WorldWideScience

Sample records for swiss energy systems

  1. Swiss energy statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  2. Swiss energy statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne

    2003-01-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons

  3. The new Swiss Energy Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tami, R.

    1999-01-01

    The new Swiss Energy Act and the accompanying regulation enable the instructions given in the poll by the electorate in 1990 -- the Energy Article in the Swiss Constitution -- to be implemented. The Energy Act creates the necessary basis for an advanced and sustainable energy policy. It should contribute to a sufficient, broadly based, dependable, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. The Energy Act and the Energy Regulation entered into force on January 1, 1999. (author)

  4. Life-cycle assessment of photovoltaic systems: results of Swiss studies on energy chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, Roberto; Frischknecht, Rolf

    1998-01-01

    The methodology used and results obtained for grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants in recent Swiss life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies on current and future energy systems are discussed. Mono- and polycrystalline silicon cell technologies utilised in current panels as well as monocrystalline and amorphous cells for future applications were analysed from Swiss conditions. The environmental inventories of slanted-roof solar panels and large plants are presented. Greenhouse gas emissions from present and future electricity systems are compared. The high electricity requirements for manufacturing determine most of the environmental burdens associated with current photovoltaics. However, due to increasing efficiency of production processes and cells, the environmental performance of PV systems is likely to improve substantially in the future. (Author)

  5. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J.; Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T.

    2004-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered

  6. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-04-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at

  7. Hearing of the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES). The ombudsman for solar heating systems as a quality assurance element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brugger-Mariani, G.

    1999-01-01

    Following an invitation issued by the Swiss Solar Energy Society (SSES),14 solar energy specialists hold a hearing on quality assurance for solar heating systems. Anticipating the introduction of taxes in favour of renewable energy sources and the expected rapid solar market development, the delegates discussed about the creation of a neutral ombudsman office for unsatisfied clients of the solar industry. Clearly, the solar heating system market can only expand if system quality is in accordance with the clients' expectations. The needed know-how may be found since several years in well presented reference books. However, at the moment, not all industry people follow these instructions yet [de

  8. Short-term impacts of air pollutants in Switzerland: Preliminary scenario calculations for selected Swiss energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani-Aksoyoglu, S.; Keller, J. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    In the frame of the comprehensive assessment of Swiss energy systems, air quality simulations were performed by using a 3-dimensional photo-chemical dispersion model. The objective is to investigate the impacts of pollutants in Switzerland for future options of Swiss energy systems. Four scenarios were investigated: Base Case: simulations with the projected emissions for the year 2030, Scenario 1) all nuclear power plants were replaced by oil-driven combined cycle plants (CCP), Scenarios 2 to 4) traffic emissions were reduced in whole Switzerland as well as in the cities and on the highways separately. Changes in the pollutant concentrations and depositions, and the possible short-term impacts are discussed on the basis of exceedences of critical levels for plants and limits given to protect the public health. (author) 2 figs., 7 refs.

  9. Swiss pumped hydro storage potential for Germany's electricity system under high penetration of intermittent renewable energy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meerwijk, Aagje J. H.; Benders, Reinerus; Davila-Martinez, Alejandro; Laugs, Gideon A. H.

    2016-01-01

    In order to cut greenhouse-gas emissions and increase energy security, the European Commission stimulates the deployment of intermittent renewable energy sources (IRES) towards 2050. In an electricity system with high shares of IRES implemented in the network, energy balancing like storage is needed

  10. Wind energy and Swiss hydroelectric power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft RWTH Aachen (IAEW), Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made to analyse the possible changes in the European electricity supply system, in particular with reference to the increasing amount of wind-generated electricity. Also, the role of peak-power and the optimisation potential for Swiss hydropower was examined. The part to be played by Swiss wind power in the future and the government's sustainability strategy is also looked at. The report looks at electricity dealing in the European context and introduces a method of assessment for Swiss hydropower. The report's conclusions and recommendations cover the increasing importance of energy storage in hydropower schemes, the question if grid capacity is sufficient under the new conditions, the market liberalisation question and possible ecological problems that may be encountered.

  11. Swiss economy and the future energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, A.F.

    1997-01-01

    Lecture of the president of the Swiss Trade and Industry Association at their premises on the occasion of the Annual General meeting of the SVA. The lecture dealt with the subject of economic growth and the difficulties faced by this growth in Switzerland. He formulated energy-political theories in respect of provision security, market economy, free choice between suppliers, economy-friendly energy laws, keeping the nuclear energy option open

  12. The outlook of the Swiss energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumpf, L.

    1985-01-01

    A review of the conference held on 18th April 1985 in Bern at the General Assembly of the Swiss Pool for assurance against earthquakes. The total Swiss energy consumption in 1984 showed an increase of 4.3% over that of 1983, and the contribution of electricity to this total in 1984 was about 4.5% higher than in the previous year. Progress in increasing the hydroelectric output cannot make up the future demand to be expected, and nuclear energy must be looked to for the increased supply. In 1984 the five nuclear generating stations - Beznau I and II, Muehleberg, Goesgen and Leibstadt furnished about 17.4 milliards kWh (35.4%), a total capacity of about 2,900 MW, and general approval has been given for the Kaiseraugst station. (A.G.P.)

  13. Wind energy and Swiss hydro power; Windenergie und schweizerischer Wasserkraftpark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M. [Econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Fritz, W.; Zimmer, Ch.; Feldmann, J. [Consentec, Consulting fuer Energiewirtschaft und -technik GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Haubrich, H.-J.; Dany, G.; Schmoeller, H.; Hartmann, T. [Institut fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW), RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the possibilities of using Switzerland's hydropower generation facilities as a means of control and as a capacity-reserve for a European power system that includes a considerable amount of wind-generated electricity. The aims of the study - the analysis of possible changes in power availability and of the relative importance of peak load compensation, economic optimisation potential for the use of Swiss hydropower and organisational aspects - are presented. Various methods for organising production timetables and trading are looked at, as are future developments in the European power market. Methods of assessment of the value of Swiss hydropower installations are discussed in detail and possibilities of increasing capacity are discussed. The report is concluded with recommendations on the participation of Swiss hydropower in the market for regulation energy and the development of associated strategies. Also, environmental aspects are examined and the influence of national wind-energy concepts are discussed.

  14. Swiss association for atomic energy (SVA/ASPEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A report of the general assembly of the Swiss association for atomic energy held on 4th June 1985. The president, Alain Colomb, called for a 'second electrification' of the country to free Switzerland from a dependence on petroleum. Nuclear energy is necessary to combat air pollution. An invited speaker, Manuel Poyatos of the 'Electricite de France', recounted the French experience of restructuring their electric production system; particular the increasing contribution of nuclear energy and the beneficial effects on the environment. (G.T.H.)

  15. Swiss geothermal energy update 1985 - 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybach, L.; Hauber, L.

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985, geothermal R and D has evolved steadily in Switzerland. REgional low-enthalphy exploration and resource assessment are largely complete; emphasis is now on drilling and development. Vertical earth-heat exchangers (small-scale, decentralized, heat pump-coupled heating facilities) increase rapidly in number; the governmental system of risk coverage for geothermal drilling, established in 1987, gives rise to several drilling projects. Of these, a single well and a doublet have been successfully completed so far. Numerical modeling of coupled thermohydraulic processes in fracture-dominate Hot Dry Rock systems including rock-mechanics aspects, is in progress. In this paper some further efforts such as contributions to general geothermics, exploration and resource assessment activities in Switzerland, and financing of geothermal development abroad by Swiss banks are described

  16. Technical prerequisites for efficient drive systems - Fundamentals for SwissEnergy measures; Technische Grundlagen effizienter Antriebssysteme. Grundlagen fuer Aktionen (Massnahmen) von Energieschweiz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Ritz, Ch.

    2007-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the technical prerequisites necessary for the implementation of various measures that are to be taken to promote efficient electrical drive systems. The document defines the approach taken and describes the methodologies to be used, including market analysis, the collection of basic data, the definition of measures and the acquisition of partners. The potential for making savings is estimated. Eight areas of action are defined, including the organisation of tutorials, exchange of experience, knowledge transfer, basic consulting services, the deployment of consultants, the setting-up of an Internet portal, information transfer in conferences and the optimisation of auxiliaries in domestic installations. A comprehensive annex completes the report.

