WorldWideScience

Sample records for swiss national reference

  1. Swiss survey on hybrid imaging CTs doses in Nuclear Medicine and proposed national dose reference levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Thiago V M; Gnesin, Silvano; Ryckx, Nick; Strobel, Klaus; Stritt, Nicolas; Linder, Reto

    2018-02-17

    A multidisciplinary working group led by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health was formed to plan and perform a nationwide survey of patient radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) in hybrid devices across Nuclear Medicine departments. The survey included 16 departments (of which 5 were university hospitals) and the submitted responses included 10,673 entries for the 33 different protocols proposed (11 in PET and 22 in SPECT). The working group determined the selection and exclusion criteria applied to the analysis. This work presents the survey preparation and data analysis including the exclusion criteria used. The results are used to inform recommendations for National Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRL) for CT procedures in Nuclear Medicine in Switzerland. Of the 33 protocols initially proposed, 10 protocols for both PET and SPECT modalities were retained after exclusion criteria and thresholds were applied. The results obtained in terms of volume-weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) and dose length product (DLP) have been put forward as recommendations for national Diagnostic Reference Levels for protocols in hybrid imaging devices in Nuclear Medicine in Switzerland and will be published by the Federal Office of Public Health. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  2. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  3. The Reference Scenarios for the Swiss Emergency Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanspeter Isaak; Navert, Stephan B.; Ralph Schulz [Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate CH-5232 Villigen-HSK (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    For the purpose of emergency planning and preparedness, realistic reference scenarios and corresponding accident source terms have been defined on the basis of common plant features. Three types of representative reference scenarios encompass the accident sequences expected to be the most probable. Accident source terms are assumed to be identical for all Swiss nuclear power plants, although the plants differ in reactor type and power. Plant-specific probabilistic safety analyses were used to justify the reference scenarios and the postulated accident source terms. From the full spectrum of release categories available, those categories were selected which would be covered by the releases and time frames assumed in the reference scenarios. For each nuclear power plant, the cumulative frequency of accident sequences not covered by the reference scenarios was determined. It was found that the cumulative frequency for such accident sequences does not exceed about 1 x 10{sup -6} per year. The Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate concludes that the postulated accident source terms for the reference scenarios are consistent with the current international approach in emergency planning, where one should concentrate on the most probable accident sequences. (N.C.)

  4. 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Congress. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2010-01-01

    These congress proceedings contain the presentations made at the two-day 8 th Swiss National Photovoltaics Conference held in Winterthur, Switzerland, in February 2010. The presentations were grouped into six sessions. The first session dealt with promotional activities for photovoltaics (PV) in Switzerland. The presentations dealt with the present state of PV promotion, the cantonal support program in Basle and the Swiss photovoltaics market in a global context. The session was rounded off with a podium discussion on the Swiss cost-covering remuneration system for solar power. This theme was looked at in more detail in the second session of the conference; successes and hindrances in the system were discussed as well as an example of an alternative solar power 'exchange'. The third session looked at building-integration of PV systems; facade and roof integration and the use of flexible solar cells were discussed. The second day of the conference featured three further sessions. The first session dealt with transfer of know-how from research institutes to industry. A general overview was presented and specific examples of successful know-how transfer were reported on. The next session dealt with the great challenges presented by the efforts being made to expand the use of PV. Safety aspects were discussed, as were the certified testing of modules, mains integration and the training of personnel involved with the implementation of PV systems. The final session looked at the scenarios, perspectives and visions for Swiss and European PV business. PV systems were examined from the point of view of the semiconductor business, European energy planning, the role of PV in future energy supply and the roles of customers, investors and politics on the way to a renewable future.

  5. Use of simulation-based medical training in Swiss pediatric hospitals: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Martin; Laine, Kathryn; Ulmer, Francis

    2017-06-17

    Simulation-based medical training (SBMT) is a powerful tool for continuing medical education. In contrast to the Anglo-Saxon medical education community, up until recently, SBMT was scarce in continental Europe's pediatric health care education: In 2009, only 3 Swiss pediatric health care institutions used SBMT. The Swiss catalogue of objectives in Pediatrics does not acknowledge SBMT. The aim of this survey is to describe and analyze the current state of SBMT in Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments. A survey was carried out with medical education representatives of every institution. SBMT was defined as any kind of training with a mannequin excluding national and/or international standardized courses. The survey reference day was May 31st 2015. Thirty Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments answered our survey (response rate 96.8%) with 66.6% (20 out of 30) offering SBMT. Four of the 20 hospitals offering SMBT had two independently operating training simulation units, resulting in 24 educational units as the basis for our SBMT analysis. More than 90% of the educational units offering SBMT (22 out of 24 units) were conducting in-situ training and 62.5% (15 out of 24) were using high-technology mannequins. Technical skills, communication and leadership ranked among the top training priorities. All institutions catered to inter-professional participants. The vast majority conducted training that was neither embedded within a larger educational curriculum (19 out of 24: 79.2%) nor evaluated (16 out of 24: 66.6%) by its participants. Only 5 institutions (20.8%) extended their training to at least two thirds of their hospital staff. Two thirds of the Swiss pediatric hospitals and health care departments are offering SBMT. Swiss pediatric SBMT is inter-professional, mainly in-situ based, covering technical as well as non-technical skills, and often employing high-technology mannequins. The absence of a systematic approach and reaching only

  6. National Software Reference Library (NSRL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Software Reference Library (NSRL) (PC database for purchase)   A collaboration of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Defense Computer Forensics Laboratory (DCFL),the U.S. Customs Service, software vendors, and state and local law enforement organizations, the NSRL is a tool to assist in fighting crime involving computers.

  7. Swiss national MD-PhD-program: an outcome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Katrin; Winkler, David T; Meier-Abt, Peter J

    2009-09-19

    This study aims at a first evaluation of the outcome of the Swiss national MD-PhD program during the last 16 years. One hundred and twenty six former and current students in the Swiss national MD-PhD program were surveyed via a Web-based questionnaire in September 2007. Twenty-four questions assessed information regarding participant demographics, information on the PhD thesis and publication activity, current positions and research activity, as well as participant's opinions, attitudes and career goals. Eighty questionnaires were received from 126 MD-PhD students and graduates (63.5% response rate). The responders consisted of present students (36%), former graduates (56%), and dropouts (8%). The percentage of women in the program was 23%, and the average duration of the program was 4.2 +/- 1.4 years. Research interests were predominantly in the fields of neuroscience, immunology, molecular biology and cancer research. A considerable portion of the MD-PhD graduates had an excellent publication record stemming from their PhD research work, and 89% were planning to continue a research-orientated career. Over 50% of those MD-PhD graduates completing their thesis before 2002 had already reached an assistant or full professor position at the time of the survey. Nearly all participants considered the MD-PhD training helpful to their career and high quality standards were assigned to the acquired practical and intellectual skills. However, criticism was expressed concerning the general mentoring and the career related mentoring. Moreover, general mentoring and career related mentoring were significantly less well perceived in research groups employing more than seven PhD students at the same time. The MD-PhD students and graduates surveyed were satisfied with their education and most of them continued a research-orientated career. Regarding the overall positive evaluation, this study supports the view that MD-PhD graduates are well qualified for a successful career in

  8. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  9. Homogeneous maximum temperature series of the Swiss National Basic Climatological Network from 1864 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begert, M.; Füllemann, C.

    2010-09-01

    Operating a climatological station network requires continuous and anticipatory planning for accurate monitoring of climate variability and climate change. Therefore Switzerland has established the Swiss National Basic Climatological Network (Swiss NBCN) which combines the most important climatological stations within the observation network of MeteoSwiss. The stations were selected according to different criteria including the geographical distribution evaluated by means of cluster analysis, the length of the available time series and the embedment into international observation networks. The Swiss NBCN currently consists of 29 climate stations recording different parameters and 46 additional precipitation stations. Historical time series of temperature, precipitation and sunshine duration dating back to the 19th century will be completely digitized and homogenized by a cooperative initiative of MeteoSwiss and the ETH Zurich within the next years. In a first step the newly available and quality controlled maximum temperature series of the Swiss NBCN have been homogenized and analyzed for variability and trends. The presented study shows results from the homogenization process such as reasons and magnitudes of detected inhomogeneities as well as summarized adjustments to illustrate possible systematic biases in the original time series. A trend analysis based on the homogeneous monthly climate series gives an overview of the temporal and spatial variations of maximum temperature evolution in Switzerland from 1864 till today.

  10. The Swiss national network for isotopes in the hydrological cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schotterer, U.

    1998-01-01

    The network is based on the long-term stations of the Climate and Environmental Physics Group and includes 11 precipitation, 6 river and 3 ground water stations. For the isotope measurements the Universities of Bern (Climate and Environmental Physics Group, tritium and oxygen-18) and Lausanne (Institute for Mineralogy and Petrography, deuterium) are contracted on a year to year basis. Sampling instructions, collection and shipment of samples are within the responsibility of the Bern group. The sampling apart from monthly composites of precipitation includes also samples from surface and ground water. The isotope data are available by contacting the Swiss Hydrological and Geological Survey directly

  11. Lexical features of emphasis in the Swiss national variant of French language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Елена Григорьевна Дмитриева

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the emphasizing words and expressions used in the Swiss national variant of the French language; the issues of the language social role as well as the problems of intercultural communication are also touched upon.

  12. Swiss nation-wide survey on radiation doses in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aroua, A.; Valley, J.F.; Vader, J.-P.; Burnand, B.

    2001-01-01

    A nation-wide survey on radiation doses in diagnostic radiology was conducted in Switzerland in 1998-1999. More than 250 types of examinations were considered, covering conventional and interventional radiology, angiography, CT, mammography, osteodensitometry, conventional tomography and dental radiology. This survey aimed at establishing the collective radiological impact of radiodiagnostics on the Swiss population. The methodology of the survey is described. The examination frequencies and integral dosimetric results associated with diagnostic radiology in Switzerland are presented. (author)

  13. Japanese national reference reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    This paper gives a general description of the proposed Japanese national reprocessing plant and of the design philosophy. The plant is in most respects similar to the base case reprocessing plant, with an annual throughput of 100-1500 tU. The plant would be co-located with a fuel fabrication facility

  14. Acute and chronic alcohol use correlated with methods of suicide in a Swiss national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, P; Bartsch, C; Hemmer, A; Reisch, T

    2017-09-01

    Chronic and acute alcohol use are highly associated risk factors for suicides worldwide. Therefore, we examined suicide cases with and without alcohol use disorder (AUD) using data from the SNSF project "Suicide in Switzerland: A detailed national survey". Our investigations focus on correlations between acute and chronic alcohol use with reference to suicide and potential interactions with the methods of suicide. We used data from the SNSF project in which all cases of registered completed suicide in Switzerland reported to any of the seven Swiss institutes of legal and forensic medicine between 2000 and 2010 were collected. We extracted cases that were tested for blood alcohol to use in our analysis. We compared clinical characteristics, blood alcohol concentrations, and methods of suicide in cases with and without AUD. Out of 6497 cases, 2946 subjects were tested for acute alcohol use and included in our analysis. Of the latter, 366 (12.4%) persons had a medical history of AUD. Subjects with AUD significantly had higher blood alcohol concentrations and were more often in medical treatment before suicide. Drug intoxication as method of suicide was more frequent in cases with AUD compared to NAUD. Overall, we found a high incidence of acute alcohol use at the time of death in chronic alcohol misusers (AUD). The five methods of suicide most commonly used in Switzerland differed considerably between individuals with and without AUD. Blood alcohol concentrations varied across different methods of suicide independently from the medical history in both groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. National Drug File - Reference Terminology API

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is produced by the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs, Veterans Health Administration (VHA). NDF-RT is an...

  16. Key mechanisms of metabolic changes in mountain pine and larch under drought in the Swiss National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakova, Olga; Bigler, Christof; Bryukhanova, Marina; Siegwolf, Rolf

    2014-05-01

    intrinsic water use efficiency. Carbon isotopes ratios of specific sugar compounds such as sucrose, raffinose, fructose, ribose and pinitol in needle and wood samples will help to evaluate the impact of drought on the carbohydrate balance and carbon allocation. Analyzing the oxygen isotopic compositions of soil water, sap water (water in branches) and precipitation we will determine the role of the different water sources for tree growth under drought conditions. The proposed work will provide a unique opportunity to assess the survival potential of mountain pine and larch trees exposed to drought that will help to estimate risks of modern climatic changes and forest damage. This project was supported by Marie Heim-Vögtlin Programme PMPDP2_145507/1 granted to Olga Churakova (Sidorova). References: Allen CD et al. (2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests Forest Ecology and Management 259:660-684 Bigler C, Rigling A (2013) Precision and accuracy of tree-ring-based death dates of mountain pines in the Swiss National Park. Trees - Structure and Function. 27: 1703-1712 CH 2011 Swiss Climate Change Scenarios CH2011. In. C2SM, MeteoSwiss, ETH, NCCR Climate, and OcCC, p 88

  17. Introducing Mushroom Fruiting Patterns from the Swiss National Poisons Information Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M; Egli, Simon; Hanimann, David; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the ecology of macrofungi are poorly understood, not only because much of their life cycle is hidden belowground, but also because experiments often miss real-world complexity and most fruitbody inventories are limited in space and time. The National Poisons Information Centre 'Tox Info Suisse' provides countrywide 24hours/7days medical advice in case of poisonings since 1966. Here, we introduce a total of 12,126 mushroom-related phone calls that were received by Tox Info Suisse between 1966 and 2014. This indirect source of mycological information is dominated by the families of Boletaceae (11%), Agaricaceae (10%) and Amanitaceae (8%), which account for ~30% of all cases. Mushroom fruiting patterns revealed by the Poisons Centre inventory statistically resemble changes in fungal phenology, productivity and diversity as reflected by the Swiss National Data Centre 'SwissFungi'. Although the newly developed Tox Info Suisse dataset provides an innovative basis for timely environmental research, caution is advised when interpreting some of the observed long-term changes and autumnal extremes. Uncertainty of the new record relates to possible data incompleteness, imprecise species description and/or identification, as well as the inclusion of cultivated and non-indigenous mushrooms. Nevertheless, we hope that the Tox Info Suisse inventory will stimulate and enable a variety of ecological-oriented follow-up studies.

  18. Evaluation of the National Skin Cancer Campaign: a Swiss experience of Euromelanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberherr, Sven; Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Cazzaniga, Simone; Bianchi, Enrica; Schlagenhauff, Bettina; Tscharner, Gion; Hafner, Jürg; Mainetti, Carlo; Lapointe, Anne-Karine; Hunger, Robert E

    2017-10-24

    Skin cancer is a burden to healthcare and patients worldwide. The incidence of skin cancer has been rising during recent decades and this trend is expected to continue in the future. Numerous risk factors have been identified and prevention strategies developed. The Euromelanoma campaign is a pan-European skin cancer prevention programme, targeted to both primary and secondary prevention of malignant melanoma. The current study aimed to evaluate the results of the Swiss skin cancer screening day 2016. A questionnaire was used to obtain data on characteristics and suspected skin cancers of all participants. Follow-up of patients with suspicious lesions was performed 3 to 6 months later. During the campaign, 2795 people were screened. Of the screened individuals, 157 participants (58% female, 42% male; mean age 58.8 years) underwent further evaluations; 6 cutaneous malignant melanomas, 21 basal cell carcinomas and 2 squamous cell carcinomas were detected. Detection rates were 0.21% for cutaneous melanoma, 0.75% for basal cell carcinoma and 0.07% for squamous cell carcinoma. Our study provides an up-to-date evaluation of the Swiss Euromelanoma campaign 2016. The results are mostly in line with data from other European studies. Considering the morbidity, mortality and financial and social impact of skin cancer, the capacity to raise awareness of risk factors, skin cancer prevention methods and educating high-risk and at-risk individuals, we may assume that a National Screening Day has a crucial impact on the public health system.

  19. National reference doses for dental cephalometric radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holroyd, J R

    2011-12-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are an important tool in the optimisation of clinical radiography. Although national DRLs are provided for many diagnostic procedures including dental intra-oral radiography, there are currently no national DRLs set for cephalometric radiography. In the absence of formal national DRLs, the Health Protection Agency (HPA) has previously published National Reference Doses (NRDs) covering a wide range of diagnostic X-ray examinations. The aim of this study was to determine provisional NRDs for cephalometric radiography. Measurements made by the Dental X-ray Protection Service (DXPS) of the HPA, as part of the cephalometric X-ray equipment testing service provided to dentists and dental trade companies throughout the UK, were used to derive provisional NRDs. Dose-area product measurements were made on 42 X-ray sets. Third quartile dose-area product values for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiography were found to be 41 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm², respectively, with individual measurements ranging from 3 mGy cm² to 108 mGy cm². This report proposes provisional NRDs of 40 mGy cm² and 25 mGy cm² for adult and child lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively; these doses could be considered by employers when establishing their local DRLs.

  20. Incidence and Risk Factors of Homicide–Suicide in Swiss Households: National Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panczak, Radoslaw; Zwahlen, Marcel; Spoerri, Adrian; Tal, Kali; Killias, Martin; Egger, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background Homicide–suicides are rare but catastrophic events. This study examined the epidemiology of homicide-suicide in Switzerland. Methods The study identified homicide–suicide events 1991–2008 in persons from the same household in the Swiss National Cohort, which links census and mortality records. The analysis examined the association of the risk of dying in a homicide–suicide event with socio-demographic variables, measured at the individual-level, household composition variables and area-level variables. Proportional hazards regression models were calculated for male perpetrators and female victims. Results are presented as age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results The study identified 158 deaths from homicide–suicide events, including 85 murder victims (62 women, 4 men, 19 children and adolescents) and 68 male and 5 female perpetrators. The incidence was 3 events per million households and year. Firearms were the most prominent method for both homicides and suicides. The risk of perpetrating homicide-suicide was higher in divorced than in married men (HR 3.64; 95%CI 1.56–8.49), in foreigners without permanent residency compared to Swiss citizens (HR 3.95; 1.52–10.2), higher in men without religious affiliations than in Catholics (HR 2.23; 1.14–4.36) and higher in crowded households (HR 4.85; 1.72–13.6 comparing ≥2 with homicide-suicide events in Switzerland. PMID:23326491

  1. Time-trends in assisted and unassisted suicides completed with different methods: Swiss National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Egger, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The number of suicides assisted by right-to-die associations has increased in recent years in Switzerland. The aim of our study was to compare time trends in rates of assisted and unassisted suicide from 1991-2008. The Swiss National Cohort is a longitudinal study of mortality in the Swiss population; based on linkage of census data with mortality records up to 2008. The Federal Statistical Office coded suspected assisted suicides from 1998 onwards; and from 2003 onwards right-to-die associations reported the suicides they assisted. We used Poisson regression to analyse trends in rates of suicide per 100'000 person-years, by gender and age groups (15-34, 35-64, 65-94 years). A total of 7'940'297 individuals and 24'842 suicides were included. In women, rates changed little in the younger age groups but increased in 65-94-year-olds, due to an increase in suicide by poisoning (from 5.1 to 17.2 per 100'000; p suicides by poisoning was also observed in older men (from 8.6 to 18.2; psuicides by poisoning were assisted. In men, suicide rates declined in all age groups, driven by declines in suicide with firearms. Research is needed to gain a better understanding of the reasons for the tripling of assisted suicide rates in older women, and the doubling of rates in older men, of attitudes and vulnerabilities of those choosing assisted suicide, and of access to palliative care. Rates of assisted suicide should be monitored; including data on patient characteristics and underlying comorbidities.

  2. Training needs in adolescent medicine of practising doctors: a Swiss national survey of six disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Barbara; Stronski, Susanne; Michaud, Pierre-André

    2003-08-01

    To assess and compare the training needs in adolescent medicine of doctors within 6 specialties as a basis for the development of pre/postgraduate and continuing medical education (CME) training curricula. Cross-sectional postal survey. Switzerland. National, representative, random sample of 1857 practising doctors in 6 disciplines (general practitioners, paediatricians, gynaecologists, internists, psychiatrists, child psychiatrists) registered with the Swiss Medical Association. Perceived importance of and training interest in 35 topics related to adolescent medicine listed in a self-administered, anonymous questionnaire. A total of 1367 questionnaires were returned, representing a response rate of 73.9%. Clear interest in adolescent medicine was reported by 62.1% of respondents. Topics perceived to be the most important in everyday practice were functional symptoms (71.4%), acne (67.1%), obesity (64.6%), depression-anxiety (68.1%) and communication with adolescents (61.7%). Differences between disciplines were especially marked for gynaecologists, who expressed interest almost exclusively in medical topics specific to their field. In contrast, other disciplines commonly reported a keen interest in psychosocial problems. Accordingly, interest in further training was expressed mostly for functional symptoms (62.4%), eating disorders (56.3%), depression-anxiety (53.7%) and obesity (52.6%). Issues related to injury prevention, chronic disease and confidentiality were rated as low priorities. Regardless of discipline, Swiss primary care doctors expressed a strong interest in adolescent medicine. Continuing medical education courses should include both interdisciplinary courses and discipline-specific sessions. Further training should address epidemiological and legal/ethical issues (e.g. injury prevention, confidentiality, impact of chronic conditions).

  3. In Pursuit of a Multi-lateral Dialogue - the Swiss National Centre for Climate Services (NCCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiko Hama, Angela; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Liniger, Mark; Schwierz, Cornelia; Stöckli, Reto; Fischer, Andreas; Gubler, Stefanie; Kotlarski, Sven; Rossa, Andrea; Zubler, Elias; Appenzeller, Christof

    2017-04-01

    Kick-starting, fostering and maintaining a dialogue between primarily public and academic actors involved in the co-design, co-delivery and use of climate services is at the core of Switzerland's National Centre for Climate Services (NCCS), which was founded in late 2015 in recognition of the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS). This coordination and innovation mechanism is a concerted national effort comprised of seven Federal Agencies and Institutes and further partners from academia committed to implementing the Framework at national to subnational level and creating synergies the world over. The NCCS is to be regarded as vital alongside the Swiss National Adaptation Strategy, and it also contributes to putting words into action with respect to the UN's Sustainable Development Goals, the UNFCCC and the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. The services of the Centre provide information to support policy-makers from national to local level as well as the private sector and society at large in minimising their risks, maximising opportunities and optimising costs in the context of climate change and variability. They are indispensable for setting effective mitigation and adaptation measures and for instigating societal transformation. Hence, the goals of the NCCS are to bundle the existing climate services of the Swiss Federation, co-create new tailored solutions with users, act as a network agent and knowledge broker - to boost climate literacy and enable climate-sensitive decision-making leading to increased resilience. The services reflect the specificities and requirements of the Alpine region and its particular challenges and vulnerabilities. Pursuing a participatory approach, the NCCS has brought together essential key players, acted as a sounding board for governmental stakeholders and their needs, and accordingly defined and populated six priority themes in line with the priority areas of the GFCS. These themes are: natural hazards, health

  4. Communiqué to members of the personnel of Swiss nationality domiciled in France

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2004-01-01

    Impôt fédéral direct (IFD) 2001 - 2004 The Permanent Mission of Switzerland has informed CERN that the federal authorities have upheld the decision of the Geneva Canton's fiscal administration (Administration fiscale cantonale genevoise - AFC) obliging all members of the personnel of Swiss nationality (including those holding dual nationality) domiciled in France to pay the IFD on their CERN salaries since 2001. Consequently, the aforementioned members of the personnel will shortly be receiving a request from the AFC to normalise their situation with respect to the IFD for the years 2001-2004. To this end, they must complete the relevant income tax declaration forms and return them to the AFC together with the relevant salary certificates, which they shall have obtained in advance from the Finance Department (Tel. 73904). In accordance with Article R IV 1.25 of the Staff Regulations, the Organization will refund the taxes levied in respect of remuneration paid by CERN. Any...

  5. Swiss electricity statistics 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss Department of Energy has published electricity statistics for 1982. This report presents them in tabular form. The tables are classified under the following headings: important reference numbers, Swiss electricity review, production of electrical energy, use of electrical energy, load diagrams and coping with user requirements, import and export of energy 1982, possible building of power stations before 1989, finance, appendix

  6. EU-stress test: Swiss national action plan. Follow-up of peer review 2012 year-end status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    The European Union (EU) stress test is part of the review process which Switzerland initiated immediately after the reactor accident in Japan. As a direct consequence of the accident, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) issued three formal orders in which the operators of the Swiss nuclear power plants (NPPs) were required to implement immediate measures and to conduct additional reassessments. The immediate measures comprised the establishment of an external emergency storage facility for the Swiss NPPs, including the necessary plant-specific connections, and back-fittings to provide external injection into the spent fuel pools. The additional reassessments focused on the design of the Swiss NPPs against earthquakes, external flooding and a combination thereof. Investigations on the coolant supply for the safety systems and the spent fuel pool cooling were also requested. ENSI carried out an analysis of the events at Fukushima providing detailed descriptions of the causes, consequences and radiological impacts of the accident. The reports analyse the contributory human and organisational factors, and specify lessons that can be derived from this information. ENSI instructed the Swiss operators to take part in the EU stress test. There was to be particular examination of the robustness of the NPPs in case of impacts beyond the design basis due to earthquakes, external flooding and extreme weather conditions, with consequential loss of power supply and heat sink, and the need for severe accident management actions. ENSI requested further clarification on plant specific issues and produced the National Report which was delivered to the EU Commission. A Country Peer Review Draft Report was drawn up for each country, including a list of issues (open points) for further follow-up by the review team. Eight new open points were identified to further improve the safety of the Swiss NPPs. These open points together with the issues identified in the analysis

  7. National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service, manages a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) that provide...

  8. A cross-national comparison of incident reporting systems implemented in German and Swiss hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Tanja; Imhof, Michael; Lessing, Constanze; Briner, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to empirically compare incident reporting systems (IRS) in two European countries and to explore the relationship of IRS characteristics with context factors such as hospital characteristics and characteristics of clinical risk management (CRM). We performed exploratory, secondary analyses of data on characteristics of IRS from nationwide surveys of CRM practices. The survey was originally sent to 2136 hospitals in Germany and Switzerland. Persons responsible for CRM in 622 hospitals completed the survey (response rate 29%). None. Differences between IRS in German and Swiss hospitals were assessed using Chi2, Fisher's Exact and Freeman-Halton-Tests, as appropriate. To explore interrelations between IRS characteristics and context factors (i.e. hospital and CRM characteristics) we computed Cramer's V. Comparing participating hospitals across countries, Swiss hospitals had implemented IRS earlier, more frequently and more often provided introductory IRS training systematically. German hospitals had more frequently systematically implemented standardized procedures for event analyses. IRS characteristics were significantly associated with hospital characteristics such as hospital type as well as with CRM characteristics such as existence of strategic CRM objectives and of a dedicated position for central CRM coordination. This study contributes to an improved understanding of differences in the way IRS are set up in two European countries and explores related context factors. This opens up new possibilities for empirically informed, strategic interventions to further improve dissemination of IRS and thus support hospitals in their efforts to move patient safety forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  9. Feed additives : annual report 2010 of the National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, J.J.M.; Beek, W.M.J.; Jong, de J.

    2011-01-01

    This report of the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for feed additives describes the activties employed in 2010. The main tasks of the NRL are: giving assistance to the European Union Reference Laboratort (EU-RL) on their request and advice and support the competent authority, the Dutch Ministry

  10. First Swiss bachelor in Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  11. Impact of sepsis on neurodevelopmental outcome in a Swiss National Cohort of extremely premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlapbach, Luregn J; Aebischer, Maude; Adams, Mark; Natalucci, Giancarlo; Bonhoeffer, Jan; Latzin, Philipp; Nelle, Mathias; Bucher, Hans Ulrich; Latal, Beatrice

    2011-08-01

    Neonatal sepsis causes high mortality and morbidity in preterm infants, but less is known regarding the long-term outcome after sepsis. This study aimed to determine the impact of sepsis on neurodevelopment at 2 years' corrected age in extremely preterm infants. This was a multicenter Swiss cohort study on infants born between 2000 and 2007 at 24(0/7) to 27(6/7) weeks' gestational age. Neurodevelopmental outcome was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as a Mental or Psychomotor Developmental Index lower than 70, cerebral palsy (CP), or visual or auditory impairment. Of 541 infants, 136 (25%) had proven sepsis, 169 (31%) had suspected sepsis, and 236 (44%) had no signs of infection. CP occurred in 14 of 136 (10%) infants with proven sepsis compared with 10 of 236 (4%) uninfected infants (odds ratio [OR]: 2.90 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22-6.89]; P = .016). NDI occurred in 46 of 134 (34%) infants with proven sepsis compared with 55 of 235 (23%) uninfected infants (OR: 1.85 [95% CI: 1.12-3.05]; P = .016). Multivariable analysis confirmed that proven sepsis independently increased the risk of CP (OR: 3.23 [95% CI: 1.23-8.48]; P = .017) and NDI (OR: 1.69 [95% CI: 0.96-2.98]; P = .067). In contrast, suspected sepsis was not associated with neurodevelopmental outcome (P > .05). The presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, pathologic brain ultrasonography, retinopathy, and sepsis predicted the risk of NDI (P < .0001). Proven sepsis significantly contributes to NDI in extremely preterm infants, independent of other risk factors. Better strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of sepsis in this highly vulnerable population are needed.

  12. The role of the Swiss EIR Health Physics Division in the national and the Institute's radiological emergency organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, E.; Brunner, H.

    1986-01-01

    Owing to the geographical concentration in Switzerland of the activities related to radioactivity (power plants, research, industry, transport) in a relatively small region between the Alps and the Rhine, it was a logical consequence to centralize the emergency organization for nuclear accidents in this area. Since 1984 the Swiss emergency organization has had an operational, well-equipped national emergency control centre. In the handling of radiation accidents the new organization can call on specialized laboratories and make use of experience and material from over the whole country. Of these facilities the Federal Institute for Reactor Research (EIR) is of major importance due to its activities and experience in research and radiation protection. Its Health Physics Division takes an active part in the emergency organization of the EIR itself. Both its well-equipped radioanalytical laboratory and trained personnel are at the disposal of the national emergency organization. Frequent training of the whole emergency organization and parts of it have improved preparedness. The evaluation of the exercises always reveals new problems to be solved in which rapid action and safe communications are of major importance. (author)

  13. Earthquake Monitoring: SeisComp3 at the Swiss National Seismic Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, J. F.; Diehl, T.; Cauzzi, C.; Kaestli, P.

    2011-12-01

    The Swiss Seismological Service (SED) has an ongoing responsibility to improve the seismicity monitoring capability for Switzerland. This is a crucial issue for a country with low background seismicity but where a large M6+ earthquake is expected in the next decades. With over 30 stations with spacing of ~25km, the SED operates one of the densest broadband networks in the world, which is complimented by ~ 50 realtime strong motion stations. The strong motion network is expected to grow with an additional ~80 stations over the next few years. Furthermore, the backbone of the network is complemented by broadband data from surrounding countries and temporary sub-networks for local monitoring of microseismicity (e.g. at geothermal sites). The variety of seismic monitoring responsibilities as well as the anticipated densifications of our network demands highly flexible processing software. We are transitioning all software to the SeisComP3 (SC3) framework. SC3 is a fully featured automated real-time earthquake monitoring software developed by GeoForschungZentrum Potsdam in collaboration with commercial partner, gempa GmbH. It is in its core open source, and becoming a community standard software for earthquake detection and waveform processing for regional and global networks across the globe. SC3 was originally developed for regional and global rapid monitoring of potentially tsunamagenic earthquakes. In order to fulfill the requirements of a local network recording moderate seismicity, SED has tuned configurations and added several modules. In this contribution, we present our SC3 implementation strategy, focusing on the detection and identification of seismicity on different scales. We operate several parallel processing "pipelines" to detect and locate local, regional and global seismicity. Additional pipelines with lower detection thresholds can be defined to monitor seismicity within dense subnets of the network. To be consistent with existing processing

  14. Trade-Offs between Growth Rate, Tree Size and Lifespan of Mountain Pine (Pinus montana in the Swiss National Park.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Bigler

    Full Text Available A within-species trade-off between growth rates and lifespan has been observed across different taxa of trees, however, there is some uncertainty whether this trade-off also applies to shade-intolerant tree species. The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between radial growth, tree size and lifespan of shade-intolerant mountain pines. For 200 dead standing mountain pines (Pinus montana located along gradients of aspect, slope steepness and elevation in the Swiss National Park, radial annual growth rates and lifespan were reconstructed. While early growth (i.e. mean tree-ring width over the first 50 years correlated positively with diameter at the time of tree death, a negative correlation resulted with lifespan, i.e. rapidly growing mountain pines face a trade-off between reaching a large diameter at the cost of early tree death. Slowly growing mountain pines may reach a large diameter and a long lifespan, but risk to die young at a small size. Early growth was not correlated with temperature or precipitation over the growing period. Variability in lifespan was further contingent on aspect, slope steepness and elevation. The shade-intolerant mountain pines follow diverging growth trajectories that are imposed by extrinsic environmental influences. The resulting trade-offs between growth rate, tree size and lifespan advance our understanding of tree population dynamics, which may ultimately improve projections of forest dynamics under changing environmental conditions.

  15. [Influence of Ankle Braces on the Prevalence of Ankle Inversion Injuries in the Swiss Volleyball National League A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggi, J; Kneubühler, S; Rogan, S

    2016-06-01

    Ankle inversion is a common injury among volleyball players. The injury rate during a game is 2.1 times higher than during training. As a result, the preventive use of ankle braces is frequently observed in Swiss volleyball leagues. Studies have shown that ankle braces have a preventive effect on the prevalence of ankle inversion. In Switzerland there has been no investigation into the preventive use of braces and their influence on prevalence. For this reason, the goals of this study are 1) to determine when, why and by whom ankle braces are worn and 2) to evaluate the injury rate of users and non-users of ankle braces. A modified questionnaire was sent to 18 men's and women's teams of the Swiss National League A. The questionnaire included questions about injury rates and the circumstances of ankle inversion injuries. The data were statistically analysed with Microsoft Excel 2012 and SPSS Version 20. The overall response rate was 61 %, allowing data from 181 players to be analysed. 33 % (59 of 181) of the players used an ankle brace. There was a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ankle inversion between users (12 injured) and non-users (8 injured) (p = 0.006). Wearing an ankle brace during training or during a game made no difference in the prevention of injuries (p = 0.356). More athletes were injured during training (n = 13) than during a game (n = 7). The results of the present study indicate that volleyball players preferably wear ankle braces to prevent injury. More than one third of the players in the study wore an ankle brace, 60 % for primary prevention and 40 % for secondary prevention due to a previous injury. The study shows that significantly more users than non-users of ankle braces were injured. This is contrary to literature. Furthermore it was shown that more injuries occur during training than during a game. This finding results from the fact that ankle braces were rarely worn during training. It is

  16. References from Brazilian medical journals in national publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Renan Kleber Costa; Botelho, Nara Macedo; Petroianu, Andy

    2013-01-01

    To assess whether there is a preference for international journal citation to the detriment of national ones in ten Brazilian medical journals, in two different periods. All references in the articles published in Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia, Revista Brasileira de Cirurgia Cardiovascular, Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, São Paulo Medical Journal, Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia e Metabologia, Clinics, Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia, Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria e Acta Ortopédica Brasileira in the years 2011 and 2007 were analyzed, assessing the number of articles published in national and international journals. A total of 36,125 references from 1,462 articles published in the 10 aforementioned journals were analyzed. Of the total number, 4.242 (11.74%) were from Brazilian journals. There was no significant difference between the two analyzed periods. A total of 453 (30,98%) of the articles studied non-cited brazilian papers,and 81 (5.54%) articles had more Brazilian than international references. Of total references analyzed, 11.74% were related to articles published in Brazilian journals. This number, when compared to the percentage of Brazilian articles published in the medical area, demonstrates a good number of citations of national articles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. Cost-benefit analysis of the Swiss national policy on reducing micropollutants in treated wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logar, Ivana; Brouwer, Roy; Maurer, Max; Ort, Christoph

    2014-11-04

    Contamination of freshwater with micropollutants (MPs) is a growing concern worldwide. Even at very low concentrations, MPs can have adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and possibly also on human health. Switzerland is one of the first countries to start implementing a national policy to reduce MPs in the effluents of municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs). This paper estimates the benefits of upgrading STPs based on public's stated preferences. To assess public demand for the reduction of the environmental and health risks of MPs, we conducted a choice experiment in a national online survey. The results indicate that the average willingness to pay per household is CHF 100 (US$ 73) annually for reducing the potential environmental risk of MPs to a low level. These benefits, aggregated over households in the catchment of the STPs to be upgraded, generate a total annual economic value of CHF 155 million (US$ 113 million). This compares with estimated annual costs for upgrading 123 STPs of CHF 133 million (US$ 97 million) or CHF 86 (US$ 63) per household connected to these STPs. Hence, a cost-benefit analysis justifies the investment decision from an economic point of view and supports the implementation of the national policy in the ongoing political discussion.

  18. The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Los Arcos JM; Bailador; Gonzalez; Gonzalez; Gorostiza; Ortiz; Sanchez; Shaw; Williart

    2000-03-01

    The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI) is being implemented by a reasearch team in the frame of a joint project between CIEMAT (Unidad de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes and Direccion de Informatica) and the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED, Departamento de Mecanica y Departamento de Fisica de Materiales). This paper presents the main objectives of BANDRRI, its dynamic and relational data base structure, interactive Web accessibility and its main radionuclide-related contents at this moment.

  19. The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J.M. E-mail: arcos@ciemat.es; Bailador, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Gorostiza, C.; Ortiz, F.; Sanchez, E.; Shaw, M.; Williart, A

    2000-03-01

    The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI) is being implemented by a research team in the frame of a joint project between CIEMAT (Unidad de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes and Direccion de Informatica) and the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED, Departamento de Mecanica y Departamento de Fisica de Materiales). This paper presents the main objectives of BANDRRI, its dynamic and relational data base structure, interactive Web accessibility and its main radionuclide-related contents at this moment.

  20. The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos, J.M.; Bailador, A.; Gonzalez, A.; Gonzalez, C.; Gorostiza, C.; Ortiz, F.; Sanchez, E.; Shaw, M.; Williart, A.

    2000-01-01

    The Spanish National Reference Database for Ionizing Radiations (BANDRRI) is being implemented by a research team in the frame of a joint project between CIEMAT (Unidad de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes and Direccion de Informatica) and the Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia (UNED, Departamento de Mecanica y Departamento de Fisica de Materiales). This paper presents the main objectives of BANDRRI, its dynamic and relational data base structure, interactive Web accessibility and its main radionuclide-related contents at this moment

  1. On Chinese National Continuous Operating Reference Station System of GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junyong

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System can maintain a accurate, 3D, geocentric and dynamic reference coordinate frame in the corresponding area, can provide positioning and navigation service. It can also serve for the meteorology, geodynamics, earthquake monitoring and Location Based services (LBS etc in the same area. Until now, our country can’t provide a facing National CORS System serving for every profession and trade, and the national sharing platform of CORS System resources has not been established. So this paper discusses some valuable insight how to construct the National CORS System in China. Method: Constructing goal、Service object、CORS distribution、CORS geographic、geology and communication environment and other factors, are major considerations for the Constructing the National CORS System. Moreover, constructing GNSS CORS is more specific, mainly from four aspects, namely site-selection、civil construction、security measures and equipment-selection for consideration. Outcome: The project of the Constructing Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is put forward, and is discussed from goal、principle、project and other for construction. Some meaning thought how to construct the National CORS System is submitted Conclusion: The Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is the lack of a unified planning and design in the national level. So far, the national CORS system serving all walks of life has not been provided, and the national sharing platform of CORS System resources has not been established The primary mission of the Global navigation satellite system (GNSS Continuous Operating Reference Station (CORS System in china is as follows: using data set of GNSS and receiving, transport, process, integration, transmit information and

  2. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  3. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  4. Effects of climate change on the Swiss economy (national influences); Auswirkungen der Klimaaenderung auf die Schweizer Volkswirtschaft (nationale Einfluesse)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) attempts to estimate the direct and indirect effects of climate change on the Swiss economy. The authors state that no grave damage to the Swiss economy that could be caused by climate change are to be expected by the year 2030. Estimates for the year 2050 are presented and a prognosis showing a substantial increase of damage after this date is presented. Tourism and energy installations are noted as being the areas that will be most affected. Other areas affected include infrastructure, human health, water supplies, forestry and the farming economy. The methodologies used in the preparation of the study are described. Scenarios are presented and discussed. An overview of the costs incurred as a result of climate-related change is presented.

  5. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Working Reference Material Production Pla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Amy; Thronas, Denise; Marshall, Robert

    1998-11-04

    This Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Working Reference Material Production Plan was written for LLNL by the Los Alamos National Laboratory to address key elements of producing seven Pu-diatomaceous earth NDA Working Reference Materials (WRMS). These WRMS contain low burnup Pu ranging in mass from 0.1 grams to 68 grams. The composite Pu mass of the seven WRMS was designed to approximate the maximum TRU allowable loading of 200 grams Pu. This document serves two purposes: first, it defines all the operations required to meet the LLNL Statement of Work quality objectives, and second, it provides a record of the production and certification of the WRMS. Guidance provided in ASTM Standard Guide C1128-89 was used to ensure that this Plan addressed all the required elements for producing and certifying Working Reference Materials. The Production Plan was written to provide a general description of the processes, steps, files, quality control, and certification measures that were taken to produce the WRMS. The Plan identifies the files where detailed procedures, data, quality control, and certification documentation and forms are retained. The Production Plan is organized into three parts: a) an initial section describing the preparation and characterization of the Pu02 and diatomaceous earth materials, b) middle sections describing the loading, encapsulation, and measurement on the encapsulated WRMS, and c) final sections describing the calculations of the Pu, Am, and alpha activity for the WRMS and the uncertainties associated with these quantities.

  6. Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - Management summary; Energieperspektiven 2035 - Management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    This management summary issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - a five-part synthesis report published in 2007. The report presents no prognoses but provides an 'if-then' overview of a set of four scenarios that examined ways in which Swiss energy demands could be met by the year 2035. National and international boundary conditions taken into account are reviewed and the four scenarios are introduced and briefly described. These include the reference scenario 'Business as Usual', 'Increased Co-operation' between politics and business, 'New Priorities' with goals set to reduce energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions and 'On the Way to a 2000-Watt Society'. Risks posed and chances provided are discussed, as are the options for taking action

  7. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W G; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D; Post, Marcel W M; Gemperli, Armin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. DESIGN: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  8. Swiss national community survey on functioning after spinal cord injury : Protocol, characteristics of participants and determinants of non-response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, Martin W. G.; Fekete, Christine; Chamberlain, Jonviea D.; Post, Marcel W. M.; Gemperli, Armin

    Objective: To detail the protocol, recruitment, study population, response, and data quality of the first population-based community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury (SwiSCI) Cohort Study. Design: The survey consisted of 3 successive modules administered between September 2011 and March 2013.

  9. Reference Data as a Basis for National Spatial Data Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Mildorf

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spatial data are increasingly being used for a range of applications beyond their, traditional uses. Collection of such data and their update constitute a substantial part of the total costs for their maintenance. In order to ensure sustainable development in the area of geographic information systems, efficient data custody and coordination mechanisms for data sharing must be put in place. This paper shows the importance of reference data as a basis for national spatial data infrastructure that serves as a platform for decision making processes in society. There are several European initiatives supporting the wider use of spatial data. An example is the INSPIRE Directive. Its principles and the main world trends in data integration pave the way to successful SDI driven by stakeholders and coordinated by national mapping agencies.

  10. National System of Standard Reference Data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.-G.

    2012-01-01

    National Center for Standard Reference Data (NCSRD) was established in 2006 by law, based on the Fundamental Act for National Standard. The motivation of establishment was caused by the demand from the industry for data with a guaranteed quality. As is well known, Korean industry has grown very fast during the last 50 years. They begin to realize that data with a high quality is very essential in good design and manufacturing of high quality products. At the same time, the standard of living has increased in parallel with the development of industry. People begin to be concerned about health diagnosis, food products, and environment. This concern about quality of life naturally leads to an interest on the reference data related with health and the environment. To satisfy these demands from the industry as well as from the people, the Korean government decided to establish a national system for the evaluation of data quality produced by the R and D institutes and universities. NCSRD coordinates all the national activities regarding evaluation and dissemination of scientific data by law. The primary goal of the NCSRD is to develop and disseminate standard reference data which are critically evaluated for their reliability by experts for use in technical problem-solving, research and development. NCSRD consist of a steering committee (SC), spectral technical committees (TCs) and data centres. Right now there are 22 data centres designated by the Minister of Knowledge and Economics (MKE) and 24 technical committees for data evaluation. The Steering Committee acts as the top decision-making body of the SRD program. The members of the SC consist of 11 experts from universities, research institutes and industries. Technical committees in each area serve as an expert group to deal with data-related matters such as evaluation of the reliability of the collected or measured data, development of detailed data evaluation guidelines in each area, etc. The detailed data

  11. EUROPE: Swiss role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On its continual round of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) met in Bern, Switzerland, in March. With CERN based in Geneva, and with a national research centre at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland figures prominently in European particle physics. The Bern ECFA meeting provided a full picture of Swiss particle physics activities, project by project, and was prefaced by an overview by Claude Joseph of Lausanne. The number of experimental particle physicists in the country is about 200, with an academic staff of about 170. These are distributed among seven universities - Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel and Zurich. In addition there are substantial research groups at ETH-Zurich and at PSI. Probably reflecting the proximity of CERN, the size of the national research community, when scaled to the population, is above the CERN Member State average. At CERN, there is a strong Swiss participation in research at the LEP electron-positron collider (concentrated on L3), with 44 physicists. There are also 33 physicists working at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring, in particular the Crystal Barrel and CP-LEAR studies. In addition there is interest in heavy ion research and in neutrino physics (NOMAD) as well as substantial participation in research and development work for experiments at the LHC. Away from CERN, there are 6 Swiss physicists working at the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, with the national PSI programme involving about 40 physicists. (The PSI programme was covered at the Bern ECFA meeting by H.C. Walter.) Following the illustrious tradition of Fritz Zwicky, Switzerland also counts many astrophysicists. Theoretical physics, with a community of some 80 researchers, has a great tradition. Throughout the 20th century, leading Swiss research centres have been beacons of brilliance. Zurich, in particular, played a leading role, with Einstein, Schrödinger and Pauli among

  12. Increase in assisted suicide in Switzerland: did the socioeconomic predictors change? Results from the Swiss National Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Nicole; Junker, Christoph; Zwahlen, Marcel

    2018-04-17

    To determine whether the strong increase in assisted suicides in Switzerland since 2008 is linked to a shift in the socioeconomic factors associated with assisted suicide and its related diagnoses. In a population-based longitudinal study, we investigated assisted suicides in Switzerland over the period 2003-2014. Two groups of younger (25-64 years) and older (65-94 years) persons were analysed separately and compared. We calculated crude rates and used Cox proportional hazard and logistic regression models to examine associations of assisted dying with gender, marital status, education, religion, neighbourhood socioeconomic status and other variables, and investigated trends over time. We identified 3941 assisted suicides among 6 237 997 Swiss residents, 80% of which occurred in the older age group. Crude rates of assisted suicide more than tripled during the study period from 3.60 to 11.21 per 100 000 person-years; the increase was more pronounced in the older age group. Cancer was the most common underlying diagnosis (41.8%), but the percentage dying assisted was highest among patients with diseases of the nervous system (5.25% in the younger and 1.23% in the older age group). The factors associated with assisted suicide did not change during the study period. Female gender, higher education, having no religious affiliation, no children and a Swiss passport, living in a neighbourhood with a higher socioeconomic index and living in the French-speaking part of Switzerland were associated with a higher rate. The study results do not indicate any shift in socioeconomic factors associated with assisted suicide, but a more pronounced increase in incidence among the elderly. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Perspectives on Inclusive Education with Reference to United Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores inclusive education and explains the role of United Nations for imparting it to different nations. Undoubtedly, the UN and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) strive for all children to have equitable access to education as a basic human right. The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) combined with the Convention…

  14. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  15. First consumption ever of multiple substances: applying an expert-based taxonomy to a Swiss national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, André; Akré, Christina; Jeannin, André; Michaud, Pierre-André; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2011-01-01

    The use of multiple legal and illegal substances by adolescents is a growing concern in all countries, but since no consensus about a taxonomy did emerge yet, it is difficult to understand the different patterns of consumption and to implement tailored prevention and treatment programs directed towards specific subgroups of the adolescent population. Using data from a Swiss survey on adolescent health, we analyzed the age at which ten legal and illegal substances were consumed for the first time ever by applying a method combining the strength of both automatic clustering and use of substance experts. Results were then compared to 30 socio-economic factors to establish the usefulness of and to validate our taxonomy. We also analyzed the succession of substance first use for each group. The final taxonomy consists of eight groups ranging from non-consumers to heavy drug addicts. All but four socio-economic factors were significantly associated with the taxonomy, the strongest associations being observed with health, behavior, and sexuality factors. Numerous factors influence adolescents in their decision to first try substances or to use them on a regular basis, and no factor alone can be considered as an absolute marker of problematic behavior regarding substance use. Different processes of experimentation with substances are associated with different behaviors, therefore focusing on only one substance or only one factor is not efficient. Prevention and treatment programs can then be tailored to address specific issues related to different youth subgroups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Short Stature: Comparison of WHO and National Growth Standards/References for Height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christesen, Henrik Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie; Petit, Isabelle Oliver; Júlíusson, Pétur Benedikt

    2016-01-01

    The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large-scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below clinical cut-off values (-2 SDS for GHD and TS; -2.5 SDS for SGA) based on national growth references and WHO growth standards/references were compared for children aged references vs. national references. Likewise, among children aged references. In conclusion, in NordiNet® IOS the number of patients misclassified using WHO growth standards/references was significantly higher than with national references. This study highlights that, although no growth reference has 100% sensitivity for identifying growth disorders, the most recent national or regional growth charts may offer the most appropriate tool for monitoring childhood growth in Europe.

