett (LB) films from var- ious amphiphilic molecules, homo- and copolymers with dif- ferent chain architectures, grafted-to and... liquid crystalline materials. Central research areas include the development of 1-, 2-, and 3D switchable polymeric diffractive structures using complex...temperature, ionic strength, pH, electrical field) represent a critical, and now well-matured field in nanotechnology. These materials are considered

  9. Proton beam writing for producing holographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ow, Y.S.; Breese, M.B.H.; Bettiol, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    This work reports on the writing of computer generated hologram diffraction patterns using focused 2 MeV proton beam irradiation. These patterns were designed using a ray tracing algorithm and written directly into a thick polymethylmethacrylate layer. When the developed holographic pattern was illuminated with a 650 nm laser it produced a good reconstructed image. This work provides means of forming high-resolution, high aspect ratio holographic images in polymers for applications in data storage using switchable holography.

  10. Smart worm-like micelles responsive to CO2/N2 and light dual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Wang, Guozheng; Ma, Yuxuan; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P

    2017-04-12

    CO 2 /N 2 and light dual stimuli-responsive worm-like micelles (WLMs) were obtained by addition of a relatively small amount of a switchable surfactant, 4-butyl-4'-(4-N,N-dimethylhexyloxy-amine) azobenzene bicarbonate (AZO-B6-CO 2 ), sensitive to the same triggers to a binary aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal).

  11. Phase-Change Memory Materials by Design: A Strain Engineering Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xilin; Kalikka, Janne; Ji, Xinglong; Wu, Liangcai; Song, Zhitang; Simpson, Robert E

    2016-04-20

    Van der Waals heterostructure superlattices of Sb2 Te1 and GeTe are strain-engineered to promote switchable atomic disordering, which is confined to the GeTe layer. Careful control of the strain in the structures presents a new degree of freedom to design the properties of functional superlattice structures for data storage and photonics applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Review on electrochromic devices for automotive glazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiryont, Hulya

    1991-12-01

    Electrochromic materials have been intensively studied for applications of various switchable optical systems. These materials exhibit adjustable optical absorption upon reversible oxidation/reduction processes. Since a reversible oxidation/reduction phenomenon is provided by electrically-driven electrochemical reactions, these materials are known as electrochromics. There are many publications including proceedings, books, and review articles written on electrochromic (EC) materials and their applications. This paper focuses on conventional and some new electrochromic devices (ECD), their specifications, and applications.

  13. The unexpected influence of aryl substituents in N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides on the behavior of their multicomponent reactions with 5-amino-3-methylisoxazole and salicylaldehyde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr V. Tkachenko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The switchable three-component reactions of 5-amino-3-methylisoxazole, salicylaldehyde and N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides under different conditions were studied and discussed. The unexpected influence of the aryl substituent in N-aryl-3-oxobutanamides on the behavior of the reaction was discovered. The key influence of ultrasonication and Lewis acid catalysts led to an established protocol to selectively obtain two or three types of heterocyclic scaffolds depending on the substituent in the N-aryl moiety.

  14. A dual-band LO generation system using a 40GHz VCO with a phase noise of -106.8dBc/Hz at 1-MHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Pei, Y.; Leenaerts, D.M.W.; Hanock, T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a dual-band LO generation system using a low phase noise single-band 40GHz VCO as the signal source. The LO generation system has two outputs: single-band LO1 at 20GHz and dual-band LO2 switchable between 10GHz and 15GHz. Implemented in 0.25-µm SiGe:C BiCMOS, the VCO achieves

  15. Electrical control of spontaneous emission and strong coupling for a single quantum dot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laucht, A.; Hofbauer, F.; Hauke, N.

    2009-01-01

    We report the design, fabrication and optical investigation of electrically tunable single quantum dots—photonic crystal defect nanocavities operating in both the weak and strong coupling regimes of the light–matter interaction. Unlike previous studies where the dot–cavity spectral detuning...... switchable optical nonlinearity at the single photon level, paving the way towards on-chip dot-based nano-photonic devices that can be integrated with passive optical components....