  17. Options for new Swiss energy supply strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantner, U.; Hirschberg, S.; Jakob, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ecologically neutral, cost efficient, without supply shortages, independent from foreign countries, risk- and waste-free - that is the image of an ideal future energy supply. But even if considerable ecological and economical improvements of various energy supply options can be achieved, the next generation of heat and power plants with the associated up- and down-stream parts of energy chains, will not comply with all such idealistic requirements. As research in the framework of the GaBE Project on 'Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems' has shown, among the reasons for this are the limited medium term potential of renewable energy sources, and the necessity to employ primarily non-renewable energy carriers for the emerging more efficient energy conversion processes. (author)

  18. Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - Management summary; Energieperspektiven 2035 - Management summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-01-15

    This management summary issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the Swiss Energy Perspectives 2035 - a five-part synthesis report published in 2007. The report presents no prognoses but provides an 'if-then' overview of a set of four scenarios that examined ways in which Swiss energy demands could be met by the year 2035. National and international boundary conditions taken into account are reviewed and the four scenarios are introduced and briefly described. These include the reference scenario 'Business as Usual', 'Increased Co-operation' between politics and business, 'New Priorities' with goals set to reduce energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions and 'On the Way to a 2000-Watt Society'. Risks posed and chances provided are discussed, as are the options for taking action

  19. Swiss Federal Energy Research Concept 2008 - 2011; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2008 bis 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-04-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the plan for the activities of the Swiss Federal Commission on Energy Research CORE during the period 2008 - 2011. The motivation behind the state promotion of energy research is discussed. The visions, aims and strategies of the energy research programme are discussed. The main areas of research to be addressed during the period are presented. These include the efficient use of energy in buildings and traffic - batteries and supercaps, electrical technologies, combustion systems, fuel cells and power generation are discussed. Research to be done in the area of renewable sources of energy are listed. Here, solar-thermal, photovoltaics, hydrogen, biomass, geothermal energy, wind energy and ambient heat are among the areas to be examined. Research on nuclear energy and safety aspects are mentioned. Finally, work on the basics of energy economy are looked at and the allocation of funding during the period 2008 - 2011 is looked at.

  20. Swiss energy statistics 2006; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2006/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2006. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2006 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  1. Swiss energy statistics 2005; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2005/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2005. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2005 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  2. Swiss energy statistics 2004; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2004/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2004. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2004 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  3. Swiss energy statistics 2003; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2003/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2003 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  4. Swiss energy statistics 2002; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2002/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This comprehensive report by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The report also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2002 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Also, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable forms of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power. The third chapter provides data on the individual energy carriers and the final chapter looks at economical and ecological aspects. An appendix provides information on the methodology used in collecting the statistics and on data available in the Swiss cantons.

  5. Energy efficiency and climate change: an opportunity for the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the results of a study elaborated for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy. The study comes to the conclusion that the Swiss economy can profit from the implementation of energy-efficiency measures as well as from global growth in the area of products for increasing energy-efficiency. Swiss companies can therefore not only help lower emission rates for greenhouse gases and increase energy efficiency but also create new jobs. The long-term potential for the reduction of CO 2 emissions is quoted as being enormous. Winners and losers in the changing energy scene are noted and opportunities for Swiss exports are examined

  6. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streit, Marco; Bichsel, Thomas; Fassbender, Andre; Horvath, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely there will

  7. Initial experience gained with the balance-group system of the Swiss power supply legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldner, M.; Rechsteiner, S.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at the initial experience gained with the Swiss balance-group system. This system was introduced within the framework of Swiss power supply legislation (StromVG - Stromversorgungsgesetz). The balance-group system was considered to be an essential precondition for the implementation of an energy trading business in a liberalised power market. The associated rights and responsibilities and the economic risks involved are discussed in detail. The partners and structures involved in such a balance-group are looked at and basic models for the associated contracts are examined. The relationship between balance-groups and the national power grid Swissgrid are discussed

  8. Annual Report 2003. Research programme 'Electricity' of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the work done in 2003 in the various research areas covered by the Swiss Electricity Research programme. Work done in the programme's five main areas - electricity transport and storage, high-temperature superconductivity, energy and information technologies, drives and electric motors, and appliances is reviewed. In the electricity transport and storage area an agreement with the Swiss Association of Electricity Producers (VSE) on the transfer of findings was made and the focus of work was set on decentralised systems. Also, the use of compressed-air storage systems was looked at and the AC corrosion of pipelines was examined. Swiss participation in an IEA Implementing Agreement for a Co-operative Programme for Assessing the Impact of High-Temperature Superconductivity on the Electric Power Sector is mentioned, as is the market potential of superconductive current limiters. A total of 8 institutions and industries are involved in theoretical or practical research in the area of high-temperature superconductors. Information and communications technologies are reviewed, including work on energy-efficient EDP server management. Work in other areas summarised includes lighting and uninterruptible power-supplies and work on the energy consumption of process control units. In the electrical drives area, work is summarised in various areas ranging from an industry agreement on the energy-efficiency of motors through to the optimisation of compressed-air systems and energy-efficient gearless drives. Efficient hotel minibars, the energy-efficiency potential in the area of water dispensers and the energy-efficiency potential of hot beverage dispensers used in the area of staff catering and the standby consumption of household appliances are just a few of the topics dealt with. Co-operation with Swiss institutions and international organisations such as the IEA is reviewed. Implementation work in the

  9. Swiss energy statistics 2001; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2001/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2001. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2001 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  10. Swiss energy statistics 2000; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2000/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2000. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2000 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  11. Swiss energy statistics 2007; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2007/Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive report presents the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's statistics on energy production and consumption in Switzerland in 2007. Facts and figures are presented in tables and diagrams. First of all, a general overview of Swiss energy consumption is presented that includes details on the shares taken by the various energy carriers involved and their development during the period reviewed. The article also includes graphical representations of energy usage in various sectors such as households, trade and industry, transport and the services sector. Also, economic data on energy consumption is presented. A second chapter takes a look at energy flows from producers to consumers and presents an energy balance for Switzerland in the form of tables and an energy-flow diagram. The individual energy sources and the import, export and storage of energy carriers are discussed as is the conversion between various forms and categories of energy. Details on the consumption of energy, its growth over the years up to 2007 and energy use in various sectors are presented. Finally, the Swiss energy balance with reference to the use of renewable sources of energy such as solar energy, biomass, wastes and ambient heat is discussed and figures are presented on the contribution of renewables to heating and the generation of electrical power.

  12. Cuts in energy and operating cost with the Swiss system 'Energie in ARA' - practical experience in Germany; Energie- und Betriebskosteneinsparungen nach dem schweizerischen System ''Energie in ARA'' - Praxiserfahrungen in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christmann, B. [UmBAUwelt Partnerschaft Architekten und Ingenieure, Riedstadt (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    German sewage treatment plants, too, have potential for saving energy cost and cutting down on their operating expenditure. Following the systematy developed by the 'Energie in ARA' concept, this potential can be harnessed. (orig.) [German] Potential fuer Energiekosteneinsparungen und dadurch initiierte Betriebskosteneinsparungen ist auch bei deutschen Klaeranlagen vorhanden. Die Systematik 'Energie in ARA' kann fuer die Erschliessung der Einsparpotentiale verwendet werden. (orig.)

  13. ENET News November 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, November 2004, Nr. 59 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This last edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE)'s magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include a review of energy research in Switzerland in general and the work of the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in particular and a look at the basis for energy-economical perspectives in Switzerland. Further articles take a look at activities in the solar-chemical area, biomass and small-hydro projects, wind and geothermal energy as well as solar heating, photovoltaics and the use of ambient heat. Energy-efficiency in the buildings and traffic areas and combustion and combined heat and power are further topics covered. Nuclear energy and process engineering, fuel cells and activities in the international sector are examined. The publication is completed with a list of recent publications in the energy area.

  14. Swiss Energy research 2007 - Overview from the Heads of the Programs; Energie-Forschung 2007. Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calisesi, Y.

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive document issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the overview reports elaborated by the heads of the various Swiss energy research programmes. Topics covered include the efficient use of energy, with reports covering energy in buildings, traffic and accumulators, electrical technologies, applications and grids, ambient heat, combined heat and power, cooling, combustion, the 'power station 2000', fuel cells and hydrogen and process engineering. Renewable energy topics reported on include solar heat, photovoltaics, industrial solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal heat and wind energy. Nuclear energy topics include safety, regulatory safety research and nuclear fusion. Finally, energy economics basics are reviewed. The report is completed with annexes on the Swiss Energy Research Commission, energy research organisations and a list of important addresses.

  15. ENET News March 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Maerz 2004, Nr. 57 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's (SFOE) magazine with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include the Swiss research strategy for the period 2004 to 2007, a discussion on wind energy, saving electricity, stand-by losses of coffee machines and information on hydrogen and fuel-cells. Further articles cover road-traffic topics including zero-emission vehicles and clean engine technology. Also, research on better fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the use of photovoltaics, wood fuels and biomass. Results of a field-analysis of heat-pump installations and the storage of solar energy using zinc powder as well as building insulation are covered. Finally, the ETDE is honoured as being the largest collection of energy documents.