  17. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstances banking secrecy has become disruptive to the further development of both Swiss banking and banking in Switzerland and whether Swiss banking will come to an end in the future.

  18. A Survey of National Archives Reference Services in Swaziland and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National archival institutions have a legal obligation to provide access to their collections. By so doing, archivists should adhere to a code of ethics and archival standards in the design and delivery of suitable and sustainable archival access programmes. The significance of an archival establishment is best measured by ...

  19. [Differences in the prevalence of malnutrition resulting from using a national growth reference or an international growth reference].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyhenart, Evelia Edith; Orden, Alicia Bibiana

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate if using an international growth reference versus a national growth reference leads to differences in the prevalences of low weight-for-height (wasting) and low height-for-age (stunting) in a sample of children 8 to 14 years old. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1,470 school-children (both boys and girls) in the city of La Plata, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the data on weight and height, Z-scores were calculated with regard to the reference values from the United States of America's first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I and NHANES II), and the reference values for Argentina from the Argentine Pediatric Society. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were calculated, using as the cutoff point two standard deviations below the median of the reference. The prevalences were compared using the chi-squared test with Yates' correction, and odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. The international reference was positively associated with a higher prevalence of stunting in the entire sample (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 3.27 to 8.05), in the boys (OR = 4.36; 95% CI: 2.43 to 7.93), and in the girls (OR = 6.32; 95% CI: 3.10 to 13.27). The prevalence of wasting was similar with both references. The distribution of height-for-age was skewed to the left with respect to the international reference and to the right with respect to the Argentine reference, while the distribution of weight-for-height overlapped both references. The differences in the prevalences of stunting calculated according to the two references that were used indicate a different nutritional status for the population studied. The increase in the height of the children with respect to the Argentine reference points to the presence of a positive secular trend, and the increase can explain part of the differences in the prevalence of stunting.

  20. National waste terminal storage conceptual reference repository description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odgers, I.L.; Collings, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The conceptual reference repository description (CRRD) discusses, from a conceptual engineering standpoint, the structures, systems, equipment, and operations necessary to: (1) receive unreprocessed spent fuel assemblies in standard casks; (2) unload these assemblies; (3) place them in canisters; (4) transport the canisters to underground storage locations in the salt dome; and (5) place the canisters in terminal storage. The CRRD also elaborates on the concepts for retrieval and recovery of the spent fuel after burial and describes the development of the shafts and the underground areas, as well as the supporting operational utility and administrative features of the repository

  1. Loneliness is adversely associated with physical and mental health and lifestyle factors: Results from a Swiss national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Richard

    Full Text Available Loneliness is a common, emotionally distressing experience and is associated with adverse physical and mental health and an unhealthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of loneliness in different age groups in Switzerland. Furthermore, the existing evidence about age and gender as potential effect modifiers of the associations between loneliness, physical and mental health and lifestyle characteristics warrants further investigation. Thus, the aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of loneliness among adults in Switzerland and to assess the associations of loneliness with several physical and mental health and behavioral factors, as well as to assess the modifying effect of sex and age.Data from 20,007 participants of the cross-sectional population-based Swiss Health Survey 2012 (SHS were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations of loneliness with physical and mental health or lifestyle characteristics (e.g. diabetes, depression, physical activity. Wald tests were used to test for interactions.Loneliness was distributed in a slight U-shaped form from 15 to 75+ year olds, with 64.1% of participants who had never felt lonely. Lonely individuals were more often affected by physical and mental health problems, such as self-reported chronic diseases (Odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.54, high cholesterol levels (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18-1.45, diabetes (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16-1.67, moderate and high psychological distress (OR 3.74, 95% CI 3.37-4.16, depression (OR 2.78, 95% CI 2.22-3.48 and impaired self-perceived health (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.74-2.16. Loneliness was significantly associated with most lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking; OR 1.13, 95% 1.05-1.23. Age, but not sex, moderated loneliness' association with several variables.Loneliness is associated with poorer physical and mental health and unhealthy lifestyle, modified by age, but not by sex. Our findings

  2. Loneliness is adversely associated with physical and mental health and lifestyle factors: Results from a Swiss national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Aline; Rohrmann, Sabine; Vandeleur, Caroline L; Schmid, Margareta; Barth, Jürgen; Eichholzer, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Loneliness is a common, emotionally distressing experience and is associated with adverse physical and mental health and an unhealthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of loneliness in different age groups in Switzerland. Furthermore, the existing evidence about age and gender as potential effect modifiers of the associations between loneliness, physical and mental health and lifestyle characteristics warrants further investigation. Thus, the aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of loneliness among adults in Switzerland and to assess the associations of loneliness with several physical and mental health and behavioral factors, as well as to assess the modifying effect of sex and age. Data from 20,007 participants of the cross-sectional population-based Swiss Health Survey 2012 (SHS) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations of loneliness with physical and mental health or lifestyle characteristics (e.g. diabetes, depression, physical activity). Wald tests were used to test for interactions. Loneliness was distributed in a slight U-shaped form from 15 to 75+ year olds, with 64.1% of participants who had never felt lonely. Lonely individuals were more often affected by physical and mental health problems, such as self-reported chronic diseases (Odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-1.54), high cholesterol levels (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18-1.45), diabetes (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16-1.67), moderate and high psychological distress (OR 3.74, 95% CI 3.37-4.16), depression (OR 2.78, 95% CI 2.22-3.48) and impaired self-perceived health (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.74-2.16). Loneliness was significantly associated with most lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking; OR 1.13, 95% 1.05-1.23). Age, but not sex, moderated loneliness' association with several variables. Loneliness is associated with poorer physical and mental health and unhealthy lifestyle, modified by age, but not by sex. Our findings illustrate the

  3. Loneliness is adversely associated with physical and mental health and lifestyle factors: Results from a Swiss national survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrmann, Sabine; Vandeleur, Caroline L.; Schmid, Margareta; Barth, Jürgen; Eichholzer, Monika

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Loneliness is a common, emotionally distressing experience and is associated with adverse physical and mental health and an unhealthy lifestyle. Nevertheless, little is known about the prevalence of loneliness in different age groups in Switzerland. Furthermore, the existing evidence about age and gender as potential effect modifiers of the associations between loneliness, physical and mental health and lifestyle characteristics warrants further investigation. Thus, the aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of loneliness among adults in Switzerland and to assess the associations of loneliness with several physical and mental health and behavioral factors, as well as to assess the modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data from 20,007 participants of the cross-sectional population-based Swiss Health Survey 2012 (SHS) were analyzed. Logistic regression analyses were used to assess associations of loneliness with physical and mental health or lifestyle characteristics (e.g. diabetes, depression, physical activity). Wald tests were used to test for interactions. Results Loneliness was distributed in a slight U-shaped form from 15 to 75+ year olds, with 64.1% of participants who had never felt lonely. Lonely individuals were more often affected by physical and mental health problems, such as self-reported chronic diseases (Odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30–1.54), high cholesterol levels (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.18–1.45), diabetes (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.16–1.67), moderate and high psychological distress (OR 3.74, 95% CI 3.37–4.16), depression (OR 2.78, 95% CI 2.22–3.48) and impaired self-perceived health (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.74–2.16). Loneliness was significantly associated with most lifestyle factors (e.g. smoking; OR 1.13, 95% 1.05–1.23). Age, but not sex, moderated loneliness’ association with several variables. Conclusion Loneliness is associated with poorer physical and mental health and unhealthy lifestyle

  4. National plan project of quotas allocation. Reference period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    This document described the national plan project of greenhouse gases quotas allocation, in application of the directive 2003/87/CE. It is a preliminary document providing hypothesis, data and results which could well be modified. It presents in seven chapters the determination of the final quotas quantity, the determination of the final quotas quantity per each activity sectors and per installation, the technical aspects, the community policy and legislation, the public consultation and other criteria analysis. (A.L.B.)

  5. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  6. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  7. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Deprez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and shocks.

  8. Macroprudential Insurance Regulation: A Swiss Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Deprez; Mario V. Wüthrich

    2016-01-01

    This article provides a case study that analyzes national macroprudential insurance regulation in Switzerland. We consider an insurance market that is based on data from the Swiss private insurance industry. We stress this market with several scenarios related to financial and insurance risks, and we analyze the resulting risk capitals of the insurance companies. This stress-test analysis provides insights into the vulnerability of the Swiss private insurance sector to different risks and sho...

  9. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J.; Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered

  10. Parallel mediation effects by sleep on the parental warmth-problem behavior links: evidence from national probability samples of Georgian and Swiss adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazsonyi, Alexander T; Harris, Charlene; Terveer, Agnes M; Pagava, Karaman; Phagava, Helen; Michaud, Pierre-Andre

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has documented the importance of parenting on adolescent health and well-being; however, some of the underlying mechanisms that link the quality of parent-child relationship to health, adjustment, and well-being are not clearly understood. The current study seeks to address this gap by examining the extent to which sleep functioning mediates the effects by parental warmth on different measures of adolescent problem behaviors. Specifically, we test whether sleep functioning, operationalized by sleep quality and sleep quantity, mediates the relationship between the parental warmth and three measures of problem behaviors, namely alcohol use, illegal drug use, and deviance, in two nationally representative samples of Georgian (N = 6,992; M = 15.83, 60% females, and Swiss (N = 5,575; M = 17.17, 50% females) adolescents. Based on tests for parallel mediating effects by sleep functioning of parental warmth on problem behaviors in the MEDIATE macro in SPSS, the findings provided evidence that both sleep quality and sleep quantity independently and cumulatively mediated the effects of parental warmth on each of the three problem behaviors in both samples, with one exception. These results highlight the salience of positive parenting on sleep functioning among teens in two different cultural contexts, and, in turn, on measures of problem behaviors.

  11. Harmonizing national growth references for multi-centre surveys, drug monitoring and international postmarketing surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanussen, M; Assmann, C; Wöhling, H; Zabransky, M

    2012-01-01

    National European growth references differ. We aimed to convert (harmonize) currently used charts into a single unified interchangeable LMS format for each European nation. Nine currently used national European growth references from Belgium (2009), France (1979), Poland (2001), Sweden (2002), Switzerland (1989), the UK (1990), Italy (2006) and Germany (1979 and 1997) were harmonized and compared with the international WHO child growth standards and WHO growth reference data for 5-19 years. European growth charts can be harmonized. The approach appears useful as height, and body mass index (BMI) is inappropriately represented by WHO references. European height references exhibit warping when plotted against the WHO reference. The French appears too short, the other Europeans too tall. Also, the BMI is not appropriately represented by the WHO references. Harmonizing references is a novel, convenient and cost-effective approach for converting historic and/or incomplete local or national growth reference charts into a unified interchangeable LMS format. Harmonizing facilitates producing growth references 'on demand', for limited regional purposes, for ethnically, socio-economically or politically defined minorities, but also for matching geographically different groups of children and adolescents for international growth and registry studies. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  12. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Ivan; Milenković Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstanc...

  13. German head circumference references for infants, children and adolescents in comparison with currently used national and international references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schienkiewitz, Anja; Schaffrath Rosario, Angelika; Dortschy, Reinhard; Ellert, Ute; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2011-07-01

    To present valid head circumference (HC) percentiles from early infancy to 18 years and to compare them with percentiles currently used in Germany by Prader, as well as to international WHO and CDC references. Nationally representative sample of 17,158 children and adolescents aged 0.25-17.98 years (KiGGS study 2003-2006) with standardized HC measurement. HC references were created using Cole's LMS method. The median growth of HC is largest in the first year of life. Adult HC is reached at age 16 years in girls, while in boys, HC growth continues through age 17 years and adult HC have to be derived from future KiGGS follow-up examinations. KiGGS percentiles are quite similar from early infancy to early school age compared to older Prader references, but higher thereafter (maximum difference of median HC: girls 1.4 cm, boys 0.9 cm). KiGGS percentiles are also higher than WHO and CDC percentiles over most of the compared age range, but differences are less pronounced compared to Prader. The KiGGS HC references presented here for boys and girls aged 4 months through 17 years are more valid than currently used German references. Because of the similarity of KiGGS and the currently used reference by Prader in early infancy, the currently used Prader reference for 0-4 months could complement KiGGS to cover the entire age range from birth to the end of adolescence. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  14. Summary table of base case and national reference case reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-09-01

    This paper summarises in tabular form the main specifications of the base case reprocessing plant, together with those of the national reference case plants contributed by France, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan and the United Kingdom

  15. GIS in Swiss Highschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, the Swiss Geography Teacher Society from the German speaking area initiated the introduction of GIS to Swiss highschools. A very favourablecontract was made with the ESRI Company about using their software ArcView,thus as many as 44 highschools had GIS education in 2008.

  16. GIS in Swiss Highschools

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Swiss Geography Teacher Society from the German speaking area initiated the introduction of GIS to Swiss highschools. A very favourablecontract was made with the ESRI Company about using their software ArcView,thus as many as 44 highschools had GIS education in 2008.

  17. Chat Reference Training after One Decade: The Results of a National Survey of Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Christopher; Paladino, Emily Bounds; Davis, John A.

    2011-01-01

    The first comprehensive national survey of all academic libraries in the United States which were conducting chat reference service was carried out to determine: what practices were being used to prepare personnel for chat reference service, what competencies were being taught, how and why training practices may have changed over time, and what…

  18. [Thiamine Hydrochloride Reference Standard (Control 891) of National Institute of Hygienic Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, S; Hiroshige, R; Tanaka, M; Murai, M; Kimura, T

    1990-01-01

    The raw material of thiamine hydrochloride was examined for preparation of the "Thiamine Hydrochloride Reference Standard". Analytical results were as follows: melting point 242.7 degrees; pH 3.2 (1 g, water, 100 ml); IR spectrum the same as that of JP Reference Standard (Control: 841); one and two impurities detected by TLC and by HPLC analyses, respectively; assay by thiochrome method 100.3% and by HPLC 100.1% against the JP Reference Standard. Based on the results, the present raw material was authorized to be the Reference Standard of the National Institute of Hygienic Sciences.

  19. CERN receives early 50th anniversary present from Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Swiss President Pascal Couchepin announced Wednesday 4 June an early 50th birthday present from the Swiss Confederation to CERN. Switzerland has decided to offer the laboratory the 'Palais de l'Equilibre', a landmark building designed by Geneva architects for Switzerland's 2002 national exhibition" (1/2 page).

  20. Growth of Japanese breastfed infants compared to national references and World Health Organization growth standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, H; Ishii, H; Yamada, T; Akazawa, K; Nagata, S; Yamashiro, Y

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the growth of Japanese infants that were exclusively breastfed to those of national references and World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Mothers, who delivered a normal term baby and had been exclusively breastfeeding for at least 4 months, were enrolled. The lengths, body weights and head circumferences of 647 children, aged 0-24 months, were obtained and compared to national references and WHO standards. Comparisons of the national references for both length and body weight indicated that breastfed infants were significantly shorter and lighter almost throughout the first 24 months. Conversely, head circumferences of breastfed infants were significantly larger at 1 and 6 months of age in boys and 6 months in girls. Compared to WHO standards, similar trends to the comparisons with national references were found. There were significant differences identified between the growth of breastfed infants and existing national references and WHO standards. ©2013 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  1. Pediatric Reference Intervals for Biochemical Markers: Gaps and Challenges, Recent National Initiatives and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Houman; Higgins, Victoria; Fung, Angela W S; Truong, Dorothy; White-Al Habeeb, Nicole M A; Adeli, Khosrow

    2017-03-01

    Reference intervals provide valuable information to medical practitioners in their interpretation of quantitative laboratory test results, and are critical in the assessment of patient health and in clinical decision-making. The reference interval serves as a health-associated benchmark with which to compare an individual test result. While the concept of reference intervals and their utility appear straightforward, the process of establishing accurate and reliable reference intervals is considerably complex and involved. Currently, many pediatric laboratory tests are inappropriately interpreted using reference intervals derived from either adult populations, hospitalized pediatric populations, or from outdated and/or inaccurate technology. Thus, many pediatric reference intervals used in diagnostic laboratories are incomplete and may be inappropriate for clinical use. The use of inappropriate reference intervals impacts clinical decision-making and has potential detrimental effects on the quality of patient healthcare including misdiagnosis, delayed diagnosis, inappropriate treatments, and patient risk. These are critical gaps in pediatric healthcare and it is imperative to update and establish appropriate reference intervals for pediatric populations based on specific age- and sex-stratifications. In the present review, specific issues, challenges and deficiencies in pediatric reference intervals for biochemical markers will be discussed. Early studies using hospitalized patients will be examined, followed by a review of recent national and global initiatives on establishing reference intervals from healthy pediatric population. We will highlight the achievements and milestones of the Canadian CALIPER project, including the establishment of a comprehensive biobank and database which has addressed several of these critical gaps. CALIPER's mandate is to establish and provide comprehensive, up-to-date pediatric reference intervals to all biochemical markers of

  2. National diagnostic reference level initiative for computed tomography examinations in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Korir, Geoffrey K.; Wambani, Jeska S.; Korir, Ian K.; Tries, Mark A.; Boen, Patrick K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the computed tomography (CT) examination frequency, patient radiation exposure, effective doses and national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) associated with CT examinations in clinical practice. A structured questionnaire-type form was developed for recording examination frequency, scanning protocols and patient radiation exposure during CT procedures in fully equipped medical facilities across the country. The national annual number of CT examina...

  3. Nature of Environmental Education in Bangladesh: A School Level Assessment with Reference to the National Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, M. A. Taiyeb

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to identify the nature of formal environmental education in Bangladesh at school level with particular reference to the national curriculum. The main objective of the study is to assess the contents of the school textbooks for each standard, and to see whether the diversified themes covered are a good representation of…

  4. Genetics studies involving Swiss needle cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Johnson; F. Temel; K. Jayawickrama

    2002-01-01

    Three studies were analyzed this year that examined genetic aspects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) tolerance . Families sampled across the Siuslaw National forest showed differences in foliage health traits, but very little of the variation could be explained by environmental or climatic conditions at the parent tree location. Five test sites of the Nehalem series of...

  5. U.S. Department of Energy Commercial Reference Building Models of the National Building Stock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Field, K.; Studer, D.; Benne, K.; Griffith, B.; Torcellini, P.; Liu, B.; Halverson, M.; Winiarski, D.; Rosenberg, M.; Yazdanian, M.; Huang, J.; Crawley, D.

    2011-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Technologies Program has set the aggressive goal of producing marketable net-zero energy buildings by 2025. This goal will require collaboration between the DOE laboratories and the building industry. We developed standard or reference energy models for the most common commercial buildings to serve as starting points for energy efficiency research. These models represent fairly realistic buildings and typical construction practices. Fifteen commercial building types and one multifamily residential building were determined by consensus between DOE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and represent approximately two-thirds of the commercial building stock.

  6. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  7. Application of the Undifferenced GNSS Precise Positioning in Determining Coordinates in National Reference Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzan, Grzegorz; Stępniak, Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    In high-accuracy positioning using GNSS, the most common solution is still relative positioning using double-difference observations of dual-frequency measurements. An increasingly popular alternative to relative positioning are undifferenced approaches, which are designed to make full use of modern satellite systems and signals. Positions referenced to global International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF2008) obtained from Precise Point Positioning (PPP) or Undifferenced (UD) network solutions have to be transformed to national (regional) reference frame, which introduces additional bases related to the transformation process. In this paper, satellite observations from two test networks using different observation time series were processed. The first test concerns the positioning accuracy from processing one year of dual-frequency GPS observations from 14 EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations using NAPEOS 3.3.1 software. The results were transformed into a national reference frame (PL-ETRF2000) and compared to positions from an EPN cumulative solution, which was adopted as the true coordinates. Daily observations were processed using PPP and UD multi-station solutions to determine the final accuracy resulting from satellite positioning, the transformation to national coordinate systems and Eurasian intraplate plate velocities. The second numerical test involved similar processing strategies of post-processing carried out using different observation time series (30 min., 1 hour, 2 hours, daily) and different classes of GNSS receivers. The centimeter accuracy of results presented in the national coordinate system satisfies the requirements of many surveying and engineering applications.

  8. Pathway to 2022: The Ongoing Modernization of the United States National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. A.; Caccamise, D.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Geodetic Survey (NGS) mission is "to define, maintain and provide access to the National Spatial Reference System (NSRS) to meet our nation's economic, social, and environmental needs." The NSRS is an assemblage of geophysical and geodetic models, tools, and data, with the most-visible components being the North American Datum of 1983 (NAD83) and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD88), which together provide a consistent spatial reference framework for myriad geospatial applications and positioning requirements throughout the United States. The NGS is engaged in an ongoing and comprehensive multi-year project of modernizing the NSRS, a makeover necessitated by technological developments and user accuracy requirements, all with a goal of providing a modern, accurate, accessible, and globally aligned national positioning framework exploiting the substantial power and utility of the Global Navigation Satellite System - of both today and tomorrow. The modernized NSRS will include four new-generation geometric terrestrial reference frames (replacing NAD83) and a technically unprecedented geopotential datum (replacing NAVD88), all to be released in 2022 (anticipated). This poster/presentation will describe the justification for this modernization effort and will update the status and planned evolution of the NSRS as 2022 draws ever closer. Also discussed will be recent developments, including the publication of "blueprint" documents addressing technical details of various facets of the modernized NSRS and a continued series of public Geospatial Summits. Supporting/ancillary projects such as Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D), which will result in the generation of a highly accurate gravimetric geoid - or definitional reference surface (zero elevation) - for the future geopotential datum, and Geoid Slope Validation Surveys (GSVS), which are exploring the achievable

  9. National Survey of Adult and Pediatric Reference Intervals in Clinical Laboratories across Canada: A Report of the CSCC Working Group on Reference Interval Harmonization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeli, Khosrow; Higgins, Victoria; Seccombe, David; Collier, Christine P; Balion, Cynthia M; Cembrowski, George; Venner, Allison A; Shaw, Julie

    2017-11-01

    Reference intervals are widely used decision-making tools in laboratory medicine, serving as health-associated standards to interpret laboratory test results. Numerous studies have shown wide variation in reference intervals, even between laboratories using assays from the same manufacturer. Lack of consistency in either sample measurement or reference intervals across laboratories challenges the expectation of standardized patient care regardless of testing location. Here, we present data from a national survey conducted by the Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists (CSCC) Reference Interval Harmonization (hRI) Working Group that examines variation in laboratory reference sample measurements, as well as pediatric and adult reference intervals currently used in clinical practice across Canada. Data on reference intervals currently used by 37 laboratories were collected through a national survey to examine the variation in reference intervals for seven common laboratory tests. Additionally, 40 clinical laboratories participated in a baseline assessment by measuring six analytes in a reference sample. Of the seven analytes examined, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and creatinine reference intervals were most variable. As expected, reference interval variation was more substantial in the pediatric population and varied between laboratories using the same instrumentation. Reference sample results differed between laboratories, particularly for ALT and free thyroxine (FT4). Reference interval variation was greater than test result variation for the majority of analytes. It is evident that there is a critical lack of harmonization in laboratory reference intervals, particularly for the pediatric population. Furthermore, the observed variation in reference intervals across instruments cannot be explained by the bias between the results obtained on instruments by different manufacturers. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists

  10. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franzese, R.; Gaudioso, D.

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a 'sink' for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico

  11. Implementation of a national reference laboratory for Buruli ulcer disease in Togo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Beissner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a previous study PCR analysis of clinical samples from suspected cases of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD from Togo and external quality assurance (EQA for local microscopy were conducted at an external reference laboratory in Germany. The relatively poor performance of local microscopy as well as effort and time associated with shipment of PCR samples necessitated the implementation of stringent EQA measures and availability of local laboratory capacity. This study describes the approach to implementation of a national BUD reference laboratory in Togo. METHODOLOGY: Large scale outreach activities accompanied by regular training programs for health care professionals were conducted in the regions "Maritime" and "Central," standard operating procedures defined all processes in participating laboratories (regional, national and external reference laboratories as well as the interaction between laboratories and partners in the field. Microscopy was conducted at regional level and slides were subjected to EQA at national and external reference laboratories. For PCR analysis, sample pairs were collected and subjected to a dry-reagent-based IS2404-PCR (DRB-PCR at national level and standard IS2404 PCR followed by IS2404 qPCR analysis of negative samples at the external reference laboratory. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The inter-laboratory concordance rates for microscopy ranged from 89% to 94%; overall, microscopy confirmed 50% of all suspected BUD cases. The inter-laboratory concordance rate for PCR was 96% with an overall PCR case confirmation rate of 78%. Compared to a previous study, the rate of BUD patients with non-ulcerative lesions increased from 37% to 50%, the mean duration of disease before clinical diagnosis decreased significantly from 182.6 to 82.1 days among patients with ulcerative lesions, and the percentage of category III lesions decreased from 30.3% to 19.2%. CONCLUSIONS: High inter-laboratory concordance rates as well as case

  12. The Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and in-vivo Monitoring: A program summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.H.; Zamora, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Canadian National Calibration Reference Center for Bioassay and in-vivo Monitoring is part of the Radiation Protection Bureau, Department of Health. The Reference Center operates a variety of different intercomparison programs that are designed to confirm that workplace monitoring results are accurate and provide the necessary external verification required by the Canadian regulators. The programs administered by the Reference Center currently include urinalysis intercomparisons for tritium, natural uranium, and 14 C, and in-vivo programs for whole-body, thorax, and thyroid monitoring. The benefits of the intercomparison programs to the participants are discussed by example. Future programs that are planned include dual spiked urine sample which contain both tritium and 14 C and the in-vivo measurement of 99m Tc. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  13. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  14. [Quality management in a Swiss hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher, E

    1997-09-01

    Although there are quite good examples of quality management in Swiss hospitals available (the guidelines of quality management in the Swiss hospital etc.), the distribution of measures of quality assurance in Swiss hospitals is insufficient and focuses more on Hotel services and technical equipment rather than on the care by physicians and nurses. Beginning with Jan. 1, 1998, contracts of quality assurance between health care providers and sponsors have to be presented according to the new health insurance act. These contracts are proofed periodically by a national office. This necessitates a country-wide introduction of statistics (ICD-codes) and computerization. This is currently only in the process of realization. Additionally, hospitals and medical practices already undertake a comprehensive quality control due to local and regional initiatives. The society of Swiss physicians FMH supports mainly three areas: compulsory continuing medical education (80 hours annually, including 50 hours in recognized meetings), the development of guidelines by medical societies, and data collection including the development of a network for measures of quality assurance. The ISO-standard 9000 was changed for health care as ordered by the NAQ (National workshop for quality assurance) and the FMH. It is supposed to be used mainly for the certification of facilities for continuing medical education, perhaps also for the certification of hospitals.

  15. Digital Preservation at the Swiss Federal Archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnesorge, Krystyna

    2012-01-01

    The Swiss Federal Archives (SFA) archives Swiss government data when it is no longer in use. The SFA is responsible for advising, inspecting and issuing directives in records management and archiving services in offices, agencies and institutions subjected to the Federal Act on Archiving; as well as archiving and disseminating records and data of archival value. With regard to RWM, it thus in fact is an additional regulator. The conceptual basis for digital archiving at the SFA is based on the ISO OAIS Open Archival Information System Reference Model (ISO 14721:2003). The SFA use a process-orientated approach. The SFA and the Federal Office decide jointly which documents and data are to be archived. Archive-worthy documents and data are selected on the basis of a systematic appraisal. Wherever possible this should be carried out pro-actively - before the documents are actually created - based on an indexing or classification system. If there is clarity, people will know what data - and metadata - to keep for the submission. The submission is split into several stages, from appraisal to the conclusion of the submission. Information is never changed once it is archived, except that it carries out conservation measures. New information is a new submission. The sustainable information management is a core expertise of national archives. The SFA preserves digital records and data and is responsible for their secure and appropriate safe-keeping, description and dissemination. For the archiving of relational databases (e.g. Microsoft Access, Oracle and SQL Server), the SFA have developed a format known as SIARD (Software Independent Archiving of Relational Databases). SIARD is an open standard and is supported by the SIARD Suite application, which can be used to convert relational databases into SIARD format. The SIARD Suite is now in use worldwide (over 170 downloads). The SFA distribute the SIARD Suite free of charge in conformity with the license agreement. Currently

  16. First national study on patient exposure in radiographic procedure and references rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, J.; Karadjov, A.; Ingilizova, H.; Dimov, A.; Slavchev, A.; Gfirtner, H.; Buchakliev, Z.; Ganchev, M.; Lichev, A.; Kostova, E.

    2003-01-01

    The results are presented from the first national study of the patient exposure in some common radiographic procedures of lungs, pelvis, lumbar vertebrae, skull, venous urography and mammography.The aim of the study is to obtain information about the patient doses in different hospitals in the country and to develop new reference levels for such procedures. Air chamber with thermoluminescent detector, fixed on the patient skin during the radiographic procedure has been used for the study except for the mammographic procedures, where a standard phantom has been used. The national reference levels has been determines using the methodology adopted in the European Union. The determined national referent level for air chamber in thoracic radiography is 0.9 mGy, which is 3 times greater than the European Union (0.3 mGy). The main cause of the difference is the use of 'soft' technique with anode voltage under 100 kV for the thoracic procedures, unlike the practice in the European Union (120-140 kV). For the rest of the procedures the reference levels coincide with those in european Union countries, which are: 10 mGy for pelvis /AP/, 10 mGy for lumbar vertebrae /AP/ and 30 for lumbar vertebrae /Lat/, 5 mGy for skull /AP/PA/ and 3 mGy for skull /Lat/, 10 mGy for venous urography /AP/, and 1.3 mGy for mammography. It is recommended the old film-folio combinations to be replaced by ones with a sensitivity class 100 or higher. For the optimization of the thoracic radiography anode voltage above 100kV are recommended

  17. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  18. National diagnostic reference level initiative for computed tomography examinations in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, Geoffrey K.; Wambani, Jeska S.; Korir, Ian K.; Tries, Mark A.; Boen, Patrick K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the computed tomography (CT) examination frequency, patient radiation exposure, effective doses and national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) associated with CT examinations in clinical practice. A structured questionnaire-type form was developed for recording examination frequency, scanning protocols and patient radiation exposure during CT procedures in fully equipped medical facilities across the country. The national annual number of CT examinations per 1000 people was estimated to be 3 procedures. The volume-weighted CT dose index, dose length product, effective dose and NDRLs were determined for 20 types of adult and paediatric CT examinations. Additionally, the CT annual collective effective dose and effective dose per capita were approximated. The radiation exposure during CT examinations was broadly distributed between the facilities that took part in the study. This calls for a need to develop and implement diagnostic reference levels as a standardisation and optimisation tool for the radiological protection of patients at all the CT facilities nationwide. PMID:25790825

  19. An approach to local diagnostic reference levels (DRL's) in the context of national and international DRL's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.T.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years there has been a greater focus on the management of patient doses. This effort has been driven by the realisation of both the increasing magnitude of patient doses and their variation both intra- and inter-nationally. Legislators and guidance-issuing bodies have developed the idea of 'Diagnostic Reference Levels' (DRL's). In particular, the European Union, in their Council Directive 97/43/Euratom, required Member States to develop DRL's. The UK Government, when consolidating this EU Directive into UK legislation, extended the concept of DRL's from a national to an employer level. However, the methodologies used for development of national and international DRL's do not translate to a local level and hence a new approach is required. This paper describes one particular approach made by a UK hospital to introduce 'Local DRL's' in such a manner as to aid the optimisation process. This approach utilises a dose index, based on the local patient population, which is monitored for trends. Any trend in patient dose triggers an investigation linked to the clinical audit system within the Clinical Radiology Department. It is the audit cycle that ensures a continuing move towards an optimised situation. Additional triggers may be employed such as large patient dose variations. (author)

  20. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  1. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  2. Comparative assay of fluorescent antibody test results among twelve European National Reference Laboratories using various anti-rabies conjugates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robardet, E.; Andrieu, S.; Rasmussen, Thomas Bruun

    2013-01-01

    Twelve National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for rabies have undertaken a comparative assay to assess the comparison of fluorescent antibody test (FAT) results using five coded commercial anti-rabies conjugates (Biorad, Bioveta, Fujirebio, Millipore, and SIFIN conjugates). Homogenized positive...

  3. Reference hydrologic networks I. The status and potential future directions of national reference hydrologic networks for detecting trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Paul H.; Burn, Donald H.; Hannaford, Jamie; Higgins, Hélène; Hodgkins, Glenn A.; Marsh, Terry; Looser, Ulrich

    2012-01-01

    Identifying climate-driven trends in river flows on a global basis is hampered by a lack of long, quality time series data for rivers with relatively undisturbed regimes. This is a global problem compounded by the lack of support for essential long-term monitoring. Experience demonstrates that, with clear strategic objectives, and the support of sponsoring organizations, reference hydrologic networks can constitute an exceptionally valuable data source to effectively identify, quantify and interpret hydrological change—the speed and magnitude of which is expected to a be a primary driver of water management and flood alleviation strategies through the future—and for additional applications. Reference hydrologic networks have been developed in many countries in the past few decades. These collections of streamflow gauging stations, that are maintained and operated with the intention of observing how the hydrology of watersheds responds to variations in climate, are described. The status of networks under development is summarized. We suggest a plan of actions to make more effective use of this collection of networks.

  4. What Drives Adoption of National Labels as Global Reference Labels? A Case Study With the JPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shimon; Matsui, Rie; Kikuchi, Chikara

    2018-01-01

    Pharmaceutical labeling describes the safe and effective use of an approved product. Such information may be provided to consumers and/or health care physicians, and available online or in the pack in a variety of different formats according to local or regional regulations. Depending on the Health Authority (HA), content within a nationally approved label is generally reliant on two primary sources, a Company Core Data Sheet (CCDS), and the text approved by the Health Authority. Content in the nationally approved label may differ from the CCDS for a variety of reasons. In some countries, HAs require the Marketing Authorization Holder (MAH) to base their national label on an already approved label in a "major market" economy, only approving changes to the label when there is evidence that the major market has already approved. In this paper, we examine recent steps taken by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) and Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) to change labeling regulation in Japan in the context of the recently communicated national strategy, and assess whether this may impact on uptake of the J-PI as a reference label. Decreases in approval times by PMDA for new products, development of basic principles on multiregional clinical trials, greater transparency of content on the PMDA website, and increasing outreach to other Asian Agencies in recent years are highlighted. Labeling harmonization across regions, particularly of safety-related information, represents a key factor in promoting patient safety and risk communication, and is a worthy topic for future ICH consideration.

  5. The Use of Twitter to Analyze Citizen Proposals: the Economic News of the National Reference Newspapers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar Soria Ibáñez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Twitter has become the primary means of public expression and platform on which to build a new way of doing journalism. In the Spanish case, the covers of national reference newspapers and its contents on the microblogging conversations generate traffic that is a true reflection of a social and political context marked by the economic crisis. Therefore, this study aims to reflect the degree of citizen participation in the information content on Twitter, based on the quantification of their interactions or their messages tone. The content analysis presented in this work maps the use by major Spanish newspapers of this new social media, notes the importance it attaches to citizenship expressed by sections of economy news and reveals which are the most active posts on the microblogging and therefore, the most popular.

  6. Henry Hub and national balancing point prices: what will be the international gas price reference?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazighi, A.E.H.

    2005-01-01

    One of the lessons in the history of international trade in commodities is the emergence - sooner or later - of an international price reference, most commonly known as an international marker price. In the area of oil, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) plays the role of a marker for sour crudes traded in the Atlantic basin. Brent oil fulfils this function for sweet crudes traded in Europe. Another important aspect in the area of global commodities is that the emergence of a marker price is not always necessarily related to the relative share of production of exports of the commodity, but primarily to the existence of an organized market for this commodity. Today, while international gas trade is intensifying, we still lack an international price reference for this commodity. This is due to the fact that the international trade of natural gas is still highly regionalized. It is also due to the fact that most gas markets are still regulated. Nevertheless, deregulation efforts have been implemented in both developed (the United States, the United Kingdom, continental Europe, Korea) and developing countries (Brazil, Chile) and have led to new market structures based on more competition in all segments of the gas chain, except transportation. In the meantime, price structures based on supply and demand principles are supposed to have emerged in the US and UK markets in the 1990s as a result of the implementation of deregulation measures. Today, the US gas market, which represents more than 660 billion cubic metres per year of consumption and the UK gas market, which is close to 100 bcm annually, are considered mature enough to make the principles of supply and demand operate inside these markets. In fact, the Henry Hub (HH) price, which is determined at a physical location in Louisiana, US, and the national balancing point (NBP) price, which is determined somewhere inside the national transmission system (NTS), without any precise location, are considered as potential

  7. A National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD for the Dutch Population: Rationale behind the Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elske M. Brouwer-Brolsma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of reliable Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQs requires detailed information about the level and variation of dietary intake of the target population. However, these data are often limited. To facilitate the development of new high quality FFQs and validation of existing FFQs, we developed a comprehensive National Dietary Assessment Reference Database (NDARD detailing information about the level and variation in dietary intake of people 20–70 years old in the general Dutch population. This paper describes the methods and characteristics of the population included in the NDARD database. A total of 1063 men and 985 women agreed to participate in this study. Dietary intake data were collected using different FFQs, web-based and telephone-based 24-h recalls, as well as blood and urine-based biomarkers. The baseline FFQ was completed by 1647 participants with a mean age of 51 ± 12 years, BMI of 26 ± 4 kg/m2, and energy intake of 2051 ± 605 kcal/day. The percentage of total energy intake from proteins, carbohydrates, and fats were 15 ± 2, 43 ± 6, and 36 ± 5 En%, respectively. A total of 1113 participants completed telephone-based recalls and 1783 participants completed web-based recalls. This database will enable researchers to validate existing national FFQs and to develop new high quality dietary assessment methods.

  8. Certified sediment reference materials for trace element analysis from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Kazumi; Takatsu, Akiko; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Nakama, Atsuko; Eyama, Sakae; Chiba, Koichi; Okamoto, Kensaku

    2004-03-01

    Two types of sediment reference material (NMIJ 7302-a and 7303-a) for trace elements analysis have been prepared and certified by the National Metrology Institute of Japan in the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST). The original materials were collected from a bay near industrial activity in Kyushu (NMIJ CRM 7302-a; marine sediment) and from Lake Biwa (NMIJ CRM 7303-a; lake sediment). The sediment materials were air-dried, sieved, homogenized, packaged in 1000 glass bottles (60 g each), and radiation sterilized. Certification of these CRM for trace elements was conducted by NMIJ, where each element was determined by at least two independent analytical techniques. Isotope-dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was applied for certification of all the elements except mono-nuclide elements such as As and Co. Other techniques such as ICP-MS with quadrupole mass spectrometry and sector-field mass spectrometry, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), were also used. Certified values have been provided for 14 elements (Sb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in both CRM.

  9. The Swiss Vote on Limiting Second Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Schuler, Martin; Dessemontet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The Alps have an important role in defining the Swiss national identity, and play a major part in forging the country’s image from the beginning of tourism in the 18th and 19th centuries. In a federalist country which assigns large decision powers to the cantonal and communal levels, local and national interests as to how to develop this particular space can profoundly diverge. The vote held on March 11th, 2012 on the Franz Weber initiative introducing a ban on building new holiday residences...

  10. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Emmanuel; Lieberherr, Damien; Tognolli, Michael; Schneider, Michel; Bairoch, Amos

    2007-01-01

    The Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI), and the Protein Information Resource (PIR) form the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt) consortium. Its main goal is to provide the scientific community with a central resource for protein sequences and functional information. The UniProt consortium maintains the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB) and several supplementary databases including the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) and the UniProt Archive (UniParc). (1) UniProtKB is a comprehensive protein sequence knowledgebase that consists of two sections: UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, which contains manually annotated entries, and UniProtKB/TrEMBL, which contains computer-annotated entries. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries contain information curated by biologists and provide users with cross-links to about 100 external databases and with access to additional information or tools. (2) The UniRef databases (UniRef100, UniRef90, and UniRef50) define clusters of protein sequences that share 100, 90, or 50% identity. (3) The UniParc database stores and maps all publicly available protein sequence data, including obsolete data excluded from UniProtKB. The UniProt databases can be accessed online (http://www.uniprot.org/) or downloaded in several formats (ftp://ftp.uniprot.org/pub). New releases are published every 2 weeks. The purpose of this chapter is to present a guided tour of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry, paying particular attention to the specificities of plant protein annotation. We will also present some of the tools and databases that are linked to each entry.

  11. Radon survey in Montenegro - A base to set national radon reference and "urgent action" level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukotic, Perko; Antovic, Nevenka; Djurovic, Andrija; Zekic, Ranko; Svrkota, Nikola; Andjelic, Tomislav; Svrkota, Ranko; Mrdak, Radivoje; Bjelica, Natasa; Djurovic, Tamara; Dlabac, Aleksandar; Bogicevic, Marija

    2018-02-28

    The first nationwide indoor radon survey in Montenegro started in 2002 and year-long radon measurements with CR-39 track-etch detectors, within the national grid of 5 km × 5 km and local grids in urban areas of 0.5 km × 0.5 km, were performed in homes in half of the country's territory. The survey continued in 2014 and measurements in the rest of the country were completed at the end of 2015. The 953 valid results, obtained in the national radon survey, give an average radon activity concentration in Montenegrin homes of 110 Bq/m 3 . Assuming a log-normal distribution of the experimental results, geometric mean GM = 58.3 Bq/m 3 and geometric standard deviation GSD = 2.91 are calculated. However, normality tests show that the experimental data are not log-normal, and that they become closest to a log-normal distribution after subtracting from them radon concentration in the outdoor air of 7 Bq/m 3 , which is theoretically calculated. Such a transformed distribution has GM tr  = 46.7 Bq/m 3 and GSD tr  = 3.54. The estimations derived from positing a priory that the experimental results conform to a log-normal distribution underestimate the percentage of homes with radon concentrations at the thresholds of 300 Bq/m 3 and above, which is better estimated by using GM tr and GSD tr . Based on the results of radon survey, a new national radon reference level of 300 Bq/m 3 and an "urgent action level" of 1000 Bq/m 3 are suggested, with estimated fractions of the national dwelling stock above these levels of 7.4% and 0.8% respectively. Fractions of homes with radon concentrations above the suggested levels are also estimated for each of the 23 municipalities in Montenegro, using appropriate GM tr and GSD tr . The six municipalities which have more than 10% of homes with radon concentration above 300 Bq/m 3 are recommended as radon priority areas. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing data availability for the development of REDD-plus national reference levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Masahiro

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data availability in developing countries is known to be extremely varied and is one of the constraints for setting the national reference levels (RLs for the REDD-plus (i.e. 'Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries' under the UNFCCC. Taking Thailand as a case study country, this paper compares three types of RLs, which require different levels of datasets, including a simple historic RL, a projected forest-trend RL, and a business-as-usual (BAU RL. Results Other than the finding that different RLs yielded different estimations on future deforestation areas, the analysis also identified the characteristics of each RL. The historical RL demanded simple data, but can be varied in accordance with a reference year or period. The forest-trend RL can be more reliable than the historical RL, if the country's deforestation trend curve is formed smoothly. The complicated BAU RL is useful as it can demonstrate the additionality of REDD-plus activities and distinguish the country's unintentional efforts. Conclusions With the REDD-plus that involves widespread participation, there should be steps from which countries choose the appropriate RL; ranging from simpler to more complex measures, in accordance with data availability in each country. Once registered with REDD-plus, the countries with weak capacity and capability should be supported to enhance the data collection system in that country.

  13. Assessing data availability for the development of REDD-plus national reference levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemiya, Chisa; Amano, Masahiro; Wilamart, Suphawadee

    2010-09-30

    Data availability in developing countries is known to be extremely varied and is one of the constraints for setting the national reference levels (RLs) for the REDD-plus (i.e. 'Policy approaches and positive incentives on issues relating to reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries; and the role of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks in developing countries') under the UNFCCC. Taking Thailand as a case study country, this paper compares three types of RLs, which require different levels of datasets, including a simple historic RL, a projected forest-trend RL, and a business-as-usual (BAU) RL. Other than the finding that different RLs yielded different estimations on future deforestation areas, the analysis also identified the characteristics of each RL. The historical RL demanded simple data, but can be varied in accordance with a reference year or period. The forest-trend RL can be more reliable than the historical RL, if the country's deforestation trend curve is formed smoothly. The complicated BAU RL is useful as it can demonstrate the additionality of REDD-plus activities and distinguish the country's unintentional efforts. With the REDD-plus that involves widespread participation, there should be steps from which countries choose the appropriate RL; ranging from simpler to more complex measures, in accordance with data availability in each country. Once registered with REDD-plus, the countries with weak capacity and capability should be supported to enhance the data collection system in that country.