  16. Design Rules for High Temperature Microchemical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-25

    and heat spreaders , and none were totally satisfactory. Available were either too fragile for use, or required an insulating thickness that was...vacuum pump, but quickly lose reflectivity under the normal conditions. Heat spreaders were also a problem. One would like switchable heat spreaders ...fluid are shown with an amplitude >1400 K. The heat recycle from the hot walls causes a temperature rise much above the adiabatic flame temperature

  17. Tailoring intra- and intermolecular properties : from cyclophanes to daisy chains

    OpenAIRE

    Rotzler, Jürgen Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Todays high-tech society is striving for faster, cheaper and higher performing devices in all circumstances. Traditional materials have long since reached their limits making the search for new materials with altered properties inevitable. Easy processable, long-term stable polymeric materials with improved handling or switchable properties for use in plastics, conducting single molecular wires, switches, rectifiers in computer industry, nonlinear optic materials for data transmission at the ...

  18. Green Chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, Melanie

    2011-05-15

    Green chemistry is the science of chemistry used in a way that will not use or create hazardous substances. Dr. Rui Resendes is working in this field at GreenCentre Canada, an offshoot of PARTEQ Innovations in Kingston, Ontario. GreenCentre's preliminary findings suggest their licensed product {sup S}witchable Solutions{sup ,} featuring 3 classes of solvents and a surfactant, may be useful in bitumen oil sands extraction.

  19. High Extinction Ratio In-Fibre Polarisers by Exploiting Tilted Fibre Bragg Grating Structures for Single-Polarisation High-Power Fibre Lasers and Amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    maintaining (PM) fibre, utilising polarisation hole-burning ( PHB ) effect to reduce homogeneous linewidth of the EDFL. In our work, we demonstrate a stable...loss filter which will induce some loss to the cavity around its paired attenuation band region, thus imposing PHB effect to the gain medium. The...polarisation-hole-burning ( PHB ) effect to realise multi-wavelength switchable function in proposed fibre ring laser system. In the proposed fibre ring laser

  20. DNA Camouflage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-08

    1 DNA Camouflage Supplementary Information Bijan Zakeri1,2*, Timothy K. Lu1,2*, Peter A. Carr2,3* 1Department of Electrical Engineering and...ll.mit.edu). Distribution A: Public Release   2 Supplementary Figure 1 DNA camouflage with the 2-state device. (a) In the presence of Cre, DSD-2[α...10 1 + Cre 1 500 1,000 length (bp) chromatogram alignment template − Cre   4 Supplementary Figure 3 DNA camouflage with a switchable

  1. Development of 3000 m Subsea Blowout Preventer Experimental Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Liu, Yonghong; Huang, Zhiqian; Ma, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yubin

    2017-12-01

    A subsea blowout preventer experimental prototype is developed to meet the requirement of training operators, and the prototype consists of hydraulic control system, electronic control system and small-sized blowout preventer stack. Both the hydraulic control system and the electronic system are dual-mode redundant systems. Each system works independently and is switchable when there are any malfunctions. And it significantly improves the operation reliability of the equipment.

  2. Dipole pinning effect on photovoltaic characteristics of ferroelectric BiFeO3 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, P. P.; Thirmal, Ch.; Pal, S.; Murugavel, P.

    2018-01-01

    Ferroelectric bismuth ferrite is an attractive candidate for switchable devices. The effect of dipole pinning due to the oxygen vacancy layer on the switching behavior of the BiFeO3 thin film fabricated by the chemical solution deposition method was studied after annealing under air, O2, and N2 environment. The air annealed film showed well defined and dense grains leading to a lower leakage current and superior electrical properties compared to the other two films. The photovoltage and transient photocurrent measured under positive and negative poling elucidated the switching nature of the films. Though the air and O2 annealed films showed a switchable photovoltaic response, the response was severely affected by oxygen vacancies in the N2 annealed film. In addition, the open circuit voltage was found to be mostly dependent on the polarization of BiFeO3 rather than the Schottky barriers at the interface. This work provides an important insight into the effect of dipole pinning caused by oxygen vacancies on the switchable photovoltaic effect of BiFeO3 thin films along with the importance of stoichiometric, defect free, and phase pure samples to facilitate meaningful practical applications.