  16. Swiss energy research - oriented towards the future; Auf die Zukunft ausgerichtet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J

    2007-07-01

    This article reports on the eighth Swiss Energy Research Conference held in March 2007 in Neuchatel, Switzerland. The Swiss Energy Research Concept for the period 2008 to 2011 and proposals for the reinstatement of the Pilot and Demonstration Programme are reported on. Associated topics such as the Swiss 2000-Watt Society vision, heat and energy in buildings, energy production from biomass and the fuel consumption of private vehicles are reviewed. The importance for industry of spin-offs generated within the framework of the Energy Research Concept is stressed. Intensive discussions in thematic workshops are briefly noted and the demanding tasks for those involved in the energy research scene are discussed. Sustainability is noted as being the basis for the work being done.

  17. Energy as a competitive factor - Opportunities for the Swiss economy; Wettbewerbsfaktor Energie - Chancen fuer die Schweizer Wirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, M.; Baettig, R.

    2010-02-15

    This report Swiss for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews opportunities offered to the Swiss economy by regarding energy as a competitive factor. Goals set in Switzerland regarding the reduction of greenhouse-gas emissions and measures taken in this area are commented on. The report takes a look at measures that are technically and economically implementable in the building and transport areas. The costs and investment involved in the implementation of a particular scenario are examined. The chances offered to Swiss companies in the area of replacements for fossil fuels are examined. Market potentials in the areas of renewable energy sources and energy productivity are reviewed as are related financial services and workplace effects.

  18. Swiss energy statistics 2008; Schweizerische Gesamtenergiestatistik 2008 / Statistique globale suisse de l'energie 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-08-15

    This comprehensive report made by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the statistics on total energy production and usage in Switzerland for the year 2008. First of all, an overview of Switzerland's energy consumption in 2008 is presented. Details are noted of the proportions of consumption of oil-fuels for heating, oil products for mobility, electricity, gas and various other fuels. The development of consumption over the years 1910 to 2008 is illustrated graphically. A second chapter takes a look at energy flow from production (and import) to the consumer and export. An extensive collection of illustrative flow diagrams, tables and graphical representations of energy flows, statistics for various energy carriers and of the various uses of energy in Switzerland is presented.

  19. ENET News July 2004 - Information on Swiss energy research; ENET News, Juli 2004, Nr. 58 deutsch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellstein, J.

    2004-07-01

    This edition of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Magazine (SFOE) with information on Swiss energy research presents a large selection of articles on various energy-relevant topics. These include research strategies, a discussion on oil reserves, technology transfer and innovation, Swiss biomass activities, winning power from the drinking water mains and the use of ambient heat. Further articles cover the topics of energy-efficiency and lighting in buildings, the use of batteries in vehicles, the increasing decentralisation of power generation and the use of supra-conducting current-limiters. Also, research on improved fuel use in nuclear plant and models for batch-processes in the processing industry are looked at. Further articles cover the wood fuels, photovoltaics and wind-energy areas as well as heat storage using geothermal techniques.

  20. Sorption data bases for generic Swiss argillaceous rock systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradbury, M. H.; Baeyens, B.; Thoenen, T.

    2010-09-01

    In Switzerland the site selection procedure for both high level waste (HLW) and low and intermediate level waste (L/ILW) repositories is specified by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy in the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. In the forthcoming stage 2 of this plan, potential sites will be identified within regions previously selected based on the presence of suitable host rocks, namely Opalinus Clay, 'Brauner Dogger', Effingen Member and Helvetic Marl. Preliminary safety analyses are an integral part of this procedure, and require, amongst other information, the radionuclide sorption properties of the host rock. This report describes a methodology to develop a Generic Rock Sorption Data Base (GR-SDB) for argillaceous rocks. The method will be used to compile specific SDBs for the above mentioned host rocks. Arguments are presented that the main factor influencing sorption on argillaceous rocks is the phyllosilicate mineral content. These minerals are particularly effective at binding metals to their surfaces by cation exchange and surface complexation. Generally, the magnitude of sorption is directly correlated with the phyllosilicate content (2:1 type clays: illite/smectite/illitesmectite mixed layers), and this parameter best reflects the sorption potential of a given mineral assembly. Consequently, sorption measurements on illite were preferably used as source data for the GR-SDB. The second component influencing radionuclide sorption is the porewater chemistry. In the present report, generic water compositions were extracted from the analytical ranges of deep ground waters in various sedimentary formations in Switzerland. In order to cover the range of ionic strength (I) and pH values of Swiss ground waters in argillaceous rocks, five types of generic water compositions were defined, combining low, intermediate and high values of ionic strength and pH. The GR-SDB for in situ conditions was derived using conversion factors (CF). As the name

  1. Navigating behavioral energy sufficiency. Results from a survey in Swiss cities on potential behavior change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Roman; Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as "sufficiency") and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens' heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials-that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens' heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective.

  2. Navigating behavioral energy sufficiency. Results from a survey in Swiss cities on potential behavior change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Corinne; Blumer, Yann

    2017-01-01

    Many countries have some kind of energy-system transformation either planned or ongoing for various reasons, such as to curb carbon emissions or to compensate for the phasing out of nuclear energy. One important component of these transformations is the overall reduction in energy demand. It is generally acknowledged that the domestic sector represents a large share of total energy consumption in many countries. Increased energy efficiency is one factor that reduces energy demand, but behavioral approaches (known as “sufficiency”) and their respective interventions also play important roles. In this paper, we address citizens’ heterogeneity regarding both their current behaviors and their willingness to realize their sufficiency potentials—that is, to reduce their energy consumption through behavioral change. We collaborated with three Swiss cities for this study. A survey conducted in the three cities yielded thematic sets of energy-consumption behavior that various groups of participants rated differently. Using this data, we identified four groups of participants with different patterns of both current behaviors and sufficiency potentials. The paper discusses intervention types and addresses citizens’ heterogeneity and behaviors from a city-based perspective. PMID:29016642

  3. The 17{sup th} European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition in Munich from a Swiss point of view; Die 17. europaeische Photovoltaikkonferenz in Muenchen aus Schweizer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed.

  4. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008; Eidgenoessische Energieforschungskommission CORE. Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, K.

    2009-07-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  5. Nuclear Energy In Switzerland: It's going ahead. Challenges For The Swiss Nuclear Society Young Generation Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streit, Marco [Aare-Tessin Ltd for Electricity, Bahnhofquai 12, CH-4601 Olten (Switzerland); Bichsel, Thomas [BKW FMB Energie AG, NPP Muehleberg, CH-3203 Muehleberg (Switzerland); Fassbender, Andre [NPP Goesgen-Daeniken AG, CH-4658 Daeniken (Switzerland); Horvath, Matthias [National Emergency Operations Centre, CH-8044 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    Swiss energy policy is focused on generating domestic electric power without combusting fossil fuels for already four decades. Roughly 60% of the electricity is generated in hydroelectric plants, which is possible due to the country's favourable topography; the remaining 40% are produced by the country's five nuclear power plants (NPPs). As in any other country nuclear power has its enemies in Switzerland. Due to the direct democracy system in Switzerland the nuclear opposition has a lot of possibilities to disturb the energy policy. Since 1969, when the first Swiss nuclear power plant went online, four plebiscites were held on the issue of civil use of nuclear energy. Four times Swiss citizens voted in favour of further operation of the existing plants also in the latest battle for nuclear energy, which was won in 2003. In 2005 and 2006 several Swiss studies about the future energy situation, especially the electricity situation, have been published. All off them show clearly that there will be a big gab around the year 2020 when the oldest three nuclear power plants will fade out. A public debate was started, how to solve the problem. Beside others, building new nuclear power plants was mentioned and discussed rationally. In 2007 the energy police of the Swiss government changed into a more nuclear friendly position and at the end of the same year some electricity companies lunched a new build program. Hosting the International Youth Nuclear Congress 2008 (IYNC 2008) in Switzerland seems to be just the right moment for the nuclear industry in our country. The slightly changed surroundings effected the organization of Swiss Nuclear Society (SNS) and SNS Young Generation Group (SNSYG) and enlarged the fields of activities for SNSYG. Those activities mentioned in the previous chapters will be developed in the future. The discussion about new builds in Switzerland has started and because of that more nuclear activities in Switzerland will occur. And surely

