WorldWideScience

Sample records for swiss organizations

  1. The vulnerability of organic matter in Swiss forest soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Domínguez, Beatriz; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Studer, Mirjam S.; Hagedorn, Frank; Wacker, Lukas; Haghipour, Negar; Zimmermann, Stephan; Walthert, Lorenz; Abiven, Samuel; McIntyre, Cameron

    2017-04-01

    Soils contain more carbon than atmosphere and terrestrial vegetation combined [1], and thus are key players in the carbon cycle. With climate change, the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool is vulnerable to loss through increased CO2 emissions, which in turn can amplify changes with this carbon feedback [2]. The objective of this study is to investigate the variation of indicators of SOC vulnerability (e.g. SOC mineralisation, turnover time, bulk soil and mineralised 14C signatures) and to evaluate climate, soil and terrain variables as primary drivers. To choose the study locations we used a statistics-based approach to select a balanced combination of 54 forest sites with de-correlated drivers of SOC vulnerability (i.e. proxies for soil temperature and moisture, pH, % clay, slope gradient and orientation). Sites were selected from the forest soil database of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL), which in May 2014, contained data from 1,050 soil profiles spread across Switzerland. We re-sampled soils at the 54 locations during summer 2014. With these samples we run a standardized laboratory soil incubation (i.e. 25°C; soils moisture -20kPa; sieved to ≤ 2 mm; 40 g equivalent dry mass; adjusted to 0.8 g cm-3 bulk density) and measured SOC mineralisation on days 4, 13, 30, 63, 121 and 181 by trapping the CO2 evolved from soils in sodium hydroxide traps [3]. Additionally, we measured the 14C signature of the carbon trapped during last stage of the incubation, and compare it to the 14C signature of the bulk soil. Based on the cumulative SOC mineralised, we found that despite the well-studied relationship between climate and SOC dynamics [4], temperature did not emerge as a predictor of SOC vulnerability. In parallel, moisture only had a minor role, with soils from drier sites being the most vulnerable. This indicates a possible limitation of heterotrophic activity due to water shortage. On the other hand, soil pH raised as the driver

  2. Change of sleep quality from pre- to 3 years post-solid organ transplantation: The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhalter, Hanna; Denhaerynck, Kris; Huynh-Do, Uyen; Binet, Isabelle; Hadaya, Karine; De Geest, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Poor sleep quality (SQ) is common after solid organ transplantation; however, very little is known about its natural history. We assessed the changes in SQ from pre- to 3 years post-transplant in adult heart, kidney, liver and lung recipients included in the prospective nation-wide Swiss Transplant Cohort Study. We explored associations with selected variables in patients suffering persistent poor SQ compared to those with good or variable SQ. Adult single organ transplant recipients enrolled in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study with pre-transplant and at least 3 post-transplant SQ assessment data were included. SQ was self-reported pre-transplant (at listing), then at 6, 12, 24 and 36 months post-transplant. A single SQ item was used to identify poor (0-5) and good sleepers (6-10). Between organ groups, SQ was compared via logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations. Within the group reporting persistently poor SQ, we used logistic regression or Kaplan-Meier analysis as appropriate to check for differences in global quality of life and survival. In a sample of 1173 transplant patients (age: 52.1±13.2 years; 65% males; 66% kidney, 17% liver, 10% lung, 7% heart) transplanted between 2008 and 2012, pre- transplant poor SQ was highest in liver (50%) and heart (49%) recipients. Overall, poor SQ decreased significantly from pre-transplant (38%) to 24 months post-transplant (26%) and remained stable at 3 years (29%). Patients reporting persistently poor SQ had significantly more depressive symptomatology and lower global quality of life. Because self-reported poor SQ is related to poorer global quality of life, these results emphasize the need for further studies to find suitable treatment options for poor SQ in transplant recipients.

  3. The role of the Swiss EIR Health Physics Division in the national and the Institute's radiological emergency organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, E.; Brunner, H.

    1986-01-01

    Owing to the geographical concentration in Switzerland of the activities related to radioactivity (power plants, research, industry, transport) in a relatively small region between the Alps and the Rhine, it was a logical consequence to centralize the emergency organization for nuclear accidents in this area. Since 1984 the Swiss emergency organization has had an operational, well-equipped national emergency control centre. In the handling of radiation accidents the new organization can call on specialized laboratories and make use of experience and material from over the whole country. Of these facilities the Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR) is of major importance due to its activities and experience in research and radiation protection. Its Health Physics Division takes an active part in the emergency organization of the EIR itself. Both its well-equipped radioanalytical laboratory and trained personnel are at the disposal of the national emergency organization. Frequent training of the whole emergency organization and parts of it have improved preparedness. The evaluation of the exercises always reveals new problems to be solved in which rapid action and safe communications are of major importance. (author)

  4. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study's framework for assessing lifelong psychosocial factors in solid-organ transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geest, Sabina; Burkhalter, Hanna; Berben, Lut; Bogert, Laura Jane; Denhaerynck, Kris; Glass, Tracy R; Goetzmann, Lutz; Kirsch, Monika; Kiss, Alexander; Koller, Michael T; Piot-Ziegler, Chantal; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno

    2013-09-01

    Understanding outcomes after transplant requires a biopsychosocial model that includes biomedical and psychosocial factors. The latter, to date, are assessed only in a limited way as part of transplant registries or cohort studies. The Swiss Transplant Cohort Study (STCS) is a nationwide open cohort study (starting May 2008) to systematically and prospectively assess psychosocial factors. This article describes the framework underpinning STCS's psychosocial assessment. The STCS framework was adapted from the multidimensional conceptual perspective of Dew et al to describe transplant psychosocial domains and specific outcomes by adding a time perspective, a system perspective, and interaction among domains. We propose a multidimensional, multilevel biopsychosocial framework representing mutually influencing domains from before to after transplant, and exemplify each domain by factors included in STCS and their measurement. The transplant patient, centrally positioned, is described by clinical and sociodemographic characteristics (eg, socioeconomic status, educational, professional, and relationship status). The following psychosocial domains further describe the patient: (1) physical/functional (eg, perceived health status, sleep quality, daytime sleepiness), (2) psychological (eg, depression, stress), (3) behavioral (eg, medication adherence, smoking, drug use, physical activity, sun protection), (4) social (eg, work capacity/return to work), and (5) global quality of life. Factors associated with health care system level (eg, trust in transplant team) are also included in the model. The STCS's psychosocial framework provides a basis for studying the interplay of biomedical, sociodemographic, psychosocial, behavioral, and health care system factors in view of transplant outcomes and therefore has the potential to guide biopsychosocial transplant research.

  5. First Swiss bachelor in Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  6. Evidence of organic matter in the Ocean-Continent Transition of Alpine Tethys from Totalp, Eastern Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateeva, Tsvetomila; Kusznir, Nick; Wolff, George; Wheeler, John; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from ocean ridge drilling and dredging and from the exhumed Tethyan continental margin in the Alps demonstrates that mantle serpentinization occurs at slow-spreading ocean ridges and magma-poor rifted continental margins. Observations at white smokers suggest that methane produced by serpentinization can support methanotrophic bio-systems which use methane as their only source of carbon. An important question is whether such biosystems are more generally pervasive in their association with serpentinized mantle in the subsurface. The answer to this question has important global implications for the importance of the hidden sub-surface bio-systems, the fate of methane and the carbon cycle. We examine whether serpentinized exhumed mantle at magma-poor rifted continental margins shows evidence for methanotrophy. Fieldwork sampling of km scale exposure of orogenically exhumed serpentinized mantle in the eastern Swiss Alps allows 3D mantle sampling not possible at ocean ridges and has the potential to answer the question regarding localized versus pervasive sub-surface methanotrophic biosystems. The Totalp massif in the eastern Swiss Alps has been chosen for an initial study to investigate the presence or absence of methanotrophic biosystem within serpentinized exhumed mantle in the Tethyan OCT. Totalp has little Alpine deformation and its metamorphism is no more than prehnite-pumpellyite grade. Hands specimens and cores have been taken from the Totalp area in order to sample serpentinization and its lithological diversity in the search for presence or absence of biomarkers. Thin sections analysis reveals multiple serpentinization events. XRD analysis shows complete serpentinization of the olivines and orthopyroxenes. The samples for bio-geochemical analysis were cut and ground to powder, processed by soxhlet extraction and then analysed by GC and GCMS in order to determine the full range of biomarkers. Total carbon and total organic carbon was also determined

  7. Impact of enterococcal colonization and infection in solid organ transplantation recipients from the Swiss transplant cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucheli, E; Kralidis, G; Boggian, K; Cusini, A; Garzoni, C; Manuel, O; Meylan, P R A; Mueller, N J; Khanna, N; van Delden, C; Berger, C; Koller, M T; Weisser, M

    2014-02-01

    The burden of enterococcal infections has increased over the last decades with vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) being a major health problem. Solid organ transplantation is considered as a risk factor. However, little is known about the relevance of enterococci in solid organ transplantation recipients in areas with a low VRE prevalence. We examined the epidemiology of enterococcal events in patients followed in the Swiss Transplant Cohort Study between May 2008 and September 2011 and analyzed risk factors for infection, aminopenicillin resistance, treatment, and outcome. Of the 1234 patients, 255 (20.7%) suffered from 392 enterococcal events (185 [47.2%] infections, 205 [52.3%] colonizations, and 2 events with missing clinical information). Only 2 isolates were VRE. The highest infection rates were found early after liver transplantation (0.24/person-year) consisting in 58.6% of Enterococcus faecium. The highest colonization rates were documented in lung transplant recipients (0.33/person-year), with 46.5% E. faecium. Age, prophylaxis with a betalactam antibiotic, and liver transplantation were significantly associated with infection. Previous antibiotic treatment, intensive care unit stay, and lung transplantation were associated with aminopenicillin resistance. Only 4/205 (2%) colonization events led to an infection. Adequate treatment did not affect microbiological clearance rates. Overall mortality was 8%; no deaths were attributable to enterococcal events. Enterococcal colonizations and infections are frequent in transplant recipients. Progression from colonization to infection is rare. Therefore, antibiotic treatment should be used restrictively in colonization. No increased mortality because of enterococcal infection was noted. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Evolution of body weight parameters up to 3 years after solid organ transplantation: The prospective Swiss Transplant Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Sonja; Nikolic, Nataša; Denhaerynck, Kris; Binet, Isabelle; Koller, Michael; Boely, Elsa; De Geest, Sabina

    2017-03-01

    Obesity and weight gain are serious concerns after solid organ transplantation (Tx); however, no unbiased comparison regarding body weight parameter evolution across organ groups has yet been performed. Using data from the prospective nationwide Swiss Transplant Cohort Study, we compared the evolution of weight parameters up to 3 years post-Tx in 1359 adult kidney (58.3%), liver (21.7%), lung (11.6%), and heart (8.4%) recipients transplanted between May 2008 and May 2012. Changes in mean weight and body mass index (BMI) category were compared to reference values from 6 months post-Tx. At 3 years post-Tx, compared to other organ groups, liver Tx recipients showed the greatest weight gain (mean 4.8±10.4 kg), 57.4% gained >5% body weight, and they had the highest incidence of obesity (38.1%). After 3 years, based on their BMI categories at 6 months, normal weight and obese liver Tx patients, as well as underweight kidney, lung and heart Tx patients had the highest weight gains. Judged against international Tx patient data, the majority of our Swiss Tx recipients' experienced lower post-Tx weight gain. However, our findings show weight gain pattern differences, both within and across organ Tx groups that call for preventive measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  10. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  11. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstances banking secrecy has become disruptive to the further development of both Swiss banking and banking in Switzerland and whether Swiss banking will come to an end in the future.

  12. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics. Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  13. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  14. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Ivan; Milenković Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstanc...

  15. Swiss electricity statistics 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss Department of Energy has published electricity statistics for 1982. This report presents them in tabular form. The tables are classified under the following headings: important reference numbers, Swiss electricity review, production of electrical energy, use of electrical energy, load diagrams and coping with user requirements, import and export of energy 1982, possible building of power stations before 1989, finance, appendix

  16. GIS in Swiss Highschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, the Swiss Geography Teacher Society from the German speaking area initiated the introduction of GIS to Swiss highschools. A very favourablecontract was made with the ESRI Company about using their software ArcView,thus as many as 44 highschools had GIS education in 2008.

  17. GIS in Swiss Highschools

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Swiss Geography Teacher Society from the German speaking area initiated the introduction of GIS to Swiss highschools. A very favourablecontract was made with the ESRI Company about using their software ArcView,thus as many as 44 highschools had GIS education in 2008.

  18. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  19. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  1. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  2. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  3. Activity of Catalase (CAT, ALT and AST in Different Organs of Swiss Albino Mice Treated with Lead Acetate, Vitamin C and Magnesium-L-Threonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilir Nazmi Mazreku

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a natural element with toxic properties and is widespread in the environment. Lead toxicity is associated with generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and consumption of antioxidants elements (vitamin E and C, glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid, melatonin, carotenoids and natural flavonoids in the cell, and unbalancing oxidantsantioxidants levels. Aim: To evaluate the effects of different chemical combinations (lead acetate, Vitamin C and Magnesium-L-threonate on antioxidant enzyme activity (catalase-CAT of liver, kidney, spleen, pancreas and brain, and serum transaminases [Serum Alanine Transaminase (ALT and Serum Aspartate Transaminase (AST]. Materials and Methods: Experimental animals (49 male Mus musculus-swiss albino mice were separated into five different groups. The first group was used as a control, hence the other four groups were treated with sub-lethal doses (90 mg/kg of lead acetate (group 2, lead acetate (90 mg/kg and Vitamin C dose 40mg/kg (group 3, lead acetate (90 mg/kg and Magnesium-Lthreonate dose 100 mg/kg (group 4 and only with MagnesiumL-threonate dose 100 mg/kg (group 5, during the treatment period (40 days. Blood samples were taken from the facial vein and used for transaminase analysis. Organ tissue was collected after euthanizing anaesthetized animals with neck dislocation technique. Results: The results showed that lead acetate treatment has caused significant elevation in the activity of AST (group 2 and 3 and ALT (group 3. Also, CAT activity was significantly (p<0.05 increased in groups treated with lead acetate (liver, pancreas, kidney and brain but not in spleen. Treatment of lead intoxicated groups with Vitamin C and Magnesium L-threonate increased significantly CAT activity in brain. Conclusion: Lead effects by interacting with different molecular systems and increasing enzyme activity (CAT, ALT and AST. Effects on CAT activity of Magnesium-L-threonate and Vitamin C treatment

  4. Effect of permafrost on the formation of organic carbon pools and their physical-chemical properties in the Eastern Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, B.; Alewell, C.; Kneisel, C.; Meusburger, K.; Egli, M.

    2012-04-01

    Alpine soils contain a relatively large amount of organic matter (OM) even at elevations above the present-days timberline. Current climatic conditions and the occurrence of discontinuous and sporadic permafrost in the mountains result in a low turnover rate and therefore accumulation of OM. Alpine ecosystems are highly sensitive to environmental changes and therefore may become a potential source of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) due to global warming. The expected changes in thermal and hydrological conditions in permafrost soils will not only influence OM degradation processes within the soil. Especially in alpine regions, soil erosion processes might be affected and potentially promote the mineralization of OM. However, the knowledge about the biogeochemistry and OM-stabilization processes and rates in permafrost soils in alpine regions is scarce, which makes it difficult to predict climate-carbon feedbacks. Our aim is to determine and compare the quantity, allocation and mean residence time of OM and the potential erosion processes in permafrost soils and adjacent unfrozen soils (distance between permafrost/non-permafrost soils max. 200m) at three locations in the Eastern Swiss Alps (Val Bever, Albula). Bulk soil, labile (oxidized by H2O2) and stable fractions (H2O2-resistant) were analyzed for their C-content and characterized using DRIFT (Diffuse Reflection Infrared Fourier Transform). Additionally, selected soil samples were 14C-dated. This approach has been applied for the first time in high alpine regions. To estimate the degree of disturbance, soil erosion has been qualitatively assessed by relating the OM-delta13C values of the soil profiles of interest to undisturbed reference profiles. We found rather well-developed soil profiles and a relatively high amount of OM at both types of sites (permafrost/non-permafrost), leading to the assumption that these soils developed over a certain period under a different (warmer) climate. This fact is supported by

  5. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  6. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  7. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  9. EUROPE: Swiss role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On its continual round of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) met in Bern, Switzerland, in March. With CERN based in Geneva, and with a national research centre at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland figures prominently in European particle physics. The Bern ECFA meeting provided a full picture of Swiss particle physics activities, project by project, and was prefaced by an overview by Claude Joseph of Lausanne. The number of experimental particle physicists in the country is about 200, with an academic staff of about 170. These are distributed among seven universities - Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel and Zurich. In addition there are substantial research groups at ETH-Zurich and at PSI. Probably reflecting the proximity of CERN, the size of the national research community, when scaled to the population, is above the CERN Member State average. At CERN, there is a strong Swiss participation in research at the LEP electron-positron collider (concentrated on L3), with 44 physicists. There are also 33 physicists working at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring, in particular the Crystal Barrel and CP-LEAR studies. In addition there is interest in heavy ion research and in neutrino physics (NOMAD) as well as substantial participation in research and development work for experiments at the LHC. Away from CERN, there are 6 Swiss physicists working at the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, with the national PSI programme involving about 40 physicists. (The PSI programme was covered at the Bern ECFA meeting by H.C. Walter.) Following the illustrious tradition of Fritz Zwicky, Switzerland also counts many astrophysicists. Theoretical physics, with a community of some 80 researchers, has a great tradition. Throughout the 20th century, leading Swiss research centres have been beacons of brilliance. Zurich, in particular, played a leading role, with Einstein, Schrödinger and Pauli among

  10. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  11. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  12. The SWISS-MODEL Repository and associated resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Florian; Arnold, Konstantin; Künzli, Michael; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL Repository (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository/) is a database of 3D protein structure models generated by the SWISS-MODEL homology-modelling pipeline. The aim of the SWISS-MODEL Repository is to provide access to an up-to-date collection of annotated 3D protein models generated by automated homology modelling for all sequences in Swiss-Prot and for relevant models organisms. Regular updates ensure that target coverage is complete, that models are built using the most recent sequence and template structure databases, and that improvements in the underlying modelling pipeline are fully utilised. As of September 2008, the database contains 3.4 million entries for 2.7 million different protein sequences from the UniProt database. SWISS-MODEL Repository allows the users to assess the quality of the models in the database, search for alternative template structures, and to build models interactively via SWISS-MODEL Workspace (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/workspace/). Annotation of models with functional information and cross-linking with other databases such as the Protein Model Portal (http://www.proteinmodelportal.org) of the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledge Base facilitates the navigation between protein sequence and structure resources. PMID:18931379

  13. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  14. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  15. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  16. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs

  17. Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Beat; Kittelmann, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Taking up the common challenges in biocatalysis, a group of industrialists decided to react with a bottom-up solution, and created the Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC). The Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium is a pre-competitive working group to better implement and utilize existing know-how and resources in biocatalysis, and to influence and shape the economic and educational political environment. Recent examples of activities are outlined.

  18. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  19. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  20. Iodine in Swiss milk depending on production (conventional versus organic) and on processing (raw versus UHT) and the contribution of milk to the human iodine supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Barbara; Wechsler, Daniel; Schlegel, Patrick; Haldimann, Max

    2018-03-01

    The iodine content in milk depends on various factors, including the season, production system, and location of milk production. The aim of this study was 1) to obtain data on the iodine concentration of conventional and organically produced milk and according to seasons; 2) to compare these actual data with previous measurement data; 3) to study the influence of UHT treatment on the iodine content and 4) to estimate the contribution of organic and conventional milk to the consumer's iodine intake. A total of 110 samples of conventional and organic ultra-heat treated (UHT) whole milk were collected in the period between 1 May 2013 and 30 April 2014 from two large-scale companies, processing milk from two regions in Switzerland. The iodine concentration in organic milk (average 71 ± 25 μg/l) was significantly lower than in conventional milk (average 111 ± 26 μg/l) and varied between suppliers. Milk iodine concentration varied according to the month of collection in organic and conventionally produced milk, with lowest values between August and October (organic milk 42 μg/l; conventional milk 75 μg/l) and highest values in January (organic milk 99 μg/l; conventional milk 145 μg/l). Heat treatment did not influence iodine concentration. Since milk and dairy products are significant source of food-related iodine intake in Switzerland, consumers who prefer organic milk and dairy products are likely to have an inferior iodine status. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  1. Swiss President to visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  2. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  3. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  4. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  5. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  6. Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report, reproduced in full, discusses Swiss energy policy in 1986, paying particular attention to the fall in confidence with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident. Statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption and power generation are presented. Other sections include imports/exports, construction of power stations, transmission/distribution links, finance, constitution of council, committees and public relations. (G.T.H.)

  7. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  8. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL in 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1998-01-01

    SWISS-PROT (http://www.expasy.ch/) is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotations (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domains structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and scope of model organisms; cross-references to two additional databases; a variety of new documentation files and improvements to TrEMBL, a computer annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. TrEMBL consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except the CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. PMID:9399796

  9. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1997-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotations (such as the description of the function of a protein, structure of its domains, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and scope of model organisms; cross-references to two additional databases; a variety of new documentation files and the creation of TrEMBL, a computer annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. This supplement consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except the CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. PMID:9016499

  10. The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase and its supplement TrEMBL in 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeckmann, Brigitte; Bairoch, Amos; Apweiler, Rolf; Blatter, Marie-Claude; Estreicher, Anne; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Martin, Maria J; Michoud, Karine; O'Donovan, Claire; Phan, Isabelle; Pilbout, Sandrine; Schneider, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase (http://www.expasy.org/sprot/ and http://www.ebi.ac.uk/swissprot/) connects amino acid sequences with the current knowledge in the Life Sciences. Each protein entry provides an interdisciplinary overview of relevant information by bringing together experimental results, computed features and sometimes even contradictory conclusions. Detailed expertise that goes beyond the scope of SWISS-PROT is made available via direct links to specialised databases. SWISS-PROT provides annotated entries for all species, but concentrates on the annotation of entries from human (the HPI project) and other model organisms to ensure the presence of high quality annotation for representative members of all protein families. Part of the annotation can be transferred to other family members, as is already done for microbes by the High-quality Automated and Manual Annotation of microbial Proteomes (HAMAP) project. Protein families and groups of proteins are regularly reviewed to keep up with current scientific findings. Complementarily, TrEMBL strives to comprise all protein sequences that are not yet represented in SWISS-PROT, by incorporating a perpetually increasing level of mostly automated annotation. Researchers are welcome to contribute their knowledge to the scientific community by submitting relevant findings to SWISS-PROT at swiss-prot@expasy.org.

  11. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...

  12. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J.; Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered

  13. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  14. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  15. Swiss values of travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    König, Arnd

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Institute of Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), ETH Zurich and Rapp Trans AG, Zurich on behalf of the Swiss Association of Transport Engineers. It implements the recommendation of the scoping study on Swiss value of travel time savings (VTTS) (Abay und Axhausen, 2000) by estimating VTTS for private motorised and public travel by trip purpose on the basis of new stated-choice (SC) surveys. The survey participants were recruited as part of the continuous passe...

  16. Business interest in Swiss climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Business associations play an important role in the decision making process of climate policy. In 2009, the revision of the Swiss CO2 law for designing post‐2012 climate policy is at stake. This paper analyzes the positions and arguments of the Swiss business community on climate policy using cluster analysis. As a main finding, we can observe gradual positioning between opponents and proponents to climate regulation. There is no solid business front opposing climate policy in Switzerland but...

  17. Collaborative annotation of genes and proteins between UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and dictyBase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudet, P; Lane, L; Fey, P; Bridge, A; Poux, S; Auchincloss, A; Axelsen, K; Braconi Quintaje, S; Boutet, E; Brown, P; Coudert, E; Datta, R S; de Lima, W C; de Oliveira Lima, T; Duvaud, S; Farriol-Mathis, N; Ferro Rojas, S; Feuermann, M; Gateau, A; Hinz, U; Hulo, C; James, J; Jimenez, S; Jungo, F; Keller, G; Lemercier, P; Lieberherr, D; Moinat, M; Nikolskaya, A; Pedruzzi, I; Rivoire, C; Roechert, B; Schneider, M; Stanley, E; Tognolli, M; Sjölander, K; Bougueleret, L; Chisholm, R L; Bairoch, A

    2009-01-01

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, a curated protein database, and dictyBase, the Model Organism Database for Dictyostelium discoideum, have established a collaboration to improve data sharing. One of the major steps in this effort was the 'Dicty annotation marathon', a week-long exercise with 30 annotators aimed at achieving a major increase in the number of D. discoideum proteins represented in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. The marathon led to the annotation of over 1000 D. discoideum proteins in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. Concomitantly, there were a large number of updates in dictyBase concerning gene symbols, protein names and gene models. This exercise demonstrates how UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot can work in very close cooperation with model organism databases and how the annotation of proteins can be accelerated through those collaborations.

  18. Swiss Foundation Code 2009 principles and recommendations for the establishment and management of grant-making foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, Thomas; Janssen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The «Swiss Foundation Code 2009» takes up and completes the first European Good Governance Code for grant-making foundations, published in 2005. It contains practical governance guidelines regarding the establishment, organization, management and monitoring of grant-making foundations as well as making due reference to support activities, financial and investment policies. The abridged English version of the „Swiss Foundation Code 2009“ contains 3 principles and 26 recommendations – but not the extensive commentary parts.

  19. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  20. Aeronautical education and research at the Swiss Institute of Technology in Zurich

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karner, L; Ackeret, J

    1931-01-01

    Progress in the scientific and practical fields of aviation has caused the Swiss Institute of Technology to organize lectures and practical training courses in all three branches of aeronautics and to found centers of scientific research, laboratories, etc., in order to supply the government and industries with scientifically and technically trained engineers.

  1. The Swiss power generation industry after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, J.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl disaster a large proportion of the Swiss population has had its faith in nuclear power severely shaken. On technical grounds an accident with such serious consequences for humans is not considered possible in Switzerland. A sound energy policy must be conceived on long-term considerations and should not be altered needlessly in the short term. Consequently the aims of security of power supply, energy savings and oil substitution must be pursued in the future. A change in energy policy by the Swiss power generation industry, as a result of Chernobyl, is not considered necessary

  2. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...

  3. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss and emmentaler cheese. 133.195 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.195 Swiss and emmentaler cheese. (a) Description. (1) Swiss cheese...

  4. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  5. The impact of the Swiss-EU relationships on the Swiss banking secrecy

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Mike-David

    2012-01-01

    Switzerland and the European Union share common values and have peaceful and well functioning economic and political agreements. Nevertheless, the Swiss banking secrecy is definitely a thorn in the EU's flesh, especially because of tax fraud or money laundering. Since the existence of the Swiss banking secrecy it has been associated with holocaust money, tax evasion, potentates' money etc. and also has been confronted with espionage attacks by foreign authorities and various other disputes. R...

  6. CWC: A Swiss Retrospective and Perspective (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadisch, M.

    2007-01-01

    A world without Weapons of Mass Destruction - this is the vision of SPIEZ LABORATORY, Switzerland. As the federal establishment for NBC defense, it deals with the protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical threats and risks, as well as with the technical aspects of arms control and disarmament of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (NBC weapons). Now on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), it is the right time to look back on the achievements of the OPCW and on how a small country like Switzerland can support an international organization such as the OPCW on its way to a world free of chemical weapons. SPIEZ LABORATORY was involved in the negotiations during the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva which in turn led to the CWC. Switzerland in general and SPIEZ LABORATORY in particular, have played an active role in different areas relevant to the CWC, all in order to get closer to a w orld without Weapons of Mass Destruction . The support of the OPCW and different Member States covered fundamental parts of the Convention such as, chemical weapon destruction (financial contribution and analytical work) and the implementation of Article VII obligations (declaration support, information and experience exchange). In addition, Switzerland and SPIEZ LABORATORY still have an important role in assistance and protection. Switzerland submitted a proposal for the delivery of protective equipment to the OPCW and is also active in capacity building courses like CITPRO or SEFLAB. The support in the field of international cooperation and assistance is expressed by numerous internships in SPIEZ LABORATORY and in the Swiss industry. In order to support the operability of the OPCW, SPIEZ LABORATORY participates in inspector training modules (basic modules, mock inspections) and delivers on a regular basis reference chemicals and analytical data (by now 2/3 of all the data has been inputted into the OPCW Central Analytical

  7. Effect of ammonia on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC /50/ values were determined for Swiss albino male mice exposed to different concentrations of ammonia in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC/50/ for a 30 minute exposure was 21,430 ppm.

  8. Genetics studies involving Swiss needle cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Johnson; F. Temel; K. Jayawickrama

    2002-01-01

    Three studies were analyzed this year that examined genetic aspects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) tolerance . Families sampled across the Siuslaw National forest showed differences in foliage health traits, but very little of the variation could be explained by environmental or climatic conditions at the parent tree location. Five test sites of the Nehalem series of...

  9. [Quality management in a Swiss hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, E

    1997-09-01

    Although there are quite good examples of quality management in Swiss hospitals available (the guidelines of quality management in the Swiss hospital etc.), the distribution of measures of quality assurance in Swiss hospitals is insufficient and focuses more on Hotel services and technical equipment rather than on the care by physicians and nurses. Beginning with Jan. 1, 1998, contracts of quality assurance between health care providers and sponsors have to be presented according to the new health insurance act. These contracts are proofed periodically by a national office. This necessitates a country-wide introduction of statistics (ICD-codes) and computerization. This is currently only in the process of realization. Additionally, hospitals and medical practices already undertake a comprehensive quality control due to local and regional initiatives. The society of Swiss physicians FMH supports mainly three areas: compulsory continuing medical education (80 hours annually, including 50 hours in recognized meetings), the development of guidelines by medical societies, and data collection including the development of a network for measures of quality assurance. The ISO-standard 9000 was changed for health care as ordered by the NAQ (National workshop for quality assurance) and the FMH. It is supposed to be used mainly for the certification of facilities for continuing medical education, perhaps also for the certification of hospitals.

  10. Visit of the President of the Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On 24 March, CERN welcomed Johann Schneider-Ammann, President of the Swiss Confederation.   President Johann Schneider-Ammann arrived to CERN in the morning, where he was welcomed by CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. During the visit, the President was accompanied by Erik Reumann, spokesperson of the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research, Alexandre Fasel, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva, and Patrick Pardo, counsellor at the permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. In the Main Building he exchanged a few words with Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Friedemann Eder, Head of CERN Host States relations service. President Johann Schneider-Ammann also signed the guestbook of the Organ...

  11. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.

    2010-07-01

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  12. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described.

  13. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  14. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper

  15. The outlook of the Swiss energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumpf, L.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the conference held on 18th April 1985 in Bern at the General Assembly of the Swiss Pool for assurance against earthquakes. The total Swiss energy consumption in 1984 showed an increase of 4.3% over that of 1983, and the contribution of electricity to this total in 1984 was about 4.5% higher than in the previous year. Progress in increasing the hydroelectric output cannot make up the future demand to be expected, and nuclear energy must be looked to for the increased supply. In 1984 the five nuclear generating stations - Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt furnished about 17.4 milliards kWh (35.4%), a total capacity of about 2,900 MW, and general approval has been given for the Kaiseraugst station. (A.G.P.)

  16. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  17. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Emmanuel; Lieberherr, Damien; Tognolli, Michael; Schneider, Michel; Bairoch, Amos

    2007-01-01

    The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), and the Protein Information Resource (PIR) form the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) consortium. Its main goal is to provide the scientific community with a central resource for protein sequences and functional information. The UniProt consortium maintains the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB) and several supplementary databases including the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) and the UniProt Archive (UniParc). (1) UniProtKB is a comprehensive protein sequence knowledgebase that consists of two sections: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, which contains manually annotated entries, and UniProtKB/TrEMBL, which contains computer-annotated entries. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries contain information curated by biologists and provide users with cross-links to about 100 external databases and with access to additional information or tools. (2) The UniRef databases (UniRef100, UniRef90, and UniRef50) define clusters of protein sequences that share 100, 90, or 50% identity. (3) The UniParc database stores and maps all publicly available protein sequence data, including obsolete data excluded from UniProtKB. The UniProt databases can be accessed online (http://www.uniprot.org/) or downloaded in several formats (ftp://ftp.uniprot.org/pub). New releases are published every 2 weeks. The purpose of this chapter is to present a guided tour of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry, paying particular attention to the specificities of plant protein annotation. We will also present some of the tools and databases that are linked to each entry.

  18. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaitre-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons' trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  19. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz

    2009-01-01

    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  20. The development of the Swiss Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, R.; Köllner-Heck, P.; Probst, T.

    2010-09-01

    In summer 2009, the Federal Council mandated the Departement of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) to develop a Swiss adaptation strategy. This strategy aims to coordinate the efforts of all federal departments involved in adaptation, and to provide them with the necessary basic information. For the development of the Swiss adaptation strategy the following principles are fundamental. (1.) The strategy aims to achieve the overarching objectives of harnessing the opportunities that climate change presents, minimizing the risks of climate change to people and assets, and to increases the adaptive capacity of all resources. (2) The strategy is based on the most recent scientific knowledge about climate change and climate change impacts. (3.) It is based in on a sound and comprehensive analysis of climate change risks. (4.) It includes strategic goals for the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, i.e., water management, biodiversity management, agriculture, forestry, natural hazard prevention, health care, energy generation, tourism, land use. (5.) It thoroughly analyzes the interfaces between the sectoral strategies in order solve existing conflicts and profit form existing synergies. The Swiss Adaptation Strategy will be completed and submitted to the Federal Council by the End of 2011.

  1. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r b =50 h −1  Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D A / D-bar A |∼< 10 −4 . We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%

  2. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  3. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  4. Asian Martial Art Exhibitions at the Swiss Castle of Morges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Gothard Bialokur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on two unique cultural exhibitions (2005 and 2007 held in Morges, Switzerland. The main theme for these exhibitions was Asian martial arts with a focus on those from Japan, including presentations by notable masters in aikido, karate, judo, kyudo, iaido, kenjutsu, jodo, juttejutsu, kusarigamajutsu, naginatajutsu, tameshigiri, and kendo. On exhibit were artifacts from Morges Castle museum collections as well as numerous ancient objects borrowed specifically for these exhibitions from other Swiss museums and private collections. There was also a lecture on Japanese sword collecting and care, and presentations of Japanese dance, flower arranging (ikebana, the art of tea (châ no yu, châdo, paper folding (origami, traditional kimono dress, and detailed demonstrations on the manufacture of bladed weapons. Text and photography were arranged to record these events for this article, showing how excellent organization and cooperation can introduce high-quality martial traditions to the public.

  5. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status.

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, A; Boeckmann, B

    1994-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank consist of sequence entries. Sequence entries are composed of different lines types, each with their own format. For standardization purposes the format of SWISS-PROT follows as closely as possible that of the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Databa...

  6. Perspective: Opportunities for ultrafast science at SwissFEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Abela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the main specifications of the newly constructed Swiss Free Electron Laser, SwissFEL, and explore its potential impact on ultrafast science. In light of recent achievements at current X-ray free electron lasers, we discuss the potential territory for new scientific breakthroughs offered by SwissFEL in Chemistry, Biology, and Materials Science, as well as nonlinear X-ray science.

  7. Behavioral changes in female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Ferreira de Almeida

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the anthropic activities generating potentially toxic residues are those involved with bovine hide processing (tannery industries. However, knowledge is scant regarding the damage caused to the health of various organisms by tannery waste and studies are rare, especially in mammalian experimental models. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the physical and behavioral effects of the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluent. To accomplish this, for a period of 15 days the animals were fed tannery effluent diluted with water in the following concentrations: 0% (control group, received only potable water, 5% and 10%. The body mass of the animals was evaluated at the beginning and end of the experiment, as well as the daily consumption of water and food. After 15 days of exposure to the effluent, the animals were submitted to the elevated plus maze (predictive of anxiety and the forced swim test (predictive of depression. The treatments did not affect the animals' body mass, either in eating behavior or in consumption of water. However, it was found that the animals that ingested tannery effluent concentrations of 5% and 10% exhibited an anxiolytic (lower level of anxiety, greater percentage of time in the open arms, longer time and frequency in the diving behavior, less time of lurks and less frequency of freezing and an antidepressant effect (more time in climbing behavior and less time of immobility when compared to the control group. It was concluded that the exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (5% and 10% diluted with water causes behavioral changes, possibly related to the neurotoxicity of this waste, without causing physical changes in the animals.

  8. Trend of burnout among Swiss doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigoni, F; Bovier, P A; Sappino, A P

    2010-08-09

    Over the last decade the Swiss health care system has undergone several changes, resulting in stronger economic constraints, a heavier administrative workload and limited work autonomy for doctors. In this context we examined the change in burnout prevalence over time among Swiss doctors surveyed during this period. Cross-sectional survey data collected by mail in 2002, 2004 and 2007 throughout the country were used. Measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), several socio-demographics (gender, living alone, having children), and work-related characteristics (number of years in current workplace, hours worked). Answers to the MBI were used to classify respondents into moderate (high score on either the emotional exhaustion or the depersonalisation/cynicism subscale) and high degree of burnout (scores in the range of burnout in all three scales). Rates of moderate-degree burnout increased from 33% to 42% among general practitioners (p = 0.002) and from 19% to 34% among paediatricians (p = 0.001) (high degree of burnout: 4% to 6% [p = 0.17] and 2% to 4% [p = 0.42] respectively). After adjustment for significant socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, an increased risk of moderate burnout was found for doctors surveyed in 2004 and 2007 (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 to 2.0), general practitioners (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 to 2.0) and French-speaking doctors (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.3 to 1.9). An increased risk of high-degree burnout was found only for general practitioners (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.05 to 3.0). Burnout levels among Swiss doctors have increased over the last decade, in particular among French-speaking doctors.

  9. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  10. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  11. The Swiss Vote on Limiting Second Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Martin; Dessemontet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The Alps have an important role in defining the Swiss national identity, and play a major part in forging the country’s image from the beginning of tourism in the 18th and 19th centuries. In a federalist country which assigns large decision powers to the cantonal and communal levels, local and national interests as to how to develop this particular space can profoundly diverge. The vote held on March 11th, 2012 on the Franz Weber initiative introducing a ban on building new holiday residences...

  12. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S.; Sciacca, F. G.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  13. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  14. bipyridinium dichloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin C on paraquat-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in. Swiss albino mice. Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) and paraquat. (15 mg/kg) + vitamin C (20 mg/kg) were used in the study. The drugs were administered.

  15. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  16. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEstatistical analyses, the systems were grouped into the following categories: (a) farming system: organic (ORG), integrated (IN) and mineral (MIN); (b) tillage: conventional (CT), reduced (RT) and no-till (NT); (c) cover cropping: no cover cropping (NCC), winter cover cropping (CC) and winter green manuring (GM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased

  17. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Document Server

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  18. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  19. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  20. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  1. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  2. BMI distribution/social stratification in Swiss conscripts from 1875 to present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staub, K; Rühli, F J; Woitek, U; Pfister, C

    2010-04-01

    We aimed to extend the actual overweight discussion with new unbiased Swiss conscript data from 2005 to 2006, and to present for the first time Swiss data on body mass index (BMI) before 1950 and for the late-nineteenth century. For this study, 19-year-old Swiss male conscripts (draft army; Cantons Bern, Zurich, Basel-Stadt and Basel-Land) from the census of 1875-1879, 1933-1939 and 2005-2006 (N=28 033; 2005-2006 census) were included. BMI distribution (World Health Organization (WHO) classification) and social stratification (International Labour Organization classification) were main outcome measures. Mean BMI of 19-year-old men in Switzerland increased in the 50 years between the 1870s and the 1930s by 0.80 kg/m(2) and between the 1930s and 2005 by 1.45 kg/m(2). The modern BMI sample is much more right skewed and s.d. is higher. Obesity prevalence (according to modern WHO classification) has increased by a factor of 105 from 1870s until present. Over 23% of our representative sample of Swiss men in 2005-2006 had a BMI of over 25 kg/m(2). In 2005-2006, contrary to the nineteenth century, unskilled workers had articulately higher BMI values at the 75th, 90th and 95th percentile than students; 12% of unskilled workers were obese against 2% of students. It thus seems that BMI relations between the upper and the lower end of the socio-economic strata changed inversely from the late-nineteenth century to 2005-2006. We further propose that the phenomenon of massive right-skewing BMI distribution between the 1930s and 2005-2006 affected the lower socio-economic strata to a far greater extent than the higher socio-economic group.

