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Sample records for swiss webster mice

  1. Alteration in the endogenous intestinal flora of swiss webster mice by experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection

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    Vandack Nobre

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The association between worm infections and bacterial diseases has only recently been emphasized. This study examined the effect of experimental Angiostrongylus costaricensis infection on endogenous intestinal flora of Swiss Webster mice. Eight mice aging six weeks were selected for this experiment. Four were infected with A. costaricensis and the other four were used as controls. Twenty eight days after the worm infection, all mice in both groups were sacrificed and samples of the contents of the ileum and colon were obtained and cultured for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. In the mice infected with A. costaricensis there was a significant increase in the number of bacteria of the endogenous intestinal flora, accompanied by a decrease in the number of Peptostreptococcus spp. This alteration in the intestinal flora of mice infected by the nematode may help to understand some bacterial infections described in humans.

  2. Behavioral and biochemical effects of ketamine and dextromethorphan relative to its antidepressant-like effects in Swiss Webster mice.

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    Nguyen, Linda; Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Logsdon, Aric F; Scandinaro, Anna L; Huber, Jason D; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2016-09-28

    Ketamine has been shown to produce rapid and robust antidepressant effects in depressed individuals; however, its abuse potential and adverse psychotomimetic effects limit its widespread use. Dextromethorphan (DM) may serve as a safer alternative on the basis of pharmacodynamic similarities to ketamine. In this proof-of-concept study, behavioral and biochemical analyses were carried out to evaluate the potential involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the antidepressant-like effects of DM in mice, with comparisons to ketamine and imipramine. Male Swiss, Webster mice were injected with DM, ketamine, or imipramine and their behaviors were evaluated in the forced-swim test and the open-field test. Western blots were used to measure BDNF and its precursor, pro-BDNF, protein expression in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex of these mice. Our results show that both DM and imipramine reduced immobility time in the forced-swim test without affecting locomotor activity, whereas ketamine reduced immobility time and increased locomotor activity. Ketamine also rapidly (within 40 min) increased pro-BDNF expression in an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-dependent manner in the hippocampus, whereas DM and imipramine did not alter pro-BDNF or BDNF levels in either the hippocampus or the frontal cortex within this timeframe. These data show that DM shares some features with both ketamine and imipramine. Additional studies examining DM may aid in the development of more rapid, safe, and efficacious antidepressant treatments.

  3. Distribution of [14C]acrylamide in male and pregnant Swiss-Webster mice studied by whole-body autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlowe, C.; Clark, M.J.; Mast, R.W.; Friedman, M.A.; Waddell, W.J.

    1986-01-01

    Male and 13.5- and 17.5-day pregnant Swiss-Webster mice were administered 120 mg/kg [2,3-14C]acrylamide orally. The male mice were frozen 0.33, 1, 3, 9, 24, 72, and 216 hr later, and the pregnant mice at each gestational period were frozen at 3 and 24 hr. Whole-body autoradiographs from the male mice at early time intervals revealed accumulation of radioactivity in the contents of the gastrointestinal tract, liver, pancreas, testis, brain and gallbladder, and epithelia of oral cavity, esophagus, and bronchi. The distribution appears to be similar in the male and pregnant mice. Absorption from the stomach was virtually complete by 3 hr; renal and hepatic elimination was essentially complete at 24 hr. Radioactivity in the male reproductive tract appeared in the parenchyma of the testis at 1 hr, moved to the seminiferous tubules and head of the epididymis at 9 hr, and by 9 days remained only in the tail of the epididymis and the crypts of the epithelium of the glans penis. This movement parallels that of spermatids. The 13.5-day fetuses were uniformly labeled except for a slightly increased uptake in fetal brain. The distribution of radioactivity in the 17.5-day fetal tissues resembled that in maternal tissues; the remarkable exception was an intense accumulation in fetal skin. This study indicates that acrylamide is efficiently absorbed from the stomach and eliminated by the liver, kidney, and possibly the pancreas. A previously unrecognized affinity of acrylamide or a metabolic product was demonstrated for fetal skin in late gestation and for adult epithelia of oral cavity, esophagus, forestomach, and bronchi. Also, acrylamide or a metabolite appears to bind to spermatids at a specific stage near maturation

  4. Comparison of the actions of gamma-butyrolactone and 1,4-butanediol in Swiss-Webster mice.

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    de Fiebre, Christopher M; de Fiebre, Nancy Ellen C; Coleman, Scott L; Forster, Michael J

    2004-04-01

    The abuse of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and two of its precursors, gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) are recognized as a public health concern. Here, we report dose-response and time-course analyses for effects of GBL and 1,4-BD on locomotor activity and body temperature in Swiss-Webster mice. Locomotor activity was measured for 2 h following a single injection of one of four doses of each agent plus a saline vehicle control. At 50 mg/kg, GBL produced an initial depression of locomotor activity which was followed by stimulation of locomotor activity. In contrast, 1,4-BD at 50 mg/kg stimulated locomotor activity without producing any depression of activity. At higher doses, GBL produced primarily a dose-dependent decrease in locomotor activity that returned to baseline within 50 min. In contrast, 1,4-BD produced an initial depression which was followed by stimulation of activity. Body temperature was measured rectally across a 2.5-h time course following injection with either agent. Both drugs produced hypothermia with peak effects occurring at 20 and 30 min for both drugs for the lower and higher dose, respectively. At 150 mg/kg, GBL produced a greater hypothermic response; however, no differences in hypothermic response were observed at 100 mg/kg. These studies demonstrate that the precursor drugs to GHB have some differential actions from each other.

  5. Impact of repeated exposure on toxicity of perchloroethylene in Swiss Webster mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, Binu K.; Mumtaz, Moiz M.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim was to study the subchronic toxicity of perchloroethylene (Perc) by measuring injury and repair in liver and kidney in relation to disposition of Perc and its major metabolites. Male SW mice (25-29 g) were given three dose levels of Perc (150, 500, and 1000 mg/kg day) via aqueous gavage for 30 days. Tissue injury was measured during the dosing regimen (0, 1, 7, 14, and 30 days) and over a time course of 24-96 h after the last dose (30 days). Perc produced significant liver injury (ALT) after single day exposure to all three doses. Liver injury was mild to moderate and regressed following repeated exposure for 30 days. Subchronic Perc exposure induced neither kidney injury nor dysfunction during the entire time course as evidenced by normal renal histology and BUN. TCA was the major metabolite detected in blood, liver, and kidney. Traces of DCA were also detected in blood at initial time points after single day exposure. With single day exposure, metabolism of Perc to TCA was saturated with all three doses. AUC/dose ratio for TCA was significantly decreased with a concomitant increase in AUC/dose of Perc levels in liver and kidney after 30 days as compared to 1 day exposures, indicating inhibition of metabolism upon repeated exposure to Perc. Hepatic CYP2E1 expression and activity were unchanged indicating that CYP2E1 is not the critical enzyme inhibited. Hepatic CYP4A expression, measured as a marker of peroxisome proliferation was increased transiently only on day 7 with the high dose, but was unchanged at later time points. Liver tissue repair peaked at 7 days, with all three doses and was sustained after medium and high dose exposure for 14 days. These data indicate that subchronic Perc exposure via aqueous gavage does not induce nephrotoxicity and sustained hepatotoxicity suggesting adaptive hepatic repair mechanisms. Enzymes other than CYP2E1, involved in the metabolism of Perc may play a critical role in the metabolism of Perc upon subchronic exposure

  6. On the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi y strain in swiss mice Sobre o parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster

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    Maria Auxiliadora de Sousa

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A review of the tissular parasitism of Trypanosoma cruzi Y strain in Swiss mice was carried out. This strain parasitized preferentially smooth, skeletal and cardiac muscle fibers, with low transitory spleen and liver parasitism, as previously found by some Authors, although differing from other reports. These results can be related to the host genetical constitution and/or the degree of the strain virulence at the time of this study. Furthermore, we discuss that the high macrophagotropism reported for this strain in some instances could be an artificially induced condition resulting from its serial maintenance in mice, either for a longer time and/or by using young animals. The heavy parasitism and inflammation observed in the bladder, pancreas and spermatic duct of some inoculated mice, as well as the testis parasitization, were also noteworthy findings.Através deste trabalho fizemos uma revisão do parasitismo tecidual da cepa Y do Trypanosoma cruzi em camundongos albinos (Swiss-Webster. Esta cepa parasitou preferencialmente as fibras musculares lisas, esqueléticas e cardíacas, sendo baixo e transitório seu parasitismo do baço e fígado, conforme já observado por alguns Autores, embora diferindo de outros achados. Estes resultados podem estar relacionados com o padrão genético do hospedeiro e/ou com o grau de virulência da cepa por ocasião deste estudo. Além do mais, discutimos a possibilidade de que o intenso macrofagotropismo descrito para esta cepa em algumas ocasiões possa ser uma condição artificialmente induzida através de sua manutenção seriada em camundongos por tempo prolongado e/ou pelo uso de animais jovens. Também são dignos de nota, o intenso parasitismo e inflamação da bexiga, pâncreas e canal espermático de alguns animais inoculados, assim como, o encontro de ninhos de amastigotas no testículo.

  7. Using Swiss Webster mice to model Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD): An analysis of multilevel time-to-event data through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models.

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    Chi, Peter; Aras, Radha; Martin, Katie; Favero, Carlita

    2016-05-15

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) collectively describes the constellation of effects resulting from human alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Even with public awareness, the incidence of FASD is estimated to be upwards of 5% in the general population and is becoming a global health problem. The physical, cognitive, and behavioral impairments of FASD are recapitulated in animal models. Recently rodent models utilizing voluntary drinking paradigms have been developed that accurately reflect moderate consumption, which makes up the majority of FASD cases. The range in severity of FASD characteristics reflects the frequency, dose, developmental timing, and individual susceptibility to alcohol exposure. As most rodent models of FASD use C57BL/6 mice, there is a need to expand the stocks of mice studied in order to more fully understand the complex neurobiology of this disorder. To that end, we allowed pregnant Swiss Webster mice to voluntarily drink ethanol via the drinking in the dark (DID) paradigm throughout their gestation period. Ethanol exposure did not alter gestational outcomes as determined by no significant differences in maternal weight gain, maternal liquid consumption, litter size, or pup weight at birth or weaning. Despite seemingly normal gestation, ethanol-exposed offspring exhibit significantly altered timing to achieve developmental milestones (surface righting, cliff aversion, and open field traversal), as analyzed through mixed-effects Cox proportional hazards models. These results confirm Swiss Webster mice as a viable option to study the incidence and causes of ethanol-induced neurobehavioral alterations during development. Future studies in our laboratory will investigate the brain regions and molecules responsible for these behavioral changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Safety of dried sambiloto Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) nees gamma irradiated based on acute toxicity aspect in mice swiss webster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermin Katrin; Susanto; Hendig Winarno

    2014-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata nees (Family: Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly cultivated in Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of gamma irradiated sambiloto against to animal test (mice) and to support the application of nuclear techniques for radiation pasteurization of sambiloto as health products without changing the properties. In the acute toxicity test was observed the effects of the tested material on behavioral changes, abnormalities in the function of several organs and body weight changes in animal test every day for 2 weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract of unirradiated and irradiated with dose of 7.5 kGy) sambiloto were not toxic to mice. Lethal Dose 50 (DL 50 ) of ethanol extract from sambiloto unirradiated or irradiated at the dose of 7.5 kGy was > 5000 mg/kg BW. At the highest dose tested 5000 mg/kg BW mice there were no significant toxic effects and no mice that died during the experiment, therefore ethanol extracts of un irradiated and irradiated samples could be declared safe. (author)

  9. Efek Toksin T-2 terhadap Perkembangan Embrio Praimplantasi dan Fetus Mencit Swiss Webster

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    AGUS HARYONO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a toxic and teratogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricintum which may contaminate cereal, seed, and food. The aim of this research is to find out the effects of T-2 Toxin on preimplantion embryos and fetuses of Swiss Webster mice. Pregnant female of Swiss Webster mice on 0 or 2 day of gestation was injected intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin at doses 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg body weight (bw and the dam was observed at 3.5 and 18 days of gestation. At 0 day of gestation, embryos were arrested at one to eight cell and uncompacted morulae stages (P < 0.01 compared to control, in both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg bw doses. The cell numbers of late blastocyst at all treated groups were decreased significantly compared to control. At 2 day of gestation, most of embryos were arrested on compacted morulae stage at dose 0.10 mg/kg bw (P < 0.01, the late blastocyst and its cell number were dose-dependently decreased. The live fetuses decreased significantly at all dose of T-2 toxin. No external malformation occurred in the fetuses. Results showed that T-2 toxin given at preimplantation stages inhibited development of preimplantation embryos as indicated by decreased number of live fetuses. Therefore, it was grouped as embryotoxic agent but those dosages did not cause malformation of the external appearance of Swiss Webster mice fetuses.

  10. Safety of dried sambiloto Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) nees gamma irradiated based on acute toxicity aspect in mice swiss webster; Keamanan sambiloto (Andrographis paniculata nees) kering yang diiradiasi gamma berdasarkan aspek toksisitas akutnya terhadap mencit galur swiss webster

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    Katrin, Ermin; Susanto,; Hendig Winarno, E-mail: erminkk@batan.go.id [Laboratorium Bahan Kesehatan PAIR - BATAN, Jl. Lebak Bulus Raya No. 49, Pasar Jumat, Jakarta 12440 (Indonesia)

    2014-08-15

    Andrographis paniculata nees (Family: Acanthaceae) is a medicinal plant commonly cultivated in Asian countries. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety of gamma irradiated sambiloto against to animal test (mice) and to support the application of nuclear techniques for radiation pasteurization of sambiloto as health products without changing the properties. In the acute toxicity test was observed the effects of the tested material on behavioral changes, abnormalities in the function of several organs and body weight changes in animal test every day for 2 weeks. The results showed that the ethanol extract of unirradiated and irradiated with dose of 7.5 kGy) sambiloto were not toxic to mice. Lethal Dose 50 (DL{sub 50}) of ethanol extract from sambiloto unirradiated or irradiated at the dose of 7.5 kGy was > 5000 mg/kg BW. At the highest dose tested 5000 mg/kg BW mice there were no significant toxic effects and no mice that died during the experiment, therefore ethanol extracts of un irradiated and irradiated samples could be declared safe. (author)

  11. Efek Antihiperkolesterol Jus Buah Belimbing Wuluh (Averhoa bilimbi L. terhadap Mencit Galur Swiss Webster Hiperkolesterolemia

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    Samsudin Surialaga

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cholesterol level which were higher than normal is a trigger of various diseases. The objective of the research was to know the anti-hypercholesterol effect of Averhoa bilimbi L. fruit juice, done in March–June 2011 at School of Pharmacy Institute Technology of Bandung. Webster strain mice were divided into two groups there were preventive and curative. Each group was divided into four subgroups: negative control was normal life, the three subgroups other positive control, reference and test (Averhoa received high-cholesterol meal and 0.26 mg/20 gBW/day of prophylthiouracyl. At preventive group the treatment above was participated with 20 mg tragacanth, 0.026 mg/20 gBW/day simvastatin, and 0.12 g juice/20 gBW/day respectively during 30 days. For curative group 30 days later the three subgroups other received tragacanth, simvastatin, and juice as subgroups of preventive group during 30 days. The cholesterol levels were measured with spectrophotometer and were examined with analysis of variance (ANOVA and were continued with student-t test. At preventive group the different of cholesterol level between subgroup control positive 158.5 mg/dL and Averhoa 129.7 mg/dL was significant p<0.01, at curative group were not significant. In conclusion, Averhoa fruit juice can prevent increasing of cholesterol level, but cannot cure.

  12. Valores de referência hematológicos e bioquímicos para camundongos das linhagens C57BL/6, Swiss Webster e BALB/c

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    Ed Wilson Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of animals in scientific research has contributed significantly to the development of science, promoting various advances in understanding the metabolic machinery and the discovery of treatments and preventive measures applied to human and veterinary medicine. The development and use of alternative methods is encouraged; however, in some situations, the use of animals in accordance with ethical policies is still required. Established hematological and clinical chemistry reference values in laboratory animals are essential to evaluate functional changes; however, there are few data in the literature on these values, being fundamentally a comparative basis. The aim of this investigation was the establishment of hematological and clinical chemistry reference values in common strains/stocks of mice used in animal experimentation. Blood profile (hemogram, reticulocytes and myelogram and clinical chemistry serum determination of total protein, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium and phosphorus were evaluated using C57BL/6, BALB/c and Swiss Webster mice, male, 2-3 months old. The results standardize reference intervals in animals reared in Laboratory Animal Facility, reflecting the expected condition in rodents subjected to scientific research.

  13. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

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    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  14. Kadar Lipid Darah Mencit Betina Middle-Aged Galur Swiss Webster setelah Pemberian Jus Buah Pare (Momordica charantia L.

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    Rita Shintawati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian aging has been noted in some vertebrate animals and human being, indicated by low estrogen level. This is related to enhancement of lipid (obesity and some metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular disease, etc. Pare juice (Momordica charantia L., contains of abundant advantageous bioactivities, such as hypoglycemic effect, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, and hypotrigliseridemic. This research purposed was to determine blood lipid levels of mice at the age of middle-aged after being given pare juice. The experimental animal used 25 females mice of 10 months old (middle-aged on March–April 2010 at Physiology Laboratory Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia and Veteriner Medicine IPB, divided into five different treatment groups (controle positive, controle negative, 0.5 mL/40 g bw, 1.0 mL/40 g bw, and 1.5 mL/40 g bw which were fed with pare juice for 10 days. Completely randomized design was used in this research. Results showed that pare juice reduced lower body weight of mice (p<0.05 at all doses. Pare juice did not reduce total cholesterol levels, but increased HDL (p<0.05 at all doses. Other parameters to pare juice reduced triglyceride levels at doses of 1.5 mL/40 g BW (p<0.05 and LDL levels at dose 0.5 mL/40 g BW (136.49 mg/dL. In conclusions, pare juice can stabilize triglyseride and LDL cholesterol level at dose 0.5 mL/40 g BW and increases HDL cholesterol, but has no influence to total cholesterol.

  15. Comparative thermometric coagulation studies of plasmas from normal outbred Swiss Webster mice and persons.

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    Tsang, V C; Wyatt, C R; Damian, R T

    1979-06-01

    The functional capabilities of a thermometric clot-timer have been demonstrated in a comparative study of human and mouse plasma coagulation. The influence of some variables on coagulation times of mouse and human plasmas were examined in activated partial thromboplastin time, one-stage prothrombin time, and Russell's viper venom time assays. Mouse plasma coagulation times were generally shorter and more reproducible than those of human plasma. Optimal assay conditions are also described.

  16. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

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    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  17. Genetic variation within and between strains of outbred Swiss mice.

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    Cui, S; Chesson, C; Hope, R

    1993-04-01

    The aim of this survey was to measure levels of genetic variation within and between 5 different strains of outbred Swiss mice. Ten to 15 animals from each strain (NIH, Q(S), ARC, IMVS and STUD) were typed, using allozyme electrophoresis, at 10 gene loci: Mod-1, Idh-1, Gpi-I, Es-1, Es-3, Hbb, Pep-3, Gr-1, Got-2 and Pgm-1. Polymorphic variation in at least one of the 5 strains was detected at all 10 loci. The proportion of polymorphic loci ranged from 0.3 (NIH) to 0.8 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.52. Average expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.08 (NIH) to 0.37 (IMVS) with a mean of 0.21. The inbred strain SWR was, as expected, homozygous at all 10 loci. The amount of allelic substitution between pairs of strains was quantified using Nei's genetic distance, and a dendrogram based on these genetic distances showed a close overall similarity in its branching pattern to the known genealogy of the strains. This survey showed that a considerable degree of genetic variation persists in the 5 strains examined, a level of variation similar to that previously detected by Rice and O'Brien (1980) in 3 other outbred Swiss strains.

  18. Dexamethasone treatment induces susceptibility of outbred Webster mice to experimental infection with Besnoitia darlingi isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

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    Elsheikha, Hany M; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Mansfield, Linda S

    2005-04-01

    The Sarcocystidae comprise a diverse, monophyletic apicomplexan parasite family, most of whose members form intracellular cysts in their intermediate hosts. The extent of pathology associated with such cyst formation can range widely. We currently lack experimental animal models for many of these infections. Here we explored dexamethasone treatment as a means to render outbred mice susceptible to Besnoitia darlingi infection and demonstrated that this approach allows viable parasites to be subsequently isolated from these mice and maintained in tissue culture. Besnoitia bradyzoites recovered from crushed cysts derived from naturally infected opossums (Didelphis virginiana) replicated and reproduced the development of besnoitiosis in mice treated with dexamethasone (0.5 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 days post infection (DPI). Isolates recovered from the peritoneal exudates of these mice were viable and were maintained in long-term tissue cultures. In contrast, control mice given saline without dexamethasone and challenged with similar bradyzoites remained clinically normal for up to 70 DPI. An additional group of mice challenged with the same inoculum of bradyzoites and given dexamethasone at the same concentration and treated with sulfadiazine (1 mg/ml drinking water) daily for 12 DPI also remained normal for up to 70 DPI. Severe disease developed more rapidly in dexamethasone-treated mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites than in those inoculated with cyst-derived bradyzoites. B. darlingi tachyzoite-infected, untreated control mice developed signs of illness at 18 DPI. In contrast, mice treated with sulfadiazine showed no clinical signs up to 50 DPI. Although dexamethasone treatment was required to establish B. darlingi infection in outbred mice inoculated with opossum-derived B. darlingi bradyzoites, no such treatment was required for mice inoculated with culture-derived B. darlingi tachyzoites. Finally, sulfadiazine was highly

  19. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  20. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice

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    Naser Osanloo; Akram Najafi-Abedi; Fatemeh Jafari; Farshid Javid; Mohsen Pirpiran; Mohammad-Reza Memar-Jafari; Seyed Ali Mousavi-Khosravi; Mohammad Rahimzadeh-Behzadi; Mina Ranjbaran; Hedayat Sahraei

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. Methods: We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/k...

  1. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

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    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of costus speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice.

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    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Nagaich, Upendra

    2010-01-01

    Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE) in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA) significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE) produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE) showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  3. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of Costus Speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  4. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fernandes Druzian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027, but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  5. The effects of pain sensitivity behaviour on Swiss White Mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the effects of Chloroquine phosphate on pain sensation in mice considering the fact that Chloroquine as s chemotherapic agent is known for its neurotoxicity effect. The mice were divided into three groups of 10 mice each. While group 1 as the control, 2 and 3 as the test groups and group 1 received ...

  6. A proposal for refining the forced swim test in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Paula Ramos; Vieira, Cintia; Bohner, Lauren O L; Silva, Cristiane Felisbino; Santos, Evelyn Cristina da Silva; De Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene

    2013-08-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is a preclinical test to the screening of antidepressants based on rats or mice behaviours, which is also sensitive to stimulants of motor activity. This work standardised and validated a method to register the active and passive behaviours of Swiss mice during the FST in order to strength the specificity of the test. Adult male Swiss mice were subjected to the FST for 6 min without any treatment or after intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.1 ml/10 g), antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine, or fluoxetine, 30 mg/kg) or stimulants (caffeine, 30 mg/kg or apomorphine, 10mg/kg). The latency, frequency and duration of behaviours (immobility, swimming, and climbing) were scored and summarised in bins of 6, 4, 2 or 1 min. Parameters were first analysed using Principal Components Analysis generating components putatively related to antidepressant (first and second) or to stimulant effects (third). Antidepressants and stimulants affected similarly the parameters grouped into all components. Effects of stimulants on climbing were better distinguished of antidepressants when analysed during the last 4 min of the FST. Surprisingly, the effects of antidepressants on immobility were better distinguished from saline when parameters were scored in the first 2 min. The method proposed here is able to distinguish antidepressants from stimulants of motor activity using Swiss mice in the FST. This refinement should reduce the number of mice used in preclinical evaluation of antidepressants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Information about diet is also available in guinea pigs. (Beauchamp ... change in diet can alter urine odours. Urinary ... adult male mice, which are dependent upon high levels of ... a protein or protein related substance (Marchlewska-Koj. 1977 ...

  8. Tartrazine induced changes in physiological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus

    OpenAIRE

    Arefin, Sayema; Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Akter Neshe, Shamme; Rashid, Md. Mamun Or; Amin, Mohammad Tohidul; Hussain, Md. Saddam

    2017-01-01

    Now-a-days synthetic food dyes are being used most commonly as food colorant in confectionaries, drugs and cosmetics. Present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of tartrazine, a widely used azo dye, on Swiss Albino mice. Experimental animals were treated with tested dye at a dose level 200mg/kg & 400mg/kg body weight along with normal diet. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were assessed to study the toxic effect of tartrazine. Our study rev...

  9. Semen characteristics and testicular biometry of Swiss albino mice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Contamination of soil and underlying groundwater with spent engine oil from automobile workshops and garages has serious ecological problems affecting plants and animals. ... This same trend was observed for the morphologically abnormal sperm cells of mice in the treated groups compared to the control.

  10. Histological and Physiological Alterations Induced by Thermal Neutron Fluxes in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzergy, A.A.; Emara, N.M.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.; El-Saady, S.M.M.; Emara, N.M.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x10 8 , 0.52X10 8 , 1.089X10 8 , 2.16X10 8 and 4.32X10 8 ) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(α,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.

  11. Attenuation of N-nitrosodimethylamine induced hepatotoxicity by Operculina turpethum in Swiss Albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Veena; Singh, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To appraise the antihepatotoxic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Operculum turpethum root on the liver of Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in adult male albino mice through intraperitoneal administrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at the concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. The liver toxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant ethanolic extract was assessed by the analysis of liver marker enzymes and antioxidant enzymes and liver histopathological studies. Results: Hepatotoxicity was manifested by significantly decreased (PNDMA induced toxicity which was also supported by histopathological studies of the liver. Conclusion: O. turpethum manifested therapeutic effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the hepatic damage in mice. This work intends to aid researchers in the study of natural products which could be useful in the treatment of liver diseases including cancer. PMID:24592311

  12. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Dept. of Zoology, Radiation and Cancer Biology Lab.

    2008-07-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg{sup -1} day{sup -1}) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  13. Protection against radiation induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by mentha piperita (Linn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, Ravindra M.; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2008-01-01

    Mentha piperita linn or peppermint (Family - Labiatae) is aromatic and has stimulant and carminative properties. The protective effects of mentha piperita (Linn) extract against radiation induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given leaf extract of M. piperita orally (1 g kg -1 day -1 ) for three consecutive days prior to radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30 days of post-irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. There was significantly less degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and Leydig cells. Significant decreases in the LPO and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The methanolic extract of M. piperita showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonol. Leaf extract of M. piperita has significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content of extract of M. piperita may be held responsible for its radioprotective effect. (author)

  14. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin of Swiss mice after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Saini, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Biological effects of radiation are detrimental to life. Skin being a cell-renewal system is one of the best organ for studying radiation induced effects and their modulation by antioxidants. An attempt has been made to evaluate radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin in Swiss mice (1g/kg body wt/day). The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups. The first group was given Aloe vera extract orally for 15th consecutive days and served as experimental group while the other group received DDW (vol. equal to Aloe extract) to serve as control group. On the 15th day, after 30 min of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation and autopsied on 6h 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. DNA as well as total protein decreases in control group as compared to the normal value. Surprisingly, in experimental group, DNA and protein increases in comparison to the control group. Thus, Aloe vera were found to have positive influence against radiation induced alterations on skin of Swiss albino mice

  15. Glycogen metabolism in radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.; Kumar, Ashok

    1988-01-01

    Glycogen content and the activities of phosphorylase, glycogen sythetase (GS), glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), phosphohexose isomerase (PHI), glucose 6-phosphodehydrogenase were biochemically determined in the heparocellular carcinoma induced in swiss albino mice following radiocalcium internal irradiation. The content glycogen and the activities of phosphorylase, glycogen synthetase, G6Pase, PHI, GPT and GOT are considerably reduced in the hepatocellular carcinoma compared to that in control liver. However, the activity of G6PDH shows an increased activity. Results indicate that the decreas ed glycogen content in the hepatocellular carcinoma is due to the reduced glycogen synthetase activity and utilization of glucose by HMP pathway. (author). 2 tabs., 24 refs

  16. Response of peripheral blood to 131I treatment in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, G.C.; Gupta, S.M.; Kumar, S.; Devi, P.U.

    1982-01-01

    Adult Swiss albino mice were treated with 333 kBq/g body weight (approximately 10.22 Gy/day) intraperitoneally and sacrificed at different post-treatment intervals. It was observed that erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values decreased gradually, while the depletion in leukocyte count was abrupt at early intervals after treatment. The early decline in the leukocytes followed by more gradual may be due to the direct cell killing by the isotope. The indirect effect on the hematopoietic tissues may be responsible for the continued low levels of the different blood constituents during the later intervals. (author)

  17. Radiation induced cerebellum impairments in Swiss albino mice and its modulation by dietary Prunus domestica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Garima; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    To study the biochemical, quantitative histopathological and behavioural changes after 5 Gy whole body irradiation and its modulation by supplementation of Prunus domestica extract (PDE) for 15 consecutive days on male Swiss albino. For this study healthy mice from an inbred colony were divided into five groups: (i) Control; (ii) PDE treated - mice in this group were orally supplemented with PDE (400 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day) once daily for 15 consecutive days; (iii) Irradiated-mice were whole body exposed to 5 Gy irradiated; (iv) PDE + irradiated-mice in this group were orally supplemented PDE for 15 days (once a day) prior to irradiation; and (v) irradiated+PDE -mice in this group were administered PDE orally for 15 days (once a day) consequently after irradiation. Marked radiation induced changes in the amount of cerebellar lipid peroxidation (LPO), glutathione (GSH), protein, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and histopathological changes (molecular layer, granular layer and purkinje cell numbers) could be significantly ameliorated supplementation of PDE prior/post irradiation. Radiation induced deficits in learning and memory were also significantly ameliorated. PDE was found to have strong radical scavenging activity in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also showed in vitro radioprotective activity. The result of present study showed that prior/post-supplementation of Prunus domestica has radioprotective potential as well as neuroprotective properties against the radiation. (author)

  18. Modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsha, Radha; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    The major objectives in radiobiology has been the development of agents that can mitigate the damage produced by ionizing radiation to normal tissues and thus reduces the side effects caused by radiation and improvement of cancer radiotherapy. The various agents have drawn attention of researchers as they provide wider acceptability and least side effects. The current study was aimed to investigate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice. For the study healthy male Swiss albino mice (6 to 8 weeks old) were selected from an inbred colony and kept in polypropylene cages. They were provided with standard mice feed and tap water ad libitum. The animals were exposed to 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Aloe vera juice seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of each group were autopsied at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of treatment. The various biochemical parameters estimated were total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA. After routine procedure, histopathological changes were also observed. The changes in various biochemical parameters were observed in the form of increase of decrease in values. The histopathological changes observed on day-1 after exposure to 3.0 Gy were distortion of hepatic architecture, intracellular oedema, narrower sinusoids, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei. The changes were more marked on day-4 and continued up to day-14. But on day-28 the sign of recovery was observed. After exposure to a higher dose (6.0 Gy) similar changes were noticed but they were more pronounced and there was late manifestation of recovery. In the combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The liver of Aloe vera treated

  19. Role of insulin signaling impairment, adiponectin and dyslipidemia in peripheral and central neuropathy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicholas J; King, Matthew R; Delbruck, Lina; Jolivalt, Corinne G

    2014-06-01

    One of the tissues or organs affected by diabetes is the nervous system, predominantly the peripheral system (peripheral polyneuropathy and/or painful peripheral neuropathy) but also the central system with impaired learning, memory and mental flexibility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the pre-diabetic or diabetic condition caused by a high-fat diet (HFD) can damage both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Groups of C57BL6 and Swiss Webster mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat for 8 months and compared to control and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic groups that were fed a standard diet containing 10% fat. Aspects of peripheral nerve function (conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity) and central nervous system function (learning ability, memory) were measured at assorted times during the study. Both strains of mice on HFD developed impaired glucose tolerance, indicative of insulin resistance, but only the C57BL6 mice showed statistically significant hyperglycemia. STZ-diabetic C57BL6 mice developed learning deficits in the Barnes maze after 8 weeks of diabetes, whereas neither C57BL6 nor Swiss Webster mice fed a HFD showed signs of defects at that time point. By 6 months on HFD, Swiss Webster mice developed learning and memory deficits in the Barnes maze test, whereas their peripheral nervous system remained normal. In contrast, C57BL6 mice fed the HFD developed peripheral nerve dysfunction, as indicated by nerve conduction slowing and thermal hyperalgesia, but showed normal learning and memory functions. Our data indicate that STZ-induced diabetes or a HFD can damage both peripheral and central nervous systems, but learning deficits develop more rapidly in insulin-deficient than in insulin-resistant conditions and only in Swiss Webster mice. In addition to insulin impairment, dyslipidemia or adiponectinemia might determine the neuropathy phenotype. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. Role of insulin signaling impairment, adiponectin and dyslipidemia in peripheral and central neuropathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J. Anderson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the tissues or organs affected by diabetes is the nervous system, predominantly the peripheral system (peripheral polyneuropathy and/or painful peripheral neuropathy but also the central system with impaired learning, memory and mental flexibility. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the pre-diabetic or diabetic condition caused by a high-fat diet (HFD can damage both the peripheral and central nervous systems. Groups of C57BL6 and Swiss Webster mice were fed a diet containing 60% fat for 8 months and compared to control and streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic groups that were fed a standard diet containing 10% fat. Aspects of peripheral nerve function (conduction velocity, thermal sensitivity and central nervous system function (learning ability, memory were measured at assorted times during the study. Both strains of mice on HFD developed impaired glucose tolerance, indicative of insulin resistance, but only the C57BL6 mice showed statistically significant hyperglycemia. STZ-diabetic C57BL6 mice developed learning deficits in the Barnes maze after 8 weeks of diabetes, whereas neither C57BL6 nor Swiss Webster mice fed a HFD showed signs of defects at that time point. By 6 months on HFD, Swiss Webster mice developed learning and memory deficits in the Barnes maze test, whereas their peripheral nervous system remained normal. In contrast, C57BL6 mice fed the HFD developed peripheral nerve dysfunction, as indicated by nerve conduction slowing and thermal hyperalgesia, but showed normal learning and memory functions. Our data indicate that STZ-induced diabetes or a HFD can damage both peripheral and central nervous systems, but learning deficits develop more rapidly in insulin-deficient than in insulin-resistant conditions and only in Swiss Webster mice. In addition to insulin impairment, dyslipidemia or adiponectinemia might determine the neuropathy phenotype.

  1. Protective effect of Asparagus racemosus root extract against lethal total - body electron beam radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) in Swiss albino mice against acute lethal total - body Electron beam irradiation. Swiss Albino mice were used for the assessment of radiation induced sickness and 30 day survival analysis. Survival studies were determined using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The maximum survival was observed in the experimental mice pretreated with 200 mg/kg.b.wt. of ARE which also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics. This dose was considered as an optimal dose for radioprotection. Treatment of mice with ARE before irradiation delayed the onset of mortality as compared with the untreated irradiated controls. Present findings demonstrate the potential of ARE in mitigating radiation-induced mortality, which may be attributed to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant potential

  2. Correlation among foetal number, corpora lutea and plasma progesterone in rockland-swiss mice. [Progesterone determination by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, N G; Bridges, R S; Gandelmann, R [Rutgers - the State Univ., New Brunswick. NJ (USA). Dept. of Psychology; Rutgers - the State Univ., Newark, NJ (USA). Inst. of Animal Behavior)

    1978-01-01

    The relationship among plasma progesterone, number of corpora lutea, and foetal number was assessed in Rockland-Swiss albino mice. While number of corpora lutea and foetal number were significantly correlated, neither was related to plasma progesterone level. This finding in the mouse is similar to results reported in the rabbit.

  3. Role of lutein in alleviating the effects of electron beam radiation induced hematological and biochemical changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidya, V.; Krishna, A.P.; Patil, Shrikant; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Lutein is a naturally occurring xanthophyll pigment derived from α-carotene. It is abundantly present in Tagetes erecta L. (marigold) and also present in a few vegetables, fruits and in animal sources. Lutein was evaluated for its protective role in electron beam radiation induced damages in Swiss albino mice. The drug was optimized for its radioprotective activity

  4. In utero exposure to radiation and mercury in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.; Ramanan, K.

    1992-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and heavy metals may interfere seriously with embryonic or fetal development. Embryotoxic effects of radiation as well as heavy metals comprising lethality, growth retardation and specific patterns of malformation have been presented in various reviews and symposia. Very few studies have been performed so far on the combined effects of radiation and metals on prenatal development, especially skeletal development. This study investigates interaction between ionizing radiation and methylmercury (heavy metal) in the embryo of swiss albino mice during the late organogenetic (9 or 11 d.p.c.) and early fetal period (14 d.p.c.) of development which stages represent a good model to examine the effects of various stresses at a minimum dose/concentration. (author). 20 refs., 1 tab

  5. Aloe vera gel provides protection to Swiss albino mice against radiation induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, D.K.; Chaudhary, G.; Saini, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aloe gel powder was administered orally to Swiss albino mice at the dose of 250, 500 and 750 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days with and without irradiation with 8 Gy to find out its maximum effective radioprotective dose. 30 days survivality and change in levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin C were studied at 1 hour and 30 days for this purpose. In Aloe treated (750 mg/kg b. wt.) 8 Gy irradiated animals 30 days survivality, contents of GSH and vitamin C were higher and LPO level was lesser at 1 hour and 30 days in comparison to those treated with Aloe at the dose of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight and irradiated with 8 Gy. These results indicate that Aloe administration at the dose of 750 mg/kg body weight was found to be the most effective

  6. Macroscopic description of the coronary arteries in Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yoldas

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 25 (13 male, 12 female adult, healthy Swiss albino mice were used to investigate the origin, course and anastomoses of coronary arteries. Coloured latex was injected into the aortic arch to enable these arteries to be clearly discerned. A. coronaria sinistra was larger than A. coronaria dextra. It was divided into a Ramus interventricularis paraconalis and a Ramus circumflexus sinister. However, in 2 specimens, the septal ramus, was observed to stem directly from the left coronary artery, and only 1 ventricular branch arose from the left circumflex. The collateral branches of the paraconal interventricular ramus had a larger diameter and more extensive distribution was observed in these specimens. The A. coronaria dextra was divided into a Ramus septalis and Ramus circumflexus dexter. The Ramus interventricularis subsinuosis was not detected in this study. The ventricular branches of the left coronary artery run intramyocardially whereas the branches of the right coronary artery course subendocardially.

  7. Prevention of radiation and cadmium induced haematological alternations in the Swiss albino mice by Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Songara, Venkteshwar; Singariya, Seema; Meena, Dinesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Purohit, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective radio protectors and radio recovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (i.e., radiotherapy) and unplanned radiation exposure (i.e., in the nuclear industry and natural background radiation). The combined effect of radiation and cadmium further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Aloe vera has enjoyed a reputation as a healer for millennia, based primarily on anecdotal evidence. For the last 40 years concerted efforts by the scientific research community has brought Aloe vera out of the realm of folk medicine, providing it solid medical and scientific foundation. Haematopoietic organs are among the most radiosensitive cells in the living organisms. Therefore, present study was carried out to study the modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. For the study, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages.The animals were exposed 3.5 Gy and 7.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Aloe vera was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes to estimate various haematological parameters viz. RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV up to day-14 in peripheral blood, thereafter it increased up to day-28 without reaching to normal. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride the more severe changes were noticed showing synergistic or additive effect. An early and fast recovery was seen in Aloe vera pretreatment groups. Thus, it may be concluded from above observation that Aloe vera has the potential of combating the

  8. Hepatoprotective efficacy of Grewia asiatica fruit against oxidative stress in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K. V.; Sisodia, R.

    2010-01-01

    The radioprotective effect of Grewia asiatica fruit which contains anthocyanin type cyanidin 3- glucoside, vitamin C, A, minerals, carotenes and dietary fibers etc was studied. Materials and Methods: For study Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups-1. Control (vehicle treated) 2. Grewia asiatica fruit treated (700 mg / Kg. b.wt / day for fifteen days), 3. Irradiated (5 Gy), 4. Grewia asiatica fruit + Irradiated and 5. Irradiated + Grewia asiatica fruit treated. Results: The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant depletion in the DNA and RNA level at all intervals studied viz 1-30 days in comparison to control group. Treatment of mice with Grewia asiatica fruit before and after irradiation caused a significant elevation in liver DNA and RNA level in comparison to irradiated mice. Photomicrograph of liver histology also showed that pre and post supplementation of Grewia asiatica fruit provides protection against radiation. Similarly counting of different type hepatocytes also showed that Grewia asiatica fruit protect the liver against radiation. Conclusion: Thus biochemical and histopathological results proves that Grewia asiatica fruit has the potential against radiation.

  9. Tanacetum parthenium leaf extract mediated survival protection in lethally irradiated Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, Prashanth; Pooja, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.

    2016-01-01

    Search for less-toxic radioprotectors has spurred interest in the development of natural products. In Ayurveda, the traditional medicine, Tanacetum species have been used to treat ailments since ancient times throughout the world. Effects of the administration of different concentrations of Tanacetum parthenium leaf aqueous extract (TPLA), Tanacetum parthenium leaf ethanolic extract (TPLE) were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Mice (20-25 g) were randomly divided into 8 groups of ten animals each. The control group and the radiation group were treated daily with oral administration of saline for 15 days. Each subgroups of TPLA and TPLE were treated with doses of 50, 100 and 250 mg/kg daily for 15 days. On the 15th day, all were irradiated with 10 Gy whole body irradiation. Survival was observed daily up to 30th post-irradiation day. Data were analysed using the Kaplan-Meier survival curves. The significance difference in survival between control, radiation and treatment groups were observed (P < 0.001). Current studies revealed the protective effect of Tanacetum parthenium rendering high survivability in lethally irradiated mice. (author)

  10. Antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus racemosus root extract against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandary, B. Satheesh Kumar; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Bhat, Vadish S.; Shetty, Jayaram; Peter, Alex John; Jose, Jerish M.; Fernandes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antigenotoxic potential of Asparagus Racemosus Root ethanolic extract (ARE) against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation in Swiss albino mice. Micronucleus assay was performed in the bone marrow of Swiss albino mice according to the method of Hosseinimehr et al., 2003. The experimental animals were orally administered 200 mg/kg body weight of ARE once daily for 15 consecutive days. At the end of experimental period, the animals were euthanized and the bone marrow was collected from the femur. Control (C), Radiation control (RC) and drug control (DC) group was also maintained. The number of radiation induced Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MnPCE) and Micronucleated Normochromatic Erythrocytes were decreased in the ARE treated mice which was statistically significant (p<0.05) compared to radiation control group. Present findings demonstrate the antigenotoxic potential of ARE against electron beam radiation induced micronuclei formation which may be attributed to scavenging of radiation-induced free radicals

  11. Study on the immuno stimulation of radiation degraded β-glucan in swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Thanh Long; Le Quang Luan

    2015-01-01

    The mixtures β-glucan extracted from the yeast cell wall were irradiated under gamma rays from a Co-60 source at doses of 100, 200 and 300 kGy in order to prepare water-soluble β-glucan. Yields of the water soluble β-glucan produced are 25.9, 49.1, 66.71%, and their molecular weights (Mw) are 30.5, 24.9 and 10.8 kDa, respectively. There are no any new peak in the IR spectra of the irradiated β-glucan samples, but the intensity ratio between the peaks at wavenumber of 1156 cm"-"1 (assigned to C-O-C bond) and of 1040 cm"-"1 (assigned to C-C bond) in glycosidic linkages was reduced with irradiation dose. These results revealed that gamma irradiation did not cause any change in the β-glucan structure except the scissions of glycosidic linkages. In this study, immuno stimulation of the irradiated β-glucan was also investigated for the Swiss mice. After 28 days supplying with the irradiated β-glucan, not only cellular indexes (white blood cell, neutrophils and lymphocytes counts), but also humoral immunity indexes (IgA and IgM) of the mice significantly increased and the highest effects was obtained for the mice supplied with the oligo β-glucan prepared by gamma irradiation at 200 kGy. Thus, the water soluble oligo β-glucan with Mw ~ 24.9 kDa prepared by gamma radiation much stimulated the natural immune system (non-specific immunity) in mice including both the cellular and humoral immunities. Particularly, the irradiated β-glucan is a very promising product for preparation of functional foods aiming at cancer prevention. (author)

  12. Protective effects of acemannan against radiation induced damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sumit; Tiku, Ashu Bhan

    2013-01-01

    Aloe vera is one of the well known medicinal plant and posses a large no. of beneficial bioactive components like Anthraquinone, C-glycosides, anthrones, emodin, acemannan etc. Acemannan (poly-acetylated mannose) is one of the active component present in aloe vera gel and has anticancerous and antimicrobial properties. It has also been reported to have wound healing properties and has role as immunomodulator. The objective of the present study was to evaluate protective efficacy of acemannan against radiation induced damage in in-vitro and in in-vivo using murine splenocytes and Swiss albino mice as a model system. In vitro studies were done using primary mouse splenocytes cultures and effect of radiation on cell proliferation, viability, ROS, DNA damage and apoptosis were studies using MTT, trypan blue, DCFDA, single cell gel electrophoresis and ladder assay respectively. For in-vivo studies mice were pretreated with different doses of drug for 7 days followed by irradiation (5 Gy). Twenty four hours post-irradiation mice was sacrificed to observe the activity of antioxidant enzymes and level of protein expression. Acemannan showed a significant induction of proliferation of splenocytes in radiation treated groups both in in-vitro and in in-vivo. Beside a decrease in radiation induced ROS and DNA damage was observed in in-vitro system. Acemannan treatment was able to reduce the radiation induced apoptosis by about 50% both in in-vitro and in in-vivo. In in-vivo acemannan helps in the restoration of the antioxidant enzyme level (catalase, SOD, DTD and GST) besides maintaining the proper redox status via GSH, in irradiated mice. In our studies a dose of 50 mg/kg body wt of acemannan showed the best protective effects. On the basis of the above results it could be concluded that acemannan may have radioprotective potential. (author)

  13. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

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    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  14. Reproductive, cytological and biochemical toxicity of Yohimbe in male Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Majed, Abdulhakeem A; Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A; Al-Bekairi, A M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Qureshi, Shoeb

    2006-07-01

    To study the effect of Corynanthe Yohimbe (Yohimbe) on germ cells in Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were orally (gavage) treated with different doses (188, 375 and 750 mg/[kg x day]) of aqueous suspension of Yohimbe for 90 days. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) reproductive organ weight, (ii) motility and count of sperm, (iii) study on rate of pregnancy and mean implants, (iv) spermatozoa morphology, (v) cytology of the testes chromosomes, and (vi) biochemical study on estimation of proteins, RNA, DNA, malondialdehyde, nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) and hormones. The treatment caused significant increase in the weight of seminal vesicles, motility and count of spermatozoa, pre- and post-implants. Male fertility was decreased. These results are confirmed by our data on spermatozoa abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations. The data on biochemical parameters showed increase of malondialdehyde and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in the testicular cells. Our results elucidated the role of free radical species in cytological and reproductive changes, possibly, under the influence of yohimbine (principal constituent of Yohimbe) on neurotransmitters, including norephinephrine. These data warrant careful use of Yohimbe.