  6. Making good progress. SwissEnergy 2nd annual report 2002/03

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The second annual report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's 'SwissEnergy' programme presents the activities carried out and the results achieved within the framework of the programme, which aims to help implement Switzerland's climate change policy. SwissEnergy is a national programme in which the government, the cantons, local authorities, the private sector, consumer and environmental organisations, as well as public and private-sector agencies work together as partners. In the first part of the report, strategies - including increasing energy efficiency and the promotion of the use of renewable forms of energy - are described, as are the measures taken, which focus on voluntary efforts by trade and industry. Also, the programme's organisation in four sectors - public sector and buildings, trade and industry, mobility and renewable energy - are described. The second part of the report is dedicated to activities carried out in 2002/2003 and describes economic and policy developments, project management activities and those carried out in the four sectors. The third section discusses the impact of the programme's activities in 2002 on Switzerland's energy consumption and its contribution to the implementation of Switzerland's climate policy. The evaluation procedures used to establish the impact and their accuracy are discussed. The report also discusses the programme's impact on investment and employment in Switzerland

  7. Swiss energy research concept for the period 2004-2007; Konzept der Energieforschung des Bundes 2004-2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) made by the Swiss National Energy Research Commission CORE lists and discusses energy research topics that are to be looked during the period 2004 to 2007. The report discusses the fundamentals, visions and short and long-term targets for Swiss energy research and presents strategies for reaching them. Research areas dealt with include the efficient use of energy, renewable sources of energy, nuclear energy and the energy-economics basics necessary for the implementation of sustainable energy policy. Also, implementation aspects such as pilot and demonstration installations are discussed. The current state of research is noted and strategic targets and the ways and means of reaching them are examined. Main areas of research for the period are listed and financing issues are discussed.

  8. Business model innovation for Local Energy Management: a perspective from Swiss utilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Facchinetti

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The successful deployment of the energy transition relies on a deep reorganization of the energy market. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver of this process. This work contributes to this topic by providing to potential Local Energy Management stakeholders and policy makers a conceptual framework guiding the Local Energy Management business model innovation. The main determinants characterizing Local Energy Management concepts and impacting its business model innovation are identified through literature reviews on distributed generation typologies and customer/investor preferences related to new business opportunities emerging with the energy transition. Afterwards, the relation between the identified determinants and the Local Energy Management business model solution space is analyzed based on semi-structured interviews with managers of Swiss utilities companies. The collected managers’ preferences serve as explorative indicators supporting the business model innovation process and provide insights to policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to Local Energy Management.

  9. Swiss private banking, market forecasting and analysis: A systems dynamics approach

    OpenAIRE

    Zacharova, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    The Swiss private banking industry has been always known as one of the leading off-shore private banking centers. During the last five years, however, the market entered a phase of fundamental change. Global economic downturn has notably harmed the industry and the natural recovery was further depressed with the new regulations coming into force. This thesis is an empirical study of the System Dynamics methodology applied to analyze the Swiss private banking industr...

  10. Can a policy program influence policy change? The case of the Swiss EnergieSchweiz program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sager, Fritz; Bürki, Marietta; Luginbühl, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelation of policy implementation and policy change by addressing the question of whether and how the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” influenced policy decisions. We discuss different ways in which a policy program may influence policy change: by negative and positive learning, by coalition building and by policy community building. Respective assumptions are tested in two case studies from the “EnergieSchweiz” program, which was in place from 2000 to 2010. We find that, while the policy program was not critical for the policy change itself, it nevertheless played a role as an agenda setter, as an initiator of learning processes as well as through its policy community. - Highlights: • We investigate how energy policy implementation impacts policy change. • We analyse the Swiss energy program “EnergieSchweiz” in place from 2000 to 2010. • Policy programs alone do not deliver policy change. • But they can influence it by agenda setting and by negative learning. • Expert networks have an influence if there are shared goals

  11. SwissPlus Implant System, Part 2: Prosthodontic aspects and intersystem comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenlicht, Joel L

    2002-01-01

    Incompatibility between implant systems and the increasing complexity of esthetic restorative options frequently require dentists to obtain special training in the selection and use of prosthetic components. SwissPlus System implants have been designed to simplify restorative procedures by eliminating many ancillary restorative components. The implants are packaged on a fixture mount that also functions as a transfer and as an abutment for cemented restorations. For multiple-unit, screw-retained restorations, the prosthesis can be splinted directly to the top of the implant without an intermediate abutment. Overdenture attachments, straight, angled, screw-receiving, and custom-cast abutments complete the restorative system. This paper presents an overview of the SwissPlus System's prosthodontic aspects. Test data also illustrate intersystem compatibility and differences between SwissPlus System implants and ITI syn-Octa implants.

  12. Swiss statistics on renewable energy - Biogas - Partial statistics for 2001; Schweizerische Statistik erneuerbarer Energietraeger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeli, H.

    2000-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents comprehensive statistics on biogas installations for the year 2001. Data is presented on biogas installations on farms and in industry, in wastewater treatment facilities. Also, data is given on biogenic wastes and co-fermentation. Summaries are presented in table form of biogas production per installation category and the use of the biogas for the production of heat and electrical power. Also, figures are given on the production of biofuels. Development trends in the various areas of biogas production are reviewed and an example of a fermentation installation is briefly described.

  13. Business Model Innovation for Local Energy Management: A Perspective from Swiss Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Facchinetti, Emanuele; Eid, Cherrelle; Bollinger, Andrew; Sulzer, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    The successful deployment of the energy transition relies on a deep reorganization of the energy market. Business model innovation is recognized as a key driver of this process. This work contributes to this topic by providing to potential local energy management (LEM) stakeholders and policy makers a conceptual framework guiding the LEM business model innovation. The main determinants characterizing LEM concepts and impacting its business model innovation are identified through literature reviews on distributed generation typologies and customer/investor preferences related to new business opportunities emerging with the energy transition. Afterwards, the relation between the identified determinants and the LEM business model solution space is analyzed based on semi-structured interviews with managers of Swiss utilities companies. The collected managers’ preferences serve as explorative indicators supporting the business model innovation process and provide insights into policy makers on challenges and opportunities related to LEM.

  14. Swiss electricity statistics 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The Swiss Department of Energy has published electricity statistics for 1982. This report presents them in tabular form. The tables are classified under the following headings: important reference numbers, Swiss electricity review, production of electrical energy, use of electrical energy, load diagrams and coping with user requirements, import and export of energy 1982, possible building of power stations before 1989, finance, appendix

  15. Effects of stochastic food deprivation on energy budget, body mass and activity in Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun ZHAO, Jing CAO, Ye TIAN, Rui-Rui WANG, Gui-Ying WANG

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available When small animals are faced with an unpredictable food supply, they can adapt by altering different components of their energy budget such as energy intake, metabolic rate, rate of non-shivering thermogenesis (NST or behaviour. The present study examined the effect of stochastic food deprivation (FD on body mass, food intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR, NST and behaviour in male Swiss mice. During a period of 4 weeks’ FD, animals were fed ad libitum for a randomly assigned 4 days each week, but were deprived of food for the other 3 days. The results showed that body mass significantly dropped on FD days compared to controls. Food intake of FD mice increased significantly on ad libitum days, ensuring cumulative food intake, final body mass, fat mass, RMR and NST did not differ significantly from controls. Moreover, gastrointestinal tract mass increased in FD mice, but digestibility decreased. In general, activity was higher on deprived days, and feeding behaviour was higher on ad libitum days suggesting that Swiss mice are able to compensate for stochastic FD primarily by increasing food intake on ad libitum days, and not by reducing energy expenditure related to RMR or NST [Current Zoology 55(4: 249–257, 2009].

  16. The Election System of the Swiss Confederation: Counting of Votes and Establishment of Election Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena A. Tarnavskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the following article the author covers the process of counting the votes and the disclosure rules of establishment the election results in the Swiss Confederation. Switzerland along with other EU member states pays special attention to the determination of the election results. According to Art. 149 para. 2 Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation the elections to the National Council, which is one of two chambers of the Federal Assembly, are held according to proportional representation system. The Hagenbach-Bischoff system is used for allocating seats in National Council of the Swiss Con federation. However the above mentioned system for determining the quota of votes per each mandate creates ambiguous opinions among Swiss scientists and legal experts, which frequently comes up in discussions whether to modify it or not. In this article, the author also gives a brief description of the main political parties in Switzerland and statistics of seats allocation in 49 legislature of National Council following the elections of October 23, 2011. As a result, the author provides the full information on the process of votes counting and establishment of election results in the Swiss Confederation. The material presented in this article is particularly interesting and relevant in terms of improving the electoral legislation in the Russian Federation. The information presented by the author will be useful to all parties interested in electoral law.