  3. High voltage photo switch package module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  4. GaN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with AlN/GaN/InGaN multiple quantum wells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hung-Ming; Lai, Wei-Chih; Chen, Wei-Shou; Chang, Shoou-Jinn

    2015-04-06

    We demonstrate indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride/aluminum nitride (AlN/GaN/InGaN) multi-quantum-well (MQW) ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to improve light output power. Similar to conventional UV LEDs with AlGaN/InGaN MQWs, UV LEDs with AlN/GaN/InGaN MQWs have forward voltages (V(f)'s) ranging from 3.21 V to 3.29 V at 350 mA. Each emission peak wavelength of AlN/GaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs presents 350 mA output power greater than that of the corresponding emission peak wavelength of AlGaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs. The light output power at 350mA of AlN/GaN/InGaN MQWs UV LEDs with 375 nm emission wavelength can reach around 26.7% light output power enhancement in magnitude compared to the AlGaN/InGaN MQWs UV LEDs with same emission wavelength. But 350mA light output power of AlN/GaN/InGaN MQWs UV LEDs with emission wavelength of 395nm could only have light output power enhancement of 2.43% in magnitude compared with the same emission wavelength AlGaN/InGaN MQWs UV LEDs. Moreover, AlN/GaN/InGaN MQWs present better InGaN thickness uniformity, well/barrier interface quality and less large size pits than AlGaN/InGaN MQWs, causing AlN/GaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs to have less reverse leakage currents at -20 V. Furthermore, AlN/GaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs have the 2-kV human body mode (HBM) electrostatic discharge (ESD) pass yield of 85%, which is 15% more than the 2-kV HBM ESD pass yield of AlGaN/InGaN MQW UV LEDs of 70%.

  5. APPLICA TION OF OPTICAL LOGIC GATES Avireni Srinivasulu, L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Figure 1 shows the circuit diagram of optical NOT with light input OPi. The light dependent resistor. LDR is connected in series to UJT emitter and the power supply +1.8V to the base B2 through a pair ... LDR2 are connected in parallel to the UJT emitter terminal. Optical output OPo of NOR occurs only when both the inputs ...

  6. Scintillation screen materials for beam profile measurements of high energy ion beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishnakumar, Renuka

    2016-06-22

    For the application as a transverse ion beam diagnostics device, various scintillation screen materials were analysed. The properties of the materials such as light output, image reproduction and radiation stability were investigated with the ion beams extracted from heavy ion synchrotron SIS-18. The ion species (C, Ne, Ar, Ta and U) were chosen to cover the large range of elements in the periodic table. The ions were accelerated to the kinetic energies of 200 MeV/u and 300 MeV/u extracted with 300 ms pulse duration and applied to the screens. The particle intensity of the ion beam was varied from 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 9} particles per pulse. The screens were irradiated with typically 40 beam pulses and the scintillation light was captured using a CCD camera followed by characterization of the beam spot. The radiation hardness of the screens was estimated with high intensity Uranium ion irradiation. In the study, a linear light output for 5 orders of magnitude of particle intensities was observed from sensitive scintillators and ceramic screens such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Cr and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The highest light output was recorded by CsI:Tl and the lowest one by Herasil. At higher beam intensity saturation of light output was noticed from Y and Mg doped ZrO{sub 2} screens. The light output from the screen depends not only on the particle intensity but also on the ion species used for irradiation. The light yield (i.e. the light intensity normalised to the energy deposition in the material by the ion) is calculated from the experimental data for each ion beam setting. It is shown that the light yield for light ions is about a factor 2 larger than the one of heavy ions. The image widths recorded exhibit a dependence on the screens material and differences up to 50 % were registered. On radiation stability analysis with high particle intensity of Uranium ions of about 6 x 10{sup 8} ppp, a stable performance in light output and image reproduction was documented from Al

  7. Radiation effects in zinc oxide: zinc under bombardment with KeV ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.W.L.

    1967-01-01

    The energy loss, light output, depth of deterioration and the deterioration constant have been determined as a function of energy for various atomic projectiles impinging upon samples of a powdered Zn:Zn phosphor at energies below 105 KeV. The energy loss was observed as a reduction in the light output when projectiles traversed thin regions of previously damaged phosphor. The energy losses for heavier projectiles ( 14 N, 40 Ar, 84 Kr), relative to hydrogen, were found to be lower than those predicted for an amorphous stopping medium. The light output for a given projectile was found to be approximately proportional to the amount of energy lost in electronic collisions. When a phosphor is subjected to prolonged bombardment by heavy ions the deterioration depth is fairly well defined and its value was determined by a measurement of the energy loss of a hydrogen beam in traversing the damaged region. The depths are very large, are proportional to the projectile velocity and seem to be determined to a significant degree by electronic stopping. The deterioration constant, C, is a measure of the ability of a projectile to deteriorate a phosphor and its value is proportional to the number of defects introduced in unit distance along the trajectory of the projectile. The constant was determined from measurements of the efficiencies η, and η o , of partly damaged and undamaged phosphor, respectively, using the observed relationship, C (η/η o - 1) n -1 where n is the irradiation dose. The relative magnitudes of the C values for 14 N, 40 Ar were found to be in agreement with measured nuclear energy loss cross sections for these projectiles. (author)