  14. Is keep/refer decision making an integral part of national guidelines for the physiotherapy profession within Europe? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackenbauer, Wolfgang; Janssen, Jessie; Roddam, Hazel; Selfe, James

    2017-12-01

    Keep/refer decision as the ability to independently determine whether a patient's condition is suitable for physiotherapy management (keep) or not (refer), is regarded as an core element in the World Confederation of Physical Therapists' (WCPT) Guideline for Standards of Physical Therapy Practice. However, it is currently unknown how individual European countries have implemented this in their national guidelines. To determine if keep/refer decision making abilities are an integral part of national guidelines for the physiotherapy profession of member countries of the European Network of Physiotherapy in Higher Education (ENPHE). A review was performed including medical databases, the grey literature and personal correspondence with professional ENPHE member associations. To gain the information of interest, all eligible documents were reviewed. 11 national guidelines for the physiotherapy profession could be obtained. Two additional member associations use European guidelines as their national ones. Despite the fact that in the WCPT guidelines keep/refer decision making abilities are clearly described as a core element, there exists huge inconsistency as to how various European (with direct and non direct access systems) countries have included them in their national guidelines. Despite the fact that most ENPHE member countries deem a close collaboration between health care professionals important and that physiotherapists should know the limitation of their expertise, keep/refer decision making abilities as explicitly stated in the WCPT guidelines were not included in the majority of guidelines that were reviewed. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Patient doses in CT examinations in Switzerland: Implementation of national diagnostic reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treier, R.; Aroua, A.; Verdun, F. R.; Samara, E.; Stuessi, A.; Trueb, P. R.

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were established for 21 indication-based CT examinations for adults in Switzerland. One hundred and seventy-nine of 225 computed tomography (CT) scanners operated in hospitals and private radiology institutes were audited on-site and patient doses were collected. For each CT scanner, a correction factor was calculated expressing the deviation of the measured weighted computed tomography dose index (CTDI) to the nominal weighted CTDI as displayed on the workstation. Patient doses were corrected by this factor providing a realistic basis for establishing national DRLs. Results showed large variations in doses between different radiology departments in Switzerland, especially for examinations of the petrous bone, pelvis, lower limbs and heart. This indicates that the concept of DRLs has not yet been correctly applied for CT examinations in clinical routine. A close collaboration of all stakeholders is mandatory to assure an effective radiation protection of patients. On-site audits will be intensified to further establish the concept of DRLs in Switzerland. (authors)

  16. Quality assurance of chemical ingredient classification for the National Drug File - Reference Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ling; Yumak, Hasan; Chen, Ling; Ochs, Christopher; Geller, James; Kapusnik-Uner, Joan; Perl, Yehoshua

    2017-09-01

    The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology consisting of several classification hierarchies on top of an extensive collection of drug concepts. These hierarchies provide important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles connecting drugs to classifications. In previous studies, we have introduced various kinds of Abstraction Networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies in order to facilitate their visual comprehension, and support quality assurance of terminologies. However, these previous kinds of Abstraction Networks are not appropriate for summarizing the NDF-RT classification hierarchies, due to its unique structure. In this paper, we present the novel Ingredient Abstraction Network (IAbN) to summarize, visualize and support the audit of NDF-RT's Chemical Ingredients hierarchy and its associated drugs. A common theme in our quality assurance framework is to use characterizations of sets of concepts, revealed by the Abstraction Network structure, to capture concepts, the modeling of which is more complex than for other concepts. For the IAbN, we characterize drug ingredient concepts as more complex if they belong to IAbN groups with multiple parent groups. We show that such concepts have a statistically significantly higher rate of errors than a control sample and identify two especially common patterns of errors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Diagnostic reference levels and complexity indices in interventional radiology: a national programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Cruces, R.; Perez-Martinez, M.; Pastor-Vega, J.M.; Canete, S. [University of Malaga, School of Medicine, Malaga (Spain); Vano, E.; Fernandez-Soto, J.M.; Sanchez-Casanueva, R.; Gallego-Beuter, J.J. [Complutense University, San Carlos Hospital, Medical School, Madrid (Spain); Carrera-Magarino, F.; Moreno-Rodriguez, F.; Moreno-Sanchez, T. [Juan Ramon Jimenez University Hospital, Huelva (Spain); Soler-Cantos, M.M.; Canis-Lopez, M. [Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba (Spain); Hernandez-Armas, J.; Diaz-Romero, F.J. [University Hospital of Canary Islands, Tenerife (Spain); Rosales-Espizua, F.; Lopez-Medina, A.; Gonzalez-de-Garay, M. [Basurto Hospital, Bilbao (Spain); Martin-Palanca, A. [Virgen de la Victoria University Hospital, Malaga (Spain); Gil-Agudo, A.; Zarca-Diaz, M.A.; Zapata-Jimenez, J.C. [General University Hospital, Ciudad Real (Spain); Parra-Osorio, V.; Munoz Ruiz-Canela, J.J.; Moreno-Saiz, C.; Galan-Montenegro, P. [Carlos Haya University Hospital, Malaga (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    To propose national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for interventional radiology and to evaluate the impact of the procedural complexity on patient doses. Eight interventional radiology units from Spanish hospitals were involved in this project. The participants agreed to undergo common quality control procedures for X-ray systems. Kerma area product (KAP) was collected from a sample of 1,649 procedures. A consensus document established the criteria to evaluate the complexity of seven types of procedures. DRLs were set as the 3rd quartile of KAP values. The KAP (3rd quartile) in Gy cm{sup 2} for the procedures included in the survey were: lower extremity arteriography (n = 784) 78; renal arteriography (n = 37) 107; transjugular hepatic biopsies (THB) (n = 30) 45; biliary drainage (BD) (n = 314) 30; uterine fibroid embolization (UFE) (n = 56) 214; colon endoprostheses (CE) (n = 31) 169; hepatic chemoembolization (HC) (n = 269) 303; femoropopliteal revascularization (FR) (n = 62) 119; and iliac stent (n = 66) 170. The complexity involved the increases in the following KAP factors from simple to complex procedures: THB x4; BD x13; UFE x3; CE x3; HC x5; FR x5 and IS x4. The evaluation of the procedure complexity in patient doses will allow the proper use of DRLs for the optimization of interventional radiology. (orig.)

  18. Serological diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection: Recommendations from the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villard, O; Cimon, B; L'Ollivier, C; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Godineau, N; Houze, S; Paris, L; Pelloux, H; Villena, I; Candolfi, E

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis manifests no clinical signs in 80% of cases in immunocompetent patient, causing immunization characterized by the persistence of cysts, particularly in brain, muscles, and retina. Assessing the serological status, based on testing for serum toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies, is essential in cases that are increasingly at risk for the more severe disease forms, such as congenital or ocular toxoplasmosis. This disease also exposes immunosuppressed patients to reactivation, which can lead to more widespread forms and increased mortality. By interpreting the serological results, we can estimate the risk of contamination or reactivation and define appropriate prophylactic and preventive measures, such as hygienic and dietetic, therapeutic, biological, and clinical follow-up, according to the clinical context. We hereby propose practical approaches based on serological data, resulting from a consensus of a group of experts from the French National Reference Center Network for Toxoplasmosis, according to both routine and specific clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Spectral Karyotyping for identification of constitutional chromosomal abnormalities at a national reference laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anguiano Arturo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spectral karyotyping is a diagnostic tool that allows visualization of chromosomes in different colors using the FISH technology and a spectral imaging system. To assess the value of spectral karyotyping analysis for identifying constitutional supernumerary marker chromosomes or derivative chromosomes at a national reference laboratory, we reviewed the results of 179 consecutive clinical samples (31 prenatal and 148 postnatal submitted for spectral karyotyping. Over 90% of the cases were requested to identify either small supernumerary marker chromosomes (sSMCs or chromosomal exchange material detected by G-banded chromosome analysis. We also reviewed clinical indications of those cases with marker chromosomes in which chromosomal origin was identified by spectral karyotyping. Our results showed that spectral karyotyping identified the chromosomal origin of marker chromosomes or the source of derivative chromosomal material in 158 (88% of the 179 clinical cases; the identification rate was slightly higher for postnatal (89% compared to prenatal (84% cases. Cases in which the origin could not be identified had either a small marker chromosome present at a very low level of mosaicism (

  20. Indication-based national diagnostic reference levels for paediatric CT: a new approach with proposed values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, H; Seuri, R; Kortesniemi, M; Lajunen, A; Hallinen, E; Savikurki-Heikkilä, P; Laarne, P; Perhomaa, M; Tyrväinen, E

    2015-07-01

    Indication-based national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for a few most common paediatric computed tomography (CT) examinations are proposed. Patient dose data (CTDI vol and dose length product) were collected for over 1000 patients in 4 university hospitals with best experiences in paediatric CT. Four indications for chest CT and two for abdomen (abdomen + pelvis), chest + abdomen and head CT were considered. The DRLs for the body examinations are proposed as exponential DRL-curves, where CTDI vol and dose length product are presented as a function of patient weight. The same DRL curve applies to all the indications studied. The basic 75 % level curve is supplemented by 50 % level curve to enable considerations on varying levels of technology. For head CT, DRLs are proposed for a few age groups (1, 1-5, 5-10 and 10-15 y), separately for routine CT and CT for ventricular size. The proposed DRLs are generally lower than the few published DRLs in other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Beat; Kittelmann, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Taking up the common challenges in biocatalysis, a group of industrialists decided to react with a bottom-up solution, and created the Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC). The Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium is a pre-competitive working group to better implement and utilize existing know-how and resources in biocatalysis, and to influence and shape the economic and educational political environment. Recent examples of activities are outlined.

  2. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  3. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  4. The role and impact of reference doses on diagnostic radiology, how to use them at the national level?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikodemova, D.; Horvathova, M.; Karkus, R.

    2003-01-01

    Results of patient dose audits reported in this paper for several types of examinations and various technical units have shown the importance of applications of reference dose levels in radiological practice. On the basis of national surveys slightly lower or higher standard dose reference levels (DRL) values could be justified. Continuing revision of DRL values and their extension to other types of radiographic and fluoroscopic examinations is needed

  5. Reference Desk Is Not Dead Yet: A Perspective from the National Medical Library of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Sonia Santana

    2015-01-01

    There persists an intense debate on whether or not the traditional reference desk should be in academic libraries. Yet, despite many anti-desk studies, the place of the reference desk still remains. This paper aims to review the current significance of the reference desk for some libraries, as well as the importance of choosing the proper…

  6. National plan of quotas assignment. 2005-2007 reference period; Plan national d'affectation des quotas. Periode de reference 2005-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document described the national plan of greenhouse gases quotas allocation, in application of the directive 2003/87/CE. Data and results presented could well be modified in particular in function of corrective demands proposed by the owners since the beginning of the public consulting to the notification of the affected quotas quantity. It presents in seven chapters the determination of the final quotas quantity, the determination of the final quotas quantity per each activity sectors and per installation, the technical aspects, the community policy and legislation, the public consultation and other criteria analysis. (A.L.B.)

  7. ATLAS Computing on the Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performance used and achieved running ATLAS production on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is the new cloud infrastructure offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, which we also report on, are country specific.

  8. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00215485; The ATLAS collaboration; Sciacca, Gianfranco

    2017-01-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  9. ATLAS computing on Swiss Cloud SWITCHengines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, S.; Sciacca, F. G.; ATLAS Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    Consolidation towards more computing at flat budgets beyond what pure chip technology can offer, is a requirement for the full scientific exploitation of the future data from the Large Hadron Collider at CERN in Geneva. One consolidation measure is to exploit cloud infrastructures whenever they are financially competitive. We report on the technical solutions and the performances used and achieved running simulation tasks for the ATLAS experiment on SWITCHengines. SWITCHengines is a new infrastructure as a service offered to Swiss academia by the National Research and Education Network SWITCH. While solutions and performances are general, financial considerations and policies, on which we also report, are country specific.

  10. Molecular characterization of the Gossypium Diversity Reference Set of the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinze, Lori L; Fang, David D; Gore, Michael A; Scheffler, Brian E; Yu, John Z; Frelichowski, James; Percy, Richard G

    2015-02-01

    A core marker set containing markers developed to be informative within a single commercial cotton species can elucidate diversity structure within a multi-species subset of the Gossypium germplasm collection. An understanding of the genetic diversity of cotton (Gossypium spp.) as represented in the US National Cotton Germplasm Collection is essential to develop strategies for collecting, conserving, and utilizing these germplasm resources. The US collection is one of the largest world collections and includes not only accessions with improved yield and fiber quality within cultivated species, but also accessions possessing sources of abiotic and biotic stress resistance often found in wild species. We evaluated the genetic diversity of a subset of 272 diploid and 1,984 tetraploid accessions in the collection (designated the Gossypium Diversity Reference Set) using a core set of 105 microsatellite markers. Utility of the core set of markers in differentiating intra-genome variation was much greater in commercial tetraploid genomes (99.7 % polymorphic bands) than in wild diploid genomes (72.7 % polymorphic bands), and may have been influenced by pre-selection of markers for effectiveness in the commercial species. Principal coordinate analyses revealed that the marker set differentiated interspecific variation among tetraploid species, but was only capable of partially differentiating among species and genomes of the wild diploids. Putative species-specific marker bands in G. hirsutum (73) and G. barbadense (81) were identified that could be used for qualitative identification of misclassifications, redundancies, and introgression within commercial tetraploid species. The results of this broad-scale molecular characterization are essential to the management and conservation of the collection and provide insight and guidance in the use of the collection by the cotton research community in their cotton improvement efforts.

  11. Pertussis diagnosis in Belgium: results of the National Reference Centre for Bordetella anno 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, H; Rodeghiero, C; VAN DEN Poel, C; Vincent, M; Pierard, D; Huygen, K

    2017-08-01

    In 2015, the Belgian National Reference Centre for Bordetella analyzed 4110 respiratory samples by qPCR and 4877 serum samples by serology. Whereas about 50% of respiratory samples were from infants and children below the age of five, serum samples were distributed among all age categories. A total of 394 (9·6%) cases was diagnosed as positive for Bordetella pertussis by qPCR and 844 (17·3%) cases were diagnosed as acute infection by serology (anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG > 125 IU/ml). Another 1042 (21·4%) sera had anti-PT IgG between 55 and 125 IU/ml reflecting a vaccination or pertussis infection during the last 1-2 years. Seventy per cent of the pertussis cases diagnosed by qPRC were in infants and children younger than 14 years old, whereas the highest number of sera with anti-PT levels >125 IU/ml was in the age group of 10-14 years old. Based on the limited data of the last vaccination (reported for only 15% of the samples), recent booster vaccination in the teenager group may have contributed only minimally to these elevated anti-PT levels. The highest number of sera with anti-PT titers between 55 and 125 IU/ml was found in the age category 50-59 years old. It is clear that pertussis continues to be a problem in Belgium and that other vaccination strategies (maternal vaccination, cocoon vaccination) and ultimately better vaccines will be needed to control this highly infectious respiratory disease.

  12. Implementation of quality management systems and progress towards accreditation of National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratories in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Albert

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory services are essential at all stages of the tuberculosis care cascade, from diagnosis and drug resistance testing to monitoring response to treatment. Enabling access to quality services is a challenge in low-resource settings. Implementation of a strong quality management system (QMS and laboratory accreditation are key to improving patient care. Objectives: The study objective was to determine the status of QMS implementation and progress towards accreditation of National Tuberculosis Reference Laboratories (NTRLs in the African Region. Method: An online questionnaire was administered to NTRL managers in 47 World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa member states in the region, between February and April 2015, regarding the knowledge of QMS tools and progress toward implementation to inform strategies for tuberculosis diagnostic services strengthening in the region. Results: A total of 21 laboratories (43.0% had received SLMTA/TB-SLMTA training, of which 10 had also used the Global Laboratory Initiative accreditation tool. However, only 36.7% of NTRLs had received a laboratory audit, a first step in quality improvement. Most NTRLs participated in acid-fast bacilli microscopy external quality assurance (95.8%, although external quality assurance for other techniques was lower (60.4% for first-line drug susceptibility testing, 25.0% for second-line drug susceptibility testing, and 22.9% for molecular testing. Barriers to accreditation included lack of training and accreditation programmes. Only 28.6%of NTRLs had developed strategic plans and budgets which included accreditation. Conclusion: Good foundations are in place on the continent from which to scale up accreditation efforts. Laboratory audits should be conducted as a first step in developing quality improvement action plans. Political commitment and strong leadership are needed to drive accreditation efforts; advocacy will require clear evidence of patient

  13. IMOS National Reference Stations: a continental-wide physical, chemical and biological coastal observing system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim P Lynch

    Full Text Available Sustained observations allow for the tracking of change in oceanography and ecosystems, however, these are rare, particularly for the Southern Hemisphere. To address this in part, the Australian Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS implemented a network of nine National Reference Stations (NRS. The network builds on one long-term location, where monthly water sampling has been sustained since the 1940s and two others that commenced in the 1950s. In-situ continuously moored sensors and an enhanced monthly water sampling regime now collect more than 50 data streams. Building on sampling for temperature, salinity and nutrients, the network now observes dissolved oxygen, carbon, turbidity, currents, chlorophyll a and both phytoplankton and zooplankton. Additional parameters for studies of ocean acidification and bio-optics are collected at a sub-set of sites and all data is made freely and publically available. Our preliminary results demonstrate increased utility to observe extreme events, such as marine heat waves and coastal flooding; rare events, such as plankton blooms; and have, for the first time, allowed for consistent continental scale sampling and analysis of coastal zooplankton and phytoplankton communities. Independent water sampling allows for cross validation of the deployed sensors for quality control of data that now continuously tracks daily, seasonal and annual variation. The NRS will provide multi-decadal time series, against which more spatially replicated short-term studies can be referenced, models and remote sensing products validated, and improvements made to our understanding of how large-scale, long-term change and variability in the global ocean are affecting Australia's coastal seas and ecosystems. The NRS network provides an example of how a continental scaled observing systems can be developed to collect observations that integrate across physics, chemistry and biology.

  14. Establishing national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for computed tomography in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Dina Husseiny; Vassileva, Jenia; Mahdaly, Gamal; Shawki, Mona; Salama, Ahmad; Gilley, Debbie; Rehani, Madan Mohan

    2017-07-01

    To establish national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in Egypt for computed tomography (CT) examinations of adults and identify the potential for optimization. Data from 3762 individual patient's undergoing CT scans of head, chest (high resolution), abdomen, abdomen-pelvis, chest-abdomen-pelvis and CT angiography (aorta and both lower limbs) examinations in 50 CT facilities were collected. This represents 20% of facilities in the country and all of the 27 Governorates. Results were compared with DRLs of UK, USA, Canada, Japan, Australia and France. The Egyptian DRLs for CTDI vol in mGy are for head: 30, chest (high resolution): 22, abdomen (liver metastasis): 31, abdomen-pelvis: 31, chest-abdomen-pelvis: 33 and CT angiography (aorta and lower limbs): 37. The corresponding DRLs for DLP in mGy.cm are 1360, 420, 1425, 1325, 1320 and 1320. For head CT, the Egyptian DRL for CTDI vol is 2-3 times lower than the DRLs from other countries. However, the DRL in terms of DLP is in the same range or higher as compared to others. The Egyptian DRL for chest CT (high resolution) is similar to others for DLP but higher for CTDI vol . For abdomen and abdomen-pelvis DRLs for CTDI vol are higher than others. For DLP, the DRLs for abdomen are higher than DRL in UK and lower than those in Japan, while for abdomen-pelvis they are higher than other countries. Despite lower DRLs for CTDI vol , an important consistent problem appears to be higher scan range as DRLs for DLP are higher. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. All rights reserved.

  15. 23 CFR Appendix A to Part 772 - National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false National Reference Energy Mean Emission Levels as a Function of Speed A Appendix A to Part 772 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Function of Speed EC14OC91.013 ...

  16. Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2012 of the National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    This report if the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are communication with Official Laboratories

  17. Pediatric-specific reference intervals in a nationally representative sample of Iranian children and adolescents: the CASPIAN-III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelishadi, Roya; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Mansourian, Marjan; Ardalan, Gelayol; Heshmat, Ramin; Adeli, Khosrow

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine for the first time the age- and gender-specific reference intervals for biomarkers of bone, metabolism, nutrition, and obesity in a nationally representative sample of the Iranian children and adolescents. We assessed the data of blood samples obtained from healthy Iranian children and adolescents, aged 7 to 19 years. The reference intervals of glucose, lipid profile, liver enzymes, zinc, copper, chromium, magnesium, and 25-hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] were determined according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute C28-A3 guidelines. The reference intervals were partitioned using the Harris-Boyd method according to age and gender. The study population consisted of 4800 school students (50% boys, mean age of 13.8 years). Twelve chemistry analyses were partitioned by age and gender, displaying the range of results between the 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles. Significant differences existed only between boys and girls at 18 to 19 years of age for low density lipoprotein-cholesterol. 25(OH)D had the only reference interval that was similar to all age groups and both sexes. This study presented the first national database of reference intervals for a number of biochemical markers in Iranian children and adolescents. It is the first report of its kind from the Middle East and North Africa. The findings underscore the importance of providing reference intervals in different ethnicities and in various regions.

  18. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1999-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domain structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: cross-references to additional databases; a variety of new documentation files and improvements to TrEMBL, a computer annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. TrEMBL consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except the CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. The URLs for SWISS-PROT on the WWW are: http://www.expasy.ch/sprot and http://www. ebi.ac.uk/sprot

  19. The fourth international and (Dutch) national trial with reference materials for water microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Havelaar AH; van Strijp-Lockefeer NGWM; Heisterkamp SH

    1991-01-01

    A fourth trial with reference materials for water microbiology was organized. Forty-one Dutch laboratories and 37 laboratories of the EC participated. Each laboratory received four capsules of batches of reference materials with the test strains WR63 Enterococcus faecium and WR51 Staphylococcus

  20. The fifth international and (Dutch) national trial with reference materials for water microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Havelaar AH; van Strijp-Lockefeer NGWM; Heisterkamp SH

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-nine Dutch laboratories and 33 laboratories of the EC participated in a fifth trial with reference materials for water microbiology. Reference materials with the test strains WR63 Enterococcus faecium and WR52 Staphylococcus warneri were used. The materials were analysed for total aerobic

  1. The heterogeneous HLA genetic makeup of the Swiss population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Buhler

    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT, providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9-13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical tests were performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium among different loci, both in each recruitment center and in the whole national registry. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance and hierarchical analysis of variance taking into account both geographic and linguistic subdivisions in Switzerland. The results indicate a heterogeneous genetic makeup of the Swiss population: first, allele frequencies estimated on the whole national registry strongly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, by contrast with the results obtained for individual centers; second, a pronounced differentiation is observed for Ticino, Graubünden, and, to a lesser extent, Wallis, suggesting that the Alps represent(ed a barrier to gene flow; finally, although cultural (linguistic boundaries do not represent a main genetic differentiation factor in Switzerland, the genetic relatedness between population from south-eastern Switzerland and Italy agrees with historical and linguistic data. Overall, this study justifies the maintenance of a decentralized donor recruitment structure in Switzerland allowing increasing the genetic diversity of the national--and hence global

  2. [The Thiamine Hydrochloride Reference Standard (Control 931) of the National Institute of Health Sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, A; Yoshii, K; Komatsu, H; Ishimitsu, S; Okada, S

    1994-01-01

    Raw thiamine hydrochloride material was tested for preparation of the "Thiamine Hydrochloride Reference Standard (Control 931)". Analytical data obtained were as follows: melting point, 242.7 degrees C (decomposition); infrared spectrum, the same as that of the JP Thiamine Hydrochloride Reference Standard; thin-layer chromatography, one impurity was detected; high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a trace amount of one impurity was detected; assay results, 100.4% by UV spectrophotometry and 100.0% by HPLC, respectively. Based on the above findings, the raw material was authorized as the JP Thiamine Hydrochloride Reference Standard (Control 931).

  3. Obesity in asylum seekers' children in The Netherlands - the use of national reference charts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellinga-Boelen, Annette A. M.; Wiegersma, P. Auke; Bijleveld, Charles M. A.; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Growth assessment can be used to monitor health at individual and population level. For asylum seekers children with different geographic backgrounds, growth reference values are frequently not available. We assessed nutritional condition and growth of asylum seekers children upon

  4. Weight and height centiles of Argentinian children and adolescents: a comparison with WHO and national growth references.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orden, Alicia B; Apezteguía, María C

    2016-01-01

    Studies in several countries comparing the performance of WHO references and their own national growth standards reported differences that could affect screening and growth monitoring. To estimate weight and height centiles on a sample of Argentinian children and adolescents and compare selected centiles with WHO and national growth references. A cross-sectional school survey was conducted on 6239 boys and girls aged 5-18. Data were collected between 2005-2009 in Santa Rosa, Argentina. Smoothed weight and height centiles were estimated by the LMS method and compared with WHO 2007 and Argentinian (ARG) growth references. Weight centiles were higher than those of WHO and ARG. Height centiles were above the ARG and below the WHO ones. The greatest differences with ARG were seen before puberty and then declined up to age 18. In contrast, differences with WHO increased from puberty onwards. Compared with the ARG reference, linear growth of these schoolchildren shows a secular acceleration without substantial improvements in the adult height. In relation to WHO, the results suggest that around the adolescent growth spurt differences in linear growth between populations became larger, limiting the clinical usefulness of international growth references in adolescents.

  5. Effects of post-Kyoto policy on the Swiss national economy - Analysis using a single-country equilibrium model; Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen der Schweizer Post-Kyoto-Politik - Analyse mit einem dynamischen Gleichgewichtsmodell fuer die Schweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    This final report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO{sub 2} emission legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The paper presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, which effects on the economy in general (BIP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. In particular, a dynamic, single-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed

  6. The National Digital Information Infrastructure Preservation Program; Metadata Principles and Practicalities; Challenges for Service Providers when Importing Metadata in Digital Libraries; Integrated and Aggregated Reference Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Amy; Duval, Erik; Hodgins, Wayne; Sutton, Stuart; Weibel, Stuart L.; McClelland, Marilyn; McArthur, David; Giersch, Sarah; Geisler, Gary; Hodgkin, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Includes 6 articles that discuss the National Digital Information Infrastructure Preservation Program at the Library of Congress; metadata in digital libraries; integrated reference services on the Web. (LRW)

  7. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management -- Fifth Swiss national report in accordance with article 32 of the Convention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The report begins with a presentation of Switzerland and its political system which is partitioned between the Federal Council, the 26 cantons with their own governments, and the municipalities. Total energy consumption in Switzerland was 896,000 TJ in 2013, electricity accounting for about 24% with 36% of this from nuclear power. Until the late 1960s, Switzerland generated electricity exclusively from hydro power. By the mid-1950s, the private sector increased its interest in nuclear energy technology. The nuclear programme required a legislative framework to ensure safety and radiation protection: the Atomic Energy Act came into force in 1959. In 2005, Switzerland enacted a new Nuclear Energy Act according to which decisions on general licences for new nuclear facilities are subject to a facultative national referendum. The Federal Government was given full legal responsibility for licensing geological waste repositories. The first experimental nuclear reactor started operation in 1957. In 1964, the Federal Council set up the Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities, which later became the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) as a department of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. In order to warrant its independence, on 1{sup st} January 2009 ENSI became an authority constituted under public law. It is supervised by the ENSI Board which is elected by the Federal Council. During the 1960s, many projects for nuclear power plants (NPP) were initiated. Four of them resulted in the current five operating units commissioned between 1969 and 1984. Licensing procedures for three new units on existing sites were ongoing, but as a consequence of the events at Fukushima, the Federal Council suspended them. The political authorities finally decided to phase out nuclear energy, but the existing plants should continue to operate. In October 2013, it was decided to shut down the Muehleberg NPP in 2019. Most nuclear research in Switzerland is performed at the

  8. Joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management -- Fifth Swiss national report in accordance with article 32 of the Convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The report begins with a presentation of Switzerland and its political system which is partitioned between the Federal Council, the 26 cantons with their own governments, and the municipalities. Total energy consumption in Switzerland was 896,000 TJ in 2013, electricity accounting for about 24% with 36% of this from nuclear power. Until the late 1960s, Switzerland generated electricity exclusively from hydro power. By the mid-1950s, the private sector increased its interest in nuclear energy technology. The nuclear programme required a legislative framework to ensure safety and radiation protection: the Atomic Energy Act came into force in 1959. In 2005, Switzerland enacted a new Nuclear Energy Act according to which decisions on general licences for new nuclear facilities are subject to a facultative national referendum. The Federal Government was given full legal responsibility for licensing geological waste repositories. The first experimental nuclear reactor started operation in 1957. In 1964, the Federal Council set up the Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities, which later became the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI) as a department of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. In order to warrant its independence, on 1 st January 2009 ENSI became an authority constituted under public law. It is supervised by the ENSI Board which is elected by the Federal Council. During the 1960s, many projects for nuclear power plants (NPP) were initiated. Four of them resulted in the current five operating units commissioned between 1969 and 1984. Licensing procedures for three new units on existing sites were ongoing, but as a consequence of the events at Fukushima, the Federal Council suspended them. The political authorities finally decided to phase out nuclear energy, but the existing plants should continue to operate. In October 2013, it was decided to shut down the Muehleberg NPP in 2019. Most nuclear research in Switzerland is performed at the Paul

  9. National Courts of Last Instance Failing to Make a Preliminary Reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broberg, Morten

    2016-01-01

    According to Article 267 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU), Member State courts may – and sometimes must – refer questions on the interpretation or validity of EU legal measures to the Court of Justice of the European Union for a binding preliminary ruling. But what...... are the consequences if a Member State court fails to make a preliminary reference in a situation where it was legally obliged to do so? The article shows that such failure may constitute an infringement of the right to a fair trial as laid down in Article 6(1) of the European Convention of Human Rights. It may also...

  10. Prevalence and co-morbidity among anxiety disorders in a national cohort of psychiatrically referred children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Hoeyer, Mette; Dyrborg, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides prevalence estimates of anxiety disorders as well as homotypic (e.g., other anxiety disorders) and heterotypic (e.g., mood, externalizing) co-morbidity in a national sample of children and adolescents referred to the psychiatric system in Denmark. Data were gathered from...... a database containing 83% of all youth referred from 2004 to 2007 (N=13,241). A prevalence of 5.7% of anxiety disorder was found in the sample. Homotypic co-morbidity was found in only 2.8%, whereas heterotypic co-morbidity was found in 42.9% of the cohort. A total of 73.6% had a principal anxiety disorder...... as opposed to 26.4% who had other principal diagnoses and a secondary anxiety disorder. The national database not only provides a valuable prevalence estimate of anxiety disorders in every-day non-research psychiatric settings, but also highlights the importance of applying standardized screening instruments...

  11. Nation-wide anthropometric survey data in Japan to determine dimensions of total-body phantom for Reference Japanese Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togo, Masami

    1990-01-01

    In order to estimate radiation dose in Japanese population accurately, a Reference Japanese Man, whose stature and body weight are 170cm and 60kg respectively, is indispensable. The MIRD 5 total-body phantom has only 8 dimensions, i.e. total head height, head length, head breadth, trunk length, trunk breadth, leg length, and breadth and depth of a leg model at its lower end. Based on Japanese anthropometric data, the dimensions were determined and its mathematical descriptions were given. In Japan, annual statistical data of stature, body weight, chest circumference and sitting height for all Japan by sex and age are published. But other nation-wide survey data necessary for determining dimensions of total-body phantom of Reference Japanese Man, are unavailable. Much more national anthropometric data of every kind necessary for defining phantoms must be compiled. (author)

  12. The Heterogeneous HLA Genetic Makeup of the Swiss Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Stéphane; Nunes, José Manuel; Nicoloso, Grazia; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s) of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9–13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical tests were performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium among different loci, both in each recruitment center and in the whole national registry. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance and hierarchical analysis of variance taking into account both geographic and linguistic subdivisions in Switzerland. The results indicate a heterogeneous genetic makeup of the Swiss population: first, allele frequencies estimated on the whole national registry strongly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, by contrast with the results obtained for individual centers; second, a pronounced differentiation is observed for Ticino, Graubünden, and, to a lesser extent, Wallis, suggesting that the Alps represent(ed) a barrier to gene flow; finally, although cultural (linguistic) boundaries do not represent a main genetic differentiation factor in Switzerland, the genetic relatedness between population from south-eastern Switzerland and Italy agrees with historical and linguistic data. Overall, this study justifies the maintenance of a decentralized donor recruitment structure in Switzerland allowing increasing the genetic diversity of the national—and hence global—donor registry. It also

  13. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics. Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  14. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  15. Swiss President to visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  16. National absorbed dose to water references for radiotherapy medium energy X-rays by water calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perichon, N.

    2012-01-01

    LNE-LNHB current references for medium energy X-rays are established in terms of air kerma. Absorbed dose to water, which is the quantity of interest for radiotherapy, is obtained by transfer dosimetric techniques following a methodology described in international protocols. The aim of the thesis is to establish standards in terms of absorbed dose to water in the reference protocol conditions by water calorimetry. The basic principle of water calorimetry is to measure the absorbed dose from the rise in temperature of water under irradiation. A calorimeter was developed to perform measurements at a 2 cm depth in water according to IAEA TRS-398 protocol for medium energy x-rays. Absorbed dose rates to water measured by calorimetry were compared to the values established using protocols based on references in terms of air kerma. A difference lower than 2.1% was reported. Standard uncertainty of water calorimetry being 0.8%, the one associated to the values from protocols being around 3.0%, results are consistent considering the uncertainties. Thanks to these new standards, it will be possible to use IAEA TRS-398 protocol to determine absorbed dose to water: a significant reduction of uncertainties is obtained (divided by 3 by comparison with the application of the IAEA TRS-277 protocol). Currently, none of the counterparts' laboratories own such an instrument allowing direct determination of standards in the reference conditions recommended by the international radiotherapy protocols. (author) [fr

  17. The third international and (Dutch) national trial with reference for water microbiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijman KA; Havelaar AH; Heisterkamp SH; van Strijp-Lockefeer NGWM

    1991-01-01

    A third trial with reference materials for water microbiology was organized. Thirty-eight Dutch laboratories and 39 laboratories of the EC participated. The design of the trial was the same as in the first and the second trial. Also the test strains were the same: WR1 Escherichia coli and WR3

  18. Dried Blood Spot Reference Intervals for Steroids and Amino Acids in a Neonatal Cohort of the National Children's Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, Dennis J; Bennett, Michael J; Lo, Stanley F; Grey, Vijay L; Jones, Patti M

    2016-12-01

    Reference intervals from children are limited by access to healthy children and their limited blood volumes. In this study we set out to fill gaps in pediatric reference intervals for amino acids and steroid hormones using dried blood spots (DBS) from a cohort of the National Children's Study. Deidentified DBS annotated with age, birthweight, sex, and geographic location were obtained from 310 newborns aged 0-4 days and analyzed for 25 amino acids and 4 steroid hormones using LC-MS/MS. Nonparametric statistical approaches were used to generate the 2.5th-97.5th percentile distributions for newborns. Paired plasma/DBS specimens were used to mathematically transform DBS reference intervals to corresponding plasma intervals. 10 of 25 DBS amino acid distributions were dependent on sex. There was little correlation with age, birthweight, or geographic location over the first 4 days of life. In most cases, transformation of DBS distributions to plasma distributions faithfully reflected independent studies of newborn plasma amino acid distributions. In general newborn steroid distributions were negatively correlated with age and birthweight over the first 4 days of life. Data distributions for the 4 steroids were not found related to geographic location, but testosterone concentrations displayed sex dependence. Transformation of DBS distributions to plasma intervals did not faithfully replicate other neonate steroid reference intervals determined directly with plasma. These data demonstrate the feasibility and utility of deriving newborn reference intervals from large numbers of archived DBS samples such as those obtained from the National Children's Study biobank. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  19. Basel III D: Swiss Finish to Basel III

    OpenAIRE

    Christian M. McNamara; Natalia Tente; Andrew Metrick

    2014-01-01

    After the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) introduced the Basel III framework in 2010, individual countries confronted the question of how best to implement the framework given their unique circumstances. Switzerland, with a banking industry that is both heavily concentrated and very large relative to the size of its overall economy, faced a special challenge. It ultimately adopted what is sometimes referred to as the “Swiss Finish” to Basel III – enhanced requirements applicable...

  20. From theory to practice: itinerary of Reasons’ Swiss Cheese Model

    OpenAIRE

    Larouzée, Justin; Guarnieri, Franck

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Since the early 1990s, the Swiss Cheese Model (SCM) of the English psychologist James Reason has established itself as a reference model in the etiology, investigation or prevention of organizational accidents in many productive systems (transportation, energy, healthcare …). Based on the observation that it’s still today widely used, this article intends to revert to the history and the theoretical background of the SCM. By doing so, the article focuses on the collabo...

  1. A National Investigation of Teachers' Environmental Literacy as a Reference for Promoting Environmental Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiang-Yao; Yeh, Shin-Cheng; Liang, Shi-Wu; Fang, Wei-Ta; Tsai, Huei-Min

    2015-01-01

    Taiwan's government enacted the Environmental Education Act in June 2011. In the beginning of the implementation of the Act, a national assessment of schoolteachers' environmental literacy was performed in order to establish the baseline for evaluating the effectiveness of environmental education policy. This large-scale assessment involved a…

  2. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  3. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  4. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  5. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  6. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  7. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  8. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  9. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  10. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  11. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  12. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  13. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  14. Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report, reproduced in full, discusses Swiss energy policy in 1986, paying particular attention to the fall in confidence with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident. Statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption and power generation are presented. Other sections include imports/exports, construction of power stations, transmission/distribution links, finance, constitution of council, committees and public relations. (G.T.H.)

  15. Is “local” enough? New localised food networks in the Swiss dairy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Forney Jérémie; Haeberli Isabel

    2014-01-01

    In May 2009 The Swiss government abolished the national milk quota system. Since then and despite the creation of an interprofessional board to coordinate the Swiss milk market sinking milk price overproduction and discordance among actors resulted in a weakening of producers’ position in the conventional and industrialised dairy sector. Without serious hope of quick improvement farmers’ organisations developed new projects to strengthen the position of farmers. Their first goal is generally ...

  16. Decision of the Swiss Federal Council of 22 August 1979 (nuclear power station Leibstadt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    On the occasion of an appeal in administrative matters, launched by private persons domiciled in the Federal Republic of Germany against two part-construction permits for the Leibstadt nuclear power plant, the Swiss Bundesrat decided that these private persons do have the right to launch an appeal, in accordance with section 48 a of the Rules of administrative proceedings. The appeal may, however, only be based on infringement of rights protected by Swiss national law. (HP) [de

  17. Undergraduate palliative care teaching in Swiss medical faculties: a nationwide survey and improved learning objectives

    OpenAIRE

    Eychmüller, Steffen; Forster, M; Gudat, H; Lütolf, U M; Borasio, G D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2007, a first survey on undergraduate palliative care teaching in Switzerland has revealed major heterogeneity of palliative care content, allocation of hours and distribution throughout the 6 year curriculum in Swiss medical faculties. This second survey in 2012/13 has been initiated as part of the current Swiss national strategy in palliative care (2010 - 2015) to serve as a longitudinal monitoring instrument and as a basis for redefinition of palliative care learning obje...

  18. Aquatic systems in and adjacent to Agulhas National Park with particular reference to the fish fauna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Russell

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the distribution and relative abundance of freshwater fishes in and adjacent to Agulhas National Park. Fourteen fish species were collected during surveys carried out in the Heuningnes and Ratel river systems and a variety of endorheic pans from 2003 to 2005. Seven of the species are marine fishes tolerant of low salinity (Mugil cephalus, Liza richardsonii, Monodactylus falciformis, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Rhabdosargus holubi, Solea bleekeri, Gilchristella aestuaria with the remaining seven species being primary freshwater fishes. Three are indigenous, including Pseudobarbus burchelli, Sandelia capensis, and Galaxias zebratus of which two morphological forms were recorded within Agulhas National Park. The remaining four species are invasive aliens (Cyprinus carpio, Lepomis macrochirus, Micropterus salmoides, Micropterus punctulatus. Classification using physico-chemical variables indicated four major wetland groups, with fishes occurring predominantly in the group comprising palustrine, lacustrine and riverine wetlands, and in one instance in a brackish endorheic pan. Management actions which should facilitate conservation of indigenous fishes in the Agulhas region are suggested.

  19. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL in 1998.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1998-01-01

    SWISS-PROT (http://www.expasy.ch/) is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotations (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domains structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and scope of model organisms; cross-references to two additional databases; a variety of new documentation files and improvements to TrEMBL, a computer annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. TrEMBL consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except the CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. PMID:9399796

  20. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank and its supplement TrEMBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    1997-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotations (such as the description of the function of a protein, structure of its domains, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include: an increase in the number and scope of model organisms; cross-references to two additional databases; a variety of new documentation files and the creation of TrEMBL, a computer annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. This supplement consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDS) in the EMBL nucleotide sequence database, except the CDS already included in SWISS-PROT. PMID:9016499

  1. Assessment of National Public Health and Reference Laboratory, Accra, Ghana, within Framework of Global Health Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogee-Nwankwo, Adaeze; Opare, David; Boateng, Gifty; Nyaku, Mawuli; Haynes, Lia M; Balajee, S Arunmozhi; Conklin, Laura; Icenogle, Joseph P; Rota, Paul A; Waku-Kouomou, Diane

    2017-12-01

    The Second Year of Life project of the Global Health Security Agenda aims to improve immunization systems and strengthen measles and rubella surveillance, including building laboratory capacity. A new laboratory assessment tool was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to assess the national laboratory in Ghana to improve molecular surveillance for measles and rubella. Results for the tool showed that the laboratory is well organized, has a good capacity for handling specimens, has a good biosafety system, and is proficient for diagnosis of measles and rubella by serologic analysis. However, there was little knowledge about molecular biology and virology activities (i.e., virus isolation on tissue culture was not available). Recommendations included training of technical personnel for molecular techniques and advocacy for funding for laboratory equipment, reagents, and supplies.

  2. Improving quality in national reference laboratories: The role of SLMTA and mentorship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary A. Audu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nigerian Institute of Medical Research houses two reference laboratories: the virology and tuberculosis laboratories. Both were enrolled in the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme. Objective: To describe the impact of SLMTA and discuss factors affecting the results, with an emphasis on mentorship. Methods: The SLMTA programme was implemented from April 2010 through November 2012. Participants attended three workshops and executed quality improvement projects; laboratory auditors evaluated performance using a standard checklist. The virology laboratory did not receive mentorship; however, the tuberculosis laboratory had an international mentor who visited the laboratory four times during the programme, spending two to four weeks embedded within the laboratory during each visit. Results: There was an overall improvement in the performance of both laboratories, with the virology laboratory increasing 13% (from 80% at baseline to 93% at exit audit and the tuberculosis laboratory increasing 29% (from 66% to 95%. These scores were maintained nine months later at the surveillance audit. Conclusion: The SLMTA programme resulted in improved and sustained quality management performance for both laboratories. Mentoring was a possible factor in the substantial improvement made by the tuberculosis laboratory and should be considered in order to augment the training received from the SLMTA workshops.

  3. Establishment of national diagnostic reference levels for breast cancer CT protocols in radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, Sean O'; Mc Ardle, Orla; Mullaney, Laura

    2016-10-01

    To establish whether CT dose variation occurs in breast cancer localization procedures between radiation therapy (RT) centres in Ireland and to propose diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for this procedure. All RT centres in Ireland were invited to participate in a dose audit survey, providing data on the CT dose index volume (CTDIvol), dose-length product (DLP), current-time product (mAs), tube potential, scan length, slice thickness, scanning margins, use of automated exposure control (AEC) and scanner technology for 10 patients with breast cancer who were average sized. DRLs were derived for each dose descriptor by calculation of the rounded 75th percentile of the distribution of mean doses. Data were returned for 60 patients from 6 RT centres (50% response rate). Significant variation in mean CTDIvol and mean DLP was observed between centres (p CT dose variation occurs between centres, establishing a need for optimization. DRLs for breast cancer localization have been proposed with the potential for reduction in CT dose. This article provides the first reported DRL for breast cancer CT localization procedure in RT and can be used as a benchmark for comparison for other RT centres.

  4. Improving quality in national reference laboratories: The role of SLMTA and mentorship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audu, Rosemary A; Onubogu, Catherine C; Nwokoye, Nkiru N; Ofuche, Eke; Baboolal, Shirematee; Oke, Odafen; Luman, Elizabeth T; Idigbe, Emmanuel O

    2014-01-01

    The Nigerian Institute of Medical Research houses two reference laboratories: the virology and tuberculosis laboratories. Both were enrolled in the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA) programme. To describe the impact of SLMTA and discuss factors affecting the results, with an emphasis on mentorship. The SLMTA programme was implemented from April 2010 through November 2012. Participants attended three workshops and executed quality improvement projects; laboratory auditors evaluated performance using a standard checklist. The virology laboratory did not receive mentorship; however, the tuberculosis laboratory had an international mentor who visited the laboratory four times during the programme, spending two to four weeks embedded within the laboratory during each visit. There was an overall improvement in the performance of both laboratories, with the virology laboratory increasing 13% (from 80% at baseline to 93% at exit audit) and the tuberculosis laboratory increasing 29% (from 66% to 95%). These scores were maintained nine months later at the surveillance audit. The SLMTA programme resulted in improved and sustained quality management performance for both laboratories. Mentoring was a possible factor in the substantial improvement made by the tuberculosis laboratory and should be considered in order to augment the training received from the SLMTA workshops.