  17. A contribution to the identification of promising technologies for SwissEnergy R and D policy in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerer, M. [E4tech Switzerland, Lausanne (Switzerland); Cremer, C. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the conclusions of a study-project on promising energy technologies that could make a contribution to Swiss energy supply in the future. A review of literature on the subject is presented and the methodology used for the identification of the promising technologies is described. Four future possibilities of combining low or high levels of decentralisation of power generation with a low or high degree of fossil fuel utilisation are presented and discussed. The opinions for industry and the Swiss economy on the subject are looked at, as is research currently being carried out. Also, the so-called '2000-Watt Society' is briefly looked at. European aspects are discussed. Finally, exemplary prioritisation for the four options mentioned above along with the case of nothing being done at all are discussed.

  18. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milenković Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstances banking secrecy has become disruptive to the further development of both Swiss banking and banking in Switzerland and whether Swiss banking will come to an end in the future.

  19. Assessing distorted trading incentives of balance responsible parties based on the example of the Swiss power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, Marc; Haubensak, Oliver; Staake, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Power systems require a continuous balance of supply and demand. In Europe, this task is shared between Balance Responsible Parties (BRPs) and Transmission System Operators (TSOs). For this purpose, the European electricity sector consists of several markets. Objective of this paper is to investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design which BRPs can use to undermine electricity balancing principles in favour of gaming opportunities between the domestic imbalance energy pricing and international wholesale markets. These incentives are evaluated using historical data from the Swiss power system which features a typical European imbalance pricing mechanism. The results imply that little effort would have been needed to make a good profit at the expense of system security. The major loophole arises from the interdependence between cross-border trading and national imbalance energy pricing. Bearing in mind the European Union's Third Energy Package, the importance of national balancing mechanisms will increase strongly. In this context, national remedies to cope with distorted incentives are outlined and the importance of harmonising balancing markets on an international level is elaborated. - Highlights: • We investigate distorted incentives that stem from loopholes in the market design. • Cross-border trading that undermines electricity balancing principles is evaluated. • Little effort is necessary to make a good profit at the expense of system security. • We examine historical data from the Swiss power system. • We outline remedies to limit the possibilities of profiting from potential loopholes.

  20. Production versus environmental impact trade-offs for Swiss cropping systems: a model-based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is a growing need to improve sustainability of agricultural systems. The key focus remains on optimizing current production systems in order to deliver food security at low environmental costs. It is therefore essential to identify and evaluate agricultural management practices for their potential to maintain or increase productivity and mitigate climate change and N pollution. Previous research on Swiss cropping systems has been concentrated on increasing crop productivity and soil fertility. Thus, relatively little is known about management effects on net soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and environmental N losses in the long-term. The aim of this study was to extrapolate findings from Swiss long-term field experiments and to evaluate the system-level sustainability of a wide range of cropping systems under conditions beyond field experimentation by comparing their crop productivity and impacts on soil carbon, net soil GHG emissions, NO3 leaching and soil N balance over 30 years. The DayCent model was previously parameterized for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices and evaluated for productivity, soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems. Based on a prediction uncertainty criterion for crop productivity and soil carbon (rRMSEstatistical analyses, the systems were grouped into the following categories: (a) farming system: organic (ORG), integrated (IN) and mineral (MIN); (b) tillage: conventional (CT), reduced (RT) and no-till (NT); (c) cover cropping: no cover cropping (NCC), winter cover cropping (CC) and winter green manuring (GM). The productivity of Swiss cropping systems was mainly driven by total N inputs to the systems. The GWP of systems ranged from -450 to 1309 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. All studied systems, except for ORG-RT-GM systems, acted as a source of net soil GHG emissions with the relative contribution of soil N2O emissions to GWP of more than 60%. The GWP of systems with CT decreased

  1. Barriers and opportunities in realising sustainable energy concepts--an analysis of two Swiss case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Christian; Gisler, Priska

    2003-01-01

    What assists and what hinders sustainable energy use in being put into effect? Two case studies of sustainable energy concepts--the Zurich Solarstromboerse, where electricity can be purchased that is produced by solar panels, and the Swiss CO 2 -law, a consensus oriented implementation of the Kyoto-protocol--were analysed in order to investigate this question. In both case studies the unfolding of the sustainable energy concepts is reconstructed as a process starting with an abstract idea moving to a concrete realisation. This process passes through a series of different social worlds and is, in turn, affected by them. These social worlds are e.g. those of the concerned scientists, the professional investors, energy suppliers or governmental agencies. The case studies reveal three neuralgic challenges that have to be met when a concept advances from idea to realisation through the social worlds: Firstly, the translation between social worlds changes the content of the idea. Secondly, the way each social world looks at things (socially) constructs best solutions to problems and hides others. Thirdly, the actual dynamics of the social world within which it is finally implemented must be adopted by the idea. In order to integrate these neuralgic points, scientists as well as other inventors have to retain responsibility for their sustainable energy ideas and are requested to follow them through the social worlds in order to critically survey and eventually influence their 'content in flux'

  2. Energy perspectives 2035 - Volume 5, analysis and appraisal of Swiss electricity supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rits, V.; Kirchner, A.

    2007-01-01

    This comprehensive report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews various possibilities for meeting future electricity demands in Switzerland. The effects of these options on total economic costs, the environment and security of supply are described and discussed. The study was carried out quantitatively for the most part and then supplemented in a qualitative manner. The methodical approach to this comprehensive study is discussed. The present situation is noted and possible options for the period up to 2050 are discussed. Electricity supplies from hydropower, nuclear energy, fossil-powered generation and combined heat and power are looked at, as is energy from waste incineration plants and renewable sources of energy. Four energy scenarios are discussed, including the variants 'business as usual', 'increased co-operation', 'new priorities' and 'on the way to a 2000-Watt society'. For certain scenarios, sub-variants are presented and discussed. The scenarios and their variants are then compared with respect to their costs, options for covering possible shortages, technological potentials, emissions, wastes and the need for imports. The authors present their conclusions. The report is completed with an appendix

  3. Contributing to a green energy economy? A macroeconomic analysis of an energy efficiency program operated by a Swiss utility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yushchenko, Alisa; Patel, Martin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Our input–output model allows estimating impacts of energy efficiency programs on GDP and employment in Switzerland. • We provide with a deeper insight into modeling of income impacts of energy savings with regard to input–output method. • Geneva case study demonstrates that energy efficiency programs can have positive macroeconomic impacts in Switzerland. • Our results help to understand how to enhance positive macroeconomic impacts of energy efficiency programs. • We provide policy recommendations for further development of energy efficiency programs. - Abstract: In order to enhance energy efficiency as a pillar of transition to a green energy economy it is important to understand whether and under which conditions energy efficiency programs could have positive economic and social impacts. There are a growing number of studies on macroeconomic impacts of energy efficiency programs for various countries and regions. However, in Switzerland only few evaluations have been performed. The present study evaluates the impacts on GDP and employment of Geneva’s energy efficiency program portfolio éco21 which is operated by the local utility. Two programs aiming for electricity savings in the residential sector are analyzed: Eco-sociales targets social housing and Communs d’immeubles focuses on common spaces in buildings. An input–output model is developed, based on the Swiss input–output table, program administrator data, Swiss, and European statistics. Both impacts of initial expenditure and energy cost savings are evaluated. We estimate and compare the impacts of the two programs and discuss factors that cause differences. Our results show that energy efficiency programs can have positive impacts on GDP and employment. According to our estimates, each Swiss Franc (CHF) spent within the energy efficiency program creates approximately 0.2 CHF of additional GDP compared to the reference case scenario. Net impacts on employment are

  4. Is the swiss health care system a model for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Both supporters and critics of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have argued that it is similar to Switzerland's Federal Law on Health Insurance (LAMal), which currently governs Swiss health care, and have either praised or condemned the ACA on the basis of this alleged similarity. I challenge these observers on the grounds that they overlook critical problems with the Swiss model, such as its inequities in access, and critical differences between it and the ACA, such as the roots in, and continuing commitment to, social insurance of the Swiss model. Indeed, the daunting challenge of attempting to impose the tightly regulated model of operation of the Swiss model on mega-corporations like UnitedHealth, WellPoint, or Aetna is likely to trigger no less ferocious resistance than a fully public, single-payer system would. I also conclude that the ACA might unravel in ways unintended or even opposed by its designers and supporters, as employers, confronted with ever-rising costs, retreat from sponsoring insurance, and workers react in outrage as they confront the unaffordable underinsurance mandated by the ACA. A new political and ideological landscape may then ensue that finally ushers in a truly national health program.