  8. Observations on dual-ended readout of 100 mm long LYSO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ur-Rehman, Fazal; McIntosh, Bryan; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    We are investigating using dual-ended readout of axially oriented long thin scintillator crystals in detectors for a compact geometry, small ring diameter animal PET system. The axial position of interaction is determined from the light sharing between two photodetectors at opposite ends of the crystal. We examine the light output, energy resolution and axial spatial resolution of 1.5-5x2x100 mm 3 polished LYSO crystals by irradiating with an electronically collimated beam of 511 keV photons oriented perpendicular to the long axis and read out at either end by position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). Three reflector materials, namely Teflon, 3 M enhanced specular reflector (ESR) and black paint are examined for the 2x2x100 mm 3 crystal size. The light output increases and energy resolution improves with the crystal cross-section. Generally, the spatial resolution worsens with increase in crystal cross-section. For the 2x2x100 mm 3 crystal size, the mean energy resolutions of the photopeak over the nine irradiation positions were 14.4±0.4%, 16.0±1.2% and 28.3±2.1% with mean spatial resolutions of 7.0±1.0, 9.4±3.3 and 26.0±5.0 mm using ESR, Teflon and black paint, respectively. ESR reflector gave the best light output, energy and axial spatial resolutions. These characterization results of PSPMT-based dual-ended long LYSO crystals will be useful in the design of detector modules for a highly compact geometry preclinical PET system using this detector technology.

  9. Observations on dual-ended readout of 100 mm long LYSO crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ur-Rehman, Fazal, E-mail: Fazal@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); McIntosh, Bryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Goertzen, Andrew L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada); Department of Radiology, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)

    2011-10-01

    We are investigating using dual-ended readout of axially oriented long thin scintillator crystals in detectors for a compact geometry, small ring diameter animal PET system. The axial position of interaction is determined from the light sharing between two photodetectors at opposite ends of the crystal. We examine the light output, energy resolution and axial spatial resolution of 1.5-5x2x100 mm{sup 3} polished LYSO crystals by irradiating with an electronically collimated beam of 511 keV photons oriented perpendicular to the long axis and read out at either end by position sensitive photomultiplier tubes (PSPMTs). Three reflector materials, namely Teflon, 3 M enhanced specular reflector (ESR) and black paint are examined for the 2x2x100 mm{sup 3} crystal size. The light output increases and energy resolution improves with the crystal cross-section. Generally, the spatial resolution worsens with increase in crystal cross-section. For the 2x2x100 mm{sup 3} crystal size, the mean energy resolutions of the photopeak over the nine irradiation positions were 14.4{+-}0.4%, 16.0{+-}1.2% and 28.3{+-}2.1% with mean spatial resolutions of 7.0{+-}1.0, 9.4{+-}3.3 and 26.0{+-}5.0 mm using ESR, Teflon and black paint, respectively. ESR reflector gave the best light output, energy and axial spatial resolutions. These characterization results of PSPMT-based dual-ended long LYSO crystals will be useful in the design of detector modules for a highly compact geometry preclinical PET system using this detector technology.

  10. The location and nature of general anesthetic binding sites on the active conformation of firefly luciferase; a time resolved photolabeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivananthaperumal Shanmugasundararaj