  5. Establishment of the 2nd Korean national biological reference standard for blood coagulation factor VIII:C concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Naery; Seo, Ji Suk; Kim, Jae Ok; Ban, Sang Ja

    2017-05-01

    Since the 1st Korean national biological reference standard for factor (F)VIII concentrate, established in 2001, has shown declining potency, we conducted this study to replace this standard with a 2nd Korean national biological reference standard for blood coagulation FVIII concentrate. The candidate materials for the 2nd standard were prepared in 8000 vials with 10 IU/ml of target potency, according to the approved manufacturing process of blood coagulation Factor VIII:C Monoclonal Antibody-purified, Freeze-dried Human Blood Coagulation Factor VIII:C. Potency was evaluated by one-stage clotting and chromogenic methods and the stability was confirmed to meet the specifications during a period of 73 months. Since the potencies obtained by the two methods differed significantly (P < 0.015), the values were determined separately according to the geometric means (8.9 and 7.4 IU/vial, respectively). The geometric coefficients of interlaboratory variability were 3.4% and 7.6% by the one-stage clotting and chromogenic assays, respectively. Copyright © 2017 International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design and realization of the high-precision weighing systems as the gravimetric references in PTB's national water flow standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Rainer; Beyer, Karlheinz; Baade, Hans-Joachim

    2012-07-01

    PTB's ‘Hydrodynamic Test Field’, which represents a high-accuracy water flow calibration facility, serves as the national primary standard for liquid flow measurands. As the core reference device of this flow facility, a gravimetric standard has been incorporated, which comprises three special-design weighing systems: 300 kg, 3 tons and 30 tons. These gravimetric references were realized as a combination of a strain-gauge-based and an electromagnetic-force-compensation load-cell-based balance, each. Special emphasis had to be placed upon the dynamics design of the whole weighing system, due to the high measurement resolution and the dynamic behavior of the weighing systems, which are dynamically affected by mechanical vibrations caused by environmental impacts, flow machinery operation, flow noise in the pipework and induced wave motions in the weigh tanks. Taking into account all the above boundary conditions, the design work for the gravimetric reference resulted in a concrete foundation ‘rock’ of some 300 tons that rests on a number of vibration isolators. In addition to these passively operating vibration isolators, the vibration damping effect is enhanced by applying an electronic level regulation device.

  7. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Switzerland. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission noted good practices in the Swiss system and also made recommendations for the nation's nuclear regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). ''Our team developed a good impression of the independent Swiss regulator - ENSI - and the team considered that ENSI deserves particular credit for its actions to improve Swiss safety capability following this year's nuclear accident in Japan,'' said IRRS Team Leader Jean-Christophe Niel of France. The mission's scope covered the Swiss nuclear regulatory framework for all types of nuclear-related activities regulated by ENSI. The mission was conducted from 20 November to 2 December, mainly at ENSI headquarters in Brugg. The team held extensive discussions with ENSI staff and visited many Swiss nuclear facilities. IRRS missions are peer reviews, not inspections or audits, and are conducted at the request of host nations. For the Swiss review, the IAEA assembled a team of 19 international experts from 14 countries. The experts came from Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ''The findings of the IRRS mission will help us to further improve our work. That is part of our safety culture,'' said ENSI Director General Hans Wanner. ''As Switzerland argued at international nuclear safety meetings this year for a strengthening of the international monitoring of nuclear power, we will take action to fulfil the recommendations.'' The IRRS team highlighted several good practices of the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: ENSI requires Swiss nuclear operators to back-fit their facilities by continuously upgrading

  8. The Swiss Black Swan Bad Scenario: Is Switzerland Another Casualty of the Eurozone Crisis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien Lleo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Financial disasters to hedge funds, bank trading departments and individual speculative traders and investors seem to always occur because of non-diversification in all possible scenarios, being overbet and being hit by a bad scenario. Black swans are the worst type of bad scenario: unexpected and extreme. The Swiss National Bank decision on 15 January 2015 to abandon the 1.20 peg against the Euro was a tremendous blow for many Swiss exporters, but also Swiss and international investors, hedge funds, global macro funds, banks, as well as the Swiss central bank. In this paper, we discuss the causes for this action, the money losers and the few winners, what it means for Switzerland, Europe and the rest of the world, what kinds of trades were lost and how they have been prevented.

  9. Establishment of the upper reference limit for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies according to the guidelines proposed by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: comparison of five different automated methods

    OpenAIRE

    D?Aurizio, Federica; Metus, Paolo; Polizzi Anselmo, Annalisa; Villalta, Danilo; Ferrari, Anna; Castello, Roberto; Giani, Graziella; Tonutti, Elio; Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The estimation of the upper reference limit (URL) for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) is a controversial issue, because of an uncertainty associated with the criteria used to correctly define the reference population. In addition, the URL of TPOAbs is method-dependent and often arbitrarily established in current laboratory practice. The aim of this study was to determine the reference limits of TPOAbs in a male sample according to the National Academy of Cl...

  10. Test results of Salmonella sero- and phage typing by the National Reference Laboratories and the EnterNet laboratories in the Member States of the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raes M; Ward LR; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB; LIS; PHLS Laboratory of Enteric Pathogens

    2000-01-01

    The fourth collaborative study on serotyping and phage typing for Salmonella was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory Services. All the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella and 12 EnterNet laboratories participated in the study.

  11. Test results of serotyping Salmonella strains in the Member States of the European Union (A collaborative study amongst the National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogt N; Maas HME; Leeuwen WJ van; Henken AM; MGB

    1997-01-01

    A second collaborative study on Salmonella serotyping was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory (CRL) for Salmonella, with participation of the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella from 14 of the 15 Member States of the European Union. The objective of the study was to

  12. Nutritional status of breastfed infants in rural Zambia : comparison of the National Center for Health Statistics growth reference versus the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hautvast, J.L.A.; Pandor, A.; Burema, J.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Chishimba, N.; Monnens, L.A.H.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cross-sectional data for breastfed infants in rural Zambia were used to evaluate the effect of applying two different data sets as a reference, i.e. the WHO 12-month breastfed pooled data set and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) growth reference in terms of prevalence of malnutrition

  13. CERN’s Rugby Club to play the Swiss Cup semi-finals: come and support the CERN team!

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    On Saturday 25 June, the CERN’s Rugby Club will be playing in the Swiss Cup semi-final against the Hermance Rugby Club. Although the CERN club has had a less than stellar year in the Swiss national first division, they earned a place in the Cup semi-final after beating Bern 30 – 0 and La Chaux-de-Fonds 38 – 7. The club last made it to the Swiss Cup semi-finals in 2002, where they lost to Hermance (the most successful Swiss rugby club, followed closely by CERN’s). Show your support for the CERN team and help them reach the Swiss Cup final by going to the 25 June match at 15.00 in the CERN pitch.  

  14. Food functionality research as a new national project in special reference to improvement of cognitive and locomotive abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Keiko; Misaka, Takumi

    2018-04-01

    In Japan, where a super-aging society is realized, we are most concerned about healthy longevity, which would ascertain the wellness of people by improving their quality of life (QOL). In 2014, the Cabinet Office proposed a strategic innovation promotion programme, launching a national project for the development of the agricultural-forestry-fisheries food products with new functionalities for the next generation. In addition to focusing on a conventional prevention of lifestyle-associated metabolic syndromes, the project targets the scientific evidence of the activation of brain cognitive ability and the improvement of bodily locomotive function. The project also involves the analysis of the foods-sports interrelation of chronic importance, and the development of devices for the verification of QOL-associated maintenance of homeostasis. In this review, we provide an overview of these studies, with special reference to cognition as a case of the gut-brain axis which the author is particularly interested in.

  15. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence database and its supplement TrEMBL in 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, A; Apweiler, R

    2000-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is a curated protein sequence database which strives to provide a high level of annotation (such as the description of the function of a protein, its domains structure, post-translational modifications, variants, etc.), a minimal level of redundancy and high level of integration with other databases. Recent developments of the database include format and content enhancements, cross-references to additional databases, new documentation files and improvements to TrEMBL, a computer-annotated supplement to SWISS-PROT. TrEMBL consists of entries in SWISS-PROT-like format derived from the translation of all coding sequences (CDSs) in the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database, except the CDSs already included in SWISS-PROT. We also describe the Human Proteomics Initiative (HPI), a major project to annotate all known human sequences according to the quality standards of SWISS-PROT. SWISS-PROT is available at: http://www.expasy.ch/sprot/ and http://www.ebi.ac.uk/swissprot/

  16. [Influenza surveillance in nine consecutive seasons, 2003-2012: results from National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty Of Medicine, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Ciblak, Meral; Kanturvardar Tütenyurd, Melis; Asar, Serkan; Tulunoğlu, Merve; Fındıkçı, Nurcihan; Badur, Selim

    2012-10-01

    Influenza is a public health problem that affects 5-20% of the world population annually causing high morbidity and mortality especially in risk groups. In addition to determining prevention and treatment strategies with vaccines and antivirals, surveillance data plays an important role in combat against influenza. Surveillance provides valuable data on characteristics of influenza activity, on types, sub-types, antigenic properties and antiviral resistance profile of circulating viruses in a given region. The first influenza surveillance was initiated as a pilot study in 2003 by now named National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine. Surveillance was launched at national level by Ministry of Health in 2004 and two National Influenza Laboratories, one in Istanbul and the other in Ankara, have been conducting surveillance in Turkey. Surveillance data obtained for nine consecutive years, 2003-2012, by National Influenza Reference Laboratory in Istanbul Faculty of Medicine have been summarized in this report. During 2003-2012 influenza surveillance seasons, a total of 11.077 nasal swabs collected in viral transport medium were sent to the National Influenza Reference Laboratory, Istanbul for analysis. Immun-capture ELISA followed by MDCK cell culture was used for detection of influenza viruses before 2009 and real-time RT-PCR was used thereafter. Antigenic characterizations were done by hemagglutination inhibition assay with the reactives supplied by World Health Organization. Analysis of the results showed that influenza B viruses have entered the circulation in 2005-2006 seasons, and have contributed to the epidemics at increasing rates every year except in the 2009 pandemic season. Influenza B Victoria and Yamagata lineages were cocirculating for two seasons. For other seasons either lineage was in circulation. Antigenic characterization revealed that circulating B viruses matched the vaccine composition either partially or totally for only

  17. The changing Swiss electricity - Critical views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, E.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at developments in the Swiss electricity market and, in particular, criticises national, regional and local energy policy, which the author considers to be incoherent. The book first describes how the electricity market works, the main players involved and the daily problems that have to be solved. Then, the problems that could be caused by liberalisation, including the question of transit fees, the development of electricity prices for consumers, changes in the structure of the electricity business and third party access are discussed. The second part of the book examines legal aspects of proposed electricity market legislation and then presents 16 propositions covering energy policy, market regulation, unbundling not only of electricity generation, distribution and services but also of politics and business, the revision of proposed liberalisation legislation, taxation aspects as well as the national and international operation of the electricity grid. The book further examines three regional electricity utilities and the attempts to privatise them, which did not meet with the approval of the voting public, and discusses the suspicion cast on certain politicians, that they try to push through the particular interests of groups they are closely associated with. The book is also includes a bibliography and a list of useful addresses

  18. A DNA barcode library of the beetle reference collection (Insecta: Coleoptera in the National Science Museum, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Woo Jung

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Coleoptera is a group of insects that are most diverse among insect resources. Although used as indicator species and applied in developing new drugs, it is difficult to identify them quickly. Since the development of a method using mitochondrial DNA information for identification, studies have been conducted in Korea to swiftly and accurately identify species. The National Science Museum of Korea (NSMK has been collecting and morphologically identifying domestic reference insects since 2013, and building a database of DNA barcodes with digital images. The NSMK completed construction of a database of digital images and DNA barcodes of 60 beetle species in the Korean National Research Information System. A total of 179 specimens and 60 species were used for the analysis, and the averages of intraspecific and interspecific variations were 0.70±0.45% and 26.34±6.01%, respectively, with variation rates ranging from 0% to 1.45% and 9.83% to 56.23%, respectively.

  19. Swiss Foundation Code 2009 principles and recommendations for the establishment and management of grant-making foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, Thomas; Janssen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The «Swiss Foundation Code 2009» takes up and completes the first European Good Governance Code for grant-making foundations, published in 2005. It contains practical governance guidelines regarding the establishment, organization, management and monitoring of grant-making foundations as well as making due reference to support activities, financial and investment policies. The abridged English version of the „Swiss Foundation Code 2009“ contains 3 principles and 26 recommendations – but not the extensive commentary parts.

  20. The Election System of the Swiss Confederation: Counting of Votes and Establishment of Election Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A. Tarnavskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the author covers the process of counting the votes and the disclosure rules of establishment the election results in the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland along with other EU member states pays special attention to the determination of the election results. According to Art. 149 para. 2 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation the elections to the National Council, which is one of two chambers of the Federal Assembly, are held according to proportional representation system. The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is used for allocating seats in National Council of the Swiss Con federation. However the above mentioned system for determining the quota of votes per each mandate creates ambiguous opinions among Swiss scientists and legal experts, which frequently comes up in discussions whether to modify it or not. In this article, the author also gives a brief description of the main political parties in Switzerland and statistics of seats allocation in 49 legislature of National Council following the elections of October 23, 2011. As a result, the author provides the full information on the process of votes counting and establishment of election results in the Swiss Confederation. The material presented in this article is particularly interesting and relevant in terms of improving the electoral legislation in the Russian Federation. The information presented by the author will be useful to all parties interested in electoral law.

  1. Vitamin D deficiency in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flueck, J L; Hartmann, K; Strupler, M; Perret, C

    2016-11-01

    This is a retrospective analysis of total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes. The aim was to investigate the occurrence of vitamin D deficiency in Swiss elite wheelchair athletes over the whole year and to detect differences between winter and summer months, and between indoor and outdoor athletes. This study was conducted in Switzerland. A total of 164 blood samples from 72 Swiss elite wheelchair athletes (mean±s.d.: age 32±13 years) were analyzed for total serum 25[OH]D. All participants were members of the national team in their discipline. The following disciplines have been included: rugby, athletics, cycling, tennis, ski alpine, curling and basketball. According to general guidelines, insufficient vitamin D status was defined between 50 and 75 nmol l -1 , deficiency below 50 nmol l -1 and severe deficiency below 27.5 nmol l -1 . In all, 73.2% of all samples showed an insufficiency/deficiency in vitamin D status. Total serum 25[OH]D was significantly higher during summer compared with winter months (69.5±21.4 nmol l -1 vs 51.5±21.9 nmol l -1 ; Pathletes. Conclusively, we recommend supplementation with vitamin D-especially during winter-to prevent a deficiency and an impairment of performance.

  2. Swiss popular initiative for a single health insurer… once again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo; Crivelli, Luca

    2015-07-01

    The article describes a recent Swiss popular initiative, aiming to replace the current system of statutory health insurance run by 61 competing private insurers with a new system run by a single public insurer. Despite the rejection of the initiative by 62% of voters in late September 2014, the campaign and ballot results are interesting because they show the importance of (effective) public communication in shaping the outcome of a popular ballot. The relevance of the Swiss case goes beyond the peculiarities of its federalism and direct democracy and might be useful for other countries debating the pros and cons of national unitary health insurance systems versus models using multiple insurers. After this electoral ballot, the project to establish a public sickness fund in Switzerland seems definitely stopped, at least for the next decade. Insurers, who opposed the initiative, have effectively fed the "fear of change" of the population and have stressed the good outcomes of the Swiss healthcare system. However, the political pressure favoured by the popular initiative opened a "windows of opportunity" and led the federal Parliament to pass a stricter regulation of health insurers, improving in this way the current system. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. ESTIMATION OF CARDIAC CT ANGIOGRAPHY RADIATION DOSE TOWARD THE ESTABLISHMENT OF NATIONAL DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVEL FOR CCTA IN IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Nasab, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Shabestani-Monfared, Ali; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Paydar, Reza; Nabahati, Mehrdad

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, with the introduction of 64-slice CT and dual-source CT technology, coronary CT angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a useful diagnostic imaging modality as a non-invasive assessment of coronary heart disease. CT produces a larger radiation dose than other imaging tests and cardiac CT involves higher radiation dose with the advances in the spatial and temporal resolution. The aims of this study are patient dose assessment and establishment of national diagnostic reference level for CCTA in Iran. A questionnaire was sent to CCTA centers. Data for patient and CT protocols were obtained. The volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol), dose length product (DLP) and total DLP were considered in the 32 cm standard body phantom. Calculation of estimated effective dose (ED) was obtained by multiplying the DLP by a conversion factor [k = 0.014 mSv (mGy·cm)-1]. Mean value of CTDIvol and DLP for CCTA was 50 mGy and 825 mGy·cm. The third quartile (75th) of the distribution of mean CTDIvol (66.54 mGy) and DLP (1073 mGy·cm) values was expressed as the diagnostic reference level (DRL) for CCTA in Iran. The median of ED was 10.26 mSv and interquartile range of ED was 7.08-15.03 mSv. A large variety in CTDIvol and DLP among CT scanner and different sites due to variability in CT parameter is noted. It seems that training could help to reduce patient's dose. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Quality assurance in CT: implementation of the updated national diagnostic reference levels using an automated CT dose monitoring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, E; Kröpil, P; Bethge, O T; Aissa, J; Thomas, C; Antoch, G; Boos, J

    2018-03-20

    To evaluate the implementation of the updated computed tomography (CT) diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) from the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection into clinical routine using an automatic CT dose monitoring system. CT radiation exposure was analysed before and after implementing the updated national DRLs into routine clinical work in 2016. After the implementation process, institutional CT protocols were mapped to the anatomical regions for which DRLs were provided. Systematically, protocols that exceeded the thresholds were optimised and analysed in detail. The CT radiation output parameters analysed were volumetric CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP). Three radiologists evaluated subjective image quality using a three-point Likert scale. The study included 94,258 CT series (from 27,103 CT examinations) in adult patients performed in 2016. When averaged over all body regions with available DRL, institutional CTDIvol/DLP values were always below the DRLs (65.2±32.9%/67.3±41.5% initially; 59.4±32%/60.5±39.9% after optimisation). Values exceeding the national DRLs were found for pelvis (n=268; CTDIvol 107.7±65.7%/DLP 106.3±79.3%), lumbar spine (n=91; 160.8±74.7%/175.2±104.1%), and facial bones (n=527; 108±39%/152.7±75.7%). After optimisation, CTDIvol and DLP were 87.9±73%/87.8±80.8% for the pelvis, 67.8±33.2%/74.5±50.6% for the lumbar spine and 95.1±45.8%/133.3±74.6% for the viscerocranium. An automatic CT dose monitoring system enabled not only comprehensive monitoring of a DRL implementation process but can also help to optimise radiation exposure. Copyright © 2018 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A strategy to export Swiss wine to Germany: the case of Uvavins-Cave de La Côte

    OpenAIRE

    Rattaz, Matthieu; Rattaz, Matthieu

    2016-01-01

    Uvavins - Cave de la Côte is a Swiss based company producing and selling wines in Switzerland and abroad. The relatively high per capita consumption of wine in Switzerland used to allow domestic wine makers to sell the entire production locally without too much difficulty. However, this trend is changing and it has become more challenging to sell Swiss wines to Swiss people. The decrease in national consumption and the pressure on prices with imported wines being the two main reasons to expla...

  6. Comparison of Sofia Legionella FIA and BinaxNOW® Legionella urinary antigen card in two national reference centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraud, L; Gervasoni, K; Freydiere, A M; Descours, G; Ranc, A G; Vandenesch, F; Lina, G; Gaia, V; Jarraud, S

    2015-09-01

    The Sofia Legionella Fluorescence Immunoassay (FIA; Quidel) is a recently introduced rapid immunochromatographic diagnostic test for Legionnaires' disease using immunofluorescence technology designed to enhance its sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate its performance for the detection of urinary antigens for Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 in two National Reference Centers for Legionella. The sensitivity and specificity of the Sofia Legionella FIA test were determined in concentrated and nonconcentrated urine samples, before and after boiling, in comparison with the BinaxNOW® Legionella Urinary Antigen Card (UAC; Alere). Compared with BinaxNOW® Legionella UAC, the sensitivity of the Sofia Legionella test was slightly higher in nonconcentrated urine samples and was identical in concentrated urine samples. The specificity of the Sofia Legionella FIA test was highly reduced by the concentration of urine samples. In nonconcentrated samples, a lack of specificity was observed in 2.3 % of samples, all of them resolved by heat treatment. The Sofia Legionella FIA is a sensitive test for detecting Legionella urinary antigens with no previous urine concentration. However, all positive samples have to be re-tested after boiling to reach a high specificity. The reading is automatized on the Sofia analyzer, which can be connected to laboratory information systems, facilitating accurate and rapid reporting of results.

  7. KoVariome: Korean National Standard Reference Variome database of whole genomes with comprehensive SNV, indel, CNV, and SV analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungeun; Weber, Jessica A; Jho, Sungwoong; Jang, Jinho; Jun, JeHoon; Cho, Yun Sung; Kim, Hak-Min; Kim, Hyunho; Kim, Yumi; Chung, OkSung; Kim, Chang Geun; Lee, HyeJin; Kim, Byung Chul; Han, Kyudong; Koh, InSong; Chae, Kyun Shik; Lee, Semin; Edwards, Jeremy S; Bhak, Jong

    2018-04-04

    High-coverage whole-genome sequencing data of a single ethnicity can provide a useful catalogue of population-specific genetic variations, and provides a critical resource that can be used to more accurately identify pathogenic genetic variants. We report a comprehensive analysis of the Korean population, and present the Korean National Standard Reference Variome (KoVariome). As a part of the Korean Personal Genome Project (KPGP), we constructed the KoVariome database using 5.5 terabases of whole genome sequence data from 50 healthy Korean individuals in order to characterize the benign ethnicity-relevant genetic variation present in the Korean population. In total, KoVariome includes 12.7M single-nucleotide variants (SNVs), 1.7M short insertions and deletions (indels), 4K structural variations (SVs), and 3.6K copy number variations (CNVs). Among them, 2.4M (19%) SNVs and 0.4M (24%) indels were identified as novel. We also discovered selective enrichment of 3.8M SNVs and 0.5M indels in Korean individuals, which were used to filter out 1,271 coding-SNVs not originally removed from the 1,000 Genomes Project when prioritizing disease-causing variants. KoVariome health records were used to identify novel disease-causing variants in the Korean population, demonstrating the value of high-quality ethnic variation databases for the accurate interpretation of individual genomes and the precise characterization of genetic variations.

  8. Whole body counter calibration using Monte Carlo modeling with an array of phantom sizes based on national anthropometric reference data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shypailo, R. J.; Ellis, K. J.

    2011-05-01

    During construction of the whole body counter (WBC) at the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), efficiency calibration was needed to translate acquired counts of 40K to actual grams of potassium for measurement of total body potassium (TBK) in a diverse subject population. The MCNP Monte Carlo n-particle simulation program was used to describe the WBC (54 detectors plus shielding), test individual detector counting response, and create a series of virtual anthropomorphic phantoms based on national reference anthropometric data. Each phantom included an outer layer of adipose tissue and an inner core of lean tissue. Phantoms were designed for both genders representing ages 3.5 to 18.5 years with body sizes from the 5th to the 95th percentile based on body weight. In addition, a spherical surface source surrounding the WBC was modeled in order to measure the effects of subject mass on room background interference. Individual detector measurements showed good agreement with the MCNP model. The background source model came close to agreement with empirical measurements, but showed a trend deviating from unity with increasing subject size. Results from the MCNP simulation of the CNRC WBC agreed well with empirical measurements using BOMAB phantoms. Individual detector efficiency corrections were used to improve the accuracy of the model. Nonlinear multiple regression efficiency calibration equations were derived for each gender. Room background correction is critical in improving the accuracy of the WBC calibration.

  9. Tax evasion and Swiss bank deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Bank deposits in offshore financial centers may be used to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform limits the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a withholding tax on interest income earned by EU households in Switzerland and several other offshore centers. This paper...... estimates the impact of the withholding tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using non-EU residents who were not subject to the tax as a comparison group. We present evidence that Swiss bank deposits owned by EU residents declined by 30–40% relative to other Swiss bank deposits in two...... quarters immediately before and after the tax was introduced. We also present evidence suggesting that the drop in Swiss bank deposits was driven by behavioral responses aiming to escape the tax - such as the transfer of funds to bank accounts in other offshore centers and the transfer of formal ownership...

  10. Recent references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramavataram, S.

    1991-01-01

    In support of a continuing program of systematic evaluation of nuclear structure data, the National Nuclear Data Center maintains a complete computer file of references to the nuclear physics literature. Each reference is tagged by a keyword string, which indicates the kinds of data contained in the article. This master file of Nuclear Structure References (NSR) contains complete keyword indexes to literature published since 1969, with partial indexing of older references. Any reader who finds errors in the keyword descriptions is urged to report them to the National Nuclear Data Center so that the master NSR file can be corrected. In 1966, the first collection of Recent References was published as a separate issue of Nuclear Data Sheets. Every four months since 1970, a similar indexed bibliography to new nuclear experiments has been prepared from additions to the NSR file and published. Beginning in 1978, Recent References was cumulated annually, with the third issue completely superseding the two issues previously published during a given year. Due to publication policy changes, cumulation of Recent Reference was discontinued in 1986. The volume and issue number of all the cumulative issues published to date are given. NNDC will continue to respond to individual requests for special bibliographies on nuclear physics topics, in addition to those easily obtained from Recent References. If the required information is available from the keyword string, a reference list can be prepared automatically from the computer files. This service can be provided on request, in exchange for the timely communication of new nuclear physics results (e.g., preprints). A current copy of the NSR file may also be obtained in a standard format on magnetic tape from NNDC. Requests for special searches of the NSR file may also be directed to the National Nuclear Data Center

  11. Swiss values of travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    König, Arnd

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Institute of Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), ETH Zurich and Rapp Trans AG, Zurich on behalf of the Swiss Association of Transport Engineers. It implements the recommendation of the scoping study on Swiss value of travel time savings (VTTS) (Abay und Axhausen, 2000) by estimating VTTS for private motorised and public travel by trip purpose on the basis of new stated-choice (SC) surveys. The survey participants were recruited as part of the continuous passe...

  12. Business interest in Swiss climate policy

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Business associations play an important role in the decision making process of climate policy. In 2009, the revision of the Swiss CO2 law for designing post‐2012 climate policy is at stake. This paper analyzes the positions and arguments of the Swiss business community on climate policy using cluster analysis. As a main finding, we can observe gradual positioning between opponents and proponents to climate regulation. There is no solid business front opposing climate policy in Switzerland but...

  13. Spatial–Temporal Analysis of the Heat and Electricity Demand of the Swiss Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schneider

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, space heating and domestic hot water production accounted for around 40% of the Swiss final energy consumption. Reaching the goals of the 2050 energy strategy will require significantly reducing this share despite the growing building stock. Renewables are numerous but subject to spatial–temporal constraints. Territorial planning of energy distribution systems enabling the integration of renewables requires having a spatial–temporal characterization of the energy demand. This paper presents two bottom-up statistical extrapolation models for the estimation of the geo-dependent heat and electricity demand of the Swiss building stock. The heat demand is estimated by means of a statistical bottom-up model applied at the building level. At the municipality level, the electricity load curve is estimated by combining socio-economic indicators with average consumption per activity and/or electric device. This approach also allows to break down the estimated electricity demand according to activity type (e.g., households, various industry, and service activities and appliance type (e.g., lighting, motor force, fridges. The total estimated aggregated demand is 94 TWh for heat and 58 TWh for electricity, which represent a deviation of 2.9 and 0.5%, respectively compared to the national energy consumption statistics. In addition, comparisons between estimated and measured electric load curves are done to validate the proposed approach. Finally, these models are used to build a geo-referred database of heat and electricity demand for the entire Swiss territory. As an application of the heat demand model, a realistic saving potential is estimated for the existing building stock; this potential could be achieved through by a deep retrofit program. One advantage of the statistical bottom-up model approach is that it allows to simulate a building stock that replicates the diversity of building demand. This point is important in order to

  14. TAXATION AND INTERNAL MIGRATION - EVIDENCE FROM THE SWISS CENSUS USING COMMUNITY-LEVEL VARIATION IN INCOME TAX RATES

    OpenAIRE

    Liebig, Thomas; Puhani, Patrick A.; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between income tax rate variation and internal migration for the unique case of Switzerland, whose system of determining tax rates primarily at the community level results in enough variation to permit analysis of their influence on migration. Specifically, using Swiss census data, we analyze migratory responses to tax rate variations for various groups defined by age, education, and nationality/residence permit. The results suggest that young Swiss college gra...

  15. Mineral oil certified reference materials for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls from the National Metrology Institute of Japan (NMIJ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Masahiko; Aoyagi, Yoshie; Matsuo, Mayumi; Ishikawa, Keiichiro; Hanari, Nobuyasu; Otsuka, Satoko; Tsuda, Yoko; Yarita, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    Four mineral oil certified reference materials (CRMs), NMIJ CRM 7902-a, CRM 7903-a, CRM 7904-a, and CRM 7905-a, have been issued by the National Metrology Institute of Japan, which is part of the National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (NMIJ/AIST), for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The raw materials for the CRMs were an insulation oil (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7903-a) and a fuel oil (CRM7904-a and CRM 7905-a). A solution of PCB3, PCB8, and technical PCB products, comprising four types of Kaneclor, was added to the oil matrices. The total PCB concentrations in the PCB-fortified oils (CRM 7902-a and CRM 7904-a) are approximately 6 mg kg(-1). In addition, the mineral oils which were not fortified with PCBs were also distributed as CRMs (CRM 7903-a and CRM 7905-a). Characterization of these CRMs was conducted by the NMIJ/AIST, where the mineral oils and the PCB solution were analyzed using multiple analytical methods such as dimethylsulfoxide extraction, normal-phase liquid chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, reversed-phase liquid chromatography, and chromatography using sulfoxide-bonded silica; and/or various capillary columns for gas chromatography, and two ionization modes for mass spectrometry. The target compounds in the mineral oils and those in the PCB solution were determined by one of the primary methods of measurement, isotope dilution-mass spectrometry (ID-MS). Certified values have been provided for 11 PCB congeners (PCB3, 8, 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180, 194, and 206) in the CRMs. These CRMs have information values for PCB homologue concentrations determined by using a Japanese official method for determination of PCBs in wastes and densities determined with an oscillational density meter. Because oil samples having arbitrary PCB concentrations between respective property values of the PCB-fortified and nonfortified CRMs can be prepared by gravimetric mixing of the CRM pairs, these CRMs can be used

  16. The revision of the Swiss Inventory of Geosites (2006-2012)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel

    2013-04-01

    Federal Office of Topography (Swisstopo). Finally, a book, containing the list of Swiss geosites and a selection of the most emblematic sites, described in more detail, will be published in 2013. In terms of content, the revision of the inventory needed a huge amount of homogenization work. A lot of data was added mainly because most of the geosites were poorly detailed in the 1999 inventory. Several sites were merged, others were abandoned because their national relevance was debatable. Moreover, a large survey was carried out to add new sites, especially for regions as well as fields of Earth sciences that were missing in the 1999 inventory. Also, some sites, which were not known in the 1990s, could be added. A good example is the Courtedoux geosite where numerous dinosaur tracks were discovered in 2000 during the construction of the A16 highway and that has gained international recognition today. The Glarner Hauptüberschiebung / Sardona Tektonic Arena, in the Cantons of Glarus, St. Gallen and Graubünden, is another good example. As a matter of fact, though the Glarus overthrust had already been recognized since the mid-19th century as one of the prominent examples of alpine tectonic history, it was curiously not proposed in the 1999 inventory. In the meantime, the site has been inscribed as a World Heritage Site by the UNESCO in 2008 and was added to the Swiss inventory of geosites. An initial list of 248 geosites was published in 2008, while the final list (322 sites) was published in 2012. This inventory stimulated an interesting debate around the generic name that should be given to it. According to the FOEN, the terms "inventory" and "national importance" as used in 1999 (SCNAT,) - should be avoided today because such references could create a confusion with the official inventories carried out based on the Nature Protection Act. Finally, it was decided to call it the "Swiss Inventory of Geosites". The next steps will be to distribute the inventory to Swiss

  17. Swiss Property kontor = Offices of Swiss Property / kommenteerinud Tõnis Sõõrumaa

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Swiss Property kontoriruumid Tallinnas Rotermanni 8. Sisekujunduse autorid Kätlin Ölluk, Tiina Kesküla, Katy Seppel, Aet Kiivet, Liina Rohtlaan, Marita Mätas, Lilian Esing, Kristin Boginski (Swiss Property); arhitektid Yoko Azukawa, Hanno Grossschmidt, Tomomi Hayashi

  18. Effects and Unforeseen Consequences of Accessing References on a Maintenance of Certification Examination: Findings From a National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Richard A; Jurich, Daniel; Foster, Lauren M

    2017-10-12

    Increasing criticism of maintenance of certification (MOC) examinations has prompted certifying boards to explore alternative assessment formats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of allowing test takers to access reference material while completing their MOC Part III standardized examination. Item response data were obtained from 546 physicians who completed a medical subspecialty MOC examination between 2013 and 2016. To investigate if accessing references was related to better performance, an analysis of covariance was conducted on the MOC examination scores with references (access or no access) as the between-groups factor and scores from the physicians' initial certification examination as a covariate. Descriptive analyses were conducted to investigate how the new feature of accessing references influenced time management within the test day. Physicians scored significantly higher when references were allowed (mean = 534.44, standard error = 6.83) compared to when they were not (mean = 472.75, standard error = 4.87), F(1, 543) = 60.18, P references affected pacing behavior; physicians were 13.47 times more likely to finish with less than a minute of test time remaining per section when reference material was accessible. Permitting references caused an increase in performance, but also a decrease in the perception that the test has sufficient time limits. Implications for allowing references are discussed, including physician time management, impact on the construct assessed by the test, and the importance of providing validity evidence for all test design decisions.

  19. Health and happiness in young Swiss adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perneger, Thomas V; Hudelson, Patricia M; Bovier, Patrick A

    2004-02-01

    To explore whether self-reported happiness is associated with mental and physical health status among young adults. Cross-sectional survey of 1257 randomly selected university students in Geneva, Switzerland. The questionnaire included an item that probed the feeling of happiness in the past month, the Short Form-12 health survey (from which mental and physical health scores were computed), scales to measure self-esteem, stress, and social support, reports of various life problems, and sociodemographic information. Most participants felt happy all of the time or most of the time (63%). In multivariate analysis, feeling happy all or most of the time was strongly associated with better mental health (odds ratios for consecutive quartiles of mental health scores: 1.0 (reference), 6.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-10.1), 19.2 (95% CI: 12.2-30.2), 39.9 (95% CI: 22.4-71.0)), but also with the feeling of getting enough love and affection (item from the social support scale, odds ratio: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7), female sex (odds ratio: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.1), being Swiss (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), and higher self-esteem (odds ratios for consecutive quartiles ranged from 1.0 to 3.5, 95% CI: 2.1-5.8). The association between happiness and physical health was weak and statistically non-significant. The strong association between happiness and mental health suggests that asking people if they are happy may help identify mental health care needs. Self-reported happiness may also be a useful outcome measure for evaluation of health interventions.

  20. An evaluation of palliative care contents in national dementia strategies in reference to the European Association for Palliative Care white paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Nakashima, Taeko; Shindo, Yumi; Miyamoto, Yuki; Gove, Dianne; Radbruch, Lukas; van der Steen, Jenny T

    2015-09-01

    Dementia involves a progressive decline in many functional areas. Policy and practice guidelines should cover the entire course of the disease from early detection to the end-of-life. The present study aimed to evaluate the contents of national dementia strategies with a focus on palliative care content. We employed qualitative content analyses. Sixteen national dementia strategies from 14 countries were reviewed. Using open coding, the contents were compared to the domains and recommendations of the palliative care in dementia white paper of the European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC). Although palliative care was not explicitly referred to in eight of the 14 countries and only to a limited extent in three countries, a number of domains from the EAPC white paper were well represented, including "person-centered care, communication, and shared decision making"; "continuity of care"; and "family care and involvement." Three countries that referred to palliative care did so explicitly, with two domains being well represented: "education of the health care team"; and "societal and ethical issues." The strategies all lacked reference to the domain of "prognostication and timely recognition of dying" and to spiritual caregiving. National dementia strategies cover part of the recent definition of palliative care in dementia, although they do not frequently label these references as "palliative care." In view of the growing numbers of people dying with dementia, preparation for the last phase of life should be added to national strategies.

  1. Characterization of national food agency shrimp and plaice reference materials for trace elements and arsenic species by atomic and mass spectrometric techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Pedersen, Gitte Alsing; McLaren, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    The National Food Agency (NFA) of Denmark has produced and characterized NFA Plaice and NFA Shrimp reference materials (RMs) for the control of the accuracy of trace element and arsenic species determinations in similar seafood samples, The physical preparation of the materials included dissectio...

  2. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme 2008 edition - Summary report, annual project abstracts for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of activities in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Research Programme. Work completed in 2007 and the results achieved in the areas of cell technology, solar modules and building integration, electrical systems technology, supplementary projects and studies are summarised. National and international co-operation is examined. New, current and completed Pilot and Demonstration projects are reported on as are the prospects for the year 2008. The report is completed with lists of research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects.

  3. Initial experience gained with the balance-group system of the Swiss power supply legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, M.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the initial experience gained with the Swiss balance-group system. This system was introduced within the framework of Swiss power supply legislation (StromVG - Stromversorgungsgesetz). The balance-group system was considered to be an essential precondition for the implementation of an energy trading business in a liberalised power market. The associated rights and responsibilities and the economic risks involved are discussed in detail. The partners and structures involved in such a balance-group are looked at and basic models for the associated contracts are examined. The relationship between balance-groups and the national power grid Swissgrid are discussed

  4. The promotion of work safety. A continuous task for the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luescher, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The modern Western European population values the work safety very highly because of ethical and economical reasons. In Switzerland too, safety at work is actively promoted. Based on national legislation and on the SGWA-Association Statutes, the Swiss Gas Industry, with great engagement, promotes the measures for accident prevention. Following a general introduction into the legislative basis, possible ways and means for the promotion of safety at work are described. Subsequently, the concrete activities of the Gas Supply Authorities and the SGWA are pointed out, followed by a description of the future work-safety programmes of the Swiss Gas Industry. (orig.) [de

  5. [Swiss surgery: quo vadis? Reader and market analysis for strategic positioning of a specialty journal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiermuth, O; Todorov, A; Bolli, M; Heberer, M

    2003-01-01

    Scientific journals currently face challenges including cost pressures caused by economic constraints, increasing rivalry among competitors, limited market potential of non-english speaking journals, increasing medical specialization with resulting market fragmentation, and internet-based competition. We therefore analyzed strategic opportunities of the journal Swiss Surgery on the basis of customer surveys and of a market analysis. Swiss surgeons expressed their interest in the continuation of the journal but also indicated their support for changes in its concept and for an increased use of electronic media. An international market analysis points-out the difficulties of national, non-english speaking journals in gaining impact points and in attracting authors and readers of scientific medical articles. Therefore, a journal such as Swiss Surgery should identify and use publication niches. The demand for a concept addressing surgical training including continuous postgraduate education was confirmed by the customers of Swiss Surgery. A corresponding offer does not presently exist in the area and could become the new focus of the journal. This change of concept may have a number of consequences: A journal focusing on surgical training and education should use the results of readers' surveys rather than impact point assignment to evaluate quality. The journal should increasingly use electronic services including data bases, pictures, videos and closed user groups to supplement the print version. At short term, however, the printed version should be continued and not be substituted by the electronic version in order to maintain the established brand "Swiss Surgery".

  6. Compliance with guidelines for disease management in diabetes: results from the SwissDiab Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimke, Katrin E; Renström, Frida; Meier, Sandro; Stettler, Christoph; Brändle, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Tight glycemic control and aggressive treatment of additional cardiovascular risk factors can substantially reduce risk of diabetes-related complications. In 2013, the Swiss Society of Endocrinology and Diabetology (SSED) established national criteria on good disease management in diabetes, but little is known about compliance in clinical care. Here we assessed to what extent patients from two tertiary care centers in the German-speaking part of Switzerland enrolled in the Swiss Diabetes (SwissDiab) Registry adhere to the SSED criteria. SwissDiab is a prospective observational cohort study of patients regularly treated at Swiss tertiary diabetes centers. Data were collected through standardized annual health examinations. Baseline participant descriptive statistics, stratified by diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) and type 2 (DM2), were compared with SSED targets for glycemic control, blood pressure, blood lipids, weight maintenance, and ophthalmic examination. By the end of 2016, 604 participants with DM1 (40%) and DM2 (60%) had data available for analyses, 36% and 29% women, respectively. At baseline, all the SSED targets were met with two exceptions: a glycated hemoglobin A1c value DM2, respectively, received nutritional counseling in the previous year (SSED target: ≥80%). The SSED targets for good disease management in diabetes were achieved in the majority of participants at the time of enrollment, but results also highlight areas where disease management can be improved, particularly the role of nutrition counseling.

  7. Status, quality and specific needs of Zika virus (ZIKV) diagnostic capacity and capability in National Reference Laboratories for arboviruses in 30 EU/EEA countries, May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mögling, Ramona; Zeller, Hervé; Revez, Joana; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2017-09-07

    With international travel, Zika virus (ZIKV) is introduced to Europe regularly. A country's ability to robustly detect ZIKV introduction and local transmission is important to minimise the risk for a ZIKV outbreak. Therefore, sufficient expertise and diagnostic capacity and capability are required in European laboratories. To assess the capacity, quality, operational specifics (guidelines and algorithms), technical and interpretation issues and other possible difficulties that were related to ZIKV diagnostics in European countries, a questionnaire was conducted among national reference laboratories in 30 countries in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) in May 2016. While the coverage and capacity of ZIKV diagnostics in the EU/EEA national reference laboratories were found to be adequate, the assessment of the quality and needs indicated several crucial points of improvement that will need support at national and EU/EEA level to improve ZIKV preparedness, response and EU/EEA ZIKV surveillance activities. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  8. Development of traceable measurement of the diffuse optical properties of solid reference standards for biomedical optics at National Institute of Standards and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaillet, Paul; Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Allen, David W

    2015-07-01

    The development of a national reference instrument dedicated to the measurement of the scattering and absorption properties of solid tissue-mimicking phantoms used as reference standards is presented. The optical properties of the phantoms are measured with a double-integrating sphere setup in the steady-state domain, coupled with an inversion routine of the adding-doubling procedure that allows for the computation of the uncertainty budget for the measurements. The results are compared to the phantom manufacturer's values obtained by a time-resolved approach. The results suggest that the agreement between these two independent methods is within the estimated uncertainties. This new reference instrument will provide optical biomedical research laboratories with reference values for absolute diffuse optical properties of phantom materials.

  9. The relevance of geoethics to under-developed and developing Nations wth special reference to India.i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desikachari, Vasudevan

    2015-04-01

    Relevance of Geoethics to underdeveloped And developing Nations, with special reference to India ------- The application of ethical principles to results of scientific investigations which will have direct impact on the well being of human kind is well amplified by medical sciences (eg.,the laws governing testing of new medications and anti-viral vaccination on humans and their subsequent usage to preserve and protect humanity), and its application to Geoscience, which is very important,however, is very recent.Geoscientific investigations involve such wide and varying aspects of our mother Earth that most of it find applications directly to the welfare and development of civilized society, such as mining of natural resources,like coal,minerals and building stones;exploration for petroleum and natural gas;or geo-engineering investigations for major civil engineering projects like construction of dams,tunnels or work related to mitigation of effects of natural hazards (earthquakes,tsunamis or landslides).The Geoscientists, since their work will contribute to the resource development and economic progress of a country,will have to be very conscientious in parting their knowledge to user agency.This involves,true and practical reporting of data without succumbing to corrupt practices or doing away tendency to over-emphasising the results to the point of creating unnecessary panic to public.In all these geoscientific investigations therefore ethics plays a vital role.For, instance,both the loss of life and property in the 2001 earthquake of Gujerat,India could have been kept at a minimum if the planning authorities had applied their mind to designs for construction of houses for city dwellers, based on geological investigation of rocks,soils and geologic structures of the area.As Pointed out succinctly by Lambert(2014),since corruption plays a negative role in formulating geologic results in developing/underdeveloping countries,combating this using a forceful geoethical

  10. Validation of the Swiss methane emission inventory by atmospheric observations and inverse modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henne

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric inverse modelling has the potential to provide observation-based estimates of greenhouse gas emissions at the country scale, thereby allowing for an independent validation of national emission inventories. Here, we present a regional-scale inverse modelling study to quantify the emissions of methane (CH4 from Switzerland, making use of the newly established CarboCount-CH measurement network and a high-resolution Lagrangian transport model. In our reference inversion, prior emissions were taken from the "bottom-up" Swiss Greenhouse Gas Inventory (SGHGI as published by the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment in 2014 for the year 2012. Overall we estimate national CH4 emissions to be 196 ± 18 Gg yr−1 for the year 2013 (1σ uncertainty. This result is in close agreement with the recently revised SGHGI estimate of 206 ± 33 Gg yr−1 as reported in 2015 for the year 2012. Results from sensitivity inversions using alternative prior emissions, uncertainty covariance settings, large-scale background mole fractions, two different inverse algorithms (Bayesian and extended Kalman filter, and two different transport models confirm the robustness and independent character of our estimate. According to the latest SGHGI estimate the main CH4 source categories in Switzerland are agriculture (78 %, waste handling (15 % and natural gas distribution and combustion (6 %. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of our posterior emissions suggest an overestimation of agricultural CH4 emissions by 10 to 20 % in the most recent SGHGI, which is likely due to an overestimation of emissions from manure handling. Urban areas do not appear as emission hotspots in our posterior results, suggesting that leakages from natural gas distribution are only a minor source of CH4 in Switzerland. This is consistent with rather low emissions of 8.4 Gg yr−1 reported by the SGHGI but inconsistent with the much higher value of 32 Gg yr−1 implied by the

  11. The Swiss power generation industry after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, J.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl disaster a large proportion of the Swiss population has had its faith in nuclear power severely shaken. On technical grounds an accident with such serious consequences for humans is not considered possible in Switzerland. A sound energy policy must be conceived on long-term considerations and should not be altered needlessly in the short term. Consequently the aims of security of power supply, energy savings and oil substitution must be pursued in the future. A change in energy policy by the Swiss power generation industry, as a result of Chernobyl, is not considered necessary

  12. Tax Evasion and Swiss Bank Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannesen, Niels

    Bank deposits in jurisdictions with banking secrecy constitute an effective tool to evade taxes on interest income. A recent EU reform reduces the scope for this type of tax evasion by introducing a source tax on interest income earned by EU residents in Switzerland and several other jurisdictions...... with banking secrecy. In this paper, we estimate the impact of the source tax on Swiss bank deposits held by EU residents while using that non-EU residents were not subject to the tax to apply a natural experiment methodology. We find that the 15% source tax caused Swiss bank deposits of EU residents to drop...

  13. Clinical chemistry reference intervals of healthy adult populations in Gojjam Zones of Amhara National Regional State, Northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Zewdie; Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob

    2017-01-01

    Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (Preference intervals of amylase, LDH, total protein and total bilirubin were not significantly different between the two sex groups (P>0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin across all age groups of participants were similar (P>0.05). But, there was a significant difference in the

  14. Countrywide campaign to prevent soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junge, Astrid; Lamprecht, Markus; Stamm, Hanspeter; Hasler, Hansruedi; Bizzini, Mario; Tschopp, Markus; Reuter, Harald; Wyss, Heinz; Chilvers, Chris; Dvorak, Jiri

    2011-01-01

    In Switzerland, the national accident insurance company registered a total of 42 262 soccer injuries, resulting in costs of approximately 145 million Swiss francs (~US$130 million) in 2003. Research on injury prevention has shown that exercise-based programs can reduce the incidence of soccer injuries. This study was conducted to assess the implementation and effects of a countrywide campaign to reduce the incidence of soccer injuries in Swiss amateur players. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All coaches of the Schweizerischer Fussballverband (SFV) received information material and were instructed to implement the injury prevention program "The 11" in their training of amateur players. After the instruction, the coaches were asked to rate the quality and the feasibility of "The 11." Before the start of the intervention and 4 years later, a representative sample of about 1000 Swiss soccer coaches were interviewed about the frequency and characteristics of injuries in their teams. Teams that did or did not practice "The 11" were compared with respect to the incidence of soccer injuries. A total of 5549 coaches for amateur players were instructed to perform "The 11" in the training with their teams. The ratings of the teaching session and the prevention program were overall very positive. In 2008, 80% of all SFV coaches knew the prevention campaign "The 11" and 57% performed the program or most parts of it. Teams performing "The 11" had an 11.5% lower incidence of match injuries and a 25.3% lower incidence of training injuries than other teams; noncontact injuries in particular were prevented by the program. "The 11" was successfully implemented in a countrywide campaign and proved effective in reducing soccer injuries in amateur players. An effect of the prevention program was also observed in the population-based insurance data and health-care costs.