  3. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco; Bichsel, Thomas; Fassbender, Andre; Horvath, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely there will

  4. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  5. The European Market for Tropical Organic Products

    OpenAIRE

    Garibay, Salvador

    2006-01-01

    Contant - Short project description - Development of the Organic Market in Europe - The European Organic Market - The Organic Swiss Market - Characteristics of the Tropical Organic Market - Perspectives for some organic tropical products - General Remarks of Traders on the Organic Market for Tropical Products

  6. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  7. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  8. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  9. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  10. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  11. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  12. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  13. Prevalence of and associated factors for adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in young Swiss men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Estévez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. METHODS: Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF. ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. RESULTS: The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. CONCLUSION: Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial.

  14. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  15. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  16. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    1992-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library

  17. Interfaces and interactions in the Swiss waste disposal programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1994-01-01

    Switzerland is a small country (41,293 km 2 ) with a small population (∼7 million) and a small nuclear power park (∼3000 MWe) which gives rise to correspondingly limited volumes of radioactive wastes. The following sections present a summary of the technical and organizational structures involved in the procedures for implementing a back-end strategy in Switzerland and the rationale for their choice. The hierarchical organizational units involved in repository projects, their responsibilities and their interactions are described. This linked chain of responsibilities must be thought through as a whole if interface and communication problems in the line structure are to be minimized -- this we call vertical integration. The programme implementers do not work, however, in a technical or social vacuum. Interfaces to other bodies (regulators, politicians, public) are equally vital to programme success. These communications and exchanges must all be coordinated with one another and with the line organization -- this we call horizontal interaction. The multidimensional organizational system to be considered is described in Sections 2 and 3, in which the roles of each of the entities involved and the relevant interfaces are described. Beforehand, however, we present a short overview of the Swiss waste management strategy and the current programme status in order that individual points made in the following discussion can be related to concrete projects, plans, locations and waste management facilities

  18. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  19. The consolidation of annual accounts in the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vollenweider, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Financial reporting in the public sector is influenced by the private sector accounting standards. The Swiss Federal Government has recently started to prepare consolidated financial statements. The purpose of this study is to describe how the Swiss Federal Government is doing its consolidated financial statements. Theoretically there are different consolidation theories and methods. The choice of consolidation method can explain which consolidation theory is used when the financial statement...

  20. Natural Language Processing for the Swiss German Dialect Area

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Yves; Rambow, Owen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses work on data collection for Swiss German dialects taking into account the continuous nature of the dialect landscape, and proposes to integrate these data into natural language processing models. We present knowledge-based models for machine translation into any Swiss German dialect, for dialect identification, and for multi-dialectal parsing. In a dialect continuum, rules cannot be applied uniformly, but have restricted validity in well-defined geographic areas. Therefor...

  1. Working capital management in the Swiss chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, S. (Stefan); Locker, A. (Alwin); Jergen, C. (Christian)

    2012-01-01

    The performance of Swiss based chemical and pharmaceutical companies regarding their working capital management and its underlying components, namely accounts receivable, inventories and accounts payable differs over time and between the single firms. The calculation of a cash potential for the year 2008 shows that 17 billion CHF is tied up in the companies’ balance sheets if they would realise the Swiss best practice performance. It has also been shown that in rece...

  2. Digital Preservation at the Swiss Federal Archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Archives (SFA) archives Swiss government data when it is no longer in use. The SFA is responsible for advising, inspecting and issuing directives in records management and archiving services in offices, agencies and institutions subjected to the Federal Act on Archiving; as well as archiving and disseminating records and data of archival value. With regard to RWM, it thus in fact is an additional regulator. The conceptual basis for digital archiving at the SFA is based on the ISO OAIS Open Archival Information System Reference Model (ISO 14721:2003). The SFA use a process-orientated approach. The SFA and the Federal Office decide jointly which documents and data are to be archived. Archive-worthy documents and data are selected on the basis of a systematic appraisal. Wherever possible this should be carried out pro-actively - before the documents are actually created - based on an indexing or classification system. If there is clarity, people will know what data - and metadata - to keep for the submission. The submission is split into several stages, from appraisal to the conclusion of the submission. Information is never changed once it is archived, except that it carries out conservation measures. New information is a new submission. The sustainable information management is a core expertise of national archives. The SFA preserves digital records and data and is responsible for their secure and appropriate safe-keeping, description and dissemination. For the archiving of relational databases (e.g. Microsoft Access, Oracle and SQL Server), the SFA have developed a format known as SIARD (Software Independent Archiving of Relational Databases). SIARD is an open standard and is supported by the SIARD Suite application, which can be used to convert relational databases into SIARD format. The SIARD Suite is now in use worldwide (over 170 downloads). The SFA distribute the SIARD Suite free of charge in conformity with the license agreement. Currently

  3. Safety climate in Swiss hospital units: Swiss version of the Safety Climate Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin; Mascherek, Anna C.; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Safety climate measurements are a broadly used element of improvement initiatives. In order to provide a sound and easy‐to‐administer instrument for the use in Swiss hospitals, we translated the Safety Climate Survey into German and French. Methods After translating the Safety Climate Survey into French and German, a cross‐sectional survey study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in operating room (OR) teams and on OR‐related wards in 10 Swiss hospitals. Validity of the instrument was examined by means of Cronbach's alpha and missing rates of the single items. Item‐descriptive statistics group differences and percentage of ‘problematic responses’ (PPR) were calculated. Results 3153 HCPs completed the survey (response rate: 63.4%). 1308 individuals were excluded from the analyses because of a profession other than doctor or nurse or invalid answers (n = 1845; nurses = 1321, doctors = 523). Internal consistency of the translated Safety Climate Survey was good (Cronbach's alpha G erman = 0.86; Cronbach's alpha F rench = 0.84). Missing rates at item level were rather low (0.23–4.3%). We found significant group differences in safety climate values regarding profession, managerial function, work area and time spent in direct patient care. At item level, 14 out of 21 items showed a PPR higher than 10%. Conclusions Results indicate that the French and German translations of the Safety Climate Survey might be a useful measurement instrument for safety climate in Swiss hospital units. Analyses at item level allow for differentiating facets of safety climate into more positive and critical safety climate aspects. PMID:25656302

  4. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-01-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  5. The changing Swiss electricity - Critical views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, E.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at developments in the Swiss electricity market and, in particular, criticises national, regional and local energy policy, which the author considers to be incoherent. The book first describes how the electricity market works, the main players involved and the daily problems that have to be solved. Then, the problems that could be caused by liberalisation, including the question of transit fees, the development of electricity prices for consumers, changes in the structure of the electricity business and third party access are discussed. The second part of the book examines legal aspects of proposed electricity market legislation and then presents 16 propositions covering energy policy, market regulation, unbundling not only of electricity generation, distribution and services but also of politics and business, the revision of proposed liberalisation legislation, taxation aspects as well as the national and international operation of the electricity grid. The book further examines three regional electricity utilities and the attempts to privatise them, which did not meet with the approval of the voting public, and discusses the suspicion cast on certain politicians, that they try to push through the particular interests of groups they are closely associated with. The book is also includes a bibliography and a list of useful addresses

  6. Internet Voting for Expatriates: The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Germann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Swiss canton introduced internet voting for expatriates, thus initiating the second phase in Switzerland’s piecemeal i-voting roll-out. More cantons soon followed, and as of this writing expatriates from 12 out of the 26 cantons can vote online. This paper focuses on the second phase involving expatriates. We address three questions at the core of the internet voting research agenda. First, the popularity question: to what extent do expatriates make use of the new online channel? Second, the ‘who’ question: what is the profile of the typical expatriate i-voter? Finally, the turnout question: did the extension of internet voting to the expatriates have an effect on electoral mobilization? Our findings indicate that the online channel is very popular among expatriates, both if compared to other trials in Switzerland itself and internationally. On the other hand, known patterns regarding the profile of i-voters and the effect on mobilization seem to be also replicated in the expatriate trials. Expatriate i-voters tend to be young, male, and there is some evidence of an upper-class bias. Thus, usage of the online channel seems driven by the digital divide also among expatriates. Moreover, we find some evidence that i-voting did not affect electoral mobilization, similarly to trials involving residents.

  7. Radionuclide sorption database for Swiss safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.; Hadermann, J.

    1984-10-01

    Recommended sorption data for use in transport models for a Swiss High-Level Waste repository are presented. The models used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' assume linear sorption isotherms and require elemental partition coefficient (Kd) data. On the basis of a literature search 'realistic' Kd data for 22 elements have been selected for weathered crystalline rock and sediments in contact with a reducing groundwater and also sediments with a less reducing groundwater. In an appendix sorption data for 28 elements on bentonite backfill are given. These data are supplemented with 'conservative' estimates taken to represent minimum reasonable values. Available data are discussed for each element clearly exhibiting (i) the large gaps in knowledge, (ii) their unbalanced distribution between different elements and, hence, (iii) the need for further experiments in the laboratory, the field and analogue studies. An overview of the theoretical concepts of sorption, experimental methodology and data interpretation is given in order to put the values into context. General problem areas are identified. (Auth.)

  8. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  9. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  10. Health and happiness in young Swiss adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Hudelson, Patricia M; Bovier, Patrick A

    2004-02-01

    To explore whether self-reported happiness is associated with mental and physical health status among young adults. Cross-sectional survey of 1257 randomly selected university students in Geneva, Switzerland. The questionnaire included an item that probed the feeling of happiness in the past month, the Short Form-12 health survey (from which mental and physical health scores were computed), scales to measure self-esteem, stress, and social support, reports of various life problems, and sociodemographic information. Most participants felt happy all of the time or most of the time (63%). In multivariate analysis, feeling happy all or most of the time was strongly associated with better mental health (odds ratios for consecutive quartiles of mental health scores: 1.0 (reference), 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-10.1), 19.2 (95% CI: 12.2-30.2), 39.9 (95% CI: 22.4-71.0)), but also with the feeling of getting enough love and affection (item from the social support scale, odds ratio: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7), female sex (odds ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), being Swiss (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), and higher self-esteem (odds ratios for consecutive quartiles ranged from 1.0 to 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1-5.8). The association between happiness and physical health was weak and statistically non-significant. The strong association between happiness and mental health suggests that asking people if they are happy may help identify mental health care needs. Self-reported happiness may also be a useful outcome measure for evaluation of health interventions.

  11. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  12. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  13. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, the Manually Annotated Section of the UniProt KnowledgeBase: How to Use the Entry View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Emmanuel; Lieberherr, Damien; Tognolli, Michael; Schneider, Michel; Bansal, Parit; Bridge, Alan J; Poux, Sylvain; Bougueleret, Lydie; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt, http://www.uniprot.org ) consortium is an initiative of the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and the Protein Information Resource (PIR) to provide the scientific community with a central resource for protein sequences and functional information. The UniProt consortium maintains the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB), updated every 4 weeks, and several supplementary databases including the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) and the UniProt Archive (UniParc).The Swiss-Prot section of the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot) contains publicly available expertly manually annotated protein sequences obtained from a broad spectrum of organisms. Plant protein entries are produced in the frame of the Plant Proteome Annotation Program (PPAP), with an emphasis on characterized proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. High level annotations provided by UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot are widely used to predict annotation of newly available proteins through automatic pipelines.The purpose of this chapter is to present a guided tour of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry. We will also present some of the tools and databases that are linked to each entry.

  14. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  15. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  16. Diagnosis and Management of Asthma - The Swiss Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Thomas; Spagnolo, Paolo; Bridevaux, Pierre-Olivier; Clarenbach, Christian; Eich-Wanger, Christine; Meyer, Franca; Miedinger, David; Möller, Alexander; Nicod, Laurent P; Nicolet-Chatelain, Geneviève; Sauty, Alain; Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Leuppi, Joerg D

    2018-04-03

    The Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) is a network of individuals, organizations, and public health officials that was established to disseminate information about the care of patients with asthma and to improve asthma care. The GINA ("Global Strategy for Asthma Management and Prevention") report has been updated annually since 2002. Due to new knowledge and therapeutic development in the field, the Swiss Respiratory Society felt the need to provide a new document that is based on both the available literature and the recommendations of the 2016 GINA report. Key new features of the 2016 GINA report include a "new" definition of asthma, underscoring its heterogeneous nature, and the core elements of variable symptoms and variable expiratory airflow limitation; the importance of confirming the diagnosis of asthma in order to minimize both under- and overtreatment; practical tools for the assessment of symptom control and risk factors for adverse outcomes; a comprehensive approach to asthma management that acknowledges the foundational role of inhaled corticosteroid therapy, but also provides a framework for individualizing patient care; an emphasis on maximizing the benefit of available medications by addressing common problems such as incorrect inhaler technique and poor adherence; a continuum of care for worsening asthma, starting with early self-management and progressing to primary care or acute care management; and diagnosis of the asthma/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome. This document is meant to advice the key stakeholders on the diagnosis and management of asthma and highlights the need to individualize the care of each and every asthmatic patient. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  18. Swiss nuclear industry in a mood of awakening - conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The 'nuclea' meeting of the Swiss Nuclear Forum with the focus on 'The Future of Nuclear Power in the Energy Mix' was held on the premises of the Swiss Leibstadt nuclear power station in late October. The electricity gap is a reality; the underlying facts are known by now, but this does not make them any less threatening and worrying. This is one of the key findings of the meeting. Experience over the past 3 decades has confirmed the close link between the gross domestic product and electricity consumption. Separating economic growth from the electricity requirement had remained wishful thinking. Consequently, the replacement and expansion of existing generating capacities had to take into account that nuclear power, among other things, met the stringent requirements with respect to climate protection and continuity of supply. There was agreement at 'nuclea' about nuclear power remaining an indispensable component in the energy mix for Swiss electricity supply. (orig.)

  19. Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - Management summary; Energieperspektiven 2035 - Management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    This management summary issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - a five-part synthesis report published in 2007. The report presents no prognoses but provides an 'if-then' overview of a set of four scenarios that examined ways in which Swiss energy demands could be met by the year 2035. National and international boundary conditions taken into account are reviewed and the four scenarios are introduced and briefly described. These include the reference scenario 'Business as Usual', 'Increased Co-operation' between politics and business, 'New Priorities' with goals set to reduce energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions and 'On the Way to a 2000-Watt Society'. Risks posed and chances provided are discussed, as are the options for taking action

  20. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  1. Physical optics simulations with PHASE for SwissFEL beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, U.; Follath, R.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bahrdt, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    PHASE is a software tool for physical optics simulation based on the stationary phase approximation method. The code is under continuous development since about 20 years and has been used for instance for fundamental studies and ray tracing of various beamlines at the Swiss Light Source. Along with the planning for SwissFEL a new hard X-ray free electron laser under construction, new features have been added to permit practical performance predictions including diffraction effects which emerge with the fully coherent source. We present the application of the package on the example of the ARAMIS 1 beamline at SwissFEL. The X-ray pulse calculated with GENESIS and given as an electrical field distribution has been propagated through the beamline to the sample position. We demonstrate the new features of PHASE like the treatment of measured figure errors, apertures and coatings of the mirrors and the application of Fourier optics propagators for free space propagation.

  2. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  3. Annotation of glycoproteins in the SWISS-PROT database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E; Veuthey, A L; Gasteiger, E; Bairoch, A

    2001-02-01

    SWISS-PROT is a protein sequence database, which aims to be nonredundant, fully annotated and highly cross-referenced. Most eukaryotic gene products undergo co- and/or post-translational modifications, and these need to be included in the database in order to describe the mature protein. SWISS-PROT includes information on many types of different protein modifications. As glycosylation is the most common type of post-translational protein modification, we are currently placing an emphasis on annotation of protein glycosylation in SWISS-PROT. Information on the position of the sugar within the polypeptide chain, the reducing terminal linkage as well as additional information on biological function of the sugar is included in the database. In this paper we describe how we account for the different types of protein glycosylation, namely N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, proteoglycans, C-linked glycosylation and the attachment of glycosyl-phosphatidylinosital anchors to proteins.

  4. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS): A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschia, James F.; Kissela, Brett M.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Beck, Jeanne; Skarp, Alexa N.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that genetic factors are associated with ischemic stroke, including multiple recent reports of association with the gene PDE4D, encoding phosphodiesterase 4D, on chromosome 5q12. Genetic studies of stroke are important but can be logistically difficult to perform. This article reviews the design of the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) and discusses problems in performing a sibling-based pedigree study where proband-initiated consent is used to enroll pedigree members. Proband-initiated enrollment optimizes privacy protections for family members, but it is associated with a substantial pedigree non-completion rate such that 3 to 4 probands must be identified to obtain one completed sibling pedigree. This report updates the progress of enrollment in the SWISS protocol, discusses barriers to pedigree completion and describes innovative approaches used by the SWISS investigators to enhance enrollment. PMID:16595789

  5. Tox-Prot, the toxin protein annotation program of the Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungo, Florence; Bairoch, Amos

    2005-03-01

    The Tox-Prot program was initiated in order to provide the scientific community a summary of the current knowledge on animal protein toxins. The aim of this program is to systematically annotate all proteins which act as toxins and are produced by venomous and poisonous animals. Venomous animals such as snakes, scorpions, spiders, jellyfish, insects, cone snails, sea anemones, lizards, some fish, and platypus are equipped with a specialized organ to inject venom in their prey. In contrast, poisonous animals such as some fish or worms, lack such organs. Each toxin is annotated according to the quality standards of Swiss-Prot. This means providing a wealth of information that includes the description of the function, domain structure, subcellular location, tissue specificity, variants, similarities to other proteins, keywords, etc. In the framework of this program, particular care has been made to capture what is known on the function and mode of action, posttranslational modifications and 3D structural data which are all relatively abundant in the field of protein toxins. Researchers are welcome to contribute their knowledge to the scientific community by submitting relevant findings to Swiss-Prot concerning toxins at Tox-Prot@isb-sib.ch. More information on Tox-Prot can be found at http://www.expasy.org/sprot/tox-prot.

  6. The Swiss geological survey in the service of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateltin, O.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a look at the work of the Swiss geological survey, which, since 1930, has been working on 1:25,000-scale geological maps which now cover two thirds of the country. These activities are now integrated in the scope of 'swisstopo', who not only produce the maps but also manage the rock laboratory at Mont Terri: Here, together with international partners, research on the suitability of Opalinus clay for nuclear waste repositories is being assessed. The article looks at the organisation of the Swiss geological survey and the various services it offers in the areas of geological information services, data, maps as well as rock laboratories and repositories

  7. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueni, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  8. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, Marcia Rosa de; TAFURI, Wagner Luis; NICOLI, Jacques Robert; VIEIRA, Enio Cardillo; MELO, Maria Norma; VIEIRA, Leda Quercia

    1999-01-01

    Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g) and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecti...

  9. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  10. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  11. Opening the electricity market - the Swiss Confederation's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities offered by the opening of the Swiss electricity market in the European context. The importance of appropriate legislation that would enable Switzerland to actively take part in the shaping of a Europe-wide electricity market is stressed. Measures to be considered such as those in the areas of third-party access, tariffs, security of supply and the promotion of renewable sources of energy are discussed. Questions of public service are addressed and comparisons are made to solutions that have been implemented in other areas such as post, telecommunications and the railway system. The regulations and structures suggested in Swiss proposals for legislation are discussed in detail

  12. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M.

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  13. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  14. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  15. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  16. Acute toxicity studies of potassium permanganate in Swiss albino mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study of potassium permanganate was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Potassium permanganate was administered at dose rate of 0.0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500mg/kg body weight to groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, ten per group for LD50 determination. The dead animals were posted for ...

  17. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  18. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  19. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  20. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  1. Swiss-Prot: juggling between evolution and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Ferro, Serenella; Gasteiger, Elisabeth

    2004-03-01

    We describe some of the aspects of Swiss-Prot that make it unique, explain what are the developments we believe to be necessary for the database to continue to play its role as a focal point of protein knowledge, and provide advice pertinent to the development of high-quality knowledge resources on one aspect or the other of the life sciences.

  2. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  3. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, Marco [Aare-Tessin Ltd for Electricity, Bahnhofquai 12, CH-4601 Olten (Switzerland); Bichsel, Thomas [BKW FMB Energie AG, NPP Muehleberg, CH-3203 Muehleberg (Switzerland); Fassbender, Andre [NPP Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Horvath, Matthias [National Emergency Operations Centre, CH-8044 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely

  4. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  5. The MYTHEN detector for X-ray powder diffraction experiments at the Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, Anna; Cervellino, Antonio; Dinapoli, Roberto; Gozzo, Fabia; Henrich, Beat; Johnson, Ian; Kraft, Philipp; Mozzanica, Aldo; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian

    2010-01-01

    A report on the characterization, calibration and performances of the MYTHEN photon-counting silicon microstrip detector at the powder diffraction station at the Swiss Light Source is given. The MYTHEN single-photon-counting silicon microstrip detector has been developed at the Swiss Light Source for time-resolved powder diffraction experiments. An upgraded version of the detector has been installed at the SLS powder diffraction station allowing the acquisition of diffraction patterns over 120° in 2θ in fractions of seconds. Thanks to the outstanding performance of the detector and to the calibration procedures developed, the quality of the data obtained is now comparable with that of traditional high-resolution point detectors in terms of FWHM resolution and peak profile shape, with the additional advantage of fast and simultaneous acquisition of the full diffraction pattern. MYTHEN is therefore optimal for time-resolved or dose-critical measurements. The characteristics of the MYTHEN detector together with the calibration procedures implemented for the optimization of the data are described in detail. The refinements of two known standard powders are discussed together with a remarkable application of MYTHEN to organic compounds in relation to the problem of radiation damage

  6. Radioprotective effects of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin of Swiss mice after gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlot, Prashasnika; Saini, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Biological effects of radiation are detrimental to life. Skin being a cell-renewal system is one of the best organ for studying radiation induced effects and their modulation by antioxidants. An attempt has been made to evaluate radioprotective efficacy of Aloe vera leaf extract on skin in Swiss mice (1g/kg body wt/day). The mice selected from inbreed colony were divided into two groups. The first group was given Aloe vera extract orally for 15th consecutive days and served as experimental group while the other group received DDW (vol. equal to Aloe extract) to serve as control group. On the 15th day, after 30 min of above treatment animals of both the groups were exposed to 2 Gy gamma irradiation and autopsied on 6h 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days. DNA as well as total protein decreases in control group as compared to the normal value. Surprisingly, in experimental group, DNA and protein increases in comparison to the control group. Thus, Aloe vera were found to have positive influence against radiation induced alterations on skin of Swiss albino mice

  7. The Swiss Army physical fitness test battery predicts risk of overuse injuries among recruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, T; Von Vigier, R O; Frey, F; Mäder, U

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the discriminative power of physical performance tests to recognize conscripts with enhanced risk of acute and overuse injuries in specific, physically demanding occupational specialties of the Swiss Army. The five performance tests investigated represent the Swiss Army Physical Fitness Test Battery. Physical fitness performances were assessed during recruitment procedures prior to military service, and injury occurrences were assessed during 18 weeks of boot camp. Complete fitness and injury data of 459 volunteers from four military occupational specialties were collected. Discriminative power of volunteers' aerobic endurance capacity, trunk muscle fitness, muscle power of upper and lower extremities, and balance for predicting risk of acute injuries and for predicting risk of overuse injuries was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. The presented fitness tests had no discriminative power for predicting the risk of acute injuries. However, the trunk muscle fitness test was discriminative in predicting overuse injuries in all four military occupational specialties, progressive endurance run in three, balance test in two, and standing long jump in one. Only the seated shot put had no significant power for predicting overuse injuries in all four study groups. However, for different occupational specialties, different fitness parameters were discriminative to predict overuse injuries. It is possible to conclude that the fitness tests used allow detection of conscripts with enhanced overuse injury risk in physically demanding occupational specialties and therefore provide an indicator to select suitable personnel for physically demanding jobs in a military organization.

  8. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  9. Important aspects for consideration in minimizing plant outage times. Swiss experience in achieving high availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malcotsis, G.

    1984-01-01

    Operation of Swiss nuclear power plants has not been entirely free of trouble. They have experienced defective fuel elements, steam generator tube damage, excessive vibration of the core components, leakages in the recirculation pump seals and excessive corrosion and erosion in the steam-feedwater plant. Despite these technical problems in the early life of the plants, on overall balance the plants can be considered to have performed exceedingly well. The safety records from more than 40 reactor-years of operation are excellent and, individually and collectively, the capacity factors obtained are among the highest in the world. The problems mentioned have been solved and the plants continue operation with high availabilities. This success can be attributed to the good practices of the utilities with regard to the choice of special design criteria, plant organization, plant operation and plant maintenance, and also to the pragmatic approach of the licensing authorities and their consultants to quality assurance and quality control. The early technical problems encountered, the corresponding solutions adopted and the factors that contributed towards achieving high availabilities in Swiss nuclear power plants are briefly described. (author)

  10. Prevention of radiation and cadmium induced haematological alternations in the Swiss albino mice by Aloe Vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Songara, Venkteshwar; Singariya, Seema; Meena, Dinesh; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Purohit, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    The development of effective radio protectors and radio recovery drugs is of great importance in view of their potential application during both planned (i.e., radiotherapy) and unplanned radiation exposure (i.e., in the nuclear industry and natural background radiation). The combined effect of radiation and cadmium further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Aloe vera has enjoyed a reputation as a healer for millennia, based primarily on anecdotal evidence. For the last 40 years concerted efforts by the scientific research community has brought Aloe vera out of the realm of folk medicine, providing it solid medical and scientific foundation. Haematopoietic organs are among the most radiosensitive cells in the living organisms. Therefore, present study was carried out to study the modulatory influence of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced hematological changes in the Swiss albino mice. For the study, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages.The animals were exposed 3.5 Gy and 7.0 Gy of gamma radiation with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Aloe vera was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes to estimate various haematological parameters viz. RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV. Radiation exposure resulted in a significant decline in RBC, WBC, PCV, Haemoglobin and MCV up to day-14 in peripheral blood, thereafter it increased up to day-28 without reaching to normal. After combined treatment of radiation and cadmium chloride the more severe changes were noticed showing synergistic or additive effect. An early and fast recovery was seen in Aloe vera pretreatment groups. Thus, it may be concluded from above observation that Aloe vera has the potential of combating the

  11. Automated annotation of microbial proteomes in SWISS-PROT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattiker, Alexandre; Michoud, Karine; Rivoire, Catherine; Auchincloss, Andrea H; Coudert, Elisabeth; Lima, Tania; Kersey, Paul; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J A; Lachaize, Corinne; Veuthey, Anne Lise; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos

    2003-02-01

    Large-scale sequencing of prokaryotic genomes demands the automation of certain annotation tasks currently manually performed in the production of the SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase. The HAMAP project, or 'High-quality Automated and Manual Annotation of microbial Proteomes', aims to integrate manual and automatic annotation methods in order to enhance the speed of the curation process while preserving the quality of the database annotation. Automatic annotation is only applied to entries that belong to manually defined orthologous families and to entries with no identifiable similarities (ORFans). Many checks are enforced in order to prevent the propagation of wrong annotation and to spot problematic cases, which are channelled to manual curation. The results of this annotation are integrated in SWISS-PROT, and a website is provided at http://www.expasy.org/sprot/hamap/.

  12. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  13. No Swiss-cheese universe on the brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, Laszlo A.

    2005-01-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario

  14. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicable...

  15. Swiss contributions to advanced fuel cycles research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledergerber, G.; Stanculescu, A.

    1997-01-01

    Based on its interdisciplinary know-how and facilities, PSI intends, through the AFC project, to maintain its support to the Swiss utilities on issues linked to safety and performance of advanced options for plutonium recycle. It will thus continue to contribute to the international R+D efforts toward strengthening the sustainability arguments for nuclear power from the view-point of the back end of the fuel cycle. (author) 2 figs., 12 refs

  16. IT-Benefits-Management in the Swiss Financial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, G; Baenninger, P

    2008-01-01

    Companies engage in IT-projects in order to gain some benefits; however they complain that those bene-fits are difficult to achieve. On the basis of a survey in the Swiss financial industry this paper comes to the conclusion that due to a fundamental misconception companies reproduce the lack of success in reaping IT benefits: Many companies regard benefit management as an instrument to support project proposals rather than as an instrument to gain optimal benefits. Conse-quently, benefits ma...

  17. Explaining the consolidation of financial statementsin the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Argento, Daniela; Grossi, Giuseppe; Vollenweider, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The growing development of decentralized entities has highlighted the limitations f the traditional annual reports of governments, which do not necessarily capture he financial consequences of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates. There s a growing tendency to consider consolidated financial statements as essential o support decision-making processes and to ensure higher public accountability. his paper seeks to understand and to explain how the Swiss Federal Government as prepared its...

  18. The Swiss-Austrian Alliance for Mountain Research

    OpenAIRE

    Scheurer, Thomas; Björnsen, Astrid; Borsdorf, Axel; Braun, Valerie; Weingartner, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Switzerland and Austria are committed to addressing sustainable mountain development in Europe through a joint effort. In June 2013, more than 140 researchers as well as representatives of the 2 countries' funding ministries participated in the “Mountain Days” event in Mittersill, Austria, thereby marking the official launch of the Swiss-Austrian Alliance. The resulting Mittersill Commitment Paper highlights 8 research areas and calls for international cooperation between mountain researchers...

  19. 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Congress. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2010-01-01

    These congress proceedings contain the presentations made at the two-day 8 th Swiss National Photovoltaics Conference held in Winterthur, Switzerland, in February 2010. The presentations were grouped into six sessions. The first session dealt with promotional activities for photovoltaics (PV) in Switzerland. The presentations dealt with the present state of PV promotion, the cantonal support program in Basle and the Swiss photovoltaics market in a global context. The session was rounded off with a podium discussion on the Swiss cost-covering remuneration system for solar power. This theme was looked at in more detail in the second session of the conference; successes and hindrances in the system were discussed as well as an example of an alternative solar power 'exchange'. The third session looked at building-integration of PV systems; facade and roof integration and the use of flexible solar cells were discussed. The second day of the conference featured three further sessions. The first session dealt with transfer of know-how from research institutes to industry. A general overview was presented and specific examples of successful know-how transfer were reported on. The next session dealt with the great challenges presented by the efforts being made to expand the use of PV. Safety aspects were discussed, as were the certified testing of modules, mains integration and the training of personnel involved with the implementation of PV systems. The final session looked at the scenarios, perspectives and visions for Swiss and European PV business. PV systems were examined from the point of view of the semiconductor business, European energy planning, the role of PV in future energy supply and the roles of customers, investors and politics on the way to a renewable future.

  20. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS): A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Meschia, James F.; Kissela, Brett M.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Beck, Jeanne; Skarp, Alexa N.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that genetic factors are associated with ischemic stroke, including multiple recent reports of association with the gene PDE4D, encoding phosphodiesterase 4D, on chromosome 5q12. Genetic studies of stroke are important but can be logistically difficult to perform. This article reviews the design of the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) and discusses problems in performing a sibling-based pedigree study where proband-initiated consent is used to enroll pe...

  1. Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the ΛCDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w 0 and w a follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model

  2. From theory to practice: itinerary of Reasons’ Swiss Cheese Model

    OpenAIRE

    Larouzée, Justin; Guarnieri, Franck

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Since the early 1990s, the Swiss Cheese Model (SCM) of the English psychologist James Reason has established itself as a reference model in the etiology, investigation or prevention of organizational accidents in many productive systems (transportation, energy, healthcare …). Based on the observation that it’s still today widely used, this article intends to revert to the history and the theoretical background of the SCM. By doing so, the article focuses on the collabo...

  3. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  4. Vitamin D deficiency in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, J L; Hartmann, K; Strupler, M; Perret, C

    2016-11-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of vitamin D deficiency in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes over the whole year and to detect differences between winter and summer months, and between indoor and outdoor athletes. This study was conducted in Switzerland. A total of 164 blood samples from 72 Swiss elite wheelchair athletes (mean±s.d.: age 32±13 years) were analyzed for total serum 25[OH]D. All participants were members of the national team in their discipline. The following disciplines have been included: rugby, athletics, cycling, tennis, ski alpine, curling and basketball. According to general guidelines, insufficient vitamin D status was defined between 50 and 75 nmol l -1 , deficiency below 50 nmol l -1 and severe deficiency below 27.5 nmol l -1 . In all, 73.2% of all samples showed an insufficiency/deficiency in vitamin D status. Total serum 25[OH]D was significantly higher during summer compared with winter months (69.5±21.4 nmol l -1 vs 51.5±21.9 nmol l -1 ; Pathletes. Conclusively, we recommend supplementation with vitamin D-especially during winter-to prevent a deficiency and an impairment of performance.

  5. Swiss popular initiative for a single health insurer… once again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo; Crivelli, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The article describes a recent Swiss popular initiative, aiming to replace the current system of statutory health insurance run by 61 competing private insurers with a new system run by a single public insurer. Despite the rejection of the initiative by 62% of voters in late September 2014, the campaign and ballot results are interesting because they show the importance of (effective) public communication in shaping the outcome of a popular ballot. The relevance of the Swiss case goes beyond the peculiarities of its federalism and direct democracy and might be useful for other countries debating the pros and cons of national unitary health insurance systems versus models using multiple insurers. After this electoral ballot, the project to establish a public sickness fund in Switzerland seems definitely stopped, at least for the next decade. Insurers, who opposed the initiative, have effectively fed the "fear of change" of the population and have stressed the good outcomes of the Swiss healthcare system. However, the political pressure favoured by the popular initiative opened a "windows of opportunity" and led the federal Parliament to pass a stricter regulation of health insurers, improving in this way the current system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Urolithiasis update: clinical experience with the Swiss LithoClast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, J; Barsky, R I; Pietras, J R

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the authors' first experience using the EMS Swiss LithoClast pneumatic lithotriptor in the management of middle and distal ureteral calculi. Also presented is a review of the literature comparing different modalities of intracorporeal lithotripsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on 11 patients treated with the Swiss LithoClast using the Circon ACMI MR6 Rigid Mini-ureteroscope (7 patients with distal calculi and 4 patients with midureteral calculi). The lithotriptor successfully fragmented 91% of the calculi, independent of stone composition. Complete failure of fragmentation was only encountered in one patient, and this was secondary to the lithotriptor's inherent ballistic force causing retrograde passage of the calculus. One patient had postoperative radiographic evidence of stone fragments along the ureteral stent. There was no intraoperative morbidity or long-term complications encountered with use of the pneumatic lithotriptor. Additionally, patients' overall satisfaction was 91% with respect to the procedure itself and relief of preoperative pain. The only significant postoperative complaint was ureteral stent discomfort in one patient. The authors conclude that the EMS Swiss LithoClast pneumatic lithotriptor is a safe and effective tool in the management of middle and distal ureteral calculi. However, as noted with one patient, there is always a risk of stone push from the ballistic force of the lithotriptor.

  7. Site characterization, evaluation and acceptance: Swiss policy and approaches for interaction with the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issler, H.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the positive outcome of studies carried out by national and international organizations and experts, large sectors of the Swiss population still consider demonstrating the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal to be an unsolved problem. This situation can be explained by the general perception of safety problems, which tends to be dominated by feelings of fear and anxiety - particularly in the case of radioactive waste. Additional problems of a sociological and political nature arise as part of the decision-making process relating to site characterization, site selection and construction and operation of waste repositories. In the following, the legal, organizational, political and technical boundary conditions pertaining to disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland will be discussed, together with their implications for public relations programmes. Experience gained in communicating with the public will also be presented

  8. [The Scientific Commission of the Swiss Cigarette Manufacturers Association : a historical overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Jacques; Cornuz, Jacques; Clair, Carole

    2017-06-07

    The Scientific Commission (SC) of the Swiss Cigarette Manufacturers Association (SCMA) has been active between 1962 and the end of the 1990s. The commission fulfilled multiple tasks in the service of the tobacco industry : planning of external joint research, public relations work, lobbying, and collaboration with public authorities as well as organisations with a similar mission as the SC itself. In addition, it monitored research on smoking and health, reviewed studies that were detrimental to the cigarette manufacturers' interest and organized pro-tobacco scientific meetings. The commission was thus a powerful tool at the disposal of the tobacco industry. It also had a major impact on public health through perpetuating the pseudo-controversy about the negative effects of smoking on health.

  9. An important year for Swiss Electricity Politics - President's speech at the shareholder's meeting of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the speech made by Rudolf Steiner, president of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises, in Bad Ragaz in September 2004. Steiner comments on 2004 as being an important year with respect to energy politics in Switzerland. A public vote turned down the idea of opting out of nuclear energy, the Federal Court decided that the Restricted Trade Practices act was also applicable to the Swiss electricity supply industry and the EU parliament passed guidelines on the opening of the European power market. The effects of large-scale blackouts in America and Europe on the public's perception of secure supplies are commented on. The importance of the Association as a provider of services for its members and as a partner for the government is stressed

  10. Implementing knowledge management at the Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.F.; Veyre, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The Swiss Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK) currently faces a generation change. In the years 2005 to 2007 up to 15 retirements of experienced experts are anticipated. Within only three years HSK will have to replace one third of its management and will at the same time loose valuable know-how. Experience has taught us that it becomes increasingly difficult to replace the leaving employees by qualified specialists. Consequently recruitment and training of new staff members becomes more time-consuming and expensive. HSK considers knowledge management to be a valuable tool in order to cope with this change. Therefore a concept has been developed, which evaluates the existing or planned elements of knowledge management considering the amount of work, the benefit and the feasibility and combining them to an efficient system. By doing so HSK encountered two specific problems: - Generally there is rather too much information than too little within an organization. However the information available is not in the required form. Much knowledge is stored unstructured in the offices of the experts and can therefore only be accessed with their aid. Since it is very expensive to compile and collate any unstructured information, it is absolutely important to identify the valuable knowledge of the organization. One must permanently assure that the necessary knowledge is present and that information no longer required is removed from the system. - Knowledge is not only explicit. A large portion of knowledge is tacit in the heads of the employees. It is very difficult to convert this tacit knowledge into an explicit form. It can therefore not be processed electronically not even with the best data base systems and search engines. In this context, technology is important but technology alone can not resolve every problem. Personnel development is just as important. Ways must be found to pass on tacit knowledge within the staff. With its management system HSK possesses a powerful

  11. Second Harmonic Generation, Sum Frequency Generation, and χ(3): Dissecting Environmental Interfaces with a Nonlinear Optical Swiss Army Knife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Franz M.

    2009-05-01

    This review discusses recent advances in the nonlinear optics of environmental interfaces. We discuss the quantitative aspects of the label-free approaches presented here and demonstrate that nonlinear optics has now assumed the role of a Swiss Army knife that can be used to dissect, with molecular detail, the fundamental and practical aspects of environmental interfaces and heterogeneous geochemical environments. In this work, nonlinear optical methods are applied to complex organic molecules, such as veterinary antibiotics, and to small inorganic anions and cations, such as nitrate and chromate, or cadmium, zinc, and manganese. The environmental implications of the thermodynamic, kinetic, spectroscopic, structural, and electrochemical data are discussed.

  12. Simulating soil greenhouse emissions from Swiss long-term cropping system trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Berner, Alfred; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Wittwer, Raphael; Gattinger, Andreas; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their bio-physical potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The cost and time required for direct management-specific GHG measurements limit the spatial and temporal resolution and the extent of data that can be collected. Biogeochemical process-based models such as DayCent can be used to bridge data gaps over space and time and estimate soil GHG emissions relevant to various climate change mitigation strategies. Objectives of this study were (a) to parameterize DayCent for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices using the Swiss long-term experimental data collected at four sites (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz); (b) to evaluate the model's ability to predict crop productivity, long-term soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems; (c) to calculate a net soil GHG balance for all treatments (except for bio-dynamic) studied in long-term field experiments in Switzerland; and (d) to study the management effects and their interactions on soil GHG emissions at each experimental site. Model evaluation indicated that DayCent predicted crop productivity (rRMSE=0.29 r2=0.81, n=2614), change in soil carbon stock (rRMSE=0.14, r2=0.72, n=1289) and cumulative N2O emissions (rRMSE=0.25, r2=0.89, n=8) satisfactorily across all treatments and sites. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation on an annual basis using IPCC (2014) global warming potentials. Modelled net soil GHG emissions calculated for individual treatments over 30 years ranged from -594 to 1654 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. The highest net soil GHG emissions were predicted for conventional tillage and slurry application treatment at Frick, while soils under organic and reduced tillage management at Reckenholz acted as a net GHG sink. The statistical analyses using linear MIXED models indicated that net soil GHG

  13. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO 2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  14. Evaluation of implementation, compliance and acceptance of partial smoking bans among hospitality workers before and after the Swiss Tobacco Control Act

    OpenAIRE

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin; Bauer, Georg F.

    2017-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization recommends uniform comprehensive smoking bans in public places. In Switzerland, regulations differ between various areas and are mostly incomplete for hospitality venues. As ambiguous regulations offer more leeway for implementation, we evaluated the Swiss regulations with respect to their effects on implementation, acceptance and compliance among hospitality workers. Methods In our longitudinal study, a standardized, self-administered questionnaire wa...