    Full Text Available Firefly luciferase is one of the few soluble proteins that is acted upon by a wide variety of general anesthetics and alcohols; they inhibit the ATP-driven production of light. We have used time-resolved photolabeling to locate the binding sites of alcohols during the initial light output, some 200 ms after adding ATP. The photolabel 3-azioctanol inhibited the initial light output with an IC50 of 200 µM, close to its general anesthetic potency. Photoincorporation of [(3H]3-azioctanol into luciferase was saturable but weak. It was enhanced 200 ms after adding ATP but was negligible minutes later. Sequencing of tryptic digests by HPLC-MSMS revealed a similar conformation-dependence for photoincorporation of 3-azioctanol into Glu-313, a residue that lines the bottom of a deep cleft (vestibule whose outer end binds luciferin. An aromatic diazirine analog of benzyl alcohol with broader side chain reactivity reported two sites. First, it photolabeled two residues in the vestibule, Ser-286 and Ile-288, both of which are implicated with Glu-313 in the conformation change accompanying activation. Second, it photolabeled two residues that contact luciferin, Ser-316 and Ser-349. Thus, time resolved photolabeling supports two mechanisms of action. First, an allosteric one, in which anesthetics bind in the vestibule displacing water molecules that are thought to be involved in light output. Second, a competitive one, in which anesthetics bind isosterically with luciferin. This work provides structural evidence that supports the competitive and allosteric actions previously characterized by kinetic studies.

  11. Evaluation of moderately cooled pure NaI as a scintillator for position-sensitive PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wear, J.A.; Karp, J.S.; Haigh, A.T.; Freifelder, R.

    1996-01-01

    A new evaluation of pure NaI has been performed to determine if moderate cooling would lead to better performance than that of existing, activated NaI(Tl) position-sensitive detectors, particularly at high countrates. Using a freezer, an initial effort was performed to cool the crystal assembly to -90 C (183 K). At this temperature, pure NaI has a decay constant of 35 nsec, a light output which is about 20% that of room temperature NaI(Tl), and an energy resolution of 15%. For the PET applications the signal of room temperature (25 C) NaI(Tl) is normally pulse clipped, reducing the light output to 40% of the unclipped signal and yielding an energy resolution of 10.5%. Since the long decay of NaI(Tl) causes it to suffer more significantly than pure NaI from pre-pulse pileup, the difference in energy resolution between the two crystals at high countrates will be reduced. Also, a significantly shorter trigger deadtime with pure NaI will lead to a reduction in coincidence deadtime losses in PET. Computer simulations of large-area crystals operating at high countrates have been performed to quantify their trigger deadtime behavior and position resolution as a function of light output and pulse decay time. Having gained experience with the practical issues of cooling large crystals, measurements of position resolution have been performed with a NaI bar detector of similar geometry to the NaI(Tl) detectors in use in the PENN-PET scanner

  12. Properties of high pressure nitrogen-argon and nitrogen-xenon gas scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tornow, W.; Huck, H.; Koeber, H.J.; Mertens, G.

    1976-01-01

    Investigations of scintillation light output and energy resolution have been made at pressures up to 90 atm in gaseous mixtures of nitrogen with both argon and xenon by stopping of 210 Po-alpha particles. In the absence of a wavelength shifter, the N 2 -Ar mixtures gave a maximum pulse height at a ratio of nitrogen to argon partial pressures rsub(N 2 /Ar) approximately =0.2. However, when using the wavelength shifter diphenyl stilbene (DPS), the measured light output was much larger at lower values of rsub(N 2 /Ar), whereas for rsub(N 2 /Ar)>0.2 pulse height and energy resolution of the studied N 2 -Ar mixtures were roughly indentical with and without DPS. The N 2 -Xe gas mixtures exhibited a similar dependence of pulse height and energy resolution to that of the N 2 -Ar mixtures employing DPS, but the pulse height was larger by a factor of about 7. A 40 atm 50% N 2 -50% Xe gas scintillator showed an energy resolution ΔE/E=0.25, while an 80 atm 75% N 2 -25% Xe scintillator gave ΔE/E=0.6. The pulse height from the 80 atm N 2 -Xe scintillator was smaller by a factor of about 240 than the pulse height from a 20 atm pure Xe gas scintillator, but larger by a factor of about 20 than the pulse height from a 75 atm pure N 2 gas scintillator. The N 2 -Xe mixtures showed a remarkable increase of light output as the temperature of the gas was descreased. (Auth.)

  13. Techniques involved in the preparation of radioluminescent sources with promethium-147 and gaseous tritium radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seshadri, N.K.; Subramanian, T.K.; Ravi, S.; Mathew, K.M.; Chinnayan, C.