  15. Annotating single amino acid polymorphisms in the UniProt/Swiss-Prot knowledgebase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yum L; Famiglietti, Maria; Gos, Arnaud; Duek, Paula D; David, Fabrice P A; Gateau, Alain; Bairoch, Amos

    2008-03-01

    UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot (http://beta.uniprot.org/uniprot; last accessed: 19 October 2007) is a manually curated knowledgebase providing information on protein sequences and functional annotation. It is part of the Universal Protein Resource (UniProt). The knowledgebase currently records a total of 32,282 single amino acid polymorphisms (SAPs) touching 6,086 human proteins (Release 53.2, 26 June 2007). Nearly all SAPs are derived from literature reports using strict inclusion criteria. For each SAP, the knowledgebase provides, apart from the position of the mutation and the resulting change in amino acid, information on the effects of SAPs on protein structure and function, as well as their potential involvement in diseases. Presently, there are 16,043 disease-related SAPs, 14,266 polymorphisms, and 1,973 unclassified variants recorded in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. Relevant information on SAPs can be found in various sections of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry. In addition to these, cross-references to human disease databases as well as other gene-specific databases, are being added regularly. In 2003, the Swiss-Prot variant pages were created to provide a concise view of the information related to the SAPs recorded in the knowledgebase. When compared to the information on missense variants listed in other mutation databases, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot further records information on direct protein sequencing and characterization including posttranslational modifications (PTMs). The direct links to the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) database entries further enhance the integration of phenotype information with data at protein level. In this regard, SAP information in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot complements nicely those existing in genomic and phenotypic databases, and is valuable for the understanding of SAPs and diseases.

  16. 21 CFR 133.195 - Swiss and emmentaler cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss and emmentaler cheese. 133.195 Section 133...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.195 Swiss and emmentaler cheese. (a) Description. (1) Swiss cheese...

  17. Experiences on current national income measures with reference to environmental and natural resources; Esperienze e proposte relative alla correzione in senso ambientale delle misure del reddito nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzese, R.; Gaudioso, D. [ENEA, Casaccia (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1995-06-01

    The environment provides both a source of goods and services and a `sink` for residues of the production and consumption processes. This is not reflected into conventional estimate of GDP (gross domestic product), the most commonly used measure of aggregate income. The purpose of this paper is to explore whether environmentally-adjusted national income measure can be derived. In the first part, the authors discuss both the shortcomings of the current national income measures, with reference to environmental and natural resources, and the debate on this issues; then they analyse the existing experiences to provide environmentally-adjusted indicators of national accounts. In the second part, the authors present an evaluation of the costs of environmental degradation in Italy in the period 1988-1990, based on the methodologies adopted in a pilot study carried out by UNSO (United Nations Statistical Office) and the World Bank for Mexico.

  18. Visit of the President of the Swiss Confederation

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    On 24 March, CERN welcomed Johann Schneider-Ammann, President of the Swiss Confederation.   President Johann Schneider-Ammann arrived to CERN in the morning, where he was welcomed by CERN Director-General Fabiola Gianotti. During the visit, the President was accompanied by Erik Reumann, spokesperson of the Federal Department of Economic Affairs, Education and Research, Alexandre Fasel, Ambassador and Permanent Representative of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva, and Patrick Pardo, counsellor at the permanent Mission of Switzerland to the United Nations Office and other international organizations in Geneva. In the Main Building he exchanged a few words with Frédérick Bordry, Director for Accelerators and Technology, Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Friedemann Eder, Head of CERN Host States relations service. President Johann Schneider-Ammann also signed the guestbook of the Organ...

  19. The impact of the Swiss-EU relationships on the Swiss banking secrecy

    OpenAIRE

    Burkhard, Mike-David

    2012-01-01

    Switzerland and the European Union share common values and have peaceful and well functioning economic and political agreements. Nevertheless, the Swiss banking secrecy is definitely a thorn in the EU's flesh, especially because of tax fraud or money laundering. Since the existence of the Swiss banking secrecy it has been associated with holocaust money, tax evasion, potentates' money etc. and also has been confronted with espionage attacks by foreign authorities and various other disputes. R...

  20. Effect of ammonia on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC /50/ values were determined for Swiss albino male mice exposed to different concentrations of ammonia in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC/50/ for a 30 minute exposure was 21,430 ppm.

  1. CWC: A Swiss Retrospective and Perspective (OPCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadisch, M.

    2007-01-01

    A world without Weapons of Mass Destruction - this is the vision of SPIEZ LABORATORY, Switzerland. As the federal establishment for NBC defense, it deals with the protection from nuclear, biological, and chemical threats and risks, as well as with the technical aspects of arms control and disarmament of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (NBC weapons). Now on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), it is the right time to look back on the achievements of the OPCW and on how a small country like Switzerland can support an international organization such as the OPCW on its way to a world free of chemical weapons. SPIEZ LABORATORY was involved in the negotiations during the Conference on Disarmament in Geneva which in turn led to the CWC. Switzerland in general and SPIEZ LABORATORY in particular, have played an active role in different areas relevant to the CWC, all in order to get closer to a w orld without Weapons of Mass Destruction . The support of the OPCW and different Member States covered fundamental parts of the Convention such as, chemical weapon destruction (financial contribution and analytical work) and the implementation of Article VII obligations (declaration support, information and experience exchange). In addition, Switzerland and SPIEZ LABORATORY still have an important role in assistance and protection. Switzerland submitted a proposal for the delivery of protective equipment to the OPCW and is also active in capacity building courses like CITPRO or SEFLAB. The support in the field of international cooperation and assistance is expressed by numerous internships in SPIEZ LABORATORY and in the Swiss industry. In order to support the operability of the OPCW, SPIEZ LABORATORY participates in inspector training modules (basic modules, mock inspections) and delivers on a regular basis reference chemicals and analytical data (by now 2/3 of all the data has been inputted into the OPCW Central Analytical

  2. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.

    2010-07-01

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  3. Documentation on the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Turton, H.

    2011-10-01

    This comprehensive report by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland documents the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E). This is a flexible model which explicitly depicts plausible pathways for the development of the Swiss electricity sector, while dealing with inter-temporal variations in demand and supply. TIMES is quoted as having the capability to portray the entire energy system from resource supply, through fuel processing, representation of infrastructures, conversion to secondary energy carriers, end-use technologies and energy service demands at end-use sectors. The background of the model's development and a reference energy system are described. Also, electricity end-use sectors and generating systems are examined, including hydropower, nuclear power, thermal generation and renewables. Environmental factors and the calibration of the model are discussed, as is the application of the model. The document is completed with an outlook, references and six appendices

  4. Body mass index in Saudi Arabian children and adolescents: A national reference and comparison with international standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Herbish, Abdullah S; ElMouzan, Mohammed I; AlSalloum, Abdullah A; AlQureshi, Mansour M; AlOmar, Ahmed A; Fster, Peter J; Kecojevic, Tatjana

    2009-01-01

    Because there are no reference standards for body mass index (BMI) in Saudi children, we established BMI reference percentiles for normal Saudi Arabian children and adolescents and compared them with international standards. Data from a stratified multistage probability sample were collected from the 13 health regions in Saudi Arabia, as part of a nationwide health profile survey of Saudi Arabian children and adolescents conducted to establish normal physical growth references. Selected households were visited by a trained team. Weight and length/height were measured and recorded following the WHO recommended procedures using the same equipment, which were subjected to both calibration and intra/interobserver variations. Survey of 11 874 eligible households yielded 35 275 full-term and healthy children and adolescents who were subjected to anthropometric measurements. Four BMI curves were produced, from birth to 36 months and 2 to 19 years for girls and boys. The 3rd, 5th, 10th ,25th , 5oth , 75th ,85th , 90th , 95th , and 97th percentiles were produced and compared with the WHO and CDC BMI charts. In the higher percentiles, the Saudi children differed from Western counterparts, indicating that Saudi children have equal or higher BMIs. The BMI curves reflect statistically representative BMI values for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. (author)

  5. Swiss energy statistics 2006; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2006/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  6. Swiss energy statistics 2005; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2005/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  7. Swiss energy statistics 2004; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2004/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  8. Swiss energy statistics 2003; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2003/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  10. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry reference data for GE Lunar systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Bo; Shepherd, John A; Levine, Michael A; Steinberg, Dee; Wacker, Wynn; Barden, Howard S; Ergun, David; Wu, Xin P

    2014-01-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999-2004) includes adult and pediatric comparisons for total body bone and body composition results. Because dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements from different manufacturers are not standardized, NHANES reference values currently are applicable only to a single make and model of Hologic DXA system. The purpose of this study was to derive body composition reference curves for GE Healthcare Lunar DXA systems. Published values from the NHANES 1999-2004 survey were acquired from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Using previously reported cross-calibration equations between Hologic and GE-Lunar, we converted the total body and regional bone and soft-tissue measurements from NHANES 1999-2004 to GE-Lunar values. The LMS (LmsChartMaker Pro Version 3.5) curve fitting method was used to generate GE-Lunar reference curves. Separate curves were generated for each sex and ethnicity. The reference curves were also divided into pediatric (≤20 years old) and adult (>20 years old) groups. Adult reference curves were derived as a function of age. Additional relationships of pediatric DXA values were derived as a function of height, lean mass, and bone area. Robustness was tested between Hologic and GE-Lunar Z-score values. The NHANES 1999-2004 survey included a sample of 20,672 participants' (9630 female) DXA scans. A total of 8056 participants were younger than 20 yr and were included in the pediatric reference data set. Participants enrolled in the study who weighed more than 136 kg (over scanner table limit) were excluded. The average Z-scores comparing the new GE-Lunar reference curves are close to zero, and the standard deviation of the Z-scores are close to one for all variables. As expected, all measurements on the GE-Lunar reference curves for participants younger than 20 yr increase monotonically with age. In the adult population, most of the curves are constant at younger

  11. Diferencias en las prevalencias de desnutrición al usarse referencias nacionales e internacionales Differences in the prevalence of malnutrition resulting from using a national growth reference or an international growth reference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelia Edith Oyhenart

    2005-09-01

    prevalencia de retraso del crecimiento.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate if using an international growth reference versus a national growth reference leads to differences in the prevalences of low weight-for-height (wasting and low height-for-age (stunting in a sample of children 8 to 14 years old. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out with a sample of 1 470 school-children (both boys and girls in the city of La Plata, in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Based on the data on weight and height, Z-scores were calculated with regard to the reference values from the United States of America's first and second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I and NHANES II, and the reference values for Argentina from the Argentine Pediatric Society. The prevalences of wasting and stunting were calculated, using as the cutoff point two standard deviations below the median of the reference. The prevalences were compared using the chi-squared test with Yates' correction, and odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs were calculated. RESULTS: The international reference was positively associated with a higher prevalence of stunting in the entire sample (OR = 5.12; 95% CI: 3.27 to 8.05, in the boys (OR = 4.36; 95% CI: 2.43 to 7.93, and in the girls (OR = 6.32; 95% CI: 3.10 to 13.27. The prevalence of wasting was similar with both references. The distribution of height-for-age was skewed to the left with respect to the international reference and to the right with respect to the Argentine reference, while the distribution of weight-for-height overlapped both references. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in the prevalences of stunting calculated according to the two references that were used indicate a different nutritional status for the population studied. The increase in the height of the children with respect to the Argentine reference points to the presence of a positive secular trend, and the increase can explain part of the differences in the prevalence

  12. Reference site selection for the National Wetland Condition Assessment: Integrating best professional judgement and objective selection criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetlands Condition Assessment (NWCA), one of a series of environmental assessments being conducted by states, tribes, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and other partners, surveyed over 900 wetland sites across the lower 48 states during Summer 2011. The NWC...

  13. Come and see: Opening eyes, minds and dialogue. Taking stock in the fourth year of Swiss NPP advertising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahlen, Peter

    1999-01-01

    It is now clear that the 'come and see' concept underlying the Swiss NPPs TV advertising campaign, which started in 1995/96, really does work - even over a period of several years. This is not a trivial finding: other, recent, TV and print ad campaigns with more far-reaching nuclear messages (relating to waste management issues) provoked noisy and hostile political reactions. The concept of an extensively regionalised testimonial print ad campaign running 'under the roof' of the national TV campaign works very well. However, it must be stressed that detailed knowledge of social, political and media related situations in the regions addressed is of paramount importance, and approaches have to be carefully adapted to these geographically widely varying conditions. The invitation to dialogue, with its natural openness, is well received by the public and by opinion leaders, in particular by journalists - something which is observed every time the campaign starts in a new region. The aim of the programme, namely to give the Swiss NPPs 'a voice of their own', has been attained, despite a rather moderate budget. The fact that the Swiss NPPs speak out on their own, without reference to their superiors in the economic hierarchy is accepted and even well received by both the media and the public. The principle of devoting at least half the budget to the direct costs of 'placing' TV ads - in order to attain recognition in the face of the prevailing flood of information - has been proved to be the right one. Professional advertising efficiency controls carried out every year since the start of the campaign have confirmed that the NNP TV ads have been 'noticed' by a reasonably high percentage of the public, compared to other TV ads shown at the same time. The budget of 2 million Swiss francs (roughly US$ 27 million) per year, corresponding to almost 1 US dollar per private household or less than half a dollar per capita of the Swiss population, was very tight. The aim of the

  14. Historical sketches of Sandia National Laboratories nuclear field testing. Volume 1: Full discussion except for sensitive references

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1994-10-01

    This report contains historical sketches that cover the major activities of Sandia nuclear field testing, from early atmospheric shots until 1990. It includes a chronological overview followed by more complete discussions of atmospheric, high-altitude, underwater, cratering, and underground nuclear testing. Other activities related to nuclear testing and high-explosive tests are also described. A large number of references are cited for readers who wish to learn more about technical details. Appendices, written by several authors, provide more insight for a variety of special aspects of nuclear testing and related work. Two versions of this history were published: volume 1 has an unlimited distribution, and volume 2 has a limited distribution

  15. Is the swiss health care system a model for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Both supporters and critics of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have argued that it is similar to Switzerland's Federal Law on Health Insurance (LAMal), which currently governs Swiss health care, and have either praised or condemned the ACA on the basis of this alleged similarity. I challenge these observers on the grounds that they overlook critical problems with the Swiss model, such as its inequities in access, and critical differences between it and the ACA, such as the roots in, and continuing commitment to, social insurance of the Swiss model. Indeed, the daunting challenge of attempting to impose the tightly regulated model of operation of the Swiss model on mega-corporations like UnitedHealth, WellPoint, or Aetna is likely to trigger no less ferocious resistance than a fully public, single-payer system would. I also conclude that the ACA might unravel in ways unintended or even opposed by its designers and supporters, as employers, confronted with ever-rising costs, retreat from sponsoring insurance, and workers react in outrage as they confront the unaffordable underinsurance mandated by the ACA. A new political and ideological landscape may then ensue that finally ushers in a truly national health program.

  16. Seizures of doping substances at the Swiss Border--a descriptive investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Christina; Kamber, Matthias; Lentillon-Kaestner, Vanessa; Krug, Oliver; Thevis, Mario

    2015-12-01

    This retrospective study evaluates the content, the destination and the source of 960 postal items seized by the Swiss customs authorities at the Swiss border between 2013 and 2014. The packages were seized because they contained at least one prohibited doping product as identified by the Swiss law on encouraging sports and physical activity. A total number of 1825 different doping products were confiscated from these parcels, accounting for an average of 1.9 doping products per seized item. In 74% of the cases, where seizures were made, anabolic androgenic steroids, mostly testosterone esters, were discovered. An obvious trading channel for doping products was identified in this study. The seized compounds were predominately manufactured in Asian countries, but sent to Switzerland mostly via South Eastern Europe countries. Due to the unique collaboration between the Swiss customs authorities and the national anti-doping agency, this study uncovered an alarming trend of illegal doping product trafficked to Switzerland. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described.

  18. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  19. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper

  20. The outlook of the Swiss energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumpf, L.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the conference held on 18th April 1985 in Bern at the General Assembly of the Swiss Pool for assurance against earthquakes. The total Swiss energy consumption in 1984 showed an increase of 4.3% over that of 1983, and the contribution of electricity to this total in 1984 was about 4.5% higher than in the previous year. Progress in increasing the hydroelectric output cannot make up the future demand to be expected, and nuclear energy must be looked to for the increased supply. In 1984 the five nuclear generating stations - Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt furnished about 17.4 milliards kWh (35.4%), a total capacity of about 2,900 MW, and general approval has been given for the Kaiseraugst station. (A.G.P.)

  1. Establishment of national diagnostic reference level for renal doses in nuclear medicine departments at Khartoum-Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alameen, Suhaib; Hamid, Alhadi; Rushdi, M. A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we established a diagnostic reference level (DRL) for patient dose focusing on the investigation of activity to the kidneys during(99mTc-DTPA) kidney scan, selected two department nuclear medicine in main hospitals in Khartoum state. The DRLs is an investigational level used to identify unusually high radiation doses for common diagnostic medical in Nuclear Medicine procedures and suggested action levels above which a facility should review its methods and determine if acceptable image quality can be achieved at lower doses. The high specific activity of 99mTc makes it suitable as a first pass agent, for multiple or sequential studies, 99mTc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is preferred to 99mTc-pertechnetate. Patients who had been prepared for the kidney scan 99mTc- DTPA were divided to three groups. The first group received dose less than 5 mCi, are represent (27.03%) from all patients, second group received dose 5 to 5.5 mCi are represent(66.67%) and the third group received dose from 5.6 to 6.2 mCi are represent (6.31%) from all patients 99mTc-DTPA. And according to the IAEA recommendation for adult doses(5-10mCi) this study show that about 93.1% of the sample examines by dose less than 5.5 mCi. The results presented will serve as a baseline data needed for deriving reference doses for renal examinations for nuclear medicine departments in Sudan.(Author)

  2. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK`s supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants` proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  3. The Swiss nuclear installations. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-06-01

    Surveillance of the Swiss nuclear installations with regard to nuclear safety, including radiation protection, is among the tasks of the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (HSK). Five nuclear power plants are operational in Switzerland: the three units Beznau I and II and Muehleberg with electrical capacities in the range of 300 to 400 MWe, and the two units Goesgen and Leibstadt with capacities between 900 and 1200 MWe. These are light water reactors; at Beznau and Goesgen of the PWR type, and at Muehleberg and Leibstadt of the BWR type. Research reactors of thermal capacities below 10 MWth are operational at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne and at the University of Basel. Further subject to HSK's supervision are all activities at PSI involving nuclear fuel or ionizing radiation, the shut-down experimental reactor of Lucens, the exploration, in Switzerland, of final disposal facilities for radwaste and the interim radwaste storage facilities. The report first deals with the nuclear power and covers, in individual sections, the aspects of installation safety, radiation protection as well as personnel and organization, and the resulting overall impression from the point of view of HSK. In chapter 5, the corresponding information is given for research installations. Chapter 6, on radwaste disposal, is dedicated to the treatment of waste, waste from reprocessing, interim storage and exploration by NAGRA. In chapter 7, the status of emergency planning in the nuclear power plants' proximity is reported. Certificates issued for the transport of radioactive materials are dealt with in chapter 8. Finally chapter 9 goes into general questions relating to the safety of nuclear installations. All in all, the safety of operation of the Swiss nuclear installations, in the period of 1994, is judged as good by HSK. (author) 11 figs., 13 tabs

  4. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  5. Light propagation in Swiss-cheese cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szybka, Sebastian J.

    2011-01-01

    We study the effect of inhomogeneities on light propagation. The Sachs equations are solved numerically in the Swiss-cheese models with inhomogeneities modeled by the Lemaitre-Tolman solutions. Our results imply that, within the models we study, inhomogeneities may partially mimic the accelerated expansion of the Universe provided the light propagates through regions with lower than the average density. The effect of inhomogeneities is small and full randomization of the photons' trajectories reduces it to an insignificant level.

  6. NASA/NBS (National Aeronautics and Space Administration/National Bureau of Standards) standard reference model for telerobot control system architecture (NASREM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albus, James S.; Mccain, Harry G.; Lumia, Ronald

    1989-01-01

    The document describes the NASA Standard Reference Model (NASREM) Architecture for the Space Station Telerobot Control System. It defines the functional requirements and high level specifications of the control system for the NASA space Station document for the functional specification, and a guideline for the development of the control system architecture, of the 10C Flight Telerobot Servicer. The NASREM telerobot control system architecture defines a set of standard modules and interfaces which facilitates software design, development, validation, and test, and make possible the integration of telerobotics software from a wide variety of sources. Standard interfaces also provide the software hooks necessary to incrementally upgrade future Flight Telerobot Systems as new capabilities develop in computer science, robotics, and autonomous system control.

  7. Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soomro, Saleem A; Memon, Sohail A; Mohammad, Noor; Maher, Mumtaz

    2009-01-01

    Fibroadenoma 5 cm or more is called giant fibroadenoma. Giant fibroadenoma can distort the shape of breast and causes asymmetry, so it should be excised. There are several techniques for excision of giant fibroadenoma. In our technique we remove them through cosmetically acceptable circumareolar incision to maintain the shape and symmetry of breast. The objectives were to assess the cosmetic results of Swiss roll operation for giant fibroadenoma. The study was conducted for six years from January, 2002 to December, 2007. Seventy patients of giant fibroadenoma were included in this study. They were diagnosed on history and clinical examination supported by ultrasound and postoperative histopathological examination. Data were collected from outpatient department and operation theatre. Swiss roll operation was performed under general anaesthesia. Mean tumor size was 6.38 cm. Three cm and 4 cm incisions were used for tumour 6 cm in size respectively. Skin closed with Vicryl 3/0 subcuticular stitches. Sixteen out of 70 patients had no scar while others hadminimal scar. All patients had normal shape and symmetry of breast. On histopathology fibroadenoma was confirmed. Giant fibroadenoma should be removed through cosmetically acceptable cicumareolar incision especially in unmarried young females who have small breast. Swiss-roll operation is superior in maintaining the shape and symmetry of breast. No major complication was found in our series except seroma formation in 10 patients.

  8. The development of the Swiss Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, R.; Köllner-Heck, P.; Probst, T.

    2010-09-01

    In summer 2009, the Federal Council mandated the Departement of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) to develop a Swiss adaptation strategy. This strategy aims to coordinate the efforts of all federal departments involved in adaptation, and to provide them with the necessary basic information. For the development of the Swiss adaptation strategy the following principles are fundamental. (1.) The strategy aims to achieve the overarching objectives of harnessing the opportunities that climate change presents, minimizing the risks of climate change to people and assets, and to increases the adaptive capacity of all resources. (2) The strategy is based on the most recent scientific knowledge about climate change and climate change impacts. (3.) It is based in on a sound and comprehensive analysis of climate change risks. (4.) It includes strategic goals for the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, i.e., water management, biodiversity management, agriculture, forestry, natural hazard prevention, health care, energy generation, tourism, land use. (5.) It thoroughly analyzes the interfaces between the sectoral strategies in order solve existing conflicts and profit form existing synergies. The Swiss Adaptation Strategy will be completed and submitted to the Federal Council by the End of 2011.

  9. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-01-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r b =50 h −1  Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D A / D-bar A |∼< 10 −4 . We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%

  10. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy, E-mail: mikko.lavinto@helsinki.fi, E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi [Physics Department, University of Helsinki and Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FIN-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  11. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius rb=50 h-1 Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ DA/bar DA|lesssim 10-4. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  12. USING THE TUNNEL PENDING ISSUE OR RENEWAL OF SWISS AND/OR FRENCH LEGITIMATION DOCUMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2002-01-01

    Members of the CERN personnel, whose: Carte spéciale or Attestation de fonctions issued by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs and/or Carte de légitimation or Attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs are in the process of being issued or renewed, are authorized to use the Tunnel on condition that they are in possession of: their national identity card (if the Swiss and French regulations so permit) or national passport; their blue CERN card (access card); an attestation drawn up by the Cards Office certifying that the above-mentioned documents are in the process of being issued or in the case of renewal a certified photocopy of the documents, issued by the Users' Office (for Users) or the Cards Office (for all other members of the personnel). Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  13. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  14. The bilateral trade agreements and export performance of South Asian nations with special reference to India Sri Lanka Free Trade Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail P

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional trade agreements (RTA have been one of the important developments in the world trading system in 1990s. There are number of studies on the effects trade agreements in different contexts. This study is an attempt to analyse the effects of bilateral trade agreements in the intraregional trade in the SAARC region with special reference to the Free Trade Agreements (FTA between India Sri Lanka. The study uses a panel regression analysis by using balance panel data. The study concludes that the FTA between India and Sri Lanka has brought positive results in the trade between these two nations by improving the bilateral trade in goods. The results of the study are important in the context of looking for the prospects of a free trade area in the region by member nations.

  15. Swiss Life Sciences - a science communication project for both schools and the wider public led by the foundation Science et Cité.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The foundation Science et Cité was founded 1998 with the aim to inform the wider Swiss public about current scientific topics and to generate a dialogue between science and society. Initiated as an independent foundation by the former State Secretary for Science and Research, Dr. Charles Kleiber, Science et Cité is now attached to the Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences as a competence center for dialogue with the public. Due to its branches in all language regions of the country, the foundation is ideally suited to initiate and implement communication projects on a nationwide scale. These projects are subdivided into three categories: i) science communication for children/adolescents, ii) establishing a dialogue between science and the wider public, and iii) conducting the role of a national center of competence and networking in science communication. Swiss Life Sciences is a project that fits into all of these categories: a year-round program for schools is complemented with an annual event for the wider public. With the involvement of most of the major Swiss universities, the Swiss National Science Foundation, the foundation Gen Suisse and many other partners, Swiss Life Sciences also sets an example of national networking within the science communication community.

  16. Age-related references in national public health, technology appraisal and clinical guidelines and guidance: documentary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lynne F; Adams, Jean; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Buckner, Stefanie; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie; Salway, Sarah; Sowden, Sarah; Walters, Kate; White, Martin

    2017-05-01

    older people may be less likely to receive interventions than younger people. Age bias in national guidance may influence entire public health and health care systems. We examined how English National Institute for Health & Care Excellence (NICE) guidance and guidelines consider age. we undertook a documentary analysis of NICE public health (n = 33) and clinical (n = 114) guidelines and technology appraisals (n = 212). We systematically searched for age-related terms, and conducted thematic analysis of the paragraphs in which these occurred ('age-extracts'). Quantitative analysis explored frequency of age-extracts between and within document types. Illustrative quotes were used to elaborate and explain quantitative findings. 2,314 age-extracts were identified within three themes: age documented as an a-priori consideration at scope-setting (518 age-extracts, 22.4%); documentation of differential effectiveness, cost-effectiveness or other outcomes by age (937 age-extracts, 40.5%); and documentation of age-specific recommendations (859 age-extracts, 37.1%). Public health guidelines considered age most comprehensively. There were clear examples of older-age being considered in both evidence searching and in making recommendations, suggesting that this can be achieved within current processes. we found inconsistencies in how age is considered in NICE guidance and guidelines. More effort may be required to ensure age is consistently considered. Future NICE committees should search for and document evidence of age-related differences in receipt of interventions. Where evidence relating to effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in older populations is available, more explicit age-related recommendations should be made. Where there is a lack of evidence, it should be stated what new research is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  17. A Retrospective Analysis of Urine Drugs of Abuse Immunoassay True Positive Rates at a National Reference Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Davis, Kamisha L; Sadler, Aaron J; Genzen, Jonathan R

    2016-03-01

    Urine drug screens are commonly performed to identify drug use or monitor adherence to drug therapy. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the true positive and false positive rates of one of our in-house urine drug screen panels. The urine drugs of abuse panel studied consists of screening by immunoassay then positive immunoassay results were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Reagents from Syva and Microgenics were used for the immunoassay screen. The screen was performed on a Beckman AU5810 random access automated clinical analyzer. The percent of true positives for each immunoassay was determined. Agreement with previously validated GC-MS or LC-MS-MS confirmatory methods was also evaluated. There were 8,825 de-identified screening results for each of the drugs in the panel, except for alcohol (N = 2,296). The percent of samples that screened positive were: 10.0% for amphetamine/methamphetamine/3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA), 12.8% for benzodiazepines, 43.7% for opiates (including oxycodone) and 20.3% for tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The false positive rate for amphetamine/methamphetamine was ∼14%, ∼34% for opiates (excluding oxycodone), 25% for propoxyphene and 100% for phencyclidine and MDMA immunoassays. Based on the results from this retrospective study, the true positive rate for THC drug use among adults were similar to the rate of illicit drug use in young adults from the 2013 National Survey; however, our positivity rate for cocaine was higher than the National Survey. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Health-related quality of life before and after management in adults referred to otolaryngology: rospective national study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, IRC; Guy, FH; Akeroyd, MA

    2012-01-01

    Objective An assessment of the effect of otolaryngological management on the health-related quality of life of patients. Design Application of the Health Utilities Index mark 3 (HUI-3) before and after treatment; application of the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) after treatment. Setting Six otolaryngological departments around Scotland. Participants A 9005 adult patients referred to outpatient clinics. Main outcome measures Complete HUI-3 data was collected from 4422 patients; complete GBI data from 4235; complete HUI-3 and GBI data from 3884. Results The overall change in health related quality of life from before to after management was just +0.02. In the majority of subgroups of data (classified by type of management) there was essentially no change in HUI-3 score. The major exceptions were those patients provided with a hearing aid (mean change 0.08) and those whose problem was managed surgically (mean change 0.04). The mean GBI score was 5.3 which is low. Those managed surgically reported a higher GBI score of 13.0. Conclusion We found that patients treated surgically or given a hearing aid reported a significant improvement in their health related quality of life after treatment in otolaryngology departments. In general, patients treated in other ways reported no significant improvement. We argue that future research should look carefully at patient groups where there is unexpectedly little benefit from current treatment methods and consider more effective methods of management. PMID:22212609

  19. Health-related quality of life before and after management in adults referred to otolaryngology: a prospective national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, I R C; Guy, F H; Akeroyd, M A

    2012-02-01

    An assessment of the effect of otolaryngological management on the health-related quality of life of patients. Application of the Health Utilities Index mark 3 (HUI-3) before and after treatment; application of the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) after treatment. Six otolaryngological departments around Scotland. A 9005 adult patients referred to outpatient clinics. Complete HUI-3 data was collected from 4422 patients; complete GBI data from 4235; complete HUI-3 and GBI data from 3884. The overall change in health related quality of life from before to after management was just +0.02. In the majority of subgroups of data (classified by type of management) there was essentially no change in HUI-3 score. The major exceptions were those patients provided with a hearing aid (mean change 0.08) and those whose problem was managed surgically (mean change 0.04). The mean GBI score was 5.3 which is low. Those managed surgically reported a higher GBI score of 13.0. We found that patients treated surgically or given a hearing aid reported a significant improvement in their health related quality of life after treatment in otolaryngology departments. In general, patients treated in other ways reported no significant improvement. We argue that future research should look carefully at patient groups where there is unexpectedly little benefit from current treatment methods and consider more effective methods of management. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor: analysis of 146 cases of the center of reference of the National Cancer Institute--INCA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linhares, Eduardo; Gonçalves, Rinaldo; Valadão, Marcus; Vilhena, Bruno; Herchenhorn, Daniel; Romano, Sergio; Ferreira, Maria Aparecida; Ferreira, Carlos Gil; Ramos, Cintia de Araujo; de Jesus, José Paulo

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the treatment of GIST in INCA. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all cases of GIST treated at INCA in the period from 1997 to 2009. We analyzed 146 patients with a mean age of 44.5 years and female predominance. The main symptom was abdominal pain. We observed the occurrence of a second primary tumor in 22% of cases and 92% of the immunohistochemistry exams were positive for CD117. The most frequent location was in the stomach and the high-risk group was predominant. Surgery was considered R0 (extensive) in 70% of the cases and the main sites of metastases were liver and peritoneum. Overall survival in two and five years was, respectively, 86% and 59%. There was a significant difference between overall survival (p = 0.29) of the high-risk group versus the other. Our patients presented mainly in the form of high-risk disease, with obvious impact on survival. The use of imatinib improved survival of patients with recurrent and metastatic disease. We should study its use in the setting of adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy to improve results of the high risk group. The creation of reference centers is a need for the study of rare diseases.

  1. Undergraduate palliative care teaching in Swiss medical faculties: a nationwide survey and improved learning objectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eychmüller, S; Forster, M; Gudat, H; Lütolf, U M; Borasio, G D

    2015-11-27

    In 2007, a first survey on undergraduate palliative care teaching in Switzerland has revealed major heterogeneity of palliative care content, allocation of hours and distribution throughout the 6 year curriculum in Swiss medical faculties. This second survey in 2012/13 has been initiated as part of the current Swiss national strategy in palliative care (2010 - 2015) to serve as a longitudinal monitoring instrument and as a basis for redefinition of palliative care learning objectives and curriculum planning in our country. As in 2007, a questionnaire was sent to the deans of all five medical faculties in Switzerland in 2012. It consisted of eight sections: basic background information, current content and hours in dedicated palliative care blocks, current palliative care content in other courses, topics related to palliative care presented in other courses, recent attempts at improving palliative care content, palliative care content in examinations, challenges, and overall summary. Content analysis was performed and the results matched with recommendations from the EAPC for undergraduate training in palliative medicine as well as with recommendations from overseas countries. There is a considerable increase in palliative care content, academic teaching staff and hours in all medical faculties compared to 2007. No Swiss medical faculty reaches the range of 40 h dedicated specifically to palliative care as recommended by the EAPC. Topics, teaching methods, distribution throughout different years and compulsory attendance still differ widely. Based on these results, the official Swiss Catalogue of Learning Objectives (SCLO) was complemented with 12 new learning objectives for palliative and end of life care (2013), and a national basic script for palliative care was published (2015). Performing periodic surveys of palliative care teaching at national medical faculties has proven to be a useful tool to adapt the national teaching framework and to improve the

  2. Physical determinants of Division 1 Collegiate basketball, Women's National Basketball League and Women's National Basketball Association athletes: with reference to lower body sidedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Tania; Binetti, Molly; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J; Dolci, Filippo; Specos, Christina

    2017-03-31

    In female basketball the assumed components of success include power, agility, and the proficiency at executing movements using each limb. However, the importance of these attributes in discriminating between playing levels in female basketball have yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to compare lower body power, change of direction (COD) speed, agility, and lower-body sidedness between basketball athletes participating in Division 1 Collegiate basketball (United States), Women's National Basketball League (WNBL) (Australia), and Women's National Basketball Association (WNBA) (United States). Fifteen female athletes from each league (N = 45) completed a double and single leg counter-movement jump, static jump, drop jump, 5-0-5 COD Test, and an offensive and defensive Agility Test. One-way analysis of variance with post-hoc comparisons, were conducted to compare differences in physical characteristics (height, body mass, age) and performance outcomes (jump, COD, agility assessments) between playing levels. Separate dependent t-tests were performed to compare lower body sidedness (left vs. right lower-limbs) during the single-leg CMJ jumps (vertical jump height) and 5-0-5 COD test for each limb within each playing level. WNBA athletes displayed significantly greater lower body power (P = 0.01 - 0.03) compared to WNBL athletes, significantly faster COD speed (P = 0.02 - 0.03), and offensive and defensive agility performance (P = 0.02 - 0.03) compared to WNBL and Collegiate athletes. WNBL athletes also produced faster defensive agility performance compared to Collegiate athletes (P = 0.02). Further, WNBA and WNBL athletes exhibited reduced lower body sidedness compared to Collegiate athletes. These findings indicate the importance of lower body power, agility, and reduced lower body imbalances to execute more proficient on court movements, required to compete at higher playing levels.

  3. Swiss University Students' Attitudes toward Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa J Maier

    Full Text Available Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE refers to the nonmedical use of prescription or recreational drugs to enhance cognitive performance. Several concerns about PCE have been raised in the public. The aim of the present study was to investigate students' attitudes toward PCE. Students at three Swiss universities were invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey. Of the 29,282 students who were contacted, 3,056 participated. Of these students, 22% indicated that they had used prescription drugs (12% or recreational substances including alcohol (14% at least once for PCE. The use of prescription drugs or recreational substances including alcohol prior to the last exam was reported by 16%. Users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers were more likely to consider PCE fair (24% compared with nonusers (11%. Only a minority of the participants agreed with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs by fellow students when assuming weak (7% or hypothetically strong efficacy and availability to everyone (14%. Two-thirds (68% considered performance that is obtained with PCE less worthy of recognition. Additionally, 80% disagreed that PCE is acceptable in a competitive environment. More than half (64% agreed that PCE in academia is similar to doping in sports. Nearly half (48% claimed that unregulated access to pharmacological cognitive enhancers increases the pressure to engage in PCE and educational inequality (55%. In conclusion, Swiss students' main concerns regarding PCE were related to coercion and fairness. As expected, these concerns were more prevalent among nonusers than among users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers. More balanced information on PCE should be shared with students, and future monitoring of PCE is recommended.

  4. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank: current status.

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, A; Boeckmann, B

    1994-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank consist of sequence entries. Sequence entries are composed of different lines types, each with their own format. For standardization purposes the format of SWISS-PROT follows as closely as possible that of the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Databa...

  5. Perspective: Opportunities for ultrafast science at SwissFEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Abela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We present the main specifications of the newly constructed Swiss Free Electron Laser, SwissFEL, and explore its potential impact on ultrafast science. In light of recent achievements at current X-ray free electron lasers, we discuss the potential territory for new scientific breakthroughs offered by SwissFEL in Chemistry, Biology, and Materials Science, as well as nonlinear X-ray science.

  6. [Anthropometric study and evaluation of the nutritional status of a population school children in Granada; comparison of national and international reference standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Jiménez, E; Aguilar Cordero, M J; Álvarez Ferre, J; Padilla López, C; Valenza, M C

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies show an alarming increase in levels of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The main objectives of this research were the following: (i) to carry out an anthropometric evaluation of the nutritional status and body composition of school children in the city and province of Granada; (ii) to compare the nutritional status of this population sample with national and international reference standards. The results obtained in this study showed that the general prevalence of overweight in both sexes was 22.03% and that 9.12% of the children were obese. Statistically significant differences were found between the variable, weight for age and sex (p < 0.05) and the variable, height for age and sex (p < 0.05). Regarding the body mass index, no statistically significant differences were found for the variable, sex (p = 0.182). This contrasted with the variable, age, which did show statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). As a conclusion, the results of our study highlighted the fact that these anthropometric values were much higher than national and international reference standards.

  7. Eugenics, politics and the state: social democracy and the Swiss 'gardening state'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottier, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the connections between eugenics, politics and the state, taking the Swiss case as a particular focus. It is argued that Switzerland provides a historical example of what Bauman [Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.] describes as 'gardening states': states that are concerned with eliminating the 'bad weeds' from the national garden and thereby constructing sharply exclusionary national identities. The Swiss experiments with eugenics (1920s-1960s) can be seen as an example of an ongoing struggle against 'difference'. Against this backdrop I will examine, first, the ways in which state regulation of reproductive sexuality, and other eugenic measures, became central mechanisms for dealing with cultural and other 'differences' in the Swiss nation. Second, I will analyse the gendered nature of such mechanisms, as well as the preoccupation with racial 'difference' exemplified by eugenic policies towards 'Gypsies'. To conclude, I will examine the impact of political institutions and political ideology, in particular, social democracy, on these eugenic gardening efforts.

  8. Effect of CO{sub 2} and emissions-trading on the Swiss national economy - Analysis using a multi-country equilibrium model; Volkswirtschaftliche Auswirkungen von CO{sub 2}-Abgaben und Emissionshandel fuer das Jahr 2020 - Analyse der volkswirtschaftlichen Auswirkungen mit Hilfe eines allgemeinen Mehrlaender-Gleichgewichtsmodell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-09-15

    This report elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office for the Environment (FOEN) deals with questions concerning Swiss climate policy after 2012. In 2012, existing climate legislation as defined in CO{sub 2} emissions legislation is to be revised and brought in line with European legislation on greenhouse gases. The report presents and discusses the proposals of the Swiss government that are to make Switzerland climate-neutral. These questions include how high a steering-tax must be in order to provide a 20% reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, the amount of finance needed to do this, which effects on the economy in general (GDP) and on particular sectors are to be expected, how households will be affected and how large the positive secondary side-effects of an active climate policy are. The methods used in the study and their limitations are examined. A multi-country equilibrium model is introduced and various scenarios are discussed

  9. Clinical Outcomes in a Large Cohort of Musculoskeletal Patients Undergoing Chiropractic Care in the United Kingdom: A Comparison of Self- and National Health Service-Referred Routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Jonathan R; Newell, Dave

    2016-01-01

    An innovative commissioning pathway has recently been introduced in the United Kingdom allowing chiropractic organizations to provide state-funded chiropractic care to patients through referral from National Health Service (NHS) primary care physicians. The purpose of this study was to examine the outcomes of NHS and private patient groups presenting with musculoskeletal conditions to chiropractors under the Any Qualified Provider scheme and compare the clinical outcomes of these patients with those presenting privately. A prospective cohort design monitoring patient outcomes comparing self-referring and NHS-referred patients undergoing chiropractic care was used. The primary outcome was the change in Bournemouth Questionnaire scores. Within- and between-group analyses were performed to explore differences between outcomes with additional analysis of subgroups as categorized by the STarT back tool. A total of 8222 patients filled in baseline questionnaires. Of these, NHS patients (41%) had more adverse health measures at baseline and went on to receive more treatment. Using percent change in Bournemouth Questionnaire scores categorized at minimal clinical change cutoffs and adjusting for baseline differences, patients with low back and neck pain presenting privately are more likely to report improvement within 2 weeks and to have slightly better outcomes at 90 days. However, these patients were more likely to be attending consultations beyond 30 days. This study supports the contention that chiropractic services as provided in United Kingdom are appropriate for both private and NHS-referred patient groups and should be considered when general medical physicians make decisions concerning referral routes and pain pathways for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing perceived risk and STI prevention behavior: a national population-based study with special reference to HPV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Leval

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand trends in sexually transmitted infection (STI prevention, specifically low prevalence of condom use with temporary partners, the aim of this study was to examine factors associated with condom use and perceptions of STI risk amongst individuals at risk, with the underlying assumption that STI risk perceptions and STI prevention behaviors are correlated. METHODS: A national population-based survey on human papillomavirus (HPV and sexual habits of young adults aged 18-30 was conducted in Sweden in 2007, with 1712 men and 8855 women participating. Regression analyses stratified by gender were performed to measure condom use with temporary partners and STI risk perception. RESULTS: Men's condom use was not associated with STI risk perception while women's was. Awareness of and disease severity perceptions were not associated with either condom use or risk perception though education level correlated with condom use. Women's young age at sexual debut was associated with a higher risk of non-condom use later in life (OR 1.95 95% CI: 1.46-2.60. Women with immigrant mothers were less likely to report seldom/never use of condoms with temporary partners compared to women with Swedish-born mothers (OR 0.53 95% CI: 0.37-0.77. Correlates to STI risk perception differ substantially between sexes. Number of reported temporary partners was the only factor associated for both men and women with condom use and STI risk perception. CONCLUSIONS: Public health interventions advocating condom use with new partners could consider employing tactics besides those which primarily aim to increase knowledge or self-perceived risk if they are to be more effective in STI reduction. Gender-specific prevention strategies could be effective considering the differences found in this study.

  11. Cloud-Based CT Dose Monitoring using the DICOM-Structured Report: Fully Automated Analysis in Regard to National Diagnostic Reference Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boos, J; Meineke, A; Rubbert, C; Heusch, P; Lanzman, R S; Aissa, J; Antoch, G; Kröpil, P

    2016-03-01

    To implement automated CT dose data monitoring using the DICOM-Structured Report (DICOM-SR) in order to monitor dose-related CT data in regard to national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). We used a novel in-house co-developed software tool based on the DICOM-SR to automatically monitor dose-related data from CT examinations. The DICOM-SR for each CT examination performed between 09/2011 and 03/2015 was automatically anonymized and sent from the CT scanners to a cloud server. Data was automatically analyzed in accordance with body region, patient age and corresponding DRL for volumetric computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) and dose length product (DLP). Data of 36,523 examinations (131,527 scan series) performed on three different CT scanners and one PET/CT were analyzed. The overall mean CTDIvol and DLP were 51.3% and 52.8% of the national DRLs, respectively. CTDIvol and DLP reached 43.8% and 43.1% for abdominal CT (n=10,590), 66.6% and 69.6% for cranial CT (n=16,098) and 37.8% and 44.0% for chest CT (n=10,387) of the compared national DRLs, respectively. Overall, the CTDIvol exceeded national DRLs in 1.9% of the examinations, while the DLP exceeded national DRLs in 2.9% of the examinations. Between different CT protocols of the same body region, radiation exposure varied up to 50% of the DRLs. The implemented cloud-based CT dose monitoring based on the DICOM-SR enables automated benchmarking in regard to national DRLs. Overall the local dose exposure from CT reached approximately 50% of these DRLs indicating that DRL actualization as well as protocol-specific DRLs are desirable. The cloud-based approach enables multi-center dose monitoring and offers great potential to further optimize radiation exposure in radiological departments. • The newly developed software based on the DICOM-Structured Report enables large-scale cloud-based CT dose monitoring • The implemented software solution enables automated benchmarking in regard to national DRLs • The

  12. Swiss energy research concept for the period 2004-2007; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Swiss National Energy Research Commission CORE lists and discusses energy research topics that are to be looked during the period 2004 to 2007. The report discusses the fundamentals, visions and short and long-term targets for Swiss energy research and presents strategies for reaching them. Research areas dealt with include the efficient use of energy, renewable sources of energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economics basics necessary for the implementation of sustainable energy policy. Also, implementation aspects such as pilot and demonstration installations are discussed. The current state of research is noted and strategic targets and the ways and means of reaching them are examined. Main areas of research for the period are listed and financing issues are discussed.