  15. Countrywide campaign to prevent soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Lamprecht, Markus; Stamm, Hanspeter; Hasler, Hansruedi; Bizzini, Mario; Tschopp, Markus; Reuter, Harald; Wyss, Heinz; Chilvers, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    In Switzerland, the national accident insurance company registered a total of 42 262 soccer injuries, resulting in costs of approximately 145 million Swiss francs (~US$130 million) in 2003. Research on injury prevention has shown that exercise-based programs can reduce the incidence of soccer injuries. This study was conducted to assess the implementation and effects of a countrywide campaign to reduce the incidence of soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All coaches of the Schweizerischer Fussballverband (SFV) received information material and were instructed to implement the injury prevention program "The 11" in their training of amateur players. After the instruction, the coaches were asked to rate the quality and the feasibility of "The 11." Before the start of the intervention and 4 years later, a representative sample of about 1000 Swiss soccer coaches were interviewed about the frequency and characteristics of injuries in their teams. Teams that did or did not practice "The 11" were compared with respect to the incidence of soccer injuries. A total of 5549 coaches for amateur players were instructed to perform "The 11" in the training with their teams. The ratings of the teaching session and the prevention program were overall very positive. In 2008, 80% of all SFV coaches knew the prevention campaign "The 11" and 57% performed the program or most parts of it. Teams performing "The 11" had an 11.5% lower incidence of match injuries and a 25.3% lower incidence of training injuries than other teams; noncontact injuries in particular were prevented by the program. "The 11" was successfully implemented in a countrywide campaign and proved effective in reducing soccer injuries in amateur players. An effect of the prevention program was also observed in the population-based insurance data and health-care costs.

  16. and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination....... cicla), golden Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) and white Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which...... chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage....

  17. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  18. The Swiss gas market - Facts and figures of today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfander, M.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution presents a selection of the latest statistical data about the current state of development of the Swiss gas market. The sales and consumer structure areas are the focal points. The key data are clarified by graphics or shown in tabular form with brief comments. The following topics are dealt with: gas balance and sources of natural gas supply for Switzerland, natural gas sales by regions and cantons, energy consumption in the different consumption sectors, heating structure of residential accommodation according to energy sources, trend of natural gas consumption in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe. (author)

  19. The Swiss national network for isotopes in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schotterer, U.

    1998-01-01

    The network is based on the long-term stations of the Climate and Environmental Physics Group and includes 11 precipitation, 6 river and 3 ground water stations. For the isotope measurements the Universities of Bern (Climate and Environmental Physics Group, tritium and oxygen-18) and Lausanne (Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography, deuterium) are contracted on a year to year basis. Sampling instructions, collection and shipment of samples are within the responsibility of the Bern group. The sampling apart from monthly composites of precipitation includes also samples from surface and ground water. The isotope data are available by contacting the Swiss Hydrological and Geological Survey directly

  20. Swiss association for atomic energy (SVA/ASPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A report of the general assembly of the Swiss association for atomic energy held on 4th June 1985. The president, Alain Colomb, called for a 'second electrification' of the country to free Switzerland from a dependence on petroleum. Nuclear energy is necessary to combat air pollution. An invited speaker, Manuel Poyatos of the 'Electricite de France', recounted the French experience of restructuring their electric production system; particular the increasing contribution of nuclear energy and the beneficial effects on the environment. (G.T.H.)

  1. Rapid melting dynamics of the Morteratsch glacier (Swiss Alps) from UAV photogrammetry and field spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Garzonio, Roberto; Rossini, Micol; Baccolo, Giovanni; Julitta, Tommaso; Cavallini, Giuseppe; Mattavelli, Matteo; Colombo, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The impact of atmospheric impurities on the optical properties of snow and ice has been largely acknowledged in the scientific literature. Beyond this, the evaluation of the effect of specific organic and inorganic particles on melting dynamics remains a major challenge. In this contribution, we examine the annual melting dynamics of a large valley glacier of the Swiss Alps using UAV photogrammetry. We then compare the melting patterns to the presence of surface impurities on the glacier surface. Two surveys (in July and September 2016) with a lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) were organized on the ablation zone of the Morteratsch glacier (Swiss Alps). The UAV (DJI, Phantom 4) was equipped with a high resolution digital camera, and flew at a constant altitude of 150 from the glacier surface. 30 ground control points were placed on the glacier, and their coordinates were determined with a differential GPS (dGPS) for georeferencing UAV images. Contemporary to the UAV surveys, field spectroscopy data were collected on the glacier surface with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD Field spec.) spectrometer covering the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, and ice samples were collected to determine the abundance of microorganism and algae. From the UAV RGB data, two point clouds were created using Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. The point clouds (each consisting of about 15M points) were then converted in Digital Surface Models (DSM) and orthomosaics by interpolation. The difference between the two DSM was calculated and converted in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), in order to assess the ice lost by the glacier during the ablation season. The point clouds were compared and the displacement vectors were estimated using different algorithms. The elevation changes estimated from UAV data were compared with the abundance of microorganisms and algae. The reflectance spectra of ice with microorganisms and algae show a chlorophyll absorption feature at 680 nm

  2. 26 CFR 509.106 - Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. 509.106 Section 509.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. In effect, Article IV of the convention provides...

  3. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the

  4. The future of the banking secrecy for Swiss taxpayers in the light of the evolution of the international financial standards

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Alix; Matile, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Swiss banking secrecy used to be a quirk of Swiss law that went largely untouched until recent times. Recently through high profile, year-long pressure by governments the world over, this secrecy, which had shielded account owners from declaring their financial assets and thus, taxable income, was partly dismantled. This oddity in Swiss law was always a hot button issue for many governments around the world, and lately came to the forefront of discussion for change in front of the Swiss gover...

  5. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1999-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domain structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: cross-references to additional databases; a variety of new documentation files and improvements to TrEMBL, a computer annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. TrEMBL consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except the CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. The URLs for SWISS-PROT on the WWW are: http://www.expasy.ch/sprot and http://www. ebi.ac.uk/sprot

  6. Acute exposure of apigenin induces hepatotoxicity in Swiss mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Singh

    Full Text Available Apigenin, a dietary flavonoid, is reported to have several therapeutic effects in different diseases including cancer. Toxicity of Apigenin is however, least explored, and reports are scanty in literature. This warrants dose-specific evaluation of toxicity in vivo. In the present study, Apigenin was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss mice at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Serum levels of alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured along with the examination of liver histology, reactive oxygen species (ROS in blood, lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione level, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, glutathione S-transferase activity and gene expression in liver tissue. Increase in ALT, AST, ALP, ROS, ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH and LPO, altered enzyme activities along with damaged histoarchitecture in the liver of 100 or 200 mg/kg Apigenin treated animals were found. Microarray analysis revealed the differential expression of genes that correspond to different biologically relevant pathways including oxidative stress and apoptosis. In conclusion, these results suggested the oxidative stress induced liver damage which may be due to the regulation of multiple genes by Apigenin at higher doses in Swiss mice.

  7. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  8. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  9. Use of placebo interventions among Swiss primary care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fässler, Margrit; Gnädinger, Markus; Rosemann, Thomas; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Background Placebo interventions can have meaningful effects for patients. However, little is known about the circumstances of their use in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate to what extent and in which way Swiss primary care providers use placebo interventions. Furthermore we explored their ideas about the ethical and legal issues involved. Methods 599 questionnaires were sent to general practitioners (GPs) and paediatricians in private practice in the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland. To allow for subgroup analysis GPs in urban, suburban, and rural areas as well as paediatricians were selected in an even ratio. Results 233 questionnaires were completed (response rate 47%). 28% of participants reported that they never used placebo interventions. More participants used impure placebos therapeutically than pure placebos (57% versus 17%, McNemar's χ2 = 78, p placebo prescription. Placebo use was communicated to patients mostly as being "a drug or a therapy" (64%). The most frequently chosen ethical premise was that they "can be used as long as the physician and the patient work together in partnership" (60% for pure and 75% for impure placebos, McNemar's χ2 = 12, p placebos. Conclusion The data obtained from Swiss primary care providers reflect a broad variety of views about placebo interventions as well as a widespread uncertainty regarding their legitimacy. Primary care providers seem to preferentially use impure as compared to pure placebos in their daily practice. An intense debate is required on appropriate standards regarding the clinical use of placebo interventions among medical professionals. PMID:19664267

  10. The Reference Scenarios for the Swiss Emergency Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanspeter Isaak; Navert, Stephan B.; Ralph Schulz [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate CH-5232 Villigen-HSK (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    For the purpose of emergency planning and preparedness, realistic reference scenarios and corresponding accident source terms have been defined on the basis of common plant features. Three types of representative reference scenarios encompass the accident sequences expected to be the most probable. Accident source terms are assumed to be identical for all Swiss nuclear power plants, although the plants differ in reactor type and power. Plant-specific probabilistic safety analyses were used to justify the reference scenarios and the postulated accident source terms. From the full spectrum of release categories available, those categories were selected which would be covered by the releases and time frames assumed in the reference scenarios. For each nuclear power plant, the cumulative frequency of accident sequences not covered by the reference scenarios was determined. It was found that the cumulative frequency for such accident sequences does not exceed about 1 x 10{sup -6} per year. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate concludes that the postulated accident source terms for the reference scenarios are consistent with the current international approach in emergency planning, where one should concentrate on the most probable accident sequences. (N.C.)

  11. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  12. Fiftieth anniversary celebrations get underway with a Swiss philatelic gift

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A special commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN will go on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland on 9 March, marking the official start of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. On your marks, get set...go! The first ten stamp-lovers born in 1954 to present themselves at the counter of CERN's Meyrin post office at 9.00 a.m. on Tuesday 9 March will receive the new Swiss commemorative stamp issued in honour of CERN, together with a surprise gift. Designed by Swiss artists Christian Stuker and Beat Trummer, the stamp aims to convey the spirit of CERN in an area no larger than 28 mm by 33 mm. 'We wanted to get away from existing CERN imagery and create something symbolic for this 50th anniversary,' Christian Stucker explains. The radiating design portrays an opening, a spreading-out 'towards infinity', which reflects CERN's fundamental goals of research and the transmission of knowledge. The stamp will be available from 9 March onwards in all post offices across Switzerland as well as in the philatelic cen...

  13. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  14. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  15. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the... risks associated with the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia into the continental United States... weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. We are making the pest risk analysis available...

  16. [Long-term outcome following multiple trauma in working age : A prospective study in a Swiss trauma center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, T; Amsler, F

    2016-11-01

    Given the lack of data in the available literature, we were interested in the disability rate and corresponding insurance costs following multiple trauma in Switzerland. The possible impact of demographic, traumatic and hospital process factors as well as subjective and objective longer-term outcome variables on insurance data acquired were examined. Following multiple trauma the clinical and socioeconomic parameters in 145 survivors of working age were investigated over 2 and 4 years post-injury at a Swiss trauma center (University Hospital Basel). The correlation with the corresponding data provided by the largest Swiss accident insurance company (Suva, n = 63) was tested by univariate and multivariate analysis and patients insured at Suva were compared with those insured elsewhere (n = 82). The mean level of disability in this cohort of multiple trauma patients insured at Suva was 43 %. The insurer expected costs of more than 1 million Swiss Francs per multiply injured patient. In univariate analysis, only discrete correlations (maximum r = 0.37) were found with resulting disability, but significant correlations were found in subsequent multivariate testing most of all for age and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA 11 % and 15 % predictive capacity, p = 0.001; corrected R 2  = 0.26). Among variables of longer-term outcome the Euro Quality of Life Group health-related quality of life in five dimensions (EQ-5D) correlated almost as highly with the objective extent of disability as did the reduced capacity to work declared by the patients (0.64 and 0.7, respectively). The estimation of long-term disability following multiple trauma based on primary data following injury appears to be possible only to a limited extent. Given the clinical and socioeconomic relevance, comparable analyses are necessary by including all insurance providers involved.

  17. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  18. Heart Team: Joint Position of the Swiss Society of Cardiology and the Swiss Society of Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, Giovanni B; Ferrari, Enrico; Zellweger, Michael; Genoni, Michele

    2017-10-01

    The Swiss Society of Cardiology (SSC) and the Swiss Society of Cardiac and ThoracicVascular Surgery (SSCTVS) have formulated their mutual intent of a close, patient-oriented, and expertise-based collaboration in the Heart Team Paper. The interdisciplinary dialogue between the SSC and SSCTVS reflects an attitude in decision making, which guarantees the best possible therapy for the individual patient. At the same time, it is a cornerstone of optimized process quality, placing individual interests into the background. Evaluation of the correct indication for a treatment is indeed very challenging and almost impossible to verify retrospectively. Quality in this very important health policy process can therefore only be assured by the use of mutually recognized indications, agreed upon by all involved physicians and medical specialties, whereby the capacity of those involved in the process is not important but rather their competence. These two medical societies recognize their responsibility and have incorporated international guidelines as well as specified regulations for Switzerland. Former competitors now form an integrative consulting team able to deliver a comprehensive evaluation for patients. Naturally, implementation rests with the individual caregiver. The Heart Team Paperof the SGK and SGHC, has defined guide boards within which the involved specialists maintain sufficient room to maneuver, and patients have certainty of receiving the best possible therapy they require.

  19. An analytical overview of the consequences of microbial activity in a Swiss HLW repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.; West, J.M.; Grogan, H.A.

    1985-04-01

    Microorganisms are known to be important factors in many geochemical processes and their presence can be assured throughout the envisaged Swiss type C repository for HLW. It is likely that both introduced and resident microbes will colonise the near-field even at times when ambient temperature and radiation fields are relatively high. A simple quantitative model has been developed which indicates that microbial growth in the near-field is limited by the rate of supply of chemical energy from corrosion of the canister. Microbial processes examined include biodegradation of structural and packaging materials, alteration of groundwater chemistry (Eh, pH, organic complexant concentration) and direct nuclide uptake by microorganisms. The most important effects of such organisms are likely to be enhancement of release and mobility of key nuclides due to their complexation by microbial by-product. Resident micro-organisms in the far-field could potentially act as 9 living colloids' thus enhancing nuclide transport. In the case of flow paths through shear zones (kakirites), however, any microbes capable of penetrating the surrounding weathered rock matrix would be extensively retarded. It is concluded that microbial processes are unlikely to be of significance for HLW but will be more important for low/intermediate waste types. As data requirements are similar for all waste types, results from such studies would also resolve the main uncertainties remaining for the HLW case. Key research areas are identified as characterisation of a) nutrient availability in the near-field, b) the bioenergetics of iron corrosion, c) production of organic by-products, d) nuclide sorption by organisms and e) microbial mobility in the near-and far-field

  20. Characterization of Calcined Jade and its immunomodulatory effect on macrophage isolated from Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Elahi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Calcined Jade (CJ is a metasilicate frequently used in traditional system of medicine as tonic to vital organs with several other pharmacological activities. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS and CHNS analyzer techniques were used to characterize CJ sample. CJ was administered orally to Swiss albino mice at a dose of 50, 75, 100 and 200 μg/kg body weight for 10 days and modulation of the macrophage mediated innate immune responses was studied. Flow cytometric analysis of TLR-2/4 on peritoneal macrophage revealed elevated expression of TLR-2 as compared to control. Significant increase in phagocytic activity was observed in peritoneal macrophage. The lymphoid organs weight and other toxicity parameters did not exhibit any harmful effect. To evaluate the presence of nanoparticles, CJ was dissolved in milli Q water, filtered and lyophilized. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM analysis revealed the presence of spherical nanoparticles in CJ [14.7–142.0 nm dimension with average particle size of 64.6 nm]. In conclusion, we report stimulation of innate immune responses by CJ may partly be due to the formation of nanoparticles. Further experiments using isolated nanoparticles may further validate the role of nanoparticles.

  1. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  2. Core muscle activation during Swiss ball and traditional abdominal exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Lewis, Clare; Bell, Duncan; Bramblet, Gwen; Daffron, Jason; Lambert, Steve; Pecson, Amanda; Imamura, Rodney; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-05-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design. To test the ability of 8 Swiss ball exercises (roll-out, pike, knee-up, skier, hip extension right, hip extension left, decline push-up, and sitting march right) and 2 traditional abdominal exercises (crunch and bent-knee sit-up) on activating core (lumbopelvic hip complex) musculature. Numerous Swiss ball abdominal exercises are employed for core muscle strengthening during training and rehabilitation, but there are minimal data to substantiate the ability of these exercises to recruit core muscles. It is also unknown how core muscle recruitment in many of these Swiss ball exercises compares to core muscle recruitment in traditional abdominal exercises such as the crunch and bent-knee sit-up. A convenience sample of 18 subjects performed 5 repetitions for each exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded on the right side for upper and lower rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, lumbar paraspinals, and rectus femoris, and then normalized using maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). EMG signals during the roll-out and pike exercises for the upper rectus abdominis (63% and 46% MVIC, respectively), lower rectus abdominis (53% and 55% MVIC, respectively), external oblique (46% and 84% MVIC, respectively), and internal oblique (46% and 56% MVIC, respectively) were significantly greater compared to most other exercises, where EMG signals ranged between 7% to 53% MVIC for the upper rectus abdominis, 7% to 44% MVIC for the lower rectus abdominis, 14% to 73% MVIC for the external oblique, and 16% to 47% MVIC for the internal oblique. The lowest EMG signals were consistently found in the sitting march right exercise. Latissimus dorsi EMG signals were greatest in the pike, knee-up, skier, hip extension right and left, and decline push-up (17%-25% MVIC), and least with the sitting march right, crunch, and bent-knee sit-up exercises (7%-8% MVIC

  3. Consistency and Variability in Talk about "Diversity": An Empirical Analysis of Discursive Scope in Swiss Large Scale Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Ostendorp

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally discussions of "diversity" in organizations either refer to an ideal "management" of a diverse workforce or to specific concerns of minorities. The term diversity, however, entails a growing number of translations. Highlighting this diversity of diversity, the concept cannot be merely conceived of as either social-normative or economic-functional. Therefore, the present study empirically scrutinizes the current scope of diversity-talk in Swiss large scale enterprises from a discursive psychological perspective. First, it provides five so-called interpretative repertoires which focus on: image, market, minorities, themes, and difference. Second, it discusses why and how persons oscillate between consistency and variability whenever they draw upon these different repertoires. Finally, it points out possibilities to combine them. This empirical approach to diversity in organizations offers new aspects to the current debate on diversity and introduces crucial concepts of a discursive psychological analysis. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090218

  4. Moving Universities: A Case Study on the Use of Unconferencing for Facilitating Sustainability Learning in a Swiss University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hansmann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Unconferencing is a method for organizing social learning which could be suitable to trigger sustainability learning processes. An unconference is defined as participant-driven meeting that tries to avoid one or more aspects of a conventional conference, such as top-down organization, one-way communication and power-relationships based on titles, formal hierarchies and status. This paper presents a case study on the application of unconferencing in a large Swiss university (ETH Zurich where an unconference was conducted to engage students, academics, staff and external experts in a mutual learning process aimed at the development of project ideas for reducing its CO2 emissions. The study analyzes how the unconferencing format initiated and promoted sustainability oriented group processes during the unconference, and in how far the projects which were developed contributed to a reduction of the university’s CO2 emissions.

  5. SWISS: Sustained heated metallic melt/concrete interactions with overlying water pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blose, R.E.; Gronager, J.E.; Suo-Anttila, A.J.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    Results of the test SWISS-1 and test SWISS-2 are reported. These tests examined the effects of an overlying water pool on high temperature melt interactions with concrete. In both tests, a melt of about 46 kilograms of type 304 stainless steel was formed and deposited onto a 21.6 cm diameter disk of limestone/common sand concrete. The concrete disk was retained within a cast MgO annulus. The molten steel was sustained at a power input of 1.3 to 1.7 Watts/gram by induction heating. In test SWISS-1 a water pool was formed over the melt after about 12 cm of concrete had eroded. In test SWISS-2, the water pool was formed about one minute after melt contacted the concrete and before any significant erosion of concrete could take place. In both tests the water pool was kept below the boiling point. Interactions were sustained for about 40 minutes in the two tests. Concrete erosion rates, concrete temperatures, heat fluxes to the overlying water pool, gas generation rates, and evolved gas compositions during tests SWISS-1 and SWISS-2 are reported. Aerosol generation rates are reported for test SWISS-2. 46 refs., 70 figs., 26 tabs

  6. Liberalization of the Swiss electricity and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss government intends to liberalize the electricity and gas market. Competition is to be introduced in the electricity sector first because the European Union is also giving priority to this industry. Moreover, electricity prices in Switzerland are too high. The principle of market liberalization is not contested, but the route to be taken to achieve this goal is a matter of heated controversy. Opinions on the power line network, non-amortizable investments, hydropower plants or the pace of market liberalization still differ too widely. Liberalization of the gas market is also in preparation, but the problems here are less complex. This is because competition already exists on the heating market. In addition, domestic gas prices are not much higher than those charged in other countries. (author)

  7. Exposure of the Swiss population by radiodiagnostics: 2013 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coultre, Regis; Champendal, Melanie; Bize, Julie; Ryckx, Nick; Aroua, Abbas; Verdun, Francis R.; Wittwer, David; Trueb, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a nationwide investigation was conducted in Switzerland to establish the population's exposure from medical X rays. A hybrid approach was used combining the Raddose database accessible on-line by the participating practices and the Swiss medical pricing system for hospitals. This study revealed that the average annual number of examinations is 1.2 per inhabitant, and the associated annual effective dose is 1.4 mSv. It also showed that computed tomography is the most irradiating modality and that it delivers 70 % of the total dose. The annual effective dose per inhabitant registered a 17 % increase in 5 y and is comparable with what was recently reported in neighbouring countries. (authors)

  8. SWISS-PROT: connecting biomolecular knowledge via a protein database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, E; Jung, E; Bairoch, A

    2001-07-01

    With the explosive growth of biological data, the development of new means of data storage was needed. More and more often biological information is no longer published in the conventional way via a publication in a scientific journal, but only deposited into a database. In the last two decades these databases have become essential tools for researchers in biological sciences. Biological databases can be classified according to the type of information they contain. There are basically three types of sequence-related databases (nucleic acid sequences, protein sequences and protein tertiary structures) as well as various specialized data collections. It is important to provide the users of biomolecular databases with a degree of integration between these databases as by nature all of these databases are connected in a scientific sense and each one of them is an important piece to biological complexity. In this review we will highlight our effort in connecting biological information as demonstrated in the SWISS-PROT protein database.

  9. Cost effectiveness at Beznau and other Swiss nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenger, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    Switzerland, with 7 million inhabitants, has the sixth highest per-capita electricity consumption in the world. At present, 40% of electric power is nuclear. The four Swiss nuclear plants have an average capacity factor well above 80%. Total cost per kw.h ranges from 5.4 US-cents for Beznau to 7.1 for Leibstadt. Staffing levels are lower than in other countries, due to the stable and highly skilled work force. The maintenance practice has been one of preventive maintenance. Both steam generators in Beznau-1 were replaced in 1993, and Beznau-2 is scheduled for 2000. Some maintenance is done by contractors. There is practically no technical support from headquarters. Retrofitting mandated by the regulatory authority is a matter of concern, because of its effect on production costs. Possible deregulation of the market for electricity in Europe powers the drive to become more efficient. 3 tabs

  10. Volume expansion of a Swiss-cheese universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of inhomogeneities on the volume expansion of the universe, we study a modified Swiss-cheese universe model. Since this model is an exact solution of Einstein's equations, we can get insight into the nonlinear dynamics of an inhomogeneous universe from it. We find that inhomogeneities make the volume expansion slower than that of the background Einstein-de Sitter universe when they can be regarded as small fluctuations in the background universe. This result is consistent with the previous studies based on the second order perturbation analysis. On the other hand, if the inhomogeneities cannot be treated as small perturbations, the volume expansion of the universe depends on the type of fluctuations. Although the volume expansion rate approaches the background value asymptotically, the volume itself can be finally arbitrarily smaller than the background one and can be larger than that of the background, but there is an upper bound on it

  11. Design, commissioning and operation of the Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streun, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) is the most recent 3rd generation light source coming to operation. It consists of a 12- TBA storage ring of 288 m circumference providing 5 nm rad emittance at 2.4 GeV, a novel type of full energy booster synchrotron and a 100 MeV linac. The initial four beamlines cover protein X-ray crystallography (PX), materials science (MS), surface and interface spectroscopy (SIS) and microscopy (SIM). We will review the project history, describe the design concepts of the accelerators and the technical subsystems, and report on the commissioning process and the status of operation by end of 2002. (author)

  12. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Use of nanoparticles in Swiss Industry: a targeted survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Kaspar; Riediker, Michael

    2008-04-01

    A large number of applications using manufactured nanoparticles of less than 100 nm are currently being introduced into industrial processes. There is an urgent need to evaluate the risks of these novel particles to ensure their safe production, handling, use, and disposal. However, today we lack even rudimentary knowledge about type and quantity of industrially used manufactured nanoparticles and the level of exposure in Swiss industry. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of nanoparticles, the currently implemented safety measures, and the number of potentially exposed workers in all types of industry. To evaluate this, a targeted telephone survey was conducted among health and safety representatives from 197 Swiss companies. The survey showed that nanoparticles are already used in many industrial sectors; not only in companies in the new field of nanotechnology, but also in more traditional sectors, such as paints. Forty-three companies declared to use or produce nanoparticles, and 11 imported and traded with prepackaged goods that contain nanoparticles. The following nanoparticles were found to be used in considerable quantities (> 1000 kg/year per company): Ag, Al-Ox, Fe-Ox, SiO2, TiO2, and ZnO. The median reported quantity of handled nanoparticles was 100 kg/year. The production of cosmetics, food, paints, powders, and the treatment of surfaces used the largest quantities of these nanoparticles. Generally, the safety measures were found to be higher in powder-based than in liquid-based applications. However, the respondents had many open questions about best practices, which points to the need for rapid development of guidelines and protection strategies.

  14. Seismic Software Evaluation at the Swiss Seismological Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, John; Olivieri, Marco; Kaestli, Philipp

    2010-05-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismic monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with a low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations and station spacing of ~25km, the SED operate one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by a similar number of real time strong motion stations. An existing in-house processing software has been operational for the last 15 years, and though well suited for the Swiss setting, including the ability to 1. automatically locate and alert local events and 2. manually relocate events with a nonlinear location algorithm using a 3-D velocity model, the software does not satisfactorily accommodate integration of standard community software tools, nor provide a modern database interface for either station metadata or event parameters. To take advantage of major improvements in software architecture and community tools, we wish to migrate to a community standard solution for data acquisition, automatic and manual processing, and archival. We have been evaluating in detail SeisComp3, a state-of-the-art monitoring system developed by GFZ, as well as Nanometrics Apollo Suite (which uses USGS Hydra at it core for event processing). We present our analysis of the capabilities of each software we have been evaluating. In particular, we focus on the capability of each software to detect and identify small local (>Ml1) as well as large regional events. We discuss our results in terms or location and magnitude accuracy, with particular attention to the specific improvements needed from monitoring systems for improved monitoring of small regions with high quality seismic networks.

  15. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  16. Swiss University Students' Attitudes toward Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE refers to the nonmedical use of prescription or recreational drugs to enhance cognitive performance. Several concerns about PCE have been raised in the public. The aim of the present study was to investigate students' attitudes toward PCE. Students at three Swiss universities were invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey. Of the 29,282 students who were contacted, 3,056 participated. Of these students, 22% indicated that they had used prescription drugs (12% or recreational substances including alcohol (14% at least once for PCE. The use of prescription drugs or recreational substances including alcohol prior to the last exam was reported by 16%. Users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers were more likely to consider PCE fair (24% compared with nonusers (11%. Only a minority of the participants agreed with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs by fellow students when assuming weak (7% or hypothetically strong efficacy and availability to everyone (14%. Two-thirds (68% considered performance that is obtained with PCE less worthy of recognition. Additionally, 80% disagreed that PCE is acceptable in a competitive environment. More than half (64% agreed that PCE in academia is similar to doping in sports. Nearly half (48% claimed that unregulated access to pharmacological cognitive enhancers increases the pressure to engage in PCE and educational inequality (55%. In conclusion, Swiss students' main concerns regarding PCE were related to coercion and fairness. As expected, these concerns were more prevalent among nonusers than among users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers. More balanced information on PCE should be shared with students, and future monitoring of PCE is recommended.

  17. Fifteen years SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics: life science databases, tools and support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockinger, Heinz; Altenhoff, Adrian M; Arnold, Konstantin; Bairoch, Amos; Bastian, Frederic; Bergmann, Sven; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bucher, Philipp; Delorenzi, Mauro; Lane, Lydie; Le Mercier, Philippe; Lisacek, Frédérique; Michielin, Olivier; Palagi, Patricia M; Rougemont, Jacques; Schwede, Torsten; von Mering, Christian; van Nimwegen, Erik; Walther, Daniel; Xenarios, Ioannis; Zavolan, Mihaela; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Zoete, Vincent; Appel, Ron D

    2014-07-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) was created in 1998 as an institution to foster excellence in bioinformatics. It is renowned worldwide for its databases and software tools, such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, PROSITE, SWISS-MODEL, STRING, etc, that are all accessible on ExPASy.org, SIB's Bioinformatics Resource Portal. This article provides an overview of the scientific and training resources SIB has consistently been offering to the life science community for more than 15 years. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. The Swiss ''CANUPIS'' study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide cohort study on leukaemia and any other childhood cancer in the vicinity of Swiss nuclear power stations (CANUPIS) was supported by the Krebsliga Schweiz and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The results, covering the years 1985 to 2009 and including some 21 million person years, was published in July 2011. Three zones around nuclear installations were investigated: 0 to 5 km, 5 to 10 km and 10 to 15 km distance. The CANUPIS study found no evidence for a statistically significant increased cancer risk among 0 to 15 year old children living near Swiss nuclear power stations, compared to children living in other regions of the country. (orig.)

  19. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-08-15

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  20. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland.

  1. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016; Pruefung der Kostenstudie 2016 von swissnuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika [Oeko-Institut e.V. - Institut fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2017-04-26

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  2. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Switzerland. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission noted good practices in the Swiss system and also made recommendations for the nation's nuclear regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). ''Our team developed a good impression of the independent Swiss regulator - ENSI - and the team considered that ENSI deserves particular credit for its actions to improve Swiss safety capability following this year's nuclear accident in Japan,'' said IRRS Team Leader Jean-Christophe Niel of France. The mission's scope covered the Swiss nuclear regulatory framework for all types of nuclear-related activities regulated by ENSI. The mission was conducted from 20 November to 2 December, mainly at ENSI headquarters in Brugg. The team held extensive discussions with ENSI staff and visited many Swiss nuclear facilities. IRRS missions are peer reviews, not inspections or audits, and are conducted at the request of host nations. For the Swiss review, the IAEA assembled a team of 19 international experts from 14 countries. The experts came from Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ''The findings of the IRRS mission will help us to further improve our work. That is part of our safety culture,'' said ENSI Director General Hans Wanner. ''As Switzerland argued at international nuclear safety meetings this year for a strengthening of the international monitoring of nuclear power, we will take action to fulfil the recommendations.'' The IRRS team highlighted several good practices of the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: ENSI requires Swiss nuclear operators to back-fit their facilities by continuously upgrading

  3. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs

  4. Future electricity supplies must be secured - Swiss outlook for 2035 / 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive article reviews an update made in 2009 by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE on their paper 'Outlook 2006 on Swiss electricity supply for the period up to 2035 / 2050'. The association is of the opinion that the paper can still form the basis for issue-related public discussion on energy-related questions. The Swiss 'four-pillar' strategy - energy efficiency, renewable energy, large power stations and international energy policy - is noted and supported. The special role played by electricity in the Swiss energy mix is discussed and the issue of security of supply is examined. Possible shortages that could occur in the future are discussed, as is the question of carbon dioxide emissions. Economic viability and power prices are discussed. Energy efficiency and power production options are also examined. Combined heat and power, hydropower and nuclear power are examined and, finally, import and export options reviewed

  5. Annual Report 1999 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-08-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  6. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  7. Annual report 1996 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland. figs., tabs., refs.

  8. Kalam's visit to cement Indo-Swiss ties in high tech area

    CERN Multimedia

    Sumir, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Seeking to boost Indo-Swiss cooperation in high tech areas, President APJ Abdul Kalam arrived in Geneva on a four-day visit to Switzerland aimed at firming up plans for future cooperation with the CERN

  9. Annual Report 1998 concerning the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The report presents detailed information about the nuclear safety and radiological protection in the Swiss nuclear power plants, the central interim storage at Wuerenlingen, the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) and other nuclear installations in Switzerland

  10. Assessing the safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ), German language version in Swiss university hospitals - a validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution’s patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. Methods A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. Results A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56 - .72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65 - .83). Conclusions The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number

  11. Local Environmental Factors Drive Divergent Grassland Soil Bacterial Communities in the Western Swiss Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashiro, Erika; Pinto-Figueroa, Eric; Buri, Aline; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Adatte, Thierry; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène; Guisan, Antoine; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-11-01

    Mountain ecosystems are characterized by a diverse range of climatic and topographic conditions over short distances and are known to shelter a high biodiversity. Despite important progress, still little is known on bacterial diversity in mountain areas. Here, we investigated soil bacterial biogeography at more than 100 sampling sites randomly stratified across a 700-km 2 area with 2,200-m elevation gradient in the western Swiss Alps. Bacterial grassland communities were highly diverse, with 12,741 total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) across 100 sites and an average of 2,918 OTUs per site. Bacterial community structure was correlated with local climatic, topographic, and soil physicochemical parameters with high statistical significance. We found pH (correlated with % CaO and % mineral carbon), hydrogen index (correlated with bulk gravimetric water content), and annual average number of frost days during the growing season to be among the groups of the most important environmental drivers of bacterial community structure. In contrast, bacterial community structure was only weakly stratified as a function of elevation. Contrasting patterns were discovered for individual bacterial taxa. Acidobacteria responded both positively and negatively to pH extremes. Various families within the Bacteroidetes responded to available phosphorus levels. Different verrucomicrobial groups responded to electrical conductivity, total organic carbon, water content, and mineral carbon contents. Alpine grassland bacterial communities are thus highly diverse, which is likely due to the large variety of different environmental conditions. These results shed new light on the biodiversity of mountain ecosystems, which were already identified as potentially fragile to anthropogenic influences and climate change. This article addresses the question of how microbial communities in alpine regions are dependent on local climatic and soil physicochemical variables. We benefit from a unique 700

  12. Communiqué to members of the personnel of Swiss nationality domiciled in France

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    Impôt fédéral direct (IFD) 2001 - 2004 The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the federal authorities have upheld the decision of the Geneva Canton's fiscal administration (Administration fiscale cantonale genevoise - AFC) obliging all members of the personnel of Swiss nationality (including those holding dual nationality) domiciled in France to pay the IFD on their CERN salaries since 2001. Consequently, the aforementioned members of the personnel will shortly be receiving a request from the AFC to normalise their situation with respect to the IFD for the years 2001-2004. To this end, they must complete the relevant income tax declaration forms and return them to the AFC together with the relevant salary certificates, which they shall have obtained in advance from the Finance Department (Tel. 73904). In accordance with Article R IV 1.25 of the Staff Regulations, the Organization will refund the taxes levied in respect of remuneration paid by CERN. Any...

  13. The role of common pool resource institutions in the implementation of Swiss natural resource management policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-David Gerber

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available By analysing Swiss common pool resource (CPR institutions, this paper aims to contribute to the debate on comanagement while demonstrating how important it is to take into account the structuring role played by public policies in the regulation of natural resource use in western countries characterized by significant state intervention. The comparative analysis of three detailed case studies dealing with hunting, flood protection and landscape management policies leads to three main conclusions: (1 CPR institutions strengthen the coherence of resource regimes to the extent that they constitute social institutions which can facilitate the "mediation process," i.e. the transformation of the collective identity, self-perception and, therefore, behaviour of policy target groups in the direction defined by the stated policy objectives; (2 one of the main conditions for the perpetuation of CPR institutions is their capacity to organize their activities around a collective problem defined as such by a policy; (3 the integration of CPR institutions into the political-administrative arrangement contributes to the reinforcement of the functional and territorial coordination between payers, decision makers and beneficiaries in regional and local institutional regimes.

  14. Under the Influence: Advertisers’ Impact on the Content of Swiss Free Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Porlezza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on whether and to what extent advertisers influence the editorial content of free newspapers in the German part of Switzerland. The contribution analyzes, grounded on an historic approach, the most competitive period in Switzerland, 2008, when not less than five freesheets were competing for advertisers and public attention. By using Altmeppen’s (2006 organizational theory, the paper offers a theoretical frame able to describe the vanishing co-orientation between the media management and the newsroom, a trend that aggravates commercialization processes in news organizations. In a situation of economic turmoil, so the hypothesis, newsrooms are more inclined to positively adapt the valence of their coverage about their main advertisers in order to keep them in the portfolio. Using a content analysis, the author examined the editorial coverage of six among the most important advertisers of Swiss free newspapers, carrying out an aggregated statistical analysis based on logistic regression. The study revealed that free newspapers with a strong market orientation display a higher chance to publish positive facts and evaluations about advertisers with a high advertising expenditure.

  15. Is “local” enough? New localised food networks in the Swiss dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Forney Jérémie; Haeberli Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In May 2009 The Swiss government abolished the national milk quota system. Since then and despite the creation of an interprofessional board to coordinate the Swiss milk market sinking milk price overproduction and discordance among actors resulted in a weakening of producers’ position in the conventional and industrialised dairy sector. Without serious hope of quick improvement farmers’ organisations developed new projects to strengthen the position of farmers. Their first goal is generally ...

  16. Price transmission in the Swiss wheat market: does sophisticated border protection make the difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Esposti, Roberto; Listorti, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    This study deals with horizontal wheat price transmission from the international markets to the domestic Swiss market. The analysis takes into account trade policies implemented at the borders that might shelter the domestic market from international markets fluctuations, as well as the presence of explosive behavior in some of the price series. Furthermore, the Swiss case is peculiar due to the presence of different border policies for wheat according to its domestic use, food or feed. The p...

  17. Decision of the Swiss Federal Council of 22 August 1979 (nuclear power station Leibstadt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    On the occasion of an appeal in administrative matters, launched by private persons domiciled in the Federal Republic of Germany against two part-construction permits for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant, the Swiss Bundesrat decided that these private persons do have the right to launch an appeal, in accordance with section 48 a of the Rules of administrative proceedings. The appeal may, however, only be based on infringement of rights protected by Swiss national law. (HP) [de

  18. When corporatism leads to corporate governance failure : the case of Swiss watch industry

    OpenAIRE

    Schluep Campo, Isabelle; Aerni, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Corporatism is often seen as the way Swiss stakeholders in business and politics handle industrial challenges in a reasonable and flexible way. The following publication argues, however, that the emergence of corporatist structures in the Swiss watch industry has often encouraged rent-seeking and collusion at the expense of the creation of new markets through innovation. This legacy makes it currently difficult for the industry to effectively respond to new technological challenges and changi...

  19. Swiss private banking, market forecasting and analysis: A systems dynamics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharova, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    The Swiss private banking industry has been always known as one of the leading off-shore private banking centers. During the last five years, however, the market entered a phase of fundamental change. Global economic downturn has notably harmed the industry and the natural recovery was further depressed with the new regulations coming into force. This thesis is an empirical study of the System Dynamics methodology applied to analyze the Swiss private banking industr...

  20. Undergraduate palliative care teaching in Swiss medical faculties: a nationwide survey and improved learning objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Eychmüller, Steffen; Forster, M; Gudat, H; Lütolf, U M; Borasio, G D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2007, a first survey on undergraduate palliative care teaching in Switzerland has revealed major heterogeneity of palliative care content, allocation of hours and distribution throughout the 6 year curriculum in Swiss medical faculties. This second survey in 2012/13 has been initiated as part of the current Swiss national strategy in palliative care (2010 - 2015) to serve as a longitudinal monitoring instrument and as a basis for redefinition of palliative care learning obje...

  1. Homogeneous maximum temperature series of the Swiss National Basic Climatological Network from 1864 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begert, M.; Füllemann, C.

    2010-09-01

    Operating a climatological station network requires continuous and anticipatory planning for accurate monitoring of climate variability and climate change. Therefore Switzerland has established the Swiss National Basic Climatological Network (Swiss NBCN) which combines the most important climatological stations within the observation network of MeteoSwiss. The stations were selected according to different criteria including the geographical distribution evaluated by means of cluster analysis, the length of the available time series and the embedment into international observation networks. The Swiss NBCN currently consists of 29 climate stations recording different parameters and 46 additional precipitation stations. Historical time series of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration dating back to the 19th century will be completely digitized and homogenized by a cooperative initiative of MeteoSwiss and the ETH Zurich within the next years. In a first step the newly available and quality controlled maximum temperature series of the Swiss NBCN have been homogenized and analyzed for variability and trends. The presented study shows results from the homogenization process such as reasons and magnitudes of detected inhomogeneities as well as summarized adjustments to illustrate possible systematic biases in the original time series. A trend analysis based on the homogeneous monthly climate series gives an overview of the temporal and spatial variations of maximum temperature evolution in Switzerland from 1864 till today.