  5. Swiss Federal energy research - project list 2006/2007; Projektliste der Energieforschung des Bundes 2006/2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-03-15

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) lists and classifies the 1,025 energy-relevant research projects carried out in the years 2006 and 2007. Those projects are listed that were supported and/or financed with Swiss or European public funding. Details of the contributions made by private enterprises are noted and discussed. It is also noted that the Swiss Federal Office of Energy operates a data bank with a systematic collection of around 9,200 publications on research projects. Statistics on the classification of the projects are presented, as are details of funding for the years 1990 to 2007. The sources of financing and the distribution of the means over the various areas of research are looked at. The number of persons active in the research work is discussed. A comparison is made with the research programs of other countries. The list of projects is split into four categories - efficient use of energy, renewable energy resources, nuclear energy, energy economic basics as well as technology transfer and co-ordination. Finally a comprehensive list of all research projects for the years 2006 and 2007 is presented in tabular form. A list of those responsible for the various areas of research completes the report.

  6. Phenomenon of Swiss banking

    OpenAIRE

    Milenković Ivan; Milenković Dragana

    2015-01-01

    Swiss banking is a 'generic name' for a system based on private banking and banking secrecy. In the introductory chapter we highlight the difference between Swiss banking and banking in the Switzerland's system. In the second chapter we present a more detailed description of the institution of banking secrecy, while in the third chapter we present the exceptions to it. The fourth chapter elaborates on the present and the future of Swiss banking. It is argued whether in the present circumstanc...

  7. Regionalized LCA-based optimization of building energy supply: method and case study for a Swiss municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saner, Dominik; Vadenbo, Carl; Steubing, Bernhard; Hellweg, Stefanie

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a regionalized LCA-based multiobjective optimization model of building energy demand and supply for the case of a Swiss municipality for the minimization of greenhouse gas emissions and particulate matter formation. The results show that the environmental improvement potential is very large: in the optimal case, greenhouse gas emissions from energy supply could be reduced by more than 75% and particulate emissions by over 50% in the municipality. This scenario supposes a drastic shift of heat supply systems from a fossil fuel dominated portfolio to a portfolio consisting of mainly heat pump and woodchip incineration systems. In addition to a change in heat supply technologies, roofs, windows and walls would need to be refurbished in more than 65% of the municipality's buildings. The full potential of the environmental impact reductions will hardly be achieved in reality, particularly in the short term, for example, because of financial constraints and social acceptance, which were not taken into account in this study. Nevertheless, the results of the optimization model can help policy makers to identify the most effective measures for improvement at the decision making level, for example, at the building level for refurbishment and selection of heating systems or at the municipal level for designing district heating networks. Therefore, this work represents a starting point for designing effective incentives to reduce the environmental impact of buildings. While the results of the optimization model are specific to the municipality studied, the model could readily be adapted to other regions.

  8. The Swiss Energy Sector. Innovation landscape and chances for the Netherlands; De Zwitserse energiesector. Innovatielandschap en kansen voor Nederland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ewijk, S. [Innovatie Attache Netwerk, Ambassad Berlijn, Berlin (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    An overview is given of innovation in the Swiss energy sector and the following research question will be answered: what are the characteristics of the Swiss innovation landscape in the energy sector and what opportunities are there for the Dutch energy sector? The emphasis is on themes that occur in the Dutch top sector policy, such as natural gas and energy conservation. The aim is to encourage cooperation between the Netherlands and Switzerland in the field of energy and provide inspiration for investment, policy solutions and markets in the field of energy. Each chapter contains references to Swiss authorities for more information and further steps [Dutch] Een overzicht wordt gegeven van innovatie in de Zwitserse energiesector en probeert de volgende onderzoeksvraag te beantwoorden: wat zijn de kenmerken van het Zwitserse innovatielandschap in de energiesector en welke kansen zijn er voor de Nederlandse energiesector? De nadruk ligt daarbij op thema's die ook in het Nederlandse topsectorbeleid voorkomen, zoals aardgas en energiebesparing. Het doel is om de samenwerking tussen Nederland en Zwitserland op energiegebied te stimuleren en informatie te bieden als inspiratie voor investeringen, beleidsoplossingen en afzetmarkten op energiegebied. Ieder hoofdstuk bevat verwijzingen naar Zwitserse instanties voor meer informatie en verdere stappen.

  9. Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Yoichi

    1987-01-10

    In the wake of the oil shock in 1973, the need for developing more effective energy systems has been mounting. The dominant views and topics for power generation systems in terms of scale merit shifted from the advocacy of centralization/scaling-up of facilities to the soft energy path theory insisting on the efficiency of dispersed small-scale plants, followed by the recent holonic path theory which maintains that large and small scale plants should be centralized or dispersed in an optimum manner. At the same time, an autonomous-type system concept has emerged which points out that the energy systems can be operated efficiently through mutual coordination and cooperation between the suppliers and users to find a balance point that meets the market principle, while abolishing the conventional suppliers-governed system. As a result, the load management system based on time-of-use pricing or adaptive pricing is expected to be adopted widely in near future. All these new theories are aimed at developing flexible and reasonable system structures that can be adapted to the changing circumstances. (4 figs, 17 refs)

  10. Swiss energy research in 2008; Energie-Forschung 2008 - Ueberblicksberichte der Programmleiter / Recherche energetique 2008 - Rapports de synthese des chefs de programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-06-15

    This comprehensive document published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on Swiss energy research in the year 2008. The overview reports made by the programme leaders are presented. In the area of efficient energy use, programme reports are presented for the following areas: Energy in buildings, traffic, electricity technologies and their usage, networks, heat-pumps and combined heat and power, combustion technologies, power station 2020 and carbon capture and storage, fuel cells and hydrogen as well as process engineering. In the renewables sector, work in the following areas is reported on: Solar thermal energy and storage, photovoltaics, industrial use of solar energy, biomass and wood energy, hydropower, geothermal energy and wind energy. Research in the area of nuclear energy and nuclear safety is reported on, as is research in the areas of regulatory safety, fusion and nuclear wastes. Finally, a report on energy-economics research is presented. The report is completed with a list of projects and an appendix containing details on the Swiss Energy Research Commission CORE and a list of those responsible for the various research programmes.

  11. Results of the Swiss system for post-factum detection of irradiated foods, 1989 - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoller, O.

    1999-01-01

    The paper summarizes the history of development of the Swiss system and activities of Swiss experts as members of international bodies, as e.g. the 'BCR concerted action on methods of identification of irradiated foods', or the CEN. Methods recommend by the CEN are addressed, as for example: ESR, thermoluminescence, and methods for detection of fat radiolysis products, or detection of o-tyrosine (in seafood and poultry). The concluding statement is that illegal irradiation of foods is not a significant problem in Switzerland, which agrees with figures published in a recent study from Great Britain (Maff, Joint Food Safety and Standards Group, Food Surveillance Information Sheet No. 102, March 1997). (orig./CB) [de

  12. Overview of the SwissPlus Implant System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaseelan, R; Rajan, Manoj

    2005-01-01

    Although many improvements have been made to implant dentistry during the last quarter of a century, clinical challenges still remain. For the surgeon, achieving implant stability in low-density bone can be difficult. For the restorative dentist, incompatibility between implant systems and the increasing complexity of esthetic restorative options frequently require special training in the selection and use of prosthetic components. This article presents an overview of a 1-stage implant system with a textured surface and osteocompressive surgical protocol designed to achieve stability in soft bone. Self-tapping, double lead threads and a separate surgical protocol also enable the implant to be placed in high-density bone. The implant is packaged on a fixture mount that also functions as a transfer and transitional or definitive abutment for cemented restorations. This implant is designed to help simplify restorative procedures by eliminating many ancillary restorative components. For multiple-unit, screw-retained restorations, the prosthesis can be splinted directly to the top of the implant without an intermediate abutment. Overdenture attachments and straight, angled, screw-receiving, and custom-cast abutments complete the restorative system.

  13. Robotic Gastric Bypass Surgery in the Swiss Health Care System: Analysis of Hospital Costs and Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Monika E; Rohner, Peter; Jung, Minoa K; Amirghasemi, Nicolas; Buchs, Nicolas C; Fakhro, Jassim; Buehler, Leo; Morel, Philippe

    2017-08-01

    Robotic technology shows some promising early outcomes indicating potentially improved outcomes particularly for challenging bariatric procedures. Still, health care providers face significant clinical and economic challenges when introducing innovations. Prospectively derived administrative cost data of patients who were coded with a primary diagnosis of obesity (ICD-10 code E.66.X), a procedure of gastric bypass surgery (CHOP code 44.3), and a robotic identifier (CHOP codes 00.90.50 or 00.39) during the years 2012 to 2015 was analyzed and compared to the triggered reimbursement for this patient cohort. A total of 348 patients were identified. The mean number of diagnoses was 2.7 and the mean length of stay was 5.9 days. The overall mean cost per patients was Swiss Francs (CHF) from 2012 to 2014 that was 21,527, with a mean reimbursement of CHF 24,917. Cost of the surgery in 2015 was comparable to the previous years with CHF 22,550.0 (p = 0.6618), but reimbursement decreased significantly to CHF 20,499.0 (0.0001). The average cost for robotic gastric bypass surgery fell well below the average reimbursement within the Swiss DRG system between 2012 and 2014, and this robotic procedure was a DRG winner for that period. However, the Swiss DRG system has matured over the years with a significant decrease resulting in a deficit for robotic gastric bypass surgery in 2015. This stipulates a discussion as to how health care providers should continue offering robotic gastric bypass surgery, particularly in the light of developing clinical evidence.