  13. Trend of burnout among Swiss doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigoni, F; Bovier, P A; Sappino, A P

    2010-08-09

    Over the last decade the Swiss health care system has undergone several changes, resulting in stronger economic constraints, a heavier administrative workload and limited work autonomy for doctors. In this context we examined the change in burnout prevalence over time among Swiss doctors surveyed during this period. Cross-sectional survey data collected by mail in 2002, 2004 and 2007 throughout the country were used. Measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), several socio-demographics (gender, living alone, having children), and work-related characteristics (number of years in current workplace, hours worked). Answers to the MBI were used to classify respondents into moderate (high score on either the emotional exhaustion or the depersonalisation/cynicism subscale) and high degree of burnout (scores in the range of burnout in all three scales). Rates of moderate-degree burnout increased from 33% to 42% among general practitioners (p = 0.002) and from 19% to 34% among paediatricians (p = 0.001) (high degree of burnout: 4% to 6% [p = 0.17] and 2% to 4% [p = 0.42] respectively). After adjustment for significant socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, an increased risk of moderate burnout was found for doctors surveyed in 2004 and 2007 (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 to 2.0), general practitioners (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 to 2.0) and French-speaking doctors (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.3 to 1.9). An increased risk of high-degree burnout was found only for general practitioners (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.05 to 3.0). Burnout levels among Swiss doctors have increased over the last decade, in particular among French-speaking doctors.

  14. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  15. bipyridinium dichloride-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in Swiss ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of vitamin C on paraquat-induced hepatic and renal toxicity in. Swiss albino mice. Methods: Three groups of Swiss albino mice (n = 10), i.e., control, paraquat (15 mg/kg) and paraquat. (15 mg/kg) + vitamin C (20 mg/kg) were used in the study. The drugs were administered.

  16. Gender differences in disordered eating and weight dissatisfaction in Swiss adults: Which factors matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrester-Knauss Christine

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research results from large, national population-based studies investigating gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating across the adult life span are still limited. Gender is a significant factor in relation to weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating. However, the reasons for gender differences in these conditions are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine gender differences in weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating in the general Swiss adult population and to identify gender-specific risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 18156 Swiss adults who completed the population-based Swiss Health Survey 2007. Self-reported weight dissatisfaction, disordered eating and associated risk factors were assessed. In order to examine whether determinants of weight dissatisfaction and disordered eating (dieting to lose weight, binge eating, and irregular eating differ in men and women, multivariate logistic regressions were applied separately for women and men. Results Although more men than women were overweight, more women than men reported weight dissatisfaction. Weight category, smoking status, education, and physical activity were significantly associated with weight dissatisfaction in men and women. In women, nationality and age were also significant factors. Gender-specific risk factors such as physical activity or weight category were identified for specific disordered eating behaviours. Conclusions The results suggest that gender specific associations between predictors and disordered eating behaviour should be considered in the development of effective prevention programs against disordered eating.

  17. Global Biodiversity Loss by Freshwater Consumption and Eutrophication from Swiss Food Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-07-05

    We investigated water-related resource use, emissions and ecosystem impacts of food consumed in Switzerland. To do so, we coupled LCA methodologies on freshwater consumption, freshwater eutrophication and the consequent local and global biodiversity impacts with Swiss customs data and multiregional input-output analysis. Most of the resource use, emissions and impacts occur outside the national boundaries which illustrates the extent of environmental outsourcing facilitated by international trade. Countries that are severely affected by Swiss food consumption include Spain, the United States and Ecuador. Cocoa, coffee, and almonds stood out as products with high impacts. By identifying spatial hotspots and impactful products, awareness of policy-makers as well as individual consumers can be raised and efforts of detailed assessments can be streamlined. However, political and economic constraints and the resistance by individual consumers limit the high potential of changes in diets and trade relations to decrease the environmental impacts of food.

  18. Cloud-based CT dose monitoring using the DICOM-structured report. Fully automated analysis in regard to national diagnostic reference levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boos, J.; Rubbert, C.; Heusch, P.; Lanzman, R.S.; Aissa, J.; Antoch, G.; Kroepil, P. [Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic an Interventional Radiology; Meineke, A. [Cerner Health Services, Idstein (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    To implement automated CT dose data monitoring using the DICOM-Structured Report (DICOM-SR) in order to monitor dose-related CT data in regard to national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). Materials and Methods: We used a novel in-house co-developed software tool based on the DICOM-SR to automatically monitor dose-related data from CT examinations. The DICOM-SR for each CT examination performed between 09/2011 and 03/2015 was automatically anonymized and sent from the CT scanners to a cloud server. Data was automatically analyzed in accordance with body region, patient age and corresponding DRL for volumetric computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose length product (DLP). Results: Data of 36 523 examinations (131 527 scan series) performed on three different CT scanners and one PET/CT were analyzed. The overall mean CTDI{sub vol} and DLP were 51.3 % and 52.8 % of the national DRLs, respectively. CTDI{sub vol} and DLP reached 43.8 % and 43.1 % for abdominal CT (n = 10 590), 66.6 % and 69.6 % for cranial CT (n = 16 098) and 37.8 % and 44.0 % for chest CT (n = 10 387) of the compared national DRLs, respectively. Overall, the CTDI{sub vol} exceeded national DRLs in 1.9 % of the examinations, while the DLP exceeded national DRLs in 2.9 % of the examinations. Between different CT protocols of the same body region, radiation exposure varied up to 50 % of the DRLs. Conclusion: The implemented cloud-based CT dose monitoring based on the DICOM-SR enables automated benchmarking in regard to national DRLs. Overall the local dose exposure from CT reached approximately 50 % of these DRLs indicating that DRL actualization as well as protocol-specific DRLs are desirable. The cloud-based approach enables multi-center dose monitoring and offers great potential to further optimize radiation exposure in radiological departments.

  19. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Document Server

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies in the printed Bulletin). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in particular those requiring a visa for the Schengen area). In this context, we remind you that the Swiss Permanent Mission is systematically in...

  20. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  1. The Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research SIN

    CERN Document Server

    Pritzker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This book tells the story of the Swiss Institute for Nuclear Research (SIN). The institute was founded in 1968 and became part of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in 1988. Its founding occurred at a time when physics was generally considered the key discipline for technological and social development. This step was unusual for a small country like Switzerland and showed courage and foresight. Equally unusual were the accomplishments of SIN, compared with similar institutes in the rest of the world, as well as its influence on Swiss, and partially also on international politics of science. That this story is now available in a widely understandable form is due to the efforts of some physicists, who took the initiative as long as contemporary witnesses could still be questioned. As is usually the case, official documents always show just an excerpt of what really happened. An intimate portrayal of people who contributed to success requires personal memories. This text relies on both sources. In addition, the e...

  2. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  3. Swiss energy statistics 2001; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2001/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  4. Swiss energy statistics 2000; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2000/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  5. Swiss energy statistics 2007; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2007/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  6. DETERMINATION OF NATIONAL DIAGNOSTIC REFERENCE LEVELS IN COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY EXAMINATIONS OF IRAN BY A NEW QUALITY CONTROL-BASED DOSE SURVEY METHOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Parsi, Masoumeh; Mianji, Fereidoun

    2017-11-10

    National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) of Iran were determined for the four most common CT examinations including head, sinus, chest and abdomen/pelvis. A new 'quality control (QC)-based dose survey method', as developed by us, was applied to 157 CT scanners in Iran (2014-15) with different slice classes, models and geographic spread across the country. The NDRLs for head, sinus, chest and abdomen/pelvis examinations are 58, 29, 12 and 14 mGy for CTDIVol and 750, 300, 300 and 650 mGy.cm for DLP, respectively. The 'QC-based dose survey method' was further proven that it is a simple, accurate and practical method for a time and cost-effective NDRLs determination. One effective approach for optimization of the CT examination protocols at the national level is the provision of an adequate standardized training of the radiologists, technicians and medical physicists on the patient radiation protection principles and implementation of the DRL concept in clinical practices. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Appreciation of the Swiss Franc and its Impact on Romania and other Central and Eastern European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Delia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The decision of the Swiss National Bank of giving up the fixed rate of 1,2 Euro/CHF on the 15th of January 2015, a rate established at its admission to the Monetary Economic Union, had consequences on Central and Eastern European countries because a great part of the credits granted were in Swiss francs. In all these countries, the national currencies depreciated and the financial market rates were reduced. Regional banks started to face difficulties regarding the management of the situation and were under the necessity of finding solutions to avoid the risk of not recovering the granted credits. The issue of the Swiss franc appreciation was treated differently by the analysed countries and took into consideration the particularities characteristic to the credits granted in this currency. The present paper aims at emphasising the impact of the Swiss franc appreciation on the Romanian banking system but also the approach of other countries in Central and Eastern Europe in this respect.

  8. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  9. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  10. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  11. Underwater Sound Reference Division

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Underwater Sound Reference Division (USRD) serves as the U.S. standardizing activity in the area of underwater acoustic measurements, as the National Institute...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: adermatoglyphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individuals have had difficulty entering countries that require fingerprinting for identification. In some families, adermatoglyphia occurs without ... Genetics Home Reference Celebrates Its 15th Anniversary National DNA Day 2018 Newborn Screening Saves Lives Act Turns ...

  13. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  14. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  15. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  16. Replacement of Swiss "Attestations de fonctions"

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2009-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN that the "attestations de fonctions" issued to certain members of the personnel and the "attestations" issued to their family members will gradually be replaced by P-type "cartes de légitimation" (see specimen copies below). This card’s name, together with its more contemporary design compared with old-style "Attestations" issued in the 1970s, will make the holder’s daily life much easier, e.g. when crossing borders, renting accommodation or setting up a telephone line. The Users Office (PH Department) and the Cards Office (HR Department), which are responsible for handling requests for "cartes de légitimation", will provide information in due course on how they intend to organise the exchange of "attestations" (priority will be given to residents of Switzerland, in parti...

  17. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  18. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  19. Swiss solar power statistics 2007 - Significant expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hostettler, T.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents and discusses the 2007 statistics for solar power in Switzerland. A significant number of new installations is noted as is the high production figures from newer installations. The basics behind the compilation of the Swiss solar power statistics are briefly reviewed and an overview for the period 1989 to 2007 is presented which includes figures on the number of photovoltaic plant in service and installed peak power. Typical production figures in kilowatt-hours (kWh) per installed kilowatt-peak power (kWp) are presented and discussed for installations of various sizes. Increased production after inverter replacement in older installations is noted. Finally, the general political situation in Switzerland as far as solar power is concerned are briefly discussed as are international developments.

  20. Swiss-Cheese Gravitino Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aalok

    2014-06-01

    We present a phenomenological model which we show can be obtained as a local realization of large volume D 3 / D 7 μ-Split SUSY on a nearly special Lagrangian three-cycle embedded in the big divisor of a Swiss-Cheese Calabi-Yau [Mansi Dhuria, Aalok Misra, arxiv:arXiv:1207.2774 [hep-ph], Nucl. Phys. B867 (2013) 636-748]. After identification of the first generation of SM leptons and quarks with fermionic super-partners of four Wilson line moduli, we discuss the identification of gravitino as a potential dark matter candidate. We also show that it is possible to obtain a 125 GeV light Higgs in our setup.

  1. Making good progress. SwissEnergy 2nd annual report 2002/03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The second annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's 'SwissEnergy' programme presents the activities carried out and the results achieved within the framework of the programme, which aims to help implement Switzerland's climate change policy. SwissEnergy is a national programme in which the government, the cantons, local authorities, the private sector, consumer and environmental organisations, as well as public and private-sector agencies work together as partners. In the first part of the report, strategies - including increasing energy efficiency and the promotion of the use of renewable forms of energy - are described, as are the measures taken, which focus on voluntary efforts by trade and industry. Also, the programme's organisation in four sectors - public sector and buildings, trade and industry, mobility and renewable energy - are described. The second part of the report is dedicated to activities carried out in 2002/2003 and describes economic and policy developments, project management activities and those carried out in the four sectors. The third section discusses the impact of the programme's activities in 2002 on Switzerland's energy consumption and its contribution to the implementation of Switzerland's climate policy. The evaluation procedures used to establish the impact and their accuracy are discussed. The report also discusses the programme's impact on investment and employment in Switzerland

  2. [[History of Community Health in Africa. The Swiss Medical Missionaries' Endeavour in South Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabika, Hines

    2015-01-01

    It was not Dutch settlers nor British colonizers who introduced public and community health practice in north-eastern South Africa but medical doctors of the Swiss mission in southern Africa. While the history of medical knowledge transfer into 19th-20th century Africa emphasises colonial powers, this paper shows how countries without colonies contributed to expand western medical cultures, including public health. The Swiss took advantage of the local authorities' negligence, and implemented their own model of medicalization of African societies, understood as the way of improving health standards. They moved from a tolerated hospital-centred medicine to the practice of community health, which was uncommon at the time. Elim hospital's physicians moved back boundaries of segregationist policies, and sometime gave the impression of being involved in the political struggle against Apartheid. Thus, Swiss public health activities could later be seen as sorts of seeds that were planted and would partly reappear in 1994 with the ANC-projected national health policy.

  3. Explaining regional variations in health care utilization between Swiss cantons using panel econometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, Paul A

    2012-03-13

    In spite of a detailed and nation-wide legislation frame, there exist large cantonal disparities in consumed quantities of health care services in Switzerland. In this study, the most important factors of influence causing these regional disparities are determined. The findings can also be productive for discussing the containment of health care consumption in other countries. Based on the literature, relevant factors that cause geographic disparities of quantities and costs in western health care systems are identified. Using a selected set of these factors, individual panel econometric models are calculated to explain the variation of the utilization in each of the six largest health care service groups (general practitioners, specialist doctors, hospital inpatient, hospital outpatient, medication, and nursing homes) in Swiss mandatory health insurance (MHI). The main data source is 'Datenpool santésuisse', a database of Swiss health insurers. For all six health care service groups, significant factors influencing the utilization frequency over time and across cantons are found. A greater supply of service providers tends to have strong interrelations with per capita consumption of MHI services. On the demand side, older populations and higher population densities represent the clearest driving factors. Strategies to contain consumption and costs in health care should include several elements. In the federalist Swiss system, the structure of regional health care supply seems to generate significant effects. However, the extent of driving factors on the demand side (e.g., social deprivation) or financing instruments (e.g., high deductibles) should also be considered.

  4. [An Archive for Science, State and Nation : Climatological Data Practices in Switzerland, 1860-1914].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupfer, Franziska

    2017-12-01

    In the second half of the nineteenth century, most European countries began to finance weather observation networks. As a result, climatological data practices changed fundamentally. Using the example of Switzerland, this paper examines the political, institutional and methodological dimensions of national data archives. The institutionalization of data collection within the national framework meant, on the one hand, that more observations were systematically made and published. On the other hand, it also meant that the monitoring was connected to state boundaries. However, based on their universalistic conception of science, this did not preclude national institutions from striving for international data standardization. The national framework also shaped the process of transforming weather observations into statistical data. This information formed the basis for national climatographies and thus had a nation-building effect. According to the Swiss Meteorological Institute, climate data were practically useful and had great potential for research work. However, the epistemic status of data collection was uncertain, since physical approaches to climatology had gained in importance. The anticipation of scientific and practical potential benefits played a central role for the continuation of data production. The Swiss case study presented here illustrates that climatology was transformed by the process of nation-building, affecting its institutional structure, spatial references, and epistemology.

  5. Definition of the upper reference limit for thyroglobulin antibodies according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry guidelines: comparison of eleven different automated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, F; Metus, P; Ferrari, A; Caruso, B; Castello, R; Villalta, D; Steffan, A; Gaspardo, K; Pesente, F; Bizzaro, N; Tonutti, E; Valverde, S; Cosma, C; Plebani, M; Tozzoli, R

    2017-12-01

    In the last two decades, thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) measurement has progressively switched from marker of thyroid autoimmunity to test associated with thyroglobulin (Tg) to verify the presence or absence of TgAb interference in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Of note, TgAb measurement is cumbersome: despite standardization against the International Reference Preparation MRC 65/93, several studies demonstrated high inter-method variability and wide variation in limits of detection and in reference intervals. Taking into account the above considerations, the main aim of the present study was the determination of TgAb upper reference limit (URL), according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry guidelines, through the comparison of eleven commercial automated immunoassay platforms. The sera of 120 healthy males, selected from a population survey in the province of Verona, Italy, were tested for TgAb concentration using eleven IMA applied on as many automated analyzers: AIA-2000 (AIA) and AIA-CL2400 (CL2), Tosoh Bioscience; Architect (ARC), Abbott Diagnostics; Advia Centaur XP (CEN) and Immulite 2000 XPi (IMM), Siemens Healthineers; Cobas 6000 (COB), Roche Diagnostics; Kryptor (KRY), Thermo Fisher Scientific BRAHMS, Liaison XL (LIA), Diasorin; Lumipulse G (LUM), Fujirebio; Maglumi 2000 Plus (MAG), Snibe and Phadia 250 (PHA), Phadia AB, Thermo Fisher Scientific. All assays were performed according to manufacturers' instructions in six different laboratories in Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Veneto regions of Italy [Lab 1 (AIA), Lab 2 (CL2), Lab 3 (ARC, COB and LUM), Lab 4 (CEN, IMM, KRY and MAG), Lab 5 (LIA) and Lab 6 (PHA)]. Since TgAb values were not normally distributed, the experimental URL (e-URL) was established at 97.5 percentile according to the non-parametric method. TgAb e-URLs showed a significant inter-method variability. Considering the same method, e-URL was much lower than that suggested by manufacturers (m

  6. Survey of the diagnostic retooling process in national TB reference laboratories, with special focus on rapid speciation tests endorsed by WHO in 2007.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanne C van Kampen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful integration of new diagnostics in national tuberculosis (TB control programs, also called 'retooling', is highly dependent on operational aspects related to test availability, accessibility and affordability. This survey aimed to find out whether recommendations to use new diagnostics lead to successful retooling in high TB endemic countries, using immunochromatographic tests (ICTs for TB culture speciation as a case study. ICTs are recommended to accurately confirm the presence of bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid culture isolates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Questionnaires were sent to national TB reference laboratories (NRLs in 42 high TB endemic countries to address their access to information on ICT implementation, logistics related to availability, accessibility and affordability of ICTs, and testing algorithms. Results from 16 responding countries indicated that half of the NRLs were aware of the contents of WHO guidance documents on liquid culture and ICT implementation, as well as their eligibility for a negotiated pricing agreement for ICT procurement. No major issues with availability and accessibility of ICTs were raised. When asked about testing algorithms, ICTs were not used as stand-alone or first test for TB culture identification as recommended by WHO. CONCLUSIONS: The low response rate was a limitation of this survey and together with NRLs managers' unawareness of global guidance, suggests a lack of effective communication between partners of the global laboratory network and NRLs. TB tests could become more affordable to high TB endemic countries, if the possibility to negotiate lower prices for commercial products is communicated to them more successfully. NRLs need additional guidance to identify where available technologies can be most usefully implemented and in what order, taking into account long-term laboratory strategies.

  7. Survey of the diagnostic retooling process in national TB reference laboratories, with special focus on rapid speciation tests endorsed by WHO in 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, Sanne C; Oskam, Linda; Tuijn, Coosje J; Klatser, Paul R

    2012-01-01

    Successful integration of new diagnostics in national tuberculosis (TB) control programs, also called 'retooling', is highly dependent on operational aspects related to test availability, accessibility and affordability. This survey aimed to find out whether recommendations to use new diagnostics lead to successful retooling in high TB endemic countries, using immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for TB culture speciation as a case study. ICTs are recommended to accurately confirm the presence of bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid culture isolates. Questionnaires were sent to national TB reference laboratories (NRLs) in 42 high TB endemic countries to address their access to information on ICT implementation, logistics related to availability, accessibility and affordability of ICTs, and testing algorithms. Results from 16 responding countries indicated that half of the NRLs were aware of the contents of WHO guidance documents on liquid culture and ICT implementation, as well as their eligibility for a negotiated pricing agreement for ICT procurement. No major issues with availability and accessibility of ICTs were raised. When asked about testing algorithms, ICTs were not used as stand-alone or first test for TB culture identification as recommended by WHO. The low response rate was a limitation of this survey and together with NRLs managers' unawareness of global guidance, suggests a lack of effective communication between partners of the global laboratory network and NRLs. TB tests could become more affordable to high TB endemic countries, if the possibility to negotiate lower prices for commercial products is communicated to them more successfully. NRLs need additional guidance to identify where available technologies can be most usefully implemented and in what order, taking into account long-term laboratory strategies.

  8. The Swiss carbon balance: methods, state of reporting and research perspectives. COST E21 Workshop. Contribution of forests and forestry to mitigate greenhouse effects. Joensuu (Finland. 28-30 Sep 2000.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bugmann H.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the 1990-1998 period, Switzerland reported an annual sink strength of Swiss forests of 4500-6000 Gg CO2. In its latest submission in 2000, newly available national forest inventory (NFI data were used to refine earlier estimates. The same NFI data can also be used to provide extrapolations for the near future. No carbon sequestration values have been reported to date for forest soils. The Swiss government will provide funding for a number of research activities under the umbrella of COST E21, ranging from modeling studies of carbon storage in Swiss forests to an evaluation of joint implementation methods.

  9. The Use of Evidence in Public Debates in the Media: The Case of Swiss Direct-Democratic Campaigns in the Health Policy Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucki, Iris

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the reporting of evidence in Swiss direct-democratic campaigns in the health policy sector, assuming that an informed public helps democracy function successfully. A content analysis of the media's news reporting shows that of 5030 media items retrieved, a reference to evidence is found in 6.8%. The voter receives evidence in…

  10. Implementation of the ICRP-60 Recommendations by Swiss Pharmaceutical Companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, R. P.; Traub, K.; Berlepsch, P.; Reischmann, F. J.; Zoubek, N.

    2004-01-01

    Switzerland was among the first countries that adapted its national law to the recommendations of the ICRP-publication No. 60. Already in 1991, the Federal Parliament enacted a new Radiological Protection Act. In 1994, the Federal Government adopted the new Radiation Protection Ordinance. Federal Ministries followed with technical ordinances and guidelines, e.g., for radioactive waste in 1996, for handling open sources in 1997, for X-rays in 1998 and for the training and dosimetry of radiation workers in 1999. In 1996, the Council of the European Union (Switzerland is not a member of the EU) decreed the Directive for the Protection of the Health of Workers and the General Public against the Dangers Arising from Ionising Radiation. Based on this directive, Germany adopted a new Radiation Protection Ordinance in 2001 and a new X-Ray-Ordinance in 2002. To transform the ordinances into radiation protection in the workplace further technical ordinances and guidelines are under development. Almost ten years ago, users of ionising radiation in Switzerland had to deal with the problems of implementing the new radiation protection legislation into their local rules that Germany and other EU companies are facing now. Therefore it may be interesting and helpful for authorities and companies in the EU to learn from the experience of their Swiss colleagues. (Author) 4 refs

  11. [Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic aspects of blunt abdominal trauma in patients undergoing surgery at the General Hospital of National Reference of N'Djamena, Chad: about 49 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choua, Ouchemi; Rimtebaye, Kimassoum; Yamingue, Ngueidjo; Moussa, Kalli; Kaboro, Mignagnal

    2017-01-01

    Blunt abdominal traumas are common. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 49 patients with blunt abdominal trauma who underwent surgery at the General Hospital of National Reference of N'Djamena, Chad over a period of 5 years. Epidemiological, clinical and therapeutic parameters of patients were studied. The study included 42 men and 7 women, mean age 21.3 years. The causes of blunt abdominal traumas were: road traffic accidents in 61.2% of cases; wall collapses (14.3%); assaults (8.2%). Blunt abdominal traumas were more frequent in August (14.28%) and October (16.32%). The waiting time for admission in hospital was 6-12h in 43% of cases. At discharge, wounded patients used private car in 85.7% of cases. Clinically, patients were often hemodynamically stable (55.1%). Medical imaging was dominated by direct radiography of the abdomen (57.1%). The most observed lesions were those located only in the small intestine (16.32%) or related to that of the bladder (8.16%) and spleen (2.04%). Laparotomy was negative in 6.12% of cases. Morbidity (12.2%) was dominated by abdominal wall abscess. Mortality rate was 6.1%. Road traffic accidents are the leading cause of blunt abdominal traumas. It is important to minimize delays in diagnosis, and treatment. Road safety measures should be implemented to prevent accidents.

  12. Compliance to Diagnostic Reference Levels for radiation exposure in common radiological procedures in Dutch hospitals: A nation-wide survey carried out by medical imaging students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijwaard, H; de Vries, G; Scheurleer, J; Roding, T; Erenstein, H; Ravensbergen, W; Haarmans-Jonkman, S; van Welie, F

    2017-08-01

    In the Netherlands, hospitals have difficulty in implementing the formal procedure of comparing radiation dose values to Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). To support the hospitals, train radiography students, and carry out a nationwide dose survey, diagnostic radiography students performed 125 DRL comparisons for nine different procedures in 29 radiology departments. Students were instructed at three Dutch Universities of Applied Sciences with a radiography programme and supervised by medical physicists from the participating hospitals. After a pilot study in the western part of the country in eight hospitals, this study was enlarged to involve 21 hospitals from all over the Netherlands. The 86 obtained dose comparisons fall below the DRLs in 97% of all cases. This very high compliance may have been enhanced by the voluntary participation of hospitals that are confident about their performance. The results indicate that the current DRLs that were not based on a national survey, may need to be updated, sometimes to half their current value. For chest and pelvis examinations the DRLs could be lowered from 12 and 300 μGy·m 2 to the 75-percentile values found in this study of 5,9 and 188 μGy·m 2 , respectively. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Survey of Swiss nuclear's cost study 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, Stefan; Ustohalova, Veronika

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses the Swiss nuclear cost study 2016 concerning the following issues: evaluation of the aspects of the cost study: cost structure, cost classification and risk provision, additional payment liability, option of lifetime extension for Swiss nuclear power plants; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the decommissioning cost of Swiss nuclear power plants'': decommissioning costs in Germany, France and the USA, indexing the Swiss cost estimation for decommissioning cost, impact factors on the decommissioning costs; specific indications on the report ''cost study 2016 (KS16) - estimation of the disposal cost - interim storage, transport, containers and reprocessing''; specific indications on the report ''cost studies (KS16) - estimation of disposal costs - geological deep disposal'': time scale and costs incurred, political/social risks, retrievability, comparison with other mining costs.

  14. The SWISS-PROT protein sequence data bank

    OpenAIRE

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte

    1992-01-01

    SWISS-PROT is an annotated protein sequence database established in 1986 and maintained collaboratively, since 1988, by the Department of Medical Biochemistry of the University of Geneva and the EMBL Data Library

  15. Establishment of the upper reference limit for thyroid peroxidase autoantibodies according to the guidelines proposed by the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry: comparison of five different automated methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aurizio, Federica; Metus, Paolo; Polizzi Anselmo, Annalisa; Villalta, Danilo; Ferrari, Anna; Castello, Roberto; Giani, Graziella; Tonutti, Elio; Bizzaro, Nicola; Tozzoli, Renato

    2015-12-01

    The estimation of the upper reference limit (URL) for autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPOAbs) is a controversial issue, because of an uncertainty associated with the criteria used to correctly define the reference population. In addition, the URL of TPOAbs is method-dependent and often arbitrarily established in current laboratory practice. The aim of this study was to determine the reference limits of TPOAbs in a male sample according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry (NACB) guidelines, and to compare them with those obtained in a female group, for five third-generation commercial-automated immunoassay (IMA) platforms. 120 healthy males and 120 healthy females with NACB-required characteristics (younger than 30 years, TSH between 0.5 and 2.0 mIU/L, normal thyroid ultrasound, absence of thyroid disease and absence of other autoimmune diseases) were studied. Sera were analyzed for TPOAbs concentration using five IMA methods applied in automated analyzers: Immulite 2000 XPi (IMM); Maglumi 2000 Plus (MAG); Kryptor Compact Plus (KRY); Phadia 250 (PHA) and Liaison XL (LIA). A statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between medians in male and female groups was observed for PHA (2.6 and 3.1 IU/mL, respectively) but not for the other four methods. Scatter plots of TPOAbs values revealed a wide dispersion with very different coefficients of variation between the five methods, varying from 48.6 % for KRY in females to 126.3 % for MAG in females. The URLs differed in males and females according to the method: 28.7 and 29.0 IU/mL for IMM, 24.6 and 25.4 IU/mL for MAG, 6.4 and 6.9 IU/mL for KRY, 8.3 and 10.0 IU/mL for PHA and 14.2 and 17.9 IU/mL for LIA, respectively. Such URLs were lower than those stated by the manufacturers except for LIA in females. The difference between URLs ranged from a minimum of 11.3 % (LIA in males) to a maximum of 66.8 % (PHA in males). Differences in URLs could result from the different coating

  16. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    OpenAIRE

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were ad...

  17. The consolidation of annual accounts in the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Vollenweider, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Financial reporting in the public sector is influenced by the private sector accounting standards. The Swiss Federal Government has recently started to prepare consolidated financial statements. The purpose of this study is to describe how the Swiss Federal Government is doing its consolidated financial statements. Theoretically there are different consolidation theories and methods. The choice of consolidation method can explain which consolidation theory is used when the financial statement...

  18. Natural Language Processing for the Swiss German Dialect Area

    OpenAIRE

    Scherrer, Yves; Rambow, Owen

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses work on data collection for Swiss German dialects taking into account the continuous nature of the dialect landscape, and proposes to integrate these data into natural language processing models. We present knowledge-based models for machine translation into any Swiss German dialect, for dialect identification, and for multi-dialectal parsing. In a dialect continuum, rules cannot be applied uniformly, but have restricted validity in well-defined geographic areas. Therefor...

  19. Working capital management in the Swiss chemical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, S. (Stefan); Locker, A. (Alwin); Jergen, C. (Christian)

    2012-01-01

    The performance of Swiss based chemical and pharmaceutical companies regarding their working capital management and its underlying components, namely accounts receivable, inventories and accounts payable differs over time and between the single firms. The calculation of a cash potential for the year 2008 shows that 17 billion CHF is tied up in the companies’ balance sheets if they would realise the Swiss best practice performance. It has also been shown that in rece...

  20. The SWISS-MODEL Repository and associated resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Florian; Arnold, Konstantin; Künzli, Michael; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL Repository (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository/) is a database of 3D protein structure models generated by the SWISS-MODEL homology-modelling pipeline. The aim of the SWISS-MODEL Repository is to provide access to an up-to-date collection of annotated 3D protein models generated by automated homology modelling for all sequences in Swiss-Prot and for relevant models organisms. Regular updates ensure that target coverage is complete, that models are built using the most recent sequence and template structure databases, and that improvements in the underlying modelling pipeline are fully utilised. As of September 2008, the database contains 3.4 million entries for 2.7 million different protein sequences from the UniProt database. SWISS-MODEL Repository allows the users to assess the quality of the models in the database, search for alternative template structures, and to build models interactively via SWISS-MODEL Workspace (http://swissmodel.expasy.org/workspace/). Annotation of models with functional information and cross-linking with other databases such as the Protein Model Portal (http://www.proteinmodelportal.org) of the PSI Structural Genomics Knowledge Base facilitates the navigation between protein sequence and structure resources. PMID:18931379

  1. What refers? How?

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    “Guns don’t kill people, people kill people.” This National Rifle Association slogan has a popular analogue in the philosophy of language: words don’t refer to things, people refer to things. This paper looks at how the question of what refers (Words/concepts? People? Both? Neither?) intersects with the phenomenon of opacity. The discussion is used to motivate an important revision to standard intention-based accounts of speaker reference, one that takes due account of the fact that distinct ...

  2. Plan for Long-Term Monitoring of North American Geoid Change in Support of the U.S. National Spatial Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, T.

    2016-12-01

    The US, Canada, and Mexico will adopt a new, shared spatial reference system in 2022, allowing the calculation of 1 cm-accurate orthometric heights in many places. The vertical datum portion of the reference system will be supported by a geoid model that spans the entire northwest hemisphere of Earth. The US National Geodetic Survey's goal is to create the geoid model to 1 cm accuracy, if possible, by collecting new airborne gravity data across the United States and improving geoid modeling techniques. Assuming this effort is successful­— a safe assumption as it is obtaining positive results from its 8 years of ongoing work­— the next challenge facing North American geodetic agencies will be maintaining the vertical datum. To do so requires monitoring geoid change in North America. First, we review sources of North American geoid change, their rates of change, and their spatial extents. Based on this, it is clear that monitoring will rely on NASA's 2017 Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment- Follow On (GRACE-FO) mission. However, GRACE-FO will be similar to GRACE such that some gravity change below its measurement resolution is large enough to cause geoid change. Present-day ice melting (primarily in Greenland, Alaska, and the Canadian Rockies) and catastrophic-sized earthquakes or volcanic eruptions fall into this category. With current technology, the only ways to monitor these and other geoid change signals is with terrestrial absolute gravity measurements, likely with co-located GNSS height monitoring. We review the absolute gravity and GNSS networks in North America, placing emphasis stations with the longest and most reliable time series of absolute gravity and/or GNSS, and which smaller subset of sites have co-located measurements. Current networks are compared to the areas most in need of geoid monitoring. The result is two plans: 1. terrestrial gravity and GNSS coverage needed if GRACE-FO (or a similar mission) is successfully launched before 2022

  3. Nutritional State of the Children from 6 to 24 Months Seen in Paediatric Consultation at the General Hospital of National Reference of N'Djamena (Chad)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgaye, Aicha; Ag Iknane, Akory

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Summary: Objectives: Infantile malnutrition is a problem of public health major in the Development Countries. In Chad, it constitutes a real problem of public health in particular in the children of less than 24 months. The present study aims at evaluating the nutritional statute of the children from 6 to 24 months seen in pediatric consultation at the general hospital of reference of Djamena to Chad. We proposed to make a descriptive cross-sectional study allowing to make the photography of the situation at a given time. Methods: A descriptive exploratory study proceeded for two months and concerned 400 old children from 6 to 24 months, seen in pediatric consultation at the general hospital of national reference. Results: The nutritional statute of the children in hospital medium with the HGRN of Djamena is not alarming with a prevalence of 41,5% from emaciation, 33,3% of delay of growth and 52% of underweight according to NHCS. The fever was the most frequent sign having pushed the mother to consult, that is to say 40% of the children consulted for the fever, 25% for the acute respiratory infections, 24% for the diarrhoea. Our study found 56,8% of the mothers living in polygamies. 36% of the questioned women had a primary level but 37% were still illiterate. approximately 38% of the mothers of the children of 12 à17 month were illiterate and depended on their husband. 29,5% of the mothers were multipares and 6% were large multipares. 46% pauci avoid and 18,5% first calf cow. The level of knowledge of the mothers remains acceptable on the food diversification of the children because more the share began it between 6 and 24 months, are 65,5% had a liquid feeding, 89% had a semi-fluid feeding and 86% had a solid feeding between 6 and 24 months. The enriched pulp was the food more used by approximately 75% of the mothers. We noted 26,3% children separated before 24 months whose more share are those from 18 to 24 months. The reason for weaning according to

  4. Safety climate in Swiss hospital units: Swiss version of the Safety Climate Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Katrin; Mascherek, Anna C.; Bezzola, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives Safety climate measurements are a broadly used element of improvement initiatives. In order to provide a sound and easy‐to‐administer instrument for the use in Swiss hospitals, we translated the Safety Climate Survey into German and French. Methods After translating the Safety Climate Survey into French and German, a cross‐sectional survey study was conducted with health care professionals (HCPs) in operating room (OR) teams and on OR‐related wards in 10 Swiss hospitals. Validity of the instrument was examined by means of Cronbach's alpha and missing rates of the single items. Item‐descriptive statistics group differences and percentage of ‘problematic responses’ (PPR) were calculated. Results 3153 HCPs completed the survey (response rate: 63.4%). 1308 individuals were excluded from the analyses because of a profession other than doctor or nurse or invalid answers (n = 1845; nurses = 1321, doctors = 523). Internal consistency of the translated Safety Climate Survey was good (Cronbach's alpha G erman = 0.86; Cronbach's alpha F rench = 0.84). Missing rates at item level were rather low (0.23–4.3%). We found significant group differences in safety climate values regarding profession, managerial function, work area and time spent in direct patient care. At item level, 14 out of 21 items showed a PPR higher than 10%. Conclusions Results indicate that the French and German translations of the Safety Climate Survey might be a useful measurement instrument for safety climate in Swiss hospital units. Analyses at item level allow for differentiating facets of safety climate into more positive and critical safety climate aspects. PMID:25656302

  5. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genzen, Jonathan R; Gosselin, Jennifer T; Wilson, Thomas C; Racila, Emilian; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-11-05

    Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa - in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of ≥ 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season, and patient location. Improved 25(OH

  6. Analysis of vitamin D status at two academic medical centers and a national reference laboratory: result patterns vary by age, gender, season, and patient location

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Testing for 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] has increased dramatically in recent years. The present report compares overall utilization and results for 25(OH)D orders at two academic medical centers - one in New York and one in Iowa – in order to characterize the vitamin D status of our inpatient and outpatient populations. Results are also compared to those from a national reference laboratory to determine whether patterns at these two institutions reflect those observed nationally. Methods Retrospective data queries of 25(OH)D orders and results were conducted using the laboratory information systems at Weill Cornell Medical College / New York Presbyterian Hospital (WCMC), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics (UIHC), and ARUP Laboratories (ARUP). Chart review was conducted for cases with very high or low serum 25(OH)D levels in the WCMC and UIHC datasets. Results The majority of tests were ordered on females and outpatients. Average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in female versus male patients across most ages in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. As expected, average serum 25(OH)D levels were higher in outpatients than inpatients. Serum 25(OH)D levels showed seasonal periodicity, with average levels higher in summer than winter and correlating to regional UV index. Area plots demonstrated a peak of increased 25(OH)D insufficiency / deficiency in adolescent females, although overall worse 25(OH)D status was found in male versus female patients in the WCMC, UIHC, and ARUP datasets. Surprisingly, improved 25(OH)D status was observed in patients starting near age 50. Finally, chart review of WCMC and UIHC datasets revealed over-supplementation (especially of ≥ 50,000 IU weekly doses) in the rare cases of very high 25(OH)D levels. General nutritional deficiency and/or severe illness was found in most cases of severe 25(OH)D deficiency. Conclusions 25(OH)D status of patients seen by healthcare providers varies according to age, gender, season

  7. Estimating Access to Drinking Water Supply, Sanitation, and Hygiene Facilities in Wolaita Sodo Town, Southern Ethiopia, in Reference to National Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debebe, Ashenafi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The coverage of sanitation and access to safe drinking water in Ethiopia especially in Wolaita Sodo town are not well studied. Therefore, the main objective of this study was estimating access to drinking water supply, sanitation, and hygiene facilities in Wolaita Sodo town, southern Ethiopia, in reference to national coverage. Methods. A community based cross-sectional study design method was employed in the study in 588 households of Wolaita Sodo town inhabitants. Face-to-face interview to household owners, in-depth interview to key informants, reviewing secondary data, and observational check lists were used to collect data. Districts were selected using simple random sampling techniques, while systematic random sampling technique was applied to select households. Data was analyzed using Epi Info version 3.5.4 and SPSS version 16 statistical software. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis were carried out. Results. The community has access to improved water supply which was estimated to be 67.9%. The main water sources of the town were tap water within the yard, which was estimated to be 44.7%, and tap water in the community was 40.0% followed by private protected well which was 14.5%. Ninety-one percent of the households had at least one type of latrine in their homes. The most common type of latrine available to households was pit latrine with superstructure which was estimated to be 75.9% followed by a pit without superstructure, 21.3%, and more than half of the respondents had hand washing facilities in their compound. Occupational status, educational status, and training on water, sanitation, and hygiene related topics were significantly associated with use of improved water source, improved sanitation, and hygiene facilities. Conclusion. In order to address the demand of the town, additional water, sanitation, and hygiene programs are required. PMID:28025598

  8. UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, the Manually Annotated Section of the UniProt KnowledgeBase: How to Use the Entry View.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Emmanuel; Lieberherr, Damien; Tognolli, Michael; Schneider, Michel; Bansal, Parit; Bridge, Alan J; Poux, Sylvain; Bougueleret, Lydie; Xenarios, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    The Universal Protein Resource (UniProt, http://www.uniprot.org ) consortium is an initiative of the SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), the European Bioinformatics Institute (EBI) and the Protein Information Resource (PIR) to provide the scientific community with a central resource for protein sequences and functional information. The UniProt consortium maintains the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB), updated every 4 weeks, and several supplementary databases including the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) and the UniProt Archive (UniParc).The Swiss-Prot section of the UniProt KnowledgeBase (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot) contains publicly available expertly manually annotated protein sequences obtained from a broad spectrum of organisms. Plant protein entries are produced in the frame of the Plant Proteome Annotation Program (PPAP), with an emphasis on characterized proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa. High level annotations provided by UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot are widely used to predict annotation of newly available proteins through automatic pipelines.The purpose of this chapter is to present a guided tour of a UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry. We will also present some of the tools and databases that are linked to each entry.

  9. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-01-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  10. Internet Voting for Expatriates: The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Germann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2008 the first Swiss canton introduced internet voting for expatriates, thus initiating the second phase in Switzerland’s piecemeal i-voting roll-out. More cantons soon followed, and as of this writing expatriates from 12 out of the 26 cantons can vote online. This paper focuses on the second phase involving expatriates. We address three questions at the core of the internet voting research agenda. First, the popularity question: to what extent do expatriates make use of the new online channel? Second, the ‘who’ question: what is the profile of the typical expatriate i-voter? Finally, the turnout question: did the extension of internet voting to the expatriates have an effect on electoral mobilization? Our findings indicate that the online channel is very popular among expatriates, both if compared to other trials in Switzerland itself and internationally. On the other hand, known patterns regarding the profile of i-voters and the effect on mobilization seem to be also replicated in the expatriate trials. Expatriate i-voters tend to be young, male, and there is some evidence of an upper-class bias. Thus, usage of the online channel seems driven by the digital divide also among expatriates. Moreover, we find some evidence that i-voting did not affect electoral mobilization, similarly to trials involving residents.

  11. Radionuclide sorption database for Swiss safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, I.G.; Hadermann, J.

    1984-10-01

    Recommended sorption data for use in transport models for a Swiss High-Level Waste repository are presented. The models used in 'Project Gewaehr 1985' assume linear sorption isotherms and require elemental partition coefficient (Kd) data. On the basis of a literature search 'realistic' Kd data for 22 elements have been selected for weathered crystalline rock and sediments in contact with a reducing groundwater and also sediments with a less reducing groundwater. In an appendix sorption data for 28 elements on bentonite backfill are given. These data are supplemented with 'conservative' estimates taken to represent minimum reasonable values. Available data are discussed for each element clearly exhibiting (i) the large gaps in knowledge, (ii) their unbalanced distribution between different elements and, hence, (iii) the need for further experiments in the laboratory, the field and analogue studies. An overview of the theoretical concepts of sorption, experimental methodology and data interpretation is given in order to put the values into context. General problem areas are identified. (Auth.)

  12. Highly accurate sequence imputation enables precise QTL mapping in Brown Swiss cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Mirjam; Pausch, Hubert; Bapst, Beat; Signer-Hasler, Heidi; Flury, Christine; Garrick, Dorian; Stricker, Christian; Fries, Ruedi; Gredler-Grandl, Birgit

    2017-12-29

    Within the last few years a large amount of genomic information has become available in cattle. Densities of genomic information vary from a few thousand variants up to whole genome sequence information. In order to combine genomic information from different sources and infer genotypes for a common set of variants, genotype imputation is required. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of imputation from high density chips to whole genome sequence data in Brown Swiss cattle. Using four popular imputation programs (Beagle, FImpute, Impute2, Minimac) and various compositions of reference panels, the accuracy of the imputed sequence variant genotypes was high and differences between the programs and scenarios were small. We imputed sequence variant genotypes for more than 1600 Brown Swiss bulls and performed genome-wide association studies for milk fat percentage at two stages of lactation. We found one and three quantitative trait loci for early and late lactation fat content, respectively. Known causal variants that were imputed from the sequenced reference panel were among the most significantly associated variants of the genome-wide association study. Our study demonstrates that whole-genome sequence information can be imputed at high accuracy in cattle populations. Using imputed sequence variant genotypes in genome-wide association studies may facilitate causal variant detection.

  13. Innovate with the CTI National Thematic Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürst, Susanne Lauber

    2014-12-01

    Winning in the global market place with brilliant innovations is the recipe for success for the Swiss economy. Indeed, Switzerland always stands out in the global rankings when it comes to innovation. Yet there is nothing as dangerous as to rest on one's laurels, and this is particularly true for R&D-based businesses. For this reason CTI, the Commission for Technology and Innovation, offers Swiss companies quick and effective access to knowledge available at Swiss public research institutions, and to international R&D programs promoting application-oriented research. Knowledge and technology transfer are promoted - via its KTT support - through National Thematic Networks (NTNs), Innovation Mentors and information platforms. The following article highlights the activities of the National Thematic Networks and invites Swiss companies and research institutes to benefit from the multiple offers and services available.

  14. Use of national metrological references of dose absorbed in water and application of the IAEA TRS nr 398 dosimetry protocol to high energy photon beams. BNM-LNHB-LCIE-SFPM working group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvenet, B.; Delaunay, F.; Dolo, J.M.; Le Roy, G.; Bridier, A.; Francois, P.; Sabattier, R.

    2003-01-01

    Metrological references of dose absorbed in water for high energy photon beams used in radiotherapy have been elaborated during the past years by national calibration laboratories, and these new references are the basis of recent dosimetry protocols. However, the passage from metrological references of air kerma to dose absorbed in water, as well as the practical application of new calibration opportunities for dosemeters in high energy X ray beams requires a specific attention to maintain the consistency of dose measurement references over the hospital site. In this respect, this guide aims at the application of these metrological references. It proposes recommendations for the application of metrological references in terms of dose absorbed in water on the hospital site with reference to their determination conditions and to the implementation of the new IAEA dosimetry protocol (TRS nr 398). Thus, this guide proposes an overview of metrological references in French calibration laboratories, presents calibration methods (air kerma in a cobalt 60 gamma photon beam, dose absorbed in water) and a comparison with the IAEA TRS 277 dosimetry protocol. It addresses various practical aspects, and discusses uncertainties

  15. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVEIRA Marcia Rosa de

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4 by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecting germfree Swiss/NIH in the hind footpad with L. major and conventionalizing after 3 weeks of infection. Lesions from conventionalized Swiss/NIH mice were significantly larger than conventional mice. Histopathological analysis of lesions from conventionalized animals showed abscesses of variable shapes and sizes and high numbers of parasitized macrophages. In the lesions from conventional mice, besides the absence of abscess formation, parasites were rarely observed. On the other hand, cells from conventional and conventionalized mice produced similar Th1-type response characterized by high levels of IFN-g and low levels of IL-4. In this study, we demonstrated that Swiss/NIH mice are resistant to L. major infection and that the absence of the normal microbiota at the beginning of infection significantly influenced the lesion size and the inflammatory response at the site of infection.

  16. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  17. Transition to CASMO-5M and SIMULATE-3K for stability analyses of the Swiss BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokhane, A.; Canepa, S.; Ferroukhi, H.