  2. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence database and its supplement TrEMBL in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    2000-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domains structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include format and content enhancements, cross-references to additional databases, new documentation files and improvements to TrEMBL, a computer-annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. TrEMBL consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDSs) in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database, except the CDSs already included in SWISS-PROT. We also describe the Human Proteomics Initiative (HPI), a major project to annotate all known human sequences according to the quality standards of SWISS-PROT. SWISS-PROT is available at: http://www.expasy.ch/sprot/ and http://www.ebi.ac.uk/swissprot/

  3. Swiss national MD-PhD-program: an outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Katrin; Winkler, David T; Meier-Abt, Peter J

    2009-09-19

    This study aims at a first evaluation of the outcome of the Swiss national MD-PhD program during the last 16 years. One hundred and twenty six former and current students in the Swiss national MD-PhD program were surveyed via a Web-based questionnaire in September 2007. Twenty-four questions assessed information regarding participant demographics, information on the PhD thesis and publication activity, current positions and research activity, as well as participant's opinions, attitudes and career goals. Eighty questionnaires were received from 126 MD-PhD students and graduates (63.5% response rate). The responders consisted of present students (36%), former graduates (56%), and dropouts (8%). The percentage of women in the program was 23%, and the average duration of the program was 4.2 +/- 1.4 years. Research interests were predominantly in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, molecular biology and cancer research. A considerable portion of the MD-PhD graduates had an excellent publication record stemming from their PhD research work, and 89% were planning to continue a research-orientated career. Over 50% of those MD-PhD graduates completing their thesis before 2002 had already reached an assistant or full professor position at the time of the survey. Nearly all participants considered the MD-PhD training helpful to their career and high quality standards were assigned to the acquired practical and intellectual skills. However, criticism was expressed concerning the general mentoring and the career related mentoring. Moreover, general mentoring and career related mentoring were significantly less well perceived in research groups employing more than seven PhD students at the same time. The MD-PhD students and graduates surveyed were satisfied with their education and most of them continued a research-orientated career. Regarding the overall positive evaluation, this study supports the view that MD-PhD graduates are well qualified for a successful career in

  4. Use of radiography by the Swiss general practitioners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroua, Abbas; Bochud, Francois O.; Verdun, Francis R.; Schnyder, Pierre; Trueb, Phillip R.; Vader, John Paul

    2008-01-01

    The 1998 nationwide survey of the exposure of the Swiss population by medical X-rays indicated that 5.4 million X-ray examinations (dental excluded) were performed annually in Switzerland (762 per 1000 population), leading to an annual collective dose to the population of 7100 Sv and an average annual effective dose of 1.0 mSv/caput. The contribution of conventional radiography was found to be 84% of the total in terms of frequency and 42% in terms of the collective dose. The study showed also that general practitioners (GP) contributed 27% to the total frequency and 9.5% to the collective dose. The present work aimed at assessing the variation over the years of the frequency of radiographies carried out by general practitioners in Switzerland. A sample of 49 general practitioners stratified on the seven Swiss geographic regions was surveyed. A questionnaire was sent to them and they were asked to give the annual number of examinations they performed during 2004, 2005 and 2006 for the 30 types of X-ray types of examinations most commonly used by GPs. The results of the study were compared to the data obtained in earlier surveys: 1998 and 2003. 37 GPs filled in the questionnaire properly (response rate of 76%). In 2006 a GP carried out on average 488 radiographies (about 2 per working day), showing a 4% decrease compared to 2003. The most frequent type of examination is chest radiography with an annual frequency of 133/GP per year, which represents 30% of all radiographies performed by GPs. It is followed by radiographies of the knee (45/GP), the finger (34/GP) and the ankle (34/GP). The most significant change revealed by this investigation is related to chest radiography with a steady decrease from 1998 to 2006 (15.4% fall over a period of 8 years). This is a real trend, in accordance with the results obtained in the 1998 survey, which showed that the frequency of chest radiography dropped by a factor of 2 in twenty years (1978-1998). (author)

  5. Studies on future decommissioning of the Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achermann, H.; Gunten, A. von; Heep, W.; Kaiser, P.; Maxeiner, H.; Paul, R.; Utzinger, E.

    2001-01-01

    The financing of future decommissioning of the Swiss nuclear power plants and the permanent, safe disposal of the wastes arising therefrom is secured by payments into a legally established decommissioning fund. In order to update the required level of payments into the fund, which have been ongoing since 1984, 20 years after the first study the costs of decommissioning have been re-calculated from scratch using complete decommissioning studies for each plant. Following the specification of boundary conditions which take into account the specific situation in Switzerland, decommissioning concepts are drawn up for the individual plants. The measures outlined in these concepts are integrated into a cost structuring plan and the decommissioning costs are then calculated using standard models (e.g. STILLKO). The radiological inventory, which is re-calculated for each plant, has a significant influence on costs. Furthermore, the disposal costs which can be allocated to decommissioning waste have to be determined; these are based on a concept in which only two types of containers are considered for disposal. The studies have resulted in decommissioning costs which, with a range between 200 and 390 million Euro, are comparable with costs in other countries. (orig.)

  6. Psychosocial adaptation of adolescent migrants in a Swiss community survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Bearth-Carrari, Cinzia; Winkler Metzke, Christa

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare psychosocial adaptation in adolescent (first generation) migrants, double-citizens (mainly second generation with one migrant parent), and native Swiss, and to compare migrants from various European regions. Data from a community survey were based on 1,239 participants (mean age 13.8, SD = 1.6 years) with 996 natives, 55 double-citizens, and 188 migrants. The adolescents completed the youth self-report measuring emotional and behavioural problems, and various questionnaires addressing life events, personality variables, perceived parental behaviour (PPB), family functioning, school environment, and social network. Adolescent migrants had significantly higher scores for internalizing and externalizing problems. There was a pattern of various unfavourable psychosocial features including life events, coping, self-related cognitions, and PPB that was more common among adolescent migrants than natives. Double-citizens were similar to natives in all domains. Young adolescents from South and South-East Europe differed from natives in terms of more unfavourable psychosocial features. Migrant status was best predicted by adverse psychosocial features rather than emotional and behavioural problems. There is some indication that certain migrant adolescents are at risk of psychosocial mal-adaptation. Obviously, ethnic origin is an important moderator.

  7. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  8. Extraction of Th and U from Swiss granites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, C.

    1980-12-01

    The extraction, at the laboratory level, of U and Th from Swiss granites is discussed. The Mittagfluh, Bergell and Rotondo granites and the Giuv syenite offered a wide range of U and Th concentrations; 7.7 to 20.0 ppm U and 25.5 to 67.0 ppm Th. U and Th were determined in the leach solutions by the fission track method and by spectrophotometry, respectively. Samples containing less than 0.3 μg U and 4 μg Th, could be measured with an accuracy of 10% for U and 5% for Th. Leach tests were performed during which the following parameters were varied: granite-type, grain size, acid-type, acid concentration, temperature and time. There were very great leaching differences between the granites studied. Temperature was the most important parameter. Sharp differences in extraction occurred between 20 0 C, 50 0 C and 80 0 C. At 80 0 C, more than 85% U and Th were extracted. The extraction curve (percent extracted as a function of time) of aliquots sampled after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours showed a plateau after 8 hours. The half life of the reaction was between one and two hours. As a general rule, Th was better extracted than U. (Auth.)

  9. Tritium pollution in the Swiss luminous compound industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejci, K.; Zeller, Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The Swiss luminous compound industry is an important consumer of tritium. About 350kCi go into production of tritium gas-filled light sources and 40kCi into production of tritium luminous compound annually. To illustrate the pollution problem, a factory is mentioned that handles 200kCi annually and a chain of luminizers, processing 20kCi over the same period as tritium luminous compound. This material is manufactured by coating phosphors with tritiated polystyrene having a specific activity up to 200Ci/g. Because of the high specific activity, the radiation damage produces an average activity release of 5.2% annually, which is one of the main reasons for public and occupational exposure. The processing of large quantities of tritium gas requires special equipment, such as units made entirely of stainless steel for purification and hydrogenation, oxidation systems for highly contaminated air, glove boxes, ventilation and monitoring systems. Nevertheless, contamination of air, surfaces, water and workers cannot be avoided. Only in a few cases were MPC-values for tritium content in urine of workers exceeded. From these results, biological half-lives between 5-15 days were estimated. Regular medical examinations showed no significant influence in blood picture parameters, except in one single case with a tritium concentration in urine of 2.8mCi/litre. Entirely different problems arise in most luminizing factories where luminous paint is processed as an open radioactive source. (author)

  10. [Historical development of drug testing in Swiss equestrian sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, V; von Salis, B; Fürst, A

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to describe the development of equine drug testing in horses in Switzerland. This was achieved through evaluation of a film made by the Institute of Forensic Medicine at the University of Basel entitled 'Doping von Rennpferden' [Doping of Race Horses], toxicological detection, 1962', the analysis of doping test results of the Swiss Equestrian Federation and by interviewing individuals of various professions who were involved in equine drug testing at the time. The study compares early and modern methods of drug testing and highlights the changes in the attitude of equestrian athletes, horse owners and the general public toward doping in equestrian sports. The high sensitivity of modern analytical methods allows the detection of drugs at levels considerably below therapeutic concentrations. This has resulted in a shift from zero tolerance for Controlled Medication Substances to the establishment of sub-therapeutic threshold concentrations. The lists of performance-enhancing drugs used in doping are updated continually. It became clear from this work that in the early 1960s, Switzerland played a leadership role in anti-doping in equestrian sports, and that the efforts to keep the sport free of performance-enhancing drugs remain exemplary.

  11. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  12. On cosmological observables in a swiss-cheese universe

    CERN Document Server

    Marra, Valerio; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter--distance relation, in the luminosity-distance--redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark ma...

  13. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  14. Implementation of the ICRP-60 Recommendations by Swiss Pharmaceutical Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R. P.; Traub, K.; Berlepsch, P.; Reischmann, F. J.; Zoubek, N.

    2004-01-01

    Switzerland was among the first countries that adapted its national law to the recommendations of the ICRP-publication No. 60. Already in 1991, the Federal Parliament enacted a new Radiological Protection Act. In 1994, the Federal Government adopted the new Radiation Protection Ordinance. Federal Ministries followed with technical ordinances and guidelines, e.g., for radioactive waste in 1996, for handling open sources in 1997, for X-rays in 1998 and for the training and dosimetry of radiation workers in 1999. In 1996, the Council of the European Union (Switzerland is not a member of the EU) decreed the Directive for the Protection of the Health of Workers and the General Public against the Dangers Arising from Ionising Radiation. Based on this directive, Germany adopted a new Radiation Protection Ordinance in 2001 and a new X-Ray-Ordinance in 2002. To transform the ordinances into radiation protection in the workplace further technical ordinances and guidelines are under development. Almost ten years ago, users of ionising radiation in Switzerland had to deal with the problems of implementing the new radiation protection legislation into their local rules that Germany and other EU companies are facing now. Therefore it may be interesting and helpful for authorities and companies in the EU to learn from the experience of their Swiss colleagues. (Author) 4 refs

  15. Impact of impurities and cryoconite on the optical properties of the Morteratsch Glacier (Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Di Mauro

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The amount of reflected energy by snow and ice plays a fundamental role in their melting processes. Different non-ice materials (carbonaceous particles, mineral dust (MD, microorganisms, algae, etc. can decrease the reflectance of snow and ice promoting the melt. The object of this paper is to assess the capability of field and satellite (EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data to characterize the impact of light-absorbing impurities (LAIs on the surface reflectance of ice and snow of the Vadret da Morteratsch, a large valley glacier in the Swiss Alps. The spatial distribution of both narrow-band and broad-band indices derived from Hyperion was analyzed in relation to ice and snow impurities. In situ and laboratory reflectance spectra were acquired to characterize the optical properties of ice and cryoconite samples. The concentrations of elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC and levoglucosan were also determined to characterize the impurities found in cryoconite. Multi-wavelength absorbance spectra were measured to compare the optical properties of cryoconite samples and local moraine sediments. In situ reflectance spectra showed that the presence of impurities reduced ice reflectance in visible wavelengths by 80–90 %. Satellite data also showed the outcropping of dust during the melting season in the upper parts of the glacier, revealing that seasonal input of atmospheric dust can decrease the reflectance also in the accumulation zone of the glacier. The presence of EC and OC in cryoconite samples suggests a relevant role of carbonaceous and organic material in the darkening of the ablation zone. This darkening effect is added to that caused by fine debris from lateral moraines, which is assumed to represent a large fraction of cryoconite. Possible input of anthropogenic activity cannot be excluded and further research is needed to assess the role of human activities in the darkening process of glaciers observed in recent years.

  16. and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood cholesterol concentration. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of red...... (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) and white Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn...... Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  17. Preventive action of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Manisha; Purohit, R.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Bhartiya, K.M.

    2012-01-01

    Haematopoietic organs are markedly sensitive to ionizing radiation due to its proliferate activity. The changes found in the circulating blood are primarily due to damage in the radio sensitive haematopoeitic organs. A very small dose of radiation to a blood forming organ causes an arrest of haematopoiesis with changes in peripheral blood count. Certain trace elements are essential for normal growth and development of organisms but their concentration beyond threshold may produce damage to blood forming organs and tissues thus affecting the peripheral blood. Aloe vera has been claimed to contain several important therapeutic properties including anti cancer effects. Various studies showed the prevention of radiation induced suppression of immunity by Aloe vera components. Having these unique properties, Aloe vera could be used in clinical field as a protector against radiation and heavy metal toxicity in human beings. For the study, six to eight weeks old Swiss albino mice were procured and kept in polypropylene cages. The animals were fed with standard mice feed and water was provided to them ad libitum. Cadmium chloride was administered orally to the animals in drinking water at the dose rate of 20 ppm. The animals were exposed to sub lethal doses of 2.0 Gy and 4.0 Gy of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 source. The Aloe vera was given seven days prior to irradiation and continued up to last autopsy day in experimental animals. Five animals from each group were autopsied by cervical dislocation at each post treatment interval of 1,2,4,7,14 and 28 days. The differential leucocytes count was estimated by preparing smear of the blood. The value of lymphocyte decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups thereafter it increased up to day-28 whereas the count decreased up to day-7 in drug treated groups and showed an increasing trend at day-14 which continues up to day-28. The value of monocyte and granulocyte percentage increased up to day-7 in drug treated groups

  18. Sorption data bases for generic Swiss argillaceous rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.; Thoenen, T.

    2010-09-01

    In Switzerland the site selection procedure for both high level waste (HLW) and low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repositories is specified by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy in the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. In the forthcoming stage 2 of this plan, potential sites will be identified within regions previously selected based on the presence of suitable host rocks, namely Opalinus Clay, 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marl. Preliminary safety analyses are an integral part of this procedure, and require, amongst other information, the radionuclide sorption properties of the host rock. This report describes a methodology to develop a Generic Rock Sorption Data Base (GR-SDB) for argillaceous rocks. The method will be used to compile specific SDBs for the above mentioned host rocks. Arguments are presented that the main factor influencing sorption on argillaceous rocks is the phyllosilicate mineral content. These minerals are particularly effective at binding metals to their surfaces by cation exchange and surface complexation. Generally, the magnitude of sorption is directly correlated with the phyllosilicate content (2:1 type clays: illite/smectite/illitesmectite mixed layers), and this parameter best reflects the sorption potential of a given mineral assembly. Consequently, sorption measurements on illite were preferably used as source data for the GR-SDB. The second component influencing radionuclide sorption is the porewater chemistry. In the present report, generic water compositions were extracted from the analytical ranges of deep ground waters in various sedimentary formations in Switzerland. In order to cover the range of ionic strength (I) and pH values of Swiss ground waters in argillaceous rocks, five types of generic water compositions were defined, combining low, intermediate and high values of ionic strength and pH. The GR-SDB for in situ conditions was derived using conversion factors (CF). As the name

  19. The Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase and ExPASy: providing the plant community with high quality proteomic data and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michel; Tognolli, Michael; Bairoch, Amos

    2004-12-01

    The Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase provides manually annotated entries for all species, but concentrates on the annotation of entries from model organisms to ensure the presence of high quality annotation of representative members of all protein families. A specific Plant Protein Annotation Program (PPAP) was started to cope with the increasing amount of data produced by the complete sequencing of plant genomes. Its main goal is the annotation of proteins from the model plant organism Arabidopsis thaliana. In addition to bibliographic references, experimental results, computed features and sometimes even contradictory conclusions, direct links to specialized databases connect amino acid sequences with the current knowledge in plant sciences. As protein families and groups of plant-specific proteins are regularly reviewed to keep up with current scientific findings, we hope that the wealth of information of Arabidopsis origin accumulated in our knowledgebase, and the numerous software tools provided on the Expert Protein Analysis System (ExPASy) web site might help to identify and reveal the function of proteins originating from other plants. Recently, a single, centralized, authoritative resource for protein sequences and functional information, UniProt, was created by joining the information contained in Swiss-Prot, Translation of the EMBL nucleotide sequence (TrEMBL), and the Protein Information Resource-Protein Sequence Database (PIR-PSD). A rising problem is that an increasing number of nucleotide sequences are not being submitted to the public databases, and thus the proteins inferred from such sequences will have difficulties finding their way to the Swiss-Prot or TrEMBL databases.

  20. Swiss Re Global Flood Hazard Zones: Know your flood risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinukollu, R. K.; Castaldi, A.; Mehlhorn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Floods, among all natural disasters, have a great damage potential. On a global basis, there is strong evidence of increase in the number of people affected and economic losses due to floods. For example, global insured flood losses have increased by 12% every year since 1970 and this is expected to further increase with growing exposure in the high risk areas close to rivers and coastlines. Recently, the insurance industry has been surprised by the large extent of losses, because most countries lack reliable hazard information. One example has been the 2011 Thailand floods where millions of people were affected and the total economic losses were 30 billion USD. In order to assess the flood risk across different regions and countries, the flood team at Swiss Re based on a Geomorphologic Regression approach, developed in house and patented, produced global maps of flood zones. Input data for the study was obtained from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) elevation data, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) and HydroSHEDS. The underlying assumptions of the approach are that naturally flowing rivers shape their channel and flood plain according to basin inherent forces and characteristics and that the flood water extent strongly depends on the shape of the flood plain. On the basis of the catchment characteristics, the model finally calculates the probability of a location to be flooded or not for a defined return period, which in the current study was set to 100 years. The data is produced at a 90-m resolution for latitudes 60S to 60N. This global product is now used in the insurance industry to inspect, inform and/or insure the flood risk across the world.

  1. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Adhatoda vesica leaf extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The radioprotective role of aqueous extract of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract against radiation induced hematological alterations in peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice was studied at various post-irradiation intervals between 6 hrs to 30 days. Oral administration of Adhatoda vesica leaf extract (800 mg / kg body weight) prior to whole-body irradiation showed a significant protection in terms of survival percentage and hematological parameters. Mice exposed to radiation (8 Gy) without Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treatment exhibited signs of radiation sickness like anorexia, lethargicity, ruffled hairs and diarrhoea and such animals died within 26 days post-irradiation. The dose reduction factor (DRF=1.6) for Adhatoda vesica leaf extract was calculated from LD50/30 values. A significant decline in hematological constituents (RBCs, WBCs, Hb and Hct) was evident till day 15, at later period of observation (day 15 onwards), no animals could survive from control group whereas, in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pre-treated irradiated group, a gradual recovery was noted in the hematological values. However, these hematological values remained significantly below the normal even till day 30. A significant decrease in GSH was recorded in control animals. Experimental animals showed a significant increase in GSH content (blood as well as liver) with respect to control, but such values remained below normal. A significant increase in TBARS level in liver and serum was evident in control animals. Although, no significant difference was noticed in such levels in normal and Adhatoda vesica leaf extract treated animals. But, a significant decrease was registered in Adhatoda vesica leaf extract pretreated irradiated animals. The results from the present study suggest that Adhatoda vesica leaf extract has radioprotective role in stimulating/protecting the hematopoietic system thereby enhancing the survival and increasing the hematological constituents in peripheral

  2. The Heterogeneous HLA Genetic Makeup of the Swiss Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Stéphane; Nunes, José Manuel; Nicoloso, Grazia; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s) of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9–13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical tests were performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium among different loci, both in each recruitment center and in the whole national registry. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance and hierarchical analysis of variance taking into account both geographic and linguistic subdivisions in Switzerland. The results indicate a heterogeneous genetic makeup of the Swiss population: first, allele frequencies estimated on the whole national registry strongly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, by contrast with the results obtained for individual centers; second, a pronounced differentiation is observed for Ticino, Graubünden, and, to a lesser extent, Wallis, suggesting that the Alps represent(ed) a barrier to gene flow; finally, although cultural (linguistic) boundaries do not represent a main genetic differentiation factor in Switzerland, the genetic relatedness between population from south-eastern Switzerland and Italy agrees with historical and linguistic data. Overall, this study justifies the maintenance of a decentralized donor recruitment structure in Switzerland allowing increasing the genetic diversity of the national—and hence global—donor registry. It also

  3. The heterogeneous HLA genetic makeup of the Swiss population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9-13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical tests were performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium among different loci, both in each recruitment center and in the whole national registry. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance and hierarchical analysis of variance taking into account both geographic and linguistic subdivisions in Switzerland. The results indicate a heterogeneous genetic makeup of the Swiss population: first, allele frequencies estimated on the whole national registry strongly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, by contrast with the results obtained for individual centers; second, a pronounced differentiation is observed for Ticino, Graubünden, and, to a lesser extent, Wallis, suggesting that the Alps represent(ed a barrier to gene flow; finally, although cultural (linguistic boundaries do not represent a main genetic differentiation factor in Switzerland, the genetic relatedness between population from south-eastern Switzerland and Italy agrees with historical and linguistic data. Overall, this study justifies the maintenance of a decentralized donor recruitment structure in Switzerland allowing increasing the genetic diversity of the national--and hence global

  4. Hawking radiation in the Swiss-cheese universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Hiromi

    2002-01-01

    The Hawking radiation forms the essential basis of black-hole thermodynamics. Black-hole thermodynamics denotes a good correspondence between black-hole kinematics and the laws of ordinary thermodynamics, but has so far been considered only in an asymptotically flat case. Does such correspondence rely strongly on the feature of gravity vanishing at infinity? In order to resolve this question, extending the Hawking radiation to a case with a dynamical boundary condition like an expanding universe should be considered. Therefore, the Hawking radiation in an expanding universe is discussed in this paper. As a concrete model of a black hole in an expanding universe, we use the 'Swiss-cheese' universe which is a spacetime including a Schwarzschild black hole in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. Further, for simplicity, our calculation is performed in two dimensions. The resultant spectrum of the Hawking radiation measured by a comoving observer is generally different from a thermal one. We find that the qualitative behaviour of the non-thermal spectrum is of dumping oscillation as a function of the frequency measured by the observer, and that the intensity of the Hawking radiation is enhanced by the presence of a cosmological expansion. It is appropriate to say that a black hole with an asymptotically flat boundary condition stays in a lowest energy thermal equilibrium state, and that once a black hole is put into an expanding universe, it is excited to a non-equilibrium state and emits its mass energy with stronger intensity than a thermal one

  5. Antimicrobial resistance in Swiss laying hens, prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harisberger, M; Gobeli, S; Hoop, R; Dewulf, J; Perreten, V; Regula, G

    2011-09-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern to public health, and food-producing animals are known to be a potential source for transmission of resistant bacteria to humans. As legislation of the European Union requires to ban conventional cages for the housing of laying hens on the one hand, and a high food safety standard for eggs on the other hand, further investigations about the occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in alternative housing types are required. In this study, we determined antimicrobial resistance in indicator bacteria from 396 cloacal swabs from 99 Swiss laying hen farms among four alternative housing types during a cross-sectional study. On each farm, four hens were sampled and exposure to potential risk factors was identified with a questionnaire. The minimal inhibitory concentration was determined using broth microdilution in Escherichia coli (n=371) for 18 antimicrobials and in Enterococcus faecalis (n=138) and Enterococcus faecium (n=153) for 16 antimicrobials. All antimicrobial classes recommended by the European Food Safety Authority for E. coli and enterococci were included in the resistance profile. Sixty per cent of the E. coli isolates were susceptible to all of the considered antimicrobials and 30% were resistant to at least two antimicrobials. In E. faecalis, 33% of the strains were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials and 40% were resistant to two or more antimicrobials, whereas in E. faecium these figures were 14% and 39% respectively. Risk factor analyses were carried out for bacteria species and antimicrobials with a prevalence of resistance between 15% and 85%. In these analyses, none of the considered housing and management factors showed a consistent association with the prevalence of resistance for more than two combinations of bacteria and antimicrobial. Therefore we conclude that the impact of the considered housing and management practices on the egg producing farms on resistance in laying hens is low. © 2010

  6. The Election System of the Swiss Confederation: Counting of Votes and Establishment of Election Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A. Tarnavskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the author covers the process of counting the votes and the disclosure rules of establishment the election results in the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland along with other EU member states pays special attention to the determination of the election results. According to Art. 149 para. 2 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation the elections to the National Council, which is one of two chambers of the Federal Assembly, are held according to proportional representation system. The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is used for allocating seats in National Council of the Swiss Con federation. However the above mentioned system for determining the quota of votes per each mandate creates ambiguous opinions among Swiss scientists and legal experts, which frequently comes up in discussions whether to modify it or not. In this article, the author also gives a brief description of the main political parties in Switzerland and statistics of seats allocation in 49 legislature of National Council following the elections of October 23, 2011. As a result, the author provides the full information on the process of votes counting and establishment of election results in the Swiss Confederation. The material presented in this article is particularly interesting and relevant in terms of improving the electoral legislation in the Russian Federation. The information presented by the author will be useful to all parties interested in electoral law.

  7. Organisation and standardisation of information in SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Magrane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available SWISS-PROT is a curated, non-redundant protein sequence database which provides a high level of annotation and is integrated with a large number of other biological databases. It is supplemented by TrEMBL, a computer-annotated database which contains translations of all coding sequences in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database which are not yet in SWISS-PROT. Each fully curated SWISS-PROT entry contains as much up-to-date information as possible from a variety of sources and the high quality of the annotation in SWISS-PROT provides the basis for the procedure which is used to automatically annotate the TrEMBL database. The large amounts of different data types found in both databases are stored in a highly structured and uniform manner and this structured organisation means that SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL together provide a comprehensive resource with data that are readily accessible for users and easily retrievable by computer programs.

  8. [Swiss surgery: quo vadis? Reader and market analysis for strategic positioning of a specialty journal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiermuth, O; Todorov, A; Bolli, M; Heberer, M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific journals currently face challenges including cost pressures caused by economic constraints, increasing rivalry among competitors, limited market potential of non-english speaking journals, increasing medical specialization with resulting market fragmentation, and internet-based competition. We therefore analyzed strategic opportunities of the journal Swiss Surgery on the basis of customer surveys and of a market analysis. Swiss surgeons expressed their interest in the continuation of the journal but also indicated their support for changes in its concept and for an increased use of electronic media. An international market analysis points-out the difficulties of national, non-english speaking journals in gaining impact points and in attracting authors and readers of scientific medical articles. Therefore, a journal such as Swiss Surgery should identify and use publication niches. The demand for a concept addressing surgical training including continuous postgraduate education was confirmed by the customers of Swiss Surgery. A corresponding offer does not presently exist in the area and could become the new focus of the journal. This change of concept may have a number of consequences: A journal focusing on surgical training and education should use the results of readers' surveys rather than impact point assignment to evaluate quality. The journal should increasingly use electronic services including data bases, pictures, videos and closed user groups to supplement the print version. At short term, however, the printed version should be continued and not be substituted by the electronic version in order to maintain the established brand "Swiss Surgery".

  9. EFFECTIVENESS OF SWISS BALL VS FLOOR EXERCISES ON CORE MUSCLE STRENGTH IN ELITE CRICKETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sai sudha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cricket is one of the most popular game in India played by men and women of all ages. The increased physical demands on the players may be associated with an increased risk of injuries. Core muscle strength is important to prevent risk of injuries in elite cricketers. The beginners in the cricket must have enough strength of core muscles, as core is the bridge between upper and lower limbs. So, it should be strong enough to prevent low back and lower limb injuries in cricketers. The aim is to determine the effectiveness of swiss ball exercises versus floor exercises on core muscle strength in elite cricketers. The objective is to study and compare the effectiveness of swiss ball exercises and floor exercises in elite cricketers in terms of back strength. Method: The total number of students in this study were 30 eilte cricketers between 16-25 years out of which 15 subjects were included each in floor exercise(n=15 and swiss ball group(n=15. Back strength was measured before and after the intervention of 6 weeks using isokinetic analyser. Results: After the analysis, the results revealed significant improvement of back strength in both the groups(p< 0.00. The swiss ball group showed significant results when compared with floor exercise group. Conclusion: Although the study showed beneficial results in both the groups, the results reflected that swiss ball group had better improvement of core muscle strength than the floor exercise group.

  10. Compliance with guidelines for disease management in diabetes: results from the SwissDiab Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Katrin E; Renström, Frida; Meier, Sandro; Stettler, Christoph; Brändle, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Tight glycemic control and aggressive treatment of additional cardiovascular risk factors can substantially reduce risk of diabetes-related complications. In 2013, the Swiss Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology (SSED) established national criteria on good disease management in diabetes, but little is known about compliance in clinical care. Here we assessed to what extent patients from two tertiary care centers in the German-speaking part of Switzerland enrolled in the Swiss Diabetes (SwissDiab) Registry adhere to the SSED criteria. SwissDiab is a prospective observational cohort study of patients regularly treated at Swiss tertiary diabetes centers. Data were collected through standardized annual health examinations. Baseline participant descriptive statistics, stratified by diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2), were compared with SSED targets for glycemic control, blood pressure, blood lipids, weight maintenance, and ophthalmic examination. By the end of 2016, 604 participants with DM1 (40%) and DM2 (60%) had data available for analyses, 36% and 29% women, respectively. At baseline, all the SSED targets were met with two exceptions: a glycated hemoglobin A1c value DM2, respectively, received nutritional counseling in the previous year (SSED target: ≥80%). The SSED targets for good disease management in diabetes were achieved in the majority of participants at the time of enrollment, but results also highlight areas where disease management can be improved, particularly the role of nutrition counseling.

  11. Cadmium and chromium effects on seed germination and root elongation in lettuce, spinach and Swiss chard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar V Bautista

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The La Ramada district and the Bogota River are the principal water resources used for horticultural crop production on the Bogota Plateau, which contain channel pollutant materials, including heavy metals due to domestic and industrial activities on the Plateau. These materials have effects on crop production in this zone. The present research, under laboratory conditions, aimed to evaluate the effect of three concentrations (25, 35 and 50 µM L-1 of cadmium (Cd and chromium (Cr on imbibition, seed germination and root elongation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. Batavia, Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris var. cicla "White Ribbed", and spinach (Spinacia oleracea Hib. 424, three species widely cultivated on the Plateau. The three species used for evaluation showed a differential susceptibility response to Cd and Cr. In lettuce, fresh weight increase (imbibition was lower with all Cd concentrations at the last day of observation and at 25 µM L-1 of Cd in Swiss chard. Cadmium reduced seed germination by up to 46%, 97% and 8% in Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Also, root elongation decreased in Cd treatments by up to 57%, 89% and 56%, for Swiss chard, lettuce and spinach, respectively. Chromium, which showed fewer negative effects, decreased germination by up to 29% in Swiss chard, 6% in lettuce and 34% in spinach, as compared to the control

  12. Swiss-cheese D3-D7 soft SUSY breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, Aalok, E-mail: aalokfph@iitr.ernet.i [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247 667, Uttarakhand (India); Shukla, Pramod, E-mail: pmathdph@iitr.ernet.i [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee-247 667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2010-03-01

    We address issues related to (i) a proposal for resolving a long-standing tension between large volume cosmology and phenomenology as regards reconciliation of requirements of different gravitino masses within the same string-theoretic framework, as well as (ii) evaluation of soft supersymmetry breaking terms and open-string moduli masses in the context of type IIB large volume compactifications involving orientifolds of the Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau WCP{sup 4}[1,1,1,6,9] with a single mobile space-time filling D3-brane and stacks of D7-branes wrapping the 'big' divisor SIGMA{sub B} as well as supporting D7-brane fluxes. In addition, we also include perturbative alpha{sup '}-corrections and non-perturbative world-sheet instanton corrections to the Kaehler potential as well as Euclidean D3-instanton superpotential. First, using the toric data for the aforementioned Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau and GLSM techniques, we obtain in the large volume limit, the geometric Kaehler potential for the big (and small) divisor(s) in terms of derivatives of genus-two Siegel theta functions. Next, we show that as the mobile space-time filling D3-brane moves from a particular non-singular elliptic curve embedded in the Swiss-cheese Calabi-Yau to another non-singular elliptic curve, it is possible to obtain 10{sup 12} GeV gravitino during the primordial inflationary era as well as, e.g., a TeV gravitino in the present era, within the same set up for the same volume of the Calabi-Yau stabilized at around 10{sup 6}l{sub s}{sup 6}. Then by constructing local (i.e. localized around the location of the mobile D3-brane in the Calabi-Yau) appropriate involutively-odd harmonic one-form on the big divisor that lies in coker(H{sub p}artial deriv-bar,{sub -}{sup (0,1)}(CY{sub 3})->{sup i}*H{sub p}artial deriv-bar,{sub -}{sup (0,1)}(SIGMA{sub B})) and extremizing the potential, we show that it is possible to obtain an O(1)g{sub YM} from the wrapping of D7-branes on the big divisor due to

  13. A study of chemopreventive effects of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and lead induced haematological changes in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halduniya, Hanish K.; Singariya, Seema; Bhatnagar, Shruti; Srivasrava, Deepti; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    The vast potential of radiant energy opens vistas of new horizons as its use in various fields of science, technology, therapeutics and diagnosis. However its also exposes the global population to the hazards of nuclear accidents and radiation injury. In this era of nuclear science it has become a prerequisite to know the effects of radiation on mankind and to develop effective countermeasures for minimizing the damages of radiation exposure. Heavy metals like lead can cause deleterious effects when its concentration goes beyond the limit in ecosystem. The combined effects of radiation and lead further increases the causation of damages to organs and tissues. Amla is found to be a non toxic, inexpensive, easily available herbal drug. Therefore present study was pertain to evaluate the chemo preventive role of Amla against radiation and lead induced changes in blood of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays and with or without lead acetate which was given to them adlibitum. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or lead acetate treatment. Three animals were sacrificed from all the experimental group at each post treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days by cervical dislocation . The blood was collected in heparinised tube for estimating various haematological parameters. The value of RBC, WBC, PCV, Hemoglobin, and MCV decreased up to day-14 in non drug treated groups and day-7 in drug treated groups, thereafter the value increased. When the animals treated with radiation and lead simultaneously synergistic effects were observed. The Amla treated groups showed early and fast recovery thus, it may deduce from above observation that Amla has potential to check the alteration produced by radiation and lead in the blood of Swiss albino mice. (author)

  14. Mitigation by Aloe Vera of cadmium chloride and radiation induced biochemical changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrawarti, Aruna; Kanwar, Om; Nayak, Kamal Kumar; Ranga, Deepti; Jangir, Ashok; Ram, Purkha

    2013-01-01

    Whole body exposure to ionizing radiation provokes oxidative damage, organ dysfunction and metabolic disturbance. Herbal drugs offer an alternative to the synthetic radioprotective compounds which are either non-toxic or less toxic. Aloe vera rich in polyphenolic compound is known to possess antioxidant properties. In the context, the present study, effect of Aloe vera against radiation and cadmium induced changes in the brain of Swiss albino mice. For the purpose, six to eight weeks old male Swiss albino mice were selected and divided into seven groups:- Group I (Sham-irradiated), Group II (treated with cadmium chloride 20 ppm), Group III (Irradiated with 7.0 Gy gamma rays), Group IV (Both irradiated and treated with cadmium chloride solution), Group V (Cadmium and Aloe vera treated), Group VI (radiation and Aloe vera treated), Group VII (radiation, and cadmium chloride and Aloe vera treated). The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation at each post-treatment intervals of 1, 2, 4, 7, 14 and 28 days. The brain (cerebral cortex) was taken out and quantitatively analyzed for different biochemical parameters such as total proteins, glycogen, cholesterol, acid phosphatase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, DNA and RNA. The value of cholesterol, glycogen, RNA, acid phosphatase activity, and alkaline phosphatase activity increased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in Aloe vera treated groups and thereafter decreased up to day-28. The value of total proteins and DNA decreased up to day-14 in non drug-treated groups and day-7 in the drug treated groups then increased in all groups. In only cadmium chloride (Without and with drug) treated animals (Groups II and V) the value of cholesterol decreased during early intervals (days-14 and 7 respectively) and increased thereafter. Severe changes were observed after combined exposure to radiation and cadmium chloride showing synergistic effect. Aloe vera reduced the severity of damage and made the

  15. Injuries and musculoskeletal complaints in referees--a complete survey in the top divisions of the swiss football league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzini, Mario; Junge, Astrid; Bahr, Roald; Dvorak, Jiri

    2009-03-01

    To analyze the extent and characteristics of injuries and musculoskeletal complaints in elite football referees and to analyze differences between match and assistant referees. Retrospective cohort study. Training camp organized by the Swiss Referees Association. All 71 referees of the 2 top divisions of the Swiss Football League (2005-2006 season). The referees (66 males and 5 females) completed a questionnaire on their personal characteristics, referee qualifications, time spent in training and matches, career history of injuries, and musculoskeletal complaints caused by training or refereeing and were subsequently interviewed about the location, type, circumstances, and consequences of reported injuries. Incidence of injuries, frequency of musculoskeletal complaints, type of injuries, and complaints. A total of 41 injuries during the career were reported by 31 of 71 referees (44%). Injuries were incurred more frequently in training than during matches, and all injuries reported resulted in at least 2 weeks of absence from sport. About a quarter of the referees reported an injury, and almost 90% of the referees reported musculoskeletal complaints caused by refereeing during the preceding 12 months. In male referees, hamstring strains and ankle sprains were the most common injuries, and the hamstrings, knee, Achilles tendon, and calf were the most prevalent locations of musculoskeletal complaints. No significant difference in the incidence of injury or in the frequency of complaints was observed between match and assistant referees. Future studies should be designed prospectively and should include a larger group of female referees. Regarding the incidence of injuries and frequency of musculoskeletal complaints related to refereeing, prevention programs for football referees should be developed, evaluated, and implemented.