  15. In vivo immunomodulatory effects of the methanolic leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre in Swiss albino mice

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    Ahirwal Laxmi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we performed a comparative phytochemical analysis of the immunomodulating activities of the methanol leaf extract of Gymnema sylvestre (MLEGS in Swiss albino mice. The phytochemical screening conducted on MLEGS revealed the presence of several phytoconstituents, including saponins, alkaloids, glycosides, phenols, tannins, and flavonoids. Immunomodulatory activities were determined by hemagglutination antibody (HA titer and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH tests for determining specific and non-specific immune responses. Flow cytometric techniques were performed for the estimation of B lymphocytes (CD3 and CD19 and Th2 cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited a significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody response and DTH response. The response produced by oral administration of MLEGS elicited significant reduction in a dose-related manner in the primary and secondary antibody and DTH responses, with maximum reduction observed at 200 mg/kg-body wt. The maximal reductions in the production of CD3, CD19, IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 were 31.59, 32.12, 29.51, 32.45 and 33.53%, respectively, at 200 mg/kg body weight. This study demonstrates that G. sylvestre exerts immunosuppressive effects on the components of the immune system of mice, and points to its significant immunomodulatory potential.

  16. Antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of ethanol extract of Vernonia amygdalina del. Leaf in Swiss mice

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    Ehimwenma Omoregie

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vernonia amygdalina (V.  amygdalina leaf is locally employed in the Southern region of Nigeria in the treatment of malari a infection. This study evaluated the in vivo antiplasmodial, antioxidant and immunomodulatory effect of ethanol extract of V.  amygdalina leaf. Materials and Methods: The active principles of the dried leaf were extracted with ethanol. For quality validation, chemical finger-print of the extract was performed through high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. The extract was assessed for antiplasmodial activity by the standard four-day suppressive test on Plasmodium berghei (ANKA infected male Swiss mice (six weeks old placed into five groups of six animals each. Result: The absorption spectra from the HPTLC revealed several peaks suggesting presence of some bioactive compounds. Results from the in vivo study showed that the ethanol extract of the plant leaf was significantly active against P. berghei in a dose-dependent manner with the minimum and maximum activity observed in the mice treated orally with 100mg/kg (% inhibition of 23.7% and 1000 mg/kg (% inhibition of 82.3 % of the extract, respectively, on day four of the study. There was also a dose-dependent decrease (p

  17. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Nickel in Swiss Albino Mice during Organogenetic Period

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    Shivi Saini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates potential hazardous of nickel (Ni+2 as NiCl2·6H2O to Swiss albino mice fetus. Ni was administered orally on body weight base from days 6 to 13 of gestation period. Based on LD50, Ni doses (46.125, 92.25, and 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. were used. On day 18 of gestation, uteri of the sacrificed dams were examined. A dose-dependent decrease ( in the body weight of the pregnant females and fetuses during the gestation period was observed. Number of implant sites and placental weight at all the three dose levels was lower compared with their respective control groups. Average number of live fetuses/dams reduced significantly ( at 184.5 mg Ni/kg b.wt. with concomitant increase in the percentage of postimplantation death and percentage of resorbed, macerated, and dead fetuses, respectively. Exposure increased the fetal malformations, namely, hydrocephaly, open eyelids, microphthalmia, exophthalmia, club foot, umbilical hernia, and skeletal anomalies. Reduced ossification of nasal, frontal, parietal, intraparietal, and supraoccipital bones, absence/gap between the ribs, reduced/fused sternebrae, vertebral centra, and caudal vertebrae, reduced pelvic elements, absence of carpals, metacarpals, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges were distinct. This indicates vulnerability of the mice fetus to nickel during prenatal exposure.

  18. Teratogenic effect of retinoic acid in swiss mice Efeito teratogênico do ácido retinóico em camundongo swiss

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    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the types of malformations resulting from the administration of retinoic acid (RA to Swiss mice on different days of pregnancy. METHODS: Twenty-four pregnant Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. The experimental groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of RA (70 mg/kg on gestational days 7, 8 and 9 (D7, D8 and D9, while control animals (C received only saline solution. RESULTS: Were obtained: exencephaly (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0, myelomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%, D8:30.9%, D9:0, spina bifida occulta (C:0, D7:29%, D8:41.8%, D90, gastroschisis (C:0, D7:6.4% D8:5.4%, D9:0, omphalocele (C:0, D7:6.4%, D8:14.5%, D9:0, lower limb alterations (C:0, D7:74.1%, D8:80%, D9:0, imperforated anus (C:0, D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%, and tail agenesis/alteration (C: D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%. CONCLUSION: The experimental model using Swiss mice proved to be efficient in the induction of the different types of defects, with the eighth gestational day being the one that most favored the induction of neural tube defect, omphalocele, gastroschisis, lower limb defects, imperforated anus and tail agenesis/alteration. On this basis, this is a useful model for future investigation of neural development and of the formation of the appendicular skeleton.OBJETIVO: Identificar os tipos de malformação resultantes da administração do ácido retinóico (AR a camundongos Swiss em diferentes dias gestacionais. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 camundongos fêmeas, linhagem Swiss, prenhes, divididos em 4 grupos com 6 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam uma única injeção intraperitoneal de AR (70mg/Kg nos dias gestacionais 7, 8 e 9 (D7, D8 e D9, enquanto que os animais do grupo controle (C receberam apenas solução salina. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados: exencefalia (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0; mielomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%; D8:30.9%; D9:0; Espina Bífida Oculta (C:0; D7:29%; D8:41.8%; D90; gastrosquise (C:0

  19. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease.

  20. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.; Srivastava, S.; Singh, M.; Shukla, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C 3 H 8 NO 5 P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p) to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(a)pyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only), whereas, animals of control (vehicle) group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL). Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P<.05). The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI). The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow.

  1. Effects of split fast neutron doses on the liver cells of albino Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelmeguid, N.; Ramadan, A.A.; El-Khatib, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of neutron doses from a compact D-T neutron generator on the liver cells of adult male and female albino Swiss mice was investigated. Fast neutrons (14.5 MeV) were delivered to the whole body in a single dose or in two, four, six or eight equal doses separated by 3-day intervals. The lowest dose, 100 rem, was given over an exposure time of 6 hours and was then steadily raised to 912 rem over an exposure time of 48 hours. During exposure the neutron flux was controlled by the activation foil technique. The animals were killed for testing after each irradiation. Histological examination of the hepatocytes with a light microscope showed marked degenerative changes only after the longer irradiation periods (24, 36 and 48 h). Electron microscopy showed cytological (cytoplasmic and nuclear) changes in the hepatocytes after only 12 hours' irradiation. Densitometric scans of electron micrographs of control and 12 h-irradiated livers indicated that the control hepatocyte interphase nucleus contains approximately 72% heterochromatin, while the irradiated nucleus contains only 64% heterochromatin. (author). 13 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs

  2. Rectification of radiation-induced damage in swiss albino mice by aloe vera leaf extracts (AVE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, P.; Goyal, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    From the time immemorial man has been exposed to ionizing radiation from the environment in which he lives. Radiation protection concepts and philosophy have been evolving over the past several decades. Materials and Methods: The radioprotective of effect of Aloe vera leaf extract (1000 mg/kg b.wt. orally for 15 consecutive days) has been studied against 6 Gy of gamma radiation in the intestine of Swiss albino mice at various post irradiation intervals viz. 12 hours, 24 hours. and 3, 5, 10, 20 and 30 days. Results: Crypt survival, villus length, apoptic cells, mitotic figures and goblet cells in jejunum were studied after irradiation. Irradiation produced a significant decrease in crypt survival, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas goblet and apoptic cells showed a significant increase from sham irradiated animals. The major changes were observed on day 3 after irradiation. AVE pre-treated irradiated animals resulted in a significant increase in the number of crypt cells, mitotic figures and villus length; whereas the counts of apoptic and goblet cells showed a significant decrease from respective control group at all the autopsy intervals. Irradiated animals resulted in the elevation in lipid peroxidation and a reduction in glutathione activity. On contrary, AVE treatment before irradiation caused a significant depletion in lipid peroxidation and elevation in glutathione activity. Conclusion: The present study suggests the possible radioprotective ability of Aloe vera leaf extract

  3. Radiomodification by Aloe vera leaf extract on skin of Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Soyal, Dhanraj; Goyal, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    The development of effective radioprotectors and radiorecovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (e.g. radiotherapy) and unplanned (e.g. in nuclear industry, natural background radiation emanating from the earth or other sources) radiation exposure. Over the past 50 years, research in the development of radioprotectors has focused on screening a plethora of chemical and biological compounds. Several synthetic chemical compounds have been tested for protection against radiation. But they have limited use due to inherent toxicity. Herbal medicine is still the mainstay of about 75-80 percent of the world population mainly in the developing nations for primary health care because of better cultural acceptability, better compatibility with the human body and lesser side effects. Thus, natural products offer an alternative to their synthetic counterparts due to low toxicity with no side effects. The present investigation has been an attempt to asses the radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract on biochemical alterations in skin of Swiss albino mice

  4. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after...

  5. Radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bissa, Prashant; Purohit, Suresh; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. The concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. Therefore, the present study was planned to evaluate the effect of cadmium and radiation alone or in combination, on the kidney of Swiss albino mice. In the present investigation, adult male mice were divided into four groups. Group I included Sham irradiated normal mice. Group II was treated with Cadmium Chloride at the dose of 20 ppm while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. Animals of Group IV were treated with both Cadmium Chloride and 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. The animals from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. In Cadmium Chloride treated group the values of total proteins and cholesterol declined up to day-14 thereafter the values increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal. The values of glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-14 then decreased up to day-28 without reaching to the norma. Mice exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma rays showed increased in the values of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities increased up to day-24 and declined thereafter up to day-28 . Whereas the value of cholesterol decreased up to day-14 and then increased up to day-28 without reaching to the normal level. Combined exposure to Cadmium chloride and radiation registered similar pattern of decrease and increase but the changes were more pronounced in all the

  6. Synergistic effects of fenbendazole and metronidazole against Giardia muris in Swiss mice naturally infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezagio, Renata Coltro; Colli, Cristiane Maria; Romera, Liara Izabela Lopes; Ferreira, Érika Cristina; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Gomes, Mônica Lúcia

    2017-03-01

    In this study were proposed different protocols for the treatment of mice naturally infected with Giardia muris. Male Swiss mice were divided into seven groups, with five animals each, in a blind, controlled, randomized by drawing lots and once-repeated experiment. Parasite detection and cure control were performed using the Faust method and search by trophozoites in the intestinal mucosa. Clinical parameters (weight, water and feed consumption, elimination of excreta, aspect of the fur and feces) were also evaluated. All animals were treated with metronidazole (M), fenbendazole (F), and probiotics (P), administered intragastrically, during 7 days. M1, FM1, and F1 groups were treated 1×/day; M3, FM3, and PM3 groups 3×/day; and ST (control group) received only water. After the 5th and 7th days of treatment, the animals in FM1/FM3 and PM3/M3 groups presented, respectively, negative results and remained negative in the following 10 days. Animals in F1 group consumed less water (p = 0.00010) compared with FM1/FM3/PM3. The animals in M1 group compared with FM3/M3, F1 compared with M3, and ST compared with FM1/FM3/M3/PM3 consumed a larger amount of feed (p = 0.00001). The animals in F1 group compared with FM3/M1/M3/PM3, FM1 compared with FM3, and ST compared with FM3/M1/M3/PM3 eliminated lower volume of excreta (p = 0.00001). The results show that the association between F and M potentiates the effects, indicating a synergistic action of these two drugs, and FM1 is the best protocol due to early negativity in the animals, lower concentrations of the drugs, lower risk of toxicity and stress, and less alterations in clinical parameters.

  7. Radioprotective effects of Grewia asiatica in vivo: studies in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, K.V.; Ahaskar, Muktika; Singh, Smita; Sisodia, Rashmi

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Increasing use of nuclear radiation for human welfare necessitates a new, safe and cost effective radio protector not only for personnel's charged with responsibility of testing or with radiations in laboratories, but also for the general public. Keeping this view, this study has been undertaken to find out the possible radio protective potential of the Grewia asiatica fruit pulp extract (GAE), Grewia asiatica has a high content of antioxidants like Vitamin C, anthocyanin and folate that may play a possible role in radioprotection. For experimental study, healthy Swiss Albino mice were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. Group I (normal) did not receive any treatment. Group II was orally supplemented (GAE) once daily at the dose of 700 mg/Kg. b.wt/day for fifteen consecutive days. Group III (control) received distilled water orally equivalent to GAE for fifteen days than exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation. Group IV (experimental) was administered orally (GAE) for 15 consecutive days once daily after exposure to single dose of 5Gy of gamma radiation. Mice were sacrificed at different autopsy intervals viz. 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days and liver was removed for various biochemical estimations viz. glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO). Irradiation resulted an elevation in lipid peroxidation (LPO) and a decline in glutathione (GSH) level in liver. On the other hand, treatment of animals with GAE extract after irradiation caused a significant decrease in LPO and a marked elevation in GSH. This finding showed that post treatment of GAE is more effective than its pretreatment

  8. Genotoxic and biochemical effects of Yohimbe after short-term treatment in somatic and germ cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Yahya, Abdulaziz A.

    2006-01-01

    Yohimbe was evaluated for its effects on cytological and biochemical toxicity in male Swiss albino mice. Adult male mice were mice were treated with different doses (750, 1500 and 3000 mg yohombe/kg., body weight/day) in form of an aqueous suspension for 7 consecutive days by gavage. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii) cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iii) Cytogentic analysis of meiotic chromosomes in the tests, (iv) quantification of proteins, ribose nucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) in hepatic and testicular cells and (v) estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH) in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment caused significant changes in the frequency of micronuclei in the femoral cells and induced spermatozoal abnormalities and testicular chromosomal aberrations. The study on biochemical parameters showed an increase of MDA and depletion of NP-SH, proteins, RNA and DNA in both hepatic and testicular cells. The data elucidated the role of free radical species in cytological and biochemical changes in both somatic and germ cells of Swiss albino mice. The exact mechanism of the genesis of lipid peroxides is not known, however, this might be related to the influence of yohimbine (the principal constituent of yohimbe) to enhance some catecholamines, including norepineprine which possess destructive stimuli on biological systems. It is suggested that, in view of the observed cytological and biochemical effects of yohimbe, it may be subjected to a thorough evaluation of toxicity before making it available for human use. (author)

  9. Protective effect of lycopene on whole body irradiation induced liver damage of Swiss albino mice: pathological evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marimuthu, Srinivasan; Menon, Venugopal Padmanabhan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of lycopene, a naturally occurring dietary carotenoid on whole body radiation-induced liver damage of Swiss albino mice. The first phase of the study was carried out to fix the effective concentration of Iycopene by performing a 30 days survival studies using different graded doses (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg body weight) of lycopene administered orally to mice via intragastric intubations for seven consecutive days prior to exposure of whole body radiation (10 Gy). Based on the results of survival studies, the effective dose of Iycopene was fixed which was then administered to mice orally via intragastric intubations for seven consecutive days prior to exposure of whole body radiation (4 Gy) to evaluate its radioprotective efficacy by performing various biochemical assays in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The results indicated that radiation-induced decrease in the activities of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and increase in lipid peroxidative index, DNA damage and comet assays were altered by pre-administration with the effective dose of Iycopene (20 mg/kg body weight) which restored the antioxidant status to near normal and decreased the levels of lipid peroxidative index, DNA damage and comet assays.These results were further confirmed by histopathological examinations which indicated that pre-administration with the effective dose of Iycopene reduced the hepatic damage induced by radiation. (author)

  10. Histopathological effects of Chromium (III Sulfate on Liver and Kidney of Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Fatima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (III sulfate has various industrial applications and is widely used in leather industry due to its high tanning properties. Cr (III is required for efficient metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in traces. Various studies have reported that its constant exposure may lead to severe health problems in both animals and humans. In this study, histopathological effect of dietary Cr (III was evaluated on liver and kidneys of rodents. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (n=25 were divided into different treatment and control groups (n=5/group after sufficient acclimatization. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and observations regarding histopathology of liver and kidneys were made in all treatment groups and compared to control. Microscopy and photography was performed after processing the tissues according to standard protocol of sectioning and staining. Liver cross sections of treated animals showed signs of fibrosis in portal area, and congestion of sinusoid and central vein. Whereas, more pronounced effects of Cr (III toxicity were observed in kidneys. These include mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis and contraction of glomerulus within Bowman’s capsule. However, No pathological changes were observed in control group. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced level of Cr (III contamination of food can induce both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. These basic findings prove that currently increasing levels of trivalent chromium in environment are hazardous to living organisms. Therefore, to avoid health risks to both animals and humans, conversion of toxic chromium waste to less toxic compounds is required. Moreover, exposure level through any route should also be minimized.

  11. Preventive action of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Haematopoietic organs are markedly sensitive to ionizing radiation due to its proliferate activity. The changes found in the circulating blood are primarily due to damage in the radio sensitive haematopoeitic organs. A very small dose of radiation to a blood forming organ causes an arrest of haematopoiesis with changes in peripheral blood count. Certain trace elements are essential for normal growth and development of organisms but their concentration beyond threshold may produce damage to blood forming organs and tissues thus affecting the peripheral blood. Aloe vera has been claimed to contain several important therapeutic properties including anti cancer effects. Various studies showed the prevention of radiation induced suppression of immunity by Aloe vera components. Having these unique properties, Aloe vera could be used in clinical field as a protector against radiation and heavy metal toxicity in human beings. For the study, six to eight weeks old Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages. The animals were fed with standard mice feed and water was provided to them ad libitum. Cadmium chloride was administered orally to the animals in drinking water at the dose rate of 20 ppm. The animals were exposed to sub lethal doses of 2.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 source. The Aloe vera was given seven days prior to irradiation and continued up to last autopsy day in experimental animals. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1,2,4,7,14 and 28 days. The differential leucocytes count was estimated by preparing smear of the blood. The value of lymphocyte decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups thereafter it increased up to day-28 whereas the count decreased up to day-7 in drug treated groups and showed an increasing trend at day-14 which continues up to day-28. The value of monocyte and granulocyte percentage increased up to day-7 in drug treated groups

  12. Role of Spirulina in mitigating hemato-toxicity in Swiss albino mice exposed to aluminum and aluminum fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-12-01

    Aluminum is ingested through foods, water, air, and even drugs. Its intake is potentiated further through foods and tea prepared in aluminum utensils and Al salt added in the drinking water for removal of suspended impurities and also fluoride in the affected areas. The ameliorating role of a blue green alga Spirulina is well documented to various pollutants in the animal models. We, therefore, examined its protective role (230 mg/kg body weight) on the hematology of male Swiss albino mice treated with aluminum (sub-acute = 78.4 mg/kg body weight for 7 days, sub-chronic = 7.8 mg/kg body weight for 90 days) and aluminum fluoride (sub-acute = 103 mg/kg body weight, sub-chronic = 21 mg/kg body weight), along with their recovery after 90 days of sub-chronic exposure. This study revealed significant reduction in the values of RBC (5-18 %), Hb (15-17 %), PCV (8-14 %), and platelets (26-36 %), and increase in WBC (54-124 %) in the treated mice, particularly after sub-acute exposure. Aluminum fluoride was comparatively more toxic than aluminum. Further, Spirulina supplement not only alleviated toxicity of test chemicals in Swiss albino mice but also led to their better recovery after withdrawal.

  13. Effect of cold exposure on energy budget and thermogenesis during lactation in Swiss mice raising large litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    2012-02-01

    In Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI during peak lactation has been previously suggested to be constrained by the capacity of the mammary glands to produce milk, supporting the “peripheral limitation” hypothesis. Here we experimentally examined if SusEI in these mice was not only limited peripherally but also constrained by the ability to dissipate heat. Female Swiss mice were provided with additional offspring above their natural litter sizes and were maintained during lactation either in warm (23°C or cold (5°C conditions. Food intake, thermogenesis, litter size and mass, and the weight of the mammary glands were measured. No differences were observed in asymptotic food intake at peak lactation, litter mass and thermogenesis between females raising litters of different size. Cold-exposed females increased food intake and thermogenic capacity, but weaned significantly smaller and lighter litters with smaller pup sizes compared with females in warm conditions. The weight of the mammary glands did not differ between warm and cold-exposed females, but within temperatures was positively related to litter mass. These data suggested that cold exposure increased food intake, but had no effect on the capacity of the mammary glands to secret milk because they were already working maximally in the females raising larger litters. The factors causing this limit in the mammary capacity remain elusive.

  14. Radioprotective effects saffron and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced DNA damage in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, Apurva; Abraham, Suresh K.

    2016-01-01

    Protective effects of aqueous extract of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L.) alone and its combination with green tea against γ-radiation-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress were investigated in Swiss albino mice. Saffron (40 mg/kg bw) alone and in combination with green tea (40 mg/kg bw) were orally administered to mice for six consecutive days, followed by exposure to γ-radiation (2.25 Gy) on 6 th day after final feeding. Antigenotoxic effect of saffron was assayed using micronucleus test in bone marrow cells which showed a significant decrease in the number of micronucleated PCEs in saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Saffron alone and its combination with green tea pre-treated animals showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase in the activity of antioxidant defense system enzymes, viz. acetylcholine esterase, glutathione-S-transferase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and non-enzymatic antioxidant (GSH), when compared with the radiation alone treated animals. Our results suggested that saffron in combination with green tea exhibits radioprotective effects against γ-radiation induced DNA damage and oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. (author)

  15. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar M.; Sharma M.K.; Saxena P.S.; Kumar A. [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India)

    2003-03-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  16. Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, M.; Sharma, M.K.; Saxena, P.S.; Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    The Panax ginseng has been used as traditional medicine for past several years among oriental people. The present investigation has been made to assess the radioprotective efficacy of ginseng root extract in the testicular enzymes of Swiss albino mice. The Swiss albino mice were divided into different groups. Ginseng treated group: The animals were administered 10 mg/kg body weight ginseng root extract intraperitoneal (i.p.). Radiation treated group: The animals were exposed to 8 Gy gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.69 Gy/min at the distance of 80 cm. Combination group: Animals were administered ginseng extract continuously for 4 d and on 4th day they were irradiated to 8 Gy gamma radiation after 30 min of extract administration. The animals from above groups were autopsied on day 1, 3, 7, 14 and 30. Biochemical estimations of acid and alkaline phosphatases and Lipid peroxidation (LPO) in testes were done. In ginseng treated group acid and alkaline phosphatases activity and LPO level did not show any significant alteration. In irradiated animals there was a significant increase in acid phosphatase activity and LPO level. However, significant decline in alkaline phosphatase activity was observed. The treatment of ginseng before irradiation causes significant decrease in acid phosphatase and LPO level and significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. One of the cause of radiation damage is lipid peroxidation. Due to lipid peroxidation, lysosomal membrane permeability alters and thus results in release of hydrolytic enzymes. So, an increase in acid phosphatase was noticed after radiation treatment. The alkaline phosphatase activity is associated with membrane permeability and different stages of spermatogenesis. Due to membrane damage and depletion of germ cells of testes after irradiation the enzyme activity was decreased. Ginseng markedly inhibits lipid peroxidation. It acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of

  17. Effect of Curcumin on Blood Glucose Level and Some Neurobehavioral Responses in Alloxan-induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    OpenAIRE

    U. A. Garkuwa; A. W. Alhassan; Y. Tanko

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of curcumin on blood glucose level and neurobehavioral response in Alloxan-induced diabetic Swiss Albino mice. The animals were divided into five (5) groups of four each (n=4). Group I served as control and received distilled water, group II, III, IV and V were diabetic and received olive oil 1 ml/kg, glibenclamide 1 mg/kg, curcumin 50 mg/kg and curcumin 100 mg/kg respectively. Diabetes was induced using Alloxan (150 mg/kg). All administrations...

  18. Protective role of Carica papaya (Linn.) in electron beam radiation induced hematological and cytogenetic damages in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya (Linn.) is known to possess various biomedical applications. It has remarkable antioxidant properties. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the leaf extracts of Carica papaya (Linn.) on hematologic and cytogenetic changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR). Analysis of hematological changes occurring due to irradiation of mice to sub-lethal doses of EBR, and the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract on the same. The Assessment of hematopoietic stress by spleen colony forming unit and spleen body weight index. The analysis of cell proliferation and immunomodulation with response to the effects of Carica papaya (Linn.) extract by estimation of IL-6. The estimation of serum total antioxidants, lipid peroxidation and analyzing the activities of enzymes like SOD, ALP, and AST. Male Swiss albino mice were fed orally with papaya aqueous leaf extract for 15 days. They were irradiated with a whole body dose of 6 Gy Electron Beam radiation. The mice were dissected for liver, kidney, bone marrow, spleen and brain. The hematological studies were done using blood cell count in an automated cell counter. The biochemical estimations like urea, creatinine, SGOT, SGPT, Total Protein, Albumin, Bilirubin were done using the serum and homogenates. The total antioxidant capacity, the antioxidant enzymes were estimated. The Interleukin-6 levels were estimated in serum to assess immune modulation. The results show a decrease in the hematological parameters in radiated animals. The papaya treated groups have shown modulation in the hematological parameters. The extract has also reduced the suppression of the bone marrow induced by radiation. The radiation induced liver damage is also reduced in papaya treated groups. The aqueous extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has shown protective effects in electron beam radiation induced tissue damages in Swiss Albino mice (author)

  19. Short-term dermal exposure to tannery effluent does not cause behavioral changes in male Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de Oliveira Mendes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery is a highly polluting activity due to the waste generated by bovine skin processing. Although there are several studies highlighting the health issues faced by workers exposed to tannery effluent, there are no records of experiments testing the neurobehavioral effects resulting from direct contact with this pollutant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to assess the possible neurobehavioral effects of dermal exposure to tannery effluent on male Swiss mice. Animals were divided in three groups, which were subjected to the same experimental time period and conditions: effluent group - animals in direct contact with tannery effluent (for 20 days; control group - animals in contact with pure water; and dry-control group - animals not exposed to water or to tannery effluent. Neurobehavioral tests started on the 17th experimental day. Results of the elevated plus-maze test (anxiety prediction showed no anxiogenic or anxiolytic effects, memory deficit or depressive symptoms on animals exposed to tannery effluent. Thus, the current results do not support the hypothesis that male Swiss mice dermal exposure to tannery effluents for the same time period and experimental conditions leads to neurobehavioral changes. Therefore, the herein adopted exposure protocol was not good to study the effects of dermal exposure to tannery effluent on the chosen experimental model.

  20. Protective efficacy of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss Albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Basu, Arindam; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice; 6-8 weeks old animals from each of the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment intervals of 1,2,4,7,14 and 28 day. After sacrificing the animals, the blood was collected by cardiac puncture in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. The values of RBC, WBC, Haemoglobin and PCV were found to decrease up to day-14 in non drug treated groups (II,III and IV), thereafter they increased on day-28. Whereas the values decreased upto day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups (V,VI,VlI) thereafter increased tip to day-28. On the other hand, the value of MCV increased upto day- 14 in non-drug treated groups (II, III, IV) and tip to day-7 in drug treated groups (V, VI, VII), thereafter it decreased tip to day-28. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride synergistic effects were observed. The Aloe vera treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was noticed in Aloe vera pretreated animals. Thus, it appears that Aloe vera is potent enough to check cadmium and radiation induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. (author)

  1. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia e Laboratorios; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de de Controle de Qaulidade em Saude. Dept. de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m} Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with {sup 99m} Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with {sup 99m} Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The{sup 99m} Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca

    1997-01-01

    Technetium-99 m ( 99m Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with 99m Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The 99m Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author)

  3. Radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract in Swiss albino mice exposed to whole body electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandini, S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Ganesh Sanjeev; D'sa, Prima

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of Tamarindus indica pod extract against radiation induced damage.The effect of 100 mg of hydroalcoholic extract of Tamarindus indica pod was studied in Swiss albino mice exposed to 6 Gy whole body electron beam radiation. Treatment of mice with extract for 15 days before irradiation reduced the symptoms of radiation sickness when compared with the untreated irradiated group. The irradiated animals showed an elevation in lipid peroxidation and reduction in glutathione, total antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities. Radiation induced mice has shown micronucleus in the bone marrow cells. Treatment of mice with Tamarindus indica pod extract before irradiation caused a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione, total antioxidants, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity. It also showed a reduction in the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cells. Results indicate that the radioprotective activity of Tamarindus indica pod extract may be due to free radical scavenging attributed as a result of increased antioxidant level in mice. (author)

  4. Helminth parasites of conventionally mantained laboratory mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Magalhães Pinto

    1994-03-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of intestinal parasites present in the SwissWebster, C57B1/6 and DBA/2 mice strains from different animal houses was identified and prevalences compared. Three parasites were observed during the course ofthis study, namely the cestode. Vampirolepis nana (Siebold, 1852 Spasskii, 1954(=Hymenolepis nana and the nematodes Aspiculuris tetraptera (Nitzsch, 1821 Schulz, 1924 and Syphacia obvelata (Rudolphi, 1802 Seurat, 1916. The scope of thisinvestigation has been widened to also include morphometric data on the parasites, to further simplify their identification, since the presence of helminths in laboratory animals is regarded as a restricting factor for the proper attainment of experimental protocols.

  5. Editorial | Webster | South African Medical Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jacqui Webster, Christelle Crickmore, Karen Charlton, Krisela Steyn, Edelweiss Wentzel-Viljoen, Pamela Naidoo. Abstract. South Africa's salt reduction strategy: Are we on track, and what lies ahead? Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  6. Daniel Webster Middle School: More than Cosmetic Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rourke, James; Boone, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    "Webster needs an extreme makeover," students told Principal Joan Brixey upon her arrival at Daniel Webster Middle School in Waukegan, Illinois, three short years ago. The message came in a student-produced video that highlighted things that needed repair at Webster. Brixey was already a firm believer in the proposition that students…

  7. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Evaluation of the Genotoxic and Antigenotoxic Effects of Andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aublet Oil and Nanoemulsion on Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Motta Melo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Carapa guianensis (andiroba oil is commonly used by the Amazon population for medicinal purposes. The objective of this study was to determine the genotoxic and antigenotoxic potential of the andiroba oil (AO and nanoemulsion (AN using Swiss mice. Therefore, we used the comet assay and micronucleus test. The AO predominant compounds were oleic (39.13%, palmitic (33.22%, and linoleic (16.86% acids. AN composition obeyed the surfactant/oil ratio of 0.69, and the Tween 80/Span 80 ratio was held at 0.9. Our results showed no cytotoxicity or genotoxicity in the mice treated with AO and AN alone. However, there was a significant reduction in the polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs numbers in all groups treated with doxorubicin (DOX, including those pretreated with AO and AN. Thus, the samples tested did not protect against DOX. On the other hand, our results showed a large increase in micronucleus (MN formation when the mice were treated with DOX alone; these numbers were reduced when the animals were pretreated with AO and AN. The results indicate a protective effect of andiroba on MN formation and show no evidence of genotoxicity in mice.

  9. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  10. Protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Pankaj Kumar; Purohit, R.K.; Basu, Arindam; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.0 and 4.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the brain of Swiss albino mice. The histopathological changes observed were pycnotic nuclei and crenated cells with condensation of nuclear material resulting into hyperchromatic cells. Hydrocephaly with enlarged lateral ventricles was also noted. Corpus callosum was seen malformed. Thickened meninges and venous congestion were also noticed. In the irradiated brains cytoarchitectonic layers were reduced in depth and showed some degree of intermixing of cells of various laminae. Hematoma was present between the cortex and medulla with numerous pycnotic and necrotic nuclei. Disarray of the cortical tissue with disorientation of cell processes was also evident. Damage in the cortex was noticed in the form of karyolysis, pycnosis and spongy degeneration of the connective tissue with the thickening of meninges. Dilation of blood vessels was also observed at certain places. Quality of these changes remaining the same, but their magnitude increased with dose. With an increase in the dose, time of the onset of recovery is delayed and the time required for complete recovery is longer. After the combined exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride, the histological changes were similar but showed higher magnitude than the individual exposure of gamma rays and cadmium chloride. The brain of Emblica treated animals exhibited less severe damage as compared to non-drug treated animals at all the corresponding intervals. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pretreated animals. (author)

  11. Protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced biochemical changes in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Dev, Rahul; Rathore, Narendra Singh; Khatri, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Ionizing radiation kills cells in the area being treated (the target tissue) as well as other surrounding healthy cells. The damaging effects of ionizing radiation on healthy tissue create a major barrier in effective treatment of common human cancers. Thus there is a need to find a safe and highly effective avenue to reduce normal cell damage during cancer therapy, plants have been used in the traditional healthcare system from time immemorial, and phyto products continue to play an essential role in medicine. Emblica, is reported to have an excellent radio protective activity, antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. In light of above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and lead induced biochemical alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Lead acetate treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or Lead Acetate treatment. The animals from all experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals, pieces of the kidney were taken out and kept at - 20 deg C for different biochemical parameters. For the study the animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Lead acetate treatments. In the experimental groups the Emblica juice was given seven days prior to the radiation or lead acetate treatment. The various biochemical parameters viz, total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities, DNA and RNA were estimated. The values were observed in the form of increase or decrease. After combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate the changes were more severe showing synergistic effect of both the agent. An early and fast recovery was also noticed in Emblica pre-treated animals. Thus it appears that Emblica is potent enough to check Lead and Radiation induced

  12. A study of chemopreventive effects of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halduniya, Hanish K.; Singariya, Seema; Bhatnagar, Shruti; Srivasrava, Deepti; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    The vast potential of radiant energy opens vistas of new horizons as its use in various fields of science, technology, therapeutics and diagnosis. However its also exposes the global population to the hazards of nuclear accidents and radiation injury. In this era of nuclear science it has become a prerequisite to know the effects of radiation on mankind and to develop effective countermeasures for minimizing the damages of radiation exposure. Heavy metals like lead can cause deleterious effects when its concentration goes beyond the limit in ecosystem. The combined effects of radiation and lead further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Amla is found to be a non toxic, inexpensive, easily available herbal drug. Therefore present study was pertain to evaluate the chemo preventive role of Amla against radiation and lead induced changes in blood of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays and with or without lead acetate which was given to them adlibitum. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or lead acetate treatment. Three animals were sacrificed from all the experimental group at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days by cervical dislocation . The blood was collected in heparinised tube for estimating various haematological parameters. The value of RBC, WBC, PCV, Hemoglobin, and MCV decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in drug treated groups, thereafter the value increased. When the animals treated with radiation and lead simultaneously synergistic effects were observed. The Amla treated groups showed early and fast recovery thus, it may deduce from above observation that Amla has potential to check the alteration produced by radiation and lead in the blood of Swiss albino mice. (author)

  13. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti; Jangir, Ashok; Ram, Purkha

    2013-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  14. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice

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    Olakunle James Onaolapo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  15. Radioprotective activity of Mentha piperita (Linn) against radiation induced alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarth, R.M.; Goyal, P.K.; Ashok Kumar

    2001-01-01

    The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Mentha piperita (Linn.) (RUBL 19443) against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Mentha extract (ME) (1 gm/kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (10 Gy) without ME pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 10 days post-irradiation. Conversely, animals pre-treated with ME showed 58 percent survival until 30 days after exposure. A significant decline in hematological constituents was evident until day 5, at later period of observation (day 5 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in ME pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. The results from the present study suggest that Mentha piperita (Linn.) has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral blood of mice against lethal dose of gamma radiation. (author)

  16. Subchronic Oral Bromocriptine Methanesulfonate Enhances Open Field Novelty-Induced Behavior and Spatial Memory in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2013-01-01

    This study set out to assess the neurobehavioral effects of subchronic, oral bromocriptine methanesulfonate using the open field and the Y-maze in healthy male mice. Sixty adult Swiss albino mice were assigned into three groups. Controls received normal saline, while test groups received bromocriptine methanesulfonate at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg/day, respectively, for a period of 21 days. Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on days 1 and 21 after administration. Open field assessment on day 1 after administration revealed significant increase in grooming at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg, while horizontal and vertical locomotion showed no significant changes. Day 1 also showed no significant changes in Y-maze alternation. On day 21, horizontal locomotion, rearing, and grooming were increased significantly at 2.5 and 5 mg/kg doses after administration; also, spatial memory was significantly enhanced at 2.5 mg/kg. In conclusion, the study demonstrates the ability of oral bromocriptine to affect neurobehavior in normal mice. It also suggests that there is a cumulative effect of oral bromocriptine on the behaviors studied with more changes being seen after subchronic administration rather than after a single oral dose.

  17. Properties of murine leukemia viruses produced by leukemic cells established from NIH Swiss mice with radiation-induced leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumoto, Masaaki; Nishikawa, Ryosuke; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Iwai, Yoshiaki; Iwai, Mineko [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan); Imai, Shunsuke; Morimoto, Junji; Tsubura, Yoshihiko

    1984-06-01

    Three leukemic cell lines, designated NIH-RL1, NIH-RL2 and NFS-RL1, were established from spleen and thymuses of NIH Swiss and NFS mice with radiation-induced leukemia. The culture fluids of these cell lines contained RNA-dependent DNA polymerase (RDDP) activities associated with particles of buoyant density of 1.15-1.17 (g/cm/sup 3/). The divalent cation reqirement of these enzymes was characteristic for that of murine leukemia viruses. In competition radioimmunoassay, a major core protein, p30, was detected in culture fluid of each leukemic cell line. Competition curves of viral p30 produced by these cell lines revealed that these viruses were very similar to those of xenotropic viruses of NZB mice. These viruses were undetectable both by XC plaque assay using SC-1 cells as an indicator cell, and by mink S/sup +/L/sup -/ focus induction assay. These viruses also lacked productive infectivity to mink lung cells (CCL-64), and were nononcogenic in syngeneic mice when the viruses were intrathymically inoculated.

  18. Macrophage activation and histopathological findings in Calomys callosus and Swiss mice infected with several strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

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    Monamaris Marques Borges

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Peritoneal macrophage activation as measured by H2O2 release and histopathology was compared between Swiss mice and Calomys callosus, a wild rodent, reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi, during the course of infection with four strains of this parasite. In mice F and Y strain infections result in high parasitemia and mortality while with silvatic strains Costalimai and M226 parasitemia is sub-patent, with very low mortality. H2O2 release peaked at 33,6 and 59 nM/2 x 10(elevado a sexta potência cells for strains Y and F, respectively, 48 and 50 nM/2 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência for strains Costalimai and M226, at different days after infection. Histopathological findings of myositis, myocarditis, necrotizing artheritis and abscence of macrophage parasitism were foud for strains F and Costalimai. Y strain infection presented moderate myocarditis and myositis, with parasites multiplying within macrophages. In C. callosus all four strains resulted in patent parasitemia wich was eventually overcome, with scarce mortality. H2O2 release for strains Y or F was comparable to that of mice-peaks of 27 and 53 nM/2 x 10 (elevado a sexta potência cells, with lower values for strains Costalimai and M226 - 16.5 and 4.6 nM/2 x 10(elevado a sexta potênciacells, respectively. Histopathological lesions with Y and F strain injected animals were comparable to those of mice at the onset of infections; they subsided completely at the later stages with Y strain and partially with F strain infected C. callosus. In Costalimai infected C. callosus practically no histopathological alterations were observed.

  19. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa in carbon tetra chloride intoxicated Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Mahuya; Sharma, Gauri Dutta; Chakraborty, Biswajit

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the hepatoprotective and immunotherapeutic effects of aqueous extract of turmeric rhizome in CCl4 intoxicated Swiss albino mice. First group of mice (n=5) received CCl4 treatment at a dose of 0.5 mL/kg bw (i.p.) for 7 days. Second group was fed orally the aqueous extract of turmeric at a dose of 50 mg/kg bw for 15 days. The third group was given both the turmeric extract (for 15 days, orally) and CCl4 (for last 7 days, i.p.). The fourth group was kept as a control. To study the liver function, the transaminase enzymes (SGOT and SGPT) and bilirubin level were measured in the serum of respective groups. For assaying the immunotherapeutic action of Curcuma longa (C. longa), non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages were studied from the respective groups. The result of present study suggested that CCl4 administration increased the level of SGOT and SGPT and bilirubin level in serum. However, the aqueous extract of turmeric reduced the level of SGOT, SGPT and bilirubin in CCl4 intoxicated mice. Apart from damaging the liver system, CCl4 also reduced non specific host response parameters like morphological alteration, phagocytosis, nitric oxide release, myeloperoxidase release and intracellular killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages. Administration of aqueous extract of C. longa offered significant protection from these damaging actions of CCl4 on the non specific host response in the peritoneal macrophages of CCl4 intoxicated mice. In conclusion, the present study suggests that C. longa has immunotherapeutic properties along with its ability to ameliorate hepatotoxicity.