  14. Swiss Energy Research Programme 2008 - 2011. Electricity technologies and applications; Energieforschungsprogramm 2008-2011. Elektriztaetstechnologien und -Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brueniger, R.

    2008-05-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results of research work done in Switzerland in the area of electricity technologies and their application. A technologies section takes a look at the conversion of heat into electricity, efficient compressed air storage and high-temperature superconductivity. In the applications area, efficient drives and motors, information technology and communication are discussed, as are electrical appliances for households and lighting. The organisation of the programme is presented and the focus of research for the period 2008 - 2011 in these areas is discussed.

  15. MediCoordination: a practical approach to interoperability in the Swiss health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Henning; Schumacher, Michael; Godel, David; Omar, Abu Khaled; Mooser, Francois; Ding, Sandrine

    2009-01-01

    Interoperability and data exchange between partners in the health sector is seen as one of the important domains that can improve care processes and in the long run also decrease costs of the health care system. Data exchange can assure that the data on the patient are as complete as possible avoiding potential mistreatments, and it can avoid double examinations if the data required are already available. On the other hand, health data is a sensible point for many people and strong protection needs to be implemented to protect patient data against misuse as well as tools to let the patient manage his/her own data. Many countries have eHealth initiatives in preparation or already implemented. However, health data exchange on a large scale still has a fairly long way to go as the political processes for global solutions are often complicated. In the MediCoordination project a pragmatic approach is selected trying to integrate several partners in health care on a regional scale. In parallel with the Swiss eHealth strategy that is currently being elaborated by the Swiss confederation, particularly medium-sized hospitals and external partners are targeted in MediCoordination to implement concrete added-value scenarios of information exchange between hospitals and external medical actors.

  16. Simulating soil greenhouse emissions from Swiss long-term cropping system trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Skinner, Colin; Büchi, Lucie; Berner, Alfred; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Wittwer, Raphael; Gattinger, Andreas; Six, Johan

    2017-04-01

    There is an urgent need to identify and evaluate management practices for their bio-physical potential to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture. The cost and time required for direct management-specific GHG measurements limit the spatial and temporal resolution and the extent of data that can be collected. Biogeochemical process-based models such as DayCent can be used to bridge data gaps over space and time and estimate soil GHG emissions relevant to various climate change mitigation strategies. Objectives of this study were (a) to parameterize DayCent for common Swiss crops and crop-specific management practices using the Swiss long-term experimental data collected at four sites (Therwil, Frick, Changins, and Reckenholz); (b) to evaluate the model's ability to predict crop productivity, long-term soil carbon dynamics and N2O emissions from Swiss cropping systems; (c) to calculate a net soil GHG balance for all treatments (except for bio-dynamic) studied in long-term field experiments in Switzerland; and (d) to study the management effects and their interactions on soil GHG emissions at each experimental site. Model evaluation indicated that DayCent predicted crop productivity (rRMSE=0.29 r2=0.81, n=2614), change in soil carbon stock (rRMSE=0.14, r2=0.72, n=1289) and cumulative N2O emissions (rRMSE=0.25, r2=0.89, n=8) satisfactorily across all treatments and sites. Net soil GHG emissions were derived from changes in soil carbon, N2O emissions and CH4 oxidation on an annual basis using IPCC (2014) global warming potentials. Modelled net soil GHG emissions calculated for individual treatments over 30 years ranged from -594 to 1654 kg CO2 eq ha-1 yr-1. The highest net soil GHG emissions were predicted for conventional tillage and slurry application treatment at Frick, while soils under organic and reduced tillage management at Reckenholz acted as a net GHG sink. The statistical analyses using linear MIXED models indicated that net soil GHG

  17. Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amstalden, Roger W.; Kost, Michael; Nathani, Carsten; Imboden, Dieter M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the profitability of energy-efficient retrofit investments in the Swiss residential building sector from the house owner's perspective. Different energy price expectations, policy instruments such as subsidies, income tax deduction and a carbon tax, as well as potential future cost degression of energy efficiency measures were taken into account. The discounted cash flow method was used for the investment analysis of different retrofit packages applied to a model building scheduled for renovation, i.e. a single-family house constructed between 1948 and 1975. The results show that present Swiss policy instruments push investments for energy-efficient retrofitting to profitability. Cost degression has a minor significance for investment profitability. However, the most relevant factor for the investment analysis is the expected energy price. Expecting a future fuel oil price at the level of 2005, efficiency investments are close to profitability even without policy support. If higher energy prices were expected, energy-efficient retrofitting would be an attractive investment opportunity

  18. Effect of cold exposure on energy budget and thermogenesis during lactation in Swiss mice raising large litters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Jun Zhao

    2012-02-01

    In Swiss mice sustained energy intake (SusEI during peak lactation has been previously suggested to be constrained by the capacity of the mammary glands to produce milk, supporting the “peripheral limitation” hypothesis. Here we experimentally examined if SusEI in these mice was not only limited peripherally but also constrained by the ability to dissipate heat. Female Swiss mice were provided with additional offspring above their natural litter sizes and were maintained during lactation either in warm (23°C or cold (5°C conditions. Food intake, thermogenesis, litter size and mass, and the weight of the mammary glands were measured. No differences were observed in asymptotic food intake at peak lactation, litter mass and thermogenesis between females raising litters of different size. Cold-exposed females increased food intake and thermogenic capacity, but weaned significantly smaller and lighter litters with smaller pup sizes compared with females in warm conditions. The weight of the mammary glands did not differ between warm and cold-exposed females, but within temperatures was positively related to litter mass. These data suggested that cold exposure increased food intake, but had no effect on the capacity of the mammary glands to secret milk because they were already working maximally in the females raising larger litters. The factors causing this limit in the mammary capacity remain elusive.

  19. Swiss energy research program on energy economics basics for 2008-2011; Energieforschungsprogramm. Energiewirtschaftliche Grundlagen (EWG) fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathys, N. A.

    2009-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) introduces the energy research programme on energy economics basics for the years 2008 - 2011. The programme is very interdisciplinary and uses many theoretical and empirical methods from the areas of micro and macro-economy, political science and socio-psychology. The budget available for research in this area is discussed and the various institutions involved are noted. Both public and private funding is discussed. The main areas of research being targeted for the period 2008 - 2011 in the areas of energy policy and applied research are discussed. These include improvements in the methods used for energy perspectives and innovation as well as social and individual factors influencing the use of energy.

  20. A cross-national comparison of incident reporting systems implemented in German and Swiss hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Tanja; Imhof, Michael; Lessing, Constanze; Briner, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to empirically compare incident reporting systems (IRS) in two European countries and to explore the relationship of IRS characteristics with context factors such as hospital characteristics and characteristics of clinical risk management (CRM). We performed exploratory, secondary analyses of data on characteristics of IRS from nationwide surveys of CRM practices. The survey was originally sent to 2136 hospitals in Germany and Switzerland. Persons responsible for CRM in 622 hospitals completed the survey (response rate 29%). None. Differences between IRS in German and Swiss hospitals were assessed using Chi2, Fisher's Exact and Freeman-Halton-Tests, as appropriate. To explore interrelations between IRS characteristics and context factors (i.e. hospital and CRM characteristics) we computed Cramer's V. Comparing participating hospitals across countries, Swiss hospitals had implemented IRS earlier, more frequently and more often provided introductory IRS training systematically. German hospitals had more frequently systematically implemented standardized procedures for event analyses. IRS characteristics were significantly associated with hospital characteristics such as hospital type as well as with CRM characteristics such as existence of strategic CRM objectives and of a dedicated position for central CRM coordination. This study contributes to an improved understanding of differences in the way IRS are set up in two European countries and explores related context factors. This opens up new possibilities for empirically informed, strategic interventions to further improve dissemination of IRS and thus support hospitals in their efforts to move patient safety forward. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press in association with the International Society for Quality in Health Care. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Agreement between the Government of Australia and the Government of the Swiss Confederation Concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This Agreement regulates the safeguards arrangements necessary for initiating cooperation between Swiss and Australian undertakings in the field of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The Agreement, which contains no obligations for supplies and purchases, covers all fields of peaceful nuclear cooperation and concerns transfers between both countries of nuclear and non-nuclear materials, as well as equipment and technology. Guarantees of the peaceful uses of the above-mentioned items are its main objects. They include, in particular, the commitment of both Parties to use the items transferred for exclusively peaceful, non-explosive purposes, to have uses verified by the IAEA, and to re-export such items to a third country only in compliance with specific conditions and to secure their safety (NEA) [fr

  2. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  3. Explaining electricity demand and the role of energy and investment literacy on end-use efficiency of Swiss households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Boogen, Nina; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is used

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Energy Systems: Comparison And Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dones, R.; Heck, T.; Hirschberg, S.