    2012-01-01

    For stability analyses of the Swiss operating Boiling-Water-Reactors (BWRs), the methodology employed and validated so far at the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) was based on the RAMONA-3 code with a hybrid upstream static lattice/core analysis approach using CASMO-4 and PRESTO-2. More recently, steps were undertaken towards a new methodology based on the SIMULATE-3K (S3K) code for the dynamical analyses combined with the CMSYS system relying on the CASMO/SIMULATE-3 suite of codes and which was established at PSI to serve as framework for the development and validation of reference core models of all the Swiss reactors and operated cycles. This paper presents a first validation of the new methodology on the basis of a benchmark recently organised by a Swiss utility and including the participation of several international organisations with various codes/methods. Now in parallel, a transition from CASMO-4E (C4E) to CASMO-5M (C5M) as basis for the CMSYS core models was also recently initiated at PSI. Consequently, it was considered adequate to address the impact of this transition both for the steady-state core analyses as well as for the stability calculations and to achieve thereby, an integral approach for the validation of the new S3K methodology. Therefore, a comparative assessment of C4 versus C5M is also presented in this paper with particular emphasis on the void coefficients and their impact on the downstream stability analysis results. (authors)

  18. 32 CFR 2103.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 2103.1 Section 2103.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT... § 2103.1 References. (a) Executive Order 12065, “National Security Information,” dated June 28, 1978. (b...

  19. Climate change scenarios and key climate indices in the Swiss Alpine region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubler, Elias; Croci-Maspoli, Mischa; Frei, Christoph; Liniger, Mark; Scherrer, Simon; Appenzeller, Christof

    2013-04-01

    For climate adaption and to support climate mitigation policy it is of outermost importance to demonstrate the consequences of climate change on a local level and in user oriented quantities. Here, a framework is presented to apply the Swiss national climate change scenarios CH2011 to climate indices with direct relevance to applications, such as tourism, transportation, agriculture and health. This framework provides results on a high spatial and temporal resolution and can also be applied in mountainous regions such as the Alps. Results are shown for some key indices, such as the number of summer days and tropical nights, growing season length, number of frost days, heating and cooling degree days, and the number of days with fresh snow. Particular focus is given to changes in the vertical distribution for the future periods 2020-2049, 2045-2074 and 2070-2099 relative to the reference period 1980-2009 for the A1B, A2 and RCP3PD scenario. The number of days with fresh snow is approximated using a combination of temperature and precipitation as proxies. Some findings for the latest scenario period are: (1) a doubling of the number of summer days by the end of the century under the business-as-usual scenario A2, (2) tropical nights appear above 1500 m asl, (3) the number of frost days may be reduced by more than 3 months at altitudes higher than 2500 m, (4) an overall reduction of heating degree days of about 30% by the end of the century, but on the other hand an increase in cooling degree days in warm seasons, and (5) the number of days with fresh snow tends to go towards zero at low altitudes. In winter, there is little change in snowfall above 2000 m asl (roughly -3 days) in all scenarios. The largest impact on snowfall is found along the Northern Alpine flank and the Jura (-10 days or roughly -50% in A1B for the winter season). It is also highlighted that the future projections for all indices strongly depend on the chosen scenario and on model uncertainty

  20. Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands.......Human behaviour towards climatic change during the 4th millennium BC in the Swiss Alpine forelands....

  1. Swiss nuclear industry in a mood of awakening - conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The 'nuclea' meeting of the Swiss Nuclear Forum with the focus on 'The Future of Nuclear Power in the Energy Mix' was held on the premises of the Swiss Leibstadt nuclear power station in late October. The electricity gap is a reality; the underlying facts are known by now, but this does not make them any less threatening and worrying. This is one of the key findings of the meeting. Experience over the past 3 decades has confirmed the close link between the gross domestic product and electricity consumption. Separating economic growth from the electricity requirement had remained wishful thinking. Consequently, the replacement and expansion of existing generating capacities had to take into account that nuclear power, among other things, met the stringent requirements with respect to climate protection and continuity of supply. There was agreement at 'nuclea' about nuclear power remaining an indispensable component in the energy mix for Swiss electricity supply. (orig.)

  2. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  3. Physical optics simulations with PHASE for SwissFEL beamlines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, U.; Follath, R.; Reiche, S. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Bahrdt, J. [Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-27

    PHASE is a software tool for physical optics simulation based on the stationary phase approximation method. The code is under continuous development since about 20 years and has been used for instance for fundamental studies and ray tracing of various beamlines at the Swiss Light Source. Along with the planning for SwissFEL a new hard X-ray free electron laser under construction, new features have been added to permit practical performance predictions including diffraction effects which emerge with the fully coherent source. We present the application of the package on the example of the ARAMIS 1 beamline at SwissFEL. The X-ray pulse calculated with GENESIS and given as an electrical field distribution has been propagated through the beamline to the sample position. We demonstrate the new features of PHASE like the treatment of measured figure errors, apertures and coatings of the mirrors and the application of Fourier optics propagators for free space propagation.

  4. The methane emissions of the Swiss gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xinmin, J.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a method for the estimation of the methane emissions caused by the Swiss gas industry. Based on new data on the Swiss gas infrastructure, current emission levels are estimated for methane - one of the major greenhouse gases. The methodology and modelling used, which is based on previous studies on this topic, are discussed. Results are presented that show that the estimates provided by the current study are consistent with earlier data. Scenarios are presented that show that a steady decrease in methane emissions emanating from the Swiss gas industry's installations can be expected by the year 2012. The data used in the study and its results are presented in tabular and graphical form and commented on

  5. Annotation of glycoproteins in the SWISS-PROT database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E; Veuthey, A L; Gasteiger, E; Bairoch, A

    2001-02-01

    SWISS-PROT is a protein sequence database, which aims to be nonredundant, fully annotated and highly cross-referenced. Most eukaryotic gene products undergo co- and/or post-translational modifications, and these need to be included in the database in order to describe the mature protein. SWISS-PROT includes information on many types of different protein modifications. As glycosylation is the most common type of post-translational protein modification, we are currently placing an emphasis on annotation of protein glycosylation in SWISS-PROT. Information on the position of the sugar within the polypeptide chain, the reducing terminal linkage as well as additional information on biological function of the sugar is included in the database. In this paper we describe how we account for the different types of protein glycosylation, namely N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, proteoglycans, C-linked glycosylation and the attachment of glycosyl-phosphatidylinosital anchors to proteins.

  6. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS): A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschia, James F.; Kissela, Brett M.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Beck, Jeanne; Skarp, Alexa N.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that genetic factors are associated with ischemic stroke, including multiple recent reports of association with the gene PDE4D, encoding phosphodiesterase 4D, on chromosome 5q12. Genetic studies of stroke are important but can be logistically difficult to perform. This article reviews the design of the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) and discusses problems in performing a sibling-based pedigree study where proband-initiated consent is used to enroll pedigree members. Proband-initiated enrollment optimizes privacy protections for family members, but it is associated with a substantial pedigree non-completion rate such that 3 to 4 probands must be identified to obtain one completed sibling pedigree. This report updates the progress of enrollment in the SWISS protocol, discusses barriers to pedigree completion and describes innovative approaches used by the SWISS investigators to enhance enrollment. PMID:16595789

  7. The Swiss isotope measurement network. Trends 1992-1999; Das Schweizer Isotopen-Messnetz. Trends 1992-1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shotterer, U.; Stocker, T.; Buerki, H.; Hunziker, J.; Kozel, R.; Grasso, D.A.; Tripet, J.-P

    2000-07-01

    This article discusses the physically influenced distribution of the isotopes deuterium, tritium and oxygen 18 in meteoric water and examines the results of measurements made within the framework of the Swiss National Isotope Measurement Network. The use of these isotopes as indicators in the assessment of hydrological effects is described. The trends noted for measurements made during the period 1992 - 1999 are discussed and seasonal and regional effects described. The importance of the Swiss measurements of these isotopes in precipitation is noted and their importance in the international context is emphasised. The results obtained from the various international measurement networks - originally set up to monitor the testing of nuclear weapons - are considered as a valuable contribution to international scientific and practical applications. Examples of data collected at various locations in Switzerland are presented and the importance of the resulting data bases in the study of the water cycle is noted.

  8. The Swiss geological survey in the service of society

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lateltin, O.

    2012-01-01

    This article takes a look at the work of the Swiss geological survey, which, since 1930, has been working on 1:25,000-scale geological maps which now cover two thirds of the country. These activities are now integrated in the scope of 'swisstopo', who not only produce the maps but also manage the rock laboratory at Mont Terri: Here, together with international partners, research on the suitability of Opalinus clay for nuclear waste repositories is being assessed. The article looks at the organisation of the Swiss geological survey and the various services it offers in the areas of geological information services, data, maps as well as rock laboratories and repositories

  9. The Swiss biotech referendum: A case study of science communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cueni, Thomas B.

    1999-01-01

    On June 7 , 1998, the Swiss citizens voted on a constitutional amendment, which could have jeopardised the future of biotechnological research in Switzerland. Scientists and opinion leaders around the world expected the referendum with great anxiety. 'Nature', in an editorial, had firmly stated that the Swiss way showed 'how not to run a country', the 'Economist', a week prior to the referendum, had written that the Swiss might be the only people in the world who decided on their own to forego a world class position in scientific research. In fact, the Swiss did none of that. They rejected the constitutional amendment with an overwhelming majority of 67 per cent of the votes, and what started out as a dramatic threat to scientific research in Switzerland became a platform in favour of modern biotechnology. The presentation addresses some of the key features of the Swiss biotech campaign, analyses the success factors of the campaign, provides an insight in the most in-depth collection of data on public perception of biotechnology in the world, and draws conclusions as to what extent the Swiss experience can be of use in the way to communicate on modem science. The result of the Swiss referendum has convincingly shown that successful communication of modem science is possible if - scientists, authorities, and the industry accept the challenge to cope with the demands of communicating with the public at large, - there is a clear understanding that the public's needs may often be based on psychological rather than on logic scientific reasons, - all participants in the dialogue are willing to forego scientific jargon for clear understandable language, i.e. understand that it is hardly the public's fault if messages do not get across, - everybody accepts that dialogue, information, and education on modem science is a long-haul task. The Swiss biotech referendum was seen as a major threat to Switzerland as a leading country of scientific research. However, something which

  10. INFLUENCE OF MICROBIOTA IN EXPERIMENTAL CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN SWISS MICE

    OpenAIRE

    OLIVEIRA, Marcia Rosa de; TAFURI, Wagner Luis; NICOLI, Jacques Robert; VIEIRA, Enio Cardillo; MELO, Maria Norma; VIEIRA, Leda Quercia

    1999-01-01

    Infection of Swiss/NIH mice with Leishmania major was compared with infection in isogenic resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice. Swiss/NIH mice showed self-controlled lesions in the injected foot pad. The production of high levels of interferon-g (IFN-g) and low levels of interleukin-4 (IL-4) by cells from these animals suggests that they mount a Th1-type immune response. The importance of the indigenous microbiota on the development of murine leishmaniasis was investigated by infecti...

  11. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  12. What next after the rejection of Swiss electricity market legislation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miolo, A.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the situation in Switzerland after the rejection of new legislation on the liberalisation of the Swiss electricity market (Electricity Market Law, EMG) in a public vote in September 2002. The problems thus posed and the possibilities for further action available to those involved and affected are discussed. The legal situation after the rejection of the EMG is discussed with respect to Swiss regional structures and cantonal regulations. Three possible scenarios are discussed - the status quo, a solution to be provided by the electricity business or a Federal decree. The possibilities open to electricity enterprises for optimisation and the realisation of synergies to increase efficiency and competitiveness are discussed

  13. Opening the electricity market - the Swiss Confederation's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities offered by the opening of the Swiss electricity market in the European context. The importance of appropriate legislation that would enable Switzerland to actively take part in the shaping of a Europe-wide electricity market is stressed. Measures to be considered such as those in the areas of third-party access, tariffs, security of supply and the promotion of renewable sources of energy are discussed. Questions of public service are addressed and comparisons are made to solutions that have been implemented in other areas such as post, telecommunications and the railway system. The regulations and structures suggested in Swiss proposals for legislation are discussed in detail

  14. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 3, effects on the national economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voehringer, F.; Mueller, A.

    2007-01-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the effects of the four scenarios concerning future developments in Swiss energy supply policy on the Swiss national economy. The four energy scenarios include variants entitled 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. This report presents and discusses the results of a dynamic balance model and includes an appendix that presents data on the external costs of the energy sector in Switzerland. Swiss energy scenarios are discussed in an international context and five climate-policy scenarios are developed. Effects on CO 2 emissions and energy consumption are discussed, as are socio-economic effects. The results of a so-called cross-impact analysis are discussed and the opinions of Swiss climate experts are reviewed. External costs are reviewed in a comprehensive appendix to the report

  15. 44 CFR 59.4 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false References. 59.4 Section 59.4... References. (a) The following are statutory references for the National Flood Insurance Program, under which.... 4001 et seq. (b) The following are references relevant to the National Flood Insurance Program: (1...

  16. The Swiss-Prot variant page and the ModSNP database: a resource for sequence and structure information on human protein variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Yum L; Scheib, Holger; Diemand, Alexander V; Gattiker, Alexandre; Famiglietti, Livia M; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos

    2004-05-01

    Missense mutation leading to single amino acid polymorphism (SAP) is the type of mutation most frequently related to human diseases. The Swiss-Prot protein knowledgebase records information on such mutations in various sections of a protein entry, namely in the "feature," "comment," and "reference" fields. To facilitate users in obtaining the most relevant information about each human SAP recorded in the knowledgebase, the Swiss-Prot Variant web pages were created to provide a summary of available sequence information, as well as additional structural information on each variant. In particular, the ModSNP database was set up to store information related to SAPs and to manage the modeling of SAPs onto protein structures via an automatic homology modeling pipeline. Currently, among the 16,566 human SAPs recorded in the Swiss-Prot knowledgebase (release 42.5, 21 November 2003), more than 25% have corresponding 3D-models. Of these variants, 47% are related to disease, 26% are polymorphisms, and 27% are not yet clearly classified. The ModSNP database is updated and the subsequent model construction pipeline is launched with each weekly Swiss-Prot release. Thus, the ModSNP database represents a valuable resource for the structural analysis of protein variation. The Swiss-Prot variant pages are accessible from the NiceProt view of a Swiss-Prot entry on the ExPASy server (www.expasy.org/), via a hyperlink created for the stable and unique identifier FTId of each human SAP. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. The Swiss Energy Sector. Innovation landscape and chances for the Netherlands; De Zwitserse energiesector. Innovatielandschap en kansen voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ewijk, S. [Innovatie Attache Netwerk, Ambassad Berlijn, Berlin (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    An overview is given of innovation in the Swiss energy sector and the following research question will be answered: what are the characteristics of the Swiss innovation landscape in the energy sector and what opportunities are there for the Dutch energy sector? The emphasis is on themes that occur in the Dutch top sector policy, such as natural gas and energy conservation. The aim is to encourage cooperation between the Netherlands and Switzerland in the field of energy and provide inspiration for investment, policy solutions and markets in the field of energy. Each chapter contains references to Swiss authorities for more information and further steps [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van innovatie in de Zwitserse energiesector en probeert de volgende onderzoeksvraag te beantwoorden: wat zijn de kenmerken van het Zwitserse innovatielandschap in de energiesector en welke kansen zijn er voor de Nederlandse energiesector? De nadruk ligt daarbij op thema's die ook in het Nederlandse topsectorbeleid voorkomen, zoals aardgas en energiebesparing. Het doel is om de samenwerking tussen Nederland en Zwitserland op energiegebied te stimuleren en informatie te bieden als inspiratie voor investeringen, beleidsoplossingen en afzetmarkten op energiegebied. Ieder hoofdstuk bevat verwijzingen naar Zwitserse instanties voor meer informatie en verdere stappen.

  18. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme, 2004 Edition - Overview (French) for 2003; Programme photovoltaique, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in French) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies and in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links.

  19. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme, 2004 Edition - Overview (German) for 2003; Programm Photovoltaik, Ausgabe 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in German) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links.

  20. References: BSCW

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Benchmark Supercritical Wing was also tested on the OTT with oscillations in Pitch. Only one row of pressure transducers were acquired during these tests. The time...

  1. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M.

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  2. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  3. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  4. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  5. Acute toxicity studies of potassium permanganate in Swiss albino mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study of potassium permanganate was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Potassium permanganate was administered at dose rate of 0.0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500mg/kg body weight to groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, ten per group for LD50 determination. The dead animals were posted for ...

  6. Plant life management (PLIM) in Swiss nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskal, Jan; Steudler, Daniel; Thoma, Kurt; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The Swiss Utility Working group for ageing Management (AM) presented their programme for the first time at the PLIM/PLEX 93. In the meantime the key guideline documents have been prepared and the most so called S teckbrief - files for Safety Class 1 (SC1) are issued. The 'Steckbrief' file is a summary of the component history and includes the results of the Reviews performed and measures taken or planned to counteract ageing mechanisms. The scope of these activities does not only serve the important aspect of reliable plant service but also facilitates component and plant life extension feasibility. The older plants have been operated now for up to 30 years, so PLEX will become a more important topic for Swiss NPP. It is very encouraging, that there is an official memorandum of the Swiss authority with the clear statement, that they could not identify any technical reason, why the older plants should not extend their design life of 40 years for at least 10 and the younger for 20 years. The result of this is that a well established Ageing Management Programme (AMP) provide a good basis for Plant Life Extension (PLEX), e.g. the Swiss AMP has to be seen as a PLIM. (author)

  7. How Swiss fuel dealers are fighting natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, U.

    1995-01-01

    The upward trend of natural gas in Switzerland and its favourable future prospects have put Swiss fuel dealers into a state of alarm. The trade has set itself the aim to prevent a further expansion of natural gas with all the means at its disposal. The author describes and comments on the arguments put forward and measures taken to this end. (orig.) [de

  8. Swiss-Prot: juggling between evolution and stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairoch, Amos; Boeckmann, Brigitte; Ferro, Serenella; Gasteiger, Elisabeth

    2004-03-01

    We describe some of the aspects of Swiss-Prot that make it unique, explain what are the developments we believe to be necessary for the database to continue to play its role as a focal point of protein knowledge, and provide advice pertinent to the development of high-quality knowledge resources on one aspect or the other of the life sciences.

  9. Assessing the suitability of American National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agro-climatology archive to predict daily meteorological variables and reference evapotranspiration in Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    For decades, the importance of evapotranspiration processes has been recognized in many disciplines, including hydrologic and drainage studies, irrigation systems design and management. A wide number of equations have been proposed to estimate crop reference evapotranspiration, ET0, based on the var...

  10. Automatically extracting functionally equivalent proteins from SwissProt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew CR

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a frequent need to obtain sets of functionally equivalent homologous proteins (FEPs from different species. While it is usually the case that orthology implies functional equivalence, this is not always true; therefore datasets of orthologous proteins are not appropriate. The information relevant to extracting FEPs is contained in databanks such as UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot and a manual analysis of these data allow FEPs to be extracted on a one-off basis. However there has been no resource allowing the easy, automatic extraction of groups of FEPs – for example, all instances of protein C. We have developed FOSTA, an automatically generated database of FEPs annotated as having the same function in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot which can be used for large-scale analysis. The method builds a candidate list of homologues and filters out functionally diverged proteins on the basis of functional annotations using a simple text mining approach. Results Large scale evaluation of our FEP extraction method is difficult as there is no gold-standard dataset against which the method can be benchmarked. However, a manual analysis of five protein families confirmed a high level of performance. A more extensive comparison with two manually verified functional equivalence datasets also demonstrated very good performance. Conclusion In summary, FOSTA provides an automated analysis of annotations in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot to enable groups of proteins already annotated as functionally equivalent, to be extracted. Our results demonstrate that the vast majority of UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot functional annotations are of high quality, and that FOSTA can interpret annotations successfully. Where FOSTA is not successful, we are able to highlight inconsistencies in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot annotation. Most of these would have presented equal difficulties for manual interpretation of annotations. We discuss limitations and possible future extensions to FOSTA, and

  11. TRANSIT THROUGH THE SCHENGEN AREA FOR THE HOLDERS OF SPECIFIC SWISS DOCUMENTS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission has informed CERN of the following relaxation of the transit regulations granted by the States applying the Schengen Agreement and other European States to third-country nationals who are normally required to obtain a visa. As from 10 July 2006, those holding a Carte de légitimation or Attestation de fonctions issued by the Swiss Federal Department of Foreign Affairs or a B, C or Ci-type residence permit are exempted from the requirement to obtain a visa for transit through the Schengen area, so long as the transit period does not exceed five days (for each transit). For other circumstances (for example tourism, including for conferences), the requirement to obtain a visa remains in force. The States that form the Schengen area are: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. In addition, the following States have decided to apply the same exemption from the requirement to obtain a...

  12. Affective Organizational Commitment in Swiss Nursing Homes: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Elisabeth; Cignacco, Eva; Zimmermann, Karin; Zúñiga, Franziska

    2016-12-01

    This substudy of the Swiss Nursing Homes Human Resources Project (SHURP) explored the relationships between affective organizational commitment (AOC) levels and organizational, situational, and care personnel characteristics, and between AOC and care personnel outcomes. SHURP was a representative national cross-sectional study in 163 Swiss nursing homes. Its data sources were: (a) a care personnel questionnaire, (b) a facility questionnaire, (c) a unit questionnaire, and (d) administrative resident data. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were applied to examine AOC's relationships with selected antecedents and care personnel outcomes. Data were collected from 5,323 care personnel in 163 nursing homes (return rate: 76%). On a scale from 1 to 5, the mean level of AOC was 3.86 (standard deviation = 0.81). Variations in AOC regarding care personnel characteristics (age, education, and experience in nursing home) and organizational characteristics (size, profit status) were statistically significant with minimal effect sizes. The main factors positively related to AOC were leadership, job satisfaction, quality of care, and collaboration with the nursing home director. Care personnel outcomes significantly related to higher AOC were reduced intention to leave, health complaints, presenteeism, and absenteeism. As leadership is a crucial factor of AOC, its development might improve care personnel outcomes such as intention to leave or absenteeism. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-11-04

    Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  14. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  15. 32 CFR 2700.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 2700.1 Section 2700.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE FOR MICRONESIAN STATUS NEGOTIATIONS SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Introduction § 2700.1 References. (a) Executive Order 12065, “National Security...

  16. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  17. Prevalence of humeral head osteochondrosis in the Greater Swiss Mountain dog and the Border Collie in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlerth, S; Senn, S; Geissbühler, U; Kircher, P; Flückiger, M

    2016-11-01

    Osteochondrosis (OC) is common in large-breed dogs. According to the breeding guidelines of the Swiss kennel clubs, the shoulder joints are included in the radiographic screening for joint diseases in the Greater Swiss Mountain dog (GSMD) and the Border Collie (BC) since 1993 and 2003, respectively. The aim of this study was to estimate the overall prevalence of humeral head OC in these 2 breeds in Switzerland based on the data of the Swiss National Dysplasia Committees. All radiographs were re-evaluated to assess single radiographic changes. From 1993 and 2003, accordingly, until 2013, the overall prevalence was 14% for the GSMD and 8% for the BC, respectively. Affected joints showed a focally reduced opacity or a flattened/indented contour of the caudal section of the humeral head. Articular flaps were only seen occasionally. Degenerative joint disease was significantly more common in OC affected joints (GSMD: 32%; BC: 20%) than in joints without OC. The present study is the first report on the prevalence of humeral head OC in a large cohort of GSMD and the BC over a long study period. In comparison to other breeds, the herein reported prevalences are in the mid to upper range. Results of the present study should alert veterinarians to the disease in these breeds and may serve as a starting point for further epidemiological and genetic studies.

  18. Swiss population-based reference data for six symptom validity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Giger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Los resultados encontrados en la evaluación de la validez de los síntomas (SVT deberían ser inmunes a las variables sociodemográficas. Así, los sujetos sanos y cooperadores deberían superar los tests de SVT. El ob- jetivo de este estudio es obtener datos de referencia de una serie de pruebas utilizadas en la evaluación de la validez de los síntomas, en una muestra representativa de 100 ciudadanos suizos, germano-hablantes, de entre 18 y 60 años: Medical Symptom Validity Test, Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology, Amsterdam Short-Term Memory Test, Emotional Numbing Test, Reliable Digit Span y Maximum Span Forward. Los análisis de regresión múltiple reflejaron que las variables edad e inteligencia verbal afectaron a los resultados de varias de las pruebas, mientras que no fue así para las variables sexo y nivel educativo. La tasa de resultados positivos osciló entre el 1% (Emotional Numbing Test, Structured Inventory of Malin- gered Symptomatology y el 4% (Maximum Span Forward. Una cuestión relevante que se desprende de este estudio es si dichos resultados positivos en las muestras de referencia

  19. Executive Jobs and Executive Continuity, ’An Investigation with Special Reference to Swiss Army Instructors’,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    Solutions reached through com- to buy , producers will endeavor promise are standard, to provide the quantity yielding the maximum profit. 3...third phase--selecting a course of action from those available--I shall call choise activity.. .The cycle of phases is, however, far more complex than the...include a substitute for emergency cases and enough candidates for future needs, allowing for some flexibility of choise . Some candidates may be

  20. Definition of the upper reference limit for thyroglobulin antibodies according to the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry guidelines: comparison of eleven different automated methods

    OpenAIRE

    D?Aurizio, F.; Metus, P.; Ferrari, A.; Caruso, B.; Castello, R.; Villalta, D.; Steffan, A.; Gaspardo, K.; Pesente, F.; Bizzaro, N.; Tonutti, E.; Valverde, S.; Cosma, C.; Plebani, M.; Tozzoli, R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose In the last two decades, thyroglobulin autoantibodies (TgAb) measurement has progressively switched from marker of thyroid autoimmunity to test associated with thyroglobulin (Tg) to verify the presence or absence of TgAb interference in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. Of note, TgAb measurement is cumbersome: despite standardization against the International Reference Preparation MRC 65/93, several studies demonstrated high inter-method variability and wid...

  1. The Basic Act for Suicide Prevention: Effects on Longitudinal Trend in Deliberate Self-Harm with Reference to National Suicide Data for 1996-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Miharu; Endo, Kaori; Ando, Shuntaro

    2017-01-21

    A suicide prevention strategy was launched in Japan in 2006 to address the high suicide rate, which had increased considerably since 1998. The national strategy from 2007 involved the enhancement of psychiatric treatment services at emergency medical facilities and supportive observation by individuals close to patients. The national suicide rate has decreased gradually since 2008; however, national information regarding the number of patients who had engaged in deliberate self-harm was absent. Therefore, the present study examined the longitudinal trend in hospital admissions due to deliberate self-harm in Japan. Data from the National Patient Survey between 1996 and 2014-a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of inpatient care every 3 years-were used. Data for 13,014 patients were included in the estimation of the number of hospital admissions due to deliberate self-harm. The results show that the estimated number of admissions due to deliberate self-harm increased from 2078 in September 1996 to 3189 in September 2008, when the national number of suicide cases peaked, and decreased to 1783 in 2014. Approximately half of the patients were admitted to hospital because of self-harm via means other than drug poisoning, which had a high mortality rate (5.6%). The proportion of patients receiving public assistance was higher in those who had engaged in deliberate self-harm (8.5%) relative to that observed in the general population. Overall, the trend in deliberate self-harm was synchronous with the number of suicide cases over time. As economic poverty has been associated with suicidal ideation and behavior and some recipients of public assistance tend to abuse psychotropic medication, the public assistance program should provide mental health support for recipients of social benefit schemes.

  2. Reference programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Lars; Birk, Steffen; Kasch, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Headache and facial pain are among the most common, disabling and costly disorders in Europe. Correct diagnosis and treatment is important for achieving a high quality of care. As a national organisation whose role is to educate and advocate for the needs of patients with primary headaches, the D...

  3. Hearing of the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES). The ombudsman for solar heating systems as a quality assurance element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger-Mariani, G.

    1999-01-01

    Following an invitation issued by the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES),14 solar energy specialists hold a hearing on quality assurance for solar heating systems. Anticipating the introduction of taxes in favour of renewable energy sources and the expected rapid solar market development, the delegates discussed about the creation of a neutral ombudsman office for unsatisfied clients of the solar industry. Clearly, the solar heating system market can only expand if system quality is in accordance with the clients' expectations. The needed know-how may be found since several years in well presented reference books. However, at the moment, not all industry people follow these instructions yet [de

  4. FameLab - Swiss Semi Finals

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2012-01-01

    Twenty-two young scientists participated in the FameLab semi-final at CERN's Globe of Science and Innovation on 4 February, supported by a large audience and by more than 100 fans following via webcast. A panel of judges chose Lemmer and four other candidates to join five other semi-finalists at the national finals in Zurich on 30 March.

  5. Report on operation of INES. Swiss contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deutschmann, H.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Switzerland addressing the following issues: communication procedure for events of public interest; national reporting guidelines; changing information policy by regulatory body; practice of current event handling by regulatory body for faster public information; problems with public information

  6. The Big-Fish-Little-Pond Effect and a National Policy of Within-School Ability Streaming: Alternative Frames of Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Gregory Arief D.; Marsh, Herbert W.; Martin, Andrew J.; McInerney, Dennis M.; Yeung, Alexander S.

    2013-01-01

    The big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE) was evaluated with 4,461 seventh to ninth graders in Singapore where a national policy of ability streaming is implemented. Consistent with the BFLPE, when prior achievement was controlled, students in the high-ability stream had lower English and mathematics self-concepts (ESCs and MSCs) and those in the…

  7. An evaluation of palliative care contents in national dementia strategies in reference to the European Association for Palliative Care white paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakanishi, M.; Nakashima, T.; Shindo, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Gove, D.; Radbruch, L.; van der Steen, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dementia involves a progressive decline in many functional areas. Policy and practice guidelines should cover the entire course of the disease from early detection to the end-of-life. The present study aimed to evaluate the contents of national dementia strategies with a focus on

  8. An evaluation of palliative care contents in national dementia strategies in reference to the European Association for Palliative Care white paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nakanishi, M.; Nakashima, T.; Shindo, Y.; Miyamoto, Y.; Gove, D.; Radbruch, L.; Steen, J.T. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dementia involves a progressive decline in many functional areas. Policy and practice guidelines should cover the entire course of the disease from early detection to the end-of-life. The present study aimed to evaluate the contents of national dementia strategies with a focus on

  9. The Role of the University Professors as a Reference Group in the Promotion of the National Products of Jordan (Case Study on Universities and Industrial Companies in Jordan)

    OpenAIRE

    Basim Anagreh; Fathi Abdullah Al-share

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to clarify the importance of the university professors in the promotion of the national products of Jordan in the light that the social position of the university professor in the Jordanian society is not less important than any social dignities and leaders who have impacts on the consumer behavior. Moreover, his ability to form the intellectual and cultural backgrounds of the general public through the highest scientific forum; that is the Jordanian universities. The scientif...

  10. The ecology of the elephants in the Kasungu National Park, Malawi with specific reference to management of elephant populations in the Brachystegia biome of Southern Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jachmann, Hugo

    1984-01-01

    The elephant is one of the most important animals in African Wildlife Management, firstly because it is capable of modifying through cropping. The latter also makes it a prime poaching target. The main problems caused by elephant concern changes in the physiognomy of the habitat with its consequences for the population itself and the diversity of plant and animal species in the conservation area. The Kasungu National Park suffers simultaneously from heavy illegal offtake and an elephant probl...

  11. Minutes of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the Panel on Reference Nuclear Data, Brookhaven National Laboratory, November 1-2, 1979. [BNL, Nov. 1-2, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, T.W.; Stewart, L.; Coyne, J.J. (eds.)

    1980-06-01

    After the welcome and approval of the agenda and of the minutes of the Third Annual Meeting, the participants turned to reactor physics data needs, CTR data needs, status of international and national cooperation, status and availability of data files, election of officers, status of publications, biomedical data needs, and miscellaneous action items from the Third Meeting. A summary of recommendations and action items is given. Eighteen appendixes are included. (RWR)

  12. Site characterization, evaluation and acceptance: Swiss policy and approaches for interaction with the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issler, H.

    1993-01-01

    Despite the positive outcome of studies carried out by national and international organizations and experts, large sectors of the Swiss population still consider demonstrating the long-term safety of radioactive waste disposal to be an unsolved problem. This situation can be explained by the general perception of safety problems, which tends to be dominated by feelings of fear and anxiety - particularly in the case of radioactive waste. Additional problems of a sociological and political nature arise as part of the decision-making process relating to site characterization, site selection and construction and operation of waste repositories. In the following, the legal, organizational, political and technical boundary conditions pertaining to disposal of radioactive waste in Switzerland will be discussed, together with their implications for public relations programmes. Experience gained in communicating with the public will also be presented

  13. Automated annotation of microbial proteomes in SWISS-PROT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattiker, Alexandre; Michoud, Karine; Rivoire, Catherine; Auchincloss, Andrea H; Coudert, Elisabeth; Lima, Tania; Kersey, Paul; Pagni, Marco; Sigrist, Christian J A; Lachaize, Corinne; Veuthey, Anne Lise; Gasteiger, Elisabeth; Bairoch, Amos

    2003-02-01

    Large-scale sequencing of prokaryotic genomes demands the automation of certain annotation tasks currently manually performed in the production of the SWISS-PROT protein knowledgebase. The HAMAP project, or 'High-quality Automated and Manual Annotation of microbial Proteomes', aims to integrate manual and automatic annotation methods in order to enhance the speed of the curation process while preserving the quality of the database annotation. Automatic annotation is only applied to entries that belong to manually defined orthologous families and to entries with no identifiable similarities (ORFans). Many checks are enforced in order to prevent the propagation of wrong annotation and to spot problematic cases, which are channelled to manual curation. The results of this annotation are integrated in SWISS-PROT, and a website is provided at http://www.expasy.org/sprot/hamap/.

  14. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleury, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  15. No Swiss-cheese universe on the brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gergely, Laszlo A.

    2005-01-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario

  16. 32 CFR 861.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 861.1 Section 861.1 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE AIRCRAFT DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORTATION QUALITY AND SAFETY REVIEW PROGRAM § 861.1 References. The following references apply to this part...

  17. Swiss contributions to advanced fuel cycles research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledergerber, G.; Stanculescu, A.

    1997-01-01

    Based on its interdisciplinary know-how and facilities, PSI intends, through the AFC project, to maintain its support to the Swiss utilities on issues linked to safety and performance of advanced options for plutonium recycle. It will thus continue to contribute to the international R+D efforts toward strengthening the sustainability arguments for nuclear power from the view-point of the back end of the fuel cycle. (author) 2 figs., 12 refs

  18. IT-Benefits-Management in the Swiss Financial Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Schwabe, G; Baenninger, P

    2008-01-01

    Companies engage in IT-projects in order to gain some benefits; however they complain that those bene-fits are difficult to achieve. On the basis of a survey in the Swiss financial industry this paper comes to the conclusion that due to a fundamental misconception companies reproduce the lack of success in reaping IT benefits: Many companies regard benefit management as an instrument to support project proposals rather than as an instrument to gain optimal benefits. Conse-quently, benefits ma...

  19. Explaining the consolidation of financial statementsin the Swiss Federal Government

    OpenAIRE

    Argento, Daniela; Grossi, Giuseppe; Vollenweider, Petra

    2012-01-01

    The growing development of decentralized entities has highlighted the limitations f the traditional annual reports of governments, which do not necessarily capture he financial consequences of subsidiaries, joint ventures and associates. There s a growing tendency to consider consolidated financial statements as essential o support decision-making processes and to ensure higher public accountability. his paper seeks to understand and to explain how the Swiss Federal Government as prepared its...

  20. The Swiss-Austrian Alliance for Mountain Research

    OpenAIRE

    Scheurer, Thomas; Björnsen, Astrid; Borsdorf, Axel; Braun, Valerie; Weingartner, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Switzerland and Austria are committed to addressing sustainable mountain development in Europe through a joint effort. In June 2013, more than 140 researchers as well as representatives of the 2 countries' funding ministries participated in the “Mountain Days” event in Mittersill, Austria, thereby marking the official launch of the Swiss-Austrian Alliance. The resulting Mittersill Commitment Paper highlights 8 research areas and calls for international cooperation between mountain researchers...

  1. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS): A Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    Meschia, James F.; Kissela, Brett M.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Beck, Jeanne; Skarp, Alexa N.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that genetic factors are associated with ischemic stroke, including multiple recent reports of association with the gene PDE4D, encoding phosphodiesterase 4D, on chromosome 5q12. Genetic studies of stroke are important but can be logistically difficult to perform. This article reviews the design of the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) and discusses problems in performing a sibling-based pedigree study where proband-initiated consent is used to enroll pe...

  2. Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the ΛCDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w 0 and w a follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model

  3. A Swiss Manufacturer Sees the Industrial Revolution in England*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buess, Heinrich

    1962-01-01

    I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462

  4. Design and construction of nuclear power plants for export. Adaptation of a reference plant from a series in a national power generating program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcaillou, J.; Haond, H.

    1977-01-01

    The recent evolution of primary energy supplies places those countries having a nuclear industry in an exporting role. Exporting countries have generally developed a limited number of national reactor types and attempt to extend their manufacture with as few changes as possible. The E.D.F. in France is implementing an important PWR 900 MW program based on FRAMATOME nuclear reactors, initially conceived by WESTINGHOUSE. Such standardization poses certain problems for the importing countries. These problems and ways in which they can be solved are discussed [fr

  5. The status and distribution of major aquatic fauna in the National Chambal Gharial Sanctuary in Rajasthan with special reference to the Gangetic Dolphin Platanista gangetica gangetica (Cetartiodactyla: Platanistidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Nair

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper records observation on the status and distribution of Gangetic Dolphin, Gharial, Mugger and other aquatic animals, and birds in the National Chambal Gharial Sanctuary in Rajasthan during the Chambal river expedition conducted with the Indian Army in May 1998. A total of five Gangetic Dolphins, nine Gharials, 14 Indian Mugger crocodiles and 118 species of birds were sighted during the survey of 350km-long stretch of the river Chambal from Keshoraipatan-Bundi to Dhaulpur. The current status of the riverine habitat in view of disturbance and other anthropogenic factors is discussed and suggestions made to safeguard the sanctuary from various threats.

  6. Long-term changes in the woody vegetation of the Kruger National Park, with special reference to the effects of elephants and fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.S.W. Trollope

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available As part of the investigation reviewing the South African National Parks policy on the management of elephants in the Kruger National Park in South Africa it was decided to assess the current density and structural diversity of the woody vegetation in the park as it is affected by elephants and fire. The management policy used till recently, limited the population to approximately 7000 elephants, based on a conclusion that 6000 elephants (1 per 1.94 km2 was the highest number of elephants that could be carried in the Kruger National Park. The inclusion of the effects and interaction of fire in the investigation arises from the general recognition that elephants and fire can have a highly significant impact on the species and structural diversity of tree and shrub vegetation in African savannas. In the absence of quantitative data describing the condition of the woody vegetation in the Kruger National Park, subjective comparisons of changes in the density of large trees were made for the periods 1940 vs 1960 and 1960 vs 1986/89 using aerial photographs based on four of the major vegetation landscape units in the park. The results indicate that in the vegetation landscapes in areas with granitic soils there were no significant changes in the density of large trees between 1940 vs 1960 whereas a moderate decline occurred in the vegetation in the areas with basaltic soils. Conversely during the period 1960 to 1986/89 there was a dramatic decline in the density of large trees in all four major vegetation landscape units. On-site inspections and botanical surveys suggest that the decline in the density of large trees is the result of the effects of the interaction of elephants and fire. This had arisen because during the period 1960 to 1986/89 systematic burning programs had been introduced at the same time as elephant numbers had risen sharply. The results presented suggest that the changes in the woody vegetation do not involve a decrease in species

  7. Urolithiasis update: clinical experience with the Swiss LithoClast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schock, J; Barsky, R I; Pietras, J R

    2001-08-01

    This article describes the authors' first experience using the EMS Swiss LithoClast pneumatic lithotriptor in the management of middle and distal ureteral calculi. Also presented is a review of the literature comparing different modalities of intracorporeal lithotripsy. A retrospective analysis was performed on 11 patients treated with the Swiss LithoClast using the Circon ACMI MR6 Rigid Mini-ureteroscope (7 patients with distal calculi and 4 patients with midureteral calculi). The lithotriptor successfully fragmented 91% of the calculi, independent of stone composition. Complete failure of fragmentation was only encountered in one patient, and this was secondary to the lithotriptor's inherent ballistic force causing retrograde passage of the calculus. One patient had postoperative radiographic evidence of stone fragments along the ureteral stent. There was no intraoperative morbidity or long-term complications encountered with use of the pneumatic lithotriptor. Additionally, patients' overall satisfaction was 91% with respect to the procedure itself and relief of preoperative pain. The only significant postoperative complaint was ureteral stent discomfort in one patient. The authors conclude that the EMS Swiss LithoClast pneumatic lithotriptor is a safe and effective tool in the management of middle and distal ureteral calculi. However, as noted with one patient, there is always a risk of stone push from the ballistic force of the lithotriptor.

  8. Regional distribution of nosocomial infections due to ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Germany: data from the German National Reference Center for the Surveillance of Nosocomial Infections (KISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistner, R; Schröder, C; Geffers, C; Breier, A-C; Gastmeier, P; Behnke, M

    2015-03-01

    Surveillance systems for hospital infections are reporting increasing rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Enterobacteriaceae in Europe. We aimed to perform a national survey on this trend and on the regional distribution of nosocomial infections due to ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in German hospitals. Data from 2007 to 2012 from two components of the German national nosocomial infection surveillance system were used for this analysis. The data derive from intensive care units and surgical departments. Independent factors determining the proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae among nosocomial infections due to Enterobacteriaceae and changes in its regional distribution (broken down into German federal states) were calculated by regression analysis. From 2007 to 2012, the data showed a significantly increasing proportion of ESBL-positive Enterobacteriaceae in surgical site infections (from 11.46 to 15.38, 134%, p 0.003), urinary tract infections (9.36 to 16.56, 177%, p infections (11.91 to 14.70, 123%, p nosocomial infections has significantly increased in Germany over the last 6 years. Hospitals in Central Germany and surgical departments in all of Germany are especially affected by this development. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An important year for Swiss Electricity Politics - President's speech at the shareholder's meeting of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the speech made by Rudolf Steiner, president of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises, in Bad Ragaz in September 2004. Steiner comments on 2004 as being an important year with respect to energy politics in Switzerland. A public vote turned down the idea of opting out of nuclear energy, the Federal Court decided that the Restricted Trade Practices act was also applicable to the Swiss electricity supply industry and the EU parliament passed guidelines on the opening of the European power market. The effects of large-scale blackouts in America and Europe on the public's perception of secure supplies are commented on. The importance of the Association as a provider of services for its members and as a partner for the government is stressed

  10. 32 CFR 552.182 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.182 Section 552.182 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL... Facilities § 552.182 References. Publications referenced in this section may be reviewed in the Office...

  11. 32 CFR 552.161 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.161 Section 552.161 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL..., and Camp Bonneville § 552.161 References. See appendix E to this subpart. ...

  12. 32 CFR 1290.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 1290.1 Section 1290.1 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY MISCELLANEOUS PREPARING... References. (a) DLAR 5720.1/AR 190-5/OPNAVINST 11200.5B/AFR 125-14/MCO 5110.1B, Motor Vehicle Traffic...

  13. 32 CFR 552.113 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.113 Section 552.113 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL...-Fort Lewis, Washington § 552.113 References. This regulation is to be used in conjunction with the...

  14. 32 CFR 552.107 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.107 Section 552.107 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL... References. (a) AR 190-5 (Motor Vehicle Traffic Supervision) (b) AR 190-52 (Countering Terrorism and Other...

  15. 32 CFR 552.86 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.86 Section 552.86 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.86 References. (a) AR...

  16. 32 CFR 552.142 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 552.142 Section 552.142 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL... Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana § 552.142 References. Required and related publications are listed...

  17. Elaboration of standards referred to human exposure to electromagnetic fields in the range of 9kHz to 300GHz in the National System of Health, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Joao Henrique Campos de; Giacomet, Andrea Fatima; Cunha, Tarcisio; Drumond, Ivens; Sa, Fabiana O.; Mendes, Paula

    2005-01-01

    The Portaria of the Ministry of Health no. 279 (Ordinance 279), of February 22, 2005, establishes a Working Group-GT with the purpose to elaborate standards relating to human exposure to electromagnetic fields in the range of 9 kHz to 300 GHz in the Sistema Unico de Saude (National System of Health), Brazil. Since then, we have conducted several studies on the biological effects of radiation exposure in this spectral range. The GT proposes the use of the geographical instruments coupled information systems to define an alternative pattern of surveillance, based on the determination of Areas of Risks. Each source of electromagnetic radiation is associated with territorial boundaries that surround it using progressively larger distances, thus determining areas of influence whose intensity is attenuated as the distance to the source increases. This paper presents the main results obtained by the Working Group

  18. Managing the nation's nuclear waste. Site descriptions: Cypress Creek, Davis Canyon, Deaf Smith, Hanford Reference, Lavender Canyon, Richton Dome, Swisher, Vacherie Dome, and Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    In 1982, the Congress enacted the Nuclear Waste Policy Act (Public Law 97-425), which established a comprehensive national program directed toward siting, constructing, and operating geologic repositories for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. In February 1983, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) identified the nine referenced repository locations as potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository. These sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories. The DOE findings and determinations are based on the evaluations contained in the draft Environmental Assessments (EA). A final EA will be prepared after considering the comments received on the draft EA. The purpose of this document is to provide the public with specific site information on each potential repository location

  19. 33 CFR 241.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 241.3 Section 241.3... CONTROL COST-SHARING REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE ABILITY TO PAY PROVISION § 241.3 References. References cited..., Hyattsville, MD 20781-1102. References cited in paragraphs (d) and (e) may be obtained from the National...

  20. Local diagnostic reference level based on size-specific dose estimates: assessment of pediatric abdominal/pelvic computed tomography at a Japanese national children's hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Rumi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Horiuchi, Tetsuya; Kurosawa, Hideo; Nosaka, Shunsuke

    2015-03-01

    A child's body size is not accurately reflected by volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP). Size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) was introduced recently as a new index of radiation dose. However, it has not yet been established as a diagnostic reference level (DRL). To calculate the SSDE of abdominal/pelvic CT and compare the SSDE with CTDIvol. To calculate the DRLs of CTDIvol and SSDE. Our hypotheses are: SSDE values will be greater than CTDIvol, and our DRL will be smaller than the known DRLs of other countries. The CTDIvol and DLP of 117 children who underwent abdominal/pelvic CT were collected retrospectively. The SSDE was calculated from the sum of the lateral and anteroposterior diameters. The relationships between body weight and effective diameter and between effective diameter and CTDIvol/SSDE were compared. Further, the local DRL was compared with the DRLs of other countries. Body weight and effective diameter and effective diameter and SSDE were positively correlated. In children ages 1, 5 and 10 years, the SSDE is closer to the exposure dose of CTDIvol for the 16-cm phantom, while in children ages 15 years, the SSDE falls between CTDIvol for the 16-cm phantom and that for the 32-cm phantom. The local DRL was lower than those of other countries. With SSDE, the radiation dose increased with increasing body weight. Since SSDE takes body size into account, it proved to be a useful indicator for estimating the exposure dose.