  20. Aspartame administered in feed, beginning prenatally through life span, induces cancers of the liver and lung in male Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffritti, Morando; Belpoggi, Fiorella; Manservigi, Marco; Tibaldi, Eva; Lauriola, Michelina; Falcioni, Laura; Bua, Luciano

    2010-12-01

    Aspartame (APM) is a well-known intense artificial sweetener used in more than 6,000 products. Among the major users of aspartame are children and women of childbearing age. In previous lifespan experiments conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats we have shown that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites and that its effects are increased when exposure starts from prenatal life. The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential of APM to induce carcinogenic effects in mice. Six groups of 62-122 male and female Swiss mice were treated with APM in feed at doses of 32,000, 16,000, 8,000, 2,000, or 0  ppm from prenatal life (12 days of gestation) until death. At death each animal underwent complete necropsy and all tissues and organs of all animals in the experiment were microscopically examined. APM in our experimental conditions induces in males a significant dose-related increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (P < 0.01), and a significant increase at the dose levels of 32,000  ppm (P < 0.01) and 16,000  ppm (P < 0.05). Moreover, the results show a significant dose-related increased incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in males (P < 0.05), and a significant increase at 32,000  ppm (P < 0.05). The results of the present study confirm that APM is a carcinogenic agent in multiple sites in rodents, and that this effect is induced in two species, rats (males and females) and mice (males). No carcinogenic effects were observed in female mice. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1197-1206, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Protective potential of Emblica Officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced hepatic lesion in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Isran, Rakesh; Bhati, Sharwan; Pyarelal; Basu, Arindam

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of living systems to ionizing radiation causes a variety of damages to DNA and membranes due to generation of free radicals and reactive oxygen species. So there is a need of hour is to search for an ideal radioprotector which could minimize the deleterious and damaging effects caused by ionizing radiation. Radioprotectors are agents which reduce the radiation effects on cell when applied prior to exposure of radiation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Emblica officinalis in reducing radiation and lead induced changes in mice liver. For the present experiment, healthy male Swiss albino mice (6-8 weeks) were selected and maintained under standard conditions of temperature and light. Fruit extract of Emblica was fed orally at the dose of 0.01 ml/animal/day.The animal were divided into seven groups according to the treatment i.e. lead acetate solution as drinking water (group-II) or exposed to 3.5 or 7.0 Gy gamma radiation (group-III) or combined treatment of radiation and lead acetate (group-IV). The animals of experimental groups were administered Emblica extract seven days prior to radiation or lead acetate treatment (group V, VI and VII) respectively. The animals from all the groups were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. After sacrificing the animals pieces of liver were taken out and some of them were kept at -20℃ for different biochemical parameters. The histopathological changes included cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, hyperaemia, pycnotic and crenated nuclei. The changes observed in the control groups were compared with the respective experimental groups. An increase in the value of total proteins, glycogen, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase activity and RNA was observed up to day - 14 in the non drug treated group and day 7 in the Emblica treated groups, thereafter value declined up to day - 28 without reaching to normal. Whereas the value of

  2. Prophylactic role of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced histological alterations in the kidney of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, A.; Prajapat, T.R.; Ojha, S.; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, K.; Ram, Purkha; Bhartiya, K.M.; Gupta, M.L.; Jangir, A.

    2012-01-01

    Protection of biological systems against radiation damage is of paramount importance during accidental and unavoidable exposure of radiation. Thus, development of novel and effective approaches using non toxic radioprotectors is of considerable interest for not only in the protection of normal tissue during radio therapy of tumors but also for defence (nuclear wars), nuclear industries, radiation accidents, space flights etc. Adult male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 5.0 Gy gamma radiations in the presence or absence of the Aloe vera. For this purpose 6 to 8 week old male mice were divided into seven groups; group I (sham-irradiated), group II (cadmium chloride), group III (irradiated with 5Gy. Gamma rays), group IV (radiation and cadmium chloride), group V (cadmium chloride and Aloe vera), group VI (radiation and Aloe vera), group VII (radiation, cadmium chloride and Aloe vera). Animals from all the above groups were autopsied at 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days post treatment intervals. For histopathological studies kidney was taken out and it's pieces were fixed in Bouins fixative for 24 hours. The tissue was washed in clean water to remove excess of the fixative, dehydrated in graded series of alcohol, cleared in xylene and embedded in paraffin wax. Sections were cut at 5 μm and stained in Harris haematoxyline and alcoholic eosine. In the present experiment histopathological changes were found in the kidney of Swiss albino mice. Severe changes seen in the renal architecture after exposure of 5 Gy of gamma rays were: blurred renal architecture, intracellular oedema, damaged tubules, cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation and pycnotic nuclei in the cortical and medullary part. The changes were more marked on day 7, but on day 14 the signs of recovery were observed and on day 28 comparatively better renal architecture was observed. In cadmium chloride treated animals the changes observed were: cytoplasmic degranulation, vacuolation, crenated and pycnotic nuclei. The

  3. Protective role of aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Bhartiya, K.M.; Agarwal, Manisha; Swami, Rajesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Meena, Dharmpal

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The extensive use of atomic energy now a days in various branches of natural economy, science and technology, radio diagnosis, radiotherapy, industries, agriculture, nuclear research etc. has made radiation injury an urgent problem attracting the attention not only of specialists in a variety of clinical disciplines but also of a vast army of theoretical scientists. Metals like cadmium have always been intrinsic components of earth crust with the continuing trends towards and increasing human activities involving man may become exposed to concentration of toxic metals presenting a potential threat for survival. The severity of the damage can be modulated by treating the animals with antioxidants. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radio protective activities. Among these, Aloe vera hold a great promise. Aloe vera juice was obtained from Millennium Agro Company, Goregaon (W) Mumbai. It is a herbal drug and known to contain well over 100 separate ingredients or constituents between those found in the leaf and mucilaginous gel inside the leaf. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical changes in the jejunum Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, healthy adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups. Group I included sham-irradiated normal mice. Group II was administered CdCl 2 at the dose of 20ppm, while Group III was exposed to 5.0 Gy of gamma radiation. Animals of Group IV were treated with both CdCl 2 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays. The animals of Group V and VI were treated with CdCl 2 + Aloe vera and 5.0Gy + Aloe vera respectively, whereas Group VII was treated with CdCl 2 +5.0Gy+ Aloe vera. In the groups V, VI and VII the Aloe vera was given seven days prior to the treatment of CdCl 2 or gamma rays. Three animals from all the experimental groups were sacrificed by cervical

  4. Influence of Alpha Tocopherol on Heat Stress-Induced Changes in the Reproductive Function of Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlEnazi, Maher M.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the influence of vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) on heat stress-induced changes in the reproduction of Swiss albino mice. The evaluated parameters include: the estrous cycle, fertility, post-implantation losses of fetuses and estimation of progesterone levels in the serum. Eight groups of experimental mice (10 each) were used. Groups 1-4 (24 degree C) consisted of a control and alpha-tocopherol (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated groups. Groups 5-8 (42 degree C) consisted of a positive control and alpha-tocopherol (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) treated group. Heat-stress reduced significantly (p > 0.001) the number of fetuses and corpora lutea. There was also a significant decrease in the mean weights of fetuses (p > 0.001) and placenta (p > 0.01) in the heat-stress group with a decrease in their serum progesterone levels (p > 0.01). Heat-stress groups treated with high doses of alpha-tocopherol 200 and 400 mg/kg, showed protection against heat-stress related abnormalities. The results showed that alpha-tocopherol plays a role in protection against hyperthermia induced changes in the estrous cycle length, infertility, post-implantation losses and depletion in the serum level of progesterone. (author)

  5. Antigenotoxic and antimutagenic effects of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi in Allium cepa and Swiss mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedel-Miyasato, L E S; Formagio, A S N; Auharek, S A; Kassuya, C A L; Navarro, S D; Cunha-Laura, A L; Monreal, A C D; Vieira, M C; Oliveira, R J

    2014-04-30

    It is estimated that 60% of anticancer drugs are derived directly or indirectly from medicinal plants. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is traditionally used in Brazilian medicine to treat inflammation, ulcers, and tumors. Because of the need to identify new antimutagenic agents and to determine their mechanism of action, this study evaluated the chemopreventive activity of the methanolic extract from leaves of S. terebinthifolius (MEST) in Allium cepa cells and in Swiss mice analyzing different protocols of MEST in association with DNA-damaging agents. The antigenotoxic and antimutagenic aspects in peripheral blood were evaluated using the comet and micronucleus assays, respectively. The percentage of damage reduction was used to compare the A. cepa and mice results. Our results showed for the first time that MEST can act as a chemopreventive compound that promotes cellular genome integrity by desmutagenic and bioantimutagenic activities in vegetal and animal models. This finding may therefore have therapeutic applications that can indirectly correlate to the prevention and/or treatment of the degenerative diseases such as cancer.

  6. Evaluation of antitumour activity of Calotropis gigantea L. root bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M Rowshahul; Karim, M Rezaul

    2011-10-01

    To investigate experimentally the possible antitumor effect of methanol extract (ME) of Calotropis gigantea L. (C. gigantean) root bark and its petroleum ether (PEF) and chloroform (CF) soluble fractions against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. The effects of ME (10 and 20 mg/kg), PEF (40 and 80 mg/kg) and CF (20 and 40 mg/kg) on the growth of EAC and life span of EAC bearing mice were studied. Hematological profile and biochemical parameters (SALP, SGPT and SGOT) were also estimated. Results of in vivo study showed a significant decrease in viable tumor cell count and a significant increase of life span in the ME and CF treated group compared to untreated one. The life span of ME and CF treated animals was significantly (PSALP) and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). Methanol extract (ME) of C. gigantea root bark and its chloroform soluble fraction (CF) possesses significant antitumor activity. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes prevent γ-radiation induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Joseph, Jini; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-11-01

    The in vivo radio-protective effect of total triterpenes isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) P. Karst was evaluated using Swiss albino mice, by pre-treatment with total triterpenes for 14 days, followed by a whole body exposure to γ-radiation. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) were analysed in liver and brain homogenates. The extent of lipid and protein peroxidation was also estimated in liver and brain homogenates after irradiation. Protection of radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells was assessed using the comet assay. Total triterpenes were highly effective in reducing the levels of lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation to near normal values in both liver and brain tissues. Total triterpenes, when administered in vivo, were also found to be successful in restoring the antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH level in liver and brain of irradiated mice. Administration of total triterpenes, prior to radiation exposure, significantly decreased the DNA strand breaks. The results of the present study thus revealed the potential therapeutic use of Ganoderma total triterpenes as an adjuvant in radiation therapy.

  8. Antiplasmodial effects of the aqueous ethanolic seed extract of Ziziphus mauritiana against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulika Mishra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana is a fruit tree used traditionally since long back for wound healing, immunepotentiator, asthma, sedative, stomachic, styptic, as tonic etc. The present study determines the antiplasmodial effect of aqueous ethanolic seed extract against Chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei berghei nk65 infection in Swiss albino mice. Based upon the acute toxicity data three different doses (100, 200, 400 mg/kg body weight of the plant extract was chosen to study the blood schizonticidal activity in early infection and in established infection and was compared with chloroquine. The Prophylactic activity was also assessed and compared with pyrimethamine. No mortality was observed in acute toxicity study however, above the dose of 1000 mg/kg animals showed the lethargic behaviour. In early infection, and in established infection the doses (100-400 mg/kg b.wt was found to cause significant (P<0.001 suppression of infection in a dose dependent manner as compared to control. Although, the activity was lower than standard chloroquine. Similarly, the extract at all the doses caused the suppression in repository activity but was lower than pyrimethamine. The mean survival time was also increased in mice by 14 and 17 days at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg respectively, whereas the control group sustained only for 7 days. Thus, the seed extract showed the effectiveness against plasmodium infection.

  9. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ritu; Sharma, Jyoti; Goyal, P K

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak) on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA-) induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection) and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks) liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage). CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  10. Depletion by styrene of glutathione in plasma and bronchioalveolar lavage fluid of non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Gary P

    2010-01-01

    Styrene is a widely used chemical, but it is known to produce lung and liver damage in mice. This may be related to oxidative stress associated with the decrease in the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the target tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of styrene and its primary metabolites R-styrene oxide (R-SO) and S-styrene oxide (S-SO) on GSH levels in the lung lumen, as determined by amounts of GSH in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in plasma. When non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice were administered styrene (600 mg/kg, ip), there was a significant fall in GSH levels in both BALF and plasma within 3 h. These returned to control levels by 12 h. The active metabolite R-SO (300 mg/kg, ip) also produced significant decreases in GSH in both BALF and plasma, but S-SO was without marked effect. Since GSH is a principal antioxidant in the lung epithelial lining fluid, this fall due to styrene may exert a significant influence on the ability of the lung to buffer oxidative damage.

  11. Studies on the migration of micronucleated erythrocytes from bone marrow to the peripheral blood in irradiated Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, R.C.; Bhilwade, H.N.; Chauhan, P.S.

    1993-01-01

    Micronucleated polychromatic (mn-PCE) and normochromatic erythrocytes (nm-NCE) were enumerated in the bone marrow and peripheral blood of Swiss male mice at different time intervals following whole-body (1.0 Gy) γ-irradiation. Polychromatic cells migrated to the peripheral blood soon after their formation in the bone marrow and nm-PCE achieved a frequency close to that of the bone marrow with a delay of about 12 h. The optimal time for peripheral sampling was found to be about 36 h after radiation exposure. The frequency of mn-NCE in bone marrow and peripheral blood showed only a moderate and gradual increase till 60 h, and was much lower in the latter. In another experiment, mice irradiated with 0.42 Gy γ-rays (0.21 Gy/h) once a day for 5, 10 or 15 days (5 days per week) showed a cumulative dose-dependent increase in the levels of mn-NCE in the peripheral blood, sampled at 7 or 21 days after the last exposure. (author)

  12. Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA- induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage. CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (P<0.001 along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, P<0.001, and catalase, P<0.001, nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, P<0.001, and total proteins (P<0.001 when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.

  13. Increase in colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of thymus cells from radiation-induced thymomas of NIH Swiss mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Nobuko; Takamori, Yasuhiko; Hori, Yasuharu [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1982-03-01

    Colony-forming efficiency in soft agar of radiation-induced thymoma in NIH Swiss mice was determined in the presence of cultured medium of reticulo-epitherial cells from normal thymus of NIH Swiss mouse as conditioned medium. A similar experiment was done with thymomas spontaneously developed in AKR mice. Most of colonies developed in soft agar were not composed of thymic lymphoma cells, but of macrophage-like cells. The ratio of the number of colonies to that of the seeded cells significantly increased in thymomas comparing with that in normal thymus. This result corresponded with the increased number of macrophages in thymoma, as determined by counting phagocytic cells of adherent cells.

  14. Chemo preventive action of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced histopathological changes in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Sunita; Bhati, Sharwan; Isran, Rakesh; Ranga, Deepti; Meena, Dinesh; Pyarelal

    2012-01-01

    The present century has been an ever-increasing use of nuclear technologies in different fields raising the alarming problem of radiation hazards to living beings including man. An increasing body of evidence indicates that human activities are responsible for global climatic changes, which, in turn, may be directly or indirectly increasing human exposure to environmental hazards. On the other hand, all forms of cadmium are poisonous leading cadmium intoxication under appropriate circumstances. The interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of immense potential importance as their total environmental burden may have greater effects than expected from the sum of their individual impact. In the present study six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were exposed to 2.5 and 5.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The animals of experimental groups were administered Liv.52 for seven days prior to radiation or cadmium chloride treatment. After routine procedure of histology the histopathological changes were observed in the jejunum of Swiss albino mice. The changes included loosened sub-mucosa with hydropic degeneration. Lamina propria exhibited hydropic degeneration, abnormal mitotic figures, pyknotic nuclei and cytoplasmic degranulation in crypt cells, loosened tips and shortened villi. Leucocytic infiltration appeared in lamina propria. Few mitotic figures were observed during the early intervals but were not normal and resulted in mitotic death. Recovery started on day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in Liv.52 treated groups. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculature, hydropic degeneration in sub-mucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in sub-mucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis

  15. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  16. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, P.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  17. Embryonic/fetal mortality after exposure to tritiated water in pregnant Swiss albino mice during different gestation periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kalpana; Saini, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    Pregnant Swiss albino mice were given a priming injection(im) of tritiated water (HTO) at the dose rate of 2.3 and 5 μCi/ml body water (74, III or 185 K Bq/ml body water) at 0,6 and 14 day post conception (d.p.c) and were subsequently maintained on tritiated drinking water ad libitum during preimplantation (0-5 d.p.c), organogenetic (6-12 d.c.p.) or fetal (14-18 d.p.c) period, respectively. On day 18 of gestation the females were sacrificed by cervical dislocation to record the implant sites per dam and embryonic/fetal mortality. Significant reduction was observed in average implant sites per dam when the females were exposed to any of the three doses during the preimplantation period due to embryonic resorption before implantation. However, the same was found to be within the normal range when mothers were exposed during the organogenetic or fetal period. Prenatal mortality (embryonic resorption/fetal death) was higher after in utero exposure to different doses during preimplantation period as compared to organogenetic period, but mortality did not occur after exposure to any of the doses during the fetal period. Occurrence of mortality was found to be dose dependent. (author). 25 refs., 1 tab

  18. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAYANE K.D. NASCIMENTO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE. The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  19. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-04-30

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities.

  20. Protective effects of Punica Granatum (L) and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, B.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Vadisha Bhat, S.; Sherly, Sharmila; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Radiotherapy, which is a chief modality to treat cancer, faces a major drawback because it produces severe side effects developed due to damage to normal tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have indicated that some commonly used medicinal plants may be good sources of potent but non-toxic radioprotectors. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron beam radiation(EBR) induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were exposed to sub-lethal dose (6 Gy) of Electron Beam Radiation and then treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid for 15 consecutive days. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the liver homogenate of the sacrificed animals. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were prevented significantly by EPWF, EPS and EA administration. Also there was significant reduction in the levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the treated groups compared to irradiated control. The findings of our study indicate the protective efficacy of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant levels. (author)

  1. Cathinone, an active principle of Catha edulis, accelerates oxidative stress in the limbic area of swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safhi, Mohammed M; Alam, Mohammad Firoz; Hussain, Sohail; Hakeem Siddiqui, Mohammed Abdul; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Jubran Khardali, Ibrahim Abdu; Al-Sanosi, Rashad Mohammed; Islam, Fakhrul

    2014-10-28

    Cathinone hydrochloride is an active principle of the khat plant (Catha edulis) that produces pleasurable and stimulating effects in khat chewers. To the best of our knowledge no data of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of mice is available. This is the first study of cathinone on oxidative stress in limbic areas of the brain in Swiss albino male mice. The animals were divided into four groups. Group-I was the control group and received vehicle, while groups-II to IV received (-)-cathinone hydrochloride (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg body wt., i.p.) once daily for 15 days. The level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was elevated dose-dependently and was significant (p<0.05, p<0.01) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. In contrast, the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) was decreased significantly (p<0.01, p<0.001) with doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg body wt. of cathinone as compared to control group. The activity of antioxidant enzymes (GPx, GR, GST, CAT, and SOD) was also decreased dose-dependently: the decreased activity of GPx, GR, catalase and SOD was significant with doses of 0.25 and 0.5 mg of cathinone as compared to control group, while the activity of GST was decreased dose-dependently and was significant with 0.5mg of cathinone as compared to control group. The results indicate that the cathinone generated oxidative stress hampered antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced changes in the Jejunum of Swiss Albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, R.K.; Meena, Dinesh; Issran, Rakesh; Pyarelal; Jangir, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Recently, increased interest has developed on search for potential drugs of plant origin which can quench the radiation induced free radicals and eliminate oxygen with minimum side effects. In view of the fact, present study was planned to evaluate the protective efficacy of Emblica against radiation and lead induced changes in jejunum of mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups on the basis of radiation, lead, combined treatment and drug treated. The values of total proteins, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA were estimated. The values of total proteins, cholesterol, DNA and RNA decreased whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity increased. After irradiation with various doses of gamma rays, histological changes depend upon the dose of radiation delivered. The important radio-lesions were looseness of musculatrue, hydropic degeneration in submucosa and lamina propria, hyperaemia and haemorrhage in submucosa, pyknotic cells, cytoplasmic degranulation and vacuolation, abnormal mitotic figures. Karyolysis, karyorrhexis and chromatolysis were also observed in crypt cells. Shortening and breaking of villus tips, leucocytic infiltration in lamina propria and cell debris in intestinal lumen were also noted. The number of goblet cells per crypt section also decreased in all the experimental groups. The value of the experimental groups was significantly lower than that of the control group. The biochemical finding indicated the drug treated section of living tissue showed slightly/no degenerative changes. The drug treated groups demonstrating the ability of Aloe vera to inhibit oxidative stress thus preventing tissue injury. (author)

  3. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris Ahmed Issa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50 for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p<0.005 and 56.9% (p<0.0004 in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p<0.0001 at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity.

  4. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkar, Prafulla P; Jadhav, Pranita P; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Bhaskar, V H; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders.

  5. Radioprotective efficacy of Carica papaya (L.) leaf extract in electron beam irradiated Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yogish Somayaji, T.; Suchetha Kumari, N.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that leaf extract of Carica papaya (Linn.) has antibacterial, antitumor, antioxidant, anti-sickling properties and has shown to increase the platelets in patients with dengue fever. In the present study, the radioprotective effects and radioadaptive response of Carica papaya (L.) was evaluated in mice irradiated with electron beam radiation. Radiation induced hematological suppression was seen at sublethal doses of 6 Gy irradiated groups. There was a decrease in hemoglobin, red blood cell, total white blood cell count and platelet counts in irradiated groups whereas papaya leaf extract enhanced platelet levels indicated thrombopoietic effect

  6. Amelioration of lead induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a blue-gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth crust and isspread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativumto reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oraltreatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/ kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50 induceda significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanineaminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, acid phosphatase (ALP, cholesterol, lipidperoxidation (LPO and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead exposed mice weresignificantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status ofthe liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxidedismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT and glutathione (GSH. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kgbody weight for 10 days, the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/ kg body weight and500 mg/ kg body weight and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/ kg body weight and 250 mg/ kg bodyweight and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly Histological examination of theliver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate exposed group and treatment with garlicimproved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract thedeleterious effects of lead nitrate.

  7. Pretreatment with Saccharomyces boulardii does not prevent the experimental mucositis in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maioli, Tatiani Uceli; de Melo Silva, Brenda; Dias, Michelle Nobre; Paiva, Nivea Carolina; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; Fernandes, Simone Odilia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Dos Santos Martins, Flaviano; de Vasconcelos Generoso, Simone

    2014-04-11

    The antimetabolite chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs in clinical cancer treatment. Although this drug is not specific for cancer cells and also acts on healthy cells, it can cause mucositis, a common collateral effect. Dysbiosis has also been described in 5-fluorouracil-induced mucositis and is likely to contribute to the overall development of mucositis. In light of this theory, the use of probiotics could be a helpful strategy to alleviate mucositis. So the aim of this study was evaluate the impact of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in a model of mucositis. After induced of mucositis, mice from the Mucositis groups showed a decrease in food consumption (p Saccharomyces boulardii did not reverse this effect (p > 0.05). Mucositis induced an increase in intestinal permeability and intestinal inflammation (p  0.05) in mice pretreated with S. boulardii. S. boulardii was not able to prevent the effects of experimental mucositis induced by 5- Fluorouracil.

  8. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p alopecia. (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Studies on modulatory effect of Opuntia elatior extract in Swiss albino mice against gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poonia, Kavita; Sharma, Jaimala

    2016-01-01

    Opuntia elatior is succulent shrub and is widely grown in warmer parts of the world. Opuntia spp. have shown a variety of medicinal properties such as antiviral, antihyper-lipidemic, antioxidative, antiulcerous, immunomodulatory etc. Objective of the study was to explore radioprotective potential of this wild cactus. The cladodes of Opuntia elatior were collected and cleaned and shade-dried and powdered then hydroalcoholic extract was prepared by refluxing for 36 hrs at 40 °C then liquid extract was cooled and concentrated by evaporating its liquid contents. Mice selected for this study were divided into 5 groups of 5 animals each and administered Opuntia elatior extract dissolved in double distilled water orally with the 5, 10, 20, 40, 80 (mg./kg. body weight/day) for 30 minutes and then animals were exposed whole-body to 8 Gy gamma radiation. After irradiation, these doses were given for 30 consecutive days. Two doses 5 and 10 (mg./kg. body weight/day) were found tolerable when observed for weight, sign of sickness, morbidity, behavioral and mortality till 30 days. The optimum dose was chosen as 10 (mg./kg body weight/day) on the basis of radiation sickness and survival of mice. It will lay the foundation for the development of New, more effective and non toxic radiomodulators drugs from natural sources. (author)

  10. The radiomodifying efficacy of beta carotene rich plant extracts on neuroethology of Swiss albino mice: perception, perspectives and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: High utilization of O2 and rather poorly developed antioxidative defence mechanism makes the brain highly susceptible to oxidative damage. High enrichment with PUFA also renders it susceptible to radiation damage by free radicals. The pure form of beta carotene has proved quite effective against radiation but only at optimum dose level when tested for survivability and lipid peroxidation, protein, cholesterol, DNA content of brain. This induced us to extend our investigation on plants, Amaranthus and Spinach enriched with beta carotene, which could be recommended in the nutritional dietary course without causing psychological stress of availability and affordability unlike of tablets of medicines. Both Amaranthus paniculatus and Spinacea oleracea, commonly occurring weeds have good nutritive values due to their carotenoid, vitamin C, folate, folic acid contents; additionally Amaranthus with high level of lysine and methionine. Swiss albino male mice of 6-8 week(22±3 gm)selected from an inbred colony were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600-mg/kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water with and without prior to irradiation (5 Gy of gamma radiation). The animals were studied on 1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days after radiation exposure. On the basis of LD50/30 values the DRFs were computed as 1.43(AE) and 1.39(S.E). The plant extracts improved learning performance in mice in with and without rradiation. Male mice showed better learning performance as compared to females in all the groups. The brain showed that the radiation induced depletion of protein, glutathione and cholesterol and histopathology was significantly compensated/defied and was brought to near-normal level by the 15 days oral administration of crude extract of the plants. Radiation induced augmentation in glycogen, cholesterol and lipid peroxidation products were significantly checked. The protection appears to be afforded by combined or synergistic effects of plants leaves

  11. Biochemical changes in the liver of Swiss albino mice orally exposed to acrylamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Sharma

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Acrylamide is a common chemical which is used worldwide to synthesise polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide and acrylamide both have numerous applications in cosmetic industries, plastic and aesthetic surgeries, ophthalmic operations, waste water treatments, oil recovery processes, and other industrial and laboratory processes. Exposure of mice (Mus musculus to acrylamide at three dose levels (5, 15 and 25 mg/kg body weight was investigated for its effects on the liver. Mortality was found to be nil in all the experimental groups. A significant decrease in body weight gain and liver weight was observed but the relative liver weight increased significantly with dose concentration. A significant decrease was observed in protein and GSH levels as compared to those of control, and this reduction was more pronounced at highest dose level. Concentrations of SGOT, SGPT, and serum alkaline phosphatase activity showed a significant increase which was directly proportional to the concentration of the dose.

  12. A natural antioxidant, tannic acid mitigates iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice through ROS regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Tapasree; Panja, Sourav; Shendge, Anil Khushalrao; Das, Abhishek; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2018-05-01

    Tannic acid (TA), a water soluble natural polyphenol with 8 gallic acids groups, is abundantly present in various medicinal plants. Previously TA has been investigated for its antimicrobial and antifungal properties. Being a large polyphenol, TA chelates more than 1 metal. Hence TA has been explored for potent antioxidant activities against reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and as iron chelator in vitro thereby mitigating iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity in vivo. Iron dextran was injected intraperitoneally in Swiss albino mice to induce iron-overload triggered hepatotoxicity, followed by oral administration of TA for remediation. After treatment, liver, spleen, and blood samples were processed from sacrificed animals. The liver iron, serum ferritin, serum markers, ROS, liver antioxidant status, and liver damage parameters were assessed, followed by histopathology and protein expression studies. Our results show that TA is a prominent ROS and RNS scavenger as well as iron chelator in vitro. It also reversed the ROS levels in vivo and restricted the liver damage parameters as compared to the standard drug, desirox. Moreover, this natural polyphenol exclusively ameliorates the histopathological and fibrotic changes in liver sections reducing the iron-overload, along with chelation of liver iron and normalization of serum ferritin. The protective role of TA against iron-overload induced apoptosis in liver was further supported by changed levels of caspase 3, PARP as well as Bax/BCl-2 ratio. Thus, TA can be envisaged as a better orally administrable iron chelator to reduce iron-overload induced hepatotoxicity through ROS regulation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Quercetin ameliorates chronic unpredicted stress-induced behavioral dysfunction in male Swiss albino mice by modulating hippocampal insulin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Vineet; Singh, Tiratha Raj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2017-12-01

    Chronic stress is associated with impaired neurogenesis, neurodegeneration and behavioral dysfunction, whereas the mechanism underlying stress-mediated neurological complications is still not clear. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether chronic unpredicted stress (CUS) mediated neurological alterations are associated with impaired hippocampal insulin signaling or not, and studied the effect of quercetin in this scenario. Male Swiss albino mice were subjected to 21day CUS, during which 30mg/kg quercetin treatment was given orally. After 21days, behavioral functions were evaluated in terms of locomotor activity (Actophotometer), muscle coordination (Rota-rod), depression (Tail Suspension Test (TST), Forced Swim Test (FST)) and memory performance (Passive-avoidance step-down task (PASD)). Further, hippocampal insulin signaling was evaluated in terms of protein expression of insulin, insulin receptor (IR) and glucose transporter 4 (GLUT-4) and neurogenesis was evaluated in terms of doublecortin (DCX) expression. 21day CUS significantly impaired locomotion and had no effect on muscle coordination. Stressed animals were depressed and showed markedly impaired memory functions. Quercetin treatment significantly improvement stress-mediated behavior dysfunction as indicated by improved locomotion, lesser immobility time and greater frequency of upward turning in TST and FST and increased transfer latency on the day 2 (short-term memory) and day 5 (long-term memory) in PASD test. We observed significantly higher IR expression and significantly lower GLUT-4 expression in the hippocampus of stressed animals, despite of nonsignificant difference in insulin levels. Further, chronic stress impaired hippocampal neurogenesis, as indicated by the significantly reduced levels of hippocampal DCX expression. Quercetin treatment significantly lowered insulin and IR expression and significantly enhanced GLUT-4 and DCX expression in the hippocampus, when compared to CUS. In

  14. Melatonin against radiation induced free radicals: a study on tissues of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, A.L.; Manda, K.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Antioxidant enzymes are part of the primary cellular defense against free radicals generated by radiation. Reports on low level chronic administration of melatonin with its antiradiation influence are scanty. Although compelling logic suggests that melatonin may be effective for a variety of disorders, the mode and optimal dose of melatonin is still not clear. Most studies have used doses of supraphysiological blood levels. Present investigation reports that melatonin in relatively lower concentrations increases the mRNA of both superoxide dismutases (SODs) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and mediates possibly through receptors. The influence of low dose chronic administration (0.10 mg/Kg body weight/day for 15 days) of melatonin was studied against radiation-induced oxidative stress in 6 to 8 weeks old mice. Just after 24 hours of the last dose in various tissues viz. brain, liver, spleen and kidney were studied for lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulphide (GSSG), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), protein, RNA, DNA and serum phosphatase activity. Radiation induced augmentation in the level of lipid peroxidation, glutathione disulphide (GSSG) and acid phosphatase was significantly ameliorated by pre-irradiation treatment with melatonin. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and alkaline phosphatase is significantly averted by melatonin administration. Regression analysis of survival data yielded LD50/30 as 7.16 Gy and 11Gy for control (irradiation alone) and experimental (melatonin + irradiation), respectively. Animals produced a dose reduction factor (DRF) as 1.53. Radiation induced deficit in the body and organ weight was also significantly thwarted in the melatonin pre-treated mice. Results indicate the antioxidative properties of melatonin against the gamma radiation. The findings support the results showing melatonin as a free radical scavenger, and

  15. Labelling of 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid with Technetium-99m: biodistribution study in Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, Susana B.E.; Oliveira, Marcia B.N. de; Gutfilen, Bianca; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Alves, Andreia Coelho; Machado-Silva, Jose R.

    1996-01-01

    The 5-ethyl-5-phenylbarbituric acid (phenobarbital) is used as a sedative, hypnotic and anticonvulsant drug. We decided to label it with technetium-99m. In order to determine the optimal conditions, different concentrations of this drug were incubated with various stannous chloride solutions. Then, 99m Tc was added and chromatography was performed using 0.9% NaCl solution, acetone and n-butyl alcohol as the mobile phase. Using a solution of 0.01 mg/ml stannous chloride and 1.0 mg/ml phenobarbital over 92% of the radioactivity bound to phenobarbital 99m Tc-phenobarbital. In the biodistribution study, 99m Tc-phenobarbital was administered in mice intraperitoneal. The main uptake of the labeled drug was in the liver, blood, kidneys, spleen and stomach. The phenobarbital is also used as anesthetic drug in animals. Earlier studies confirm that this drug can dislocate the adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni to mesenteric vein towards the liver and portal vein, so that we used infected animals, radioactivity was not found in isolated worms and we can conclude that the phenobarbital has an indirect action in relation to the displacement of the worms. (author)

  16. Protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Ramakant; Purohit, Ramesh K.; Sharma, Sampat; Rao, R.; Purohit, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    This study aim to evaluate protective role of Liv.52 against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in the Swiss Albino Mice. The animals were exposed with 3.0 and 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without Cadmium Chloride treatment. In the drug treated groups. The liv-52 was given seven days prior to irradiation or Cadmium Chloride treatment The animals from the entire experimental group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The value of red blood cells (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), Haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), mean cell volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), different leucocytes counts (DLC), SGOT and SGPT were estimated. The values of RBC, WBC, Hb and PCV were found to decrease in all the groups as compared to normal group, but the decrease in these values was lesser in Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). The values of MCV were also found to decrease but the difference from normal value was significant at previous intervals and it was significant on later intervals. The values of MCH increased in all the groups as compared with normal group after 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days of post-treatment intervals. The increase in the values of MCH was lesser in Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). Besides this values of MCHC increased in all the groups at various intervals but the values were lower in the Liv.52 treated groups (V to VII) as compared to non-drug treated groups (II to IV). The difference from the normal was non-significant in all the groups. The values of lymphocytes declined up to day-14 in non-drug treated groups and day-7 in the Liv.52 treated groups. Similarly the values of monocytes and granulocytes percentage increased up to day-14 in the non-drug treated animals and day-7 in the drug treated animals thereafter; a

  17. Anti-tumor activity of Aloe vera against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, M; Goyal, Pradeep Kumar; Chaudhary, Geeta

    2010-01-01

    Human populations are increasingly exposed to various carcinogens such as chemicals, radiation, and viruses in the environment. Chemopreventive drugs of plant origin are a promising strategy for cancer control because they are generally nontoxic or less toxic than synthetic che-mopreventive agents, and can be effective at different stages of carcinogenesis. The present investigation was undertaken to explore the antitumor activity of topical treatment with aloe vera (Aloe vera) gel, oral treatment with aloe vera extract, and topical and oral treatment with both gel and extract in stage-2 skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice induced by 7,12-dim ethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and promoted croton (Croton tiglium) oil. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated as follows: Group I, DMBA + croton oil only (controls); Group II, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel; Group III, DMBA + croton oil + oral aloe vera extract; Group I V, DMBA + croton oil + topical aloe vera gel + oral aloe vera extract. Results showed that body weight was significantly increased from 78.6% in the control group (Group I) to 92.5%, 87.5%, and 90.0% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. A 100% incidence of tumor development was noted in Group I, which was decreased to 50%, 60%, and 40% in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. Also in Groups II, III, and IV, the cumulative number of papillomas was reduced significantly from 36 to 12, 15, and 11; tumor yield from 3.6 to 1.2, 1.5, and 1.1; and tumor burden from 3.6 to 2.4, 2.50, and 2.75, respectively, after treatment with aloe vera. Conversely, the average latent period increased significantly from 4.9 (Group I) to 5.23, 5.0, and 6.01 weeks in Groups II, III, and I V, respectively. We conclude that aloe vera protects mice against DMBA/croton oil-induced skin papillomagenesis, likely due to the chemopreventive activity of high concentrations of antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, and E; glutathione peroxidase; several

  18. Acute oral toxicity of 3-MCPD mono- and di-palmitic esters in Swiss mice and their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Gao, Bo-Yan; Qin, Fang; Wu, Ping-Ping; Shi, Hai-Ming; Luo, Wei; Ma, Ai-Niu; Jiang, Yuan-Rong; Xu, Xue-Bing; Yu, Liang-Li Lucy

    2012-10-01

    The acute oral toxicity of 1-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate) and 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol (3-MCPD dipalmitate) in Swiss mice were examined, along with their cytotoxicity in NRK-52E rat kidney cells. LD50 (median lethal dose) value of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate was determined 2676.81 mg/kg body weight (BW). The results showed that 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate dose-dependently decreased the mean body weight, and caused significant increase of serum urea nitrogen and creatinine in dead mice compared to the control and survived mice. Major histopathological changes in mice fed 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate were renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease in the seminiferous tubules. According to the limit test for 3-MCPD dipalmitate, LD50 value of 3-MCPD dipalmitate was presumed to be greater than 5000 mg/kg BW. Obvious changes were not observed on mean body weight, absolute and relative organ weight or serum urea nitrogen and creatinine levels in mice fed 3-MCPD dipalmitate. However, renal tubular necrosis, protein casts and spermatids decrease were also observed in the dead mice. In addition, MTT and LDH assay results only showed the cytotoxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate in NRK-52E rat kidney cells in a dose-dependent manner. Together, the results indicated a greater toxicity of 3-MCPD 1-monopalmitate compared to 3-MCPD dipalmitate. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Papaver Rhoeas L. Hydroalcoholic Extract Exacerbates Forced Swimming Test-Induced Depression in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osanloo, Naser; Najafi-Abedi, Akram; Jafari, Fatemeh; Javid, Farshid; Pirpiran, Mohsen; Memar Jafari, Mohammad-Reza; Mousavi Khosravi, Seyed Ali; Rahimzadeh Behzadi, Mohammad; Ranjbaran, Mina; Sahraei, Hedayat

    2016-07-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent psychiatric disorders in the world with occurs with higher incidence in women. In the present study, the effect of water-alcoholic extract of Papaver rhoeas L. on forced swimming test (FST) in Swiss-Webster mice were examined. We used Swiss-Webster mice (20-25 g) to execute FST on them. The plant extract (1, 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg) was injected to the animals 30 minutes before each session. Fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) was used as standard antidepressant drug. In another group of animals, 30 minutes after extract administration, blood samples were taken from retro-orbital sinus for corticosterone assay. Yet in third group, the drugs were injected to the animals and 30 minutes later, their activities were tested in an open field apparatus. Our experiments showed that the extract efficiently reduced FST time both in male and female mice dose-dependently. This effect was comparable with fluoxetine. In addition, corticosterone assay indicated that plasma corticosterone in animals which received extract was higher than those amounts in fluoxetine and saline controls. Moreover, the animals did not show any motor activity deficit in all doses of the extract and fluoxetine compared to saline control. The extract of Papaver rhoeas can reduce immobility time which is comparable to the effect of fluoxetine. Also the effect of the extract is contrary to its effects on plasma corticosterone level and or animals' activity.

  20. Biodistribution Study of the Anaesthetic Sodium Phenobarbital Labelled with Technetium-99m in Swiss Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Balmant Emerique Simões

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m (99mTc is a radionuclide that has negligible enviromnental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT with 99mTc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling (% was determined by paper ascending chromatography perfomed with acetone (solvent. The 99mTc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after diferent periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. The radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  2. Social instigation and repeated aggressive confrontations in male Swiss mice: analysis of plasma corticosterone, CRF and BDNF levels in limbic brain areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Madeira Fortes

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Agonistic behaviors help to ensure survival, provide advantage in competition, and communicate social status. The resident-intruder paradigm, an animal model based on male intraspecific confrontations, can be an ethologically relevant tool to investigate the neurobiology of aggressive behavior. Objectives: To examine behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of aggressive behavior in male Swiss mice exposed to repeated confrontations in the resident intruder paradigm. Methods: Behavioral analysis was performed in association with measurements of plasma corticosterone of mice repeatedly exposed to a potential rival nearby, but inaccessible (social instigation, or to 10 sessions of social instigation followed by direct aggressive encounters. Moreover, corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BNDF were measured in the brain of these animals. Control mice were exposed to neither social instigation nor aggressive confrontations. Results: Mice exposed to aggressive confrontations exhibited a similar pattern of species-typical aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors on the first and the last session. Moreover, in contrast to social instigation only, repeated aggressive confrontations promoted an increase in plasma corticosterone. After 10 aggressive confrontation sessions, mice presented a non-significant trend toward reducing hippocampal levels of CRF, which inversely correlated with plasma corticosterone levels. Conversely, repeated sessions of social instigation or aggressive confrontation did not alter BDNF concentrations at the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Conclusion: Exposure to repeated episodes of aggressive encounters did not promote habituation over time. Additionally, CRF seems to be involved in physiological responses to social stressors.

  3. Biochemical effects of commercial feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch (Anabas testudineus) and its impact on Swiss albino mice as an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Mita; Tumu, Khairun Nafiz; Hasan, Md Nazmul; Amin, Md Ziaul

    2018-01-01

    This study assesses the biochemical effects of commercially available fish feedstuffs on the fry of climbing perch ( Anabas testudineus ). Subsequently, its impact on experimental animal, Swiss albino mice, is also examined. In order to access the impact of commercial fish feed and feed consumption fish on the experimental animal, the proximate, biochemical and histopathological analyses were done using standard methods. The proximate composition as well as the concentrations of Pb, Ni, Mn, As, Zn, and Cd in the fish feed, different parts of the A. testudineus fish and different parts of the A. testudineus fish-treated experimental mice liver, were all determined using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF) Spectrometry. The highest levels of Cr, Pb and As were observed in the liver of Swiss albino mice treated with FFT2 and FFBB2 and their concentrations were 0.156, 0.491, 0.172 μg/g and 0.166, 0.771, 0.157 μg/g respectively. No significant changes of protein, fat, crude fiber, moisture and ash contents were observed after proximate composition analysis of fish feeds, A. testudineus and A. testudineus treated experimental mice. Significant amounts of heavy metals (Cr, Mn, Zn Cu, Ni) were found in fish feed, different parts of A. testudineus fish and in the experimental mice. However, remarkably high amounts were observed in the A. testudineus fish's head and bone with body parts. Biochemical analysis of blood samples of A. testudineus fish treated experimental mice indicated that the cholesterol, TG, LDL and glucose levels were significantly higher. Yet no significant alteration in the HDL level was observed when compared to the control. In histopathological analysis, a remarkable degeneration was observed in the liver and kidney of A. testudineus treated mice. It can therefore be concluded that although A. testudineus has nutritional benefits the quality of this fish may be compromised as a consequence of contamination through various anthropogenic

  4. Neem leaf glycoprotein prevents post-surgical sarcoma recurrence in Swiss mice by differentially regulating cytotoxic T and myeloid-derived suppressor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhurima Sarkar

    Full Text Available Post-surgical tumor recurrence is a common problem in cancer treatment. In the present study, the role of neem leaf glycoprotein (NLGP, a novel immunomodulator, in prevention of post-surgical recurrence of solid sarcoma was examined. Data suggest that NLGP prevents tumor recurrence after surgical removal of sarcoma in Swiss mice and increases their tumor-free survival time. In NLGP-treated tumor-free mice, increased cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and a decreased population of suppressor cells, especially myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs was observed. NLGP-treated CD8+ T cells showed greater cytotoxicity towards tumor-derived MDSCs and supernatants from the same CD8+ T cell culture caused upregulation of FasR and downregulation of cFLIP in MDSCs. To elucidate the role of CD8+ T cells, specifically in association with the downregulation in MDSCs, CD8+ T cells were depleted in vivo before NLGP immunization in surgically tumor removed mice and tumor recurrence was noted. These mice also exhibited increased MDSCs along with decreased levels of Caspase 3, Caspase 8 and increased cFLIP expression. In conclusion, it can be stated that NLGP, by activating CD8+ T cells, down regulates the proportion of MDSCs. Accordingly, suppressive effects of MDSCs on CD8+ T cells are minimized and optimum immune surveillance in tumor hosts is maintained to eliminate the residual tumor mass appearing during recurrence.

  5. Effectiveness of Aloe vera leaf extract against low level exposure to gamma radiation induced injury in intestinal mucosa of Swiss mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Saini, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: Human beings can not deny the presence of all sorts of incoming radiations, which are detrimental to life. The small intestine represents one of the major dose limiting normal tissues in radiotherapy because of its high radio sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Aloe vera, a potential radioprotector. Radioprotective efficacy of aloe vera leaf extract in intestinal mucosa in mice (1 g/kg body weight/day) was studied from 6h to day 20 after gamma irradiation (0.5 Gy(. Villus height, goblet cells/villus section, total cells are good parameters for the assessment of radiation damage. The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups. The first group was given Aloe vera extract orally for 15 consecutive days and served as experimental group. On 15th day, after 30 min of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 0.5 Gy gamma irradiation and autopsied on 6, 12, 24 h and 5, 10, 20 days. Aloe vera pretreatment resulted in a significant increase (p<0.001) in villus height, total cells whereas globlet cells showed a significant decrease (p<0.001) from respective irradiated controls at each autospy day. The results suggest that Aloe vera pretreatment provides protection against radiation-induced alterations in intestinal mucosa of Swiss mice

  6. The protective effect of royal jelly on chronic lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity: serum biochemical parameters, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxic and histopathological alterations in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuşoğlu, Kültiğin; Yapar, Kürşad; Oruç, Ertan; Yalçın, Emine

    2011-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect of royal jelly (RJ) against toxicity induced by a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide, lambda-cyhalothrin (LCT), in Swiss albino mice. Animals were randomly divided into six groups of six animals each. The control group received distilled water alone, whereas mice in the treatment groups received RJ alone (100 or 250 mg/kg of body weight), LCT alone (668 ppm), or RJ+LCT for 21 days. All mice (100%) survived until the end of experiment and were sacrificed at the end of 24 hours. Blood, bone marrow, and liver and kidney tissues were analyzed for aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA), and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and micronucleus (MN) frequency, chromosomal aberrations (CAs), and pathological damages. Serum AST, ALT, BUN, and creatinine levels were elevated in mice treated with LCT alone compared with the other tested groups (P<.05). LCT-induced oxidative damage caused a significant decrease in GSH levels and a significant rise in MDA levels of liver and kidney tissues. LCT alone-treated mice presented higher frequencies (P<.05) of MNs, CAs, and abnormal metaphases compared with the controls; moreover, the mitotic index was lower than in controls (P<.05). Oral treatment with RJ significantly ameliorated the indices of hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxicity induced by LCT. Both doses of RJ tested provided significant protection against LCT-induced toxicity, and its strongest effect was observed at the dose level of 250 mg/kg of body weight. In vivo results suggest that RJ is a potent antioxidant against LCT-induced toxicity, and its protective effect is dose dependent.