  16. Human dimension in scientific models in high-mountain climate change and risk projects: Peruvian-Swiss experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicuña, Luis; Jurt, Christine; Minan, Fiorella; Huggel, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Models in a range of scientific disciplines are increasingly seen as indispensable for successful adaptation. Governments as well as international organizations and cooperations put their efforts in basing their adaptation projects on scientific results. Thereby, it is critical that scientific models are first put into the particular context in which they will be applied. This paper addresses the experience of the project 'Glaciers 513- Climate change adaptation and disaster risk management for glacier retreat in the Andes' conducted in the districts of Carhuaz (Ancash region) and Santa Teresa (Cusco region) in Peru. The Peruvian and the Swiss governments put their joint efforts in an adaptation project in the context of climate change and the retreat of the glaciers. The project is led by a consortium of Care Peru and the University of Zurich with additional Swiss partners and its principal aim is to improve the capacity for integral adaptation and reduce the risk of disasters from glaciers and high-mountain areas, and effects of climate change, particularly in the regions of Cusco and Ancash. The paper shows how the so called "human dimension" on the one hand, and models from a range of disciplines, including climatology, glaciology, and hydrology on the other hand, were conceptualized and perceived by the different actors involved in the project. Important aspects have been, among others, the role of local knowledge including ancestral knowledge, demographic information, socio-economic indicators as well as the social, political and cultural framework and the historical background. Here we analyze the role and context of local knowledge and the historical background. The analysis of the implications of the differences and similarities of the perceptions of a range of actors contributes to the discussion about how, and to what extent scientific models can be contextualized, what kind of information can be helpful for the contextualization and how it can be

  17. 1,2-Dichloroethane impairs glucose and lipid homeostasis in the livers of NIH Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Xu, Dandan; Fan, Qiming; Rong, Weifeng; Zheng, Jiewei; Gao, Chen; Li, Guoliang; Zeng, Ni; Guo, Tao; Zeng, Lihai; Wang, Fei; Xiao, Chen; Cai, Li; Tang, Shangqing; Deng, Xinlei; Yin, Xiao; Huang, Manqi; Lu, Fengrong; Hu, Qiansheng; Chen, Wen; Huang, Zhenlie; Wang, Qing

    2017-04-01

    Excessive exposure to 1,2-Dichloroethane (1,2-DCE), a chlorinated organic toxicant, can lead to liver dysfunction. To fully explore the mechanism of 1,2-DCE-induced hepatic abnormalities, 30 male National Institutes of Health (NIH) Swiss mice were exposed to 0, 350, or 700mg/m 3 of 1,2-DCE, via inhalation, 6h/day for 28days. Increased liver/body weight ratios, as well as serum AST and serum ALT activity were observed in the 350 and 700mg/m 3 1,2-DCE exposure group mice, compared with the control group mice. In addition, decreased body weights were observed in mice exposed to 700mg/m 3 1,2-DCE, compared with control mice. Exposure to 350 and 700mg/m 3 1,2-DCE also led to significant accumulation of hepatic glycogen, free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides, elevation of blood triglyceride and FFA levels, and decreases in blood glucose levels. Results from microarray analysis indicated that the decreases in glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit (G6PC) and liver glycogen phosphorylase (PYGL) expression, mediated by the activation of AKT serine/threonine kinase 1 (Akt1), might be responsible for the hepatic glycogen accumulation and steatosis. Further in vitro study demonstrated that 2-chloroacetic acid (1,2-DCE metabolite), rather than 1,2-DCE, up-regulated Akt1 phosphorylation and suppressed G6PC and PYGL expression, resulting in hepatocellular glycogen accumulation. These results suggest that hepatic glucose and lipid homeostasis are impaired by 1,2-DCE exposure via down-regulation of PYGL and G6PC expression, which may be primarily mediated by the 2-chloroacetic acid-activated Akt1 pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Histopathological effects of Chromium (III Sulfate on Liver and Kidney of Swiss Albino Mice (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Fatima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chromium (III sulfate has various industrial applications and is widely used in leather industry due to its high tanning properties. Cr (III is required for efficient metabolism of fats and carbohydrates in traces. Various studies have reported that its constant exposure may lead to severe health problems in both animals and humans. In this study, histopathological effect of dietary Cr (III was evaluated on liver and kidneys of rodents. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (n=25 were divided into different treatment and control groups (n=5/group after sufficient acclimatization. After 3 weeks of treatment, animals were sacrificed and observations regarding histopathology of liver and kidneys were made in all treatment groups and compared to control. Microscopy and photography was performed after processing the tissues according to standard protocol of sectioning and staining. Liver cross sections of treated animals showed signs of fibrosis in portal area, and congestion of sinusoid and central vein. Whereas, more pronounced effects of Cr (III toxicity were observed in kidneys. These include mononuclear cell infiltration, necrosis and contraction of glomerulus within Bowman’s capsule. However, No pathological changes were observed in control group. These results support the hypothesis that enhanced level of Cr (III contamination of food can induce both hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. These basic findings prove that currently increasing levels of trivalent chromium in environment are hazardous to living organisms. Therefore, to avoid health risks to both animals and humans, conversion of toxic chromium waste to less toxic compounds is required. Moreover, exposure level through any route should also be minimized.

  19. ENET News March 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Maerz 2004, Nr. 57 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's (SFOE) magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include the Swiss research strategy for the period 2004 to 2007, a discussion on wind energy, saving electricity, stand-by losses of coffee machines and information on hydrogen and fuel-cells. Further articles cover road-traffic topics including zero-emission vehicles and clean engine technology. Also, research on better fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the use of photovoltaics, wood fuels and biomass. Results of a field-analysis of heat-pump installations and the storage of solar energy using zinc powder as well as building insulation are covered. Finally, the ETDE is honoured as being the largest collection of energy documents.

  20. SwissPlus Implant System, Part 2: Prosthodontic aspects and intersystem comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenlicht, Joel L

    2002-01-01

    Incompatibility between implant systems and the increasing complexity of esthetic restorative options frequently require dentists to obtain special training in the selection and use of prosthetic components. SwissPlus System implants have been designed to simplify restorative procedures by eliminating many ancillary restorative components. The implants are packaged on a fixture mount that also functions as a transfer and as an abutment for cemented restorations. For multiple-unit, screw-retained restorations, the prosthesis can be splinted directly to the top of the implant without an intermediate abutment. Overdenture attachments, straight, angled, screw-receiving, and custom-cast abutments complete the restorative system. This paper presents an overview of the SwissPlus System's prosthodontic aspects. Test data also illustrate intersystem compatibility and differences between SwissPlus System implants and ITI syn-Octa implants.

  1. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2012-01-01

    to induce high level of muscle activation. PURPOSE: To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. METHODS......BACKGROUND: Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed......: 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine...

  2. [Bluetongue disease in Swiss sheep breeds: clinical signs after experimental infection with bluetongue virus serotype 8].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worwa, G; Thür, B; Griot, C; Hofmann, M; MacLachlan, J N; Chaignat, V

    2008-10-01

    Clinical disease of bluetongue (BT) in sheep may differ depending on breed, age and immunity of infected sheep and may also vary between serotype and strain of BT virus (BTV). Since there are no data available on the susceptibility of Swiss sheep breeds for BT, we performed experimental infection of the 4 most common Swiss sheep breeds and the highly susceptible Poll Dorset sheep with the BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) circulating in Northern Europe since 2006. Clinical signs were assessed regarding severity, localisation, progression and time point of their appearance. The results clearly show that the Swiss sheep breeds investigated were susceptible to BTV-8 infection. They developed moderate, BT-characteristic symptoms, which were similar to those observed in Poll Dorset sheep. Regardless of breed, the majority of infected animals showed fever, swelling of the head as well as erosions of the mouth and subcutaneous haemorrhages.

  3. DRIVING VEHICLES SUBJECT TO A CUSTOMS RESTRICTIONS AGREEMENT WITH ORDINARY SWISS NUMBER PLATES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission to the International Organisations in Geneva has just confirmed to CERN that it is not necessary to hold a carte de légitimation or an attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs to drive a vehicle subject to a customs restrictions agreement (engagement douanier), i.e. purchased or imported free of tax and customs duty, provided that the vehicle concerned is registered on ordinary Swiss number plates and not on diplomatic plates. We should like to remind you that the documents published by the Relations with the Host States Service since 1996 can be consulted on the Service's Web pages (http://www.cern.ch/relations/), which are updated as soon as new information is received from the Authorities of the Host States.

  4. Swiss energy research - oriented towards the future; Auf die Zukunft ausgerichtet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J

    2007-07-01

    This article reports on the eighth Swiss Energy Research Conference held in March 2007 in Neuchatel, Switzerland. The Swiss Energy Research Concept for the period 2008 to 2011 and proposals for the reinstatement of the Pilot and Demonstration Programme are reported on. Associated topics such as the Swiss 2000-Watt Society vision, heat and energy in buildings, energy production from biomass and the fuel consumption of private vehicles are reviewed. The importance for industry of spin-offs generated within the framework of the Energy Research Concept is stressed. Intensive discussions in thematic workshops are briefly noted and the demanding tasks for those involved in the energy research scene are discussed. Sustainability is noted as being the basis for the work being done.

  5. The influence of climate-warming on the power production of Swiss hydroelectric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeppi, A.

    2006-01-01

    This article summarises an interview with Michael Piot of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) on a study commissioned by the office that takes a look at the influence of a possible climate warming on water flow in the Swiss alpine area. In particular, the influence of such possible changes on the Swiss power generation industry are looked at. Prognoses for climate change are reviewed, as are the results of a study made by the SFOE on energy perspectives for the period up to the year 2035. Possible changes in the alpine climate are discussed and their influence on the water household of the region is examined. Possible further and more drastic changes in the period up to 2099 are briefly commented on

  6. ENET News July 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Juli 2004, Nr. 58 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Magazine (SFOE) with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include research strategies, a discussion on oil reserves, technology transfer and innovation, Swiss biomass activities, winning power from the drinking water mains and the use of ambient heat. Further articles cover the topics of energy-efficiency and lighting in buildings, the use of batteries in vehicles, the increasing decentralisation of power generation and the use of supra-conducting current-limiters. Also, research on improved fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the wood fuels, photovoltaics and wind-energy areas as well as heat storage using geothermal techniques.

  7. ENET News November 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, November 2004, Nr. 59 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This last edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)'s magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include a review of energy research in Switzerland in general and the work of the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in particular and a look at the basis for energy-economical perspectives in Switzerland. Further articles take a look at activities in the solar-chemical area, biomass and small-hydro projects, wind and geothermal energy as well as solar heating, photovoltaics and the use of ambient heat. Energy-efficiency in the buildings and traffic areas and combustion and combined heat and power are further topics covered. Nuclear energy and process engineering, fuel cells and activities in the international sector are examined. The publication is completed with a list of recent publications in the energy area.

  8. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008; Eidgenoessische Energieforschungskommission CORE. Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, K.

    2009-07-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  9. 75 FR 37406 - Order Exempting the Trading and Clearing of Certain Products Related to ETFS Physical Swiss Gold...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Related to ETFS Physical Swiss Gold Shares and ETFS Physical Silver Shares AGENCY: Commodity Futures... called ``security futures'' on each of ETFS Physical Swiss Gold Shares (``Gold Products'') and ETFS Physical Silver Shares (``Silver Products'') (collectively, ``Gold and Silver Products''), which would be...

  10. Explaining electricity demand and the role of energy and investment literacy on end-use efficiency of Swiss households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Boogen, Nina; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is used

  11. Present status and distribution of the Lynx in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Molinari-Jobin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract To evaluate the population trend of lynx in the Swiss Alps, we analysed the spatial and numerical development of signs of presence found from 1995 to 1999 and compared them with previous years. Three sources of information on the presence of lynx are available: (1 reports of lynx killed or found dead; (2 records of livestock killed by lynx; (3 records of wild prey remains, tracks, scats, sightings, and vocalisations. We distinguished three levels of reliability: Quality 1 represent the hard facts, e.g. all reports of lynx killed or found dead, photographs of lynx as well as young orphaned lynx caught in the wild and taken into captivity. Quality 2 include all records of livestock killed, wild prey remains, tracks and scats reported by people who have attended special courses, e.g. mainly game wardens. Quality 3 are all wild prey remains and tracks reported by the general public as well as all sightings, scats and vocalisations, e.g. signs that cannot be verified. More than 1600 signs of presence were recorded in the Swiss Alps in this 5-year-period. A high number of quality 1 and 2 records showed that (1 the lynx population in the north-western Swiss Alps increased from 1994 to 1999, that (2 there is a moderate presence of the species in the central and south-western parts and (3 none or hardly any lynx are found in the eastern Alps of Switzerland. Based on a radio-telemetry study and the number of quality 2 data, we were able to estimate the number of lynx in the Swiss Alps at 70 individuals. To counterpart the uneven distribution of lynx in Switzerland, lynx are being translocated from the north-western Alps to the eastern Swiss Alps, as the expansion of the Swiss lynx population is crucial for the conservation of the lynx in the whole Alps.

  12. Annotating single amino acid polymorphisms in the UniProt/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yum L; Famiglietti, Maria; Gos, Arnaud; Duek, Paula D; David, Fabrice P A; Gateau, Alain; Bairoch, Amos

    2008-03-01

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot (http://beta.uniprot.org/uniprot; last accessed: 19 October 2007) is a manually curated knowledgebase providing information on protein sequences and functional annotation. It is part of the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt). The knowledgebase currently records a total of 32,282 single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) touching 6,086 human proteins (Release 53.2, 26 June 2007). Nearly all SAPs are derived from literature reports using strict inclusion criteria. For each SAP, the knowledgebase provides, apart from the position of the mutation and the resulting change in amino acid, information on the effects of SAPs on protein structure and function, as well as their potential involvement in diseases. Presently, there are 16,043 disease-related SAPs, 14,266 polymorphisms, and 1,973 unclassified variants recorded in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. Relevant information on SAPs can be found in various sections of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry. In addition to these, cross-references to human disease databases as well as other gene-specific databases, are being added regularly. In 2003, the Swiss-Prot variant pages were created to provide a concise view of the information related to the SAPs recorded in the knowledgebase. When compared to the information on missense variants listed in other mutation databases, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot further records information on direct protein sequencing and characterization including posttranslational modifications (PTMs). The direct links to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries further enhance the integration of phenotype information with data at protein level. In this regard, SAP information in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot complements nicely those existing in genomic and phenotypic databases, and is valuable for the understanding of SAPs and diseases.

  13. The Expansion of Swiss Criminal Jurisdiction in Light of International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Petrig

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Over the last few decades, a global trend of extending the reach of domestic penal power can be observed, namely driven by the changing face of crime as it becomes increasingly transnational in nature. It is demonstrated in this article that the Swiss legislature has clearly followed this global trend of broadening the extraterritorial reach of domestic criminal law, most notably since the 1980s. It has acted with particular resolve in the last decade, adding jurisdictional bases to the Swiss Criminal Code by virtue of which Swiss criminal law can be applied to many instances of conduct taking place abroad. Certain offences – specified crimes against minors and female genital mutilation – have even been subjected to an absolute and unrestricted universality principle. The Swiss legislature is not indifferent to the problems that such an expansive approach to jurisdiction may create, notably in terms of conflicts of jurisdiction. Yet, the rules it adopted to temper the effects of applying Swiss criminal law to extraterritorial conduct only partially remedy the situation. This development in Swiss law begs the question whether such an expansive approach towards jurisdiction is permissible – or even encouraged or requested by international law. Hence, this article explores to what extent international law informs the reach of domestic penal power and concludes that international law is Janus-faced with regard to the question of the geographical scope of domestic criminal law. While some of its rules push for long-arm jurisdiction, others put limits on the domestic legislature’s endeavour to expand the reach of its domestic criminal law. In light of this, the idea of adopting, on an international level, general principles governing the definition of the scope of domestic prescriptive and adjudicative jurisdiction for transnational cases is tempting, albeit difficult to realize.

  14. Sedimentological and biostratigraphical analyses of short sediment cores from Hagelseewli (2339 m a.s.l. in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline F.N. VAN LEEUWEN

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Several short sediment cores of between 35 and 40 cm from Hagelseewli, a small, remote lake in the Swiss Alps at an elevation of 2339 m a.s.l. were correlated according to their organic matter content. The sediments are characterized by organic silts and show in their uppermost part a surprisingly high amount of organic matter (30-35%. Synchronous changes, occurring in pollen from snow-bed vegetation, the alga Pediastrum, chironomids, and grain-size composition, point to a climatic change interpreted as cooler or shorter summers that led to prolonged ice-cover on the lake. According to palynological results the sediments date back to at least the early 15th century A.D., with the cooling phase encompassing the period between late 16th and the mid-19th century thus coinciding with the Little Ice Age. Low concentrations of both chironomid head capsules and cladoceran remains in combination with results from fossil pigment analyses point to longer periods of bottom-water anoxia as a result of long-lasting ice-cover that prevented mixing of the water column. According to our results aquatic biota in Hagelseewli are mainly indirectly influenced by climate change. The duration of ice-cover on the lake controls the mixing of the water column as well as light-availability for phytoplankton blooms.

  15. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme 2008 edition - Summary report, annual project abstracts for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of activities in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Research Programme. Work completed in 2007 and the results achieved in the areas of cell technology, solar modules and building integration, electrical systems technology, supplementary projects and studies are summarised. National and international co-operation is examined. New, current and completed Pilot and Demonstration projects are reported on as are the prospects for the year 2008. The report is completed with lists of research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects.

  16. Is there a Future in Real Estate? : Incorporate Futures Contracts within the Swiss Real Estate Market

    OpenAIRE

    Isberg, Ofelia

    2017-01-01

    In the past decades, real estate has turned into something more than just a home, it has become an investment. The interest to invest in the real estate market has increased from investors but also from private persons where the demand not only is to find a living but also perceived as an investment to make a profit or reinvest in the future.  The demand on the Swiss real estate market has increased from locals but also foreigners that want to invest in the stable and safe Swiss market. The h...

  17. Initial experience gained with the balance-group system of the Swiss power supply legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, M.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the initial experience gained with the Swiss balance-group system. This system was introduced within the framework of Swiss power supply legislation (StromVG - Stromversorgungsgesetz). The balance-group system was considered to be an essential precondition for the implementation of an energy trading business in a liberalised power market. The associated rights and responsibilities and the economic risks involved are discussed in detail. The partners and structures involved in such a balance-group are looked at and basic models for the associated contracts are examined. The relationship between balance-groups and the national power grid Swissgrid are discussed

  18. [Traffic casualties and injuries: a problem of costs, too. A Swiss survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinoli, S; Quadri, B; Casabianca, A

    1993-01-01

    Based on an epidemiological observation in Ticino 1985, following statement is possible: in Switzerland every year 900 people dye in traffic casualties. Many victims of tragic accidents get lifetime disabled. Direct and indirect costs of traffic injuries are yearly 3 billions of swiss francs. Only a small percentage (6%) is devoted to medical treatment. The most part is due to compensation of income, disability with its allocations and lost productivity. Among "avoidable" deaths, traffic victims are an essential portion because the are young. More efforts should be undertaken to lower road mortality because she erodes the swiss population pyramid in a significant manner.

  19. The promotion of work safety. A continuous task for the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The modern Western European population values the work safety very highly because of ethical and economical reasons. In Switzerland too, safety at work is actively promoted. Based on national legislation and on the SGWA-Association Statutes, the Swiss Gas Industry, with great engagement, promotes the measures for accident prevention. Following a general introduction into the legislative basis, possible ways and means for the promotion of safety at work are described. Subsequently, the concrete activities of the Gas Supply Authorities and the SGWA are pointed out, followed by a description of the future work-safety programmes of the Swiss Gas Industry. (orig.) [de

  20. The Swiss strategy on the new Electricity Industry Decree ('Elektrizitaetswirtschaftsordnung', ELWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    This lecture by Dr. Walter Steinmann, director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, describes in three parts the efforts being made in the electricity sector to reorganise the Swiss electricity market. The first part deals with international aspects, including electricity trading between Switzerland and the European Union and the associated reciprocal agreements as well as the realisation of transnational European power trading systems. The second part of the lecture deals with cross-connections between ELWO and other related areas such as public services, energy and climate policies and long-term security of supply. The last part of the lecture examines the strategy behind the new ELWO legislation in detail

  1. Antidiarrhoeal efficacy of Mangifera indica seed kernel on Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S; Suganya, H; Thirunalasundari, T; Jeeva, S

    2012-08-01

    To examine the antidiarrhoeal activity of alcoholic and aqueous seed kernel extract of Mangifera indica (M. indica) on castor oil-induced diarrhoeal activity in Swiss albino mice. Mango seed kernels were processed and extracted using alcohol and water. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the extracts were assessed using intestinal motility and faecal score methods. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of M. indica significantly reduced intestinal motility and faecal score in Swiss albino mice. The present study shows the traditional claim on the use of M. indica seed kernel for treating diarrhoea in Southern parts of India. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reactor physics teaching and research in the Swiss nuclear engineering master

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, R.

    2012-01-01

    Since 2008, a Master of Science program in Nuclear Engineering (NE) has been running in Switzerland, thanks to the combined efforts of the country's key players in nuclear teaching and research, viz. the Swiss Federal Inst.s of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) and at Zurich (ETHZ), the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) at Villigen and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (Swissnuclear). The present paper, while outlining the academic program as a whole, lays emphasis on the reactor physics teaching and research training accorded to the students in the framework of the developed curriculum. (authors)

  3. Swiss teleradiology survey: present situation and future trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lienemann, Bernhard; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Luetolf, Marcus

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a survey about the present situation including the usage pattern, technical characteristics and the anticipated future of teleradiology in Switzerland. An internet-based questionnaire was made available to all members of the Swiss Society of Radiology. Questions concerning current teleradiology usage, the type of transmitted modalities, the technology employed, security, billing issues and the anticipated future of teleradiology were addressed. One hundred and two (22.67%) of 450 radiologists responded to the survey. Of the total, 41.2% (42) were teleradiology users, 35.3% (36) planned to use teleradiology in the near future and 24.5% (25) did not use or plan to use teleradiology. The mean number of examinations transmitted per month was 198 (range 1-2,000) and the mean distance was 33 km (range 1,250 km). An emergency service was considered the most important purpose (mean score 6.90; minimum 1, maximum 10) for the use of teleradiology, followed by image distribution (mean 6.74) and expert consultation (mean 6.61). The most commonly transmitted modality was computed tomography (mean 8.80), followed by conventional X-rays (8.40) and magnetic resonance imaging (8.32). The most commonly transmitted format was Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) (66.7%), followed by bitmap/Joint Photographic Experts Group (jpg) (38.1%), using the DICOM send/receive protocol (52.4%), followed by the hypertext transfer protocol (26.2%) and e-mail (21.4%). For security a secure connection (54.8%) followed by encryption (14.3%) and anonymization (9.5%) was used. For the future, image distribution was rated the most important aspect of teleradiology (7.88), followed by emergency (7.22) and expert consultation (6.53). Development of legal regulations is considered most important (8.17), followed by data security guidelines (8.15). Most radiologists believe that insurance companies should pay for the costs of teleradiology (37

  4. Convulsive liability of bupropion hydrochloride metabolites in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMahon Louis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is known that following chronic dosing with bupropion HCl active metabolites are present in plasma at levels that are several times higher than that of the parent drug, but the possible convulsive effects of the major metabolites are not known. Methods We investigated the convulsive liability and dose-response of the three major bupropion metabolites following intraperitoneal administration of single doses in female Swiss albino mice, namely erythrohydrobupropion HCl, threohydrobupropion HCl, and hydroxybupropion HCl. We compared these to bupropion HCl. The actual doses of the metabolites administered to mice (n = 120; 10 per dose group were equimolar equivalents of bupropion HCl 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Post treatment, all animals were observed continuously for 2 h during which the number, time of onset, duration and intensity of convulsions were recorded. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of mice in each group who had a convulsion at each dose. Other outcome measures were the time to onset of convulsions, mean convulsions per mouse, and the duration and intensity of convulsions. Results All metabolites were associated with a greater percentage of seizures compared to bupropion, but the percentage of convulsions differed between metabolites. Hydroxybupropion HCl treatment induced the largest percentage of convulsing mice (100% at both 50 and 75 mg/kg followed by threohydrobupropion HCl (50% and 100%, and then erythrohydrobupropion HCl (10% and 90%, compared to bupropion HCl (0% and 10%. Probit analysis also revealed the dose-response curves were significantly different (p 50 values of 35, 50, 61 and 82 mg/kg, respectively for the four different treatments. Cox proportional hazards model results showed that bupropion HCl, erythrohydrobupropion HCl, and threohydrobupropion HCl were significantly less likely to induce convulsions within the 2-h post treatment observation period compared to hydroxybupropion HCl. The

  5. CERN’s Rugby Club to play the Swiss Cup semi-finals: come and support the CERN team!

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    On Saturday 25 June, the CERN’s Rugby Club will be playing in the Swiss Cup semi-final against the Hermance Rugby Club. Although the CERN club has had a less than stellar year in the Swiss national first division, they earned a place in the Cup semi-final after beating Bern 30 – 0 and La Chaux-de-Fonds 38 – 7. The club last made it to the Swiss Cup semi-finals in 2002, where they lost to Hermance (the most successful Swiss rugby club, followed closely by CERN’s). Show your support for the CERN team and help them reach the Swiss Cup final by going to the 25 June match at 15.00 in the CERN pitch.  

  6. Proposal for the award of a contract for cleaning on the Swiss part of the CERN site

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for cleaning on the Swiss part of the CERN site. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract with TOP-NET SERVICES (CH), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, for the provision of cleaning and building maintenance work on the Swiss part of the CERN site for three years for a total amount of 5 841 159 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 1 January 2009, with options for additional services for an additional amount of 350 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 1 January 2009, bringing the total amount to 6 191 159 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 1 January 2009. The contract will include options for two one-year extensions beyond the initial three-year period.

  7. Organ donation after assisted suicide: a potential solution to the organ scarcity problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M

    2014-08-15

    Switzerland has low deceased organ donation rates. It is also one of the few countries where assisted suicide is decriminalized in some circumstances. If organs donated by Swiss and foreign citizens assisted in committing suicide in Switzerland were used for transplantation, the country could achieve a surplus of organs. There are several practical problems and ethical and legal objections to this proposal, all of which can be overcome. Organ donation after planned death is a potential solution to the organ scarcity problem in any country that permits assisted dying.

  8. Swiss fusion blanket experiments: Final report, November 1, 1985-October 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, G.L.

    1987-01-01

    The major thrust of this project related to the effort to transfer the Lithium Blanket Module (LBM) to the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Swiss Institute of Technology at Lausanne, and to the subsequent support with analytical calculations of a variety of experiments performed with the LBM. 12 refs

  9. Lexical features of emphasis in the Swiss national variant of French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Григорьевна Дмитриева

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the emphasizing words and expressions used in the Swiss national variant of the French language; the issues of the language social role as well as the problems of intercultural communication are also touched upon.

  10. Young people, parents and radical right voting. The case of the Swiss People's Party

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coffé, H.R.; Voorpostel, M.B.J.

    2010-01-01

    It is commonly found that young people tend to adopt the political party choice of their parents. However, far less is known about the applicability of this theory when investigating radical right support. Using the Swiss Household panel data (1999e2007), this study empirically identifies the

  11. Swiss energy statistics 2006; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2006/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  12. Swiss energy statistics 2005; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2005/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  13. Swiss energy statistics 2004; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2004/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  14. Who Seeks Career Counselling? A Prospective Study of Personality and Career Variables among Swiss Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balin, Elif; Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether career adaptability, personality, attitude towards career counselling and some demographic variables predict the help seeking behaviour in career counselling among 330 Swiss adolescents in eighth grade. The results indicated that boys were less likely to seek help and that career related variables and attitude but…

  15. Potential effects of the income stabilisation tool (IST) in Swiss agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El Nadja; Finger, Robert; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.

    2016-01-01

    We extend the existing literature on the income stabilisation tool (IST) by investigating the influence of farm and farmers' characteristics on potential indemnification applying double-hurdle models on a rich panel data set on Swiss farms. We find more likely and higher indemnifications for

  16. Swiss energy statistics 2003; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2003/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  17. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  18. What Can US Single-Payer Supporters Learn From the Swiss Rejection of Single Payer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    On September 27, 2014, Swiss voters rejected a proposal to replace their system of about 60 health insurance companies offering mandatory basic health coverage with a single public insurer, the state, which would offer taxpayer-funded coverage of all medically necessary care. The Swiss and the U.S. media, academia, and business sectors, from conservative and liberal camps, interpreted the results to mean a rejection of single payer and a preference for a privately run system, with important implications for health reform in the United States. While on the surface mainstream interpretations appear reasonable, I argue that they have little basis on fact because they rely on assumptions that, while untrue, are repeated as mantras that conveniently justify the continuation of a model of health insurance that is unraveling, less conspicuously in Switzerland, dramatically in the United States. To make my case, I describe the dominant narrative about Swiss health care and mainstream interpretations of the latest referendum on health reform, unpack the problem within these interpretations, and conclude by identifying what lessons the Swiss referendum contains for single payer advocates in the United States in particular and for those who struggle for social and economic rights more generally. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. The Swiss Society of Microbiology: Small Bugs, Big Questions and Cool Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greub, Gilbert; Holliger, Christof; Sanglard, Dominique; Schrenzel, Jacques; Thiel, Volker; Viollier, Patrick

    2016-12-21

    The Swiss Society for Microbiology (SSM) represents around 700 scientists working in the fields of medical (human and veterinary), microbial biotechnology as well as fundamental, environmental, and food microbiology. Five sections: Clinical Microbiology, Environmental Microbiology, Mycology, Prokaryotic Biology, and Virology reflects the main interests of the membership.

  20. Do diatoms in the Swiss Alps reflect the length of ice-cover?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotter, A.F.; Bigler, C.

    2000-01-01

    ment core from Hagelseewli (2339 m asl, Swiss Alps) give information about the present-day seasonal cycle of diatom blooms, taphonomic processes in the lake basin and the lake’s history. Analyses of surficial sediments show that water depth and thus light and nutrient availability is the most

  1. Genetic analysis of Test Day Milk Yields of Brown Swiss cattle raised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 3696 Test Day Milk Yield (TDMY) records of Brown Swiss cows raised at Konuklar State Farm in the Konya Province of Turkey were used for estimating phenotypic and genetic parameters for TDMY. The phenotypic and genetic parameters were estimated by an MTDFREML programme using a Single Trait Animal ...

  2. The Swiss "Willensnation" at Risk: Teachers in the Cultural Gap during the First World War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    As a neutral and multilingual country, Switzerland struggled with major domestic political conflicts during the First World War due to the two cultures of the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of the country. The divided cultural loyalties ("fossé moral", "Röstigraben"), consisting of Swiss-Germans supporting Germany…

  3. Dropouts in Swiss Vocational Education and the Effect of Training Companies' Trainee Selection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsblom, Lara; Negrini, Lucio; Gurtner, Jean-Luc; Schumann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In the Swiss vocational education system, which is often called a "Dual System", trainees enter into an apprenticeship contract with a training company. On average, 25% of those contracts are terminated prematurely (PCT). This article examines the relationship between training companies' selection methods and PCTs. The investigation is…

  4. Paul Scherrer Institute Scientific Report 1998. Volume VII: Swiss Light Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weyer, Heinz Josef; Bugmann, Marlen; Neuhaus, Sibylle

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss Light Source (SLS) is a medium energy range light source that also provides light with high brilliance in the regime of hard X-rays. It is being constructed at PSI and scheduled to be operational in 2001. A series of new features that were adopted for the design and operation of this machine, is described in this annual report for 1998

  5. How would Swiss consumers decide if they had freedom of choice?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aerni, P.; Scholderer, Joachim; Ermen, J.

    2011-01-01

    that consumers would shun labeled GM food. In our study we tested this claim by conducting a large-scale field study with Swiss consumers. In our experimental design, three clearly labeled types of corn bread were offered at five different market stands across the French and German-speaking part of Switzerland...

  6. Where is the risk? Price, yield and cost risk in Swiss crop production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benni, El N.; Finger, R.

    2012-01-01

    Risk management strategies are of increasing importance in agriculture. An important question is, what type of risk management strategies are required to reduce farmers’ income risks. Applying a variance decomposition approach using data of more than 3000 Swiss farms over a five year time period,

  7. 77 FR 53248 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Swiss Treasures: From...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8004] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Swiss Treasures: From Biblical Papyrus and Parchment to Erasmus, Zwingli, Calvin, and Barth... Parchment to Erasmus, Zwingli, Calvin, and Barth,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  8. "Cooking Lunch, That's Swiss": Constructing Hybrid Identities Based on Socio-Cultural Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the discursive construction and negotiation of hybrid identities within binational couples. I analyze conversations produced by Anglophones married to German-speaking Swiss residing in central Switzerland. I employ Bucholtz & Hall's sociocultural linguistic model (2004, 2005, 2010), which views identity as emergent in…

  9. Prediction of 305-day milk yield in Brown Swiss cattle using artificial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been shown to be a powerful tool for system modelling in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we focus on the capability of ANNs to predict 305-d milk yield in early lactation of Brown Swiss cattle, based on a few test-day records, and some environmental factors such as age, ...

  10. Is the swiss health care system a model for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Both supporters and critics of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have argued that it is similar to Switzerland's Federal Law on Health Insurance (LAMal), which currently governs Swiss health care, and have either praised or condemned the ACA on the basis of this alleged similarity. I challenge these observers on the grounds that they overlook critical problems with the Swiss model, such as its inequities in access, and critical differences between it and the ACA, such as the roots in, and continuing commitment to, social insurance of the Swiss model. Indeed, the daunting challenge of attempting to impose the tightly regulated model of operation of the Swiss model on mega-corporations like UnitedHealth, WellPoint, or Aetna is likely to trigger no less ferocious resistance than a fully public, single-payer system would. I also conclude that the ACA might unravel in ways unintended or even opposed by its designers and supporters, as employers, confronted with ever-rising costs, retreat from sponsoring insurance, and workers react in outrage as they confront the unaffordable underinsurance mandated by the ACA. A new political and ideological landscape may then ensue that finally ushers in a truly national health program.

  11. Seizures of doping substances at the Swiss Border--a descriptive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christina; Kamber, Matthias; Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Krug, Oliver; Thevis, Mario

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluates the content, the destination and the source of 960 postal items seized by the Swiss customs authorities at the Swiss border between 2013 and 2014. The packages were seized because they contained at least one prohibited doping product as identified by the Swiss law on encouraging sports and physical activity. A total number of 1825 different doping products were confiscated from these parcels, accounting for an average of 1.9 doping products per seized item. In 74% of the cases, where seizures were made, anabolic androgenic steroids, mostly testosterone esters, were discovered. An obvious trading channel for doping products was identified in this study. The seized compounds were predominately manufactured in Asian countries, but sent to Switzerland mostly via South Eastern Europe countries. Due to the unique collaboration between the Swiss customs authorities and the national anti-doping agency, this study uncovered an alarming trend of illegal doping product trafficked to Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tree-ring analysis of the fungal disease Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon coastal forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a foliage disease caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, which is specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The goal of this study was to reconstruct the history of the disease and determine the climatic conditions that influence the di...

  13. Protective efficacy of Emblica officinalis Linn. against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, P.K.; Chakrawarti, Aruna; Agarwal, Manisha

    2012-01-01

    All organisms living on earth are being perpetually exposed to some amount of radiation originating from a variety of sources. Radiation causes deleterious effects in all forms of life due to increasing utilization and production of modern technology, a simultaneous exposure of organisms to heavy metals is also unavoidable. These heavy metals become toxic when present in large quantities, with increasing the industrial revolution and industrial waste, the emission of cadmium has increased into the environment. Thus concomitant exposure to cadmium chloride and ionizing radiation might produce deleterious effect upon biological system. The total environmental burden of toxicants may have greater effect as against their individual impact as expected by their nature. So interaction between radiation and other toxicants represents a field of great potential importance. In the recent years, immense interest has been developed in the field of chemoprotection against radiation and heavy metals induced changes. In view of the potential for practical application, a variety of compounds are being tested for their radioprotective activities. Among these, Emblica holds a great promise. In light of the above, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Emblica against radiation and cadmium induced biochemical alterations in the liver of Swiss albino mice. The animals were exposed to 6.0 Gy of gamma rays with or without cadmium chloride treatment. The Emblica was administered seven days prior to irradiation or cadmium chloride treatment

  14. Mobbing among care workers in nursing homes: A cross-sectional secondary analysis of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Myriam; Schwendimann, René; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2017-01-01

    As a category of bullying, mobbing is a form of violence in the workplace that damages the employing organization as well as the targeted employee. In Europe, the overall prevalence of mobbing in healthcare is estimated at 4%. However, few studies have explored mobbing among long-term care workers. This study aims to examine the frequency of mobbing in Swiss nursing homes and its relationships with care workers' (i.e. registered nurse, licensed practical nurse, assistant nurse, nurse aide) health status, job satisfaction, and intention to leave, and to explore the work environment as a contributing factor to mobbing. A cross-sectional, multi-center sub-study of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resource Project (SHURP). Nursing homes in Switzerland's three language regions. A total of 162 randomly selected nursing homes with 20 or more beds, including 5311 care workers with various educational levels. Controlling for facility and care worker characteristics, generalized estimation equations were used to assess the relationships between mobbing and care workers' health status, job satisfaction, and intention to leave as well as the association of work environment factors with mobbing. In Swiss nursing homes, 4.6% of surveyed care workers (n=242) reported mobbing experiences in the last 6 months. Compared to untargeted persons, those directly affected by mobbing had higher odds of health complaints (Odds Ratios (OR): 7.81, 95% CI 5.56-10.96) and intention to leave (OR: 5.12, 95% CI 3.81-6.88), and lower odds of high job satisfaction (OR: 0.19, 95% CI 0.14-0.26). Odds of mobbing occurrences increased with declining teamwork and safety climate (OR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.30-0.58), less supportive leadership (OR: 0.42, 95% CI 0.30-0.58), and higher perceived inadequacy of staffing resources (OR: 0.66, 95% CI 0.48-0.92). Mobbing experiences in Swiss nursing homes are relatively rare. Alongside teamwork and safety climate, risk factors are strongly associated with superiors

  15. Twenty years' experience with the Swiss data registry for assisted reproductive medicine: outcomes, key trends and recommendations for improved practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Geyter, Christian; Fehr, Peter; Moffat, Rebecca; Gruber, Isabel Marieluise; von Wolff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The impact of assisted reproductive technology (ART) on Swiss demography was quantified. From 1993 to 2012 the number of deliveries, including multiples, generated by ART was compared with overall delivery numbers. Swiss experts in ART collaborated in a consensus to increase successful outcomes, to reduce the incidence of complications of ART and to validate recommendations through statistical review of available data. Data generated between 1993 and 2012 and published by the Federal Office of Statistics (BfS) were compared with the Swiss database on ART (FIVNAT-CH) as organised by the Swiss Society of Reproductive Medicine (SGRM). From these analyses a panel of Swiss experts in ART extracted recommendations to improve current practice, to prevent complications related to ART and to recommend changes in current Swiss legislation dealing with ART. Since 1993 the age of women giving birth rose together with the number of women asking for ART. This demographic trend was reflected in a rise in the number of deliveries generated by ART (in 2012: 2.2%) and the proportion of multiple births (in 2012: 17.6%). The outcome of ART was most negatively influenced by the age of the treated patient. The number of retrieved oocytes decisively impacted the likelihood of delivery, the risk of multiple births and the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Optimal ovarian stimulation should be designed for the retrieval of 10 to 15 oocytes per treatment. Swiss legislation should enable and stimulate a policy of elective single embryo transfer to avoid multiple births.

  16. A high-resolution CNV map across Brown Swiss cattle populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaëlle Teresa Matilde Maria Prinsen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genomic studies and their use in selection programs are having a strong impact in dairy cattle selection (E. Liu et al., 2010. The first aim was to create a high resolution map of CNV regions (CNVRs in Brown Swiss cattle and the characterization of identified CNVs as markers for quantitative and population genetic studies. CNVs were called in a set of 164 sires with PennCNV and genoCN. PennCNV identified 2,377 CNVRs comprising 1,162 and 1,131 gain and loss events, respectively, and 84 regions of complex nature. GenoCN detected 41,519 CNVRs comprising 3,475 and 34,485 gain and loss events, respectively, and 3,559 regions of complex ones. Consensus calls between algorithms were summarized to CNVRs at the population level. GenoCN was also used to identify total allelic content in consensus CNVRs. Moreover, population haplotype frequencies were calculated. Linkage disequilibrium (LD was established between CNVs and SNPs in and around CNVRs. In this study the potential contribution of CNVs as genetic markers for genome wide association studies (GWAS has been assessed thanks to PIC and LD values. The next aim is to investigate genomic structural variation in cattle using dense SNP information in more than 1000 samples of the Italian and Swiss Brown Swiss breed genotyped on HD Bovine BeadChips. Today there is still no CNV map available across Brown Swiss populations belonging to different countries. This study therefore expands the catalogue of CNVRs in the bovine genome, delivers an international based high-resolution map of CNVRs specific to Brown Swiss dairy cattle and will lastly provide information for GEBV estimation with CNVs.

  17. Protective effect of vitamin C in female Swiss mice dermally-exposed to the tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Estrela, Fernanda Neves; E Silva, Bianca Costa; Mendes, Bruna de Oliveira; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; Rodrigues, Aline Sueli de Lima; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies involving the oral exposure of mice to tannery effluents have found neurotoxic effects. However, studies about the effects the dermal exposure to pollutant have on the cognitive function of females have not been found in the literature. Thus, the aim of the current study is to investigate whether the dermal exposure of female Swiss mice to tannery effluents (2 h/day for 20 days) can cause cognitive impairment, as it was already evidenced in male Swiss mice. Furthermore, based on the administration of vitamin C (before or after the exposure to the xenobiotic), the current study also aims to assess the protective effect of vitamin C in female Swiss mice dermally-exposed to the tannery effluent. Female Swiss mice exposed to the tannery effluent (without vitamin supplementation) have shown lower novel object recognition index during the test session of the novel object recognition task, and they have descended significantly faster from the inhibitory avoidance platform when they were compared to mice belonging to the other groups, therefore evidencing memory deficit. However, the test performance of females receiving vitamin C was similar to that of control animals. Thus, the current study confirms the initial hypothesis that the dermal exposure to the pollutant, even for a short period, causes cognitive deficit in female Swiss mice. The herein presented findings also provide evidence that the mechanisms of action of the tannery effluent in these animals are related to oxidative damages in specific brain regions directed to the formation of short memory to perform aversive and object recognition tasks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Swiss bare mice: a suitable model for transcutaneous in vivo Raman spectroscopic studies of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T; Kumar, Piyush; Maru, G; Ingle, A; Krishna, C Murali

    2014-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting females worldwide. As early detection results in better prognosis, screening tools for breast cancer are being explored. Raman spectroscopy, a rapid, objective, and noninvasive tool, has shown promising results in the diagnosis of several cancers including breast cancer. For development as a screening tool, a study of spectral signatures associated with breast cancer progression is imperative. However, such studies are not possible in human subjects. Hence, there is a need for a suitable animal model, which is conducive to transcutaneous in vivo Raman spectroscopic measurements of breast with minimal interference from skin and hair and has contribution from functional mammary epithelium of breast. In this study, rodent models like C57, Swiss albino, Swiss bare, agouti mice, and Sprague-Dawley rats were evaluated. Among these models, transcutaneous breast spectra of hairless Swiss bare mice have the best signal-to-noise ratio and were closest to reported ex vivo as well as intraoperative in vivo human breast spectra. Principal component-linear discriminant analysis of several anatomical sites confirms minimal skin interference and suggests contribution from functional mammary epithelium of breast. Moreover, transcutaneous spectra from normal breast and breast tumors of Swiss bare mice could be classified with 99% efficiency, which is better than the previous reports. Thus, Swiss bare mice model may be better suited for transcutaneous in vivo Raman spectroscopic studies of breast physiology and pathology, especially breast cancer. Prospectively, in addition to cancer progression, breast-to-bone metastasis can also be studied, since these anatomical sites can be uniquely classified.