  1. Assessing distorted trading incentives of balance responsible parties based on the example of the Swiss power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Marc; Haubensak, Oliver; Staake, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Power systems require a continuous balance of supply and demand. In Europe, this task is shared between Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs) and Transmission System Operators (TSOs). For this purpose, the European electricity sector consists of several markets. Objective of this paper is to investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design which BRPs can use to undermine electricity balancing principles in favour of gaming opportunities between the domestic imbalance energy pricing and international wholesale markets. These incentives are evaluated using historical data from the Swiss power system which features a typical European imbalance pricing mechanism. The results imply that little effort would have been needed to make a good profit at the expense of system security. The major loophole arises from the interdependence between cross-border trading and national imbalance energy pricing. Bearing in mind the European Union's Third Energy Package, the importance of national balancing mechanisms will increase strongly. In this context, national remedies to cope with distorted incentives are outlined and the importance of harmonising balancing markets on an international level is elaborated. - Highlights: • We investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design. • Cross-border trading that undermines electricity balancing principles is evaluated. • Little effort is necessary to make a good profit at the expense of system security. • We examine historical data from the Swiss power system. • We outline remedies to limit the possibilities of profiting from potential loopholes.

  2. No reduction in genetic diversity of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) in Tatra Mountains despite high fragmentation and small population size

    OpenAIRE

    Dzialuk, Artur; Chybicki, Igor; Gout, Roman; Maczka, Tomasz; Fleischer, Peter; Konrad, Heino; Curtu, Alexandru Lucian; Sofletea, Nicolae; Valadon, Alain

    2014-01-01

    In Europe, most of the alpine timberline ecotone has been altered by human activities and climate change. Hence, mountain forests are of the highest conservation interest. Here, we screened 25 populations of Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L.) from the Carpathians and the Alps, using a set of ten microsatellite primers to assess the relative conservation value of populations sampled in Polish and Slovak Tatra National Parks, where potential extinction risk is the highest within the Carpathian ...

  3. Spectro-directional CHRIS/PROBA data over two Swiss test sites for improved estimation of biophysical and -chemical variables: Five years of activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kneubühler, M.; Koetz, B.; Huber, S.; Zimmerman, N.E.; Schaepman, M.E.

    2008-01-01

    The spaceborne ESA-mission CHRIS (Compact High Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) on-board PROBA-1 (Project for On-board Autonomy) delivers multi-directional data sets that contain spectral, directional, spatial and multi-temporal information. CHRIS/PROBA data have been acquired over two well documented test sites in Switzerland (Swiss National Park (SNP) and Vordemwald (VOR) since 2003 and allow for the monitoring of complex and dynamic vegetation canopies of forests and agricultural crops...

  4. Traditional and molecular detection methods reveal intense interguild competition and other multitrophic interactions associated with native entomopathogenic nematodes in Swiss tillage soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Campos-Herrera, R.; Jaffuel, G.; Chiriboga, X.; Blanco-Pérez, R.; Fesselet, M.; Půža, Vladimír; Mascher, F.; Turlings, T. C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 389, 1-2 (2015), s. 237-255 ISSN 0032-079X Grant - others:Swiss National Science Foundation(CH) 143065 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : entomopathogenic nematodes * annual crops * soil food web Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11104-014-2358-4

  5. IgE-mediated food allergies in Swiss infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Giovanni Gaspare; Eng, Peter Andreas

    2011-10-12

    To determine the most frequent food allergens causing immediate hypersensitivity reactions in Swiss children of different age groups and to investigate the clinical manifestation of IgE-mediated food allergies in young patients. The study was a prospective analysis of children referred for assessment of immediate type I food hypersensitivity reactions. The diagnostic strategy included a careful history, skin prick tests with commercial extracts and native foods, in vitro determination of specific IgE to food proteins and food challenges when appropriate. A total of 278 food allergies were identified in 151 children with a median age of 1.9 years at diagnosis. Overall, the most frequent food allergens were hen's egg (23.7%), cow's milk (20.1%), peanut (14.0%), hazelnut (10.4%), wheat (6.1%), fish (4.3%), kiwi and soy (2.2% each). In infancy, cow's milk, hen's egg and wheat were the most common allergens. In the second and third year of life however, the top three food allergens were hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut, whereas above the age of 3 years, peanut was number one, followed by hen's egg and fish. Overall, urticaria (59.0%) and angioedema (30.2%) were the most frequent clinical manifestations. Gastrointestinal symptoms were found in 25.9% and respiratory involvement in 25.2%. There were 13 cases (4.7%) of anaphylaxis to peanut, fish, cow's milk, hen's egg, wheat and shrimps. A total of eight allergens account for 83% of IgE-mediated food allergies in Swiss infants and children, with differences in the distribution and order of the most frequently involved food allergens between paediatric age groups.

  6. Expectations of the Swiss safety authorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegelin, R.

    1994-01-01

    On the one hand, nuclear energy can contribute significantly to our energy supply without much environmental consequences. On the other hand, there is a potential for large environmental consequences. The nuclear power plants are vastly different from conventional industrial activities where much has been learned through trial and error processes leading to slow improvements in their safety performance. Hence one cannot afford to learn from mistakes as an approach to safety improvement. It is more important to think ahead and precautions must be taken through proper design and operation before accidents can occur. The precondition for such an approach is what one now refers to as 'safety culture'. This requires a prerequisite frame of mind to 'desire' safety. In addition, the necessary technical 'ability' is also required, without which any culture cannot be realized. Culture is a human reaction to its environment so that it can live in harmony with the real or imaginary world. In the course of human history, different cultures, e.g. hunters and farmers, have evolved to adopt with the prevailing habitats. The term culture is also associated with a humane form of pre-industrial and industrial society. These cultures were, at least partially, the result of pressure to perform suitable actions. However, in the present modern times, things function quite well with less apparent pressure. Thereby positive values in the working culture become questionable. The traits that are endangered include thoroughness, carefulness and sense of duty in ones daily work habits. Also the removal of work from its central position in human life is involved, threatening care by pressure or time and costs. (author)

  7. Age- and gender-specific reference intervals of TSH and free T4 in an iodine-replete area: Data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2013–2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae In; Oh, Hyun-Kyung; Kim, Tae Hyuk; Jang, Hye Won; Chung, Jae Hoon

    2018-01-01

    Background Establishment of the reference interval of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is critical in the diagnosis of thyroid dysfunction and is affected by age, gender, iodine nutrition, and ethnicity. The aim of this study was to determine the reference intervals of TSH and free thyroxin (FT4) from a large, nationwide data of Korea where iodine intake is more than adequate. Methods We analyzed data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI that measured serum TSH, FT4, and thyroid peroxidase antibody from 7,061 individuals (urinary iodine measurement in 6,565). Age- and gender-specific reference intervals were established from 95% confidence limits from the 2.5 to 97.5 percentile of TSH (log-transformed) and FT4 in reference populations. Results The geometric mean of TSH was 2.16 ± 0.01 mIU/L, with the lowest value found in the middle aged group (2.04 ± 0.02 mIU/L) and higher values noted in age groups of 10–19 and over 70 years (2.38 ± 0.02 and 2.32 ± 0.07 mIU/L, respectively). The association of TSH and age was U-shaped. The overall reference interval of TSH was 0.59–7.03 mIU/L. Mean FT4 was 1.25 ± 0.003 ng/dL (16.09 ± 0.039 pmol/L), and it showed a small but continuous decrease after 20 years of age (P reference interval of TSH in Korea, where iodine intake is above the requirement, was 0.59–7.03 mIU/L and showed U-shaped change with age, which was a similar pattern to iodine intake. The reference interval of FT4 was 0.92–1.60 ng/dL. The geometric mean and upper limit of TSH were higher than those of Western populations, reflecting the paramount importance of iodine intake on thyroid function. PMID:29390008

  8. Local diagnostic reference level based on size-specific dose estimates: Assessment of pediatric abdominal/pelvic computed tomography at a Japanese national children's hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Rumi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Kurosawa, Hideo; Nosaka, Shunsuke [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Horiuchi, Tetsuya [Osaka University, Department of Medical Physics and Engineering, Division of Medical Technology and Science, Course of Health Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    2015-03-01

    A child's body size is not accurately reflected by volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) and dose-length product (DLP). Size-specific dose estimation (SSDE) was introduced recently as a new index of radiation dose. However, it has not yet been established as a diagnostic reference level (DRL). To calculate the SSDE of abdominal/pelvic CT and compare the SSDE with CTDI{sub vol}. To calculate the DRLs of CTDI{sub vol} and SSDE. Our hypotheses are: SSDE values will be greater than CTDI{sub vol}, and our DRL will be smaller than the known DRLs of other countries. The CTDI{sub vol} and DLP of 117 children who underwent abdominal/pelvic CT were collected retrospectively. The SSDE was calculated from the sum of the lateral and anteroposterior diameters. The relationships between body weight and effective diameter and between effective diameter and CTDI{sub vol}/SSDE were compared. Further, the local DRL was compared with the DRLs of other countries. Body weight and effective diameter and effective diameter and SSDE were positively correlated. In children ages 1, 5 and 10 years, the SSDE is closer to the exposure dose of CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom, while in children ages 15 years, the SSDE falls between CTDI{sub vol} for the 16-cm phantom and that for the 32-cm phantom. The local DRL was lower than those of other countries. With SSDE, the radiation dose increased with increasing body weight. Since SSDE takes body size into account, it proved to be a useful indicator for estimating the exposure dose. (orig.)

  9. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO 2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  10. [Equine dentistry: Survey on Swiss horse owners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiesser, E; Geyer, H; Kummer, M; Jackson, M

    2017-08-01

    The interest in equine dentistry has significantly increased in the last 15 years. On the part of the veterinarians as well as of the horse owners there is a strong attention to the topic. The aim of the questionnaire was to investigate amongst horse owners what their level of information and preferences about dental treatment are and how they are implemented. The questionnaire was translated into the three national languages and included 20 questions about level and sources of information, frequency of treatments and the horse owner's stance over sedation of the animals. With a return rate of 45% (1'466 of 3'250 sent questionnaires) significant conclusions could be drawn. Horse owners showed a strong demand for clarification regarding tooth problems, the causes, consequences and methods of treatment. More than half of the owners considered themselves not well informed. The treating person was in 66.7% a veterinarian with a special education. Horse owners indicated that information circulated most frequently by word of mouth recommendations and they explicitly wished information from professional and reliable sources. The questionnaire provided a clear result about current equine dental treatments. We suggest that they should be performed by veterinarians only with a special education.

  11. A study on the establishment of national nuclear foreign policy with reference to nuclear export control system, strategy toward IAEA, and NPT review conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Myung; Nam, Jang Soo; Lee, Han Myung

    1990-02-01

    The objectives of this study are follows: suggestion for i) our future nuclear development directions, ii) establishment of national export control system, iii) establishment of strategy toward IAEA, and suggestion of our standpoints toward the 4th NPT review conference. This study proposes the following; 1) It is desirable that nuclear power generation strategy is propelled under the premise of economics and proven technology. And international cooperation in connection with the nuclear fuel cycle should be reinforced. 2) It is recommened that nuclear export control system should be government-led. 3) Our country needs to make efforts in increasing the number of Korean staff in the IAEA, and to establish permanent mission which is wholly responsible for the IAEA affairs, and to construct a system which deals with nuclear foregin activities. 4) It is desirable that the basic position of our country toward the 4th NPT review conference should be : i) to urge parties to the NPT to conclude safeguards agreement with IAEA as early as possible, ii) to request nuclear suppliers to mitigate their nuclear technology for peaceful uses to nuclear developing countries, and iii) to urge nuclear weapon states to make further efforts for nuclear disarmament. (author)

  12. Comparison of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and World Health Organization references/standards for height in contemporary Australian children: analyses of the Raine Study and Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ian; Harris, Mark; Cotterill, Andrew; Garnett, Sarah; Bannink, Ellen; Pennell, Craig; Sly, Peter; Leong, Gary M; Cowell, Chris; Ambler, Geoff; Werther, George; Hofman, Paul; Cutfield, Wayne; Choong, Catherine S

    2014-11-01

    (i) To compare the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference and World Health Organization (WHO) standard/reference for height, particularly with respect to short stature and eligibility for growth hormone (GH) treatment by applying them to contemporary Australian children; (ii) To examine the implications for identifying short stature and eligibility for GH treatment. Children from the longitudinal Raine Study were serially measured for height from 1991 to 2005 (2-15-year-old girls (660) and boys (702) from Western Australia). In the cross-sectional Australian National Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity survey (2-16-year-old boys (2415) and girls (2379) from all states), height was measured in 2007. Heights were converted to standard deviation scores (SDSs) based on CDC and WHO. Means and standard deviations of height-SDS varied between CDC and WHO definitions and with age and gender within each definition. However, both identified similar frequencies of short stature (standard/reference for height. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  13. Five years database of landslides and floods affecting Swiss transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2017-04-01

    Switzerland is a country threatened by a lot of natural hazards. Many events occur in built environment, affecting infrastructures, buildings or transportation networks and producing occasionally expensive damages. This is the reason why large landslides are generally well studied and monitored in Switzerland to reduce the financial and human risks. However, we have noticed a lack of data on small events which have impacted roads and railways these last years. This is why we have collect all the reported natural hazard events which have affected the Swiss transportation networks since 2012 in a database. More than 800 roads and railways closures have been recorded in five years from 2012 to 2016. These event are classified into six classes: earth flow, debris flow, rockfall, flood, avalanche and others. Data come from Swiss online press articles sorted by Google Alerts. The search is based on more than thirty keywords, in three languages (Italian, French, German). After verifying that the article relates indeed an event which has affected a road or a railways track, it is studied in details. We get finally information on about sixty attributes by event about event date, event type, event localisation, meteorological conditions as well as impacts and damages on the track and human damages. From this database, many trends over the five years of data collection can be outlined: in particular, the spatial and temporal distributions of the events, as well as their consequences in term of traffic (closure duration, deviation, etc.). Even if the database is imperfect (by the way it was built and because of the short time period considered), it highlights the not negligible impact of small natural hazard events on roads and railways in Switzerland at a national level. This database helps to better understand and quantify this events, to better integrate them in risk assessment.

  14. Vertical and Horizontal Polarization Observations of Slowly Varying Solar Emissions from Operational Swiss Weather Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gabella

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic power that arrives from the Sun in the C-band has been used to check the quality of the polarimetric, Doppler weather radar network that has recently been installed in Switzerland. The operational monitoring of this network is based on the analysis of Sun signals in the polar volume data produced during the MeteoSwiss scan program. It relies on a method that has been developed to: (1 determine electromagnetic antenna pointing; (2 monitor receiver stability; and (3 assess the differential reflectivity offset. Most of the results from such a method had been derived using data acquired in 2008, which was a period of quiet solar flux activity. Here, it has been applied, in simplified form, to the currently active Sun period. This note describes the results that have been obtained recently thanks to an inter-comparison of three polarimetric operational radars and the Sun’s reference signal observed in Canada in the S-band by the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory (DRAO. The focus is on relative calibration: horizontal and vertical polarization are evaluated versus the DRAO reference and mutually compared. All six radar receivers (three systems, two polarizations are able to capture and describe the monthly variability of the microwave signal emitted by the Sun. It can be concluded that even this simplified form of the method has the potential to routinely monitor dual-polarization weather radar networks during periods of intense Sun activity.

  15. Climate Reference Network Hourly02 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  16. Climate Reference Network Daily01 Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Climate Reference Network is designed specifically to monitor national climate change with best scientific practice and adherence to the accepted principles...

  17. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  18. Genetic population structure of three Armillaria species at the landscape scale: a case study from Swiss Pinus mugo forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendel, Muriel; Kienast, Felix; Rigling, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Armillaria species are plant pathogens that cause Armillaria root rot and are known to cause mortality of mountain pines (Pinus mugo) in the Swiss National Park in the Central Alps. The identity of isolates and the spatially explicit population structure of the Armillaria species were investigated in a 3.3km(2) study area in the Swiss National Park. In total, 242 Armillaria isolates, 205 from wood samples and 37 from epiphytic rhizomorphs, were collected. Species were identified using haploid-diploid pairings and genets were determined using intraspecific somatic incompatibility tests. The population structure differed markedly among the Armillaria species. A. cepistipes and A. borealis mainly occurred as genets of small spatial extent (mean 0.2ha, and 0.6ha), whereas A. ostoyae formed significantly larger genets (mean 6.8ha). The largest A. ostoyae genet extended over approx. 37ha. Several disease centres associated with Heterobasidion annosum were found to be embedded within large Armillaria genets. The extension of large A. ostoyae genets suggests that forests that occupy the study area have developed in the presence of these Armillaria genets. The finding of large Armillaria genets supports the assumption that large genets occur in areas with cold climate and little precipitation.

  19. and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage. The food that is the subject of the health claim, a combination....... cicla), golden Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) and white Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which...... chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage....

  20. The Swiss approach to finding compromises in nuclear waste governance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppler, Sophie; Grunwald, Armin

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland, a new site selection procedure is being implemented since 2008. This procedure, which is laid down in a 'sectoral plan', shows strong elements of public participation and transparency and can be considered a step away from the classical 'decide-announce-defend' approach in decision-making. This procedure tends towards a more governance-oriented approach based on ideas of 'civility' of decision-making. Despite this renewal, the Swiss case clearly shows that any kind of selection process has to be considered as a 'working compromise', which needs to be adapted when new challenges emerge.

  1. The Swiss gas market - Facts and figures of today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfander, M.

    1999-01-01

    This contribution presents a selection of the latest statistical data about the current state of development of the Swiss gas market. The sales and consumer structure areas are the focal points. The key data are clarified by graphics or shown in tabular form with brief comments. The following topics are dealt with: gas balance and sources of natural gas supply for Switzerland, natural gas sales by regions and cantons, energy consumption in the different consumption sectors, heating structure of residential accommodation according to energy sources, trend of natural gas consumption in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe. (author)

  2. Swiss association for atomic energy (SVA/ASPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A report of the general assembly of the Swiss association for atomic energy held on 4th June 1985. The president, Alain Colomb, called for a 'second electrification' of the country to free Switzerland from a dependence on petroleum. Nuclear energy is necessary to combat air pollution. An invited speaker, Manuel Poyatos of the 'Electricite de France', recounted the French experience of restructuring their electric production system; particular the increasing contribution of nuclear energy and the beneficial effects on the environment. (G.T.H.)

  3. 26 CFR 509.106 - Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. 509.106 Section 509.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. In effect, Article IV of the convention provides...

  4. The role of skin self-examination at the Swiss skin cancer day

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badertscher, N.; Meier, M.; Rosemann, T.; Braun, R.; Cozzio, A.; Tag, B.; Wensing, M.; Tandjung, R.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The rising incidence of melanoma - Switzerland has the highest incidence in Europe - is a major public health challenge. Swiss dermatologist introduced the "Swiss Skin Cancer Day" (SSCD) in 2006, which provides skin cancer screening at no costs. The aim of the study was to describe the

  5. The future of the banking secrecy for Swiss taxpayers in the light of the evolution of the international financial standards

    OpenAIRE

    Peeters, Alix; Matile, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Swiss banking secrecy used to be a quirk of Swiss law that went largely untouched until recent times. Recently through high profile, year-long pressure by governments the world over, this secrecy, which had shielded account owners from declaring their financial assets and thus, taxable income, was partly dismantled. This oddity in Swiss law was always a hot button issue for many governments around the world, and lately came to the forefront of discussion for change in front of the Swiss gover...

  6. Acute exposure of apigenin induces hepatotoxicity in Swiss mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhat Singh

    Full Text Available Apigenin, a dietary flavonoid, is reported to have several therapeutic effects in different diseases including cancer. Toxicity of Apigenin is however, least explored, and reports are scanty in literature. This warrants dose-specific evaluation of toxicity in vivo. In the present study, Apigenin was administered intraperitoneally to Swiss mice at doses of 25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg. Serum levels of alanine amino transferase (ALT, aspartate amino transferase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP were measured along with the examination of liver histology, reactive oxygen species (ROS in blood, lipid peroxidation (LPO, glutathione level, superoxide dismutase activity, catalase activity, glutathione S-transferase activity and gene expression in liver tissue. Increase in ALT, AST, ALP, ROS, ratio of oxidized to reduced glutathione (GSSG/GSH and LPO, altered enzyme activities along with damaged histoarchitecture in the liver of 100 or 200 mg/kg Apigenin treated animals were found. Microarray analysis revealed the differential expression of genes that correspond to different biologically relevant pathways including oxidative stress and apoptosis. In conclusion, these results suggested the oxidative stress induced liver damage which may be due to the regulation of multiple genes by Apigenin at higher doses in Swiss mice.

  7. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system.

  8. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  9. Use of placebo interventions among Swiss primary care providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fässler, Margrit; Gnädinger, Markus; Rosemann, Thomas; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2009-01-01

    Background Placebo interventions can have meaningful effects for patients. However, little is known about the circumstances of their use in clinical practice. We aimed to investigate to what extent and in which way Swiss primary care providers use placebo interventions. Furthermore we explored their ideas about the ethical and legal issues involved. Methods 599 questionnaires were sent to general practitioners (GPs) and paediatricians in private practice in the Canton of Zurich in Switzerland. To allow for subgroup analysis GPs in urban, suburban, and rural areas as well as paediatricians were selected in an even ratio. Results 233 questionnaires were completed (response rate 47%). 28% of participants reported that they never used placebo interventions. More participants used impure placebos therapeutically than pure placebos (57% versus 17%, McNemar's χ2 = 78, p placebo prescription. Placebo use was communicated to patients mostly as being "a drug or a therapy" (64%). The most frequently chosen ethical premise was that they "can be used as long as the physician and the patient work together in partnership" (60% for pure and 75% for impure placebos, McNemar's χ2 = 12, p placebos. Conclusion The data obtained from Swiss primary care providers reflect a broad variety of views about placebo interventions as well as a widespread uncertainty regarding their legitimacy. Primary care providers seem to preferentially use impure as compared to pure placebos in their daily practice. An intense debate is required on appropriate standards regarding the clinical use of placebo interventions among medical professionals. PMID:19664267

  10. Antidiarrheal Activity of Three Medicinal Plants in Swiss Albino Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Ashrafuzzaman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Different parts of Allamanda neriifolia (AN, Crinum latifolium (CL, and Bruguiera cylindrical (BC are used in folk medicine to treat diarrhea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate and compare possible antidiarrheal activity of methanol extracts from barks, stems, and roots of AL, CL, and BC in Swiss albino mice. Methods: Antidiarrheal activities of extracts were evaluated at three doses (100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400mg/kg and compared with Loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhea and charcoal meal test model in the Swiss albino mice. Results: The aqueous extract of CL and BC administered at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 0%, 24.5%, 62.26% and 5.66%, 37.11%, and 62.26% diarrhea inhibition, respectively (Table 2. This reduction in diarrheal episodes is significant, and maximum effect was observed at the dose of 400mg/kg similarly in the alcohol extracts of both CL and BC. AN administered at the dose of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg showed 55.97%, 74.84% and 74.84% diarrhea inhibition, respectively. Conclusion: The antidiarrheal effect of the AN extract, in contrast to CL and BC, against the castor oil-induced diarrhea model prove its efficacy in an extensive range of diarrheal conditions.

  11. Fiftieth anniversary celebrations get underway with a Swiss philatelic gift

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    A special commemorative stamp dedicated to CERN will go on sale in post offices throughout Switzerland on 9 March, marking the official start of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. On your marks, get set...go! The first ten stamp-lovers born in 1954 to present themselves at the counter of CERN's Meyrin post office at 9.00 a.m. on Tuesday 9 March will receive the new Swiss commemorative stamp issued in honour of CERN, together with a surprise gift. Designed by Swiss artists Christian Stuker and Beat Trummer, the stamp aims to convey the spirit of CERN in an area no larger than 28 mm by 33 mm. 'We wanted to get away from existing CERN imagery and create something symbolic for this 50th anniversary,' Christian Stucker explains. The radiating design portrays an opening, a spreading-out 'towards infinity', which reflects CERN's fundamental goals of research and the transmission of knowledge. The stamp will be available from 9 March onwards in all post offices across Switzerland as well as in the philatelic cen...

  12. Fog Chemistry at Different Altitudes in the Swiss Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michna, P.; Eugster, W.; Wanner, H.

    2010-07-01

    During two extended summer seasons in 2006 and 2007, we installed two battery driven versions of the Caltech active strand cloud water collector (MiniCASCC) at the Niesen mountain in the northern Swiss Alps. Along, we measured air temperature, relative humidity, wind, and visibility. During these two field operation phases we gained weekly samples of fogwater, where we analysed the major anions and cations, and the stable water isotopes δD and δ18O. The fog collectors were installed at an altitude of 2300 and 1600 m asl to resolve altitudinal differences in fog chemistry. We found a large variability between the events, but no clear altitudinal gradient. At both sites, the most important ions were nitrate, ammonium, and sulphate. Higher concentrations occured preferably in late spring (start of sampling period) and in autumn (end of sampling). Compared to previous studies at lower elevations in the Swiss Plateau during wintertime, our measurements showed considerable lower ion loads in the fogwater. The combination of these results suggest that lowest ion loads are found in convective clouds with a short lifetime and that the highest ion loads occur during radiation fog events at lower elevations.

  13. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  14. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the... risks associated with the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia into the continental United States... weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. We are making the pest risk analysis available...

  15. Resource management plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation. Volume 30, Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park natural areas and reference areas--Oak Ridge Reservation environmentally sensitive sites containing special plants, animals, and communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pounds, L.R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US); Parr, P.D.; Ryon, M.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Areas on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) that contain rare plant or animal species or are special habitats are protected through National Environmental Research Park Natural Area (NA) or Reference Area (RA) designations. The US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park program is responsible for identifying species of vascular plants that are endangered, threatened, or rare and, as much as possible, for conserving those areas in which such species grow. This report includes a listing of Research Park NAs and RAs with general habitat descriptions and a computer-generated map with the areas identified. These are the locations of rare plant or animal species or special habitats that are known at this time. As the Reservation continues to be surveyed, it is expected that additional sites will be designated as Research Park NAs or RAs. This document is a component of a larger effort to identify environmentally sensitive areas on ORR. This report identifies the currently known locations of rare plant species, rare animal species, and special biological communities. Floodplains, wetlands (except those in RAs or NAs), and cultural resources are not included in this report.

  16. 32 CFR 518.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 518.2 Section 518.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM General Provisions § 518.2 References. Required and related...

  17. 32 CFR 516.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 516.2 Section 516.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS LITIGATION General § 516.2 References. Applicable publications and forms are listed in appendix A to this...

  18. 32 CFR 625.3 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 625.3 Section 625.3 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY SUPPLIES AND EQUIPMENT SURFACE TRANSPORTATION-ADMINISTRATIVE VEHICLE MANAGEMENT § 625.3 References. (a) Title 31, U.S. Code, section 638. (b) Comptroller...

  19. 32 CFR 651.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 651.2 Section 651.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Introduction § 651.2 References. Required and related publications and...

  20. 32 CFR 93.1 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 93.1 Section 93.1 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN ACCEPTANCE OF... WITNESSES § 93.1 References. (a) DoD Directive 5405.2, 1 “Release of Official Information in Litigation and...

  1. 32 CFR 507.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 507.2 Section 507.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AID OF CIVIL AUTHORITIES AND PUBLIC RELATIONS... QUALITY CONTROL PROGRAM Introduction § 507.2 References. Related publications are listed in paragraphs (a...

  2. 32 CFR 865.101 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false References. 865.101 Section 865.101 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE ORGANIZATION AND MISSION-GENERAL PERSONNEL REVIEW BOARDS Air Force Discharge Review Board § 865.101 References. (a) Title 10 U.S.C., section...

  3. 32 CFR 634.2 - References.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true References. 634.2 Section 634.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) LAW ENFORCEMENT AND CRIMINAL INVESTIGATIONS MOTOR VEHICLE TRAFFIC SUPERVISION Introduction § 634.2 References. Required and related...

  4. Relative age effects in Swiss talent development - a nationwide analysis of all sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Michael; Rössler, Roland; Javet, Marie; Faude, Oliver

    2018-02-02

    Relative age effects (RAE) generate consistent participation inequalities and selection biases in sports. The study aimed to investigate RAE across all sports of the national Swiss talent development programme (STDP). In this study, 18 859 youth athletes (female N = 5353; mean age: 14.8 ± 2.5 y and male N = 13 506; mean age: 14.4 ± 2.4 y) in 70 sports who participated in the 2014 competitive season were evaluated. The sample was subdivided by sex and the national level selection (NLS, N = 2464). Odds ratios (ORs) of relative age quarters (Q1-Q4) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. In STDP, small RAE were evident for females (OR 1.35 (95%-CI 1.24, 1.47)) and males (OR 1.84 (95%-CI 1.74, 1.95)). RAE were similar in female NLS athletes (OR 1.30 (95%-CI 1.08, 1.57)) and larger in male NLS athletes (OR 2.40 (95%-CI 1.42, 1.97)) compared to athletes in the lower selection level. In STDP, RAE are evident for both sexes in several sports with popular sports showing higher RAE. RAE were larger in males than females. A higher selection level showed higher RAE only for males. In Switzerland, talent identification and development should be considered as a long-term process.

  5. Disparities in bone density measurement history and osteoporosis medication utilisation in Swiss women: results from the Swiss Health Survey 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Born Rita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although factors associated with the utilisation of bone density measurement (BDM and osteoporosis treatment have been regularly assessed in the US and Canada, they have not been effectively analysed in European countries. This study assessed factors associated with the utilisation of BDM and osteoporosis medication (OM in Switzerland. Methods The Swiss Health Survey 2007 data included self-reported information on BDM and OM for women aged 40 years and older who were living in private households. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify sociodemographic, socioeconomic, healthcare-related and osteoporosis risk factors associated with BDM and OM utilisation. Results The lifetime prevalence of BDM was 25.6% (95% CI: 24.3-26.9% for women aged 40 years and older. BDM utilisation was associated with most sociodemographic factors, all the socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors, and with major osteoporosis risk factors analysed. The prevalence of current OM was 7.8% (95% CI: 7.0-8.6% and it was associated with some sociodemographic and most healthcare-related factors but only with one socioeconomic factor. Conclusions In Swiss women, ever having had a BDM and current OM were low and utilisation disparities exist according to sociodemographic, socioeconomic and healthcare-related factors. This might foster further health inequalities. The reasons for these findings should be addressed in further studies of the elderly women, including those living in institutions.

  6. Heart Team: Joint Position of the Swiss Society of Cardiology and the Swiss Society of Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, Giovanni B; Ferrari, Enrico; Zellweger, Michael; Genoni, Michele

    2017-10-01

    The Swiss Society of Cardiology (SSC) and the Swiss Society of Cardiac and ThoracicVascular Surgery (SSCTVS) have formulated their mutual intent of a close, patient-oriented, and expertise-based collaboration in the Heart Team Paper. The interdisciplinary dialogue between the SSC and SSCTVS reflects an attitude in decision making, which guarantees the best possible therapy for the individual patient. At the same time, it is a cornerstone of optimized process quality, placing individual interests into the background. Evaluation of the correct indication for a treatment is indeed very challenging and almost impossible to verify retrospectively. Quality in this very important health policy process can therefore only be assured by the use of mutually recognized indications, agreed upon by all involved physicians and medical specialties, whereby the capacity of those involved in the process is not important but rather their competence. These two medical societies recognize their responsibility and have incorporated international guidelines as well as specified regulations for Switzerland. Former competitors now form an integrative consulting team able to deliver a comprehensive evaluation for patients. Naturally, implementation rests with the individual caregiver. The Heart Team Paperof the SGK and SGHC, has defined guide boards within which the involved specialists maintain sufficient room to maneuver, and patients have certainty of receiving the best possible therapy they require.

  7. First growth curves based on the World Health Organization reference in a Nationally-Representative Sample of Pediatric Population in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA): the CASPIAN-III study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansourian, Marjan; Marateb, Hamid Reza; Kelishadi, Roya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Aminaee, Tahereh; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Heshmat, Ramin; Ardalan, Gelayol; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-09-17

    The World Health Organization (WHO) is in the process of establishing a new global database on the growth of school children and adolescents. Limited national data exist from Asian children, notably those living in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). This study aimed to generate the growth chart of a nationally representative sample of Iranian children aged 10-19 years, and to explore how well these anthropometric data match with international growth references. In this nationwide study, the anthropometric data were recorded from Iranian students, aged 10-19 years, who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas. Prior to the analysis, outliers were excluded from the features height-for-age and body mass index (BMI)-for-age using the NCHS/WHO cut-offs. The Box-Cox power exponential (BCPE) method was used to calculate height-for-age and BMI-for-age Z-scores for our study participants. Then, children with overweight, obesity, thinness, and severe thinness were identified using the BMI-for-age z-scores. Moreover, stunted children were detected using the height-for-age z-scores. The growth curve of the Iranian children was then generated from the z-scores, smoothed by cubic S-plines. The study population comprised 5430 school students consisting of 2312 (44%) participants aged 10-14 years , and 3118 (58%) with 15-19 years of age. Eight percent of the participants had low BMI (thinness: 6% and severe thinness: 2%), 20% had high BMI (overweight: 14% and obesity: 6%), and 7% were stunted. The prevalence rates of low and high BMI were greater in boys than in girls (P < 0.001). The mean BMI-for-age, and the average height-for-age of Iranian children aged 10-19 years were lower than the WHO 2007 and United states Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 (USCDC2000) references. The current growth curves generated from a national dataset may be included for establishing WHO global database on children's growth. Similar to most low

  8. The regulatory perspective: Role of regulatory review of the safety case for preparing and performing the Swiss site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuz, Ann-Kathrin; Rahn, Meinert

    2014-01-01

    Swiss legislation requires for all types of radioactive waste the safe and permanent disposal in deep geological repositories within Switzerland by stipulating a step-by-step procedure for site selection and licensing of the disposal facilities. Each step requires safety considerations or safety analyses which are reviewed by the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI, former HSK). The principle steps of radioactive waste disposal include: i) Demonstration of disposal feasibility for all types of radioactive waste in Switzerland. ii) Site selection process in three stages to narrow down the number of suitable sites to one for realisation ('Sectoral Plan for Geological Repositories'). iii) Construction, operation and closure of the repositories according to Swiss legislation in five steps [licence for geological investigations, general licence (decision-in-principle), construction licence, operation licence, closure order. Step i) was completed in 2006 when the Swiss Federal Council (Swiss federal government) approved the demonstration of disposal feasibility for high-level and long-lived intermediate level waste submitted by the implementer in 2002. The site selection process started in 2008 [Step ii)] according to a site selection concept (BFE, 2008) which was approved by the Federal Council after broad consultation. The process is organised and co-ordinated by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE, in German BFE) and is carried out in accordance with the land use planning legislation. Safety is of highest priority in the site selection process, but socioeconomic aspects are also taken into account. The site selection procedure is based on a stepwise approach. In the first of three stages, six potential siting areas for L/ILW and three potential siting areas for HLW were proposed by the implementer (Nagra) for each repository type, based on safety criteria defined by the regulatory authority ENSI. ENSI has reviewed the documentation and has agreed with

  9. 15 CFR 230.3 - New Standard Reference Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS STANDARD REFERENCE MATERIALS General Information § 230.3 New Standard Reference Materials. When new SRM's... scientific and trade journals. ...

  10. EXPERIENCE IN DEVELOPING THE IMPORT-SUBSTITUTING NATIONAL REFERENCE MATERIALS OF COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES OF PETROL AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS UNDER THE PROGRAM OF THE METROLOGICAL ASSURANCE OF PRODUCTION OF THE MINISTRY OF OIL REFINING AND PETROCHEMICAL INDUSTRY OF USSR APPROVED BY THE GOSSTANDART'S DECREE NO. 8 OF 30.01.1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kh. Mukhamedzianov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the main stages of the development of activities of INTEGRSO branches in the field of the development of national reference materials of petrol and petroleum products composition and properties under the Program of the metrological assurance of petroleum processing plant products. The scientific and production program of metrological assurance of test methods and control means for petrol and petroleum product composition and properties on the basis of reference materials with trademark NPO "INTEGRSO" is self-fulfilled. From 1986 more than 185 types of reference materials were developed and produced including 36 types of import-substituting reference materials.

  11. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  12. Core muscle activation during Swiss ball and traditional abdominal exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Rafael F; Lewis, Clare; Bell, Duncan; Bramblet, Gwen; Daffron, Jason; Lambert, Steve; Pecson, Amanda; Imamura, Rodney; Paulos, Lonnie; Andrews, James R

    2010-05-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a repeated-measures, counterbalanced design. To test the ability of 8 Swiss ball exercises (roll-out, pike, knee-up, skier, hip extension right, hip extension left, decline push-up, and sitting march right) and 2 traditional abdominal exercises (crunch and bent-knee sit-up) on activating core (lumbopelvic hip complex) musculature. Numerous Swiss ball abdominal exercises are employed for core muscle strengthening during training and rehabilitation, but there are minimal data to substantiate the ability of these exercises to recruit core muscles. It is also unknown how core muscle recruitment in many of these Swiss ball exercises compares to core muscle recruitment in traditional abdominal exercises such as the crunch and bent-knee sit-up. A convenience sample of 18 subjects performed 5 repetitions for each exercise. Electromyographic (EMG) data were recorded on the right side for upper and lower rectus abdominis, external and internal oblique, latissimus dorsi, lumbar paraspinals, and rectus femoris, and then normalized using maximum voluntary isometric contractions (MVICs). EMG signals during the roll-out and pike exercises for the upper rectus abdominis (63% and 46% MVIC, respectively), lower rectus abdominis (53% and 55% MVIC, respectively), external oblique (46% and 84% MVIC, respectively), and internal oblique (46% and 56% MVIC, respectively) were significantly greater compared to most other exercises, where EMG signals ranged between 7% to 53% MVIC for the upper rectus abdominis, 7% to 44% MVIC for the lower rectus abdominis, 14% to 73% MVIC for the external oblique, and 16% to 47% MVIC for the internal oblique. The lowest EMG signals were consistently found in the sitting march right exercise. Latissimus dorsi EMG signals were greatest in the pike, knee-up, skier, hip extension right and left, and decline push-up (17%-25% MVIC), and least with the sitting march right, crunch, and bent-knee sit-up exercises (7%-8% MVIC

  13. Extended reviewing or the role of potential siting cantons in the ongoing Swiss site selection procedure ('Sectoral Plan')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flueeler, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The disposition of nuclear waste in Switzerland has a long-standing and sinuous history reflecting its complex socio-technical nature (Flueeler, 2006). Upon the twofold failure to site a repository for low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste at Wellenberg during the 1990's and 2000's, it was recognised that the respective site selections had not been fully transparent. The Swiss government, the Federal Council, accepted the lesson and, after an extensive nationwide consultation at that, established a new site selection process 'from scratch': a systematic, stepwise, traceable, fair and binding procedure with a safety-first approach, yet extensively participatory. The so-called Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories guarantees the inclusion of the affected and concerned cantons and communities, as well as the relevant authorities in neighbouring countries from an early stage (Swiss Nuclear Energy Act, 2003; BFE, 2008). This contribution shares experience and insights in the ongoing procedure from a cantonal point of view that is an intermediate position between national needs and regional concerns, and with technical regulatory expertise between highly specialised experts and involved publics. (authors)

  14. Impact of Selection of Cord Blood Units from the United States and Swiss Registries on the Cost of Banking Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Thomas; Boo, Michael; Balabanova, Snejana; Fischer, Yvonne; Nicoloso, Grazia; Foeken, Lydia; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Passweg, Jakob; Tichelli, Andre; Kindler, Vincent; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Price, Thomas; Regan, Donna; Shpall, Elizabeth J.; Schwabe, Rudolf

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the last 2 decades, cord blood (CB) has become an important source of blood stem cells. Clinical experience has shown that CB is a viable source for blood stem cells in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation. Methods Studies of CB units (CBUs) stored and ordered from the US (National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) and Swiss (Swiss Blood Stem Cells (SBSQ)) CB registries were conducted to assess whether these CBUs met the needs of transplantation patients, as evidenced by units being selected for transplantation. These data were compared to international banking and selection data (Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW), World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA)). Further analysis was conducted on whether current CB banking practices were economically viable given the units being selected from the registries for transplant. It should be mentioned that our analysis focused on usage, deliberately omitting any information about clinical outcomes of CB transplantation. Results A disproportionate number of units with high total nucleated cell (TNC) counts are selected, compared to the distribution of units by TNC available. Therefore, the decision to use a low threshold for banking purposes cannot be supported by economic analysis and may limit the economic viability of future public CB banking. Conclusions We suggest significantly raising the TNC level used to determine a bankable unit. A level of 125 × 107 TNCs, maybe even 150 × 107 TNCs, might be a viable banking threshold. This would improve the return on inventory investments while meeting transplantation needs based on current selection criteria. PMID:23637645

  15. Impact of selection of cord blood units from the United States and swiss registries on the cost of banking operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Thomas; Boo, Michael; Balabanova, Snejana; Fischer, Yvonne; Nicoloso, Grazia; Foeken, Lydia; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Passweg, Jakob; Tichelli, Andre; Kindler, Vincent; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Price, Thomas; Regan, Donna; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Schwabe, Rudolf

    2013-02-01

    Over the last 2 decades, cord blood (CB) has become an important source of blood stem cells. Clinical experience has shown that CB is a viable source for blood stem cells in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation. Studies of CB units (CBUs) stored and ordered from the US (National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) and Swiss (Swiss Blood Stem Cells (SBSQ)) CB registries were conducted to assess whether these CBUs met the needs of transplantation patients, as evidenced by units being selected for transplantation. These data were compared to international banking and selection data (Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW), World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA)). Further analysis was conducted on whether current CB banking practices were economically viable given the units being selected from the registries for transplant. It should be mentioned that our analysis focused on usage, deliberately omitting any information about clinical outcomes of CB transplantation. A disproportionate number of units with high total nucleated cell (TNC) counts are selected, compared to the distribution of units by TNC available. Therefore, the decision to use a low threshold for banking purposes cannot be supported by economic analysis and may limit the economic viability of future public CB banking. We suggest significantly raising the TNC level used to determine a bankable unit. A level of 125 × 10(7) TNCs, maybe even 150 × 10(7) TNCs, might be a viable banking threshold. This would improve the return on inventory investments while meeting transplantation needs based on current selection criteria.

  16. SWISS: Sustained heated metallic melt/concrete interactions with overlying water pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blose, R.E.; Gronager, J.E.; Suo-Anttila, A.J.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1987-07-01

    Results of the test SWISS-1 and test SWISS-2 are reported. These tests examined the effects of an overlying water pool on high temperature melt interactions with concrete. In both tests, a melt of about 46 kilograms of type 304 stainless steel was formed and deposited onto a 21.6 cm diameter disk of limestone/common sand concrete. The concrete disk was retained within a cast MgO annulus. The molten steel was sustained at a power input of 1.3 to 1.7 Watts/gram by induction heating. In test SWISS-1 a water pool was formed over the melt after about 12 cm of concrete had eroded. In test SWISS-2, the water pool was formed about one minute after melt contacted the concrete and before any significant erosion of concrete could take place. In both tests the water pool was kept below the boiling point. Interactions were sustained for about 40 minutes in the two tests. Concrete erosion rates, concrete temperatures, heat fluxes to the overlying water pool, gas generation rates, and evolved gas compositions during tests SWISS-1 and SWISS-2 are reported. Aerosol generation rates are reported for test SWISS-2. 46 refs., 70 figs., 26 tabs

  17. Discourse coalitions in Swiss waste management: gridlock or winds of change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duygan, Mert; Stauffacher, Michael; Meylan, Grégoire

    2018-02-01

    As a complex socio-technical system, waste management is crucially important for the sustainable management of material and energy flows. Transition to better performing waste management systems requires not only determining what needs to be changed but also finding out how this change can be realized. Without understanding the political context, insights from decision support tools such as life cycle assessment (LCA) are likely to be lost in translation to decision and policy making. This study strives to provide a first insight into the political context and address the opportunities and barriers pertinent to initiating a change in Swiss waste management. For this purpose, the discourses around a major policy process are analysed to uncover the policy beliefs and preferences of actors. Discourse coalitions are delineated by referring to the Advocacy Coalition Framework (Sabatier, 1998) and using the Discourse Network Analysis (Leifeld and Haunss, 2012) method. The results display an incoherent regime (Fuenfschilling and Truffer, 2014) with divergent belief clusters on core issues in waste management. Yet, some actors holding different beliefs appear to have overlapping interests on secondary issues such as the treatment of biogenic waste or plastics. Although the current political context hinders a system-wide disruptive change, transitions can be initiated at local or regional scale by utilizing the shared interest across different discourse coalitions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Liberalization of the Swiss electricity and gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattin, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Swiss government intends to liberalize the electricity and gas market. Competition is to be introduced in the electricity sector first because the European Union is also giving priority to this industry. Moreover, electricity prices in Switzerland are too high. The principle of market liberalization is not contested, but the route to be taken to achieve this goal is a matter of heated controversy. Opinions on the power line network, non-amortizable investments, hydropower plants or the pace of market liberalization still differ too widely. Liberalization of the gas market is also in preparation, but the problems here are less complex. This is because competition already exists on the heating market. In addition, domestic gas prices are not much higher than those charged in other countries. (author)

  19. Exposure of the Swiss population by radiodiagnostics: 2013 review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Coultre, Regis; Champendal, Melanie; Bize, Julie; Ryckx, Nick; Aroua, Abbas; Verdun, Francis R.; Wittwer, David; Trueb, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, a nationwide investigation was conducted in Switzerland to establish the population's exposure from medical X rays. A hybrid approach was used combining the Raddose database accessible on-line by the participating practices and the Swiss medical pricing system for hospitals. This study revealed that the average annual number of examinations is 1.2 per inhabitant, and the associated annual effective dose is 1.4 mSv. It also showed that computed tomography is the most irradiating modality and that it delivers 70 % of the total dose. The annual effective dose per inhabitant registered a 17 % increase in 5 y and is comparable with what was recently reported in neighbouring countries. (authors)

  20. SWISS-PROT: connecting biomolecular knowledge via a protein database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, E; Jung, E; Bairoch, A

    2001-07-01

    With the explosive growth of biological data, the development of new means of data storage was needed. More and more often biological information is no longer published in the conventional way via a publication in a scientific journal, but only deposited into a database. In the last two decades these databases have become essential tools for researchers in biological sciences. Biological databases can be classified according to the type of information they contain. There are basically three types of sequence-related databases (nucleic acid sequences, protein sequences and protein tertiary structures) as well as various specialized data collections. It is important to provide the users of biomolecular databases with a degree of integration between these databases as by nature all of these databases are connected in a scientific sense and each one of them is an important piece to biological complexity. In this review we will highlight our effort in connecting biological information as demonstrated in the SWISS-PROT protein database.