  7. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D' Souza, Antony Sylvan [Department of Anatomy, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas [Department of Pharmaceutics, Manipal College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Kalthur, Guruprasad, E-mail: guru.kalthur@manipal.edu [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Adiga, Satish Kumar [Division of Clinical Embryology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  8. Evaluation of the oxidative stress induced by the electron beam radiation on various organs of Swiss Albino mice - in-vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishakh, R.; Moodithaya, Shailaja S.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2014-01-01

    Radiation is one of the important threats in the modern world. Though the radiation injuries by natural means is very less common, advancement in the nuclear warfare research had increased the threat of radiation induced damage to biological system. Since years researchers are in search of a novel radio-protector, but without complete success. The reason behind may be its toxicity in higher doses. All the above research challenges lead many researchers to investigate radiation induced damage. Most of the studies had been done to investigate radiation induced damage in the lethal dose of radiation. But less work had been done to study the effect of radiation on tissues at sublethal dose. Therefore this study aims to evaluate the effect of radiation on the various organs in mice model. Swiss albino mice of 6 to 8 weeks old were divided into 2 groups i.e., Control, Radiation control with 6 mice in each group. 6 Gy sub lethal dose of electron beam radiation was used as radiation source. The liver, kidney and brain were dissected and used for biochemical analysis. The significant decrease in total antioxidant levels were observed in Liver and Kidney of irradiated mice, Glutathione levels were found to be decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain, Glutathione S - transferase levels were found to be significantly decreased in Liver and Brain, Catalase activity was found to be decreased in Liver, Super oxide dismutase activity was found to be significantly decreased in Liver, Kidney and Brain homogenates when compared with the tissue homogenates of control group. From the results we can conclude that the liver is the most sensitive organ for the electron beam radiation induced oxidative stress when compared with Kidney and Brain. (author)

  9. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  10. Amelioration of radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations by Punica Granatum (L) extracts and synthetic ellagic acid in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, B.; Sharmila, K.P.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Vadisha Bhat, S.; Sherly, Sharmila; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Radiation therapy has been used in cancer treatment for many decades; Although effective in killing tumor cells, ROS produced in radiotherapy threaten the integrity and survival of surrounding normal cells. ROS are scavenged by radioprotectors before they can interact with biochemical molecules, thus reducing harmful effects of radiation. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) induced DNA damage and biochemical alterations in Swiss Albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and Ellagic acid for 15 days before exposure to 6 Gy of EBR. Radiation induced DNA damage was assessed by comet assay in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the serum and RBC lysate of the animals. The plant extracts and synthetic compound exhibited good radical scavenging and reducing properties.The pretreated animals before irradiation caused a reduction in the comet length, olive tail moment, % DNA in tail when compared to irradiated group. The biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation was significantly depleted in the treated groups when compared to irradiated group followed by significant elevation in reduced glutathione. Our findings indicate the ameliorating effects of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced DNA damage and biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant

  11. Short-Term Total Sleep-Deprivation Impairs Contextual Fear Memory, and Contextual Fear-Conditioning Reduces REM Sleep in Moderately Anxious Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munazah F. Qureshi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The conditioning tasks have been widely used to model fear and anxiety and to study their association with sleep. Many reports suggest that sleep plays a vital role in the consolidation of fear memory. Studies have also demonstrated that fear-conditioning influences sleep differently in mice strains having a low or high anxiety level. It is, therefore, necessary to know, how sleep influences fear-conditioning and how fear-conditioning induces changes in sleep architecture in moderate anxious strains. We have used Swiss mice, a moderate anxious strain, to study the effects of: (i sleep deprivation on contextual fear conditioned memory, and also (ii contextual fear conditioning on sleep architecture. Animals were divided into three groups: (a non-sleep deprived (NSD; (b stress control (SC; and (c sleep-deprived (SD groups. The SD animals were SD for 5 h soon after training. We found that the NSD and SC animals showed 60.57% and 58.12% freezing on the testing day, while SD animals showed significantly less freezing (17.13% only; p < 0.001 on the testing day. Further, we observed that contextual fear-conditioning did not alter the total amount of wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM sleep. REM sleep, however, significantly decreased in NSD and SC animals on the training and testing days. Interestingly, REM sleep did not decrease in the SD animals on the testing day. Our results suggest that short-term sleep deprivation impairs fear memory in moderate anxious mice. It also suggests that NREM sleep, but not REM sleep, may have an obligatory role in memory consolidation.

  12. A study on the protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Genistein against radiation mortality on Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Manju; Patni, Shikha; Gaur, Ajay; Bhatia, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective effects of an acute administration of the isoflavone, Genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) obtained from Soya foods has been investigated in adult mice. Genistein is also classified as a phytoestrogen. Genistein (4', 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone) is a naturally occurring isoflavone mainly found in legumes, such as soyabeans. Genistein has gained increasing attention because of its association with beneficial effects for treatment of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. Genistein block protein-tyrosine kinase and other enzymes that trigger tumor formation. Genistein apparently reverse the process in which cancerous cells loose their individual identity. Mice were administered with different doses (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg body weight) of Genistein before 8 Gy gamma radiations and optimum dose (200 mg/kg) was worked out for the experiment. The dose of Genistein (200 mg/kg) was administered intra peritoneally (I.P.; in 0.5 ml) to mice 15 minutes and 24 hrs before gamma irradiation. Mice treated with Genistein (200 mg/kg), 24 hr before irradiation demonstrated a significant increase in 30-day survival in contrast to mice treated with Genistein 15 minutes before irradiation

  13. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity in Swiss Albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anusha, Chidambaram; Sankar, Renu; Varunkumar, Krishnamoorthy; Sivasindhuja, Gnanasambantham; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2017-12-01

    The goal of this study is to establish Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for allethrin-based mosquito coil smoke inhalation induced toxicity in mice. Primarily, we confirmed mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity in mice via reduced the body, organ weight and major vital organ tissue morphological structure changes. Furthermore, FTIR spectra was collected from control and mosquito coil smoke inhalation (8 h per day for 30 days) mice various tissues like liver, kidney, lung, heart and brain, to investigate the functional groups and their corresponding biochemical content variations. The FTIR spectra result shown major bio macromolecules such as protein and lipid functional peaks were shifted (decreased) in the mosquito coil smoke inhalation group as compared to control. The drastic peak shift was noticed in the liver, kidney followed by lung and brain. It is therefore concluded that the FTIR spectroscopy can be a successful detection tool in mosquito coil smoke inhalation toxicity.

  14. Oleic Acid Induces Lung Injury in Mice through Activation of the ERK Pathway

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    Cassiano Felippe Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oleic acid (OA can induce acute lung injury in experimental models. In the present work, we used intratracheal OA injection to show augmented oedema formation, cell migration and activation, lipid mediator, and cytokine productions in the bronchoalveolar fluids of Swiss Webster mice. We also demonstrated that OA-induced pulmonary injury is dependent on ERK1/2 activation, since U0126, an inhibitor of ERK1/2 phosphorylation, blocked neutrophil migration, oedema, and lipid body formation as well as IL-6, but not IL-1β production. Using a mice strain carrying a null mutation for the TLR4 receptor, we proved that increased inflammatory parameters after OA challenges were not due to the activation of the TLR4 receptor. With OA being a Na/K-ATPase inhibitor, we suggest the possible involvement of this enzyme as an OA target triggering lung inflammation.

  15. Evaluation of Ratnaprash for its effect on strength, stamina and fatigue using swim endurance test and biochemical estimation in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Kumar, Satyendra; Rajput, Rashmi; Srivastava, Ruchi; Rai, Rajiv K; Sastry, J L N

    2015-01-01

    Traditional medicines have been considered as important resources for postponing fatigue, accelerating elimination of fatigue related metabolites and improving physical ability. Rasāyanās or rejuvenative therapies are mentioned as one of the eight clinical specialties in Ayurveda for attaining longevity, healthy life and regulation of bodily balance. Eventhough more detailed studies are needed to confirm the claims of benefits in the light of evidence based research, Ratnaprash, a herbo-mineral rasāyana formulation, is proposed here to be an antifatigue supplement that is good in promoting strength and stamina. In the present study, anti fatigue, strength and stamina enhancing properties of Ratnaprash were examined based on swim endurance capacity and the change in biochemical parameters in Swiss Albino mice. Treatment groups were orally administered Ratnaprash at various test doses (500, 1000, 2000 mg/Kg per day), while the control group received distilled water at similar dose volumes. Effect of therapy was evaluated after 28 days of treatment. At the end of study period, the swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the treated groups than in the control group. Plasma lactate levels of treated groups were lower than those of the control group (P stamina and contributing anti-fatigue activity.

  16. Evaluation of Ratnaprash for its effect on strength, stamina and fatigue using swim endurance test and biochemical estimation in swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arun; Kumar, Satyendra; Rajput, Rashmi; Srivastava, Ruchi; Rai, Rajiv K.; Sastry, J. L. N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Traditional medicines have been considered as important resources for postponing fatigue, accelerating elimination of fatigue related metabolites and improving physical ability. Rasāyanās or rejuvenative therapies are mentioned as one of the eight clinical specialties in Ayurveda for attaining longevity, healthy life and regulation of bodily balance. Eventhough more detailed studies are needed to confirm the claims of benefits in the light of evidence based research, Ratnaprash, a herbo-mineral rasāyana formulation, is proposed here to be an antifatigue supplement that is good in promoting strength and stamina. Materials and Methods: In the present study, anti fatigue, strength and stamina enhancing properties of Ratnaprash were examined based on swim endurance capacity and the change in biochemical parameters in Swiss Albino mice. Treatment groups were orally administered Ratnaprash at various test doses (500, 1000, 2000 mg/Kg per day), while the control group received distilled water at similar dose volumes. Effect of therapy was evaluated after 28 days of treatment. Results: At the end of study period, the swimming times to exhaustion were longer in the treated groups than in the control group. Plasma lactate levels of treated groups were lower than those of the control group (P increased tissue ATP levels in preclinical models in comparison to vehicle control, exhibiting possible role in increasing strength and stamina and contributing anti-fatigue activity. PMID:26600664

  17. Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters, and the effects of their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man; Liu, Jie; Wu, Yizhen; Gao, Boyan; Wu, Pingping; Shi, Haiming; Sun, Xiangjun; Huang, Haiqiu; Wang, Thomas Ty; Yu, Liangli Lucy

    2017-02-01

    3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol fatty acid esters (3-MCPDEs) comprise a group of food toxicants formed during food processing. 3-MCPDEs have received increasing attention concerning their potential negative effects on human health. However, reports on the toxicity of 3-MCPD esters are still limited. To determine the effects of fatty acid substitutions on the toxicity of their esters, 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters of 3-MCPD were synthesized and evaluated with respect to their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice. 3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and fatty acid chlorides, and their purities and structures were characterized by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time of flight-mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), infrared, 1 H and 13 C spectroscopic analyses. Medial lethal doses of 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters were 2973.8, 2081.4, 2016.3, 5000 and > 5000 mg kg -1 body weight. For the first time, 3-MCPDEs were observed for their toxic effects in the thymus and lung. In addition, major histopathological changes, as well as blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, were examined for mice fed the five 3-MCPDEs. The results from the present study suggest that the degree of unsaturation, chain length, number of substitution and relative substitution locations of fatty acids might alter the toxicity of 3-MCPDEs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Antineoplastic Activities of MT81 and Its Structural Analogue in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma-Bearing Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Maiti Choudhury

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Many fungal toxins exhibit in vitro and in vivo antineoplastic effects on various cancer cell types. Luteoskyrin, a hydroxyanthraquinone has been proved to be a potent inhibitor against Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. The comparative antitumor activity and antioxidant status of MT81 and its structural analogue [Acetic acid-MT81 (Aa-MT81] having polyhydroxyanthraquinone structure were assessed against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC tumor in mice. The in vitro cytotoxicity was measured by the viability of EAC cells after direct treatment of the said compounds. In in vivo study, MT81 and its structural analogue were administered (i.p. at the two different doses (5, 7 mg MT81; 8.93, 11.48 mg Aa-MT81/kg body weight for 7 days after 24 hrs. of tumor inoculation. The activities were assessed using mean survival time (MST, increased life span (ILS, tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, peritoneal cell count, protein percentage and hematological parameters. Antioxidant status was determined by malondialdehyde (MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH content, and by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CA T. MT81 and its structural analogues increased the mean survival time, normal peritoneal cell count. They decreased the tumor volume, viable tumor cell count, hemoglobin percentage and packed cell volume. Differential counts of WBC, total counts of RBC & WBC that altered by EAC inoculation, were restored in a dose-dependent manner. Increased MDA and decreased GSH content and reduced activity of SOD, and catalase in EAC bearing mice were returned towards normal after the treatment of MT81 and its structural analogue. Being less toxic than parent toxin MT81, the structural analogue showed more prominent antineoplastic activities against EAC cells compared to MT81. At the same time, both compounds exhibit to some extent antioxidant potential for the EAC-bearing mice.

  19. Quantitative studies on the effects of radiophosphorus (P-32) on bone marrow of Swiss albino mice during postnatal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A; Srivastava, P N [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Radiation Biology Lab.

    1977-11-01

    Radiophosphorus was injected to mice at various stages of development (1 day, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks) at the dose-rate of 1.0 ..mu..Ci/g body weight. Animals were autopsied at weekly intervals upto six weeks and quantitative study of pronormoblast, normoblast, granulocyte and lymphocyte counts have been made. The erythroid cells show rapid decrease in their percentage due to irradiation. The myeloid cells undergo accelerated maturation resulting in increased percentage of segmented forms in bone marrow. The percentage of lymphocytes is also decreased. The regeneration sets in and a normal picture is seen by the time the animals become adult.

  20. Therapeutic efficacy of inosine against radiation-induced damage at cellular, biochemical and chromosomal levels in swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shamy, E.; Sallam, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    Inosine has been used for treatment of various diseases and disorders in medicine. Modulator effect of inosine against γ radiation-induced histological alterations in testis, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPO), acid and alkaline phosphatases activities (AP and ALP) and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in mice was studied at various experimental intervals between 1 and 30 days. Mice exposed to 8 Gy γ-rays showed acute radiation sickness including marked testis histological changes and chromosomal aberrations (CA) in bone marrow cells with 100 % mortality within 22 days. When inosine was given orally at a dose of 80 mg/ kg body wt for 15 consecutive days after exposure to γ-rays, death in radiation + inosine group was reduced to 70 % at 30 days. The radiation - dose reduction factor (DRF) was 1.43. There was significantly lesser degree of damage to testis tissue architecture and various cell populations including spermatogonia, spermatids and leydig cells. Correspondingly, a significant decrease in the LPO and increase in the GSH levels were observed in testis of radiation + inosine group. Similarly, a significant decrease in level of AP and increase in level of ALP were observed. Inosine treatment significantly prevented γ-rays-induced CA frequency in bone marrow cells.

  1. Biochemical changes after subchronic and chronic interaction of Schistosoma mansoni infection in Swiss albino mice with two specific compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Laila S; Medhat, Amina M; Abdel-Menem, Hanan A

    2003-04-01

    In Egypt, infection with Schistosoma mansoni (S.m.) and residues of pesticides have been considered as major environmental pollutants that adversely affect health. Effects of diazinon (DZN) and/or praziquantel (PZQ) on the levels of plasma triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), activities of brain acetylcholinesterase (AchE) and liver alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in addition to blood reduced glutathione (GSH) in healthy and S.m. infected mice were investigated after 9 and 17 weeks of either infection or intoxication with DZN. Triiodothyronine showed significant differences among the different treatments. The group of mice treated with PZQ showed the highest levels of T3 at both time intervals. Thyroxine level showed significant differences between the two time intervals. The lowest levels of T4 were observed in the infected-PZQ group at week 17. The maximum inhibition of brain AchE activity was noticed in DZN-PZQ treated group after 9 and 17 weeks. The different treatments significantly reduced the activities of liver ALT. The highest decrease was recorded in the infected-DZN-PZQ group at week 9. All treatments significantly lowered the levels of blood GSH after 9 weeks.

  2. In vivo toxicity of the culturable marine cyanobacterium Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 extract on male Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruthanayagam, Veerabadhran; Nagarajan, Manivel; Sundararaman, Muthuraman

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vivo toxicity of Geitlerinema pseudacutissimum CNP 1019 organic extract in a murine host. A single intraperitoneal injection of 1 g extract kg⁻¹ body weight (BW) did not exhibit mortality, whereas 3 g extract kg⁻¹ BW (approximate lethal dose) resulted in mortality within 5 days. To perform subchronic exposure toxicity analyses (i.e., daily exposure for a total of 14 days), a maximum concentration of ≤1 g extract kg⁻¹ BW was used. Subchronic toxicity studies in the treated mice, showed fluctuations of feed intake, loss of body weight, increase in specific activity of serum lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase and decrease in whole serum protein concentration. LDH isoenzyme expression was found, and levels of the various isoforms were decreased as a result of the treatment. Histopathology studies in liver, kidney, and spleen isolated from the treated mice showed the presence of necrotic debris, hemorrhage, and micronuclei revealing the toxicity of the extract. The dose-dependent alterations in biochemical parameters in conjunction with the histological lesions noted in the animals treated with the prepared extract illustrate the likely potential toxicity to mammals from any encounters with the studied cyanobacterium.

  3. bipyridinium dichloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City, 300001 Nigeria. ... Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) ... Control and vitamin C-treated mice .... Tokyo, Japan).

  4. Modulatory action of 2-deoxy-D-glucose on mitomycin C-and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced genotoxicity in Swiss albino mice In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Rashmi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: 2-Deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG, a structural analog of glucose is an effective inhibitor of glucose metabolism and ATP production. It selectively accumulates in cancer cells and interferes with glycolysis leading to cell death. 2-DG is shown to differentially enhance the radiation-induced damage in cancer cells both under euoxic and hypoxic conditions. A combination of 2-DG and ionizing radiation selectively destroys tumors while protecting the normal tissue. 2-DG is being advocated as an adjuvant in the radiotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer. Objective: The present investigation focuses on the modulatory effect of 2-DG on mitomycin C- (MMC and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO-induced cytogenetic damage in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice in vivo. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals were pretreated with 2-DG (500 mg/kg, i.p. for five consecutive days followed by MMC (2 mg/kg, i.p or 4-NQO (15 mg/kg, i.p., 24h prior to sacrifice. Control animals were given either the mixture of olive oil and acetone (3:1 or distilled water. Bone marrow cells were processed for the micronucleus assay and metaphase analysis for estimating cytogenetic damage. Results: 2-DG significantly (P < 0.001 reduced the frequency of aberrant cells induced by MMC (~90% and 4-NQO (~74%. Incidence of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs induced by the mutagens were reduced up to 68%. Conclusion: 2-DG effectively reduces the MMC-and 4-NQO-induced genotoxicity.

  5. Oxidative stress due to (R)-styrene oxide exposure and the role of antioxidants in non-Swiss albino (NSA) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszka-Jordan, Anna; Mahlapuu, Riina; Soomets, Ursel; Carlson, Gary P

    2009-01-01

    Styrene produces lung and liver damage that may be related to oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the toxicity of (R)-styrene oxide (R-SO), the more active enantiomeric metabolite of styrene, and the protective properties of the antioxidants glutathione (GSH), N-acetylcysteine (NAC), and 4-methoxy-L-tyrosinyl-gamma-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine (UPF1) against R-SO-induced toxicity in non-Swiss Albino (NSA) mice. UPF1 is a synthetic GSH analog that was shown to have 60 times the ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) in comparison to GSH. R-SO toxicity to the lung was measured by elevations in the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein concentration, and number of cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Toxicity to the liver was measured by increases in serum sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) activity. Antioxidants were not able to decrease the adverse effects of R-SO on lung. However, NAC (200 mg/kg) ip and GSH (600 mg/kg), administered orally prior to R-SO (300 mg/kg) ip, showed significant protection against liver toxicity as measured by SDH activity. Unexpectedly, a synthetic GSH analog, UPF1 (0.8 mg/kg), administered intravenously (iv) prior to R-SO, produced a synergistic effect with regard to liver and lung toxicity. Treatment with UPF1 (0.8 mg/kg) iv every other day for 1 wk for preconditioning prior to R-SO ip did not result in any protection against liver and lung toxicity, but rather enhanced the toxicity when administered prior R-SO. The results of the present study demonstrated protection against R-SO toxicity in liver but not lung by the administration of the antioxidants NAC and GSH.

  6. Role of phenolics from Spondias pinnata bark in amelioration of iron overload induced hepatic damage in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Dipankar; Ghate, Nikhil Baban; Panja, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2016-07-26

    Crude Spondias pinnata bark extract was previously assessed for its antioxidant, anticancer and iron chelating potentials. The isolated compounds gallic acid (GA) and methyl gallate (MG) were evaluated for their curative potential against iron overload-induced liver fibrosis and hepatocellular damage. In vitro iron chelation property and in vivo ameliorating potential from iron overload induced liver toxicity of GA and MG was assessed by different biochemical assays and histopathological studies. MG and GA demonstrated excellent reducing power activities but iron chelation potential of MG is better than GA. Oral MG treatment in mice displayed excellent efficacy (better than GA) to significantly restore the levels of liver antioxidants, serum markers and cellular reactive oxygen species in a dose-dependent fashion. Apart from these, MG exceptionally prevented lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation whereas GA demonstrated better activity to reduce collagen content, thereby strengthening its position as an efficient drug against hepatic damage/fibrosis, which was further supported by histopathological studies. Alongside, MG efficiently eliminated the cause of liver damage, i.e., excess iron, by chelating free iron and reducing the ferritin-bound iron. The present study confirmed the curative effect of GA and MG against iron overload hepatic damage via their potent antioxidant and iron-chelating potential.

  7. Antioxidant effects of captopril against lead acetate-induced hepatic and splenic tissue toxicity in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badr A. Aldahmash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Considering that lead caused a lot of health problems in the world, the present study was carried out to investigate the protective effect of captopril as antioxidants to reduce liver and spleen toxicity induced by lead. Animals were divided into 3 groups, the 1st group served as control group, the 2nd group received 20 mg/kg of lead acetate and the 3rd group received 50 mg/kg of captopril one hour prior to lead administration for 5 days. Results showed that lead intake caused severe alterations in the liver and spleen manifested by hepatocytes degeneration, leukocytic infiltration, fibrosis in liver and moderate to severe liver pathological score. Spleen showed ill-defined architecture, presence of large macrophages and lymphoid necrosis. Administration of captopril reduced hepatotoxicity, liver fibrosis and decrease in pathological scoring system. Moreover, reduced toxicity in spleen is represented by reduction in necrotic areas, more or less healthy lymphoid follicles and decreasing in pathological scoring system. Keywords: Captopril, Mice, Liver, Spleen

  8. Decreased antibody formation in mice exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koller, L D; Kovacic, S

    1974-07-12

    Swiss Webster mice were given 1375, 137.5, or 13.75 ppM lead acetate in deionized water for 56 days. The control group was given deionized water orally. There were 120 mice in each group. The diet fed to all the mice was contaminated with 1.12 ppM lead. After 56 days, all mice were inoculated intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml of a 2% suspension of sheep red blood cells. Ten mice in each group were killed on days 3 to 7 to measure primary immune response (19S or IgM antibody) and on days 9 to 14 for the secondary response (7S or IgG antibody) after a second inoculation of sheep red blood cells while they remained on 137.5 ppM lead. The number of plaque forming cells was measured in the spleen. Erythrocytes were observed for basophilic stippling, packed cell volume was measured, serum was collected for hemolysin titration, and kidneys were examined for lead. Chronic exposure to lead produced a significant decrease in antibody synthesis, particularly IgG, indicating that the memory cell was involved. The results also indicated that the reduced antibody synthesis was responsible for the increased mortality from bacterial and viral diseases in animals that were chronically exposed to lead. Other environmental contaminants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, cadmium, mercury, DDT, and sulfur dioxide have also resulted in reduction of circulating antibodies in animals, in other experiments.

  9. Effects of cage density on behavior in young adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Lauren P; Chedester, Alan L; Cole, Marlene N

    2007-08-01

    Optimal housing conditions for mice can be achieved by minimizing environmental variables, such as those that may contribute to anxiety-like behavior. This study evaluated the effects of cage size on juvenile mice through assessment of differences in weaning weight, locomotor skills, and anxiety-like behavior. Eighteen pairs of male and pregnant female Swiss-Webster (Cr:SW) mice were housed in 3 different caging scenarios, providing 429, 505, or 729 cm2 of space. Litters were standardized to 10 pups per litter in each cage. Mice reared in each caging scenario were assessed with the open-field, light-dark exploration, and elevated plus-maze tests. No differences in weaning weight were noted. Mice reared in the 505- and 729-cm2 cages explored a significantly larger area of the open-field arena than did those in the 429-cm2 cages. Those reared in the 505-cm2 cages spent more time in the center of the open field than did those in the 729-cm2 cages, suggesting that anxiety-like behavior may be increased in the animals housed in the larger cages. This study did not establish a consistent link between decreased floor space and increased anxiety-like behavior; neither does there appear to be a consistent effect of available floor area on the development of locomotor skills on mouse pups.

  10. Hazardous Waste Cleanup: Xerox Corporation - Joseph C. Wilson Center for Technology in Webster, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Xerox Corporation campus is located at 800 Phillips Road in Webster, New York. The facility occupies approximately one thousand acres in the Town of Webster. The areas adjacent to the site to the east south and west are zoned for industrial, commercial

  11. Anxiogenic-like effect of chronic corticosterone in the light-dark emergence task in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardayfio, Paul; Kim, Kwang-Soo

    2006-04-01

    Chronic hypercortisolemia is a hallmark of neuroendocrine and psychiatric disorders, such as Cushing's disease and depression. Whether cortisol directly contributes to the altered mood and anxiety symptoms seen in these diseases remains unclear. To address this, the authors have modeled hypercortisolemia by administering corticosterone in the drinking water of female Swiss Webster mice for 17 or 18 days (13 mg/kg). Light-dark emergence, startle habituation, and startle reactivity were measured. Chronic but not acute treatment with corticosterone increased the latency to emerge into the light compartment, an anxiogenic-like effect. Chronic corticosterone treatment did not affect startle habituation, but did reduce startle reactivity. This study suggests that chronic hypercortisolemia may contribute to anxiety-related behavior in patients with Cushing's disease and depression. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Activity of Catalase (CAT, ALT and AST in Different Organs of Swiss Albino Mice Treated with Lead Acetate, Vitamin C and Magnesium-L-Threonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Nazmi Mazreku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a natural element with toxic properties and is widespread in the environment. Lead toxicity is associated with generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and consumption of antioxidants elements (vitamin E and C, glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid, melatonin, carotenoids and natural flavonoids in the cell, and unbalancing oxidantsantioxidants levels. Aim: To evaluate the effects of different chemical combinations (lead acetate, Vitamin C and Magnesium-L-threonate on antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase-CAT of liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and brain, and serum transaminases [Serum Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST]. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals (49 male Mus musculus-swiss albino mice were separated into five different groups. The first group was used as a control, hence the other four groups were treated with sub-lethal doses (90 mg/kg of lead acetate (group 2, lead acetate (90 mg/kg and Vitamin C dose 40mg/kg (group 3, lead acetate (90 mg/kg and Magnesium-Lthreonate dose 100 mg/kg (group 4 and only with MagnesiumL-threonate dose 100 mg/kg (group 5, during the treatment period (40 days. Blood samples were taken from the facial vein and used for transaminase analysis. Organ tissue was collected after euthanizing anaesthetized animals with neck dislocation technique. Results: The results showed that lead acetate treatment has caused significant elevation in the activity of AST (group 2 and 3 and ALT (group 3. Also, CAT activity was significantly (p<0.05 increased in groups treated with lead acetate (liver, pancreas, kidney and brain but not in spleen. Treatment of lead intoxicated groups with Vitamin C and Magnesium L-threonate increased significantly CAT activity in brain. Conclusion: Lead effects by interacting with different molecular systems and increasing enzyme activity (CAT, ALT and AST. Effects on CAT activity of Magnesium-L-threonate and Vitamin C treatment

  13. EFFECT OF IMPERMEANT CRYOPROTECTANTS ON THE IN VITRO VIABILITY OF FROZEN SPERMATOZOA OF SWISS-ALBINA AND BALB/C MICE (Mus musculus EFEITO DE CRIOPROTETORES IMPERMEÁVEIS SOBRE A VIABILIDADE IN VITRO DE ESPERMATOZOIDES CONGELADOS DE CAMUNDONGOS (Mus musculus DAS LINHAGENS SWISS-ALBINA e BALB/c

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Varela Junior

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of three disaccharides (sucrose, threalose and lactose used as nonpenetrating cryoprotectants in extender for mice semen. The parameters evaluated were sperm motility (MOT and cleavage rate (CLV after in vitro fertilization in the SWISS-ALBINA and BALB/c lines. The treatments were S1=sucrose; S2=threalose; S3=lactose, for SWISS-ALBINA; and B1=lactose; B2=threalose for BALB/c.  MOT was evaluated after: thawing (THA, centrifugation and re-suspension in P-1 medium (CEN and after 10 minutes of incubation (10M. The MOT for the SWISS-ALBINA line was higher for S2 (P<0.001 in the 3 evaluated steps (47% at DES; 66.5% at CEN and 67.2% at 10M than for S1 (32.5% at DES; 51.5% at CEN and 47.7% at 10M and S3 (30% at DES, 46.5% at CEN and 32.7% at 10M. For the BALB/c line, MOT was superior for B2 than for B1 (P<0.001. Thus, the tested disaccharides, especially threalose, can be recommended for freezing of mice sperm.

    KEY WORDS: Cryopreservation, disaccharides, mice, semen. 

    O trabalho objetivou avaliar os efeitos dos dissacarídeos sacarose, trealose e lactose, como crioprotetores impermeáveis à membrana plasmática em diluentes para criopreservação de sêmen de camundongos. Para avaliação do sêmen utilizaram-se os seguintes parâmetros: motilidade progressiva (MOT das células espermáticas, e a taxa de clivagem embrionária (TXCL obtida por meio de fertilização in vitro, nas linhagens SWISS-ALBINA e BALB/c. Os tratamentos avaliados foram: S1=sacarose; S2=trealose; S3=lactose, para SWISS-ALBINA e B1=lactose; B2=trealose para BALB/c. Avaliou-se a MOT durante as seguintes etapas: descongelação (DES, centrifugação e ressuspensão no meio P-1 (CEN e após dez minutos de incubação (10M. A MOT no S2 para a linhagem SWISS-ALBINA nas três etapas (47% no DES; 66,5% na CEN e 67,2% no 10M foi superior (P<0,001 a S1 (32,5% no DES; 51,5% no

  14. Life cycle management in the U.S.: Stone and Webster's experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    Life Cycle Management (LCM) is a sound methodology that integrates plant operations, maintenance requirements and practices, capital improvements, radioactive waste strategies, decommissioning, and life extension. It is a structured decision-making process for plant aging management and performance improvement. Stone and Webster has used this process for many fossil plants, and is now using it at several nuclear plants. This paper discusses Stone and Webster's experiences with LCM programs at U.S. nuclear power plants. 1 ref., 3 tabs., 8 figs

  15. Effects of dopamine D1-like and D2-like antagonists on cocaine discrimination in muscarinic receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Morgane; Caine, Simon Barak

    2016-04-05

    Muscarinic and dopamine brain systems interact intimately, and muscarinic receptor ligands, like dopamine ligands, can modulate the reinforcing and discriminative stimulus (S(D)) effects of cocaine. To enlighten the dopamine/muscarinic interactions as they pertain to the S(D) effects of cocaine, we evaluated whether muscarinic M1, M2 or M4 receptors are necessary for dopamine D1 and/or D2 antagonist mediated modulation of the S(D) effects of cocaine. Knockout mice lacking M1, M2, or M4 receptors, as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline in a food-reinforced drug discrimination procedure. Effects of pretreatments with the dopamine D1 antagonist SCH 23390 and the dopamine D2 antagonist eticlopride were evaluated. In intact mice, both SCH 23390 and eticlopride attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect, as expected. SCH 23390 similarly attenuated the cocaine discriminative stimulus effect in M1 knockout mice, but not in mice lacking M2 or M4 receptors. The effects of eticlopride were comparable in each knockout strain. These findings demonstrate differences in the way that D1 and D2 antagonists modulate the S(D) effects of cocaine, D1 modulation being at least partially dependent upon activity at the inhibitory M2/M4 muscarinic subtypes, while D2 modulation appeared independent of these systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of the in vivo mutagenic potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of the northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Ericales, Ericaceae on peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice (Mus musculus Rodentia, Muridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Scotini Freitas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. Ericales, Ericaceae is very rich in anthocyanins, natural pigments which have strong antioxidant properties and potential health benefits, resulting in the worldwide use the blueberry as a medicinal plant. We investigated the mutagenic potential of simple hydroalcoholic extracts of V. corymbosum acutely administrated by gavage to Swiss mice at doses of 1 g kg-1, 1.5 g kg-1 and 2 g kg-1. Peripheral blood cells were collected 4 h and 24 h post-gavage and assessed by the alkaline comet assay, with further blood samples being collected at 48 h and 72 h for assessment using the micronucleus (MN assay. Our results show that the V. corymbosum extracts did not induce any statistically significant increase in the average amount of DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes. However, we did record a significant increase in the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes at the three doses tested.

  17. Protective effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob (Ceratonia siliqua) leaves and cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica against inflammation associated with diet-induced obesity and DSS-induced colitis in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboura, Ikram; Nani, Abdelhafid; Belarbi, Meriem; Murtaza, Babar; Fluckiger, Aurélie; Dumont, Adélie; Benammar, Chahid; Tounsi, Moufida Saidani; Ghiringhelli, François; Rialland, Mickaël; Khan, Naim Akhtar; Hichami, Aziz

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, we have investigated the effects of polyphenol-rich infusions from carob leaves and OFI-cladodes on inflammation associated with obesity and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in Swiss mice. In vitro studies revealed that aqueous extracts of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes exhibited anti-inflammatory properties marked by the inhibition of IL-6, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells concomitant with NF-κβ nucleus translocation inhibition. For in vivo investigations, Swiss male mice were subjected to control or high fat diet (HFD). At the 8th week after the start of study, animals received or not 1% infusion of either carob leaves or OFI-cladode for 4 weeks and were subjected to 2% DSS administration in drinking water over last 7 days. After sacrifice, pro-inflammatory cytokines levels in plasma and their mRNA expression in different organs were determined. Results showed that carob leaf and OFI-cladode infusions reduced inflammation severity associated with HFD-induced obesity and DSS-induced acute colitis indicated by decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (as such TNF-α, IL1b and IL-6) in colon, adipose tissue and spleen. In addition, plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were also curtailed in response to infusions treatment. Thus, carob leaf and OFI-cladode infusions prevented intestinal permeability through the restoration of tight junction proteins (Zo1, occludins) and immune homeostasis. Hence, the anti-inflammatory effect of carob leaves and OFI-cladodes could be attributed to their polyphenols which might alleviate inflammation severity associated with obesity and colitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Early weaning impairs body composition in male mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carolina Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of early weaning on body composition and on parameters related to nutritional status in mice. The experimental group consisted of male Swiss Webster mice that were weaned early (at postnatal day fourteen and fed an appropriate diet for growing rodents until postnatal day twenty-one (EW group. The control group consisted of male mice breastfed until postnatal day twenty-one (CON group. All animals were sacrificed on the twenty-first day of life. The EW group showed a decrease in liver and muscle protein content and concentration, brain protein concentration, brain DNA content and concentration, as well as liver and muscle protein/RNA ratio (pO presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito do desmame precoce sobre a composição corporal e sobre parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional de camundongos. O grupo experimental consistiu de camundongos Swiss Webster, machos, desmamados precocemente (14º dia de vida e alimentados com ração apropriada para roedores em crescimento até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo DESM. O grupo controle consistiu de camundongos amamentados até o 21º dia pós-natal (grupo CON. Todos os animais foram sacrificados no 21º dia de vida. O grupo DESM apresentou redução da concentração e conteúdo hepático e muscular de proteínas, da concentração cerebral de proteínas, da concentração e conteúdo cerebral de DNA e da razão proteína/RNA hepática e muscular (p<0,05. Quanto à composição corporal, o grupo DESM apresentou maior conteúdo de umidade, maior percentual de umidade e lipídios e menor conteúdo e percentual de cinzas e proteína na carcaça (p<0,05. Os resultados indicam que o desmame precoce acarreta em prejuízo à composição corporal e a parâmetros indicativos do estado nutricional, o que pode estar relacionado ao retardo do processo de maturação química. Os dados do presente estudo podem contribuir para o entendimento da influência da alimenta

  19. Effect of electron radiation on aggressive behavior, activity, and hemopoiesis in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, D.M.; Landauer, M.R.; Davis, H.D.; Walden, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    The behavioral and physiological effects of 10 Gray (Gy) LINAC electrons in male Swiss-Webster mice were followed for 12 days postirradiation (PR). In Experiment 1, aggressive behavior was assessed in irradiated or sham-irradiated resident mice using a resident-intruder paradigm. Aggressive offensive behavior in the irradiated residents was significantly decreased beginning 2 to 5 days PR, and remained suppressed. Defensive behavior in the nonirradiated intruders was decreased significantly by day 5 PR. In Experiment 2, spontaneous locomotor activity was monitored. Ambulation of irradiated mice was significantly depressed from day 5 PR on, while rearing was affected as early as day 2 PR and remained suppressed. Body weights of irradiated animals were significantly decreased by 5 days PR. In Experiment 3, blood parameters were examined. Compared to sham-irradiated controls, leukocytes, erythrocytes, and hematocrit of irradiated mice were reduced significantly beginning on day 1 PR and remained suppressed, while platelets and hemoglobin were decreased beginning day 2 PR. These results demonstrate that 10 Gy of high-energy electrons results in earlier behavioral deficits than has been observed previously with the same dose of gamma photons. (author)

  20. Onset of behavioral effects in mice exposed to 10 Gy Co-60 radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, D.M.; Landauer, M.R.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of 10 Gray (Gy) Co-60 radiation on social behavior, locomotor activity, and body weight were assessed in individually housed male Swiss-Webster mice. In experiment 1, aggressive behavior was evaluated prior to irradiation and for 7 d postirradiation by placing an untreated intruder in the irradiated or sham-irradiated resident's home cage for 5 min. Offensive aggressive behavior was not affected significantly by radiation until day 7 postirradiation, when attack latency increased, the frequency and duration of fighting decreased, and the frequency of bites, lunges, and chases decreased. Untreated intruder mice paired with irradiated resident mice showed a decrease in the duration of defensive upright postures and a decrease in the frequency of defensive upright postures, squeaks, and escapes on day 7 postirradiation. In experiment 2, locomotor activity and body weight were monitored for 7 d postirradiation. Body weight was decreased in irradiated mice beginning 4 d postirradiation. Locomotor activity was suppressed in irradiated animals 90 min after irradiation and remained depressed throughout the 7-d testing period. 25 refs

  1. Caffeine/sleep-deprivation interaction in mice produces complex memory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Akanmu, Moses A; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2015-07-01

    Sleep deprivation negatively impacts memory, causing deficits in memory processes. Of interest is any agent that can offset such deficits. Mice were given varying doses of caffeine for 14 days and then deprived of sleep for 6 hours by the 'gentle handling' method. Memory was assessed using the Novel Object Recognition Test and Y maze alternation. The study was designed to ascertain the impact of varying doses of caffeine combined with total sleep-deprivation on spatial and non spatial memory in mice. Adult Swiss Webster mice of both sexes were assigned to six groups viz., vehicle (distilled water), or one of five selected doses of caffeine (10, 20, 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg) for 14 days via the oral route. Open field novel object recognition test and Y maze spatial working memory tests were carried out on day 14. Results were analysed using multi-factorial ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test and expressed as mean ± S.E.M, with p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Novel object recognition tests (NOR) revealed that pre-training and pre-test sleep deprivation and caffeine combination impaired non spatial and spatial memory in male and female mice. The study shows the complex interactions with memory that may arise when total sleep deprivation is superimposed on caffeine administration.

  2. 75 FR 22629 - Kenco Logistic Services, LLC, Electrolux Webster City, Including On-Site Leased Workers From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,778] Kenco Logistic Services... January 8, 2010, applicable to workers of Kenco Logistic Services, LLC, Electrolux Webster City, including... logistic services for the Electrolux, Webster City, Iowa. The company reports that workers leased from...

  3. Gamma radiation-induced heritable mutations at repetitive DNA loci in out-bred mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somers, C.M.; Sharma, R.; Quinn, J.S.; Boreham, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that expanded-simple-tandem-repeat (ESTR) DNA loci are efficient genetic markers for detecting radiation-induced germ line mutations in mice. Dose responses following irradiation, however, have only been characterized in a small number of inbred mouse strains, and no studies have applied Esters to examine potential modifiers of radiation risk, such as adaptive response. We gamma-irradiated groups of male out-bred Swiss-Webster mice with single acute doses of 0.5 and 1.0 Gy, and compared germ line mutation rates at ESTR loci to a sham-irradiated control. To test for evidence of adaptive response we treated a third group with a total dose of 1.1 Gy that was fractionated into a 0.1 Gy adapting dose, followed by a challenge dose of 1.0 Gy 24 h later. Paternal mutation rates were significantly elevated above the control in the 0.5 Gy (2.8-fold) and 1.0 Gy (3.0-fold) groups, but were similar to each other despite the difference in radiation dose. The doubling dose for paternal mutation induction was 0.26 Gy (95% CI = 0.14-0.51 Gy). Males adapted with a 0.1 Gy dose prior to a 1.0 Gy challenge dose had mutation rates that were not significantly elevated above the control, and were 43% reduced compared to those receiving single doses. We conclude that pre-meiotic male germ cells in out-bred Swiss-Webster mice are sensitive to ESTR mutations induced by acute doses of ionizing radiation, but mutation induction may become saturated at a lower dose than in some strains of inbred mice. Reduced mutation rates in the adapted group provide intriguing evidence for suppression of ESTR mutations in the male germline through adaptive response. Repetitive DNA markers may be useful tools for exploration of biological factors affecting the probability of heritable mutations caused by low-dose ionizing radiation exposure. The biological significance of ESTR mutations in terms of radiation risk assessment, however, is still undetermined

  4. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitic (NASH) mice are protected from higher hepatotoxicity of acetaminophen upon induction of PPARα with clofibrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donthamsetty, Shashikiran; Bhave, Vishakha S.; Mitra, Mayurranjan S.; Latendresse, John R.; Mehendale, Harihara M.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to investigate if the hepatotoxic sensitivity in nonalcoholic steatohepatitic mice to acetaminophen (APAP) is due to downregulation of nuclear receptor PPARα via lower cell division and tissue repair. Male Swiss Webster mice fed methionine and choline deficient diet for 31 days exhibited NASH. On the 32nd day, a marginally toxic dose of APAP (360 mg/kg, ip) yielded 70% mortality in steatohepatitic mice, while all non steatohepatitic mice receiving the same dose survived. 14 C-APAP covalent binding, CYP2E1 protein, and enzyme activity did not differ from the controls, obviating increased APAP bioactivation as the cause of amplified APAP hepatotoxicity. Liver injury progressed only in steatohepatitic livers between 6 and 24 h. Cell division and tissue repair assessed by 3 H-thymidine incorporation and PCNA were inhibited only in the steatohepatitic mice given APAP suggesting that higher sensitivity of NASH liver to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was due to lower tissue repair. The hypothesis that impeded liver tissue repair in steatohepatitic mice was due to downregulation of PPARα was tested. PPARα was downregulated in NASH. To investigate whether downregulation of PPARα in NASH is the critical mechanism of compromised liver tissue repair, PPARα was induced in steatohepatitic mice with clofibrate (250 mg/kg for 3 days, ip) before injecting APAP. All clofibrate pretreated steatohepatitic mice receiving APAP exhibited lower liver injury, which did not progress and the mice survived. The protection was not due to lower bioactivation of APAP but due to higher liver tissue repair. These findings suggest that inadequate PPARα expression in steatohepatitic mice sensitizes them to APAP hepatotoxicity

  5. 75 FR 67775 - Compass Group USA, Inc., Canteen, Webster City, Iowa; Notice of Negative Determination on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,503] Compass Group USA, Inc., Canteen, Webster City, Iowa; Notice of Negative Determination on Reconsideration On September 21, 2010... passage of the Trade Globalization Adjustment Assistance Act of 2009'' and that in making those changes...