  19. Absenteeism and Presenteeism among Care Workers in Swiss Nursing Homes and Their Association with Psychosocial Work Environment: A Multi-Site Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaini, Suzanne; Zúñiga, Franziska; Ausserhofer, Dietmar; Simon, Michael; Kunz, Regina; De Geest, Sabina; Schwendimann, René

    2016-01-01

    Worker productivity is central to the success of organizations such as healthcare institutions. However, both absenteeism and presenteeism impair that productivity. While various hospital studies have examined the prevalence of presenteeism and absenteeism and its associated factors among care workers, evidence from nursing home settings is scarce. To explore care workers' self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism in relation to nursing homes' psychosocial work environment factors. We performed a cross-sectional study utilizing survey data of 3,176 professional care workers in 162 Swiss nursing homes collected between May 2012 and April 2013. A generalized estimating equation ordinal logistic regression model was used to explore associations between psychosocial work environment factors (leadership, staffing resources, work stressors, affective organizational commitment, collaboration with colleagues and supervisors, support from other personnel, job satisfaction, job autonomy) and self-reported absenteeism and presenteeism. Absenteeism and presenteeism were observed in 15.6 and 32.9% of care workers, respectively. While absenteeism showed no relationship with the work environment, low presenteeism correlated with high leadership ratings (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.48) and adequate staffing resources (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.02-1.38). Self-reported presenteeism is more common than absenteeism in Swiss nursing homes, and leadership and staffing resource adequacy are significantly associated with presenteeism, but not with absenteeism. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Evaluation of implementation, compliance and acceptance of partial smoking bans among hospitality workers before and after the Swiss Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Hoffmann, Susanne; Röösli, Martin; Bauer, Georg F

    2015-03-01

    The World Health Organization recommends uniform comprehensive smoking bans in public places. In Switzerland, regulations differ between various areas and are mostly incomplete for hospitality venues. As ambiguous regulations offer more leeway for implementation, we evaluated the Swiss regulations with respect to their effects on implementation, acceptance and compliance among hospitality workers. In our longitudinal study, a standardized, self-administered questionnaire was mailed to a sample of 185 hospitality workers before and 4-6 month after the smoking ban came into effect. The matched longitudinal sample comprised 71 participants (repeated response rate 38.4%). We developed a seven-item acceptance scale. Logistic regressions were performed to explore the factors associated with acceptance. Acceptance of smoking bans was influenced by smoking status and perceived annoyance with second-hand smoke in private. Although not statistically significant (P = 0.09), we found some indications that post-ban acceptance increased in an area with strict regulations, whereas it decreased in two areas with less stringent regulations. Tobacco bans in Swiss hospitality venues are still in a period of consolidation. The incomplete nature of the law may also have had a negative impact on the development of greater acceptance. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A strategy to export Swiss wine to Germany: the case of Uvavins-Cave de La Côte

    OpenAIRE

    Rattaz, Matthieu; Rattaz, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Uvavins - Cave de la Côte is a Swiss based company producing and selling wines in Switzerland and abroad. The relatively high per capita consumption of wine in Switzerland used to allow domestic wine makers to sell the entire production locally without too much difficulty. However, this trend is changing and it has become more challenging to sell Swiss wines to Swiss people. The decrease in national consumption and the pressure on prices with imported wines being the two main reasons to expla...

  2. Attitudes towards organ donation and relation to wish to donate posthumously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Julius; Shaw, David; Schober, Roger; Abati, Viviana; Immer, Franz F; Comité National du Don d'Organes Cndo

    2017-02-06

    Organs donated for transplantation remain a scarce resource in Switzerland. One of the reasons for this situation is the high percentage of patients or families who refuse to consent to donation. This study aimed to provide an overview of attitudes towards organ donation among Swiss residents, including any intention to donate organs after death, and whether they had already declared their wish and/or communicated it to anyone. A representative poll investigating the attitude of the Swiss population towards deceased organ donation was conducted between 16 and 28 March 2015. Survey data were collected in 1000 structured telephone interviews. Participants consisted of residents aged 15 years and over from all Swiss regions, and covering the German, French and Italian language areas. Of the 1000 survey participants, 92% stated that they have a very positive (58%) or quite positive (33%) attitude towards organ donation, while 6% have a very negative (2%) or quite negative (4%) view. Some 81% of respondents said that they would be willing to donate their organs after death, and 9% expressed a wish not to become a donor. A total of 53% of participants said that they had already communicated or documented whether they wish to donate. Our study highlights the importance of continuing to raise awareness about the importance of communicating wishes, both in written form and to family members, and suggests that more work is needed to reap the benefits of the substantial support for organ donation among the Swiss population.

  3. Teratogenic effect of retinoic acid in swiss mice Efeito teratogênico do ácido retinóico em camundongo swiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Veiga Quemelo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To identify the types of malformations resulting from the administration of retinoic acid (RA to Swiss mice on different days of pregnancy. METHODS: Twenty-four pregnant Swiss mice were divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each. The experimental groups received a single intraperitoneal injection of RA (70 mg/kg on gestational days 7, 8 and 9 (D7, D8 and D9, while control animals (C received only saline solution. RESULTS: Were obtained: exencephaly (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0, myelomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%, D8:30.9%, D9:0, spina bifida occulta (C:0, D7:29%, D8:41.8%, D90, gastroschisis (C:0, D7:6.4% D8:5.4%, D9:0, omphalocele (C:0, D7:6.4%, D8:14.5%, D9:0, lower limb alterations (C:0, D7:74.1%, D8:80%, D9:0, imperforated anus (C:0, D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%, and tail agenesis/alteration (C: D7:100%, D8:100%, D9:100%. CONCLUSION: The experimental model using Swiss mice proved to be efficient in the induction of the different types of defects, with the eighth gestational day being the one that most favored the induction of neural tube defect, omphalocele, gastroschisis, lower limb defects, imperforated anus and tail agenesis/alteration. On this basis, this is a useful model for future investigation of neural development and of the formation of the appendicular skeleton.OBJETIVO: Identificar os tipos de malformação resultantes da administração do ácido retinóico (AR a camundongos Swiss em diferentes dias gestacionais. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 24 camundongos fêmeas, linhagem Swiss, prenhes, divididos em 4 grupos com 6 animais cada. Os grupos experimentais receberam uma única injeção intraperitoneal de AR (70mg/Kg nos dias gestacionais 7, 8 e 9 (D7, D8 e D9, enquanto que os animais do grupo controle (C receberam apenas solução salina. RESULTADOS: Foram encontrados: exencefalia (C:0; D7:16.1%; D8:25.4%; D9:0; mielomeningocele (C:0; D7:25.8%; D8:30.9%; D9:0; Espina Bífida Oculta (C:0; D7:29%; D8:41.8%; D90; gastrosquise (C:0

  4. Laurels for Swiss in-service inspection team

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Following what is believed to be the first successful application of P-scan ultrasonic testing for the in-service inspection of austenitic welds in the boiling water reactor at Wuergassen (Federal Republic of Germany) last year, Sulzer participated in a 'round robin' test organized by the Electric Power Research Institute in the USA form May to July 1983. (Auth.)

  5. Use of simulation-based medical training in Swiss pediatric hospitals: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Martin; Laine, Kathryn; Ulmer, Francis

    2017-06-17

    Simulation-based medical training (SBMT) is a powerful tool for continuing medical education. In contrast to the Anglo-Saxon medical education community, up until recently, SBMT was scarce in continental Europe's pediatric health care education: In 2009, only 3 Swiss pediatric health care institutions used SBMT. The Swiss catalogue of objectives in Pediatrics does not acknowledge SBMT. The aim of this survey is to describe and analyze the current state of SBMT in Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments. A survey was carried out with medical education representatives of every institution. SBMT was defined as any kind of training with a mannequin excluding national and/or international standardized courses. The survey reference day was May 31st 2015. Thirty Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments answered our survey (response rate 96.8%) with 66.6% (20 out of 30) offering SBMT. Four of the 20 hospitals offering SMBT had two independently operating training simulation units, resulting in 24 educational units as the basis for our SBMT analysis. More than 90% of the educational units offering SBMT (22 out of 24 units) were conducting in-situ training and 62.5% (15 out of 24) were using high-technology mannequins. Technical skills, communication and leadership ranked among the top training priorities. All institutions catered to inter-professional participants. The vast majority conducted training that was neither embedded within a larger educational curriculum (19 out of 24: 79.2%) nor evaluated (16 out of 24: 66.6%) by its participants. Only 5 institutions (20.8%) extended their training to at least two thirds of their hospital staff. Two thirds of the Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments are offering SBMT. Swiss pediatric SBMT is inter-professional, mainly in-situ based, covering technical as well as non-technical skills, and often employing high-technology mannequins. The absence of a systematic approach and reaching only

  6. Energy as a competitive factor - Opportunities for the Swiss economy; Wettbewerbsfaktor Energie - Chancen fuer die Schweizer Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-02-15

    This report Swiss for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews opportunities offered to the Swiss economy by regarding energy as a competitive factor. Goals set in Switzerland regarding the reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions and measures taken in this area are commented on. The report takes a look at measures that are technically and economically implementable in the building and transport areas. The costs and investment involved in the implementation of a particular scenario are examined. The chances offered to Swiss companies in the area of replacements for fossil fuels are examined. Market potentials in the areas of renewable energy sources and energy productivity are reviewed as are related financial services and workplace effects.

  7. Assessing the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ), German language version in Swiss university hospitals--a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Natalie; Küng, Kaspar; Sereika, Susan M; Engberg, Sandra; Sexton, Bryan; Schwendimann, René

    2013-09-10

    Improving patient safety has become a major focus of clinical care and research over the past two decades. An institution's patient safety climate represents an essential component of ensuring a safe environment and thereby can be vital to the prevention of adverse events. Covering six patient safety related factors, the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) is a validated and widely used instrument to measure the patient safety climate in clinical areas. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the German language version of the SAQ. A survey was carried out in two University Hospitals in Switzerland in autumn 2009 where the SAQ was distributed to a sample of 406 nurses and physicians in medical and surgical wards. Following the American Educational Research Association guidelines, we tested the questionnaire validity by levels of evidence: content validity, internal structure and relations to other variables. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine factor structure. Cronbach's alphas and inter-item correlations were calculated to examine internal consistency reliability. A total of 319 questionnaires were completed representing an overall response rate of 78.6%. For three items, the item content validity index was <0.75. Confirmatory factor analysis showed acceptable model fit (RMSEA = 0.045; CFI = 0.944) for the six-factor model. Additional exploratory factor analysis could not identify a better factor model. SAQ factor scores showed positive correlations with the Safety Organizing Scale (r = .56-.72). The SAQ German version showed moderate to strong internal consistency reliability indices (Cronbach alpha = .65-.83). The German language version of the SAQ demonstrated acceptable to good psychometric properties and therefore shows promise to be a sound instrument to measure patient safety climate in Swiss hospital wards. However, the low item content validity and large number of missing responses for several items suggest

  8. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs

  9. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. The exclusionary side-effects of the civic-integration paradigm: boundary processes among youth in Swiss schools.

    OpenAIRE

    Duemmler Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Civic integration policies have become common in many European states and require that immigrants commit to integrating into the host society. This article draws on a study with young people in Swiss schools and investigates how these new political debates around civic integration find resonance in everyday narratives about immigration. The boundary approach is used as a framework to study the daily (re)production of the ‘Swiss–foreigner divide’. It reveals that assimilation into ‘Swiss cultu...

  11. TAXATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION - EVIDENCE FROM THE SWISS CENSUS USING COMMUNITY-LEVEL VARIATION IN INCOME TAX RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Thomas; Puhani, Patrick A.; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between income tax rate variation and internal migration for the unique case of Switzerland, whose system of determining tax rates primarily at the community level results in enough variation to permit analysis of their influence on migration. Specifically, using Swiss census data, we analyze migratory responses to tax rate variations for various groups defined by age, education, and nationality/residence permit. The results suggest that young Swiss college gra...

  12. The Evolution of Strategic Thought Since September 11, 2001: A Swiss Perspective on Clausewitz, Classical, and Contemporary Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    STRATEGIC THOUGHT SINCE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001: A SWISS PERSPECTIVE ON CLAUSEWITZ, CLASSICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY THEORIES by Grégoire O. Monnet...STRATEGIC THOUGHT SINCE SEPTEMBER 11, 2001: A SWISS PERSPECTIVE ON CLAUSEWITZ, CLASSICAL, AND CONTEMPORARY THEORIES 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S...concerning small wars and insurgencies—relevant to contemporary conflicts since September 11, 2001? This study is chiefly based on secondary sources

  13. How neighbours of the first large Swiss wind farm perceive the wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Droz, Y.; Mieville-Ott, V.; Monsutti, A.

    2003-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a study on the way the neighbours of the first large Swiss wind farm react on this particular neighbourhood. A survey involving 421 people showed that, as a general rule, the wind turbines are well accepted. However, it also showed that a transparent negotiation with the population during wind turbine project developpement is absolutely needed. Public acceptance also depends on the way the turbine arrays are aesthetically integrated in the landscape. The report is rounded up by recommendations for companies in charge of wind energy projects in order to minimize troubles with the concerned population. For example, financial compensation could be a suitable means when dealing with farmers

  14. The Swiss heating reactor (SHR) for district heating of small communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgsmueller, P.; Jacobi, A.Jr.; Jaeger, J.F.; Klaentschi, M.J.; Seifritz, W.; Vuillemier, F.; Wegmann, F.

    1987-01-01

    With fossil fuel running out in a foreseeable future, it is essential to develop substitution strategies. Some 40-50 % of the heat demand in industrial countries is below 120 degrees C, for space heating and warm water production, causing a corresponding fraction of air pollution by SO 2 and to a lesser extent NO x if fossil fuels are used. Yet, contemporary LWR technology makes it feasible to supply a district heating network without basically new reactor development. Units in the power range 10-50 MW are most suitable for Switzerland, both in respect of network size and of the democratic decision making structure. A small BWR for heating purpose is being developed by parts of the Swiss Industry and the Swiss Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR). The economic target of 100-120 SFr/MWh heat at the consumer's seems achievable. (author)

  15. Results of the Swiss system for post-factum detection of irradiated foods, 1989 - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the history of development of the Swiss system and activities of Swiss experts as members of international bodies, as e.g. the 'BCR concerted action on methods of identification of irradiated foods', or the CEN. Methods recommend by the CEN are addressed, as for example: ESR, thermoluminescence, and methods for detection of fat radiolysis products, or detection of o-tyrosine (in seafood and poultry). The concluding statement is that illegal irradiation of foods is not a significant problem in Switzerland, which agrees with figures published in a recent study from Great Britain (Maff, Joint Food Safety and Standards Group, Food Surveillance Information Sheet No. 102, March 1997). (orig./CB) [de

  16. The Swiss automobile industry - Situation, structure, trends, challenges and chances; Automobilindustrie Schweiz. Branchenanalyse 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, A.

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic takes a look at the situation of the Swiss automobile industry in 2008. The results of the study are presented and include figures on the automobile industry, its history, structure, turn-over, employment and its position from the international point of view. Research and development in the sector, investments and challenges faced are discussed. The products and services offered are looked at and the relevant strategies examined. The sector's competitive environment and possibilities for growth are looked at and the advantages offered by strategic partnerships and geographical location are noted. Finally, interviews with important actors in the business are presented.

  17. Human and Organisational Factors in the Licensing Process for New NPPs: The Swiss Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryser, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Past and recent construction as well as operating experience has shown the importance of giving due attention to human and organisational factors (HOF) in the design and construction of new NPPs. The present paper primarily deals with the development of regulatory requirements by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) concerning HOF engineering aspects, i.e. the design of the work systems of the new NPP (technical systems, work tasks, operating organisation). The requirements concerning quality and project management or the management system in general are not in the main focus of this paper. The approach and requirements presented are not yet fully implemented in the Swiss regulatory framework and are still being worked on. Therefore the issues described in the paper have to be considered as provisional and might still be subject to some change in the next months as the approach and requirements are being further developed and finalised. (author)

  18. Basics of Swiss water levy politics - Economic considerations; Grundlagen Wasserzinspolitik. Oekonomische Ueberlegungen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Staub, C. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Leimbacher, J. [Joerg Leimbacher, Bern (Switzerland)

    2008-10-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the economic considerations involved in defining the basics for the handling of levies on water commodities. This levy is raised in Switzerland on the use of water and represents the payment made to a commune for the use of its water resources. The report first takes a look at the current situation, the reasons behind the Swiss water levy concept and the reasons why they have to be newly regulated. Changes in market factors are discussed, e.g. the liberalisation of the power market and past and future price developments. Also, the situation on the spot and futures markets for electricity is discussed. The actual production costs for hydropower are discussed and compared with other means of electricity generation. Proposals for readjusting the regulations concerning water levies are discussed.

  19. Global Biodiversity Loss by Freshwater Consumption and Eutrophication from Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-07-05

    We investigated water-related resource use, emissions and ecosystem impacts of food consumed in Switzerland. To do so, we coupled LCA methodologies on freshwater consumption, freshwater eutrophication and the consequent local and global biodiversity impacts with Swiss customs data and multiregional input-output analysis. Most of the resource use, emissions and impacts occur outside the national boundaries which illustrates the extent of environmental outsourcing facilitated by international trade. Countries that are severely affected by Swiss food consumption include Spain, the United States and Ecuador. Cocoa, coffee, and almonds stood out as products with high impacts. By identifying spatial hotspots and impactful products, awareness of policy-makers as well as individual consumers can be raised and efforts of detailed assessments can be streamlined. However, political and economic constraints and the resistance by individual consumers limit the high potential of changes in diets and trade relations to decrease the environmental impacts of food.

  20. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of costus speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Nagaich, Upendra

    2010-01-01

    Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE) in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA) significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE) produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE) showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  1. Assessment of anti-nociceptive efficacy of Costus Speciosus rhizome in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjib Bhattacharya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Present study attempts to evaluate the anti-nociceptive activity of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of Costus speciosus rhizome (CPA and CPE in Swiss albino mice. The maceration extracts were evaluated for anti-nociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and tail flick method in mice. The anti-nociceptive screening revealed significant peripheral anti-nociceptive actions of both extracts against acetic acid induced writhing in mice. Aqueous extract (CPA significantly inhibited writhes at the dose of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight, while ethanol extract (CPE produced significant protection at the dose of 150 mg/kg body weight. However, in tail flick method only the ethanol extract (CPE showed significant central analgesic action, while aqueous extract was totally ineffective. The present investigation demonstrates that the rhizome extracts of C. speciosus exhibited significant anti-nociceptive effects in Swiss albino mice.

  2. USING THE TUNNEL PENDING ISSUE OR RENEWAL OF SWISS AND/OR FRENCH LEGITIMATION DOCUMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    Members of the CERN personnel, whose: Carte spéciale or Attestation de fonctions issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and/or Carte de légitimation or Attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are in the process of being issued or renewed, are authorized to use the Tunnel on condition that they are in possession of: their national identity card (if the Swiss and French regulations so permit) or national passport; their blue CERN card (access card); an attestation drawn up by the Cards Office certifying that the above-mentioned documents are in the process of being issued or in the case of renewal a certified photocopy of the documents, issued by the Users' Office (for Users) or the Cards Office (for all other members of the personnel). Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  3. Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic systems: results of Swiss studies on energy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, Roberto; Frischknecht, Rolf

    1998-01-01

    The methodology used and results obtained for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants in recent Swiss life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies on current and future energy systems are discussed. Mono- and polycrystalline silicon cell technologies utilised in current panels as well as monocrystalline and amorphous cells for future applications were analysed from Swiss conditions. The environmental inventories of slanted-roof solar panels and large plants are presented. Greenhouse gas emissions from present and future electricity systems are compared. The high electricity requirements for manufacturing determine most of the environmental burdens associated with current photovoltaics. However, due to increasing efficiency of production processes and cells, the environmental performance of PV systems is likely to improve substantially in the future. (Author)

  4. Swiss pioneers enjoy success - in spite of all prophesies of doom; Allen Unkenrufen zum Trotz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2005-07-01

    This article takes a look at two Swiss companies, both founded in 1991, that were initially laughed at but are now two market leaders in their business segments. They demonstrate that renewable forms of energy are an economic factor that is to be taken seriously. The first company discussed is Sputnik Engineering who build and sell inverters for photovoltaic installations. The success of this Swiss company, especially in Germany, is discussed and the importance of reliable inverter technology for the high availability rates needed by solar installations is discussed. The second company looked at is the Kompogas AG, who manufacture and operate digester systems for green wastes from kitchens and gardens. These fermenters produce biogas which can be fed into the gas mains or used as a fuel for vehicles or combined heat and power units. Market chances at home and abroad are discussed.

  5. Documentation on the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Turton, H.

    2011-10-01

    This comprehensive report by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland documents the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E). This is a flexible model which explicitly depicts plausible pathways for the development of the Swiss electricity sector, while dealing with inter-temporal variations in demand and supply. TIMES is quoted as having the capability to portray the entire energy system from resource supply, through fuel processing, representation of infrastructures, conversion to secondary energy carriers, end-use technologies and energy service demands at end-use sectors. The background of the model's development and a reference energy system are described. Also, electricity end-use sectors and generating systems are examined, including hydropower, nuclear power, thermal generation and renewables. Environmental factors and the calibration of the model are discussed, as is the application of the model. The document is completed with an outlook, references and six appendices

  6. High-quality protein knowledge resource: SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Claire; Martin, Maria Jesus; Gattiker, Alexandre; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos; Apweiler, Rolf

    2002-09-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domain structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and a high level of integration with other databases. Together with its automatically annotated supplement TrEMBL, it provides a comprehensive and high-quality view of the current state of knowledge about proteins. Ongoing developments include the further improvement of functional and automatic annotation in the databases including evidence attribution with particular emphasis on the human, archaeal and bacterial proteomes and the provision of additional resources such as the International Protein Index (IPI) and XML format of SWISS-PROT and TrEMBL to the user community.

  7. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  8. The influence of enriched environment on spatial memory in Swiss mice of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Fernandes Druzian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of enriched environment on spatial memory acquisition in mice of three different age groups. Weanling, young, and young adult female Swiss mice were housed in a standard control or enriched environment for 50 days, and their spatial memory was tested with the Morris Water Maze. We did not observe an experimental effect for spatial memory acquisition, and there was neither an effect of time of analysis nor an interaction between experimental group and time of analysis. Regarding effects of experimental group and training day in relation to latency in finding the hidden platform, we did find an effect in the experimental young adult mice group (p = 0.027, but there was no interaction between these factors in all three groups. Based on these findings environmental enrichment did not enhance spatial memory acquisition in female Swiss mice in the tested age groups.

  9. Radiological hazard indices and elemental composition of Brazilian and Swiss ornamental rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajj, T.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Silva, P.S.C.; Santos, A., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gandolla, M.P.A. [Universita della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Lugano (Switzerland); Dantas, G.A.S.A.; Delboni Junior, H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the radiological risk index of ornamental rocks sold both in Brazil and Europe and to correlate their radioactive content with their chemical composition. The {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K mean values were 62 ± 65, 122 ± 111, 1126 ± 516 Bq kg{sup -1} for Brazilian and 93 ± 59, 70 ± 67 and 1005 ± 780 Bq kg{sup -1} for Swiss samples, respectively. The radiological index: radium equivalent, external hazard index, absorbed dose rate in air, annual gonadal equivalent dose, annual effective dose equivalent, and excess lifetime cancer risk for Brazilian and Swiss samples were calculated. The main contribution for the radiological indices observed was the radionuclide {sup 232}Th, which is associated with REE, Br, Hf, Na, Rb, Sb and Zr in the rock matrix. (author)

  10. International CO{sub 2} abatement projects: experience from the Swiss AIJ pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutter, C.; Brodmann, U.; Luechinger, A. [Factor Consulting + Management Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    This paper analyses the two most advanced Swiss AIJ (Activities Implemented Jointly) projects. Key success and failure factors are derived from practical experience in developing and implementing these projects. The assessment of uncertainties shows that the counterfactual nature of baselines forms the most relevant factor for uncertainty with regard to climate benefits. Different strategies to minimise this uncertainty are described. For the investor, the performance of the project during its lifetime is the main source of uncertainty, since this will usually have a direct influence on the amount of emission reduction credits produced. Consequently, adequate legal structure and incentives for project hosts are crucial to ensure. The projects analysed are the Swiss-Romanian Thermal Energy Project (STEP) involving coal and gas for district heating and the Bucina Energy Optimisation Project in Slovakia to optimise a wood processing plant. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  11. [Latin program for organ donation: the intensivists are networking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revelly, J-P; Heidegger, C-P; Eckert, P; Moretti, D; Chevrolet, J-C; Chioléro, R

    2008-12-10

    The new Swiss federal law on organ and transplantation strengthens the responsibilities of the intensive care units. In Italian and French speaking parts of Switzerland, the Programme Latin pour le Don d'Organe (PLDO) has been launched to foster a wider collaboration between intensivists and donation coordinators. The PLDO aims at optimising knowledge and expertise in organ donation through improvements in identification, notification and management of organ donors and their next of kin. The PLDO dispenses education to all professionals involved. Such organisation should allow increasing the number of organs available, while improving healthcare professionals experience and next of kin emotion throughout the donation process.

  12. Efficiency measurement of Swiss shopping centers using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra Bay

    2015-01-01

    DEA as an Operations Research based linear programming approach for evaluating the relative performance of homogenous Decision Making Units (DMUs) is applied to Swiss shopping centers. Output-to-input efficiency ratios – as for example the sales productivity – incorporate one output (sales) and one input (sales area). Peer group comparisons (efficiency rankings) are difficult if multiple inputs and / or multiple outputs of different kind of data (quantitative, qualitative, categorical etc.) o...

  13. The Impact of Import Competition on Employment and Wages in Swiss Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Suarez

    1999-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of import competition on wage and employment at the industry level in Switzerland. We estimated reduced-form wage and employment equations for a panel of seven Swiss manufacturing sectors. Our analysis relies on a basic partial equilibrium relationship that relates changes in import price to domestic factor price and factor demand changes. Results are consistent with those found for other countries. A majority of the coefficients are significantly positive, refl...

  14. Swiss nation-wide survey on radiation doses in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroua, A.; Valley, J.F.; Vader, J.-P.; Burnand, B.

    2001-01-01

    A nation-wide survey on radiation doses in diagnostic radiology was conducted in Switzerland in 1998-1999. More than 250 types of examinations were considered, covering conventional and interventional radiology, angiography, CT, mammography, osteodensitometry, conventional tomography and dental radiology. This survey aimed at establishing the collective radiological impact of radiodiagnostics on the Swiss population. The methodology of the survey is described. The examination frequencies and integral dosimetric results associated with diagnostic radiology in Switzerland are presented. (author)

  15. Radiosensitivity of the swiss-rap mouse as a function of its growth rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legeay, G.; Glas, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results of an exhaustive study of the age dependence of the radiosensitivity of female Swiss-Rap mice are given. A close relationship of radiosensitivity versus age could not be brought out, whereas the weekly growth rate could be accurately related to radiosensitivity. Thus, the latter should be studied when a strain is to be used for biological experiments, as the rates of growth are different with the strains. (author) [fr

  16. Development of costs for complementary medicine after provisional inclusion into the Swiss basic health insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studer, Hans-Peter; Busato, André

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, 5 complementary procedures were included into the Swiss basic health insurance on a provisional basis. In consequence, many people expected a substantial increase of costs of up to CHF 110 million or even higher. Data on consultation costs at the expense of basic health insurance for the period of 1997-2003 were analyzed for 206 certified complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) physicians with 1 or multiple certificates for complementary medicine. The data was provided by the Swiss health insurers' data pool (santésuisse). The 2 major Swiss health insurers provided additional cost data of expenditures reimbursed by private health insurance for complementary medicine. This allowed a longitudinal analysis of consultation costs at the expense of basic health insurance and the costs of private health insurance of certified CAM physicians. Furthermore, those costs were compared to the respective costs of 119 non-certified CAM physicians and 145 physicians in conventional practices. The development of consultation costs of certified CAM physicians at the expense of basic health insurance showed a net annual increase of CHF 54,200 per physician between 1998 and 2002 and of CHF 35.9 million for all 663 certified CAM physicians. On the other hand, costs at the expense of private health insurance for complementary medicine decreased in the same period by CHF 34,300 per certified CAM physician and by CHF 22.8 million for all 663 certified CAM physicians. The inclusion of 5 complementary disciplines into the Swiss basic health insurance led to an increase of costs, which was, however, much lower than predicted. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Analysis of geohazards events along Swiss roads from autumn 2011 to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2014-05-01

    In Switzerland, roads and railways are threatened throughout the year by several natural hazards. Some of these events reach transport infrastructure many time per year leading to the closing of transportation corridors, loss of access, deviation travels and sometimes infrastructures damages and loss of human lives (3 fatalities during the period considered). The aim of this inventory of events is to investigate the number of natural events affecting roads and railways in Switzerland since autumn 2011 until now. Natural hazards affecting roads and railway can be classified in five categories: rockfalls, landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches and floods. They potentially cause several important direct damages on transportation infrastructure (roads, railway), vehicles (slightly or very damaged) or human life (slightly or seriously injured person, death). These direct damages can be easily evaluated from press articles or from Swiss police press releases. Indirect damages such as deviation cost are not taken into account in this work. During the two a half last years, about 50 events affecting the Swiss roads and Swiss railways infrastructures were inventoried. The proportion of events due to rockfalls is 45%, to landslides 25%, to debris flows 15%, to snow avalanches 10% and to floods 5%. During this period, three fatalities and two persons were injured while 23 vehicles (car, trains and coach) and 24 roads and railways were damaged. We can see that floods occur mainly on the Swiss Plateau whereas rockfalls, debris flow, snow avalanches and landslides are mostly located in the Alpine area. Most of events occur on secondary mountain roads and railways. The events are well distributed on the whole Alpine area except for the Gotthard hotspot, where an important European North-South motorway (hit in 2003 with two fatalities) and railway (hit three times in 2012 with one fatalities) are more frequently affected. According to the observed events in border regions of

  18. Propionibacterium freudenreichii strains quantitatively affect production of volatile compounds in Swiss cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Thierry, Anne; Maillard, Marie-Bernadette; Richoux, Romain; Kerjean, Jean-René; Lortal, Sylvie

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Cheese flavour is the result of a complex mixture of volatile compounds, originating mainly from the enzymatic degradation of curd components by cheese microflora during cheese ripening. Directing cheese flavour development requires knowledge on inter- and intra-species contributions to flavour development, i.e. identification of the volatile (flavour) compounds produced by each strain. The aim of this study was to identify the volatile compounds produced in Swiss chee...

  19. An Analysis of Cost-Efficiency in Swiss Multi-utilities

    OpenAIRE

    Mehdi Farsi; Massimo Filippini

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an empirical analysis of the cost efficiency of a sample of Swiss multi-utilities operating in the distribution of electricity, natural gas and water. The multi-utilities that operate in different sectors are characterized by a strong unobserved heterogeneity. Therefore the measurement of their performance poses an important challenge for the regulators. The purpose of this paper is to study the potential advantages of recently developed panel data stochastic frontie...

  20. Decreasing mortality and changing patterns of causes of death in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study.

    OpenAIRE

    Weber R; Ruppik M; Rickenbach M; Spoerri A; Furrer H; Battegay M; Cavassini M; Calmy A; Bernasconi E; Schmid P; Flepp M; Kowalska J; Ledergerber B; Ledergerber B

    2013-01-01

    Mortality among HIV infected persons is decreasing and causes of death are changing. Classification of deaths is hampered because of low autopsy rates frequent deaths outside of hospitals and shortcomings of International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD 10) coding. We studied mortality among Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) participants (1988 2010) and causes of death using the Coding Causes of Death in HIV (CoDe) protocol (2005 2009). Furthermore we linke...

  1. How much is Banking Secrecy worth? The case of Swiss Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Alexandre

    2011-01-01

    We use an early episode of negotiations between Switzerland and the European Union to investigate the value of banking secrecy for four Swiss banks: two universal banks and two private banks. We nd that the value of banking secrecy to private banks is large, accounting for at least 8 to 14% of their market value. Perhaps surprisingly, banking secrecy appears to account for only a very small fraction of the market value of the universal banks.

  2. Benefits of an ISO 9001 certification--the case of a Swiss regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staines, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of a quality management project leading to an ISO 9001 certification in a Swiss regional hospital. It describes the motivations for the project, the process that was followed and the benefits of the approach. It also shows its limitations, problems encountered as well as costs and resources involved. The emphasis is on practical issues. Choices that were made are discussed and lessons are drawn.

  3. Swiss Armed Forces Organizational Level Leader Development: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    author may be protected by more restrictions in their home countries, in which case further publication or sale of copyrighted images is not...of life experience without leaving home or school .”102 Third, Lead. Lead yourself and others like a humble gardener who shapes the ecosystem,103...SWISS ARMED FORCES ORGANIZATIONAL LEVEL LEADER DEVELOPMENT: A QUALITATIVE CASE STUDY A thesis presented to the Faculty of

  4. Tartrazine induced changes in physiological and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus

    OpenAIRE

    Arefin, Sayema; Hossain, Mohammad Salim; Akter Neshe, Shamme; Rashid, Md. Mamun Or; Amin, Mohammad Tohidul; Hussain, Md. Saddam

    2017-01-01

    Now-a-days synthetic food dyes are being used most commonly as food colorant in confectionaries, drugs and cosmetics. Present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of tartrazine, a widely used azo dye, on Swiss Albino mice. Experimental animals were treated with tested dye at a dose level 200mg/kg & 400mg/kg body weight along with normal diet. Various physiological and biochemical parameters were assessed to study the toxic effect of tartrazine. Our study rev...

  5. Undergraduate palliative care teaching in Swiss medical faculties: a nationwide survey and improved learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychmüller, S; Forster, M; Gudat, H; Lütolf, U M; Borasio, G D

    2015-11-27

    In 2007, a first survey on undergraduate palliative care teaching in Switzerland has revealed major heterogeneity of palliative care content, allocation of hours and distribution throughout the 6 year curriculum in Swiss medical faculties. This second survey in 2012/13 has been initiated as part of the current Swiss national strategy in palliative care (2010 - 2015) to serve as a longitudinal monitoring instrument and as a basis for redefinition of palliative care learning objectives and curriculum planning in our country. As in 2007, a questionnaire was sent to the deans of all five medical faculties in Switzerland in 2012. It consisted of eight sections: basic background information, current content and hours in dedicated palliative care blocks, current palliative care content in other courses, topics related to palliative care presented in other courses, recent attempts at improving palliative care content, palliative care content in examinations, challenges, and overall summary. Content analysis was performed and the results matched with recommendations from the EAPC for undergraduate training in palliative medicine as well as with recommendations from overseas countries. There is a considerable increase in palliative care content, academic teaching staff and hours in all medical faculties compared to 2007. No Swiss medical faculty reaches the range of 40 h dedicated specifically to palliative care as recommended by the EAPC. Topics, teaching methods, distribution throughout different years and compulsory attendance still differ widely. Based on these results, the official Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) was complemented with 12 new learning objectives for palliative and end of life care (2013), and a national basic script for palliative care was published (2015). Performing periodic surveys of palliative care teaching at national medical faculties has proven to be a useful tool to adapt the national teaching framework and to improve the

  6. Susceptibility and morbidity between male and female Swiss mice infected with Angiostrongylus costaricensis: Susceptibilidade e morbidade entre camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas infectados com Angiostrongylus costaricensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia B. Mentz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The gender of vertebrate hosts may affect the outcome of parasitic infections. An experimental murine infection with Angiostrongylus costaricensis was followed with determinations of body weight, fecal larval elimination, number and length of adult worms, number of macroscopic intestinal lesions, and mortality. Groups of male and female Swiss mice were infected with 10 3rd-stage A. costaricensis larvae per animal. The results indicate there are no significant differences related to gender of the host, except for higher length of worms developed in male mice.O sexo dos hospedeiros vertebrados pode influenciar no resultado de infecções parasitárias. A infecção experimental de camundongos com Angiostrongylus costaricensis foi acompanhada com observação do peso corporal, eliminação de larvas nas fezes, número e comprimento dos vermes adultos, número de lesões macroscópicas nos intestinos e mortalidade. Grupos de camundongos Swiss machos e fêmeas foram infectados cada um com 10 larvas de terceiro estágio de A. costaricensis. Os resultados indicam que não há diferenças significativas relacionados ao sexo dos hospedeiros, exceto pelo maior comprimento dos vermes nos hospedeiros machos.

  7. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-08-01

    Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed to induce high level of muscle activation. To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine (seated crunch, Technogym, Cesena, Italy). The order of performance of the exercises was randomized, and EMG amplitude was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) EMG. When comparing between muscles, normalized EMG was highest in the rectus abdominis (Pexercises.

  8. Encounters between Alpine ibex, Alpine chamois and domestic sheep in the Swiss Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information regarding spatio-temporal relationships and encounters of sympatric domestic sheep, Alpine ibex (Capra ibex ibex and Alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra rupicapra in the Swiss Alps were systematically registered to evaluate the possibility of an interspecific transmission of infectious agents on pastures. Observations were performed in alpine regions of four Swiss cantons during the 1997 and 1998 mountain summer grazing season. In the main study area, Val Chamuera (canton of Grisons, a consistent reduction in the number of ibexes was observed after the arrival of sheep on the pasture. Some ibexes remained for a longer time in the area, but in general, ibexes and sheep did not use the same compartments of the area simultaneously. However, a salt lick for sheep attracted the ibexes, and several encounters were recorded in the compartments close to this salt lick. Several encounters registered in other areas of the Swiss Alps also occurred in the neighbourhood of a salt lick; however, in other cases different species were attracted by rich pastures. The study indicates that encounters (0-50 m between free-ranging individuals of different Caprinae species, domestic and wild, are not uncommon events in the Alps. Therefore, encounters can be considered to be a predisposing factor for interspecific transmission of infectious agents such as Mycoplasma conjunctivae, causing keratoconjunctivitis in chamois, ibex, domestic sheep and goats.

  9. Connoisseurship as a Substitute for User Research? The Case of the Swiss Watch Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Sinclair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom holds that new product development is more successfully undertaken when design is user-led. An exception is the luxury goods sector, in which a common presentation of the brand is one where the customer should aspire to the vision of its designers. In such cases, the proprietor is often cast as a connoisseur, an expert in the brand’s history who is intuitively able to give vision and direction. Within the Swiss luxury watch industry, heritage and the illusion of exclusivity are vital strategies in the communication of products as luxury items. Connoisseurship plays a central role in this communication, establishing the boundaries of brands whose products might otherwise appear similar. In such cases, connoisseurship is presented to the customer as superior to user research, engendering products with a sophistication which customer insights cannot provide. Nonetheless, whilst conventional user research methods play little part in the design of Swiss watches, less formal methods are employed. These are shown to also have application in non-luxury sectors too. The utilization of strategies employed by the Swiss watch industry in future scenarios of new product development is also discussed.