    2001-01-01

    Beta radiation emanating from promethium-147 and gaseous tritium in close proximity with zinc sulphide phosphor will provide self sustained light sources and are used for, nocturnal illumination of liquid crystal display digital watches and clocks, product advertisements, telephone numbers, exit signs etc. In this paper a procedure for activation of zinc sulphide phosphor with promethium-147 and development of gaseous tritium light sources with respect to thickness of phosphor coating and its effect on light output is described. A typical light source was constructed with promethium-147 activated zinc sulphide to find the overall efficiency of conversion of beta energy to visible light. (author)

  14. Use of a streamer chamber for low energy nuclear physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Bibber, K.; Pang, W.; Avery, M.; Bloemhof, E.

    1979-10-01

    A small streamer chamber has been implemented for low energy heavy ion reaction studies at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron. The response of the chamber to light and heavy ions below 35 MeV/nucleon has been examined. The limited sensitivity of light output as a function of ionization works to advantage in recording a wide variety of tracks in the same photograph whose energy loss may vary considerably. Furthermore, as gas targets are attractive for several reasons, we have investigated the suitability of Ar and Xe for use in streamer chambers.

  15. Use of a streamer chamber for low energy nuclear physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bibber, K.; Pang, W.; Avery, M.; Bloemhof, E.

    1979-10-01

    A small streamer chamber has been implemented for low energy heavy ion reaction studies at the LBL 88-inch cyclotron. The response of the chamber to light and heavy ions below 35 MeV/nucleon has been examined. The limited sensitivity of light output as a function of ionization works to advantage in recording a wide variety of tracks in the same photograph whose energy loss may vary considerably. Furthermore, as gas targets are attractive for several reasons, we have investigated the suitability of Ar and Xe for use in streamer chambers

  16. Study of a device for measuring the weak effect in neutron-proton interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostachy, J.Y.

    1981-09-01

    This work is part of a prospective study of a (np) radiative capture experiment searching for parity violating effects in the nucleon system. In order to detect the expected γ forward-backward asymmetry (10 -7 - 10 -8 ), several experimental features have been investigated: light collection and performances of phototubes for high light output, liquid hydrogen target and behaviour of polarized neutrons (capture, rate, depolarizing effect,..), pertinent null tests and beam depolarization in the target. Simulations have been done by Monte Carlo codes [fr

  17. Performance of a high-resolution CsI(Tl)-PIN readout detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudenko, Yu.G.; Imazato, J.

    1992-10-01

    A study of a large-volume CsI(Tl) detector with a PIN diode readout was carried out. Our results show a light output of ≤20000 photoelectrons/MeV, an equivalent noise charge (rms) of about 900 electrons, and an equivalent noise level of ≤ 60 keV. We obtained an energy resolution of 11.2% (fwhm) for 1275 keV gamma rays from a 22 Na source. The characteristics of the PIN - preamplifier system as well as the parameters of a small CsI(Tl) - PIN detector with a direct and wavelength shifter readout are also reported. (author)

  18. Magnetic fields and scintillator performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, D.; Ronzhin, A.; Hagopian, V.

    1995-06-01

    Experimental data have shown that the light output of a scintillator depends on the magnitude of the externally applied magnetic fields, and that this variation can affect the calorimeter calibration and possibly resolution. The goal of the measurements presented here is to study the light yield of scintillators in high magnetic fields in conditions that are similar to those anticipated for the LHC CMS detector. Two independent measurements were performed, the first at Fermilab and the second at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University

  19. New approaches for modeling type Ia supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zingale, Michael; Almgren, Ann S.; Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus S.; Rendleman, Charles A.; Woosley, Stan

    2007-01-01

    Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) are the largest thermonuclear explosions in the Universe. Their light output can be seen across great distances and has led to the discovery that the expansion rate of the Universe is accelerating. Despite the significance of SNe Ia, there are still a large number of uncertainties in current theoretical models. Computational modeling offers the promise to help answer the outstanding questions. However, even with today's supercomputers, such calculations are extremely challenging because of the wide range of length and timescales. In this paper, we discuss several new algorithms for simulations of SNe Ia and demonstrate some of their successes

  20. Radiation hardness of WLS fibres for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    David, M; Maio, A

    2007-01-01

    In this document we present the data obtained in the irradiation in a Co-60 source of WLS fibers for the TileCal calorimeter. The optical, mechanical and radiation hardness properties of these fibers were developed in close contact with three producers: Bicron, Kuraray and Pol.Hi.Tech. The results on the degradation of the light output and attenuation length from five irradiations are presented. The fibers were irradiated with a total dose at least 3 times higher than the dose predicted for 10 years of operation of LHC at nominal luminosity.