  6. Choreographing a Life: Kimberly Bolan--Taney Webster Public Library, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    When Kim Taney is not tending 80 workstations on the Webster Public Library's local area network, supervising the pages, working the reference desk, and advising libraries on how to improve teen services, she teaches ballet and choreographs her dance studio's productions. Choreography is a useful skill for someone with such a multifaceted life. As…

  7. Duane Webster's Contribution to Organization Development in Academic and Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Duane Webster is a visionary leader who, throughout his career, has had a significant impact on the improvement of libraries and librarianship. His work to establish the Association of Research Library's (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS) and its several organizational improvement programs laid the foundation for organization development in…

  8. Benchmarking Swiss electricity grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walti, N.O.; Weber, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    This extensive article describes a pilot benchmarking project initiated by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises that assessed 37 Swiss utilities. The data collected from these utilities on a voluntary basis included data on technical infrastructure, investments and operating costs. These various factors are listed and discussed in detail. The assessment methods and rating mechanisms that provided the benchmarks are discussed and the results of the pilot study are presented that are to form the basis of benchmarking procedures for the grid regulation authorities under the planned Switzerland's electricity market law. Examples of the practical use of the benchmarking methods are given and cost-efficiency questions still open in the area of investment and operating costs are listed. Prefaces by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises and the Swiss Federal Office of Energy complete the article

  9. The Role Of Sevoflurane And Ionising Radiation On THE Level Of Primary DNA Damage Measured In Blood And Different Organs Of Swiss Albino Mice By THE Alkaline Comet Assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovic, V.; Milic, M.; Horvat Knezevic, A.; Halovanovic, S.; Borojevic, N.; Orsolic, N.

    2015-01-01

    Sevoflurane is general anaesthetic suitable for short surgical procedures due to its quick induction of anaesthesia, maintaining spontaneous breathing frequency and hemodynamic stability of patients. However, it can directly trigger the formation of peroxynitrite, significantly increase intracellular levels of H2O2, peroxide, superoxide anion and nitric oxide in peripheral polymorphonuclear neutrophils 1h after the treatment; lowering the levels of intracellular glutathione, and increase radiosensitivity of cells also exposed to ionising radiation (IR). We wanted to evaluate the level of sinergistic effect and possible radiosensitivity DNA damage in blood, and different organs of Swiss albino mice after exposure to both sevoflurane (2.4 percent, 50:50) and the 1Gy gamma-ray radiation generally used in diagnostic purposes after 0, 2, 6 and 24 hours from the combined treatment with alkaline comet assay. Combined exposure to sevoflurane and IR has demonstrated synergistic effect. Due to metabolising of the sevoflurane, there was different sensitivity between blood, liver, kidney and brain cells. (author).

  10. Effect of Guava Extract Administration on Megakaryocytes Amount in Mice Femur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atik

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a disease spread by mosquito’s bite. Dengue fever is marked by the presence of thrombocytopenia. Traditional crops such as guava are commonly used to treat dengue fever. This research aims to know the effect of guava extract administration towards megakaryocytes amount in mice femur. The study was conducted at the Laboratory of Pharmacology and Therapy, Histology Laboratory of Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Padjadjaran, Eijkman, Bandung from September until November 2016 using laboratory experimental study design. 20 Swiss webster mice strains were divided randomly into 4 groups. Group I and II were administered quinine 2.8 mg/20 grBW/day for 14 days to decrease amount of trombocytes. Group II and III were administered guava extract 0.785 mg/20 grBW/day for 5 days. Group IV was administered aquadest for 19 days. In the 27th day, the mice left femurs were collected and made into paraffin section preparations with hematoxylin-eosin staining and then observed under microscope. Group IV had the most megakaryocytes followed by Group II, III, and I. Based on Kruskal-Wallis test, a significant difference was shown (p<0.05. Mann-Whitney test showed that there were significant differences between Group I and Group II, III, and IV. Meanwhile there was no significant difference between normal mice and extract-given mice. Guava extract is proven statistically significant to increase the megakaryocytes amount in thrombocytopenic mice without increasing number of megakaryocytes in normal mice.

  11. Effects of muscarinic receptor antagonists on cocaine discrimination in wild-type mice and in muscarinic receptor M1, M2, and M4 receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Lauren; Thomsen, Morgane

    2017-06-30

    Muscarinic M 1 /M 4 receptor stimulation can reduce abuse-related effects of cocaine and may represent avenues for treating cocaine addiction. Muscarinic antagonists can mimic and enhance effects of cocaine, including discriminative stimulus (S D ) effects, but the receptor subtypes mediating those effects are not known. A better understanding of the complex cocaine/muscarinic interactions is needed to evaluate and develop potential muscarinic-based medications. Here, knockout mice lacking M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 receptors (M 1 -/- , M 2 -/- , M 4 -/- ), as well as control wild-type mice and outbred Swiss-Webster mice, were trained to discriminate 10mg/kg cocaine from saline. Muscarinic receptor antagonists with no subtype selectivity (scopolamine), or preferential affinity at the M 1 , M 2 , or M 4 subtype (telenzepine, trihexyphenidyl; methoctramine, AQ-RA 741; tropicamide) were tested alone and in combination with cocaine. In intact animals, antagonists with high affinity at M 1 /M 4 receptors partially substituted for cocaine and increased the S D effect of cocaine, while M 2 -preferring antagonists did not substitute, and reduced the S D effect of cocaine. The cocaine-like effects of scopolamine were absent in M 1 -/- mice. The cocaine S D attenuating effects of methoctramine were absent in M 2 -/- mice and almost absent in M 1 -/- mice. The findings indicate that the cocaine-like S D effects of muscarinic antagonists are primarily mediated through M 1 receptors, with a minor contribution of M 4 receptors. The data also support our previous findings that stimulation of M 1 receptors and M 4 receptors can each attenuate the S D effect of cocaine, and show that this can also be achieved by blocking M 2 autoreceptors, likely via increased acetylcholine release. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Boron nitride nanotubes radiolabeled with ⁹⁹mTc: preparation, physicochemical characterization, biodistribution study, and scintigraphic imaging in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Daniel Crístian Ferreira; Ferreira, Tiago Hilário; Ferreira, Carolina de Aguiar; Cardoso, Valbert Nascimento; de Sousa, Edésia Martins Barros

    2012-02-28

    In the present study, boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) were synthesized from an innovative process and functionalized with a glycol chitosan polymer in CDTN (Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear) laboratories. As a means of studying their in vivo biodistribution behavior, these nanotubes were radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and injected in mice. Their size, distribution, and homogeneity were determined by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), while their zeta potential was determined by laser Doppler anemometry. The morphology and structural organization were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The functionalization in the nanotubes was evaluated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and Fourier transformer infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that BNNTs were obtained and functionalized successfully, reaching a mean size and dispersity deemed adequate for in vivo studies. The BNNTs were also evaluated by ex vivo biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging in healthy mice. The results showed that nanostructures, after 24h, having accumulated in the liver, spleen and gut, and eliminated via renal excretion. The findings from this study reveal a potential application of functionalized BNNTs as new potential drugs or radioisotope nanocarriers to be applied in therapeutic procedures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Surto de varíola murina em camundongos suíços em biotério: Relato de caso An outbreak of mousepox in swiss mice in a laboratory animal facility: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Diniz

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Duzentos camundongos suíços foram alojados em um biotério com instalações e condições de manejo adequadas para uma criação de animais convencionais sadios. Após 14 dias de alojamento, dois animais tiveram morte súbita, e em 74 animais (37% foram observados sintomas clínicos como edema da face e das patas. Uma semana após foram observadas lesões generalizadas na pele ou somente no dorso, na face, no focinho e nas patas, nódulos na cauda, e em cinco animais conjuntivite. A necropsia de 10 camundongos indicou alterações como hepatomegalia, esplenomegalia e hiperplasia dos gânglios. Amostras do fígado, baço e de lesões da cauda foram inoculadas em membrana corioalantóide (MCA de ovos embrionados de galinha. Após 72 horas foram detectadas lesões necróticas típicas denominadas "pocks". As MCAs foram maceradas e inoculadas em culturas de células Vero e detectado efeito citopático após 72 horas. O diagnóstico da varíola murina foi baseado nos sinais clínicos, lesões, cultivo e na identificação do vírus.Two hundred Swiss mice were housed following the requirements to produce healthy laboratory animals. After 14 days two mice had an acute lethal infection and one week later 74 animals (37% presented multiple skin lesions some of them associated with conjunctivitis. Necropsy of 10 mice with clinical signs (swelling of feet and facial area revealed alterations in the spleen, liver and lymphonodes. Samples of hepatic and splenic tissues and of tail lesions were inoculated on chorioallantoic membrane (MCA of embrionated chicken eggs and pocks lesions were detected. The MCAs were grinded and inoculated in Vero cell cultures and the cytophatic effect was detected after 72 hours. Diagnosis of mousepox was based on clinical signs, lesions and virus isolation and identification.

  14. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  15. Special article: Horace Nelson MD, John Webster LDS--unrecognized Canadian anesthesia pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Douglas; Chartrand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    The timing of the earliest reported ether anesthetics in early 1847, in regions to become Canada in July 1867, was examined using information from on-line and library-based sources. Previous authors had identified the first reported ether anesthetic given by a visiting American dentist in January 1847 in Saint John, New Brunswick. Nevertheless, they had reported three different anesthetics as the second occurrence - which would denote the first anesthetic given by a resident of Canada. We confirmed that there were no reports of ether anesthetics being given in Canada before that reported on January 18, 1847 in Saint John. The information available for our review indicates that the second ether anesthetic, and the first by a Canadian, was given in Montreal by a dentist, Dr. John Horatio Webster, on February 20, 1847. The surgical assistant for that operation, Dr. Horace Nelson, later reported on animal and human experiments with ether, which he had led in Montreal starting in January 1847. Earlier authors, who may not have had access to the information now available, came to incorrect conclusions about the first ether anesthetic reported to have been given by a Canadian. Current information indicates that John Webster gave the first reported anesthetic in Montreal on February 20, 1847 following experiments with ether led by Horace Nelson. Both Webster and Nelson deserve recognition as Canadian anesthesia pioneers.

  16. Naltrexone-sensitive analgesia following exposure of mice to 2450-MHz radiofrequency radiation (RFR)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maillefer, R.H.; Quock, R.M. (Univ. of Illinois, Rockford (United States))

    1991-03-11

    This study was conducted to determine whether exposure to RFR might induce sufficient thermal stress to activate endogenous opioid mechanisms and induce analgesia. Male Swiss Webster mice, 20-25 g, were exposed to 10, 15 or 20 mV/cm{sup 2} RFR in a 2,450-MHz waveguide system for 10 min, then tested in the abdominal constriction paradigm. Specific absorption rates (SAR) were 23.7 W/kg at 10 mW/cm{sup 2}, 34.6 W/kg at 15 mW/cm{sup 2} and 45.5 W/kg at 20 mW/cm{sup 2}. Confinement in the exposure chamber alone did not appreciably alter body temperature but did appear to induce a stress-associated analgesia that was insensitive to the opioid receptor blocker naltrexone. Exposure of confined mice to RFR elevated body temperature and further increased analgesia in SAR-dependent manner. The high-SAR RFR-induced analgesia, but not the hyperthermia, was reduced by naltrexone. These findings suggest that (1) RFR produces SAR-dependent hyperthermia and analgesia and (2) RFR-induced analgesia is mediated by opioid mechanisms while confinement-induced analgesia involves non-opioid mechanisms.

  17. Original Article. Protection studies of new bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino-N-(pyridin-3yl acetamide derivatives (HNK-series oximes against acute poisoning by dichlorvos (DDVP in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pravin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino-N-(pyridin-3yl acetamide derivatives (HNK-series oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI and AChE reactivation in brain and serum. The inhibition concentration (IC50 was determined in brain and serum after optimizing the time point for maximum inhibition (60 min post DDVP exposure. AChE reactivation efficacy of the HNK series was evaluated at IC50 and compared with 2-PAM. HNK-102 showed a ~2 times better Protection Index (PI as compared to 2-PAM against DDVP toxicity. IC50 at 60 min DDVP post exposure was found to be approximately one fifth and one half of the LD50 dose for brain and serum AChE, respectively. Out of three HNK oximes, HNK-102 & 106 at 0.20 LD50 dose significantly reactivated DDVP intoxicated brain AChE (p<0.05 as compared to 2-PAM at double IC50 dose of DDVP. In light of double PI and higher AChE reactivation, HNK 102 was found to be a better oxime than 2-PAM in the treatment of acute poisoning by DDVP.

  18. Effect of curcumin and curcumin copper complex (1:1) on radiation-induced changes of anti-oxidant enzymes levels in the livers of Swiss albino mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koiram, P R; Veerapur, V P; Mazhuvancherry, U K [Manipal Coll. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Manipal (India); Kunwar, A; Mishra, B; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, I K [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai (India)

    2007-05-15

    The effect of mononuclear copper (II) complex of curcumin in 1:1 stoichiometry (hereafter referred to as complex) administered 30 mim before {gamma}-irradiation (4.5 Gy) on alterations in antioxidant and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in livers was studied in comparison to curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The different antioxidants like glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase, superoxide dismuatase (SOD), TBARS and total thiols were estimated in the liver homogenates excised at different time intervals (1, 2 and 4 h) post irradiation using colorimetric methods. There was a radiation-induced decrease in the levels of all the studied enzymes at 1 h post irradiation, while an increase was observed at later time points. Both curcumin and complex treatment in sham-irradiated mice decreased the levels of GSH and total thiols, whereas there was an increase in the levels of catalase, GST and SOD compared to normal control. Under the influence of irradiation, both curcumin and complex treatment protected the decline in the levels of GSH, GST, SOD, catalase and total thiols, and inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Further, the complex was found to be more effective in protecting the enzymes at 1 h post irradiation compared to curcumin treated group. This may be due to the higher rate constants of the complex compared to curcumin for their reactions with various free radicals. (author)

  19. Effect of curcumin and curcumin copper complex (1:1) on radiation-induced changes of anti-oxidant enzymes levels in the livers of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koiram, P.R.; Veerapur, V.P.; Mazhuvancherry, U.K.; Kunwar, A.; Mishra, B.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, I.K.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of mononuclear copper (II) complex of curcumin in 1:1 stoichiometry (hereafter referred to as complex) administered 30 mim before γ-irradiation (4.5 Gy) on alterations in antioxidant and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels in livers was studied in comparison to curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg. The different antioxidants like glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase, superoxide dismuatase (SOD), TBARS and total thiols were estimated in the liver homogenates excised at different time intervals (1, 2 and 4 h) post irradiation using colorimetric methods. There was a radiation-induced decrease in the levels of all the studied enzymes at 1 h post irradiation, while an increase was observed at later time points. Both curcumin and complex treatment in sham-irradiated mice decreased the levels of GSH and total thiols, whereas there was an increase in the levels of catalase, GST and SOD compared to normal control. Under the influence of irradiation, both curcumin and complex treatment protected the decline in the levels of GSH, GST, SOD, catalase and total thiols, and inhibited radiation-induced lipid peroxidation. Further, the complex was found to be more effective in protecting the enzymes at 1 h post irradiation compared to curcumin treated group. This may be due to the higher rate constants of the complex compared to curcumin for their reactions with various free radicals. (author)

  20. Effect of praziquantel administration on hepatic stereology of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and fed a low-protein diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of administering praziquantel (PZQ, focusing on the liver stereological findings of malnourished mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. Thirty female Swiss Webster mice (age: 21 days; weight: 8-14 g were fed either a low-protein diet (8% or standard chow (22% protein for 15 days. Five mice in each group were infected with 50 cercariae each of the BH strain (Brazil. PZQ therapy (80 mg/kg body weight, per day was started on the 50th day of infection and consisted of daily administration for 5 days. Volume density (hepatocytes, sinusoids and hepatic fibrosis was determined by stereology using a light microscope. Body weight gain and total serum albumin levels were always lower in undernourished mice. Our stereological study demonstrated that treatment increased both volume density of hepatocytes in mice fed standard chow (47.56%, treated group and 12.06%, control and low-protein chow (30.98%, treated group and 21.44%, control, and hepatic sinusoids [standard chow (12.52%, treated group and 9.06%, control, low-protein chow (14.42%, treated group and 8.46%, control], while hepatic fibrosis was reduced [standard chow (39.92%, treated group and 78.88%, control and low-protein chow (54.60%, treated group and 70.10%, control]. On the other hand, mice fed low-protein chow decreased density volume of hepatocytes and hepatic fibrosis. In conclusion, our findings indicate that treatment with PZQ ameliorates hepatic schistosomiasis pathology even in mice fed a low-protein diet.

  1. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  2. Swiss energy statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  3. Swiss energy statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  4. Swiss energy statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  5. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  7. IMMUNOSTIMULATORY EFFECT OF METHANOL EXTRACT OF FLAMBOYANT LEAF [Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook. Raf.] IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartini Eriani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Flamboyant [Delonix regia (Boj. ex Hook Raf.] leaf contains flavonoid compounds that are expected to have immunostimulatory effect. This research was done to determine the effect of flamboyant leaf extract on immune response by accessing the activity of immune cells and capability test the extract as immunostimulant in mice. Leaf extraction was done by maceration using methanol in the Laboratory of Biology of Chemistry Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences of Syiah Kuala University whereas animal treatment and testing were carried out Micro-technique Laboratory of Biology Department of the same faculty. This research used 20 male mice strain Swiss-Webster aged 7-8 weeks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups with five replications each. Group 1 (P0 was untreated control; group 1-3 were mice administration flamboyant leaf extract 250 mg/kg BW (P1, 500 mg/kg BW (P2, and 750 mg/kg BW (P3 per oral. The treatments were given for 14 days after one week of adaptation period. Blood samples were collected before and after extract treatment and used for leukocyte count analysis. Phagocytosis activity was accessed by carbon clearance assay on day 15. At the end of the study, all mice were sacrificed for spleen weight analysis. Data obtained was analyzed by Analysis of Variance followed by Tukey test (Leukocyte count and spleen weight or regression analysis (carbon clearance. The results showed a flamboyant leaf extract administration resulted in increased leukocyte counts that were significantly different (p<0.05 between treatment groups.  Phagocytosis test indicated the extract had moderate to strong immunostimulatory effect whereas spleen weight analysis did not show any difference among treatment groups. In conclusion, flamboyant leaf methanol extract was able to increase immune cells and had potential immunostimulatory activity in mice. Keywords: Delonix regia, immunostimulant, leukocytes, lymphocyte proliferation.

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  9. Swiss electricity statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  11. Swiss energy statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power

  12. Swiss energy statistics 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2010. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2010 and energy use in various sectors are presented. The Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. In the third chapter, details are given related to each energy carrier. The final chapter deals with economical and environmental aspects

  13. The effect of apple (Malus Domestica juice on the damage of mice liver cells due to paracetamol treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Hartanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an important organ for body metabolism process. Liver disease is one of serious health problems in developing countries including Indonesia. Liver damage is caused by viral infection, toxic agent exposure (medications, alcohol, hormonal disturbance, neoplasm and autoimmune diseases. The use of high dose paracetamol to reduce pain also leads to liver damage. Apple (Malus domestica juice is a natural anti oxidant agent. This laboratory experimental study was performed to discover the effect of giving apple juice on damaged cell regeneration due to the use of paracetamol. The study was performed in 21 male mice from Swiss-Webster strain that were divided into group I, II, and III. Group, I served as control while group II received 1 mg/ml paracetamol dose for 5 days and Group III received 1 mg/ml paracetamol for 5 days and 1 ml of apple juice on the 5th to 10th day. The observation of the mice liver cells was conducted using a light microscope with 400x magnification to get the number of necrotic liver cells per view field. The results of this study showed a difference in the number of necrotic liver cells between Group II and III. ANOVA statistical test ( = 0.05 concluded that apple juice significantly helps regeneration process in damaged liver cells caused by paracetamol.

  14. EUROPE: Swiss role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On its continual round of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) met in Bern, Switzerland, in March. With CERN based in Geneva, and with a national research centre at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland figures prominently in European particle physics. The Bern ECFA meeting provided a full picture of Swiss particle physics activities, project by project, and was prefaced by an overview by Claude Joseph of Lausanne. The number of experimental particle physicists in the country is about 200, with an academic staff of about 170. These are distributed among seven universities - Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel and Zurich. In addition there are substantial research groups at ETH-Zurich and at PSI. Probably reflecting the proximity of CERN, the size of the national research community, when scaled to the population, is above the CERN Member State average. At CERN, there is a strong Swiss participation in research at the LEP electron-positron collider (concentrated on L3), with 44 physicists. There are also 33 physicists working at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring, in particular the Crystal Barrel and CP-LEAR studies. In addition there is interest in heavy ion research and in neutrino physics (NOMAD) as well as substantial participation in research and development work for experiments at the LHC. Away from CERN, there are 6 Swiss physicists working at the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, with the national PSI programme involving about 40 physicists. (The PSI programme was covered at the Bern ECFA meeting by H.C. Walter.) Following the illustrious tradition of Fritz Zwicky, Switzerland also counts many astrophysicists. Theoretical physics, with a community of some 80 researchers, has a great tradition. Throughout the 20th century, leading Swiss research centres have been beacons of brilliance. Zurich, in particular, played a leading role, with Einstein, Schrödinger and Pauli among

  15. First Swiss bachelor in Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  16. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  17. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  18. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  19. Swiss electricity statistics 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity

  20. Swiss radon programme 'RAPROS'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeller, W.

    1992-03-01

    The results of the five-year radon research program RAPROS presented in this report, allow for scientifically valid statements on the origin of elevated levels of indoor radon in Switzerland. These results form a basis for recommendations and for actions to be taken. Indoor radon concentrations have been measured in more than 4000 living-rooms and 2000 basements; a sampling density of about 0.2% of the Swiss housing stock. According to these measurements radon leads to an estimated average annual effective dose of 2 milli-Sievert, although in some regions the annual dose may be much higher. Extrapolation of the existing data shows that in about 10'000 Swiss houses radon may exceed 1000 Bq/m 3 . For these houses remedial actions are recommended. There seems to be no radon problem in the large cities in the Swiss Plateau. High indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland are due to the soil beneath the buildings. Data from the study indicated that the most important soil characteristic influencing indoor radon concentrations was its gas permeability. Because natural ventilation in a heated house creates a slight underpressure in the lower levels with respect to surrounding soils, radon is driven from the soil into the building. Weatherization of the houses to reduce energy consumption had in most cases no effect on the indoor radon concentrations. Radon from tap water or from building materials does not contribute significantly to indoor radon levels in Switzerland. The high levels in the Jura Mountains are thought to be associated with karstic limestone bedrock. Several houses within Switzerland have now been modified to reduce radon levels. The most successful mitigation technique combined forced-air ventilation with tightening of the basement to decrease or prevent air infiltration from the soil. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  1. Potentiation of oxycodone antinociception in mice by agmatine and BMS182874 via an imidazoline I2 receptor-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Ali, Izna; Lee, Hyaera; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-01-01

    The potentiation of oxycodone antinociception by BMS182874 (endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist) and agmatine (imidazoline receptor/α(2)-adrenoceptor agonist) is well-documented. It is also known that imidazoline receptors but not α(2)-adrenoceptors are involved in potentiation of oxycodone antinociception by agmatine and BMS182874 in mice. However, the involvement of specific imidazoline receptor subtypes (I(1), I(2), or both) in this interaction is not clearly understood. The present study was conducted to determine the involvement of imidazoline I(1) and I(2) receptors in agmatine- and BMS182874-induced potentiation of oxycodone antinociception in mice. Antinociceptive (tail flick and hot-plate) latencies were determined in male Swiss Webster mice treated with oxycodone, agmatine, BMS182874, and combined administration of oxycodone with agmatine or BMS182874. Efaroxan (imidazoline I(1) receptor antagonist) and BU224 (imidazoline I(2) receptor antagonist) were used to determine the involvement of I(1) and I(2) imidazoline receptors, respectively. Oxycodone produced significant antinociceptive response in mice which was not affected by efaroxan but was blocked by BU224. Agmatine-induced potentiation of oxycodone antinociception was blocked by BU224 but not by efaroxan. Similarly, BMS182874-induced potentiation of oxycodone antinociception was blocked by BU224 but not by efaroxan. This is the first report demonstrating that BMS182874- or agmatine-induced enhancement of oxycodone antinociception is blocked by BU224 but not by efaroxan. We conclude that imidazoline I(2) receptors but not imidazoline I(1) receptors are involved in BMS182874- and agmatine-induced potentiation of oxycodone antinociception in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. nNOS inhibitors attenuate methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity but not hyperthermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Y; Martin, J L; Ail, S F

    2000-09-11

    Methamphetamine (METH)-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity is associated with hyperthermia. We investigated the effect of several neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitors on METH-induced hyperthermia and striatal dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Administration of METH (5 mg/kg; q. 3 h x 3) to Swiss Webster mice produced marked hyperthermia and 50-60% depletion of striatal dopaminergic markers 72 h after METH administration. Pretreatment with the nNOS inhibitors S-methylthiocitrulline (SMTC; 10 mg/kg) or 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3-Br-7-NI; 20 mg/kg) before each METH injection did not affect the persistent hyperthermia produced by METH, but afforded protection against the depletion of dopaminergic markers. A low dose (25 mg/kg) of the nNOS inhibitor 7-nitroindazole (7-NI) did not affect METH-induced hyperthermia, but a high dose (50 mg/kg) produced significant hypothermia. These findings indicate that low dose of selective nNOS inhibitors protect against METH-induced neurotoxicity with no effect on body temperature and support the hypothesis that nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite have a major role in METH-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

  3. Effect of Perinatal Lead Exposure on the Social Behaviour of Laboratory Mice Offspring at Adolescent Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbuTaweel Qasim M; Ajarem Jamaan S

    2008-01-01

    Lead ( Pb ) was given to Swiss-Webster female mice at the concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2% ( w/v ) , containing 550 and 1100 ppm of lead respectively, in their drinking water. Treatment started from day 1 of pregnancy until day 15 postnatally . Thereafter, the dams were switched to plain tap water. After the weaning period ( 21 days ), all male offspring were isolated (one animal per cage) for 14 days, and the isolated male offspring were subjected to 'Standard Opponenttest' at the age of 36 days . the results of this test showed a significant and dose-dependent increase in the non-social behaviour , whereas such results showed a significant decline in the social behaviour including naso-genital and naso-nasal contact, number of fights, rear, wall rear and displacement activities of the Pb exposed young adult male offspring. The present perinatal Pb effects in the male offspring are possibly via in utero exposure and/or via mother's milk. (author)

  4. Biosynthesis of the Essential Fatty Acid Oxidation Cofactor Carnitine Is Stimulated in Heart and Liver after a Single Bout of Exercise in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom L. Broderick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined whether one single bout of exercise stimulates carnitine biosynthesis and carnitine uptake in liver and heart. Free carnitine (FC in plasma was assayed using acetyltransferase and [14C]acetyl-CoA in Swiss Webster mice after 1 hour of moderate-intensity treadmill running or 4 hours and 8 hours into recovery. Liver and heart were removed under the same conditions for measurement of carnitine biosynthesis enzymes (liver butyrobetaine hydroxylase, γ-BBH; heart trimethyllysine dioxygenase, TMLD, organic cation transporter-2 (OCTN2, carnitine transporter, and liver peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα, transcription factor for γ-BBH and OCTN2 synthesis. In exercised mice, FC levels in plasma decreased while heart and liver OCTN2 protein expressed increased, reflecting active uptake of FC. During recovery, the rise in FC to control levels was associated with increased liver γ-BBH expression. Protein expression of PPARα was stimulated in liver after exercise and during recovery. Interestingly, heart TMLD protein was also detected after exercise. Acute exercise stimulates carnitine uptake in liver and heart. The rapid return of FC levels in plasma after exercise indicates carnitine biosynthesis by liver is stimulated to establish carnitine homeostasis. Our results suggest that exercise may benefit patients with carnitine deficiency syndromes.

  5. Letters to a Dictionary: Competing Views of Language in the Reception of "Webster's Third New International Dictionary"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Anne Pence

    2013-01-01

    The publication of "Webster's Third New International Dictionary" in September 1961 set off a national controversy about dictionaries and language that ultimately included issues related to linguistics and English education. The negative reviews published in the press about the "Third" have shaped beliefs about the nature of…

  6. 76 FR 52657 - Herschel L. Webster; Revonda Amthor; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    .... Webster; Revonda Amthor; Notice of Termination of Exemption by Implied Surrender and Soliciting Comments... initiated by the Commission: a. Type of Proceeding: Termination of exemption by implied surrender. b... exemption if any term or condition of the exemption is violated. The project has not operated since 1996 and...

  7. Pharmacognostical study of Tamalaki (Phyllanthus fraternus Webster), a herb used in Tamaka-svasa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Binay; Dubey, S. D.; Tripathi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Tamalaki is a herbacious medicinal plant, described in Ayurvedic texts in many occurrences with different properties, actions, uses and synonyms, supposed to indicate more than one species commonly used in practice. Modern scholars mostly suggest Phyllanthus fraternus Webster (syn. P. niruri Linn.), P. amarus Schum. and Thonn. and P. urinaria Linn. as the source plants of Tamalaki. In this study, an attempt has been made to designate P. fraternus as the source plant of Tamalaki used in the treatment of Tamaka-svasa (Bronchial asthma) and other respiratory disorders by analyzing therapeutic uses, actions, properties, taste, synonyms as well as pharmacognostical characters. Smooth capsule, six tepals, less and short fibrous root, pentagonal outline with wing-shaped young stem are some of the specific characters observed in this species. PMID:22529659

  8. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  9. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  10. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  11. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  12. Swiss electricity statistics 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the article also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  13. Involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and endothelin-A receptors in the effect of agmatine on morphine and oxycodone-induced hypothermia in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-10-01

    Potentiation of opioid analgesia by endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, and imidazoline receptor/α₂-adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and agmatine are well known. It is also known that agmatine blocks morphine hyperthermia in rats. However, the effect of agmatine on morphine or oxycodone hypothermia in mice is unknown. The present study was carried out to study the role of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors in morphine and oxycodone hypothermia in mice. Body temperature was determined over 6 h in male Swiss Webster mice treated with morphine, oxycodone, agmatine, and combination of agmatine with morphine or oxycodone. Yohimbine, idazoxan, and BMS182874 were used to determine involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors, respectively. Morphine and oxycodone produced significant hypothermia that was not affected by α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, imidazoline receptor/α₂ adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan, or ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874. Agmatine did not produce hypothermia; however, it blocked oxycodone but not morphine-induced hypothermia. Agmatine-induced blockade of oxycodone hypothermia was inhibited by idazoxan and yohimbine. The blockade by idazoxan was more pronounced compared with yohimbine. Combined administration of BMS182874 and agmatine did not produce changes in body temperature in mice. However, when BMS182874 was administered along with agmatine and oxycodone, it blocked agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. This is the first report demonstrating that agmatine does not affect morphine hypothermia in mice, but reverses oxycodone hypothermia. Imidazoline receptors and α₂-adrenoceptors are involved in agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. Our findings also suggest that ET(A) receptors may be involved in blockade of oxycodone hypothermia by agmatine. © 2012 The Authors Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology © 2012 Société Française de

  14. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  15. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  16. The Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vecsey, G.; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.

    1985-01-01

    With delivery of the coil to ORNL on February 4, 1984, the second phase of the Swiss Large Coil Program - design and construction - was terminated. Mainlines of the Swiss design concept are summarized and related to theoretical calculations, experimental results of the supporting program, fabricational experience and first successful test results. An attempt is made to draw preliminary conclusions with regard to the design of future toroidal systems such as NET

  17. The effect of continuous exposure to electromagnetic fïeld on four successive generations of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oentoeng Soeradi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the biobgical effects of  electromagnetic field treatment on four successive generations of mice. Fourty eight male and female mice of Swiss Webster Strain, 3 months of old, and 35 - 40 g body weight, were kept in a controlled environment and fed a standard diet. Mice were divided into 6 groups of four couples each. The first group was exposed to electromagnetic field of I kV/10 cm, the second group to 2 kV/10 cm, and the third group to 3 kV/10 cm. The remaining 3 groups were served as untreated controls of the first, second, and third group, respectively. Each couple of mice was placed in a cage (26x20x11 cm with wire metal cage tops. The cages of experimental groups with mice inside, were then put on the negative terminal plate of a pair of parallel aluminium plate electrodes. These cages were  perpendicular to the positive electrode plate at a distance of I0 cm. Subsequently, the electrodes were connected to stepup transformer as an alternating current power supply. All mice belonging to experimental and untreated control groups were allowed to mate, gastate, and deliver the first up to fourth generations, During investigation, all generations of experimental groups were continuously treated to electromagnetic field, while generations of untreated control groups received no treatment to electromagnetic field, During the study, all mice were housed in a room having a temperature of 26ᵒ C and a light - dark cycle of 12:12 hours. The results of this study showed that exposure of mice to electromagnitic field results in reduced fertility with no change in sex ratio of the offspring. Exposure to electromagnetic field, however, were effective in inducing congenital anomalies, such as micropthalmy, white eyes, short hind legs, dwarf mice, and tumors in both sexes of the offspring which caused of death after 3 - 4 months of old. A large mortality rate were found, especially in the third and fourth

  18. Resistance of neuronal nitric oxide synthase-deficient mice to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhak, Y; Gandia, C; Huang, P L; Ali, S F

    1998-03-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a powerful psychostimulant that produces dopaminergic neurotoxicity manifested by a decrease in the levels of dopamine, tyrosine hydroxylase activity and dopamine transporter (DAT) binding sites in the nigrostriatal system. We have recently reported that blockade of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) isoform by 7-nitroindazole provides protection against METH-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss Webster mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of a neurotoxic dose of METH on mutant mice lacking the nNOS gene [nNOS(-/-)] and wild-type controls. In addition, we sought to investigate the behavioral outcome of exposure to a neurotoxic dose of METH. Homozygote nNOS(-/-), heterozygote nNOS(+/-) and wild-type animals were administered either saline or METH (5 mg/kg x 3). Dopamine, DOPAC and HVA levels, as well as DAT binding site levels, were determined in striatal tissue derived 72 h after the last METH injection. This regimen of METH given to nNOS(-/-) mice affected neither the tissue content of dopamine and its metabolites nor the number of DAT binding sites. Although a moderate reduction in the levels of dopamine (35%) and DAT binding sites (32%) occurred in striatum of heterozygote nNOS(+/-) mice, a more profound depletion of the dopaminergic markers (up to 68%) was observed in the wild-type animals. METH-induced hyperthermia was observed in all animal strains examined except the nNOS(-/-) mice. Investigation of the animals' spontaneous locomotor activity before and after administration of the neurotoxic dose of METH (5 mg/kg x 3) revealed no differences. A low dose of METH (1.0 mg/kg) administered to naive animals (nNOS(-/-) and wild-type) resulted in a similar intensity of locomotor stimulation. However, 68 to 72 h after exposure to the high-dose METH regimen, a marked sensitized responses to a challenge METH injection was observed in the wild-type mice but not in the nNOS(-/-) mice. Taken together, these results

  19. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa) as antidepresant activity on mice induced by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Siti; Fitri, Lulu L.

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a physiological disorder on the brain and may induce the reduction levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin and the increased levels of stress hormone, corticosterone. The use of antidepressant drugs causing side effect, therefore natural agents are used as alternative therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of strawberries in the murine experiments in increasing serotonin level as well as decreasing in the immobility time of mice on Forced Swimming Task (FST). Forty-eight male outbreed of 4 weeks old mice strain Swiss Webster with average body weight of 18-22 grams were divided into six groups of eight mice, as follows: (1) non-stressed, (2) Chronic Mild Stressed (CMS), (3) strawberry extract (with dose of 464.1 mg/kg) and CMS, (4) strawberry extract (with dose of 928.2 mg/kg) and CMS, (5) fisetin (with a dose of 10 mg/kg) and CMS, and (6) amitriptyline (an antidepressant, with a dose of 3.25 mg/kg) and CMS as a comparison group. Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) method were used as induction of stress consisted of seven different stressors and assigned randomly for 35 days. Provision of treatment was made during the 14 days preparations on day 22 to day 35. At the end of treatments, all mice were assigned on FST test for immobility time measurements. Next, all mice were decapitated and the brains were isolated. Serotonin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV-visible light detector. The results showed that the immobility time of group mice which were given by the strawberries (928.2 mg/kg) and fisetin had shorter duration than the positive control group. Furthermore, the level of serotonin in the test group increased compared to CMS group. Corticosterone levels of treatment mice were increased significantly compared to non-stressed mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that strawberries are able to improve depressive symptoms by decreasing immobility time and increasing levels of

  20. Safety evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract on irradiated tea parasite: Acute toxicity study on mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendig Winarno

    2011-01-01

    Many studies of the pharmacological efficacy of tea parasite and the use of ionizing radiation for decontamination of microbes and extending shelf life have been reported, but there is no information on its safety, such as the acute toxicity. In this study, the acute toxicity of two ethyl acetate extracts from unirradiated and irradiated (irradiation dose of 10 kGy) tea parasites Scurrula atropurpurea on Swiss Webster mice have been examined. The observation was done after the treatment of a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract in various dose groups, i.e.: control (0 g/kg of mice body weight), D1 (0.625 g/kg), D2 (1.25 g/kg), D3 (2.5 g/kg) D4 (5 g/kg), D5 (10 g/kg) by observing the effect on behavioral response (pharmacological profile), the body weight gains and mortality until the day 14 th . At the last day, the observation of vital organs has also been done. The result showed that no acute toxicity was found in mice treated with a single oral dose of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated tea parasite and irradiated tea parasite at the dose of 10 kGy. At the dose up to 10 g/kg (equivalent to 77.6 g of extract which administered to human), the normal body weight gains were observed in mice of all dose groups, no mice deaths in any of the dose groups, and no significant change (p > 0.05) in organ weights relative to the body weight i.e.: liver, spleen, kidneys, lung, heart, testes and seminal vesicle (for male), and ovaries and uterus (for female). The approximate lethal doses for male and female mice were determined to be higher than 10 g/kg of mice body weight. It is suggested that the treatment of ethyl acetate extract from unirradiated and irradiated tea parasites until dose up to 10 g/kg of mice body weight was still safe. (author)

  1. Sarcocystis jamaicensis n. sp., from Red-Tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) Definitive Host and IFN-γ Gene Knockout Mice as Experimental Intermediate Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, S K; von Dohlen, A Rosypal; Mowery, J D; Scott, D; Rosenthal, B M; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, D S

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report a new species of Sarcocystis with red-tailed hawk (RTH, Buteo jamaicensis) as the natural definitive host and IFN-γ gene knockout (KO) mice as an experimental intermediate host in which sarcocysts form in muscle. Two RTHs submitted to the Carolina Raptor Center, Huntersville, North Carolina, were euthanized because they could not be rehabilitated and released. Fully sporulated 12.5 × 9.9-μm sized sporocysts were found in intestinal scrapings of both hawks. Sporocysts were orally fed to laboratory-reared outbred Swiss Webster mice (SW, Mus musculus) and also to KO mice. The sporocysts were infective for KO mice but not for SW mice. All SW mice remained asymptomatic, and neither schizonts nor sarcocysts were found in any SW mice euthanized on days 54, 77, 103 (n = 2) or 137 post-inoculation (PI). The KO mice developed neurological signs and were necropsied between 52 to 68 days PI. Schizonts/merozoites were found in all KO mice euthanized on days 52, 55 (n = 3), 59, 61 (n = 2), 66, and 68 PI and they were confined to the brain. The predominant lesion was meningoencephalitis characterized by perivascular cuffs, granulomas, and necrosis of the neural tissue. The schizonts/merozoites were located in neural tissue and were apparently extravascular. Brain homogenates from infected KO mice were infective to KO mice by subcutaneous inoculation and when seeded on to CV-1 cells. Microscopic sarcocysts were found in skeletal muscles of 5 of 8 KO mice euthanized between 55-61 days PI. Only a few sarcocysts were detected. Sarcocysts were microscopic, up to 3.5 mm long. When viewed with light microscopy, the sarcocyst wall appeared thin (<1 μm thick) and smooth. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall classified as "type 1j" (new designation). Molecular characterization using 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, ITS-1, and cox1 genes revealed a close relationship with Sarcocystis microti and Sarcocystis glareoli; both species infect birds as definitive hosts

  2. Swiss electricity statistics 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2008 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2008. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2008 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2008, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1984 to 2008 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2015

  3. Swiss electricity statistics 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics for 2005 on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2005. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2005 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2005. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2005 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2005, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2005 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2012

  4. Swiss electricity statistics 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on electricity production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2006. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's electricity supply in 2006 is presented. Details are noted of the amounts generated by different sources including nuclear, hydro-power, storage schemes and thermal power stations as well as energy transfer with neighbouring countries. A second chapter takes a look at the balance of imports and exports with illustrative flow diagrams along with tables for total figures from 1950 through to 2006. For the summer and winter periods, figures from 1995 to 2006 are presented. The third chapter examines the production of electricity in the various types of power stations and the developments over the years 1950 to 2006, whereby, for example, statistics on regional generation and power station type are looked at. The fourth chapter looks at electricity consumption in various sectors from 1983 to 2006 and compares the figures with international data. The fifth chapter looks at generation, consumption and loading on particular, selected days and chapter six considers energy exchange with Switzerland's neighbours. Chapter seven takes a look at possibilities for extending generation facilities in the period up to 2013

  5. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  6. The road to moderation: the significance of Webster for legislation restricting abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, L D

    1989-01-01

    They only certain outcomes of the Webster decision is that state legislatures will be stimulated to enact more legislation regulating abortion. However it is unlikely that the worst prochoice fears will be realized. A return to the 19th century abortion prohibition era is very unlikely because of trends in Western societal attitudes and laws. Since 1973 and the Roe decision there have been more than 300 bills or acts enacted by state legislatures that regulate abortion. Whether it is criminal prohibitions, licensing requirements, zoning restrictions, parental participation, spousal participation, informed consent, health and sanitation regulations, post viability regulations, laws protecting the right of health care workers not to participate in abortion, public funding restrictions, or regulations of fetal experimentation, abortion regulations have definitely been wide spread. The democratic process is going to produce a moderate position on abortion as a result of the Webster decision for 7 reasons: (1) the period before Roe was a time when abortion legislation was in a trend towards moderation. In 1962 abortion prohibitions were in place in all states. In 1967 4 states adopted an abortion reform position that allowed for abortion in the hard cases: (1) maternal health, (2) fetal defect, (3) rape/incest. Over the next 5 years 9 more states followed and 3 others went even farther by allowing unrestricted abortion during early pregnancy. (2) public opinion is consistent and strong in favoring abortion restrictions except for the hard cases. (3) the trend towards moderation in abortion regulations is closely related to other legal trends toward moderation. No fault divorce was a move towards moderation. The abortion experience in Western Europe was towards moderation. (5) Medical technological developments are putting the power of abortion in the hands of women. Abortificant drugs that can be used without medical assistance give women greater freedom. (6) The

  7. Dr Jerome Pierce Webster (1888-1974): Surgeon, historian, campaigner, and 'the father of plastic surgery education'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigley, Catrin H

    2016-09-28

    Dr Jerome Pierce Webster is best remembered as the 'founder of plastic surgery education in the United States' on the basis of developing his nation's first plastic surgery residency programme, his role in the founding of the American Board of Plastic Surgery, and, more generally, his influence in professionalising this subspecialty. He also deserves to be remembered for his extensive missionary work in China, his publications as a successful bibliographer, and as an accomplished historian. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Landsat thematic mapper (TM) soil variability analysis over Webster County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D. R.; Henderson, K. E.; Pitts, D. E.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic mapper simulator (TMS) data acquired June 7, June 23, and July 31, 1982, and Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data acquired August 2, September 3, and October 21, 1982, over Webster County, Iowa, were examined for within-field soil effects on corn and soybean spectral signatures. It was found that patterns displayed on various computer-generated map products were in close agreement with the detailed soil survey of the area. The difference in spectral values appears to be due to a combination of subtle soil properties and crop growth patterns resulting from the different soil properties. Bands 4 (0.76-.90 micron), 5 (1.55-1.75 micron), and 7 (2.08-2.35 micron) were found to be responding to the within-field soil variability even with increasing ground cover. While these results are preliminary, they do indicate that the soil influence on the vegetation is being detected by TM and should provide improved information relating to crop and soil properties.