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2001; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2001/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  11. Swiss energy statistics 2000; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2000/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  12. Policy changes and the dynamics of capacity expansion in the Swiss electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa, Patricia; Van Ackere, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Capacity of supply is a crucial matter in electricity markets as it directly influences reliability of supply, price volatility and blackout risk. In this paper, we analyse the dynamics of capacity expansion in the Swiss electricity market and the impact of different policies such as nuclear phaseout and management of electricity exchanges - imports and exports - policies. This article develops the conceptualization model presented in [Ochoa, P., 2007b. Policy changes in the Swiss electricity market: a system dynamics analysis of likely market responses. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences 41 (4):336-349.]. We build a system dynamics model based on the dynamics of capacity expansion explained in the latter paper and present and analyse different scenarios. We conclude that international electricity exchanges are important for the Swiss market as they help to lower costs and to increase the income of the utility companies; however, we illustrate the need for explicit policies for managing imports and exports of electricity to avoid import dependence from neighbouring countries. (author)

  13. Joint Annual Meeting of the Swiss Physical Society and the Austrian Physical Society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The meeting was organised - as every two years - as a joint meeting with the Austrian Physical Society ((ÖPG) and the Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy (SSAA). The Swiss Institute of Particle Physics (CHIPP) participated additionally to their usual 2-year rhythm. We also welcomed for the first time the NCCR MARVEL (Computational Design and Discovery of Novel Materials). They all together guarantee an exciting conference covering physics at its best. This meeting was hosted by CERN, Genève. The plenary sessions gave an overview of the present status of research in molecular spintronics, biophotonic micro manipulation of cells, gravitational waves, spectroscopy of trapped antihydrogen atoms, reflective optical systems for astronomical applications, trapped-ion interfaces for quantum networks and quantum photonics. The topical sessions were dedicated to: Applied Physics and Plasma Physics; Astronomy and Astrophysics; Atomic Physics and Quantum Optics; Biophysics, Medical Physics and Soft Matter; Condensed Matter Physics; Correlated-Electron Physics in Transition-Metal Oxides; Earth, Atmosphere and Environmental Physics; Emergent phenomena in novel low-dimensional materials; History of Physics; Magnetism and Spintronics at the Nanoscale; Nuclear, Particle- and Astrophysics; Physics in Startups; Scientific Opportunities with SwissFEL; Surfaces, Interfaces and Thin Films; Theoretical Physics. Those contributions which are in the INIS subject scope are indexed individually.

  14. Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoerri, Andy; Lang, Daniel J.; Staeubli, Beat; Scholz, Roland W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

  15. The UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase and its Plant Proteome Annotation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michel; Lane, Lydie; Boutet, Emmanuel; Lieberherr, Damien; Tognolli, Michael; Bougueleret, Lydie; Bairoch, Amos

    2009-04-13

    The UniProt knowledgebase, UniProtKB, is the main product of the UniProt consortium. It consists of two sections, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, the manually curated section, and UniProtKB/TrEMBL, the computer translation of the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ nucleotide sequence database. Taken together, these two sections cover all the proteins characterized or inferred from all publicly available nucleotide sequences. The Plant Proteome Annotation Program (PPAP) of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot focuses on the manual annotation of plant-specific proteins and protein families. Our major effort is currently directed towards the two model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. In UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, redundancy is minimized by merging all data from different sources in a single entry. The proposed protein sequence is frequently modified after comparison with ESTs, full length transcripts or homologous proteins from other species. The information present in manually curated entries allows the reconstruction of all described isoforms. The annotation also includes proteomics data such as PTM and protein identification MS experimental results. UniProtKB and the other products of the UniProt consortium are accessible online at www.uniprot.org.

  16. Swiss energy statistics 2007; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2007/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  17. Making good progress. SwissEnergy 2nd annual report 2002/03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The second annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's 'SwissEnergy' programme presents the activities carried out and the results achieved within the framework of the programme, which aims to help implement Switzerland's climate change policy. SwissEnergy is a national programme in which the government, the cantons, local authorities, the private sector, consumer and environmental organisations, as well as public and private-sector agencies work together as partners. In the first part of the report, strategies - including increasing energy efficiency and the promotion of the use of renewable forms of energy - are described, as are the measures taken, which focus on voluntary efforts by trade and industry. Also, the programme's organisation in four sectors - public sector and buildings, trade and industry, mobility and renewable energy - are described. The second part of the report is dedicated to activities carried out in 2002/2003 and describes economic and policy developments, project management activities and those carried out in the four sectors. The third section discusses the impact of the programme's activities in 2002 on Switzerland's energy consumption and its contribution to the implementation of Switzerland's climate policy. The evaluation procedures used to establish the impact and their accuracy are discussed. The report also discusses the programme's impact on investment and employment in Switzerland

  18. Eugenics, politics and the state: social democracy and the Swiss 'gardening state'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the connections between eugenics, politics and the state, taking the Swiss case as a particular focus. It is argued that Switzerland provides a historical example of what Bauman [Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.] describes as 'gardening states': states that are concerned with eliminating the 'bad weeds' from the national garden and thereby constructing sharply exclusionary national identities. The Swiss experiments with eugenics (1920s-1960s) can be seen as an example of an ongoing struggle against 'difference'. Against this backdrop I will examine, first, the ways in which state regulation of reproductive sexuality, and other eugenic measures, became central mechanisms for dealing with cultural and other 'differences' in the Swiss nation. Second, I will analyse the gendered nature of such mechanisms, as well as the preoccupation with racial 'difference' exemplified by eugenic policies towards 'Gypsies'. To conclude, I will examine the impact of political institutions and political ideology, in particular, social democracy, on these eugenic gardening efforts.

  19. [[History of Community Health in Africa. The Swiss Medical Missionaries' Endeavour in South Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Hines

    2015-01-01

    It was not Dutch settlers nor British colonizers who introduced public and community health practice in north-eastern South Africa but medical doctors of the Swiss mission in southern Africa. While the history of medical knowledge transfer into 19th-20th century Africa emphasises colonial powers, this paper shows how countries without colonies contributed to expand western medical cultures, including public health. The Swiss took advantage of the local authorities' negligence, and implemented their own model of medicalization of African societies, understood as the way of improving health standards. They moved from a tolerated hospital-centred medicine to the practice of community health, which was uncommon at the time. Elim hospital's physicians moved back boundaries of segregationist policies, and sometime gave the impression of being involved in the political struggle against Apartheid. Thus, Swiss public health activities could later be seen as sorts of seeds that were planted and would partly reappear in 1994 with the ANC-projected national health policy.

  20. 5 years of ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES) at the Swiss Light Source (SLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivieri, Giorgia [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland); Giorgi, Javier B. [Department of Chemistry and Biomolecular Sciences, and Centre for Catalysis Research and Innovation, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, K1N 6N5 (Canada); Green, Richard G. [Measurement Science and Standards, National Research Council Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Brown, Matthew A., E-mail: matthew.brown@mat.ethz.ch [Laboratory for Surface Science and Technology, Department of Materials, ETH Zürich, CH-8093, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • A review of the ongoing research using the APPES endstation of the Swiss Light Source is presented. • Research interests include the liquid-vapor, liquid-nanoparticle and vapor-solid interfaces. • An outlook to the next five years of research at the Swiss Light Source is presented. - Abstract: In March of 2012 an endstation dedicated to ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPES) was installed at the Swiss Light Source (SLS) synchrotron radiation facility on the campus of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The endstation is mobile and operated at the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV), Surfaces/Interfaces: Microscopy (SIM) and Phoenix beamlines, which together afford a nearly continuous photon energy range from 5−8000 eV. This broad energy range is by far the widest available to a single currently operational APPES endstation. During its first five years of operation this endstation has been used to address challenging fundamental problems in the areas of soft-matter colloidal nanoscience, environmental science and energy storage—research that encompasses the liquid-nanoparticle, liquid-vapor (or vacuum) and solid-vapor interfaces. Here we present select highlights of these results and offer an outlook to the next five years of APPES research at the SLS.

  1. Explaining regional variations in health care utilization between Swiss cantons using panel econometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, Paul A

    2012-03-13

    In spite of a detailed and nation-wide legislation frame, there exist large cantonal disparities in consumed quantities of health care services in Switzerland. In this study, the most important factors of influence causing these regional disparities are determined. The findings can also be productive for discussing the containment of health care consumption in other countries. Based on the literature, relevant factors that cause geographic disparities of quantities and costs in western health care systems are identified. Using a selected set of these factors, individual panel econometric models are calculated to explain the variation of the utilization in each of the six largest health care service groups (general practitioners, specialist doctors, hospital inpatient, hospital outpatient, medication, and nursing homes) in Swiss mandatory health insurance (MHI). The main data source is 'Datenpool santésuisse', a database of Swiss health insurers. For all six health care service groups, significant factors influencing the utilization frequency over time and across cantons are found. A greater supply of service providers tends to have strong interrelations with per capita consumption of MHI services. On the demand side, older populations and higher population densities represent the clearest driving factors. Strategies to contain consumption and costs in health care should include several elements. In the federalist Swiss system, the structure of regional health care supply seems to generate significant effects. However, the extent of driving factors on the demand side (e.g., social deprivation) or financing instruments (e.g., high deductibles) should also be considered.

  2. Annotation of post-translational modifications in the Swiss-Prot knowledge base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farriol-Mathis, Nathalie; Garavelli, John S; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Duvaud, Séverine; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Gateau, Alain; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Bairoch, Amos

    2004-06-01

    High-throughput proteomic studies produce a wealth of new information regarding post-translational modifications (PTMs). The Swiss-Prot knowledge base is faced with the challenge of including this information in a consistent and structured way, in order to facilitate easy retrieval and promote understanding by biologist expert users as well as computer programs. We are therefore standardizing the annotation of PTM features represented in Swiss-Prot. Indeed, a controlled vocabulary has been associated with every described PTM. In this paper, we present the major update of the feature annotation, and, by showing a few examples, explain how the annotation is implemented and what it means. Mod-Prot, a future companion database of Swiss-Prot, devoted to the biological aspects of PTMs (i.e., general description of the process, identity of the modification enzyme(s), taxonomic range, mass modification) is briefly described. Finally we encourage once again the scientific community (i.e., both individual researchers and database maintainers) to interact with us, so that we can continuously enhance the quality and swiftness of our services.

  3. The Swiss cheese model of safety incidents: are there holes in the metaphor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perneger Thomas V

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reason's Swiss cheese model has become the dominant paradigm for analysing medical errors and patient safety incidents. The aim of this study was to determine if the components of the model are understood in the same way by quality and safety professionals. Methods Survey of a volunteer sample of persons who claimed familiarity with the model, recruited at a conference on quality in health care, and on the internet through quality-related websites. The questionnaire proposed several interpretations of components of the Swiss cheese model: a slice of cheese, b hole, c arrow, d active error, e how to make the system safer. Eleven interpretations were compatible with this author's interpretation of the model, 12 were not. Results Eighty five respondents stated that they were very or quite familiar with the model. They gave on average 15.3 (SD 2.3, range 10 to 21 "correct" answers out of 23 (66.5% – significantly more than 11.5 "correct" answers that would expected by chance (p Conclusion The interpretations of specific features of the Swiss cheese model varied considerably among quality and safety professionals. Reaching consensus about concepts of patient safety requires further work.

  4. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 2000; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2000/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2000, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2000 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity.

  6. Features of Prolonged Grief Symptoms in Chinese and Swiss Bereaved Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiu, Daiming; Maercker, Andreas; Woynar, Stefanie; Geirhofer, Bettina; Yang, Yuting; Jia, Xiaoming

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates clinical expressions of prolonged grief in samples of 32 Chinese and 33 Swiss bereaved parents, according to the proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision model of prolonged grief disorder (PGD). Sex differences and predictors (cultural attitudes, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth) of PGD were analyzed. In result, after controlling for sociodemographic and loss-related sample differences, both samples showed similar PGD symptom profiles, with Swiss parents exhibiting more severe grief-related preoccupation and Chinese parents exhibiting some accessory symptoms and functional impairment to a greater extent. Multivariate analyses revealed for the Chinese sample primary predictions of PGD by life satisfaction, general health and one's world view (social cynicism) and for the Swiss sample by female sex, sense of coherence, and life satisfaction. The findings substantiate the basic appropriateness of the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision PGD in distinct cultural groups and may contribute to a better understanding of grief expression and its potential predictors across different cultures.

  7. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  8. Efek Toksin T-2 terhadap Perkembangan Embrio Praimplantasi dan Fetus Mencit Swiss Webster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS HARYONO

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available T-2 toxin is a toxic and teratogenic mycotoxin produced by Fusarium tricintum which may contaminate cereal, seed, and food. The aim of this research is to find out the effects of T-2 Toxin on preimplantion embryos and fetuses of Swiss Webster mice. Pregnant female of Swiss Webster mice on 0 or 2 day of gestation was injected intraperitoneally with T-2 toxin at doses 0.05 or 0.10 mg/kg body weight (bw and the dam was observed at 3.5 and 18 days of gestation. At 0 day of gestation, embryos were arrested at one to eight cell and uncompacted morulae stages (P < 0.01 compared to control, in both 0.05 and 0.10 mg/kg bw doses. The cell numbers of late blastocyst at all treated groups were decreased significantly compared to control. At 2 day of gestation, most of embryos were arrested on compacted morulae stage at dose 0.10 mg/kg bw (P < 0.01, the late blastocyst and its cell number were dose-dependently decreased. The live fetuses decreased significantly at all dose of T-2 toxin. No external malformation occurred in the fetuses. Results showed that T-2 toxin given at preimplantation stages inhibited development of preimplantation embryos as indicated by decreased number of live fetuses. Therefore, it was grouped as embryotoxic agent but those dosages did not cause malformation of the external appearance of Swiss Webster mice fetuses.

  9. Quality assessment of a randomly selected sample of Swiss medical expertises--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöhr, Susanna; Bollag, Yvonne; Auerbach, Holger; Eichler, Klaus; Imhof, Daniel; Fabbro, Thomas; Gyr, Niklaus

    2011-03-04

    Considerable criticism has lately been raised by the media regarding the quality of Swiss medical expertises. The present investigation was therefore undertaken to assess the professional quality of Swiss medical expertises. The study was part of a market analysis of medical expertises (MGS study). A sample of 97 anonymised expertises randomly chosen from a total of 3165, collected in the MGS study over a period of 3 months, were evaluated by an international board of medical experts and reviewers, using a stepwise developed questionnaire. Each expertise was independently evaluated by two experts. Data were then tested for plausibility (obvious errors and misunderstandings). The main outcome was the overall quality rating of the expertise that was graded from 1 (very poor) to 6 (excellent) in analogy to the Swiss school grading system. For analysis and interpretation the grades were divided into sufficient (grades >= 4) and insufficient (grades <4). Overall 19.6% (95% confidence interval: 13.1%; 28.3%) of the expertises were rated to be of insufficient quality. The quality was inversely related to the number of involved medical disciplines, the time relapsed since injury and positively related to the difficulty of the expertise. In addition, expertises in the French and Italian languages were rated superior to those in German. Our results confirm recent criticisms that the professional quality of expertises does not suffice. This is hardly acceptable in face of the financial and personal consequences. There is an obvious need for further research using larger samples and for educational programmes on all levels.

  10. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrester-Knauss Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.

  11. Comparison of Czech, Slovak and Swiss Product Innovation Oriented Firms’ Communication in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vít Chlebovský

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of the research described in this article is to analyze and compare the use of social media communication channels in Czech, Slovak and Swiss product innovation oriented companies, where Swiss set of the companies is used as a benchmark. Primary research was made through manual activity scanning of the selected companies within social media. European company database Amadeus provided by Bureau van Dijk was used for the company selection in all three countries under the same search criteria. There were made two research sets of the companies in each country. One set covers top turnover product innovation oriented companies, second set avoided product innovation orientation search criteria and covers top companies by turnover in the respective country. Each particular sample set covered 74 to 100 companies.Activities of the selected companies on Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Google+ and LinkedIn were manually scanned and particular metrics were scaled. Microsoft Excel was used for storing, statistical processing and graphic outputs of the research. Evaluated results show significant gaps in use of social media communication tools in Czech and Slovak companies comparing to Swiss benchmark. It has been also confirmed that social media communication activity in product innovation oriented companies is equal to other companies. The hypotheses were statistically tested and results confirmed.

  12. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadarmideen Haja N

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years. Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively. The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25. Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle.

  13. A central repository for gridded data in the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueter, E.

    2010-09-01

    The significance of gridded data in meteorology and climatology has increased remarkably over the last years. New products of observing systems such as radars, improved interpolation techniques, spatial analyses or modeling procedures have already led to a proliferated amount of available grid data within the meteorological and climatological community. Since these products are generated by different systems the format in which they are delivered can vary quite much. To facilitate the combined use of different gridded data sets (f. ex. rain accumulation based on radar data and interpolated rainfall based on observations) MeteoSwiss decided to incorporate them in one central data repository. It's been the strategy of MeteoSwiss over the last ten years to store and manage all of its data in a single central data platform - the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse - which is completely metadata driven. After the integration of all kind of historical and current surface data the system was extended in 2009 to store different types of upper air data. The last release of this Data Warehouse project focuses on grid data to complete MeteoSwiss' data integration strategy. This release comprises both the storage of different types of gridded datasets being delivered in various data formats into one single grid database and its data management. Here from datasets, which have originally been created in different data formats (f. ex. gif and netCDF), can be exported in whatever format is supported by the system. This procedure facilitates to a great extent the combined analyses of grid data originating in different data sources. Additionally interfaces to other software packages such as R allow direct access to the grid database. Web applications are implemented to allow users to carry out predefined spatial analyses such as spatial aggregation for a user specified extent of the dataset. After evaluating different solutions MeteoSwiss decided to implement its system using existing GIS

  14. Annual Report 2003. Research programme 'Electricity' of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done in 2003 in the various research areas covered by the Swiss Electricity Research programme. Work done in the programme's five main areas - electricity transport and storage, high-temperature superconductivity, energy and information technologies, drives and electric motors, and appliances is reviewed. In the electricity transport and storage area an agreement with the Swiss Association of Electricity Producers (VSE) on the transfer of findings was made and the focus of work was set on decentralised systems. Also, the use of compressed-air storage systems was looked at and the AC corrosion of pipelines was examined. Swiss participation in an IEA Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme for Assessing the Impact of High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector is mentioned, as is the market potential of superconductive current limiters. A total of 8 institutions and industries are involved in theoretical or practical research in the area of high-temperature superconductors. Information and communications technologies are reviewed, including work on energy-efficient EDP server management. Work in other areas summarised includes lighting and uninterruptible power-supplies and work on the energy consumption of process control units. In the electrical drives area, work is summarised in various areas ranging from an industry agreement on the energy-efficiency of motors through to the optimisation of compressed-air systems and energy-efficient gearless drives. Efficient hotel minibars, the energy-efficiency potential in the area of water dispensers and the energy-efficiency potential of hot beverage dispensers used in the area of staff catering and the standby consumption of household appliances are just a few of the topics dealt with. Co-operation with Swiss institutions and international organisations such as the IEA is reviewed. Implementation work in the

  15. Cancer mortality of Swiss men by occupation, 1979-1982.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, C E; Beer-Porizek, V

    1992-01-01

    Results of a study of male cancer mortality are presented by occupation. The data base consisted of the 1979-1982 mortality register and 1980 census data from Switzerland. In a novel approach, a linked subset of death certificates and census records was used to correct the numerator-denominator bias of standardized mortality ratios and their confidence intervals. Agricultural occupations exhibited low cancer mortality (exception: stomach cancer). Electricians suffered excess mortality from cancer of several sites. Foundry and chemical workers had elevated mortality risks for digestive tract cancers. Other metal workers suffered from high mortality from cancers of the respiratory organs. Construction workers were subject to high mortality from cancers of the upper digestive tract and lungs. Innkeepers, cooks, and owners or managers of guest houses had high rates of cancers of the digestive system. Occupations using combustion-powered equipment suffered from excess lung cancer mortality. In general the results of the study agree with those of several other studies.

  16. Employment 12 months after kidney transplantation: An in-depth bio-psycho-social analysis of the Swiss Transplant Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta Danuser

    Full Text Available Return to work with or after a chronic disease is a dynamic process influenced by a variety of interactions between personal, work, societal and medical resources or constraints. The aim of this study was to identify predictors for employment 12 months after transplantation in kidney patients, applying a bio-psycho-social model.All kidney patients followed in the Swiss Transplant Cohort between May 2008 and December 2012, aged 18 to 65 were assessed before, 6 and 12 months after transplantation.Of the 689 included patients, 56.2% worked 12 months post- transplantation compared to 58.9% pre-transplantation. Age, education, self-perceived health (6 months post- transplantation, pre- transplantation employment and receiving an organ from a living donor are significant predictors of employment post- transplantation. Moreover, while self-perceived health increased post- transplantation, depression score decreased only among those employed 12 months post- transplantation. Pre- transplantation employment status was the main predictor for post- transplantation employment (OR = 18.6 and was associated with sex, age, education, depression and duration of dialysis. An organ from a living donor (42.1% was more frequent in younger patients, with higher education, no diabetes and shorter waiting time to surgery.Transplantation did not increase employment in end-stage kidney disease patients but helped maintaining employment. Pre-transplantation employment has been confirmed to be the most important predictor of post-transplantation employment. Furthermore, socio-demographic and individual factors predicted directly and indirectly the post-transplantation employment status. With living donor, an additional predictor linked to social factors and the medical procedure has been identified.

  17. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  18. Assessing and comparing information security in swiss hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolt, Sarah; Hirschel, Jürg; Schlienger, Thomas; Businger, Walter; Zbinden, Alex M

    2012-11-07

    Availability of information in hospitals is an important prerequisite for good service. Significant resources have been invested to improve the availability of information, but it is also vital that the security of this information can be guaranteed. The goal of this study was to assess information security in hospitals through a questionnaire based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard ISO/IEC 27002, evaluating Information technology - Security techniques - Code of practice for information-security management, with a special focus on the effect of the hospitals' size and type. The survey, set up as a cross-sectional study, was conducted in January 2011. The chief information officers (CIOs) of 112 hospitals in German-speaking Switzerland were invited to participate. The online questionnaire was designed to be fast and easy to complete to maximize participation. To group the analyzed controls of the ISO/IEC standard 27002 in a meaningful way, a factor analysis was performed. A linear score from 0 (not implemented) to 3 (fully implemented) was introduced. The scores of the hospitals were then analyzed for significant differences in any of the factors with respect to size and type of hospital. The participating hospitals were offered a benchmark report about their status. The 51 participating hospitals had an average score of 51.1% (range 30.6% - 81.9%) out of a possible 100% where all items in the questionnaire were fully implemented. Room for improvement could be identified, especially for the factors covering "process and quality management" (average score 1.3 ± 0.8 out of a maximum of 3) and "organization and risk management" (average score 1.3 ± 0.7 out of a maximum of 3). Private hospitals scored significantly higher than university hospitals in the implementation of "security zones" and "backup" (P = .008). Half (50.00%, 8588/17,177) of all assessed hospital beds

  19. Swiss Farmer Power - Biogas from farms will be the fuel for tomorrow; Biogas vom Bauer wird zum Treibstoff von morgen - SwissFarmerPower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruecker, U. [ITZ InnovationsTransfer Zentralschweiz, Horw (Switzerland); Limacher, R. [bapGROUP AG, Lucerne (Switzerland); Engeli, H. [Engeli Engineering, Neerach (Switzerland); Henggeler, H. [Fenaco Alternativ Energie, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that involves the building of a joint biogas plant serving 60 farmers and industrial companies with an annual processing capacity of 45,000 tons. The plant is to produce biogas to be fed into the gas mains and will not only reduce nutrient loading in a region with an extensive livestock industry but also reduce carbon dioxide emissions by using the gas as a motor fuel. The importance of the project with respect to both the environment and energy policy-making is discussed and the costs involved are examined. Details are presented on the technology used and on the material flows involved. Figures are quoted on energy production. The various biogenic substrates used, such as food wastes, waste oils, cereal wastes and used mushroom substrates, are discussed, as is the use of the solid and liquid outputs of the digester in farming activities.

  20. The Paul Scherrer Institute, a multidisciplinary organization opened to the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer, N.

    2008-01-01

    At the end of the second world war, the Swiss Federal Military department created a commission for the study of nuclear energy under the presidency of Paul Scherrer. This famous Swiss physicist was particularly interested in this new domain of physics and will be few years later one of the main actor of the creation of CERN, a European organization for nuclear research. Some financial problems and a nuclear accident in 1969 have blown away the dreams of a nuclear reactor entirely made in Switzerland. The Paul Scherrer Institute was born in this context in 1988 near Zurich. Twenty years later it employs about 1300 people with an operating budget of about 175 million euros financed at 85% by the Swiss confederation. This article presents the different domains of research of the institute, its infrastructures (X-ray, neutrons and muons probes), its technology transfer actions and the cooperations with France. (J.S.)

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  2. Robotic Gastric Bypass Surgery in the Swiss Health Care System: Analysis of Hospital Costs and Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Monika E; Rohner, Peter; Jung, Minoa K; Amirghasemi, Nicolas; Buchs, Nicolas C; Fakhro, Jassim; Buehler, Leo; Morel, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    Robotic technology shows some promising early outcomes indicating potentially improved outcomes particularly for challenging bariatric procedures. Still, health care providers face significant clinical and economic challenges when introducing innovations. Prospectively derived administrative cost data of patients who were coded with a primary diagnosis of obesity (ICD-10 code E.66.X), a procedure of gastric bypass surgery (CHOP code 44.3), and a robotic identifier (CHOP codes 00.90.50 or 00.39) during the years 2012 to 2015 was analyzed and compared to the triggered reimbursement for this patient cohort. A total of 348 patients were identified. The mean number of diagnoses was 2.7 and the mean length of stay was 5.9 days. The overall mean cost per patients was Swiss Francs (CHF) from 2012 to 2014 that was 21,527, with a mean reimbursement of CHF 24,917. Cost of the surgery in 2015 was comparable to the previous years with CHF 22,550.0 (p = 0.6618), but reimbursement decreased significantly to CHF 20,499.0 (0.0001). The average cost for robotic gastric bypass surgery fell well below the average reimbursement within the Swiss DRG system between 2012 and 2014, and this robotic procedure was a DRG winner for that period. However, the Swiss DRG system has matured over the years with a significant decrease resulting in a deficit for robotic gastric bypass surgery in 2015. This stipulates a discussion as to how health care providers should continue offering robotic gastric bypass surgery, particularly in the light of developing clinical evidence.

  3. A profile of travelers--an analysis from a large swiss travel clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Silja; Rüegg, Rolanda; Steffen, Robert; Hatz, Christoph; Jaeger, Veronika K

    2014-01-01

    Globally, the Swiss have one of the highest proportions of the population traveling to tropical and subtropical countries. Large travel clinics serve an increasing number of customers with specific pre-travel needs including uncommon destinations and preexisting medical conditions. This study aims to identify health characteristics and travel patterns of travelers seeking advice in the largest Swiss travel clinic so that tailored advice can be delivered. A descriptive analysis was performed on pre-travel visits between July 2010 and August 2012 at the Travel Clinic of the Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Zurich, Switzerland. A total of 22,584 travelers sought pre-travel advice. Tourism was the main reason for travel (17,875, 81.5%), followed by visiting friends and relatives (VFRs; 1,715, 7.8%), traveling for business (1,223, 5.6%), and "other reasons" (ie, volunteer work, pilgrimage, study abroad, and emigration; 1,112, 5.1%). The main travel destination was Thailand. In the VFR group, the highest proportions of traveling children (258, 15.1%) and of pregnant or breastfeeding women (23, 3.9%) were observed. Mental disorders were more prominent in VFRs (93, 5.4%) and in travel for "other reasons" (63, 5.7%). The latter stayed for the longest periods abroad; 272 (24.9%) stayed longer than 6 months. VFR travelers received the highest percentage of yellow fever vaccinations (523, 30.5%); in contrast, rabies (269, 24.2%) and typhoid vaccinations (279, 25.1%) were given more often to the "other travel reasons" group. New insights into the characteristics of a selected and large population of Swiss international travelers results in improved understanding of the special needs of an increasingly diverse population and, thus, in targeted preventive advice and interventions. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  4. Multimorbidity and quality of preventive care in Swiss university primary care cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Streit

    Full Text Available Caring for patients with multimorbidity is common for generalists, although such patients are often excluded from clinical trials, and thus such trials lack of generalizability. Data on the association between multimorbidity and preventive care are limited. We aimed to assess whether comorbidity number, severity and type were associated with preventive care among patients receiving care in Swiss University primary care settings.We examined a retrospective cohort composed of a random sample of 1,002 patients aged 50-80 years attending four Swiss university primary care settings. Multimorbidity was defined according to the literature and the Charlson index. We assessed the quality of preventive care and cardiovascular preventive care with RAND's Quality Assessment Tool indicators. Aggregate scores of quality of provided care were calculated by taking into account the number of eligible patients for each indicator.Participants (mean age 63.5 years, 44% women had a mean of 2.6 (SD 1.9 comorbidities and 67.5% had 2 or more comorbidities. The mean Charlson index was 1.8 (SD 1.9. Overall, participants received 69% of recommended preventive care and 84% of cardiovascular preventive care. Quality of care was not associated with higher numbers of comorbidities, both for preventive care and for cardiovascular preventive care. Results were similar in analyses using the Charlson index and after adjusting for age, gender, occupation, center and number of visits. Some patients may receive less preventive care including those with dementia (47% and those with schizophrenia (35%.In Swiss university primary care settings, two thirds of patients had 2 or more comorbidities. The receipt of preventive and cardiovascular preventive care was not affected by comorbidity count or severity, although patients with certain comorbidities may receive lower levels of preventive care.

  5. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities: Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Jan D; Post, Marcel W M; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W G

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the cross-sectional community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Data on LMP of the Swiss general population were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Factors associated with employment status as well as the amount of work performed in terms of full-time equivalent (FTE) were examined with regression techniques. 53.4% of the participants were employed at the time of the study. Adjusted odds of being employed were increased for males (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.33-2.25) and participants with paraplegia (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27). The likelihood of being employed showed a significant concave relationship with age, peaking at age 40. The relation of LMP with education was s-shaped, while LMP was linearly related to time since injury. On average, employment rates were 30% lower than in the general population. Males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54 showed the greatest difference. From the 771 employed persons, the majority (81.7%) worked part-time with a median of 50% FTE (IRQ: 40%-80%). Men, those with younger age, higher education, incomplete lesions, and non-traumatic etiology showed significantly increased odds of working more hours per week. Significantly more people worked part-time than in the general population with the greatest difference found for males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54. LMP of persons with SCI is comparatively high in Switzerland. LMP after SCI is, however, considerably lower than in the general population. Future research needs to show whether the reduced LMP in SCI reflects individual capacity adjustment, contextual constraints on higher LMP or both.

  6. A qualitative risk assessment approach for Swiss dairy products: opportunities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez González, S; Hartnack, S; Berger, T; Doherr, M; Breidenbach, E

    2011-05-01

    Switzerland implemented a risk-based monitoring of Swiss dairy products in 2002 based on a risk assessment (RA) that considered the probability of exceeding a microbiological limit value set by law. A new RA was launched in 2007 to review and further develop the previous assessment, and to make recommendations for future risk-based monitoring according to current risks. The resulting qualitative RA was designed to ascertain the risk to human health from the consumption of Swiss dairy products. The products and microbial hazards to be considered in the RA were determined based on a risk profile. The hazards included Campylobacter spp., Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin. The release assessment considered the prevalence of the hazards in bulk milk samples, the influence of the process parameters on the microorganisms, and the influence of the type of dairy. The exposure assessment was linked to the production volume. An overall probability was estimated combining the probabilities of release and exposure for each combination of hazard, dairy product and type of dairy. This overall probability represents the likelihood of a product from a certain type of dairy exceeding the microbiological limit value and being passed on to the consumer. The consequences could not be fully assessed due to lack of detailed information on the number of disease cases caused by the consumption of dairy products. The results were expressed as a ranking of overall probabilities. Finally, recommendations for the design of the risk-based monitoring programme and for filling the identified data gaps were given. The aims of this work were (i) to present the qualitative RA approach for Swiss dairy products, which could be adapted to other settings and (ii) to discuss the opportunities and limitations of the qualitative method. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities: Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan D Reinhardt

    Full Text Available We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population.We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the cross-sectional community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Data on LMP of the Swiss general population were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Factors associated with employment status as well as the amount of work performed in terms of full-time equivalent (FTE were examined with regression techniques.53.4% of the participants were employed at the time of the study. Adjusted odds of being employed were increased for males (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.33-2.25 and participants with paraplegia (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27. The likelihood of being employed showed a significant concave relationship with age, peaking at age 40. The relation of LMP with education was s-shaped, while LMP was linearly related to time since injury. On average, employment rates were 30% lower than in the general population. Males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54 showed the greatest difference. From the 771 employed persons, the majority (81.7% worked part-time with a median of 50% FTE (IRQ: 40%-80%. Men, those with younger age, higher education, incomplete lesions, and non-traumatic etiology showed significantly increased odds of working more hours per week. Significantly more people worked part-time than in the general population with the greatest difference found for males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54.LMP of persons with SCI is comparatively high in Switzerland. LMP after SCI is, however, considerably lower than in the general population. Future research needs to show whether the reduced LMP in SCI reflects individual capacity adjustment, contextual constraints on higher LMP or both.

  8. Psychosocial and professional characteristics of burnout in Swiss primary care practitioners: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Catherine; Bouvier Gallacchi, Martine; Künzi, Beat; Bovier, Patrick

    2005-02-19

    To measure the prevalence of burnout and explore its professional and psychosocial predictors among Swiss primary care practitioners. A cross-sectional postal survey was conducted to measure burnout, work-related stressors, professional and psychosocial characteristics among a representative sample of primary care practitioners. Answers to the Maslach burnout inventory were used to categorize respondents into moderate and high degree of burnout. 1784 physicians responded to the survey (65% response rate) and 1755 questionnaires could be analysed. 19% of respondents had a high score for emotional exhaustion, 22% had a high score for depersonalisation/cynicism and 16% had a low score for professional accomplishment; 32% had a high score on either the emotional exhaustion or the depersonalisation/cynicism scale (moderate degree of burnout) and 4% had scores in the range of burnout in all three scales (high degree of burnout). Predictors of moderate burnout were male sex, age 45-55 years and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, health-insurance-related work, difficulties to balance professional and private life, changes in the health care system and medical care uncertainty. A high degree of burnout was associated with male sex, practicing in a rural area, and excessive perceived stress due to global workload, patient's expectations, difficulties to balance professional and private life, economic constraints in relation to the practice, medical care uncertainty and difficult relations with non-medical staff at the practice. About one third of Swiss primary care practitioners presented a moderate or a high degree of burnout, which was mainly associated with extrinsic work-related stressors. Medical doctors and politicians in charge of redesigning the health care system should address this phenomenon to maintain an efficient Swiss primary care physician workforce in the future.

  9. Testing measurement invariance of the schizotypal personality questionnaire-brief scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ortuño-Sierra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B, the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. METHODS: The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years. RESULTS: The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. DISCUSSION: The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures.

  10. Transition to CASMO-5M and SIMULATE-3K for stability analyses of the Swiss BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokhane, A.; Canepa, S.; Ferroukhi, H.

    2012-01-01

    For stability analyses of the Swiss operating Boiling-Water-Reactors (BWRs), the methodology employed and validated so far at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) was based on the RAMONA-3 code with a hybrid upstream static lattice/core analysis approach using CASMO-4 and PRESTO-2. More recently, steps were undertaken towards a new methodology based on the SIMULATE-3K (S3K) code for the dynamical analyses combined with the CMSYS system relying on the CASMO/SIMULATE-3 suite of codes and which was established at PSI to serve as framework for the development and validation of reference core models of all the Swiss reactors and operated cycles. This paper presents a first validation of the new methodology on the basis of a benchmark recently organised by a Swiss utility and including the participation of several international organisations with various codes/methods. Now in parallel, a transition from CASMO-4E (C4E) to CASMO-5M (C5M) as basis for the CMSYS core models was also recently initiated at PSI. Consequently, it was considered adequate to address the impact of this transition both for the steady-state core analyses as well as for the stability calculations and to achieve thereby, an integral approach for the validation of the new S3K methodology. Therefore, a comparative assessment of C4 versus C5M is also presented in this paper with particular emphasis on the void coefficients and their impact on the downstream stability analysis results. (authors)

  11. Swiss electricity statistics 2002; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2002/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data.

  12. Swiss electricity statistics 2001; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2001/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This publication by the Association of Swiss Electricity Enterprises for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2001, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The production of power in Switzerland is examined in detail. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2001 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The final two chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity chapters cover new and future power generation capacities and the economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity.

  13. Swiss electricity statistics 2004; Schweizerische Elektrizitaetsstatistik 2004/Statistique suisse de l'electricite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2004, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2004 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data.

  14. Virulence and pathogenicity of three Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense stabilates in a Swiss white mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kariuki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: A key objective in basic research on human African trypanosomiasis (HAT is developing a cheap and reliable experimental model of the disease for use in pathogenesis and drug studies. Objective: With a view to improving current models, a study was undertaken to characterise the virulence and pathogenicity of three Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense stabilates, labelled as International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI-2918, ILRI-3953, and Institute of Primate Research (IPR-001, infected into Swiss white mice. Methods: Swiss white mice were infected intraperitoneally with trypanosomes and observedfor parasitaemia using wet blood smears obtained by tail snipping. Induction of late-stagedisease was undertaken using diminazene aceturate (40 mg/kg, Berenil with curativetreatment done using melarsoprol (3.6 mg/kg, Arsobal. Results: The prepatent period for the stabilates ranged from three to four days with mean peak parasitaemia ranging from Log10 6.40 to 8.36. First peak parasitaemia for all stabilates varied between six and seven days post infection (DPI followed by secondary latency in ILRI-2918 (15–17 DPI and IPR-001 (17–19 DPI. Survival times ranged from six DPI (ILRI-3953 to 86 DPI (IPR-001. Hindleg paresis was observed in both ILRI-3953 (at peak parasitaemia and ILRI-2918 (after relapse parasitaemia. Mice infected with IPR-001 survived until 54 DPI when curative treatment was undertaken. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that the stabilates ILRI-2918 and ILRI-3953 were unsuitable for modelling late-stage HAT in mice. The stabilate IPR-001 demonstrated the potential to induce chronic trypanosomiasis in Swiss white mice for use in development of a late-stage model of HAT.

  15. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  16. Swiss statistics on renewable energy - Biogas - Partial statistics for 2001; Schweizerische Statistik erneuerbarer Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeli, H.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents comprehensive statistics on biogas installations for the year 2001. Data is presented on biogas installations on farms and in industry, in wastewater treatment facilities. Also, data is given on biogenic wastes and co-fermentation. Summaries are presented in table form of biogas production per installation category and the use of the biogas for the production of heat and electrical power. Also, figures are given on the production of biofuels. Development trends in the various areas of biogas production are reviewed and an example of a fermentation installation is briefly described.

  17. Sexual Behavior and Concerns in a Sample of Elderly, Former Indentured Swiss Child Laborers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Rechsteiner, MSc

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well‐being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305–314.

  18. Robust Pose Estimation using the SwissRanger SR-3000 Camera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Sigurjon Arni; Larsen, Rasmus; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a robust method is presented to classify and estimate an objects pose from a real time range image and a low dimensional model. The model is made from a range image training set which is reduced dimensionally by a nonlinear manifold learning method named Local Linear Embedding (LLE)......). New range images are then projected to this model giving the low dimensional coordinates of the object pose in an efficient manner. The range images are acquired by a state of the art SwissRanger SR-3000 camera making the projection process work in real-time....

  19. Steam explosions-induced containment failure studies for Swiss nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuchuat, O.; Schmocker, U. [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate, Villigen (Switzerland); Esmaili, H.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1998-01-01

    The assessment of the consequences of both in-vessel and ex-vessel energetic fuel-coolant interaction for Beznau (a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor with a large, dry containment), Goesgen (a Siemens/KWU pressurized water reactor with a large, dry containment) and Leibstadt (a General Electric boiling water reactor-6 with a free standing steel, MARK-III containment) nuclear power plants is presented in this paper. The Conditional Containment Failure Probability of the steel containment of these Swiss nuclear power plants is determined based on different probabilistic approaches. (author)

  20. Economic evaluation of the eradication program for bovine viral diarrhea in the Swiss dairy sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomann, B; Tschopp, A; Magouras, I; Meylan, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Häsler, B

    2017-09-15

    Since 2008, the Swiss veterinary service has been running a mandatory eradication program for Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD) that is focused on detecting and eliminating persistently infected (PI) animals. Detection was initially based on antigen testing from ear tag samples of the entire cattle population, followed by antigen testing of all newborn calves until 2012. Since then, bulk milk serology (dairy herds) and blood sample serology (beef herds) have been used for the surveillance of disease-free herds. From 2008 to 2012, the proportion of newborn PI calves decreased from 1.4% to less than 0.02%. However, this success was associated with substantial expenditures. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation of the BVD eradication program in the Swiss dairy sector. The situation before the start of the program (herd-level prevalence: 20%) served as a baseline scenario. Production models for three dairy farm types were used to estimate gross margins as well as net production losses and expenditures caused by BVD. The total economic benefit was estimated as the difference in disease costs between the baseline scenario and the implemented eradication program and was compared to the total eradication costs in a benefit-cost analysis. Data on the impact of BVD virus (BVDV) infection on animal health, fertility and production parameters were obtained empirically in a retrospective epidemiological case-control study in Swiss dairy herds and complemented by literature. Economic and additional production parameters were based on benchmarking data and published agricultural statistics. The eradication costs comprised the cumulative expenses for sampling and diagnostics. The economic model consisted of a stochastic simulation in @Risk for Excel with 20,000 iterations and was conducted for a time period of 14 years (2008-2021). The estimated annual financial losses in BVDV infected herds were CHF 85-89 per dairy cow and CHF 1337-2535 for an average farm

  1. The comprehensive I and C modernization project ANIS+ of the Swiss NPP Leibstadt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maerzendorfer, M.