  9. New fatty acid and acyl glycoside from the aerial parts of Phyllanthus fraternus Webster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Phyllanthus fraternus Webster (Euphorbiaceae) is used to treat dyspepsia, indigestion, jaundice, dysentery, diabetes, influenza, kidney stones, urinary tract diseases, vaginitis, and skin eruptions in traditional systems of medicine. The methanol extract of aerial parts of P. fraternus was obtained by soxhlation method. Isolation of compounds was done by silica gel column chromatography. Analytical thin layer chromatography was used to check the homogeneity of eluted fractions. The structures of isolated compounds were established on the basis of spectral studies and chemical reactions. Phytochemical investigation of a methanolic extract of the aerial parts yielded a new fatty acid characterized as cis-n-octacos-17-enoic acid (5) and a new acyl tetraglycoside formulated as n-dodecanoyl-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2'→1'')-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2''→1''')-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(2'''→1'''')-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (7) along with known compounds 1-pentacosanol (1), β-sitosteryl oleate (2), β-sitosteryl linoleate (3), stigmasterol (4) and palmityl glucuronoside (6).

  10. Vulnerability of female germ cells in developing mice and monkeys to tritium, gamma rays, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Koehler, C.G.; Felton, J.S.; Kwan, T.C.; Wuebbles, B.J.; Jones, D.C.L.

    1978-01-01

    During development female germ cells in both mouse and monkey are extremely sensitive to destruction by low-level chronic tritium exposure (via 3 HOH in maternal drinking water). Practical significance of this stems from tritium's importance in nuclear energy production and as an environmental pollutant. In mice exposed from conception to 14 days of age, the LD 50 level for oocytes is only 2 μCi per mililiter of body water. The present studies indicate that, for female germ cells in squirrel monkeys exposed in utero, the LD 50 is even lower, about 0.5 μCi/ml. This striking sensitivity contrasts with reported radioresistance for primate oocytes, chiefly from acute x-irradiation experiments. The discrepancy is reconciled if germ cells in the fetal primate pass through a highly sensitive period of limited duration. In light of other data showing germ-cell loss following repeated semiweekly x-irradiation during late but not during mid gestation, these results indicate that exceedingly high sensitivity occurs probably about the middle of the last trimester, at which time the LD 50 for monkey germ cells is, as for that of the mouse, less than 5 rads. Whereas highest radiosensitivity in primates is before birth, in mice it is after birth. To define the period of sensitivity more sharply, we measured oocyte responses to standard gamma-ray exposures in Swiss-Webster mice at various ages and found them to be maximal between days 5 and 19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), important as pollutants, also can destroy female germ cells effectively

  11. Effects of repeated administration of chemotherapeutic agents tamoxifen, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil on the acquisition and retention of a learned response in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, John J.; Clark-Vetri, Rachel; Raffa, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale A number of cancer chemotherapeutic agents have been associated with a loss of memory in breast cancer patients although little is known of the causality of this effect. Objectives To assess the potential cognitive effects of repeated exposure to chemotherapeutic agents, we administered the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen or the antimetabolite chemotherapy, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil, alone and in combination to mice and tested them in a learning and memory assay. Methods Swiss-Webster male mice were injected with saline, 32 mg/kg tamoxifen, 3.2 or 32 mg/kg methotrexate, 75 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil, 3.2 or 32 mg/kg methotrexate in combination with 75 mg/kg 5-fluorouracil once per week for 3 weeks. On days 23 and 24, mice were tested for acquisition and retention of a nose-poke response in a learning procedure called autoshaping. In addition, the acute effects of tamoxifen were assessed in additional mice in a similar procedure. Results The chemotherapeutic agents alone and in combination reduced body weight relative to saline treatment over the course of 4 weeks. Repeated treatment with tamoxifen produced both acquisition and retention effects relative to the saline-treated group although acute tamoxifen was without effect except at a behaviorally toxic dose. Repeated treatment with methotrexate in combination with 5-fluorouracil produced effects on retention, but the magnitude of these changes depended on the methotrexate dose. Conclusions These data demonstrate that repeated administration of tamoxifen or certain combination of methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil may produce deficits in the acquisition or retention of learned responses which suggest potential strategies for prevention or remediation might be considered in vulnerable patient populations. PMID:21537942

  12. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is lower and copper chaperone CCS is higher in erythrocytes of copper-deficient rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Elizabeth C; Prohaska, Joseph R

    2004-09-01

    Discovery of a sensitive blood biochemical marker of copper status would be valuable for assessing marginal copper intakes. Rodent models were used to investigate whether erythrocyte concentrations of copper,zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD), and the copper metallochaperone for SOD (CCS) were sensitive to dietary copper changes. Several models of copper deficiency were studied in postweanling male Holtzman rats, male Swiss Webster mice offspring, and both rat and mouse dams. Treatment resulted in variable but significantly altered copper status as evaluated by the presence of anemia, and lower liver copper and higher liver iron concentrations in copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate animals. Associated with this copper deficiency were consistent reductions in immunoreactive SOD and robust enhancements in CCS. In most cases, the ratio of CCS:SOD was several-fold higher in red blood cell extracts from copper-deficient compared with copper-adequate rodents. Determination of red cell CCS:SOD may be useful for assessing copper status of humans.

  13. A Collaboration in Support of LBA Science and Data Exchange: Beija-flor and EOS-WEBSTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. L.; Gentry, M. J.; Keller, M.; Rhyne, T.; Moore, B.

    2001-12-01

    The University of New Hampshire (UNH) has developed a Web-based tool that makes data, information, products, and services concerning terrestrial ecological and hydrological processes available to the Earth Science community. Our WEB-based System for Terrestrial Ecosystem Research (EOS-WEBSTER) provides a GIS-oriented interface to select, subset, reformat and download three main types of data: selected NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) remotely sensed data products, results from a suite of ecosystem and hydrological models, and geographic reference data. The Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia Project (LBA) has implemented a search engine, Beija-flor, that provides a centralized access point to data sets acquired for and produced by LBA researchers. The metadata in the Beija-flor index describe the content of the data sets and contain links to data distributed around the world. The query system returns a list of data sets that meet the search criteria of the user. A common problem when a user of a system like Beija-flor wants data products located within another system is that users are required to re-specify information, such as spatial coordinates, in the other system. This poster describes methodology by which Beija-flor generates a unique URL containing the requested search parameters and passes the information to EOS-WEBSTER, thus making the interactive services and large diverse data holdings in EOS-WEBSTER directly available to Beija-flor users. This "Calling Card" is used by EOS-WEBSTER to generate on-demand custom products tailored to each Beija-flor request. Through a collaborative effort, we have demonstrated the ability to integrate project-specific search engines such as Beija-flor with the products and services of large data systems such as EOS-WEBSTER, to provide very specific information products with a minimal amount of additional programming. This methodology has the potential to greatly facilitate research data exchange by

  14. Human-derived gut microbiota modulates colonic secretion in mice by regulating 5-HT3 receptor expression via acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Yogesh; Schmidt, Bradley A; Linden, David R; Larson, Eric D; Grover, Madhusudan; Beyder, Arthur; Farrugia, Gianrico; Kashyap, Purna C

    2017-07-01

    Serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)], an important neurotransmitter and a paracrine messenger in the gastrointestinal tract, regulates intestinal secretion by its action primarily on 5-HT 3 and 5-HT 4 receptors. Recent studies highlight the role of gut microbiota in 5-HT biosynthesis. In this study, we determine whether human-derived gut microbiota affects host secretory response to 5-HT and 5-HT receptor expression. We used proximal colonic mucosa-submucosa preparation from age-matched Swiss Webster germ-free (GF) and humanized (HM; ex-GF colonized with human gut microbiota) mice. 5-HT evoked a significantly greater increase in short-circuit current (Δ I sc ) in GF compared with HM mice. Additionally, 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in GF compared with HM mice. Ondansetron, a 5-HT 3 receptor antagonist, inhibited 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc in GF mice but not in HM mice. Furthermore, a 5-HT 3 receptor-selective agonist, 2-methyl-5-hydroxytryptamine hydrochloride, evoked a significantly higher Δ I sc in GF compared with HM mice. Immunohistochemistry in 5-HT 3A -green fluorescent protein mice localized 5-HT 3 receptor expression to enterochromaffin cells in addition to nerve fibers. The significant difference in 5-HT-evoked Δ I sc between GF and HM mice persisted in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX) but was lost after ondansetron application in the presence of TTX. Application of acetate (10 mM) significantly lowered 5-HT 3 receptor mRNA in GF mouse colonoids. We conclude that host secretory response to 5-HT may be modulated by gut microbiota regulation of 5-HT 3 receptor expression via acetate production. Epithelial 5-HT 3 receptor may function as a mediator of gut microbiota-driven change in intestinal secretion. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We found that gut microbiota alters serotonin (5-HT)-evoked intestinal secretion in a 5-HT 3 receptor-dependent mechanism and gut microbiota metabolite acetate alters 5-HT 3 receptor expression in

  15. Swiss President to visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  16. Adrenergic pathway activation enhances brown adipose tissue metabolism: A [18 F]FDG PET/CT study in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirbolooki, M. Reza; Upadhyay, Sanjeev Kumar; Constantinescu, Cristian C.; Pan, Min-Liang; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Pharmacologic approaches to study brown adipocyte activation in vivo with a potential of being translational to humans are desired. The aim of this study was to examine pre- and postsynaptic targeting of adrenergic system for enhancing brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolism quantifiable by [ 18 F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in mice. Methods: A β 3 -adrenoreceptor selective agonist (CL 316243), an adenylyl cyclase enzyme activator (forskolin) and a potent blocker of presynaptic norepinephrine transporter (atomoxetine), were injected through the tail vein of Swiss Webster mice 30 minutes before intravenous (iv) administration of [ 18 F]FDG. The mice were placed on the PET/CT bed for 30 min PET acquisition followed by 10 min CT acquisition for attenuation correction and anatomical delineation of PET images. Results: Activated interscapular (IBAT), cervical, periaortic and intercostal BAT were observed in 3-dimentional analysis of [ 18 F]FDG PET images. CL 316243 increased the total [ 18 F]FDG standard uptake value (SUV) of IBAT 5-fold greater compared to that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [ 18 F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.4-fold), and muscle (2.7-fold), as compared to the control. There was no significant difference in heart, brain, spleen and liver uptakes between groups. Forskolin increased [ 18 F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.9-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. It also increased the [ 18 F]FDG SUV of white adipose tissue (2.2-fold) and heart (5.4-fold) compared to control. There was no significant difference in muscle, brain, spleen, and liver uptakes between groups. Atomoxetine increased [ 18 F]FDG SUV of IBAT 1.7-fold greater than that in placebo-treated mice. There were no significant differences in all other organs compared to placebo-treated mice except liver (1.6 fold increase). A positive correlation between SUV levels of IBAT and CT Hounsfield unit (HU

  17. Influence of spatial and temporal manipulations on the anxiolytic efficacy of chlordiazepoxide in mice previously exposed to the elevated plus-maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, A; Rodgers, R J

    1999-11-01

    It has been widely reported that the anxiolytic efficacy of benzodiazepines in the elevated plus-maze test is abolished in subjects (rats or mice) that have been given a single prior undrugged experience of the test apparatus. The present series of experiments was designed to further characterise the key experiential determinants of this intriguing phenomenon in Swiss Webster mice. Using a standard 5 min test duration for both trials, Experiment 1 confirmed the anxiolytic efficacy of chlordiazepoxide (CDP; 5-20 mg/kg) in mice naive to the plus-maze, but a virtual elimination of drug effects in animals that had been pre-exposed to the maze 24 h earlier. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrated that, while extending the duration of initial exposure to 10 min did not prevent the loss of CDP (10 mg/kg) efficacy in a standard-duration second trial, increasing the duration of both trials reinstated an anxiolytic profile for the compound. Finally, although trial 1 confinement to an open arm did not compromise CDP efficacy when animals were subsequently allowed to freely explore the maze (Experiment 4), closed arm confinement during initial exposure abolished the drug's anxiolytic action upon retest (Experiment 5). In contrast to previous findings in rats, these data suggest that the experientially induced loss of benzodiazepine efficacy in the mouse plus-maze depends rather critically upon prior discovery and exploration of relatively safe areas of the maze (i.e. closed arms). Results are discussed in relation to the hypothesis that the absence of an anxiolytic response to benzodiazepines in plus-maze-experienced subjects reflects the acquisition of an open arm phobia during trial 1.

  18. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  19. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  1. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  2. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  3. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  4. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  5. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  6. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  7. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  8. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  9. Immigration and Swiss House Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Kathrin Degen; Andreas M. Fischer

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the behavior of Swiss house prices to immigration flows for 85 districts from 2001 to 2006. The results show that the nexus between immigration and house prices holds even in an environment of low house price inflation, nationwide rent control, and modest immigration flows. An immigration inflow equal to 1% of an area's population is coincident with an increase in prices for single-family homes of about 2.7%: a result consistent with previous studies. The overall immigrati...

  10. Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report, reproduced in full, discusses Swiss energy policy in 1986, paying particular attention to the fall in confidence with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident. Statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption and power generation are presented. Other sections include imports/exports, construction of power stations, transmission/distribution links, finance, constitution of council, committees and public relations. (G.T.H.)

  11. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  12. Evaluation of Cytotoxicity, Genotoxicity and Hematotoxicity of the Recombinant Spore-Crystal Complexes Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 from Bacillus thuringiensis in Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid de Souza Freire

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The insecticidal properties of Cry-endotoxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt have long been used as spore-crystals in commercial spray formulations for insect control. Recently, some Bt-endotoxin genes have been cloned in many different plants. Toxicological evaluations of three spore-crystal endotoxins, BtCry1Ia, BtCry10Aa and BtCry1Ba6 from B. thuringiensis, were carried out on mice to understand their adverse effects on hematological systems and on genetic material. These three spore-crystals have shown toxic activity to the boll weevil, which is one of the most aggressive pests of the cotton crop. Cry1Ia, Cry10Aa and Cry1Ba6 did not increase the micronucleus frequency in the peripheral erythrocytes of mice and did not cause changes in the frequency of polychromatic erythrocytes. However, some hematologic disburbances were observed, specifically related to Cry1Ia and Cry1Ba6, respectively, for the erythroid and lymphoid lineage. Thus, although the profile of such adverse side effects can be related to their high level of exposure, which is not commonly found in the environment, results showed that these Bt spore-crystals were not harmless to mice, indicating that each spore-crystal endotoxin presents a characteristic profile of toxicity and might be investigated individually.

  13. Swiss overall energy statistics 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The comprehensive statistics are produced by the Federal Department of Energy and the Swiss National Committee of the World Energy Conference, and are divided into three sections, (1) Consumption of energy in 1979, (2) Development of the energy balance-sheet from 1974 to 1979, and (3) Comments relative to the energy balance-sheet. Appendices are also included giving tables of energy consumption in the year 1950 and for the period 1960 - 1979, and the energy consumption by industry and other branches in 1979. (A.G.P.)

  14. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  15. Effect of diuron on germ cells of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, R C; Mehrota, N K

    1997-11-01

    Diuron in both, acute (340 and 170 mg/kg body wt) and chronic (3400 ppm) doses induced dominant lethal mutations in male Swiss albino mice. The results suggest that diuron is mutagenic in dominant lethal test system.

  16. Lower Lip Reconstruction after Wide Excision of a Malignancy with Barrel-Shaped Excision or the Webster Modification of the Bernard Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Joon Seo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBecause there are numerous methods for reconstruction of the lower lip, it is not easy to choose the optimal method. In choosing the surgical method for lower lip reconstruction, we obtained acceptable outcomes based on our treatment strategy, which included either a barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification of the Bernard operation. We report on the surgical outcomes based on our treatment strategy.MethodsThis study included 26 patients who underwent lower lip reconstructive surgery from September 1996 to September 2010. The operation was done using either a barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification, considering the location of the defect, the size of the defect, and the amount of residual tissue on the lateral side of the vermilion after excision.ResultsIn our series, 3 patients underwent a single barrel-shaped excision, and nine patients underwent a double barrel-shaped excision. In addition, the unilateral Webster modification was performed on in 6 patients, and there were eight cases of bilateral Webster modification. All of the patients except one were satisfied with the postoperative shape of the lip. In one case both recurrence and dehiscence occurred. One patient had a good postoperative lip shape, but had difficulty wearing a denture, and also underwent commissuroplasty. Furthermore, there were two patients who complained of drooling, and 4 with paresthesia.ConclusionsA soft tissue defect resulting from wide excision of a lower lip malignancy can be successfully reconstructed using only one of two surgical methods: the barrel-shaped excision or the Webster modification of the Bernard operation.

  17. Locomotor activity and discriminative stimulus effects of a novel series of synthetic cathinone analogs in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatch, Michael B; Dolan, Sean B; Forster, Michael J

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have seen an increase in the recreational use of novel, synthetic psychoactive substances. There are little or no data on the abuse liability of many of the newer compounds. The current study investigated the discriminative stimulus and locomotor effects of a series of synthetic analogs of cathinone: α-pyrrolidinopropiophenone (α-PPP), α-pyrrolidinohexiophenone (α-PHP), α-pyrrolidinopentiothiophenone (α-PVT), 3,4-methylenedioxybutiophenone (MDPBP), and ethylone. Locomotor activity was assessed in an open-field assay using Swiss-Webster mice. Discriminative stimulus effects were assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats trained to discriminate either cocaine or methamphetamine from vehicle. Each of the compounds produced an inverted-U dose-effect on locomotor activity. Maximal effects were similar among the test compounds, but potencies varied with relative potencies of MDPBP > α-PPP = α-PHP > ethylone > α-PVT. Each of the test compounds substituted fully for the discriminative stimulus effects of methamphetamine. α-PPP, α-PHP, and ethylone fully substituted for cocaine. α-PVT produced a maximum of 50% cocaine-appropriate responding, and MDPBP produced an inverted-U-shaped dose-effect curve with maximum effects of 67%. These data provide initial evidence that these structurally similar, emerging novel psychoactive substances demonstrate potential for abuse and may be utilized for their stimulant-like effects, given their ability to stimulate locomotor activity and their substitution for the discriminative stimulus effects of the classical psychostimulants cocaine and/or methamphetamine.

  18. Pulsed magnetic field from video display terminals enhances teratogenic effects of cytosine arabinoside in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiang, H.; Wu, R.Y.; Shao, B.J.; Fu, Y.D.; Yao, G.D.; Lu, D.J. [Zhejiang Medical Univ. (China)

    1995-05-01

    Eighty-nine Swiss Webster mice were randomly divided into four groups: a control group, a pulsed magnetic field (PMF) group, a cytosine arabinoside (ara-C, a teratogen) group, and a combined PMF + ara-C group. Mice in the PMF and PMF + ara-C groups were irradiated with a PMF (a sawtooth waveform with 52 {mu}s rise time, 12{mu}s decay time, and 15.6 kHz frequency) at a peak magnetic flux density of 40 {mu}T for 4 hours daily on days 6-17 of gestation. The mice in the ara-C and the PMF + ara-C groups were injected intraperitoneally on day 9 of gestation with 10 mg/kg of ara-C. The incidence of resorption and dead fetuses was not affected by PMF but was increased by ara-C injection. The malformation incidence of cleft palate (CP) and/or cleft lip (CL) was significantly higher in all three of the treated groups than in the control group (P < 0.05). If, however, statistical analyses had been done on litters rather than on individual fetuses, they would show that the incidence of CP and/or CL in the PMF group is not significantly greater than that in the control group. A significantly higher incidence of CP and/or CL was found in the PMF + ara-C group (49%) than the ara-C alone group (26.1%). These data suggest that PMF might enhance the development of ara-C-induced CP and/or CL. The incidence of minor variations in skeletal development, including reduction of skeletal calcification and loss of skeleton, was not statistically significant in the PMF group. However, it was higher in the two ara-C-treated groups, and there was no significant difference between the ara-C alone group and the ara-C + PMF group. From these results it is concluded that the very weak embryotoxic effects of PMF exposure may be revealed and enhanced in combination with a teratogenic agent.

  19. Dim light at night does not disrupt timing or quality of sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borniger, Jeremy C; Weil, Zachary M; Zhang, Ning; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-10-01

    Artificial nighttime illumination has recently become commonplace throughout the world; however, in common with other animals, humans have not evolved in the ecological context of chronic light at night. With prevailing evidence linking the circadian, endocrine, immune, and metabolic systems, understanding these relationships is important to understanding the etiology and progression of several diseases. To eliminate the covariate of sleep disruption in light at night studies, researchers often use nocturnal animals. However, the assumption that light at night does not affect sleep in nocturnal animals remains unspecified. To test the effects of light at night on sleep, we maintained Swiss-Webster mice in standard light/dark (LD) or dim light at night (DLAN) conditions for 8-10 wks and then measured electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) biopotentials via wireless telemetry over the course of two consecutive days to determine differences in sleep timing and homeostasis. Results show no statistical differences in total percent time, number of episodes, maximum or average episode durations in wake, slow-wave sleep (SWS), or rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. No differences were evident in SWS delta power, an index of sleep drive, between groups. Mice kept in DLAN conditions showed a relative increase in REM sleep during the first few hours after the dark/light transition. Both groups displayed normal 24-h circadian rhythms as measured by voluntary running wheel activity. Groups did not differ in body mass, but a marked negative correlation of body mass with percent time spent awake and a positive correlation of body mass with time spent in SWS was evident. Elevated body mass was also associated with shorter maximum wake episode durations, indicating heavier animals had more trouble remaining in the wake vigilance state for extended periods of time. Body mass did not correlate with activity levels, nor did activity levels correlate with time spent in

  20. [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, small molecule synthetic peptide leptin mimetics, improve glycemic control in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anke; Anderson, Brian M; Novakovic, Zachary M; Grasso, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    We have previously shown that following oral delivery in dodecyl maltoside (DDM), [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and its myristic acid conjugate, MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3, improved energy balance and glucose homeostasis in genetically obese/diabetic mouse models. More recently, we have provided immunohistochemical evidence indicating that these synthetic peptide leptin mimetics cross the blood-brain barrier and concentrate in the area of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in normal C57BL/6J and Swiss Webster mice, in genetically obese ob/ob mice, and in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. In the present study, we describe the effects of oral delivery of [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 on glycemic control in diet-induced (DIO) mice, a non-genetic rodent model of obesity and its associated insulin resistance, which more closely recapitulates common obesity and diabetes in humans. Male C57BL/6J and DIO mice, 17, 20, and 28 weeks of age, were maintained on a low-fat or high-fat diet and given vehicle (DDM) alone or [D-Leu-4]-OB3 or MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 in DDM by oral gavage for 12 or 14 days. Body weight gain, food and water intake, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance, and serum insulin levels were measured. Our data indicate that (1) [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 restore glucose tolerance in male DIO mice maintained on a high-fat diet to levels comparable to those of non-obese C57BL/6J wild-type mice of the same age and sex maintained on a low-fat diet; and (2) the influence of [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 on glycemic control appears to be independent of their effects on energy balance. These results suggest that [D-Leu-4]-OB3 and/or MA-[D-Leu-4]-OB3 may have application to the management of the majority of cases of common obesity in humans, a state characterized at least in part, by leptin resistance resulting from a defect in leptin transport across the blood-brain barrier. They further suggest that these small molecule synthetic peptide leptin mimetics, through their

  1. Biogas plants in the Swiss agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellinger, A

    1985-01-01

    Description of the systems of Swiss biogas plants, gas production rates and the use of the gas for heating the biogas digesters and apartments, for agriculture, cheese factories, and for the production of electricity.

  2. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J.; Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T.

    2004-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed

  3. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  4. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership......Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...

  5. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  6. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  7. Radiosensitivity of the swiss-rap mouse as a function of its growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeay, G.; Glas, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results of an exhaustive study of the age dependence of the radiosensitivity of female Swiss-Rap mice are given. A close relationship of radiosensitivity versus age could not be brought out, whereas the weekly growth rate could be accurately related to radiosensitivity. Thus, the latter should be studied when a strain is to be used for biological experiments, as the rates of growth are different with the strains. (author) [fr

  8. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  9. SIGNAL CONTROLLED JUNCTIONS CALCULATIONS IN TRAFFIC-CAPACITY ASSESSMENT - AIMSUN, OMNITRANS, WEBSTER AND TP 10/2010 RESULTS COMPARISON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír ČERNICKÝ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Every increase in traffic volume on road network in towns can lead to overcrowding of road network. This results in undesirable external costs such as traffic congestions, which cause high loses in time during transportation, increased fuel consumption and thus higher production of greenhouse gases and noise. This all ultimately reduces the attractiveness of the area. The increase of traffic volume and therefrom derived traffic problems are needed to be solved during traffic-capacity assessment of every larger investment. The software can help to assess increased traffic in solved area and thus help authorities to make a right decision during approving of the investment plan. This article is focused on comparison of two software – Aimsun and OmniTrans, and calculations according to Webster and technical regulations for assessing junction capacity in the Slovak Republic. The packages outputs are also compared to the measured data at the assessed junction in this article. The analysis showed that outputs of various tools differ, generally all packages showed higher delays compared to measured data at the main road and lower delays compared to measured data at the side roads.

  10. Separating the agony from ecstasy: R(-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine has prosocial and therapeutic-like effects without signs of neurotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Daniel W; Young, Matthew B; Tran, Andrew N; Daoud, Georges E; Howell, Leonard L

    2018-01-01

    S,R(+/-)-3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (SR-MDMA) is an amphetamine derivative with prosocial and putative therapeutic effects. Ongoing clinical trials are investigating it as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other conditions. However, its potential for adverse effects such as hyperthermia and neurotoxicity may limit its clinical viability. We investigated the hypothesis that one of the two enantiomers of SR-MDMA, R-MDMA, would retain the prosocial and therapeutic effects but with fewer adverse effects. Using male Swiss Webster and C57BL/6 mice, the prosocial effects of R-MDMA were measured using a social interaction test, and the therapeutic-like effects were assessed using a Pavlovian fear conditioning and extinction paradigm relevant to PTSD. Locomotor activity and body temperature were tracked after administration, and neurotoxicity was evaluated post-mortem. R-MDMA significantly increased murine social interaction and facilitated extinction of conditioned freezing. Yet, unlike racemic MDMA, it did not increase locomotor activity, produce signs of neurotoxicity, or increase body temperature. A key pharmacological difference between R-MDMA and racemic MDMA is that R-MDMA has much lower potency as a dopamine releaser. Pretreatment with a selective dopamine D1 receptor antagonist prevented SR-MDMA-induced hyperthermia, suggesting that differential dopamine signaling may explain some of the observed differences between the treatments. Together, these results indicate that the prosocial and therapeutic effects of SR-MDMA may be separable from the stimulant, thermogenic, and potential neurotoxic effects. To what extent these findings translate to humans will require further investigation, but these data suggest that R-MDMA could be a more viable therapeutic option for the treatment of PTSD and other disorders for which SR-MDMA is currently being investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of urinary volatiles in Swiss male mice (Mus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    and Archunan 2001a), territorial marking (Balakrishnan and Alexander 1985; Prakash et al 1998) mother-young interactions (Leon 1983), and individual identification. (Poddar-Sarkar and Brahmachary 1999). Urine is known to be a major source of mammalian chemosignals invol- ved in this pheromonal communication.

  12. Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - Management summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This management summary issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - a five-part synthesis report published in 2007. The report presents no prognoses but provides an 'if-then' overview of a set of four scenarios that examined ways in which Swiss energy demands could be met by the year 2035. National and international boundary conditions taken into account are reviewed and the four scenarios are introduced and briefly described. These include the reference scenario 'Business as Usual', 'Increased Co-operation' between politics and business, 'New Priorities' with goals set to reduce energy consumption and CO 2 emissions and 'On the Way to a 2000-Watt Society'. Risks posed and chances provided are discussed, as are the options for taking action

  13. SwissEnergy - new energy for everybody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a richly illustrated general document on the Swiss programme 'SwissEnergy' aiming at promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy sources in Switzerland, especially as a part of efforts made to reach the target set by the Kyoto Protocol for the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Compared to 1990 figures, CO 2 emissions in Switzerland have to be reduced by 10% until 2010. SwissEnergy is supported by the national and regional governments and by the economy as well. The document lists the main issues addressed by the programme and the proposed actions, all of them related to large dissemination of already known technologies. The document is designed as a motivation tool for ordinary people

  14. Migration Of Ancylostoma caninum Larvae Into Lungs Of Mice Fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two randomly selected groups of Swiss Albino Wistar mice were therefore infected with 1000 infective larvae of Ancylostoma caninum/mouse. Test mice received 250mg Allium sativum/kg body weight daily ... KEY WORDS: Allium sativum, lungs, Ancylostoma caninum. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences Vol.11(2) ...

  15. Status of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J; Benz, H.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss coil is a forced flow coil cooled by supercritical helium. A brief review of the design considerations, some of its specific features, and the progress in fabrication are described. A discussion of both the instrumentation and the cryogenic characteristics of the coil is presented

  16. Gross Revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how

  17. Avaliação dos efeitos depressores centrais do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum Pax. e de suas frações em camundongos albinos Evaluation of the central depressor effects of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum Pax. and its fractions in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Borges de Oliveira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available O Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea é uma planta nativa da África tropical conhecida como "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", dentre outros. A planta é utilizada pela população brasileira como detentora de propriedades antiinflamatória, analgésica, dentre outras. Foram avaliados os efeitos depressores sobre o sistema nervoso central (SNC do extrato etanólico das folhas de Synadenium umbellatum (EES e de suas frações - hexânica (FH, clorofórmica (FC e metanol/água (FM. Vários testes foram utilizados em camundongos machos albinos (Mus musculus, dentre eles, o sono induzido por barbitúrico, campo aberto e o teste do rota-rod. O EES foi testado nas doses de 25, 50 e 100 mg/kg, enquanto que a FH foi testada na dose de 10 mg/kg, a FC na dose de 20 mg/kg e a FM na dose de 25 mg/kg. O EES e as frações FH e FC, mas não a FM, apresentaram um possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC, visto que foram capazes de aumentar o tempo parado e diminuir o número de bolos fecais no campo aberto, além de potencializarem o sono induzido por barbitúrico. No teste do rota-rod, observou-se que o EES e as frações não foram capazes de causar incoordenação motora ou relaxamento muscular. Assim, conclui-se que o extrato etanólico e as frações FH e FC do Syandenium umbellatum Pax. possuem possível efeito depressor sobre o SNC.Synadenium umbellatum Pax. (Euphorbiacea is a native plant from tropical Africa known as "cola-nota", "avelós", "cancerola", "milagrosa", among others. The plant is used by Brazilian folks for having anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, among others. It was evaluated the depressor effects over the central nervous system (CNS of the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Synadenium umbellatum (EES and its fractions - hexane (HF, chloroformic (CF and methanol/water fractions(MF. Several tests were used in Swiss mice (Mus musculus, among them, barbiturate-induced sleep, open field and rota-rod test. The

  18. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.

    2010-07-01

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  19. Pengaruh Pemberian Vitamin A terhadap Penurunan Parasitemia Mencit Strain Swiss yang diinfeksi Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Isnaeni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A merupakan vitamin yang berperan sebagai imunostimulan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah pemberian vitamin A dapat menurunkan parasitemia Plasmodium berghei pada mencit strain Swiss. Penelitian ini menggunakan 24 ekor mencit strain Swiss jantan berumur 6-8 minggu dengan berat badan 20-30 gram/ekor. Penelitian dilaksanakan secara eksperimental dengan menggunakan time series design. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan perlakuan berupa pemberian vitamin A dengan 3 variasi dosis yaitu 0 IU/g BB, 35 IU/g BB dan 70 IU/g BB serta kelompok kontrol negatif dengan masing- masing kelompok terdiri dari 6 ekor mencit. Vitamin A diberikan 1 jam sebelum penginfeksian dan mencit dirawat sampai mencit pada kelompok kontrol negatif mati. Sediaan apus darah tipis dibuat 2 hari sekali dan parasitemia dihitung dengan pengecatan Giemsa. Data parasitemia dianalisis dengan ANOVA.Untuk hasil yang signifikan maka dilanjutkan dengan uji lanjut Post hoc pada taraf kesalahan 1%. Hasil uji ANOVA untuk kelompok perlakuan B, C dan D diperoleh nilai p <0,001 pada masing-masing kelompok perlakuan. Hal tersebut menyatakan bahwa adanya perbedaan yang signifikan pada perlakuan yang diberikan. Begitu juga untuk uji lanjut Post hoc yang telah dilakukan diperoleh nilai p < 0,001. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian vitamin A berpengaruh terhadap penurunan parasitemia Plasmodium berghei pada mencit strain Swiss.Vitamin A is a vitamin that acts as an immunostimulant. This research aims to determine whether the administration of vitamin A can reduce parasitaemia of Plasmodium berghei in Switzerland strain mice. This research used 24 mice Switzerland strain mice 6-8 weeks old weighing 20-30 grams/tail. Research conducted experimentally by using time series design. In this research, the provision of vitamin A treatment with 3 doses of variation is 0 IU/g BW, 35 IU/g BW and 70 IU/g BW as well as the negative control group, with each group consisting of 6 mice. Vitamin A

  20. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described.

  1. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-09-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi Yau's, arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th], Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α corrections to the Kähler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kähler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α corrections. The NS NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum.

  2. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  3. Safety in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cederqvist, H.

    1992-01-01

    Safety-related facilities and equipment are continuously backfitted in Swiss nuclear power plants. In the Beznau-1 and -2 nuclear generating units, the measures taken under the heading of 'Backfitting of Emergency Systems' included provisions to enhance the protection against earthquakes, airplane crash, and fire; in addition, the emergency power system was upgraded. In Muehleberg, the stack exhaust air monitoring system was optimized. The containment pressure suppression system of the plant has been designed to withstand a hypothetical accident exceeding the design basis. The BKM-Crud computer simulation model simulates steps taken to reduce radiation exposure. The power of Swiss nuclear power stations will be raised by 4% to 15% within the 'Energy 2000' action program. (orig.) [de

  4. Large volume axionic Swiss cheese inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok; Shukla, Pramod

    2008-01-01

    Continuing with the ideas of (Section 4 of) [A. Misra, P. Shukla, Moduli stabilization, large-volume dS minimum without anti-D3-branes, (non-)supersymmetric black hole attractors and two-parameter Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau's, (arXiv: 0707.0105 [hep-th]), Nucl. Phys. B, in press], after inclusion of perturbative and non-perturbative α ' corrections to the Kaehler potential and (D1- and D3-) instanton generated superpotential, we show the possibility of slow roll axionic inflation in the large volume limit of Swiss cheese Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications of type IIB string theory. We also include one- and two-loop corrections to the Kaehler potential but find the same to be subdominant to the (perturbative and non-perturbative) α ' corrections. The NS-NS axions provide a flat direction for slow roll inflation to proceed from a saddle point to the nearest dS minimum

  5. Nimodipine-induced hypotension but not nitroglycerin-induced hypotension preserves long- and short-term memory in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haile, Michael; Galoyan, Samuel; Li, Yong-Sheng; Cohen, Barry H; Quartermain, David; Blanck, Thomas; Bekker, Alex

    2012-05-01

    Acute hypotension may be implicated in cognitive dysfunction. L-type calcium channel blockers in the setting of hypoxia are protective of learning and memory. We tested the hypothesis that hypotension induced by nimodipine (NIMO) and nicardipine (NICA) would be protective of long- and short-term memory compared to hypotension induced by nitroglycerin (NTG). Forty Swiss-Webster mice (30 to 35 g, 6 to 8 weeks) were randomized into 4 groups for i.p. injection immediately after passive avoidance (PA) learning on day 0: (1) NTG (30 mg/kg); (2) NICA (40 mg/kg); (3) NIMO (40 mg/kg); and (4) saline. PA training latencies (seconds) were recorded for entry from a suspended platform into a Plexiglas tube where a shock (0.3 mA; 2-second duration) was automatically delivered. On day 2 latencies were recorded during a testing trial during which no shock was delivered. Latencies >900 seconds were assigned this value. Lower testing latency is indicative of an impairment of long-term associative memory. Forty-nine additional mice were randomized into similar groups for object recognition testing (ORT) and given i.p. injections on day 0. ORT measures short-term memory by exploiting the tendency of mice to prefer novel objects where a familiar object is present. On day 5 during training, 2 identical objects were placed in a circular arena and mice explored both for 15 minutes. A testing trial was conducted 1 hour later for 3 minutes after a novel object replaced a familiar one. Mice with intact memory spend about 65% of the time exploring the novel object. Mice with impaired memory devote equal time to each object. Recognition index (RI) is defined as the ratio of time spent exploring the novel object to time spent exploring both objects was the measure of memory. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), cerebral bloodflow, and body and brain oxygenation (PO(2)) studies were done in separate groups of mice to determine the dosages for matched degrees of hypotension and the physiological

  6. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  7. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities in Switzerland. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1993, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 10 figs., 11 tabs

  8. The Swiss nuclear installations annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-06-01

    This report concerns the safety of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992. Surveillance of these installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). In Switzerland five nuclear power plants are operational: Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basle. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration in Switzerland of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The present report first deals with the nuclear power plants and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK (chapters 1-4). In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for the research installations. Chapter 6 on radwaste disposal is dedicated to the waste treatment, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by the NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' vicinity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into some general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations, and in particular covers important events in nuclear installations abroad. In all, the operation of the Swiss nuclear installations in the period of 1992 is rated safe by HSK. (author) 7 figs., 13 tabs

  9. Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-01-01

    The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90 deg. in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.

  10. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  11. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  12. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz

    2009-01-01

    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  13. SwissPalm: Protein Palmitoylation database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, Mathieu; David, Fabrice; Abrami, Laurence; Migliozzi, Daniel; Armand, Florence; Bürgi, Jérôme; van der Goot, Françoise Gisou

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification that regulates many key biological processes, although the full extent and functions of protein S-palmitoylation remain largely unexplored. Recent developments of new chemical methods have allowed the establishment of palmitoyl-proteomes of a variety of cell lines and tissues from different species.  As the amount of information generated by these high-throughput studies is increasing, the field requires centralization and comparison of this information. Here we present SwissPalm ( http://swisspalm.epfl.ch), our open, comprehensive, manually curated resource to study protein S-palmitoylation. It currently encompasses more than 5000 S-palmitoylated protein hits from seven species, and contains more than 500 specific sites of S-palmitoylation. SwissPalm also provides curated information and filters that increase the confidence in true positive hits, and integrates predictions of S-palmitoylated cysteine scores, orthologs and isoform multiple alignments. Systems analysis of the palmitoyl-proteome screens indicate that 10% or more of the human proteome is susceptible to S-palmitoylation. Moreover, ontology and pathway analyses of the human palmitoyl-proteome reveal that key biological functions involve this reversible lipid modification. Comparative analysis finally shows a strong crosstalk between S-palmitoylation and other post-translational modifications. Through the compilation of data and continuous updates, SwissPalm will provide a powerful tool to unravel the global importance of protein S-palmitoylation.

  14. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status.

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, A; Boeckmann, B

    1994-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank consist of sequence entries. Sequence entries are composed of different lines types, each with their own format. For standardization purposes the format of SWISS-PROT follows as closely as possible that of the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Databa...

  15. Swiss multinational enterprises and transnational corruption: management matters

    OpenAIRE

    Bueno, N.

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Office of the Attorney General of Switzerland sanctioned a Swiss corporation for having bribed a Libyan Minister. The same year, it opened a criminal proceeding against the Swiss bank BSI for its involvement in the corruption scandals surrounding the Malaysian company 1MDB. Swiss corporations are also currently under investigation in the Brazilian Petrobras scandal. At the international level, anti-corruption treaties encourage states to make corporations criminally liable for tr...

  16. Adaptation and possible attenuation of Theileria parva-infected cells grown in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irvin, A.D.; Brown, C.G.D.; Stagg, D.A.; Kanhai, G.K.; Kimber, C.D.; Radley, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    Theileria parva-infected bovine lymphoid cells were taken from 8 cattle immediately after death from East Coast fever (ECF). Cells were inoculated into groups of irradiated Swiss and athymic nude mice. The irradiated mice were exposed to 800 rad doses from a 60 Co source. Cells became established in one group of Swiss mice and 2 groups of athymic mice. Development of cells in mice only occurred if cells concurrently established in culture; when establishment in culture was delayed, cells failed to develop in mice. Cells from one of the isolates in athymic mice were passaged 6 times through further mice. On inoculation of these mouse-passaged cells into cattle, the animals underwent mild reactions and subsequently resisted a lethal ECF challenge. The possibility of vaccinating cattle aginst ECF by means of mouse passaged cells merits further study. (author)

  17. Swiss Strategic Communication in the Defense Sector and Its Implications for Swiss Security Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    rejected because of its projected higher costs compared to buying the fighter jets.392 Through a public -private partnership, the needed Gripens would...necessary military strategies, overall efficiency and coherence can be augmented to the benefit of national security, the public finances, and the...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. SWISS STRATEGIC

  18. Basic principles of Swiss energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiener, E.

    1979-01-01

    The author shows that Swiss energy problems, and the measures to be adopted for their solution, are similar to those in other industrial countries. For Switzerland water power is still the most important indigenous energy source. In energy policy it is necessary to make economies. It is important that those responsible for energy policy tackle the problems today, and not leave it to a time when it is too late. The author is convinced that science and engineering will make much more progress in the energy field. (orig.) [de

  19. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S.; Sciacca, F. G.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  20. Impact of recession on Swiss pension program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, F B

    1978-04-01

    Legislation drafted in Switzerland in 1975--77 aims at countering the effects of inflation and recession by bringing increased revenues into the system, reducing expenditures, devising a mechanism to adjust pensions automatically, and improving income maintenance for the unemployed. The proposed legislation to place the social security system on a sound financial basis now needs voter approval in a referendum. Swiss voters meanwhile rejected (in mid-1977) a government-proposed value-added tax designed to finance increasing government contributions during 1978-82. Still to be resolved, therefore, is the problem of how the government will finance higher contributions and still achieve its staged goal of a balanced budget.

  1. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  2. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  3. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  4. Effects of 7-nitroindazole, an NOS inhibitor on methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S F; Itzhak, Y

    1998-05-30

    Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the major drugs of abuse that is postulated to cause neurotoxicity by depleting dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, high-affinity DA uptake sites, and the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the relatively selective, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), protects against METH-induced neurotoxicity. Male Swiss Webster mice received the following injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) 3 times (every 3 hr): (i) vehicle/saline, (ii) 7-NI (25 mg/kg)/saline, (iii) vehicle/METH (5 mg/kg), and (iv) 7-NI (25 mg/kg)/METH (5 mg/kg). On the second day, groups (i) and (iii) received two vehicle injections and groups (ii) and (iv) received two 7-NI injections (25 mg/kg each). The administration of vehicle/METH resulted in 68, 44 and 55% decreases in the concentration of DA, dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), and homovanillic acid (HVA), respectively, and a 48% decrease in the number of [3H]mazindol binding sites in the striatum compared to control values. The treatment with 7-NI (group iv) provided a full protection against the depletion of DA and its metabolites, and the loss of dopamine transporter binding sites. Multiple injection of METH caused a significant decrease in the concentration of serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA). Treatment with 7-NI partially blocked the depletion of 5-HT and completely blocked the reduction in 5-HIAA levels. The administration of 7-NI/saline (group ii) affected neither the tissue concentration of DA, 5-HT and their metabolites (DOPAC, HVA and 5-HIAA) nor the binding parameters of [3H]-mazindol compared to control (vehicle/saline) values. 7-NI had no significant effect on the animals' body temperature, and it did not affect METH-induced hyperthermia. These findings indicate a role for nitric oxide in METH-induced neurotoxicity and also suggest that blockage of NOS may be beneficial for the

  5. Toxicological responses in SW mice exposed to inhaled pyrolysates of polymer/tobacco mixtures and blended tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monika; Lemus-Olalde, Ranulfo

    2009-12-01

    Modern cigarette manufacturing is highly automated and produces millions of cigarettes per day. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, cardboard packaging, plastic, and other materials exists as a result of bulk handling and high-speed processing of tobacco. Many non-tobacco inclusions such as wood, paper, and cardboard would be expected to yield similar pyrolysis products as a burning cigarette. The aircraft industry has developed an extensive literature on the pyrolysis products of plastics, however, that have been reported to yield toxic by-products upon burning, by-products that have been lethal in animals and humans upon acute exposure under some exposure conditions. Some of these smoke constituents have also been reported in cigarette smoke. Five synthetic polymers, nylon 6, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), nylon 12, nylon 6,6, and acrylonitrile-butadiene (AB), and the natural polymer wool were evaluated by adding them to tobacco at a 3, 10, and 30% inclusion level and then pyrolyzing the mixture. The validated smoke generation and exposure system have been described previously. We used the DIN 53-436 tube furnace and nose-only exposure chamber in combination to conduct exposures in Swiss-Webster mice. Potentially useful biological endpoints for predicting hazards in humans included sensory irritation and pulmonary irritation, respiratory function, clinical signs, body weights, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid analysis, carboxyhemoglogin, blood cyanide concentrations, and histopathology of the respiratory tract. Chemical analysis of selected smoke constituents in the test atmosphere was also performed in order to compare the toxicological responses with exposure to the test atmospheres. Under the conditions of these studies, biological responses considered relevant and useful for prediction of effects in humans were found for sensory irritation, body weights, BAL fluid analysis, and histopathology of the nose

  6. Radiation protection in Swiss nuclear installations; Strahlenschutz in Schweizer Kernanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Brunell, M. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat ENSI, Brugg (Switzerland)

    2015-07-01

    Well developed measures on operational radiation protection within Swiss nuclear installations will be presented. The focus lays on competent authority actions. Results of the last ten years, including events on radiation issues, will be discussed. Finally a view on challenges for radiation protection personnel with respect to a renewed Swiss radiation protection legislation based on recent ICRP recommendations will be given.

  7. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  8. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  9. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  10. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  11. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  12. Efficacy of some essential oils in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered Cymbopogon citratus, Zingiber officinale and Syzygium aromaticum essential oils (EOs) in mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. Methods: Three experiments were conducted with 48 Swiss mice each. The animals were inoculated with 2 x 106 metacyclic ...

  13. 5-AZA-2'-DEOXYCYTIDINE INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY AND LONG BONE REDUCTION DEFECTS IN THE MURINE LIMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antineoplastic drug 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (dAZA) is a DNA hypomethylating agent that can be used to induce hind limb phocomelia in the offspring of CD-1 Swiss Webster mice. Previously, our laboratory investigated the possibility that dAZA induced alterations in gene express...

  14. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups. The first (control group) ...

  15. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  16. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  17. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  18. Investigations of DNA-repair in New Zealand mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschl, H; Kovac, R; Altmann, H

    1974-09-01

    DNA repair was investigated in New Zealand mice strains which developed murine lupus and compared with Swiss control mice. Unscheduled DNA synthesis demonstrated by autoradiography was used to measure the repair capacity of spleen cells. After gamma-irradiation DNA repair was decreased in the autoimmune strains, while it was significantly increased after UV-irradiation. A possible relationship between repair capacity after gamma-respectively UV-irradiation and the etiologic factor of autoimmunity is discussed. (auth)

  19. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  20. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  1. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-01-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup

  2. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-15

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D3/D7μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, (arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph]), Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636–748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  3. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  4. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  5. The Swiss electrical power industry: energy policy problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tognola, F.

    1986-01-01

    The emotive consequences of the Chernobyl accident have had a devastating effect on Swiss public opinion and endanger the serious effort by the Swiss electrical power industry over many years at making possible a power supply capable of meeting increasing demand at minimum cost, compatible with security of supply and protection of the environment. It is considered that two new nuclear power stations will be required, one in 1995 and the other in 2000. The serious consequences if these are not built and, particularly, if it were decided to shut down all existing Swiss nuclear stations are stressed. (P.G.R.)

  6. The Swiss regulatory framework for paediatric health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junod, Valerie

    2008-07-01

    Medical research on minors entails both risks and benefits. Under Swiss law, clinical trials on children, including nontherapeutic drug trials, are permissible. However, ethics committees must systematically verify that all clinical studies have a favorable risk-benefit profile. Additional safeguards are designed to ensure that children are not unnecessarily involved in research and that proper consent is always obtained. Federal Swiss law is undergoing revision to extend these protections beyond clinical trials to a broad array of health research. The Swiss drug agency also seeks to improve the incentives for pharmaceutical firms to develop new paediatric drugs and relevant paediatric drug labels.

  7. Problems of gas marketing, particularly with respect to Swiss conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunzinger, W

    1981-07-01

    Rising gas prices have required a change in Switzerland's marketing strategy to a greater emphasis on the residential, commercial, and service sectors. A Swiss committee on energy in 1978 reported on three different scenarios for Swiss energy development. Excluding district heating and cogeneration use, natural gas consumption, though modest by world standards, grew 13.3% in 1979 to reach 7848 GWhr, or 4.2% of the total energy consumption. The Swiss gas industry association in 1979 began an information campaign to send out a series of six letters about gas.

  8. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maus, K.

    2010-02-01

    This annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides an overview of the work carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in 2009. The commission's main work included preparation work for the revised energy research concept for the period 2013 - 2016, a review of all research programmes operated by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy SFOE, the enhancement of cooperation with public and private research and promotion institutions, the coordination and consultation of research institutions and the improvement of international information exchange. The report summarises coordination work with the many CORE programmes and defines strategic main areas of interest for future work

  9. Romanian - Swiss cooperative research programme "Environmental Science and Technology in Romania" (ESTROM)

    OpenAIRE

    PANIN, Nicolae; GIGER, Walter

    2008-01-01

    The Romanian Ministry for Education, Research and Youth (MECT), the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) and the Swiss National Science Foundation had launched in 2004 the Romanian-Swiss research programme known as “Environmental Science and Technology in Romania” (ESTROM). ESTROM was established as a pilot programme of scientific co-operation between Swiss Research and Education Units with similar ones from Romania in the framework of SCOPES – a Swiss national programme for sup...

  10. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    1992-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library

  11. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  12. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  13. The consolidation of annual accounts in the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vollenweider, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Financial reporting in the public sector is influenced by the private sector accounting standards. The Swiss Federal Government has recently started to prepare consolidated financial statements. The purpose of this study is to describe how the Swiss Federal Government is doing its consolidated financial statements. Theoretically there are different consolidation theories and methods. The choice of consolidation method can explain which consolidation theory is used when the financial statement...

  14. What Triggers Early Retirement. Results from Swiss Pension Funds

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Bütler; Olivia Huguenin; Federica Teppa

    2004-01-01

    Early retirement is predominantly considered as the result of incentives set by social security and the tax system. But people seem to retire early even in the absence of such distortions as the Swiss example demonstrates. We look for determinants of early retirement, in particular the role of lifetime income and family status, using individual data from a selection of Swiss pension funds. Our findings suggest that affordability is a key determinant in retirement decisions: More affluent men,...

  15. Address Points, MFRDC has address points for all municipalities in Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties and for the counties as well., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Middle Flint Regional Development Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Regional | GIS Inventory — Address Points dataset current as of 2008. MFRDC has address points for all municipalities in Dooly, Crisp, Macon, Taylor, Schley, Marion and Webster counties and...

  16. Digital Preservation at the Swiss Federal Archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Archives (SFA) archives Swiss government data when it is no longer in use. The SFA is responsible for advising, inspecting and issuing directives in records management and archiving services in offices, agencies and institutions subjected to the Federal Act on Archiving; as well as archiving and disseminating records and data of archival value. With regard to RWM, it thus in fact is an additional regulator. The conceptual basis for digital archiving at the SFA is based on the ISO OAIS Open Archival Information System Reference Model (ISO 14721:2003). The SFA use a process-orientated approach. The SFA and the Federal Office decide jointly which documents and data are to be archived. Archive-worthy documents and data are selected on the basis of a systematic appraisal. Wherever possible this should be carried out pro-actively - before the documents are actually created - based on an indexing or classification system. If there is clarity, people will know what data - and metadata - to keep for the submission. The submission is split into several stages, from appraisal to the conclusion of the submission. Information is never changed once it is archived, except that it carries out conservation measures. New information is a new submission. The sustainable information management is a core expertise of national archives. The SFA preserves digital records and data and is responsible for their secure and appropriate safe-keeping, description and dissemination. For the archiving of relational databases (e.g. Microsoft Access, Oracle and SQL Server), the SFA have developed a format known as SIARD (Software Independent Archiving of Relational Databases). SIARD is an open standard and is supported by the SIARD Suite application, which can be used to convert relational databases into SIARD format. The SIARD Suite is now in use worldwide (over 170 downloads). The SFA distribute the SIARD Suite free of charge in conformity with the license agreement. Currently

  17. Safety climate in Swiss hospital units: Swiss version of the Safety Climate Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin; Mascherek, Anna C.; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Safety climate measurements are a broadly used element of improvement initiatives. In order to provide a sound and easy‐to‐administer instrument for the use in Swiss hospitals, we translated the Safety Climate Survey into German and French. Methods After translating the Safety Climate Survey into French and German, a cross‐sectional survey study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in operating room (OR) teams and on OR‐related wards in 10 Swiss hospitals. Validity of the instrument was examined by means of Cronbach's alpha and missing rates of the single items. Item‐descriptive statistics group differences and percentage of ‘problematic responses’ (PPR) were calculated. Results 3153 HCPs completed the survey (response rate: 63.4%). 1308 individuals were excluded from the analyses because of a profession other than doctor or nurse or invalid answers (n = 1845; nurses = 1321, doctors = 523). Internal consistency of the translated Safety Climate Survey was good (Cronbach's alpha G erman = 0.86; Cronbach's alpha F rench = 0.84). Missing rates at item level were rather low (0.23–4.3%). We found significant group differences in safety climate values regarding profession, managerial function, work area and time spent in direct patient care. At item level, 14 out of 21 items showed a PPR higher than 10%. Conclusions Results indicate that the French and German translations of the Safety Climate Survey might be a useful measurement instrument for safety climate in Swiss hospital units. Analyses at item level allow for differentiating facets of safety climate into more positive and critical safety climate aspects. PMID:25656302

  18. Acute endocrine correlates of attack by lactating females in male mice: effects on plasma prolactin, luteinizing hormone and corticosterone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broida, J; Michael, S D; Svare, B

    1984-05-01

    Immediately following defeat inflicted by lactating Rockland-Swiss (R-S) albino mice, adult R-S male mice exhibited significant reductions in circulating prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH), but not corticosterone (CORT). These results suggest that acute neuroendocrine responses to intersex competition may be as dramatic as those previously reported for intermale encounters.

  19. A Swiss Pocket Knife for Computability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D. Jones

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research is about operational- and complexity-oriented aspects of classical foundations of computability theory. The approach is to re-examine some classical theorems and constructions, but with new criteria for success that are natural from a programming language perspective. Three cornerstones of computability theory are the S-m-ntheorem; Turing's "universal machine''; and Kleene's second recursion theorem. In today's programming language parlance these are respectively partial evaluation, self-interpretation, and reflection. In retrospect it is fascinating that Kleene's 1938 proof is constructive; and in essence builds a self-reproducing program. Computability theory originated in the 1930s, long before the invention of computers and programs. Its emphasis was on delimiting the boundaries of computability. Some milestones include 1936 (Turing, 1938 (Kleene, 1967 (isomorphism of programming languages, 1985 (partial evaluation, 1989 (theory implementation, 1993 (efficient self-interpretation and 2006 (term register machines. The "Swiss pocket knife'' of the title is a programming language that allows efficient computer implementation of all three computability cornerstones, emphasising the third: Kleene's second recursion theorem. We describe experiments with a tree-based computational model aiming for both fast program generation and fast execution of the generated programs.

  20. An estimation of the Swiss hydropower rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Filippini, Massimo; Mueller, Adrian

    2005-01-01

    The electricity generation in Switzerland is mostly based on hydropower (∼58%) and nuclear power (∼38%). The exploitation of water in the hydropower sector can generate significant economic rent. One possibility to capture this rent is through royalties or fees. This system has been used in Switzerland since many decades. However, the actual water fee system is not flexible and does not take into consideration different production costs between the type and location of hydropower plants. Furthermore, storage plants can sell electricity to a higher price than run-of-river plants. A flexible system is needed in a liberalized electricity market, to take into account these different production situations and the fact that prices may vary considerably over time. The main goal of this paper is to calculate the potential economic rent that could be generated in the Swiss hydropower sector under a future liberalized market. Based on the results of the paper, it can be concluded that the introduction of a flexible fee system could improve the competitiveness of the hydropower sector and promote an energy system based on renewable energy sources

  1. The changing Swiss electricity - Critical views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, E.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at developments in the Swiss electricity market and, in particular, criticises national, regional and local energy policy, which the author considers to be incoherent. The book first describes how the electricity market works, the main players involved and the daily problems that have to be solved. Then, the problems that could be caused by liberalisation, including the question of transit fees, the development of electricity prices for consumers, changes in the structure of the electricity business and third party access are discussed. The second part of the book examines legal aspects of proposed electricity market legislation and then presents 16 propositions covering energy policy, market regulation, unbundling not only of electricity generation, distribution and services but also of politics and business, the revision of proposed liberalisation legislation, taxation aspects as well as the national and international operation of the electricity grid. The book further examines three regional electricity utilities and the attempts to privatise them, which did not meet with the approval of the voting public, and discusses the suspicion cast on certain politicians, that they try to push through the particular interests of groups they are closely associated with. The book is also includes a bibliography and a list of useful addresses

  2. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-01-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  3. Radionuclide sorption database for Swiss safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.; Hadermann, J.

    1984-10-01

    Recommended sorption data for use in transport models for a Swiss High-Level Waste repository are presented. The models used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' assume linear sorption isotherms and require elemental partition coefficient (Kd) data. On the basis of a literature search 'realistic' Kd data for 22 elements have been selected for weathered crystalline rock and sediments in contact with a reducing groundwater and also sediments with a less reducing groundwater. In an appendix sorption data for 28 elements on bentonite backfill are given. These data are supplemented with 'conservative' estimates taken to represent minimum reasonable values. Available data are discussed for each element clearly exhibiting (i) the large gaps in knowledge, (ii) their unbalanced distribution between different elements and, hence, (iii) the need for further experiments in the laboratory, the field and analogue studies. An overview of the theoretical concepts of sorption, experimental methodology and data interpretation is given in order to put the values into context. General problem areas are identified. (Auth.)

  4. Stress and burnout among Swiss dental residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Kimon; Lai, Caroline S; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore; Katsaros, Christos

    2012-01-01

    Stress and burnout have been well-documented in graduate medical and undergraduate dental education, but studies among dental graduate students and residents are sparse. The purpose of this investigation was to examine perceived stressors and three dimensions of burnout among dental residents enrolled in the University of Bern, Switzerland. Thirty-six residents enrolled in five specialty programmes were administered the Graduate Dental Environment Stress (GDES30) questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI). Individual stress items and overall GDES30 scores were used to quantify perceived stress. To measure burnout, proportions of burnout "cases" and MBI subscale scores were computed in the domains of emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and reduced personal accomplishment (PA). Analyses relied on descriptive and bi-variate methods. The mean GDES30 score was 2.1 (SD = 0.4). "Lack of leisure time", "meeting the research requirement of the programme" and "completing graduation requirements" emerged as the top three stressors. Thirty-six percent of respondents were burnout "cases" on the PA scale, while this proportion was 17% for EE and 8% for DP. Both stress and burnout levels increased according to year of study, whereas younger residents and females had consistently higher stress and burnout scores compared to older ones and males. Overall, low levels of perceived stress and burnout were found among this group of Swiss dental residents.

  5. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  6. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  7. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  8. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  9. Swiss and German Ministers make a joint visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Friday, 23 May the German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan, and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, paid a joint visit to CERN. German Federal Minister of Education and Research, Annette Schavan and the Head of the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Micheline Calmy-Rey, with Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer and Jos Engelen. The Swiss and German ministers in front of the ATLAS experiment, accompanied by Robert Aymar, Rolf-Dieter Heuer, Jos Engelen and Peter Jenni. Director-General Robert Aymar gave the ministers a short introduction to CERN, which was followed by the signing of the Guest Book. Both ministers took the opportunity to go to Point 1 to visit the ATLAS experiment, guided by the ATLAS spokesperson Peter Jenni, and also the LHC tunnel.

  10. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  11. Physical optics simulations with PHASE for SwissFEL beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, U.; Follath, R.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bahrdt, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    PHASE is a software tool for physical optics simulation based on the stationary phase approximation method. The code is under continuous development since about 20 years and has been used for instance for fundamental studies and ray tracing of various beamlines at the Swiss Light Source. Along with the planning for SwissFEL a new hard X-ray free electron laser under construction, new features have been added to permit practical performance predictions including diffraction effects which emerge with the fully coherent source. We present the application of the package on the example of the ARAMIS 1 beamline at SwissFEL. The X-ray pulse calculated with GENESIS and given as an electrical field distribution has been propagated through the beamline to the sample position. We demonstrate the new features of PHASE like the treatment of measured figure errors, apertures and coatings of the mirrors and the application of Fourier optics propagators for free space propagation.

  12. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maus, K.

    2009-01-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  13. [Main results of the Swiss study on DRGs (Casemix Study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casemix, E

    1989-01-01

    Sponsored by the Health Administrations of nine cantons, this study was conducted by the University Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine in Lausanne in order to assess how DRGs could be used within the Swiss context. A data base mainly provided by the Swiss VESKA statistics was used. The first step provided the transformation of Swiss diagnostic and intervention codes into US codes, allowing direct use of the Yale Grouper for DRG. The second step showed that the overall performance of DRG in terms of variability reduction of the length of stay was similar to the one observed in US; there are, however, problems when the homogeneity of medicotechnical procedures for DRG is considered. The third steps showed how DRG could be used as an account unit in hospital, and how costs per DRG could be estimated. Other examples of applications of DRG were examined, for example comparison of Casemix or length of stay between hospitals.

  14. Szekeres Swiss-cheese model and supernova observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof; Celerier, Marie-Noeelle

    2010-01-01

    We use different particular classes of axially symmetric Szekeres Swiss-cheese models for the study of the apparent dimming of the supernovae of type Ia. We compare the results with those obtained in the corresponding Lemaitre-Tolman Swiss-cheese models. Although the quantitative picture is different the qualitative results are comparable, i.e., one cannot fully explain the dimming of the supernovae using small-scale (∼50 Mpc) inhomogeneities. To fit successfully the data we need structures of order of 500 Mpc size or larger. However, this result might be an artifact due to the use of axial light rays in axially symmetric models. Anyhow, this work is a first step in trying to use Szekeres Swiss-cheese models in cosmology and it will be followed by the study of more physical models with still less symmetry.

  15. Opening the electricity market - the Swiss Confederation's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities offered by the opening of the Swiss electricity market in the European context. The importance of appropriate legislation that would enable Switzerland to actively take part in the shaping of a Europe-wide electricity market is stressed. Measures to be considered such as those in the areas of third-party access, tariffs, security of supply and the promotion of renewable sources of energy are discussed. Questions of public service are addressed and comparisons are made to solutions that have been implemented in other areas such as post, telecommunications and the railway system. The regulations and structures suggested in Swiss proposals for legislation are discussed in detail

  16. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  17. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  18. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueni, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  19. Instrumentation and test of the Swiss LCT-coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zichy, J.A.; Horvath, I.; Jakob, B.; Marinucci, C.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1985-01-01

    Just before Christmas 1983 the fabrication of the Swiss LCT-coil was finished. Tests at ambient temperature were performed on the factory site and after delivery in Oak Ridge. To avoid an undesirable delay of the rescheduled Partial-Array Test it was agreed to install the coil without its superconducting bus. In July 1984 the Swiss LCT-coil was successfully cooled down to LHe temperature together with the other two fully installed coils. Besides the cooling system, the instrumentation, measured parameters of the coil and some preliminary results obtained during the ongoing Partial-Array Test are presented

  20. CWC: A Swiss Retrospective and Perspective (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadisch, M.

    2007-01-01

    A world without Weapons of Mass Destruction - this is the vision of SPIEZ LABORATORY, Switzerland. As the federal establishment for NBC defense, it deals with the protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical threats and risks, as well as with the technical aspects of arms control and disarmament of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (NBC weapons). Now on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), it is the right time to look back on the achievements of the OPCW and on how a small country like Switzerland can support an international organization such as the OPCW on its way to a world free of chemical weapons. SPIEZ LABORATORY was involved in the negotiations during the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva which in turn led to the CWC. Switzerland in general and SPIEZ LABORATORY in particular, have played an active role in different areas relevant to the CWC, all in order to get closer to a w orld without Weapons of Mass Destruction . The support of the OPCW and different Member States covered fundamental parts of the Convention such as, chemical weapon destruction (financial contribution and analytical work) and the implementation of Article VII obligations (declaration support, information and experience exchange). In addition, Switzerland and SPIEZ LABORATORY still have an important role in assistance and protection. Switzerland submitted a proposal for the delivery of protective equipment to the OPCW and is also active in capacity building courses like CITPRO or SEFLAB. The support in the field of international cooperation and assistance is expressed by numerous internships in SPIEZ LABORATORY and in the Swiss industry. In order to support the operability of the OPCW, SPIEZ LABORATORY participates in inspector training modules (basic modules, mock inspections) and delivers on a regular basis reference chemicals and analytical data (by now 2/3 of all the data has been inputted into the OPCW Central Analytical

  1. Caffeine and sleep-deprivation mediated changes in open-field behaviours, stress response and antioxidant status in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Onaolapo, J. Olakunle; Onaolapo, Y. Adejoke; Akanmu, A. Moses; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Effects of daily caffeine consumption on open-field behaviours, serum corticosterone and brain antioxidant levels were investigated after six hours of total sleep-deprivation in prepubertal mice. We tested the hypothesis that daily caffeine consumption may significantly alter behaviour, stress and antioxidative response of prepubertal mice to an acute episode of total sleep-deprivation. Methods: Prepubertal Swiss mice of both sexes were assigned to two main groups of 120 each (...

  2. Cytological and Biochemical Effects of St. John’s Wort Supplement (A Complex Mixture of St. John’s Wort, Rosemary and Spirulina on Somatic and Germ Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Aleisa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Commercially available St. John’s wort supplement (SJWS composed of an herbal mixture of St. John’s Wort (SJW, Rosemary (RM and Spirulina (SP is used as a dietary supplement for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. Although the minor ingredients, (RM and SP are proven antioxidants, their quantity is quite insignificant as compared to the SJW, which is the major ingredient. Most of the toxic effects of SJWS are attributed to the main constituents of SJW which differ due to the influence of light (hypericin and variations in temperature above freezing point (hyperforin. However, there are no reports on toxicity of SJWS maintained at room temperature in pharmacies and supermarkets. In view of the folkloric importance, immense (prescribed or unprescribed use and a paucity of literature on SJWS, it was found worthwhile to (1 determine the genotoxic effects of SJWS in somatic and germ cells of mice and (2 investigate the role of biochemical changes, as a possible mechanism. The protocol included the oral treatment of mice with different doses (380, 760 and 1520 mg/kg/day of SJWS for 7 days. The following experiments were conducted: (i cytological studies on micronucleus test, (ii cytogenetic analysis for meiotic chromosomes, (iii cytological analysis of spermatozoa abnormalities, (iv quantification of proteins and nucleic acids in hepatic and testicular cells and (v estimation of malondialdehyde (MDA and nonprotein sulfhydryl (NP-SH in hepatic and testicular cells. The treatment increased the frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE in the femora. It caused aberrations in chromosomes of testes and induced spermatozoa abnormalities. These changes might be attributed to the epigenetic mechanisms as revealed by an increase in concentrations of MDA and depletion of nucleic acids and NP-SH levels in both hepatic and testicular cells observed in the present study. Since, the samples of SJWS used were not drawn

  3. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  4. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  5. Empirical study of ERP systems implementation costs in Swiss SMES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Equey, C.; Kusters, R.J.; Varone, S.; Montandon, N.; Cordeiro, J.; Felipe, J.

    2008-01-01

    Based on sparse literature investigating the cost of ERP systems implementation, our research uses data from a survey of Swiss SMEs having implemented ERP in order to test cost drivers. The main innovation is the proposition of a new classification of cost drivers that depend on the enterprise

  6. Aerial surveys for Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Kanaskie; M. McWilliams; J. Prukop; D. Overhulser; K. Sprengel

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade, Swiss needle cast (SNC), caused by the native fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, has severely damaged Douglas-fir in the Coast Range of western Oregon. The primary impact of the pathogen on Douglas-fir (the only susceptible tree species) is premature loss of foliage, which results in significant reduction in tree growth. Recent...

  7. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  8. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  9. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  10. New Swiss legislation on nuclear third party liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.

    1981-10-01

    Following a description of the Paris Convention and Brussels Supplementary Convention system for nuclear third party liability and that prevailing until now in Switzerland, the paper reviews the new Swiss nuclear third party liability Bill prepared after a popular consultation. The new provisions are analysed and in particular, that providing for unlimited liability. (NEA) [fr

  11. ORTHOIMAGERY, WEBSTER COUNTY, GA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Digital orthographic imagery datasets contain georeferenced images of the Earth?s surface, collected by a sensor in which object displacement has been removed for...

  12. FLOODPLAIN, WEBSTER COUNTY, IOWA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  13. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  14. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs

  15. Reimbursement of care for severe trauma under SwissDRG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf M; Sprengel, Kai; Jensen, Kai Oliver; Jentzsch, Thorsten; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Seifert, Burkhardt; Ciritsis, Bernhard; Neuhaus, Valentin; Volbracht, Jörk; Mehra, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of patients with severe injuries is costly, with best results achieved in specialised care centres. However, diagnosis-related group (DRG)-based prospective payment systems have difficulties in depicting treatment costs for specialised care. We analysed reimbursement of care for severe trauma in the first 3 years after the introduction of the Swiss DRG reimbursement system (2012-2014). The study included all patients with solely basic insurance, hospital admission after 01.01.2011 and discharge in 2011 or 2012, who were admitted to the resuscitation room of the University Hospital of Zurich, aged ≥16 years and with an injury severity score (ISS) ≥16 (n = 364). Clinical, financial and administrative data were extracted from the electronic medical records. All cases were grouped into DRGs according to different SwissDRG versions. We considered results to be significant if p ≤0.002. The mean deficit decreased from 12 065 CHF under SwissDRG 1.0 (2012) to 2 902 CHF under SwissDRG 3.0 (2014). The main reason for the reduction of average deficits was a refinement of the DRG algorithm with a regrouping of 23 cases with an ISS ≥16 from MDC 01 to DRGs within MDC21A. Predictors of an increased total loss per case could be identified: for example, high total number of surgical interventions, surgeries on multiple anatomical regions or operations on the pelvis (p ≤0.002). Psychiatric diagnoses in general were also significant predictors of deficit per case (p<0.001). The reimbursement for care of severely injured patients needs further improvement. Cost neutral treatment was not possible under the first three versions of SwissDRG.

  16. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  17. Aesthetics of Deception on the Stage : The Conflict Between Reality and Appearance in John Webster’s the White Devil = Sahnede Aldatmanın Estetiği : John Webster'in the White Devil Oyununda Gerçek ile Görünüm Arasındaki Çatışma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşen SAYIN TEKER

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available ohn Webster (1580-1634, a highly sophisticated yet equally pessimistic playwright of Jacobean England, depicts a world of corruption in which there is no place for the conventional notions of good and evil. In Webster's tragic world traditional concepts appear with their opposites, and therefore, they create a sort of conflict between reality and appearance. A character or an event seems good in appearance, however, it turns out to be evil in reality; or a character can have the capacity for both good and evil, treachery and loyalty, honesty and dishonesty at the same time in his plays. In other words, the dominant theme in his plays is the fallacy of appearance. In this article, this characteristic of Webster will be examined in his first tragedy, The White Devil with reference to the historical background of the period and to some significant scenes and characters in the play.

  18. Organizational issues in stroke treatment: The Swiss paradigm - Stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios K Matis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke represents the leading cause of acquired disability in adults and poses a tremendous socioeconomic burden both on patients and the society. In this sense, prompt diagnosis and urgent treatment are needed in order to radically reduce the devastating consequences of this disease. Herein the authors present the new guidelines recently adopted by the Swiss Stroke Society concerning the establishment of stroke units. Standardized treatment and allocation protocols along with an acute rehabilitation concept seem to be the core of the Swiss stroke management system. Coordinated multidisciplinary care provided by specialized medical, nursing and therapy staff is of utmost importance for achieving a significant dependency and death reduction. It is believed that the implementation of these guidelines in the stroke care system would be beneficial not only for the stroke patients, but also for the health system.

  19. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Pierre, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR-7095 du CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis, boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France)

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  20. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willmott, P. R., E-mail: philip.willmott@psi.ch; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-16

    The wiggler X-ray source of the Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been replaced with a 14 mm-period cryogenically cooled in-vacuum undulator. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics have been redesigned. The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs.

  1. IT-Benefits-Management in the Swiss Financial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, G; Baenninger, P

    2008-01-01

    Companies engage in IT-projects in order to gain some benefits; however they complain that those bene-fits are difficult to achieve. On the basis of a survey in the Swiss financial industry this paper comes to the conclusion that due to a fundamental misconception companies reproduce the lack of success in reaping IT benefits: Many companies regard benefit management as an instrument to support project proposals rather than as an instrument to gain optimal benefits. Conse-quently, benefits ma...

  2. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    In 1993 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their third highest combined annual output. The contribution to the total electricity generation in the country was close to 37%. Replacement of the steam generators in Beznau Unit 1 resulted in a longer than usual annual outage. For the other four units the availability figures were close to, or exceeded, those of previous years. The energy utilization was, however, lowered due to load reduction in autumn resulting from unusually high production by the hydro-electric power plants. The steam generator replacement at Beznau enabled an increase in electrical power of about 2% without increase in reactor power. With the approval of the Swiss government in December 1992, the output of the Muehleberg power plant was increased in two stages by a total of 10%. The application for an unlimited operating license for Beznau Unit 2, and for a power uprate at the Leibstadt power plant, are still pending. The average number of scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. As a result of experience in the Swedish nuclear power plant at Barsebaeck, the suction strainers of the emergency core cooling systems of the boiling water reactors at Muehleberg and Leibstadt were replaced by strainers with larger surface areas. The re-inspection of crack indications previously detected in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor and the penetration tubes in the reactor pressure vessel closure head of Beznau revealed no growth during the intervening operating periods. Following the completion of installation activities during the annual outages at Beznau Unit 1, Goesgen and Leibstadt, all Swiss nuclear power plants are now equipped with filtered containment venting systems. (author) figs., tabs

  3. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicable...

  4. 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Congress. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2010-01-01

    These congress proceedings contain the presentations made at the two-day 8 th Swiss National Photovoltaics Conference held in Winterthur, Switzerland, in February 2010. The presentations were grouped into six sessions. The first session dealt with promotional activities for photovoltaics (PV) in Switzerland. The presentations dealt with the present state of PV promotion, the cantonal support program in Basle and the Swiss photovoltaics market in a global context. The session was rounded off with a podium discussion on the Swiss cost-covering remuneration system for solar power. This theme was looked at in more detail in the second session of the conference; successes and hindrances in the system were discussed as well as an example of an alternative solar power 'exchange'. The third session looked at building-integration of PV systems; facade and roof integration and the use of flexible solar cells were discussed. The second day of the conference featured three further sessions. The first session dealt with transfer of know-how from research institutes to industry. A general overview was presented and specific examples of successful know-how transfer were reported on. The next session dealt with the great challenges presented by the efforts being made to expand the use of PV. Safety aspects were discussed, as were the certified testing of modules, mains integration and the training of personnel involved with the implementation of PV systems. The final session looked at the scenarios, perspectives and visions for Swiss and European PV business. PV systems were examined from the point of view of the semiconductor business, European energy planning, the role of PV in future energy supply and the roles of customers, investors and politics on the way to a renewable future.

  5. Sustainability assessment of GM crops in a Swiss agricultural context

    OpenAIRE

    Speiser , Bernhard; Stolze , Matthias; Oehen , Bernadette; Gessler , Cesare; Weibel , Franco; Bravin , Esther; Kilchenmann , Adeline; Widmer , Albert; Charles , Raffael; Lang , Andreas; Stamm , Christian; Triloff , Peter; Tamm , Lucius

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this study was to provide an ex ante assessment of the sustainability of genetically modified (GM) crops under the agricultural conditions prevailing in Switzerland. The study addressed the gaps in our knowledge relating to (1) the agronomic risks/benefits in production systems under Swiss conditions (at field and rotation/orchard level), (2) the economic and socio-economic impacts associated with altered farming systems, and (3) the agro-ecological risks/be...

  6. Present lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, T

    1970-01-01

    This study examined the lead content of the vegetation near Swiss highways. The factors influencing the total lead content of the trees, shrubs and grasses were found to be the direction of the traffic, the age of the plants, the season, the surface peculiarities of the plant, and the lateral and vertical distance between the plants and the road. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  7. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  8. Experimental reinfection of BALB/c mice with different recombinant type I/III strains of Toxoplasma gondii: involvement of IFN-³ and IL-10

    OpenAIRE

    Brandão,Geane Peroni; Melo,Maria Norma; Gazzinelli,Ricardo Tostes; Caetano,Braulia Costa; Ferreira,Adriana Melo; Silva,Letícia Azevedo; Vitor,Ricardo Wagner Almeida

    2009-01-01

    To assess reinfection of BALB/c mice with different Toxoplasma gondii strains, the animals were prime infected with the non-virulent D8 strain and challenged with virulent recombinant strains. Thirty days after challenge, brain cysts were obtained from surviving BALB/c mice and inoculated in Swiss mice to obtain tachyzoites for DNA extraction and PCR-RFLP analysis to distinguish the different T. gondii strains present in possible co-infections. Anti-Toxoplasma immune responses were evaluated ...

  9. Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Annual report; Bi-directional charger for swiss2G - Jahresbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwab, M.; Baumann, P.

    2010-11-15

    This short annual report for 2010 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a bi-directional charger that can be used in intelligent 'Smart Grid' applications. The idea is based on being able to use electric vehicles as a source of electricity to help meet peak demand for mains electricity. The swiss2G project aims to produce an electric car battery-charger that also functions as an inverter to convert the car's DC battery voltage to mains electricity. The project was started in September 2010. The report describes the aims of the project and reports on initial work done in the areas of safety, switching electronics and AC/DC conversion. National and international co-operation is noted and prospects for further work are discussed.

  10. An important year for Swiss Electricity Politics - President's speech at the shareholder's meeting of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the speech made by Rudolf Steiner, president of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises, in Bad Ragaz in September 2004. Steiner comments on 2004 as being an important year with respect to energy politics in Switzerland. A public vote turned down the idea of opting out of nuclear energy, the Federal Court decided that the Restricted Trade Practices act was also applicable to the Swiss electricity supply industry and the EU parliament passed guidelines on the opening of the European power market. The effects of large-scale blackouts in America and Europe on the public's perception of secure supplies are commented on. The importance of the Association as a provider of services for its members and as a partner for the government is stressed

  11. The information content of KOF indicators on Swiss current account data revisions

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Jan-Egbert; Jacobs, Jan P.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses revisions of Swiss current account data, taking into account the actual data revision process and the implied types of revisions. In addition we investigate whether the first release of current account data can be improved upon by the use of survey results as gathered by the KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich. An answer in the affirmative indicates that it is possible to improve first releases and thereby enhance the current assessment of the Swiss economy.

  12. Protective Role of Spirulina on Gamma Rays Induced Haematological and Biochemical Disorders in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R.M.; Kamal El-Dein, E.M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reports the haematological and biochemical protective effect of Salipriina on Swiss albino mice exposed to gamma radiation. Swiss albino mice (8 weeks old) were administered intraperitoneally Sanepil (800 mg/kg b.wt.) prior to whole body gamma-irradiation (7.5 Gy). Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in different bone marrow cells (pro-and normoblasts) and blood constituents (erythrocytes, leukocytes, differential leukocyte count, haematocrit,haemoglobin and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Pro- and normoblasts, erythrocytes, leukocytes, haematocrit and haemoglobin values showed a significant (p<0.05) decline during the first 3 days, followed by a gradual recovery starting from day 7, but normal values were not recorded until 14 days post-exposure. Treatment of mice with Spirulina also caused a significant decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) formation in the liver, suggesting its role in protection against radiation induced membrane and cellular damage. Similarly, pretreatment of mice with Spirulina caused a significant increase in serum glutathione (GSH) level in comparison with that of irradiated animals. Results suggest that Spirulina modulate the radiation induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

  13. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO 2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  14. Modification of hemoglobin level and hematocrit value in the peripheral blood of mice after 45Ca internal irradiation by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagat, R.M.; Kumar, A.

    1986-01-01

    Radioprotective effect of MPG has been studied on the hemoglobin level and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice against radiation-induced changes after injecting radiocalcium ( 45 Ca) at the dose level of 37 kBq/g body weight. MPG was injected 15-30 minutes before 45 Ca injection at dose of 20 mg/kg body weight intraperitoneally and also MPG was injected at various repeated doses. It has been observed that MPG in repeated doses is effective in reducing the radiation-induced changes in the hemoglobin and hematocrit value of peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice following 45 Ca internal irradiation. (author)

  15. GABA(A)-benzodiazepine receptor complex sensitivity in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout mice on a 129/Sv background.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pattij, T.; Groenink, L.; Oosting, R.S.; Gugten, J. van der; Maes, R.A.A.; Olivier, B.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies in 5-HT(1A) receptor knockout (1AKO) mice on a mixed Swiss Websterx129/Sv (SWx129/Sv) and a pure 129/Sv genetic background suggest a differential gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A))-benzodiazepine receptor complex sensitivity in both strains, independent from the anxious phenotype. To

  16. Dominant lethal mutations research in mice fed with irradiated black beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Z.P.

    1982-01-01

    To evaluate the potential mutagenic effects of irradiated black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) with conservation purpose, in germ cells of mice, dominant lethal assay were employed. Three groups of albino swiss male mice (S W-55) were fed with a normal ration, or unirradiated or irradiated (0,2; 0,5; 1; 5; 10; 15 e 20 KGy) test diets for eight weeks. After the feeding period the males were mated with groups of untreated females mice for four consecutive weeks. Numbers of pregnancy rates females were observed. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. (author)

  17. Effects of tritiated water on mice liver, in relation to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatia, A L [Rajasthan Univ., Jaipur (India). Radiation Biology Lab.

    1978-06-01

    Tritiated water was administered intraperitoneally at the dose rate of about 20 ..mu..Ci/ml of body water to different six age groups of Swiss albino mice, ranging from 1 to 6 weeks old. They were autopsied at 48 hours post-injection. The liver of 5 weeks old mice is found most vulnerable and that of 4 weeks second but lesser than 5 weeks. Histopathologically, 1, 2, 3 and 6 weeks old mice liver showed lesser degree of damage. The distinct histopathological lesions include oedema, cytoplasmic vacuolation and degranulation, hyperaemia, increase number of Kupffer's cells etc.

  18. SAPHYR: the Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Zappone, A. S.; Kissling, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR) is a multi-year project, aiming to compile a comprehensive data set on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding areas. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public, such as industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions. Since the early sixties worldwide geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. In combination with efforts to investigate deep structure of the continental crust by controlled source seismology, laboratories capable to reproduce pressure and temperature conditions to depth of 50km and more collected measurements of various parameters on a wide variety of rock types. In recent years, the increasing interest on non-traditional energy supply, (deep geothermal energy, shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. The idea to organize those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS) is supported by the Swiss Commission for Geophysics. The data refer to density and porosity, seismic, magnetic, thermal properties, permeability and electrical properties. An effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that are poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. At present SAPHYR focuses towards developing a 3-D physical properties model of the Swiss subsurface, using the structure of the exposed geology, boreholes data and seismic surveys, combined with lab determined pressure and temperature derivatives. An early version of the final product is presented here.

  19. Attitudes of Swiss Health Care Providers Toward Childhood Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Marianne; Schaedelin, Sabine; Aebi, Christoph; Berger, Christoph; Crisinel, Pierre-Alex; Diana, Alessandro; Niederer-Loher, Anita; Siegrist, Claire-Anne; Vaudaux, Bernard; Heininger, Ulrich

    2017-06-01

    INFOVAC is a network providing information about immunization issues to health professionals. The aim of this study was to assess the attitude of INFOVAC subscribers toward the current Swiss immunization schedule, potential modifications, and current and hypothetical immunization practices regarding their own children. In March 2015, a Web-based survey was sent to 4260 physicians and pharmacists subscribed to INFOVAC. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The following information was obtained: (1) current immunization status of own children; (2) which immunizations would currently be accepted for a hypothetical own child and (3) attitudes toward potential modifications of the Swiss immunization schedule. Descriptive methods and multivariate models to correct for covariables were used for data analysis. Nine hundred and fifty-five valid questionnaires were received: 886/3704 (23.9%) from physicians and 69/556 (12.4%) from pharmacists. Current (>95%) and hypothetical (>99%) immunization rates were high for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles-mumps-rubella. Most pediatricians (61%) would support more vaccines for their children than currently recommended by the Swiss immunization advisory committee, whereas about 50% of other physicians and pharmacists would decline at least one of the recommended immunizations, most frequently varicella, pneumococcal or meningococcal C conjugate vaccines. Strong general support was expressed for the expansion of human papillomavirus immunization to males, acceleration of the measles-mumps-rubella schedule and a 2 + 1 instead of 3 + 1 diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, acellular-inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (DTPa-IPV)/Haemophilus influenzae type b ± hepatitis B virus (HBV) schedule. Survey participants generally demonstrated a positive attitude toward immunization, with pediatricians being the most progressive subgroup with the largest percentage of participants (63.1%) neither declining nor postponing any

  20. Suicide in adolescents: findings from the Swiss National cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Egger, Matthias; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Kupferschmid, Stephan

    2018-01-01

    Suicide in adolescents is the second most common cause of death in this age group and an important public health problem. We examined sociodemographic factors associated with suicide in Swiss adolescents and analysed time trends in youth suicide in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC). The SNC is a longitudinal study of the whole Swiss resident population, based on linkage of census and mortality records. We identified suicides in adolescents aged 10-18 years from 1991 to 2013. A total of 2.396 million adolescents were included and 592 suicides were recorded, corresponding to a rate of 3.7 per 100,000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.4-4.0]. Rates increased with age from 0.0 per 100,000 at age 10 years to 14.8 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.6-17.5) at 18 years in boys, and from 0.0 to 5.4 per 100,000 (4.1-7.2) in girls. Being a boy, living in a single parent household, being an only or middle-born child, and living in rural regions were factors associated with a higher rate of suicide. Hanging was the most common method in boys, and railway suicides were most frequent in girls. There was no clear evidence for an increase or decrease over calendar time. We conclude that familial and socioeconomic factors including type of household, birth order and urbanity are associated with youth suicide in Switzerland. These factors should be considered when designing prevention programmes for youth suicide.

  1. The Swiss national network for isotopes in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schotterer, U.

    1998-01-01

    The network is based on the long-term stations of the Climate and Environmental Physics Group and includes 11 precipitation, 6 river and 3 ground water stations. For the isotope measurements the Universities of Bern (Climate and Environmental Physics Group, tritium and oxygen-18) and Lausanne (Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography, deuterium) are contracted on a year to year basis. Sampling instructions, collection and shipment of samples are within the responsibility of the Bern group. The sampling apart from monthly composites of precipitation includes also samples from surface and ground water. The isotope data are available by contacting the Swiss Hydrological and Geological Survey directly

  2. The Swiss gas market - Facts and figures of today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfander, M.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution presents a selection of the latest statistical data about the current state of development of the Swiss gas market. The sales and consumer structure areas are the focal points. The key data are clarified by graphics or shown in tabular form with brief comments. The following topics are dealt with: gas balance and sources of natural gas supply for Switzerland, natural gas sales by regions and cantons, energy consumption in the different consumption sectors, heating structure of residential accommodation according to energy sources, trend of natural gas consumption in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe. (author)

  3. Survey and alignment for the Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, F.Q.; Dreyer, K.; Fehlmann, U.; Pochon, J.L.; Wrulich, A.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a dedicated high brightness synchrotron light source currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen. It will be commissioned in 2001. The accelerator complex includes a 2.4 GeV electron storage ring (SR) with 288 in circumference, a full energy injection booster synchrotron (Booster) and a 100 MeV linear pre-accelerator. The general alignment method and first results of the network measurements are presented. A laser tracker LTD500 is mainly adopted for network measurements and the alignment of storage ring components. (authors)

  4. Swiss Federal Law on the Genetic Testing of Humans

    OpenAIRE

    森, 芳周

    2009-01-01

    To add an article against the misuse of a reproductive technology and a genetic engineering, theSwiss Federal Constitution was revised in 1992 through an initiative in 1987. On the basis of thisarticle of the constitution, the Reproductive Medicine Act and the Stem Cell Research Act wereenacted in turns; then, the Federal Law on the Genetic Testing of Humans was enacted in October2004. This paper treats a process of the revision of the constitution in 1992 and the enactment of thelaw in 2004....