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss Nuclear Electricity Production consists of four sites with a total of 5 Reactors. Together they have a capacity of 3220 MW and cover 40% of the total Swiss Electricity production. Leibstadt is the first Swiss NPP which started a comprehensive modernization project of all process related I and C-equipment in regard of an intended operation at least until 2045. The project will take about 15 years since the stepwise implementation will be only possible during the scheduled outages. The first modernization step, the replacement of most of the former stand alone process computers including the Safety Parameter Display System SPDS by a common platform was finished in this year's outage with a delay of 2 years over the original target line. The project is rated as category C according IEC 61226 by the Swiss nuclear authority (V and V requirements). This first step is at the beginning an integrated plant information system for monitoring only, but it forms already the operating and monitoring level of the future integrated Process Control System (PCS) for operational- as well as safety-I and C, fully based on digital technology. With each of the upcoming further modernization steps, parts of the process level will be added to the digital system by replacing the existing analog equipment for signal interrogation, component control (on-off as well as modulating control) and automatic functions like sequencer or switch over functions. Today's I and C equipment comprises more than 20 different systems from different suppliers, but mostly based on a common cabling- and connection concept and homogenous operating and signalization concept. The structure of the existing I and C-systems in the main plant is mostly according to I and C-functions and not according to process functions, which was a benefit during the original design and construction but has some disadvantages in regard of modifications or addition of new features and for the modernization. In the auxiliary

  2. Identification of the Swiss Z24 Highway Bridge by Frequency Domain Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Andersen, P.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the result of the modal identification of the Swiss highway bridge Z24. A series of 15 progressive damage tests were performed on the bridge before it was demolished in autumn 1998, and the ambient response of the bridge was recorded for each damage case. In this paper the modal...... properties are identified from the ambient responses by frequency domain decomposition. 6 modes were identified for all 15 damage cases. The identification was carried out for the full 3D data case i.e. including all measurements, a total of 291 channels, a reduced data case in 2D including 153 channels...

  3. Relationships Between Milk Yield Traits and Milk Protein Polymorphism in Brown Swiss Cattle in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, Mahmut

    2014-01-01

    In this study, effects of milk protein polymorphism on milk yield traits were investigaed in Brown Swiss cattle. Starch Gel Elektroforesis methods were used for milk protein typing. The data were evaluated by Least squares and Maximum Likelihood Computer Program. Least squares means were found to be 4029.46±251.73 kg for 305 days milk yield, 301.41±14.84 days for lactation length. Effects of a-s1-cazein, b-Lactoglobulin and k-cazein types on milk yield traits were non-significant (p>...

  4. The Swiss Federal Supreme Court: A Constitutional Assessment of Control and Management Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Even the highest courts are under pressure to perform effectively and efficiently. In some instances, the pressure comes from supervisory and elected authorities, such as parliaments, which demand information regarding judicial output. In Switzerland a decision has been made by the Parliament to apply “steering instruments”, which were introduced as part of general administrative reforms. These procedures also include mechanisms for “controlling” 2 judicial activity. In this article, we examine reforms relating to the Swiss Federal Supreme Court , and the compatibility of those reforms with separation of powers principles.

  5. Response of peripheral blood to 131I treatment in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagetia, G.C.; Gupta, S.M.; Kumar, S.; Devi, P.U.

    1982-01-01

    Adult Swiss albino mice were treated with 333 kBq/g body weight (approximately 10.22 Gy/day) intraperitoneally and sacrificed at different post-treatment intervals. It was observed that erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit values decreased gradually, while the depletion in leukocyte count was abrupt at early intervals after treatment. The early decline in the leukocytes followed by more gradual may be due to the direct cell killing by the isotope. The indirect effect on the hematopoietic tissues may be responsible for the continued low levels of the different blood constituents during the later intervals. (author)

  6. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  7. Soil and geography are more important determinants of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal communities than management practices in Swiss agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansa, Jan; Erb, Angela; Oberholzer, Hans-Rudolf; Smilauer, Petr; Egli, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are ubiquitous soil fungi, forming mutualistic symbiosis with a majority of terrestrial plant species. They are abundant in nearly all soils, less diverse than soil prokaryotes and other intensively studied soil organisms and thus are promising candidates for universal indicators of land management legacies and soil quality degradation. However, insufficient data on how the composition of indigenous AMF varies along soil and landscape gradients have hampered the definition of baselines and effect thresholds to date. Here, indigenous AMF communities in 154 agricultural soils collected across Switzerland were profiled by quantitative real-time PCR with taxon-specific markers for six widespread AMF species. To identify the key determinants of AMF community composition, the profiles were related to soil properties, land management and site geography. Our results indicate a number of well-supported dependencies between abundances of certain AMF taxa and soil properties such as pH, soil fertility and texture, and a surprising lack of effect of available soil phosphorus on the AMF community profiles. Site geography, especially the altitude and large geographical distance, strongly affected AMF communities. Unexpected was the apparent lack of a strong land management effect on the AMF communities as compared to the other predictors, which could be due to the rarity of highly intensive and unsustainable land management in Swiss agriculture. In spite of the extensive coverage of large geographical and soil gradients, we did not identify any taxon suitable as an indicator of land use among the six taxa we studied. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Protective effects of Punica Granatum (L) and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharmila, K.P.; Satheesh Kumar Bhandary, B.; Suchetha Kumari, N.; Vadisha Bhat, S.; Sherly, Sharmila; Sanjeev, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Ionizing radiations produce deleterious effects in the living organisms and the rapid technological advancement has increased human exposure to ionizing radiations enormously. Radiotherapy, which is a chief modality to treat cancer, faces a major drawback because it produces severe side effects developed due to damage to normal tissue by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recent studies have indicated that some commonly used medicinal plants may be good sources of potent but non-toxic radioprotectors. The pomegranate, Punica granatum L., an ancient, mystical, and highly distinctive fruit, is the predominant member of the Punicaceae family. It is used in several systems of medicine for a variety of ailments. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of ethanolic extracts of pomegranate whole fruit (EPWF) and seeds (EPS) and Synthetic Ellagic acid (EA) against Electron beam radiation(EBR) induced biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice. The extracts and synthetic compound were assessed for its radical scavenging property by DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assays. The animals were exposed to sub-lethal dose (6 Gy) of Electron Beam Radiation and then treated with 200 mg/kg body wt. of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid for 15 consecutive days. The biochemical estimations were carried out in the liver homogenate of the sacrificed animals. Radiation induced depletion in the level of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were prevented significantly by EPWF, EPS and EA administration. Also there was significant reduction in the levels of membrane lipid peroxidation in the treated groups compared to irradiated control. The findings of our study indicate the protective efficacy of pomegranate extracts and synthetic ellagic acid on radiation induced biochemical changes in mice may be due to its free radical scavenging and increased antioxidant levels. (author)

  9. Swiss energy research concept for the period 2004-2007; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Swiss National Energy Research Commission CORE lists and discusses energy research topics that are to be looked during the period 2004 to 2007. The report discusses the fundamentals, visions and short and long-term targets for Swiss energy research and presents strategies for reaching them. Research areas dealt with include the efficient use of energy, renewable sources of energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economics basics necessary for the implementation of sustainable energy policy. Also, implementation aspects such as pilot and demonstration installations are discussed. The current state of research is noted and strategic targets and the ways and means of reaching them are examined. Main areas of research for the period are listed and financing issues are discussed.

  10. Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The first Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This report is issued according to Article 5 of the International Convention on Nuclear Safety. It has been produced by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. Before submission to the Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication, the report has been commented by the Federal Office of Energy (BFE/OFEN), the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (KSA/CSA), and the Swiss nuclear power plants of Beznau, Leibstadt and Muehleberg. The Goesgen nuclear power plant has chosen not to comment on the report. The introduction to the report provides general information about Switzerland, a brief political history of nuclear power and an overview of the nuclear facilities in Switzerland. In the subsequent sections, numbered after the Articles 6 to 19 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, key aspects are commented on in such a way as to give a clear indication on how the various duties imposed by the Convention are fulfilled in Switzerland.

  11. RPE and RPO in the revised Swiss radiation protection legislation; RPE und RPO in der revidierten schweizerischen Strahlenschutzgesetzgebung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, S.G. [Eidgenoessisches Nuklearsicherheitsinspektorat (ENSI), Brugg (Switzerland); Stritt, N.; Bogni, S. [Bundesamt fuer Gesundheit (BAG), Bern (Switzerland); Hammans, M. [Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt (SUVA), Luzern (Switzerland); Duerst, B. [Departement fuer Verteidigung, Bevoelkerungsschutz und Sport (VBS), Bern (Switzerland); Kuehne, G. [Paul-Scherrer-Institut (PSI), Wuerenlingen (Switzerland); Besancon, A. [Institut de Radiophysique (IRA), Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-07-01

    Currently the Swiss 'Ordinance on Radiation Protection' and the 'Ordinance about Education and Training in RP' are undergoing a revision process. Concerning responsibilities and obligations as well as the capabilities and skills in RP the new ordinances are supposed to take account on the new EU Basic Safety Standard on the one hand and on the other hand to resume the approved approaches on RP in Switzerland. An overview of the planned content of the revised ordinances will be given in this report. In the Swiss system the education, training and retraining of RPO has a higher priority. Particularly it will be described which groups of persons assume the roles of RPE and therefore the definition of RPE in the new Swiss legislation is needless. (orig.)

  12. Effects of climate change on the Swiss economy (national influences); Auswirkungen der Klimaaenderung auf die Schweizer Volkswirtschaft (nationale Einfluesse)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) attempts to estimate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the Swiss economy. The authors state that no grave damage to the Swiss economy that could be caused by climate change are to be expected by the year 2030. Estimates for the year 2050 are presented and a prognosis showing a substantial increase of damage after this date is presented. Tourism and energy installations are noted as being the areas that will be most affected. Other areas affected include infrastructure, human health, water supplies, forestry and the farming economy. The methodologies used in the preparation of the study are described. Scenarios are presented and discussed. An overview of the costs incurred as a result of climate-related change is presented.

  13. A contribution to the identification of promising technologies for SwissEnergy R and D policy in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerer, M. [E4tech Switzerland, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cremer, C. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the conclusions of a study-project on promising energy technologies that could make a contribution to Swiss energy supply in the future. A review of literature on the subject is presented and the methodology used for the identification of the promising technologies is described. Four future possibilities of combining low or high levels of decentralisation of power generation with a low or high degree of fossil fuel utilisation are presented and discussed. The opinions for industry and the Swiss economy on the subject are looked at, as is research currently being carried out. Also, the so-called '2000-Watt Society' is briefly looked at. European aspects are discussed. Finally, exemplary prioritisation for the four options mentioned above along with the case of nothing being done at all are discussed.

  14. Swiss Energy research 2007 - Overview from the Heads of the Programs; Energie-Forschung 2007. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calisesi, Y.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive document issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the overview reports elaborated by the heads of the various Swiss energy research programmes. Topics covered include the efficient use of energy, with reports covering energy in buildings, traffic and accumulators, electrical technologies, applications and grids, ambient heat, combined heat and power, cooling, combustion, the 'power station 2000', fuel cells and hydrogen and process engineering. Renewable energy topics reported on include solar heat, photovoltaics, industrial solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal heat and wind energy. Nuclear energy topics include safety, regulatory safety research and nuclear fusion. Finally, energy economics basics are reviewed. The report is completed with annexes on the Swiss Energy Research Commission, energy research organisations and a list of important addresses.

  15. Implementation of the obligations of the Convention on Nuclear Safety. The first Swiss report in accordance with Article 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    This report is issued according to Article 5 of the International Convention on Nuclear Safety. It has been produced by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate. Before submission to the Federal Department of Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication, the report has been commented by the Federal Office of Energy (BFE/OFEN), the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Commission (KSA/CSA), and the Swiss nuclear power plants of Beznau, Leibstadt and Muehleberg. The Goesgen nuclear power plant has chosen not to comment on the report. The introduction to the report provides general information about Switzerland, a brief political history of nuclear power and an overview of the nuclear facilities in Switzerland. In the subsequent sections, numbered after the Articles 6 to 19 of the Convention on Nuclear Safety, key aspects are commented on in such a way as to give a clear indication on how the various duties imposed by the Convention are fulfilled in Switzerland

  16. Assessing the "Good Life" in a Military Context: How Does Life and Work-Satisfaction Relate to Orientations to Happiness and Career-Success among Swiss Professional Officers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, Rene T.; Annen, Hubert; Eggimann, Nadine; Schneider, Andrea; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    The study examines work- and life satisfaction along with orientation to happiness, and their relation to subjective but also objective career success, among Swiss military professional officers. They frequently report worsening of their working conditions due to two reforms that have recently been conducted. A total of N = 221 Swiss career…

  17. EFFECT OF SWISS BALL EXERCISE TOWARD THE BODY BALANCE TO LESS THE RISK FALL OF OLDER AT UPT SOCIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Syapitri

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The balance of body is one of the main factor in doing fungsional activity. In every activity, the body always need control of the body balance, because basically every phisic activity right static or dinamic will take someone on unstable position with big risk to having fell. Swiss Ball exercise as support is believed on labile surface will make spine have big chance to stabling the muscle between vebra and increase the dinamic balance to restrain the repeats stability. The research object to know The Effect of Swiss Ball Exercise toward The Body Balance to Less The Risk Fall of Older at UPT Social Service of Older and Children Under Five district Binjai and Medan in Year 2016. The research type is Quasi Experiment with pre test-post test one group only design method. Population in this research all of older at UPT Social Service district Binjai as much as 172 older with number of man is 81 and woman is 91, with Purposive sampling Technique that is 15 respondences. Data collecting using observation sheet with analysis that used is univariat: respondence characteristics, the body balance of older before and after doing Swiss Ball practice, and bivariat with Paired t-Test. The research result showing the average of body balance before doing Swiss Ball as much (Mean 38,07 and after (Mean 46,33. Conclusion: there is the effect of Swiss Ball toward body balance to less the risk fall of older (p=0,000 ; p=< 0,05. Sugessted for older to practice the balance himself more steady so that not easy to have risk fall further. Influenced, and for the next researcher can research about another factor that foregrounded the risk fall of older. Keywords    : Swiss Ball, Balance Exercise, Risk Fall

  18. Community of Faithful Dissidents. Representations of Anabaptism in Swiss Historical Fiction by Walter Laedrach and Katharina Zimmermann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berit Jany

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The twentieth-century Swiss local authors Walter Laedrach and Katharina Zimmermann rediscovered the dark chapter of Swiss history documenting the torture and execution of non-resistant and non-conformist Christians in the Bernese Oberland. The following anal­ysis of the literary representation of these pacifist Anabaptists will identify historiographical sources that served as inspiration to the authors and the contributions their historical no­vels make in Switzerland’s process of coming to terms with its tragic past.

  19. Swiss 'Electricity' Research Programme 2004-2007; Konzept des Forschungsprogramms 'Elektrizitaet' 2004 - 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides details on Swiss research in the electricity area that is foreseen for the period 2004-2007. The report discusses the current state of electricity research and the strategic goals for the period and presents the organisations involved and their previous work. The general main areas of interest addressed by the programme are noted, such as the storage and transport of electricity as well as its use in communication technologies, motors, domestic appliances and industrial applications. Figures are presented on the programme's finances and the concept of 'trend-watching' groups is briefly addressed.

  20. Avaliação do efeito cumulativo do antimoniato de meglumina sobre a prole de camundongos swiss: ensaio biológico Evaluate the cumulative effect of meglumine antimoniate on the progeny of swiss mice: biologic assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Rodrigues dos Santos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito do antimoniato de meglumina na transferência materno-fetal na geração F1 (prole de matrizes expostas ao composto, e conseqüências em progênies F2. MÉTODOS: Camundongos fêmeas Swiss foram tratados com antimoniato de meglumina, via subcutânea, com administração diária, do sétimo ao 12º dia de gestação (ddg, na dose equivalente a 100mgSb v/kg peso/dia. O grupo controle recebeu apenas o veículo (água destilada. Após o nascimento da prole (geração F1, 59 fêmeas foram examinadas diariamente para determinação do ciclo estral. Quando determinado o ciclo estro, acasalou-se 18 fêmeas com machos da mesma linhagem. No 18º ddg, as fêmeas foram eutanasiadas por câmara de CO2, o abdômen incisado e o útero exposto, quando avaliou-se os sítios de desenvolvimento embrionário e fetal quanto ao número de reabsorções, fetos vivos e mortos. Todos os fetos e placentas foram pesados para calcular o índice placentário. Três placentas de cada ninhada foram separadas para análise microscópica. RESULTADOS: A exposição ao antimoniato de meglumina não interferiu no ciclo estral dos animais tratados, pelo fato de não alterar o intervalo precoital e o índice de fertilidade. Não foram observadas alterações placentárias em progênies F2. CONCLUSÃO: O antimoniato de meglumina não altera a performance reprodutiva das mães expostas cronicamente. Estes dados sugerem que ocorre uma gradual eliminação do antimoniato de meglumina no organismo materno, sem acarretar danos a proles futuras.OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the effect of Meglumine Antimoniate on maternal-fetal transference in F1 generations (offspring of dams exposed to the drug, and embryotoxicity in F2 generations. METHODS: Female Swiss mice were treated with daily s.c. injection of Meglumine Antimoniate (100mgSb v/kg bw/day from day 7 until day 12 of pregnancy. The control group received only the vehicle (distilled water. After birth of offspring (F1

  1. Further characterisation of self-defining memories in young adults: a study of a Swiss sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardi, Claudia; D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Chanal, Julien; Ghisletta, Paolo; Van der Linden, Martial

    2010-04-01

    Several individual differences affecting four dimensions of self-defining memories (SDMs)--structure, content, affect, and autobiographical reasoning (Blagov & Singer, 2004; McLean & Fournier, 2008; Singer & Salovey, 1993)--have been observed in young adults (principally in North America). In this study we aimed to investigate the relationships between the different dimensions of SDMs, providing further evidence of the content validity of the Self-Defining Memory task. It was possible to discern two specific profiles from the three SDMs collected from each participant. Almost half the participants retrieved specific SDMs with little autobiographical reasoning and tension; the other participants retrieved an opposite profile, suggesting that there are individual differences in the cognitive and affective processes related to the construction of SDMs. The second aim of the study was to conduct across-cultural extension of research on SDMs, using a sample of Swiss young adults. The results were similar to those obtained by previous studies, suggesting a certain cultural invariability. The only difference observed concerned the number of SDMs containing meaning making. Swiss young adults attribute more explicit meanings to their memories than North American young adults, suggesting that they are more engaged in autobiographical reasoning.

  2. Process acceptance and adjustment techniques for Swiss automatic screw machine parts. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    Product tolerance requirements for small, cylindrical, piece parts produced on swiss automatic screw machines have progressed to the reliability limits of inspection equipment. The miniature size, configuration, and tolerance requirements (plus or minus 0.0001 in.) (0.00254 mm) of these parts preclude the use of screening techniques to accept product or adjust processes during setup and production runs; therefore, existing means of product acceptance and process adjustment must be refined or new techniques must be developed. The purpose of this endeavor has been to determine benefits gained through the implementation of a process acceptance technique (PAT) to swiss automatic screw machine processes. PAT is a statistical approach developed for the purpose of accepting product and centering processes for parts produced by selected, controlled processes. Through this endeavor a determination has been made of the conditions under which PAT can benefit a controlled process and some specific types of screw machine processes upon which PAT could be applied. However, it was also determined that PAT, if used indiscriminately, may become a record keeping burden when applied to more than one dimension at a given machining operation

  3. An estimate of the glacier ice volume in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Huss, Matthias; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin

    2009-08-01

    Changes in glacier volume are important for questions linked to sea-level rise, water resource management, and tourism industry. With the ongoing climate warming, the retreat of mountain glaciers is a major concern. Predictions of glacier changes, necessarily need the present ice volume as initial condition, and for transient modelling, the ice thickness distribution has to be known. In this paper, a method based on mass conservation and principles of ice flow dynamics is applied to 62 glaciers located in the Swiss Alps for estimating their ice thickness distribution. All available direct ice thickness measurements are integrated. The ice volumes are referenced to the year 1999 by means of a mass balance time series. The results are used to calibrate a volume-area scaling relation, and the coefficients obtained show good agreement with values reported in the literature. We estimate the total ice volume present in the Swiss Alps in the year 1999 to be 74 ± 9 km 3. About 12% of this volume was lost between 1999 and 2008, whereas the extraordinarily warm summer 2003 caused a volume loss of about 3.5%.

  4. A longitudinal study on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus genotype B in Swiss communal dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Borne, Bart H P; Graber, Hans U; Voelk, Verena; Sartori, Carlotta; Steiner, Adrian; Haerdi-Landerer, M Christina; Bodmer, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common mastitis causing pathogen of dairy cattle. Several S. aureus genotypes exist, of which genotype B (GTB) is highly prevalent in Swiss dairy herds. Dairy farming in mountainous regions of Switzerland is characterised by the movement of dairy cattle to communal pasture-based operations at higher altitudes. Cows from different herds of origin share pastures and milking equipment for a period of 2 to 3 months during summer. The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to quantify transmission of S. aureus GTB in communal dairy operations. Cows (n=551) belonging to 7 communal operations were sampled at the beginning and end of the communal period. Transmission parameter β was estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model. The basic reproduction ratio R 0 was subsequently derived using previously published information about the duration of infection. Mean transmission parameter β was estimated to be 0.0232 (95% CI: 0.0197-0.0274). R 0 was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.2-3.0), indicating that S. aureus GTB is capable of causing major outbreaks in Swiss communal dairy operations. This study emphasized the contagious behaviour of S. aureus GTB. Mastitis management in communal dairy operations should be optimized to reduce S. aureus GTB transmission between cows and back to their herds of origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Homicide-suicide cases in Switzerland and their impact on the Swiss Weapon Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabherr, Silke; Johner, Stephan; Dilitz, Carine; Buck, Ursula; Killias, Martin; Mangin, Patrice; Plattner, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Homicide followed by the suicide of the offender is a well-known phenomenon. In most cases, it takes place in the context of the so-called "family tragedies." A recent series of such family tragedies in Switzerland prompted an intensive debate in the media and the Swiss government concerning the Swiss Weapon Law, in particular the requirement to keep personal army weapons at home. The present study of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland, thus focuses on the role played by guns, especially military weapons, in such crimes. We investigated retrospectively 75 cases of Homicide-Suicide, comprising 172 individuals and spanning a period of 23 years in western and central Switzerland. Our results show that if guns were used in 76% of the cases, army weapons were the cause of death in 25% of the total. In 28% of the deaths caused by a gunshot, the exact type of the gun and its origin could not be determined. Thus, the majority of Homicide-Suicide cases in Switzerland involve the use of guns. The exact percentage of cases were military weapons were involved could not be defined. In our opinion, a stricter weapons law, restricting access to firearms, would be a factor of prevention of Homicide- Suicide cases in Switzerland.

  6. Histological and Physiological Alterations Induced by Thermal Neutron Fluxes in Male Swiss Albino Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzergy, A.A.; Emara, N.M.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.; El-Saady, S.M.M.; Emara, N.M.; Abd El-Latif, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    This work was performed to investigate the biological effects of different thermal neutron fluxes (0.27x10 8 , 0.52X10 8 , 1.089X10 8 , 2.16X10 8 and 4.32X10 8 ) on liver and kidney of male mice using neutron irradiation cell with Ra-Be(α,n) 3 mCi neutron source Leybold (55930). Exposed to various fluxes of thermal neutron induced a dramatic alterations in hepatic and renal functions as indicated by biochemical estimation of several parameters (bilirubin, SGT, and alkaline phosphate .Urea , total protein, and albumin) and confirmed by histological examinations Thermal neutron exposure induces marked increase in the serum activities of total bilirubin, alanine amino transaminase (ALT or GPT), and alkaline phosphate, whereas, urea, total protein and albumin showed marked decline as compared to control group. The physiological changes induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. Histopathological results revealed mild to severe type of necrosis, and degenerative changes in liver and kidney of male mice exposed to thermal neutron fluxes. Also it was found that the histopathological alterations induced in thermal neutron fluxes dependent manner. It was found that exposed to thermal neutron fluxes irradiation plays prominent role in the development of the physiological alterations in male Swiss albino mice. The Former up normalities as a result of the sequence events followed interaction of radiation with the former biological mater (liver and kidney) of male Swiss albino mice, which are, physical, physicochemical, chemical, and biological stages.

  7. SwissDock, a protein-small molecule docking web service based on EADock DSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosdidier, Aurélien; Zoete, Vincent; Michielin, Olivier

    2011-07-01

    Most life science processes involve, at the atomic scale, recognition between two molecules. The prediction of such interactions at the molecular level, by so-called docking software, is a non-trivial task. Docking programs have a wide range of applications ranging from protein engineering to drug design. This article presents SwissDock, a web server dedicated to the docking of small molecules on target proteins. It is based on the EADock DSS engine, combined with setup scripts for curating common problems and for preparing both the target protein and the ligand input files. An efficient Ajax/HTML interface was designed and implemented so that scientists can easily submit dockings and retrieve the predicted complexes. For automated docking tasks, a programmatic SOAP interface has been set up and template programs can be downloaded in Perl, Python and PHP. The web site also provides an access to a database of manually curated complexes, based on the Ligand Protein Database. A wiki and a forum are available to the community to promote interactions between users. The SwissDock web site is available online at http://www.swissdock.ch. We believe it constitutes a step toward generalizing the use of docking tools beyond the traditional molecular modeling community.

  8. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  9. Protein modelling of triterpene synthase genes from mangrove plants using Phyre2 and Swiss-model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basyuni, M.; Wati, R.; Sulistiyono, N.; Hayati, R.; Sumardi; Oku, H.; Baba, S.; Sagami, H.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular cloning of five oxidosqualene cyclases (OSC) genes from Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Kandelia candel, and Rhizophora stylosa had previously been cloned, characterized, and encoded mono and -multi triterpene synthases. The present study analyzed protein modelling of triterpene synthase genes from mangrove using Phyre2 and Swiss-model. The diversity was noted within protein modelling of triterpene synthases using Phyre2 from sequence identity (38-43%) and residue (696-703). RsM2 was distinguishable from others for template structure; it used lanosterol synthase as a template (PDB ID: w6j.1.A). By contrast, other genes used human lanosterol synthase (1w6k.1.A). The predicted bind sites were correlated with the product of triterpene synthase, the product of BgbAS was β-amyrin, while RsM1 contained a significant amount of β-amyrin. Similarly BgLUS and KcMS, both main products was lupeol, on the other hand, RsM2 with the outcome of taraxerol. Homology modelling revealed that 696 residues of BgbAS, BgLUS, RsM1, and RsM2 (91-92% of the amino acid sequence) had been modelled with 100% confidence by the single highest scoring template using Phyre2. This coverage was higher than Swiss-model (85-90%). The present study suggested that molecular cloning of triterpene genes provides useful tools for studying the protein modelling related regulation of isoprenoids biosynthesis in mangrove forests.

  10. Deterministic and probabilistic approaches in the supervision of Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theiss, K.; Schoen, G.; Schmocker, U.

    2002-01-01

    The report presents an overview of the planned approach to be taken by the Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities (HSK) in systematically integrating probabilistic safety analyses (PSA) into the supervision of Swiss nuclear power plants which, so far, has been largely deterministic in character. On the basis of a description of the present rank of PSA, the principles of risk-informed supervision as sought by HSK are outlined. In addition, practical applications of PSA are shown by a number of examples implemented along-side the development of the concept. HSK recognized the importance of PSA early on and required all Swiss nuclear power plants to conduct level-1 and level-2 PSA studies for full-power operation as early as in 1987. In early 1990, level-1 PSA was extended to cover also analyses of startup, shutdown, and outage modes of operation. PSA has become more important also as a consequence of the periodic safety reviews (PSR) carried out since 1995 within the framework of ongoing supervisory activities. It has become a permanent part in a holistic system evaluating the safety status of nuclear power plants. The next step planned by HSK is the introduction of risk-informed supervision in which probabilistic considerations will be employed side by side with deterministic approaches. (orig.) [de

  11. Evaluation of the National Skin Cancer Campaign: a Swiss experience of Euromelanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberherr, Sven; Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Cazzaniga, Simone; Bianchi, Enrica; Schlagenhauff, Bettina; Tscharner, Gion; Hafner, Jürg; Mainetti, Carlo; Lapointe, Anne-Karine; Hunger, Robert E

    2017-10-24

    Skin cancer is a burden to healthcare and patients worldwide. The incidence of skin cancer has been rising during recent decades and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Numerous risk factors have been identified and prevention strategies developed. The Euromelanoma campaign is a pan-European skin cancer prevention programme, targeted to both primary and secondary prevention of malignant melanoma. The current study aimed to evaluate the results of the Swiss skin cancer screening day 2016. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on characteristics and suspected skin cancers of all participants. Follow-up of patients with suspicious lesions was performed 3 to 6 months later. During the campaign, 2795 people were screened. Of the screened individuals, 157 participants (58% female, 42% male; mean age 58.8 years) underwent further evaluations; 6 cutaneous malignant melanomas, 21 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas were detected. Detection rates were 0.21% for cutaneous melanoma, 0.75% for basal cell carcinoma and 0.07% for squamous cell carcinoma. Our study provides an up-to-date evaluation of the Swiss Euromelanoma campaign 2016. The results are mostly in line with data from other European studies. Considering the morbidity, mortality and financial and social impact of skin cancer, the capacity to raise awareness of risk factors, skin cancer prevention methods and educating high-risk and at-risk individuals, we may assume that a National Screening Day has a crucial impact on the public health system.

  12. MediCoordination: a practical approach to interoperability in the Swiss health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Henning; Schumacher, Michael; Godel, David; Omar, Abu Khaled; Mooser, Francois; Ding, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Interoperability and data exchange between partners in the health sector is seen as one of the important domains that can improve care processes and in the long run also decrease costs of the health care system. Data exchange can assure that the data on the patient are as complete as possible avoiding potential mistreatments, and it can avoid double examinations if the data required are already available. On the other hand, health data is a sensible point for many people and strong protection needs to be implemented to protect patient data against misuse as well as tools to let the patient manage his/her own data. Many countries have eHealth initiatives in preparation or already implemented. However, health data exchange on a large scale still has a fairly long way to go as the political processes for global solutions are often complicated. In the MediCoordination project a pragmatic approach is selected trying to integrate several partners in health care on a regional scale. In parallel with the Swiss eHealth strategy that is currently being elaborated by the Swiss confederation, particularly medium-sized hospitals and external partners are targeted in MediCoordination to implement concrete added-value scenarios of information exchange between hospitals and external medical actors.

  13. Photochemical modelling of photo-oxidant levels over the Swiss plateau and emission reduction scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosselet, C.M.; Kerr, J.A.

    1993-05-01

    During summertime high pressure conditions, high photo-oxidant (O 3 , H 2 O 2 , PAN and others) levels are frequently observed in the planetary boundary layer in central Europe. It is well known that close to the earth's surface ozone is formed by complex reactions involving VOC, NO x , and sunlight. Substantial reductions of both precursors are needed to reduce photo-oxidant levels. In this context the reductions of the abundance of the precursors and the variation of their ratios is of great importance. Here we report model calculations from the Harwell Photochemical Trajectory Model of the levels of O 3 , H 2 O 2 and PAN along a trajectory over the Swiss Plateau from Lake Constance to Lake Geneva. These calculations are in satisfactory agreement with measurements made during the intensive observation period of the research program POLLUMET (Pollution and Meteorology in Switzerland). Sensitivity calculations of emission reduction scenarios indicate that on the Swiss Plateau the ozone production may be mainly NO x -limited; under conditions where the CO levels are closer to the upper limit within the range (120-600 ppbv). The calculated peak ozone level reduction caused by an exclusive NO x -emission reduction is about three times larger than that caused by an exclusive VOC reduction. The combined reduction of all precursor compounds is the most efficient strategy, although it is only marginally more efficient than the NO x -reduction scenario alone. (author) figs., tabs., 75 refs

  14. TRANSIT THROUGH THE SCHENGEN AREA FOR THE HOLDERS OF SPECIFIC SWISS DOCUMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN of the following relaxation of the transit regulations granted by the States applying the Schengen Agreement and other European States to third-country nationals who are normally required to obtain a visa. As from 10 July 2006, those holding a Carte de légitimation or Attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs or a B, C or Ci-type residence permit are exempted from the requirement to obtain a visa for transit through the Schengen area, so long as the transit period does not exceed five days (for each transit). For other circumstances (for example tourism, including for conferences), the requirement to obtain a visa remains in force. The States that form the Schengen area are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. In addition, the following States have decided to apply the same exemption from the requirement to obtain a...

  15. Short- and long-run time-of-use price elasticities in Swiss residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. This analysis has been performed using aggregate data at the city level for 22 Swiss cities for the period 2000-2006. For this purpose, we estimated two log-log demand equations for peak and off-peak electricity consumption using static and dynamic partial adjustment approaches. These demand functions were estimated using several econometric approaches for panel data, for example LSDV and RE for static models, and LSDV and corrected LSDV estimators for dynamic models. The attempt of this empirical analysis has been to highlight some of the characteristics of the Swiss residential electricity demand. The estimated short-run own price elasticities are lower than 1, whereas in the long-run these values are higher than 1. The estimated short-run and long-run cross-price elasticities are positive. This result shows that peak and off-peak electricity are substitutes. In this context, time differentiated prices should provide an economic incentive to customers so that they can modify consumption patterns by reducing peak demand and shifting electricity consumption from peak to off-peak periods. - Highlights: → Empirical analysis on the residential demand for electricity by time-of-day. → Estimators for dynamic panel data. → Peak and off-peak residential electricity are substitutes.

  16. The barriers to smoking cessation in Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stohler Rudolf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates in methadone-maintained patients are almost three times higher than in the general population and remain elevated and stable. Due to the various negative health effects of smoking, nicotine dependence contributes to the high mortality in this patient group. The purpose of the current study was to investigate Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients' willingness to stop smoking and to clarify further smoking cessation procedures. Methods Substance abuse history, nicotine dependence, and readiness to stop smoking were assessed in a sample of 103 opiate-dependent patients in the metropolitan area of Zurich, Switzerland. Patients were asked to document their smoking patterns and readiness to quit. Results Only a small number of patients were willing to quit smoking cigarettes (10.7% and, even though bupropione or nicotine replacement therapy was included in the fixed daily treatment care, only one patient received nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. A diagnosis of depression in patients' clinical records was associated with readiness to stop smoking. No significant associations were found between readiness to quit smoking and age, methadone treatment characteristics, and presence of co-dependencies. Conclusion The current prescription level of best medicine for nicotine dependence in Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients is far from adequate. Possible explanations and treatment-relevant implications are discussed.

  17. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  18. Affective Organizational Commitment in Swiss Nursing Homes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Elisabeth; Cignacco, Eva; Zimmermann, Karin; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2016-12-01

    This substudy of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP) explored the relationships between affective organizational commitment (AOC) levels and organizational, situational, and care personnel characteristics, and between AOC and care personnel outcomes. SHURP was a representative national cross-sectional study in 163 Swiss nursing homes. Its data sources were: (a) a care personnel questionnaire, (b) a facility questionnaire, (c) a unit questionnaire, and (d) administrative resident data. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were applied to examine AOC's relationships with selected antecedents and care personnel outcomes. Data were collected from 5,323 care personnel in 163 nursing homes (return rate: 76%). On a scale from 1 to 5, the mean level of AOC was 3.86 (standard deviation = 0.81). Variations in AOC regarding care personnel characteristics (age, education, and experience in nursing home) and organizational characteristics (size, profit status) were statistically significant with minimal effect sizes. The main factors positively related to AOC were leadership, job satisfaction, quality of care, and collaboration with the nursing home director. Care personnel outcomes significantly related to higher AOC were reduced intention to leave, health complaints, presenteeism, and absenteeism. As leadership is a crucial factor of AOC, its development might improve care personnel outcomes such as intention to leave or absenteeism. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Imaging algorithms and CT protocols in trauma patients: survey of Swiss emergency centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzpeter, R.; Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Boehm, T. [Kantonsspital Graubuenden, Department of Radiology, Chur (Switzerland); Boll, D. [University Hospital Basel, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Basel (Switzerland); Constantin, C. [Spital Wallis, Department of Radiology, Visp (Switzerland); Del Grande, F. [Ospedale Regionale di Lugano, Department of Radiology, Lugano (Switzerland); Fretz, V. [Kantonsspital Winterthur, Institute of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Winterthur (Switzerland); Leschka, S. [Kantonsspital St Gallen, Division of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Gallen (Switzerland); Ohletz, T. [Kantonsspital Aarau, Department of Radiology, Aarau (Switzerland); Broennimann, M. [University Hospital Bern, Department of Diagnostic, Interventional and Pediatric Radiology, Bern (Switzerland); Schmidt, S. [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Treumann, T. [Luzerner Kantonsspital, Institute of Radiology, Luzern 16 (Switzerland); Poletti, P.A. [Geneva University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Geneve (Switzerland)

    2017-05-15

    To identify imaging algorithms and indications, CT protocols, and radiation doses in polytrauma patients in Swiss trauma centres. An online survey with multiple choice questions and free-text responses was sent to authorized level-I trauma centres in Switzerland. All centres responded and indicated that they have internal standardized imaging algorithms for polytrauma patients. Nine of 12 centres (75 %) perform whole-body CT (WBCT) after focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) and conventional radiography; 3/12 (25 %) use WBCT for initial imaging. Indications for WBCT were similar across centres being based on trauma mechanisms, vital signs, and presence of multiple injuries. Seven of 12 centres (58 %) perform an arterial and venous phase of the abdomen in split-bolus technique. Six of 12 centres (50 %) use multiphase protocols of the head (n = 3) and abdomen (n = 4), whereas 6/12 (50 %) use single-phase protocols for WBCT. Arm position was on the patient's body during scanning (3/12, 25 %), alongside the body (2/12, 17 %), above the head (2/12, 17 %), or was changed during scanning (5/12, 42 %). Radiation doses showed large variations across centres ranging from 1268-3988 mGy*cm (DLP) per WBCT. Imaging algorithms in polytrauma patients are standardized within, but vary across Swiss trauma centres, similar to the individual WBCT protocols, resulting in large variations in associated radiation doses. (orig.)

  20. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector test Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Schietinger, T.; Aiba, M.; Arsov, V.; Bettoni, S.; Beutner, B.; Calvi, M.; Craievich, P.; Dehler, M.; Frei, F.; Ganter, R.; Hauri, C. P.; Ischebeck, R.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Janousch, M.; Kaiser, M.; Keil, B.; Löhl, F.; Orlandi, G. L.; Ozkan Loch, C.; Peier, P.; Prat, E.; Raguin, J.-Y.; Reiche, S.; Schilcher, T.; Wiegand, P.; Zimoch, E.; Anicic, D.; Armstrong, D.; Baldinger, M.; Baldinger, R.; Bertrand, A.; Bitterli, K.; Bopp, M.; Brands, H.; Braun, H. H.; Brönnimann, M.; Brunnenkant, I.; Chevtsov, P.; Chrin, J.; Citterio, A.; Csatari Divall, M.; Dach, M.; Dax, A.; Ditter, R.; Divall, E.; Falone, A.; Fitze, H.; Geiselhart, C.; Guetg, M. W.; Hämmerli, F.; Hauff, A.; Heiniger, M.; Higgs, C.; Hugentobler, W.; Hunziker, S.; Janser, G.; Kalantari, B.; Kalt, R.; Kim, Y.; Koprek, W.; Korhonen, T.; Krempaska, R.; Laznovsky, M.; Lehner, S.; Le Pimpec, F.; Lippuner, T.; Lutz, H.; Mair, S.; Marcellini, F.; Marinkovic, G.; Menzel, R.; Milas, N.; Pal, T.; Pollet, P.; Portmann, W.; Rezaeizadeh, A.; Ritt, S.; Rohrer, M.; Schär, M.; Schebacher, L.; Scherrer, St.; Schlott, V.; Schmidt, T.; Schulz, L.; Smit, B.; Stadler, M.; Steffen, Bernd; Stingelin, L.; Sturzenegger, W.; Treyer, D. M.; Trisorio, A.; Tron, W.; Vicario, C.; Zennaro, R.; Zimoch, D.

    2016-10-26

    The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including atransverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunchesof up to200 pC chargeand up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of a FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measureme...