  5. Uranium supply of the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Securing the supply to Swiss nuclear power stations takes into account the fact that finished fuel elements must be introduced. The situation is, however, relieved by the fact there are excess capacities both in the amount of natural uranium available as well as in all processing stages. As further security, each nuclear power station keeps a reload of fuel elements in stock, so that if supplies are disrupted, continued operation is guaranteed for 1-2 years. Political influences should be taken into account, as should any repercussions that fuel disposal may have on fuel supply. 3 figs

  6. Swiss electro-industry is oriented towards export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horat, E

    1982-08-20

    When a Swiss enterprise years ago got an order from the USA for two steam turbines with a power of 1100 and 1300 MW a British economic journal refered to this as a 'literally revolutionary event'. The reason was that the biggest machines for generation of electric energy had a performance of merely 500 to 600 MW. In between the competitive industry has gained pace and now builds machines of the same performance class. The competition for the technical leadership still goes on, research and development are constantly being pushed forward, emphasis is put on improving the degree of efficiency.

  7. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis

    2015-07-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  8. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  9. Swiss association for atomic energy (SVA/ASPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A report of the general assembly of the Swiss association for atomic energy held on 4th June 1985. The president, Alain Colomb, called for a 'second electrification' of the country to free Switzerland from a dependence on petroleum. Nuclear energy is necessary to combat air pollution. An invited speaker, Manuel Poyatos of the 'Electricite de France', recounted the French experience of restructuring their electric production system; particular the increasing contribution of nuclear energy and the beneficial effects on the environment. (G.T.H.)

  10. Lead and radiation induced hepatic lesions in Swiss albino mice and their inhibition by vitamin E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajawat, Sunita; Goyal, P.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present study has been carried out to access the protective role of vitamin E against hepato-toxicity induced by lead and radiation. The present study demonstrates that the application of vitamin E prior to lead and gamma radiation exposure is quite potential to provide protection against hepatic lesions induced by such teratogens

  11. 26 CFR 509.106 - Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. 509.106 Section 509.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. In effect, Article IV of the convention provides...

  12. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  13. Experts' perspectives on SwissDRG: Second class care for vulnerable patient groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, A; Wepf, H; Elger, B; Wangmo, T

    2018-03-14

    On the 1st of January 2012, Switzerland introduced the diagnosis-related group hospital tariff structure (SwissDRG). It was recognised that healthcare provided to the most vulnerable patient groups would be a challenge for the new SwissDRG. Coincident with the implementation of SwissDRG, we explored hospital experts' perceptions of which patient groups are vulnerable under the SwissDRG system, what has changed for this group, as well as solutions to ensure adequate access to health care for them. We interviewed 43 experts from 40 Swiss hospitals. Participating experts named several vulnerable patient groups who share some common characteristics. These hospital experts were concerned about the patient groups that are not financially profitable and questioned the practicability of the current regulation. At the same time, they highlighted the complexity associated with caring for this group under the new SwissDRG and reported measures at the macro, meso, and micro levels to protect vulnerable patient groups from negative effects. To curb negative outcomes for vulnerable patient groups after the introduction of the SwissDRG, the Swiss legislation has introduced various instruments including the acute and transitional care (ATC) measures. We conclude that ATC measures do not produce the expected effect the legislators had hoped for. More health data is needed to identify situations where vulnerable patient groups are more susceptible to inadequate health care access in Switzerland. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Swiss synchrotron light source at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    The brochure describes the Swiss project for a synchrotron light source to be built at the Paul Scherrer Institute at Villigen. According to the project the synchrotron light source shall be realized up to the year 2001 at costs of 165 Million Swiss Francs. figs., tabs

  15. Behavioural changes in mice exposed to low level microwave fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goiceanu, C.; Gradinaru, F.; Danulescu, R.; Balaceanu, G.; Sandu, D. D.; Avadanei, O. G.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of our study is to point out some changes in mice behaviour due possibly to exposure to low-level microwave fields. Animals spontaneous behaviour were monitored and the exploring behaviour and motor activity were assessed. Ten selected Swiss male mice were exposed to low-level microwave fields of about 1 mW/cm 2 power density for a relatively long period of time (13 weeks), comparing to their lifetime. The exposure system consists in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) Cell. A control lot of ten Swiss male mice was used. All twenty mice were selected to be of same age and of 202 g initial body weight. Each animal was placed in his own holder. The behaviour of the animals, from both exposed and control lots, was assessed by using a battery of three behavioural tests. The test sessions were performed every two weeks. During exposure period it was recorded a progressive but moderate loss of motor activity for both exposed and controls, probably due to weight gain and aging. Concerning exploratory activity there is a significant difference between control and exposed animals. Control mice had approximately constant performances in time. On the other hand exposed mice showed a progressive decrease in time of their exploratory ability. Motor activity of exposed animals does not seem to be affected by microwave exposure, in spite of moderate loss in time of motor activity in both lots, as long as it was recorded a quite similar evolution. The difference in performances of exposed and controls concerning exploratory activity seem to emphasise an effect of long-term low-level microwave exposure. The progressive loss in time of exploratory activity of exposed mice, in contrast with controls, could be due to the interference of microwaves with central nervous activity. (authors)

  16. Influence of Trypanosoma cruzi strain on the pathogenesis of chronic myocardiopathy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia G. Andrade

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available The murine model of chronic Chaga's myocardiopathy was developed in 201 inbred and outbred mice. The experimental groups consisted of 1st: 73 inbred AKR and A/J mice inoculated with one of the following. Trypanosoma cruzi strains: Peruvian (Type I, 12 SF (Type II or Colombian (Type III; 2nd: 128 outbred Swiss mice, chronically infected either with Type II or Type III strains isolated from human patients from different geographical areas. All T. cruzi strains were previoulsly characterized by their morphobiological behaviour in mice and by isoenzymatic patterns. For the 1st group the inoculum was 5 x 10**4 for the Peruvian strain and 1 x 10**5 for the 12 SF and Colombian strains. In the 2nd group-Swiss mice the inoculum size varied from 2 x 10**4 to 2 x 10**5. The inbred animals were killed at a 3 time-point scale (90, 180 and 240 days post-infection. The Swiss mice were killed from 180 to 660 days after infection. The evaluation of parasitemia and serology (xeodiagnosis and indirect immunofluorescent test was performed. The incidence of macroscopic alterations of the heart and cardiac index were evaluated. Histopathological lesions of the myocardium were graded. The influence of T. cruzi strain on the intensity of cardiac lesions was evaluated by the Chi-square test; the incidence of inflammatory lesions and its relationship to the parasite strain was evaluated by the Fisher test. The influence of the duration of infection was evaluated by using the Gamma Coefficient of Kruskal and Goodman and its measure of significance. Slight to severe microscopic alterations occurred in 85% of the chronically infected nice. There were a clear predominance on the incidence and intensity of inflammatory and fibrotic alterations for the mice infected with Type III strains. Statistical analysis has shown significant differences among the infected groups, in the inflammatory and fibrotic lesions. Macroscopic alterations (right cavities dilatation and apex

  17. The Reference Scenarios for the Swiss Emergency Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanspeter Isaak; Navert, Stephan B.; Ralph Schulz

    2006-01-01

    For the purpose of emergency planning and preparedness, realistic reference scenarios and corresponding accident source terms have been defined on the basis of common plant features. Three types of representative reference scenarios encompass the accident sequences expected to be the most probable. Accident source terms are assumed to be identical for all Swiss nuclear power plants, although the plants differ in reactor type and power. Plant-specific probabilistic safety analyses were used to justify the reference scenarios and the postulated accident source terms. From the full spectrum of release categories available, those categories were selected which would be covered by the releases and time frames assumed in the reference scenarios. For each nuclear power plant, the cumulative frequency of accident sequences not covered by the reference scenarios was determined. It was found that the cumulative frequency for such accident sequences does not exceed about 1 x 10 -6 per year. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate concludes that the postulated accident source terms for the reference scenarios are consistent with the current international approach in emergency planning, where one should concentrate on the most probable accident sequences. (N.C.)

  18. Swiss operating experience: availability and post-Chernobyl upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.

    1988-01-01

    Switzerland started its era of nuclear power with the foundation stone for the country's first nuclear power unit (Beznau-1) onSeptember 6, 1965. Up to that date, Switzerland was the classic country for hydropower, negligible amounts of electricity being produced by fossil-fuelled plants. Today, nuclear accounts for close to 40 % of Swiss total electricity generation. Whwn credits for lifetime capacity factors of each individual plant are combined, Switzerland tops the world list for light water reactor performance over many years. The Chernobyl reactor type RBMK-1000 has very little in common with the light water reactors operating in Switzerland, so one would certainly not expect any direct influence on Swiss plant design, operation or maintenance as an immediate consequence of the accident. Some important safety measures against severe accidents are currently being implemented. These measures were not a direct outcome of the Chernobyl accident and were already in discussion quite some time before. With this action, the proper position of nuclear power to meet the ever increasing demand for electricity in Switzerland will hopefully again find greater public acceptance. 1 tab

  19. Fiftieth anniversary celebrations get underway with a Swiss philatelic gift

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    A special commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN will go on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland on 9 March, marking the official start of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. On your marks, get set...go! The first ten stamp-lovers born in 1954 to present themselves at the counter of CERN's Meyrin post office at 9.00 a.m. on Tuesday 9 March will receive the new Swiss commemorative stamp issued in honour of CERN, together with a surprise gift. Designed by Swiss artists Christian Stuker and Beat Trummer, the stamp aims to convey the spirit of CERN in an area no larger than 28 mm by 33 mm. 'We wanted to get away from existing CERN imagery and create something symbolic for this 50th anniversary,' Christian Stucker explains. The radiating design portrays an opening, a spreading-out 'towards infinity', which reflects CERN's fundamental goals of research and the transmission of knowledge. The stamp will be available from 9 March onwards in all post offices across Switzerland as well as in the philatelic cen...

  20. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  1. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  2. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  3. A laboratory cage for foster nursing newborn mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marques-de-Araújo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe a cage to be used for foster nursing in order to guarantee that original mother's colostrum is not ingested by the newborn mice. A common (30.5 cm x 19.5 cm x 12.0 cm mouse cage was fitted with a wire net tray with a mesh (1 cm x 1 cm, which divides the cage into an upper and a lower compartment. Mice born to females placed in the upper compartment pass through the mesh and fall into the lower compartment, where another lactating female with one or two of its own pups are. Of a total of 28 newborn mice of C3H/He and Swiss strains, 23 were successfully fostered. Important observations are presented to show that this is a valuable alternative for foster studies without great suffering on the part of the female.

  4. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    The western Swiss Plateau with Lake Neuchâtel is part of the alpine foreland and among the key areas for the reconstruction of environmental changes since the last postglacial. This study was carried out in a landscape located NE of the lake and called Grosses Moos (The Large Fen) - currently designated the Swiss largest, continuous farming area, after the fen was drained in course of landscape engineering projects performed in Switzerland at the end of the 19th century. The study contributes new results from nine excavations of littoral ridges identified in Grosses Moos, and integrates sedimentology, paleo-environmental analysis and three independent chronological methods. Radiocarbon dating, pollen analysis and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) were applied to the sediments. While pollen and radiocarbon follow the standard procedures, the evaluation of the luminescence age estimates demanded adjustment according to the physical and microdosimetric properties of the alpine quartz, and consideration of the peculiarities of the changing littoral environments of Grosses Moos. The Grosses Moos landscape developed on the temporary surface of the post-Last Glacial sedimentary infill of the over-deepened glacial Aare valley. In this study the landscape history has been fitted into the existing supraregional time scales of NGRIP, the Swiss bio-zones system and the human history based on archaeological and historic records and covers a time span of up to 15'000 yr b2k. The wide-ranging suite of geomorphic features and sedimentary sequences, including littoral lake sediments, beach ridges, dunes, palaeo-channels, peat and colluvial deposits, enable the extensive reconstruction of spatially and temporally variable natural shaping processes. In addition, our results indicate remobilization of soil, colluvium, and sediment due to human settlement activities since the Neolithic - with an important increase in sediment load and spatial variability since the Bronze Age

  5. Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappone, Alba; Kissling, Eduard

    2015-04-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR), is a multi-year project, funded entirely by Swiss Commission for Geophysics (SGPK), with the aim to compile a comprehensive data set in digital form on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding regions. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public including industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions, or simply people interested in geology. Since the early sixties worldwide many scientists, i.e. geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. Particularly in the years in which seismic reflection and refraction crustal scale projects were investigating the deep structures of the Alps, laboratories capable to reproduce the pressure and temperature ranges of the continental crust were collecting measurements of various rock parameters on a wide variety of lithologies, developing in the meantime more and more sophisticated experimental methodologies. In recent years, the increasing interest of European Countries on non-traditional energy supply, (i.e. Deep Geothermal Energy and shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. SAPHYR aims to organize all those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS). The data refer to density, porosity, permeability, and seismic, magnetic, thermal and electric properties. In the past years, effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that were poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. Recently, SAPHYR project focused towards developing

  6. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  7. Protein sequence annotation in the genome era: the annotation concept of SWISS-PROT+TREMBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apweiler, R; Gateau, A; Contrino, S; Martin, M J; Junker, V; O'Donovan, C; Lang, F; Mitaritonna, N; Kappus, S; Bairoch, A

    1997-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation, a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Ongoing genome sequencing projects have dramatically increased the number of protein sequences to be incorporated into SWISS-PROT. Since we do not want to dilute the quality standards of SWISS-PROT by incorporating sequences without proper sequence analysis and annotation, we cannot speed up the incorporation of new incoming data indefinitely. However, as we also want to make the sequences available as fast as possible, we introduced TREMBL (TRanslation of EMBL nucleotide sequence database), a supplement to SWISS-PROT. TREMBL consists of computer-annotated entries in SWISS-PROT format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except for CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. While TREMBL is already of immense value, its computer-generated annotation does not match the quality of SWISS-PROTs. The main difference is in the protein functional information attached to sequences. With this in mind, we are dedicating substantial effort to develop and apply computer methods to enhance the functional information attached to TREMBL entries.

  8. Exposure of the Swiss population by radiodiagnostics: 2013 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coultre, Regis; Champendal, Melanie; Bize, Julie; Ryckx, Nick; Aroua, Abbas; Verdun, Francis R.; Wittwer, David; Trueb, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a nationwide investigation was conducted in Switzerland to establish the population's exposure from medical X rays. A hybrid approach was used combining the Raddose database accessible on-line by the participating practices and the Swiss medical pricing system for hospitals. This study revealed that the average annual number of examinations is 1.2 per inhabitant, and the associated annual effective dose is 1.4 mSv. It also showed that computed tomography is the most irradiating modality and that it delivers 70 % of the total dose. The annual effective dose per inhabitant registered a 17 % increase in 5 y and is comparable with what was recently reported in neighbouring countries. (authors)

  9. Visit of the President of the Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On 24 March, CERN welcomed Johann Schneider-Ammann, President of the Swiss Confederation.   President Johann Schneider-Ammann arrived to CERN in the morning, where he was welcomed by CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. During the visit, the President was accompanied by Erik Reumann, spokesperson of the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research, Alexandre Fasel, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva, and Patrick Pardo, counsellor at the permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. In the Main Building he exchanged a few words with Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Friedemann Eder, Head of CERN Host States relations service. President Johann Schneider-Ammann also signed the guestbook of the Organ...

  10. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  11. Liberalization of the Swiss electricity and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss government intends to liberalize the electricity and gas market. Competition is to be introduced in the electricity sector first because the European Union is also giving priority to this industry. Moreover, electricity prices in Switzerland are too high. The principle of market liberalization is not contested, but the route to be taken to achieve this goal is a matter of heated controversy. Opinions on the power line network, non-amortizable investments, hydropower plants or the pace of market liberalization still differ too widely. Liberalization of the gas market is also in preparation, but the problems here are less complex. This is because competition already exists on the heating market. In addition, domestic gas prices are not much higher than those charged in other countries. (author)

  12. Swiss guideline: Protection objectives for the disposal of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurkinden, A.

    1994-01-01

    The Swiss guideline R-21 establishing the protection objectives for the disposal of radioactive waste has been reviewed and amended in order to adapt it to improvements made in the field of radioactive waste disposal. In an introductory part, the new guideline states the overall objective of radioactive waste disposal and the associated principles which have to be observed. The guideline then establishes the safety requirements applied to a geological disposal facility. These safety requirements are formulated as protection goals for the whole disposal system and not as specific criteria applying to the system components. The guideline gives finally a series of explanatory comments and indications concerning the conduct of the safety assessment for a disposal facility

  13. An effective medium description of 'Swiss Rolls', a magnetic metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Williams, W; Hajnal, J V

    2007-01-01

    The 'Swiss Roll' metamaterial medium is well suited to operation in the radio frequency (RF) range, because it has a low resonant frequency and a strong magnetic response. Two prisms of this material, one hexagonal and one square, have been constructed and characterized both at the metamaterial's resonant frequency of 21.5 MHz and above it, where the effective permeability is strongly negative. A series of spatial resonances is observed in the field patterns on the surfaces of the prisms. Using an effective medium description, we have carried out both analytical and numerical modelling of the electromagnetic behaviour of the metamaterial, and find, within certain obvious limitations, extremely good agreement between the measured and modelled results

  14. How does a Swiss citizen want to heat his home?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadelmann, M.

    2003-01-01

    This short article presents a summary of the results of representative market research carried out on which forms of energy are the most favoured in Switzerland. Solar energy is the form of energy at the top of the list of the most desired forms of energy for providing hot water. Natural gas is the energy carrier most favoured for space-heating, having for the first time overtaken solar energy in this sector. The article also quotes further findings of the survey, including the roles played by air pollution and other factors that influence energy desires. Also, the survey studied the sources used by the Swiss to obtain information on the subject of energy supply when building, buying or refurbishing their homes. The results are presented in the form of diagrams

  15. Design, commissioning and operation of the Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streun, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is the most recent 3rd generation light source coming to operation. It consists of a 12- TBA storage ring of 288 m circumference providing 5 nm rad emittance at 2.4 GeV, a novel type of full energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV linac. The initial four beamlines cover protein X-ray crystallography (PX), materials science (MS), surface and interface spectroscopy (SIS) and microscopy (SIM). We will review the project history, describe the design concepts of the accelerators and the technical subsystems, and report on the commissioning process and the status of operation by end of 2002. (author)

  16. Engaging the public in decision-making. A Swiss approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Swiss public is still involved in main decisions which may be concern them. The nuclear industry knows a lot about the difficulties of advancing with projects such as repository or new plants. The temptation is very high to change the existing law to simplify the procedure of authorization. But this would be a very bad way to circumvent the distrust of public against nuclear projects. Everywhere today politicians are promoting the empowerment of responsible citizens: in health care, consumers decision and so on. In the domain of nuclear concerns this empowerment is extremely important: especially in this field the public has rights and needs which must be taken into account. (R.P.)

  17. Cost effectiveness at Beznau and other Swiss nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland, with 7 million inhabitants, has the sixth highest per-capita electricity consumption in the world. At present, 40% of electric power is nuclear. The four Swiss nuclear plants have an average capacity factor well above 80%. Total cost per kw.h ranges from 5.4 US-cents for Beznau to 7.1 for Leibstadt. Staffing levels are lower than in other countries, due to the stable and highly skilled work force. The maintenance practice has been one of preventive maintenance. Both steam generators in Beznau-1 were replaced in 1993, and Beznau-2 is scheduled for 2000. Some maintenance is done by contractors. There is practically no technical support from headquarters. Retrofitting mandated by the regulatory authority is a matter of concern, because of its effect on production costs. Possible deregulation of the market for electricity in Europe powers the drive to become more efficient. 3 tabs

  18. Swiss family physicians' perceptions and attitudes towards knowledge translation practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengough, Theresa; Bovet, Emilie; Bécherraz, Camille; Schlegel, Susanne; Burnand, Bernard; Pidoux, Vincent

    2015-12-11

    Several studies have been performed to understand the way family physicians apply knowledge from medical research in practice. However, very little is known concerning family physicians in Switzerland. In an environment in which information constantly accumulates, it is crucial to identify the major sources of scientific information that are used by family physicians to keep their medical knowledge up to date and barriers to use these sources. Our main objective was to examine medical knowledge translation (KT) practices of Swiss family physicians. The population consisted of French- and German-speaking private practice physicians specialised in family medicine. We conducted four interviews and three focus groups (n = 25). The interview guides of the semi-structured interviews and focus groups focused on (a) ways and means used by physicians to keep updated with information relevant to clinical practice; (b) how they consider their role in translating knowledge into practice; (c) potential barriers to KT; (d) solutions proposed by physicians for effective KT. Family physicians find themselves rather ambivalent about the translation of knowledge based on scientific literature, but generally express much interest in KT. They often feel overwhelmed by "information floods" and perceive clinical practice guidelines and other supports to be of limited usefulness for their practice. They often combine various formal and informal information sources to keep their knowledge up to date. Swiss family physicians report considering themselves as artisans, caring for patients with complex needs. Improved performance of KT initiatives in family medicine should be tailored to actual needs and based on high quality evidence-based sources.

  19. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  20. Extreme heat and runoff extremes in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zappa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The hydrological response of Swiss river basins to the 2003 European summer heatwave was evaluated by a combined analysis of historical discharge records and specific applications of distributed hydrological modeling. In the summer of 2003, the discharge from headwater streams of the Swiss Central Plateau was only 40%–60% of the long-term average. For alpine basins runoff was about 60%–80% of the average. Glacierized basins showed the opposite behavior. According to the degree of glacierization, the average summer runoff was close or even above average. The hydrological model PREVAH was applied for the period 1982–2005. Even if the model was not calibrated for such extreme meteorological conditions, it was well able to simulate the hydrological responses of three basins. The aridity index φ describes feedbacks between hydrological and meteorological anomalies, and was adopted as an indicator of hydrological drought. The anomalies of φ and temperature in the summer of 2003 exceeded the 1982–2005 mean by more than 2 standard deviations. Catchments without glaciers showed negative correlations between φ and discharge R. In basins with about 15% glacierization, φ and R were not correlated. River basins with higher glacier percentages showed a positive correlation between φ and R. Icemelt was positively correlated with φ and reduced the variability of discharge with larger amounts of meltwater. Runoff generation from the non-glaciated sub-areas was limited by high evapotranspiration and reduced precipitation. The 2003 summer heatwave could be a precursor to similar events in the near future. Hydrological models and further data analysis will allow the identification of the most sensitive regions where heatwaves may become a recurrent natural hazard with large environmental, social and economical impacts.

  1. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-05-15

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  2. Surveillance for European bat lyssavirus in Swiss bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megali, A; Yannic, G; Zahno, M-L; Brügger, D; Bertoni, G; Christe, P; Zanoni, R

    2010-10-01

    Most countries in Western Europe are currently free of rabies in terrestrial mammals. Nevertheless, rabies remains a residual risk to public health due to the natural circulation of bat-specific viruses, such as European bat lyssaviruses (EBLVs). European bat lyssavirus types 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and EBLV-2) are widely distributed throughout Europe, but little is known of their true prevalence and epidemiology. We report that only three out of 837 brains taken from bats submitted to the Swiss Rabies Centre between 1976 and 2009 were found by immunofluorescence (FAT) to be positive for EBLVs. All three positive cases were in Myotis daubentoni, from 1992, 1993 and 2002. In addition to this passive surveillance, we undertook a targeted survey in 2009, aimed at detecting lyssaviruses in live bats in Switzerland. A total of 237 bats of the species M. daubentoni, Myotis myotis, Eptesicus serotinus and Nyctalus noctula were captured at different sites in western Switzerland. Oropharyngeal swabs and blood from each individual were analysed by RT-PCR and rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT), respectively. RNA corresponding to EBLV-2 was detected from oropharyngeal swabs of a single M. daubentoni bat, but no infectious virus was found. Molecular phylogenetic analysis revealed that the corresponding sequence was closely related to the other EBLV-2 sequences identified in previous rabies isolates from Swiss bats (particularly to that found at Geneva in 2002). Three M. daubentoni bats were found to be seropositive by RFFIT. In conclusion, even though the prevalence is low in Switzerland, continuous management and surveillance are required to assess the potential risk to public health.

  3. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  4. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Paul C. [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia [Department of Environmental Science, University of Basel, Vesalgasse 1, 4051 Basel (Switzerland)]. E-mail: patricia.holm@unibas.ch; Giger, Walter [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)]. E-mail: giger@eawag.ch

    2007-03-15

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers.

  5. Occurrence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Paul C.; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Giger, Walter

    2007-01-01

    The ranges of total polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish from four Swiss rivers were 0.8-240 ng/g in the bile and 16-7400 ng/g lipid in the liver. PBDE concentrations varied within each river and among the various rivers. Female fish tended to have higher concentrations in the liver, while the male fish had higher concentrations in the bile. From the resulting PBDE concentrations in fish it could not be infered that these contaminants contribute to the causes of the observed fish catch decline in Swiss rivers. - PBDEs with the most abundant BDE-47 were determined in brown trout bile and liver from Swiss rivers

  6. The Swiss ''CANUPIS'' study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide cohort study on leukaemia and any other childhood cancer in the vicinity of Swiss nuclear power stations (CANUPIS) was supported by the Krebsliga Schweiz and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The results, covering the years 1985 to 2009 and including some 21 million person years, was published in July 2011. Three zones around nuclear installations were investigated: 0 to 5 km, 5 to 10 km and 10 to 15 km distance. The CANUPIS study found no evidence for a statistically significant increased cancer risk among 0 to 15 year old children living near Swiss nuclear power stations, compared to children living in other regions of the country. (orig.)

  7. Dominant lethal mutations in male mice fed γ-irradiated diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, P.S.; Aravindakshan, M.; Aiyer, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1975-01-01

    Three groups of Swiss male mice were fed a stock ration of an unirradiated or irradiated (2.5 Mrad) test diet for 8 wk. After the feeding period, the males were mated with groups of untreated female mice for 4 consecutive weeks. The females were autopsied at mid-term pregnancy for evaluation of dominant lethal mutations. Numbers of dead implantations, including deciduomas and dead embryos, showed no significant differences among the different groups, thus producing no evidence of any induced post-implantation lethality in mice fed on irradiated diet. Similarly, there was no indication of preimplantation lethality, since implantation rates remained comparable among different groups. Consumption of irradiated diet did not affect the fertility of mice. Total pre- and post-implantation loss, as indicated by the numbers of live implantations remained comparable among all the groups of mice. (author)

  8. Acute Administration of Methionine Affects Performance of Swiss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    The effect of methionine on learning and memory in mice was investigated using Morris ... neurological disorders by excitotoxicity and ... Central cholinergic system plays a major role in ... acetylcholinesterase leads to increased levels of brain.

  9. Hypolipidemic action of garlic unsaturated oils in irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.K.

    1988-01-01

    Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with 74 KBq g -1 body weight of radiocalcium 45 Ca in the presence and absence of unsaturated oils of garlic, and changes in the total lipids and triglycerides contents of liver were observed at various intervals from 1 to 14 days. The results obtained indic ate that the garlic oils prevented rapid increase in hepatic total lipids and triglycerides induced by radiocalcium and the values reached normal values earlier in garlic-treated than in irradiated animals. Possible mechanism(s) underlying hypolipidemic action of garlic oil have been discussed. (author). 22 refs

  10. The epic of the Swiss electric utilities: the entry into a new era of the Swiss history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remondeulaz, J.

    2010-01-01

    Until the 19 th century the only resources of Switzerland were wood and hydraulic energy. Their exploitation was adequate to produce heat and useful mechanical energy. The electrification of the country was introduced in the second half of the 19 th century in the form of hydropower in DC. The potential is very important, with a gigantic buffer constituted by the glaciers, estimated to be 50 TWh a year. Today, it is used at around 65-85% (for the time being, annual hydropower generation varies from 42.3 TWh in 2001 to only 32.6 in 2006). The standardization of power distribution in AC was realized during World War I: public and private lighting, space heating and hot water, mechanical power, drive propulsion system in replacement of gas, coal and vapour, e.g. with the electrification of the national railway network. Between 1875 and 1914 more than 1000 electric utilities have been established. The first law concerning hydropower was decided in 1916. During World War II the restrictions on fossil fuel import were an incentive for the development of new hydropower plants: it was the epic of the dams. The high voltage network (220 kV) was developed in order to enable interconnection with the neighbour countries France, Germany and Italy. Since 1958 this interconnection is established on the whole European level. Switzerland was entrusted with the frequency adjustment of the European network and the controlling of the exchanges in the framework of a special European agreement on electricity. From the Swiss point of view the international trade of electricity is very profitable: thanks to its accumulation lakes Switzerland can sell expensive peak load energy to whole Europe. Since the mid 50ies it was clear that the exploitation of all economically available hydropower would not be enough to cover the increasing demand of the country. A first experimental nuclear power plant was decided in 1961, built from 1962 on and turned into operation in 1968 (30 MW th and 6 MW el

  11. Cell kinetics of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma transplanted in mice with different degrees of tumor resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, K.L.B.

    1974-01-01

    Cell proliferation kinetics of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma grown in two strains of mice with different degrees of resistance to this tumor were examined. In the first portion of the study, growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in nonresistant Swiss (Iowa) and slightly resistant CF1 mice was examined by measuring animal weight gain and host survival time after intraperitoneal injection of tumor cells. Since it appeared that CF1 mice were inherently more resistant than Swiss mice to the Ehrlich carcinoma, the second part of this investigation involved attempts to immunize CF1 mice against the tumor. Subcutaneous injections of Ehrlich cells previously exposed in vitro to 5000 R of 250 kVp x rays were utilized. One immunizing inoculation of lethally irradiated tumor cells afforded protection against an intraperitoneal challenge of 40 thousand Ehrlich cells. By varying the number and timing of immunizing inoculations it was possible to induce different degrees of tumor resistance in these mice. The most effective immunizing procedure utilized multiple inoculations of lethally irradiated tumor cells (LITC), followed by challenges with viable tumor cells (less than 1 million) which were rejected. These mice could then resist challenge inocula of 4 million viable tumor cells. In a few animals the immunizing procedures were ineffective; these animals, when challenged, developed even larger tumors than control mice. Tumor cell proliferation kinetics in these animals as well as in mice that were rejecting the tumor were examined in the third phase of the project. A shortening of the cell cycle was observed in almost all LITC-treated mice, whether tumor growth was eventually inhibited or stimulated. Decreased duration of the DNA-synthesis phase (S) of the tumor cell cycle was also a consistent finding. The role of the immune response in stimulating mitosis as well as in killing foreign cells was discussed. (U.S.)

  12. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs.

  13. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonu...

  14. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  15. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  16. Future electricity supplies must be secured - Swiss outlook for 2035 / 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive article reviews an update made in 2009 by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE on their paper 'Outlook 2006 on Swiss electricity supply for the period up to 2035 / 2050'. The association is of the opinion that the paper can still form the basis for issue-related public discussion on energy-related questions. The Swiss 'four-pillar' strategy - energy efficiency, renewable energy, large power stations and international energy policy - is noted and supported. The special role played by electricity in the Swiss energy mix is discussed and the issue of security of supply is examined. Possible shortages that could occur in the future are discussed, as is the question of carbon dioxide emissions. Economic viability and power prices are discussed. Energy efficiency and power production options are also examined. Combined heat and power, hydropower and nuclear power are examined and, finally, import and export options reviewed

  17. Kalam's visit to cement Indo-Swiss ties in high tech area

    CERN Multimedia

    Sumir, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to boost Indo-Swiss cooperation in high tech areas, President APJ Abdul Kalam arrived in Geneva on a four-day visit to Switzerland aimed at firming up plans for future cooperation with the CERN

  18. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  19. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016; Pruefung der Kostenstudie 2016 von swissnuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  20. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  1. Transcatheter renal denervation for the treatment of resistant arterial hypertension: the Swiss expert consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuerzner, Gregoire; Muller, Olivier; Erne, Paul; Cook, Stéphane; Sudano, Isabella; Lüscher, Thomas F; Noll, Georg; Kaufmann, Urs; Rickli, Hans; Waeber, Bernard; Kaiser, Christophe; Sticherling, Christian; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Baumgartner, Iris; Jacob, Augustinus L; Burnier, Michel; Qanadli, Salah D

    2014-03-20

    Transcatheter (or percutaneous) renal denervation is a novel technique developed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. So far, only one randomised controlled trial has been published, which has shown a reduction of office blood pressure. The Swiss Society of Hypertension, the Swiss Society of Cardiology, The Swiss Society of Angiology and the Swiss Society of Interventional Radiology decided to establish recommendations to practicing physicians and specialists for good clinical practice. The eligibility of patients for transcatheter renal denervation needs (1.) confirmation of truly resistant hypertension, (2.) exclusion of secondary forms of hypertension, (3.) a multidisciplinary decision confirming the eligibility, (4.) facilities that guarantee procedural safety and (5.) a long-term follow-up of the patients, if possible in cooperation with a hypertension specialist. These steps are essential until long-term data on safety and efficacy are available.

  2. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Switzerland. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission noted good practices in the Swiss system and also made recommendations for the nation's nuclear regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). ''Our team developed a good impression of the independent Swiss regulator - ENSI - and the team considered that ENSI deserves particular credit for its actions to improve Swiss safety capability following this year's nuclear accident in Japan,'' said IRRS Team Leader Jean-Christophe Niel of France. The mission's scope covered the Swiss nuclear regulatory framework for all types of nuclear-related activities regulated by ENSI. The mission was conducted from 20 November to 2 December, mainly at ENSI headquarters in Brugg. The team held extensive discussions with ENSI staff and visited many Swiss nuclear facilities. IRRS missions are peer reviews, not inspections or audits, and are conducted at the request of host nations. For the Swiss review, the IAEA assembled a team of 19 international experts from 14 countries. The experts came from Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ''The findings of the IRRS mission will help us to further improve our work. That is part of our safety culture,'' said ENSI Director General Hans Wanner. ''As Switzerland argued at international nuclear safety meetings this year for a strengthening of the international monitoring of nuclear power, we will take action to fulfil the recommendations.'' The IRRS team highlighted several good practices of the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: ENSI requires Swiss nuclear operators to back-fit their facilities by continuously upgrading

  3. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-15

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  4. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs

  5. Differences in health status and health behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003

    OpenAIRE

    Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Wydler, Hans; Zellweger, Ueli; Gutzwiller, Felix

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Very few studies specifically have examined the health status of 20-year-olds. The purpose of the present study is to examine the changes in health status and behaviour among young Swiss adults between 1993 and 2003. METHODS: The present study used data from the Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents, conducted in 1993 and 2003 among 20-year-olds in Switzerland. The study sample included military recruits and a representative community cohort. More than 20,000 subjects participate...

  6. Depression in early adulthood: Prevalence and psychosocial correlates among young Swiss men

    OpenAIRE

    Barth, Jürgen; Hofmann, Karen; Schori, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    QUESTION UNDER STUDY Depression in young adults is common, but data from Switzerland are scarce. Our study gives a point prevalence estimate of depression in young Swiss men, and describes the association between depression and education, material and social resources, and job/school satisfaction. METHODS We used data from the cross-sectional Swiss Federal Surveys of Adolescents (ch-x) from 2010 to 2011 comprising 9,066 males aged between 18 and 25 years. Depression was assessed b...

  7. Swiss roll nanomembranes with controlled proton diffusion as redox micro-supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hengxing; Mei, Yongfeng; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2010-06-14

    We demonstrate a redox Swiss roll micro-supercapacitor by rolling up a multilayered nanomembrane with an electrochemical active layer at either the outer or inner surface for different proton diffusion behaviors. The Swiss roll micro-supercapacitor could achieve high performance (e.g. capacity and life time) in a microscale power source and is helpful for studying charge transfer at the electrolyte/electrode interface.

  8. Price transmission in the Swiss wheat market: does sophisticated border protection make the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Esposti, Roberto; Listorti, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with horizontal wheat price transmission from the international markets to the domestic Swiss market. The analysis takes into account trade policies implemented at the borders that might shelter the domestic market from international markets fluctuations, as well as the presence of explosive behavior in some of the price series. Furthermore, the Swiss case is peculiar due to the presence of different border policies for wheat according to its domestic use, food or feed. The p...

  9. Decision of the Swiss Federal Council of 22 August 1979 (nuclear power station Leibstadt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    On the occasion of an appeal in administrative matters, launched by private persons domiciled in the Federal Republic of Germany against two part-construction permits for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant, the Swiss Bundesrat decided that these private persons do have the right to launch an appeal, in accordance with section 48 a of the Rules of administrative proceedings. The appeal may, however, only be based on infringement of rights protected by Swiss national law. (HP) [de

  10. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaghofer Richard

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no. The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis. Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2% and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%. The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%, followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%. Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time

  11. Swiss national MD-PhD-program: an outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Katrin; Winkler, David T; Meier-Abt, Peter J

    2009-09-19

    This study aims at a first evaluation of the outcome of the Swiss national MD-PhD program during the last 16 years. One hundred and twenty six former and current students in the Swiss national MD-PhD program were surveyed via a Web-based questionnaire in September 2007. Twenty-four questions assessed information regarding participant demographics, information on the PhD thesis and publication activity, current positions and research activity, as well as participant's opinions, attitudes and career goals. Eighty questionnaires were received from 126 MD-PhD students and graduates (63.5% response rate). The responders consisted of present students (36%), former graduates (56%), and dropouts (8%). The percentage of women in the program was 23%, and the average duration of the program was 4.2 +/- 1.4 years. Research interests were predominantly in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, molecular biology and cancer research. A considerable portion of the MD-PhD graduates had an excellent publication record stemming from their PhD research work, and 89% were planning to continue a research-orientated career. Over 50% of those MD-PhD graduates completing their thesis before 2002 had already reached an assistant or full professor position at the time of the survey. Nearly all participants considered the MD-PhD training helpful to their career and high quality standards were assigned to the acquired practical and intellectual skills. However, criticism was expressed concerning the general mentoring and the career related mentoring. Moreover, general mentoring and career related mentoring were significantly less well perceived in research groups employing more than seven PhD students at the same time. The MD-PhD students and graduates surveyed were satisfied with their education and most of them continued a research-orientated career. Regarding the overall positive evaluation, this study supports the view that MD-PhD graduates are well qualified for a successful career in

  12. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Dietz, Claudia; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus

    2006-08-14

    In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no). The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis). Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2%) and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%). The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%), followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%). Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time pressure, emotional stress, poorly structured

  13. Swiss residents' arguments for and against a career in medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddeberg-Fischer, Barbara; Dietz, Claudia; Klaghofer, Richard; Buddeberg, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Background In some Western countries, the medical profession is continuously losing prestige, doctors are claiming of high demands, low rewards, and difficult structural working conditions. This study aimed to investigate the arguments given by Swiss residents for and against a career in medicine. Methods As part of a prospective cohort study of Swiss medical school graduates on career development, 567 fourth-year residents were asked to answer the free-response item of what arguments there still were in favour of or against a career in medicine. They also indicated whether they would choose the medical profession all over again (yes/no). The statements were transcribed, content categories inductively formulated, and their descriptions written down in a code manual. Arguments were encoded according to the code manual and assigned to eight content categories (Mayring's content analysis). Frequency distributions were given for categories and tested with Chi2-tests for differences in gender, speciality fields, and whether or not the respondent would again choose a career in medicine. Results The 567 participants made 1,640 statements in favour of and 1,703 statements against a career in medicine. The content analysis of the residents' answers yielded eight categories with arguments both for and against a career in medicine. Of all "statements for" responses, 70% fell into the two top-ranking categories of Personal experiences in day-to-day working life (41.2%) and Interpersonal experiences in professional relationships (28.8%). The top-ranking category of the "statements against" arguments was General work-related structural conditions (32%), followed by Social prestige and health-policy aspects (21%). Main arguments in favour of a career in medicine were interdisciplinary challenge, combination of basic sciences and interpersonal concerns, helping suffering people, guarantee of a secure job; arguments against comprised high workload, time pressure, emotional stress

  14. Cloning Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Atsuo

    2017-08-01

    Viable and fertile mice can be generated by somatic nuclear transfer into enucleated oocytes, presumably because the transplanted somatic cell genome becomes reprogrammed by factors in the oocyte. The first somatic cloned offspring of mice were obtained by directly injecting donor nuclei into recipient enucleated oocytes. When this method is used (the so-called Honolulu method of somatic cell nuclear transfer [SCNT]), the donor nuclei readily and completely condense within the enucleated metaphase II-arrested oocytes, which contain high levels of M-phase-promoting factor (MPF). It is believed that the condensation of the donor chromosomes promotes complete reprogramming of the donor genome within the mouse oocytes. Another key to the success of mouse cloning is the use of blunt micropipettes attached to a piezo impact-driving micromanipulation device. This system saves a significant amount of time during the micromanipulation of oocytes and thus minimizes the loss of oocyte viability in vitro. For example, a group of 20 oocytes can be enucleated within 10 min by an experienced operator. This protocol is composed of seven parts: (1) preparing micropipettes, (2) setting up the enucleation and injection micropipettes, (3) collecting and enucleating oocytes, (4) preparing nucleus donor cells, (5) injecting donor nuclei, (6) activating embryos and culturing, and (7) transferring cloned embryos. © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  15. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  16. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  17. Psychosocial adaptation of adolescent migrants in a Swiss community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bearth-Carrari, Cinzia; Winkler Metzke, Christa

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial adaptation in adolescent (first generation) migrants, double-citizens (mainly second generation with one migrant parent), and native Swiss, and to compare migrants from various European regions. Data from a community survey were based on 1,239 participants (mean age 13.8, SD = 1.6 years) with 996 natives, 55 double-citizens, and 188 migrants. The adolescents completed the youth self-report measuring emotional and behavioural problems, and various questionnaires addressing life events, personality variables, perceived parental behaviour (PPB), family functioning, school environment, and social network. Adolescent migrants had significantly higher scores for internalizing and externalizing problems. There was a pattern of various unfavourable psychosocial features including life events, coping, self-related cognitions, and PPB that was more common among adolescent migrants than natives. Double-citizens were similar to natives in all domains. Young adolescents from South and South-East Europe differed from natives in terms of more unfavourable psychosocial features. Migrant status was best predicted by adverse psychosocial features rather than emotional and behavioural problems. There is some indication that certain migrant adolescents are at risk of psychosocial mal-adaptation. Obviously, ethnic origin is an important moderator.

  18. Extraction of Th and U from Swiss granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, C.

    1980-12-01

    The extraction, at the laboratory level, of U and Th from Swiss granites is discussed. The Mittagfluh, Bergell and Rotondo granites and the Giuv syenite offered a wide range of U and Th concentrations; 7.7 to 20.0 ppm U and 25.5 to 67.0 ppm Th. U and Th were determined in the leach solutions by the fission track method and by spectrophotometry, respectively. Samples containing less than 0.3 μg U and 4 μg Th, could be measured with an accuracy of 10% for U and 5% for Th. Leach tests were performed during which the following parameters were varied: granite-type, grain size, acid-type, acid concentration, temperature and time. There were very great leaching differences between the granites studied. Temperature was the most important parameter. Sharp differences in extraction occurred between 20 0 C, 50 0 C and 80 0 C. At 80 0 C, more than 85% U and Th were extracted. The extraction curve (percent extracted as a function of time) of aliquots sampled after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours showed a plateau after 8 hours. The half life of the reaction was between one and two hours. As a general rule, Th was better extracted than U. (Auth.)

  19. Economies of vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetz, Aurelio; Filippini, Massimo [Department of Management, Technology and Economics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2010-11-15

    Over the last two decades, several European nations have introduced reforms to their electricity sector. Generally, these reforms require a legal and functional unbundling of vertically integrated companies. These unbundling processes may reduce the possibilities that exist to fruitfully exploit the advantages of vertical integration. The goal of this paper is to empirically analyze the presence of economies of scale and vertical integration in the Swiss electricity sector. Economies of vertical integration between electricity production and distribution result from reduced transaction costs, better coordination of highly specific and interdependent investments and less financial risk. Different econometric specifications for panel data, including a random effects and a random-coefficients model, have been used to estimate a quadratic multi-stage cost function for a sample of electricity companies. The empirical results reflect the presence of considerable economies of vertical integration and economies of scale for most of the companies considered in the analysis. Moreover, the results suggest a variation in economies of vertical integration across companies due to unobserved heterogeneity. (author)

  20. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.