    2004-01-01

    The paper provides an overview and comparison of Greenhouse Gas Emissions associated with fossil, nuclear and renewable energy systems. In this context both the direct technology-specific emissions and the contributions from full energy chains within the Life Cycle Assessment framework are considered. Examples illustrating the differences between countries and regional electricity mixes are also provided. Core results presented here are based on the work performed at PSI, and by partners within the Swiss Centre for Life-Cycle Inventories. (author)

  5. Implementing landscape fragmentation as an indicator in the Swiss Monitoring System Of Sustainable Development (Monet).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Jochen A G; Bertiller, René; Schwick, Christian; Müller, Kalin; Steinmeier, Charlotte; Ewald, Klaus C; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2008-09-01

    There is an increasing need and interest in including indicators of landscape fragmentation in monitoring systems of sustainable landscape management. Landscape fragmentation due to transportation infrastructure and urban development threatens human and environmental well-being by noise and pollution from traffic, reducing the size and viability of wildlife populations, facilitating the spread of invasive species, and impairing the scenic and recreational qualities of the landscape. This paper provides the rationale, method, and data for including landscape fragmentation in monitoring systems, using as an example the Swiss Monitoring System of Sustainable Development (Monet). We defined and compared four levels of fragmentation analysis, or fragmentation geometries (FGs), each based on different fragmenting elements, e.g., only anthropogenic, or combinations of anthropogenic and natural elements. As each FG has specific strengths and weaknesses, the most appropriate choice of FG depends on the context and objectives of a study. We present data on the current degree of landscape fragmentation for the five ecoregions and 26 cantons in Switzerland for all four FGs. Our results show that the degree of landscape fragmentation as quantified by the effective mesh size method is strongly supported by the postulates and indicator selection criteria of Monet, and we identify the most suitable FG focusing on the land area below 2,100 m (e.g., excluding lakes) and allowing for an equitable comparison of fragmentation degrees among regions that differ in area covered by lakes and high mountains. For a more detailed analysis of landscape fragmentation in the context of environmental impact assessments and strategic environmental assessments, a combination of all four FGs may provide a more informative tool than any single FG.

  6. Financial impact of introducing the Swiss-DRG reimbursement system on potentially avoidable readmissions at a university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Zufferey, Jade

    2015-01-01

    Thirty-day readmissions can be classified as potentially avoidable (PARs) or not avoidable (NARs) by following a specific algorithm (SQLape®). We wanted to assess the financial impact of the Swiss-DRG system, which regroups some readmissions occurring within 18 days after discharge within the initial hospital stay, on PARs at our hospital. First, PARs were identified from all hospitalisations recorded in 2011 at our university hospital. Second, 2012 Swiss-DRG readmission rules were applied, regrouped readmissions (RR) were identified, and their financial impact computed. Third, RRs were classified as potentially avoidable (PARRs), not avoidable (NARRs), and others causes (OCRRs). Characteristics of PARR patients and stays were retrieved, and the financial impact of PARRS was computed. A total of 36,777 hospitalisations were recorded in 2011, of which 3,140 were considered as readmissions (8.5%): 1,470 PARs (46.8%) and 1,733 NARs (53.2%). The 2012 Swiss-DRG rules would have resulted in 910 RRs (2.5% of hospitalisations, 29% of readmissions): 395 PARRs (43% of RR), 181 NARRs (20%), and 334 OCRRs (37%). Loss in reimbursement would have amounted to CHF 3.157 million (0.6% of total reimbursement). As many as 95% of the 395 PARR patients lived at home. In total, 28% of PARRs occurred within 3 days after discharge, and 58% lasted less than 5 days; 79% of the patients were discharged home again. Loss in reimbursement would amount to CHF 1.771 million. PARs represent a sizeable number of 30-day readmissions, as do PARRs of 18-day RRs in the 2012 Swiss DRG system. They should be the focus of attention, as the PARRs represent an avoidable loss in reimbursement.

  7. Croatian Energy System Defossilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2013-01-01

    Defossilization of an energy system, as primary cause of the actual climate change, means exchange of predominantly imported fossil fuels with climate more convenient energy carriers, facilitating thus the way out of crisis.Overview of the world and Croatian energy system situation is presented as well as the overview of climate change. The most important Croatian energy system defossilization measures-energy efficiency increase, renewable energy inclusion and others - are described.(author)

  8. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  9. High-Energy Spectroscopic Astrophysics Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Steven M; von Ballmoos, Peter

    2005-01-01

    After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.

  10. Swiss energy research programme on solar heat and storage for 2008-2011; Programme de recherche energetique. Chaleur solaire et stockage pour la periode 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadorn, J.-C.

    2009-07-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the research programme on solar heat and heat storage for the years 2008 - 2011. This document presents some aspects of the solar thermal market in 2007, summarizes the main solar thermal technologies for buildings and sketches the main topics of the 'Solar Heat and Heat Storage' research programme. Research and development issues looked at focus mainly on the heating and cooling of buildings. The research and development issues for solar thermal technologies during the period 2008-2011 include improved performance and durability of solar collectors and components, new coatings for solar collectors based on nano-materials as well as simplified and standardised systems for solar heating and cooling. Building Integration and integration in existing heating systems and long-term work with a focus on new materials for storing heat for use in residential buildings are discussed. Also, calculation methods and simulation tools are examined. Pilot and demonstration projects are reviewed.

  11. Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Connolly, David

    2014-01-01

    on the electricity sector, smart energy systems include the entire energy system in its approach to identifying suitable energy infrastructure designs and operation strategies. The typical smart grid sole focus on the electricity sector often leads to the conclusion that transmission lines, flexible electricity...... grids should be seen as part of overall smart energy systems and emphasizes the inclusion of flexible combined heat and power (CHP) production in the electricity balancing and grid stabilization. Furthermore, it highlights how to design and model future sustainable smart energy systems.......This paper presents the learning of a series of studies that analyse the problems and perspectives of converting the present energy system into a 100 % renewable energy system using a smart energy systems approach. As opposed to, for instance, the smart grid concept, which takes a sole focus...

  12. Solar energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brownson, Jeffrey R S

    2013-01-01

    Solar energy conversion requires a different mind-set from traditional energy engineering in order to assess distribution, scales of use, systems design, predictive economic models for fluctuating solar resources, and planning to address transient cycles and social adoption. Solar Energy Conversion Systems examines solar energy conversion as an integrative design process, applying systems thinking methods to a solid knowledge base for creators of solar energy systems. This approach permits different levels of access for the emerging broad audience of scientists, engineers, architects, planners

  13. Renewable Energy, Authenticity, and Tourism: Social Acceptance of Photovoltaic Installations in a Swiss Alpine Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annina Helena Michel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing emergence of renewable energy sites in Switzerland, new impacts on the landscape can be observed. Above the Alpine village of Bellwald, a pilot project testing avalanche barriers as a possible site for photovoltaic installations was inaugurated in 2012. This study focused on social aspects of the project and asked questions about local residents' and tourists' perceptions of and attitudes toward the installations. Its findings reveal that the new elements are not perceived as a drastic intrusion into the landscape, because the view was already affected by the avalanche barriers, which are accepted because of their vital protective function. No significant difference was found between residents' and tourists' evaluation of the new photovoltaic installations. However, different factors influenced the perceptions of these 2 groups. In both groups, conceptions related to place played an important role in the evaluation of possible photovoltaic sites.

  14. Man and energy: Reality versus utopia. Swiss National Committee in the World Energy Council: Report on the 16th world energy congress in Tokyo in 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritsch, B.

    1996-01-01

    The future of our environmental and energy problems will be decided next century in today's developing countries, particularly in the large agglomerations of the Third World. It is unlikely that fossil fuels will to any great degree be replaced by renewable energy sources and/or nuclear energy. The excellent efficiency of thermal power plants now achieved in the industrial countries should as fast as possible also be realised in the developing countries, and the process of electrification there should be accelerated. The greatest obstacle to a rapid worldwide spread of efficient energy systems are the political imponderabilities in many developing countries. (orig.) [de

  15. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  16. Swiss electricity statistics 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2003. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2003, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2003 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2010. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  17. Swiss electricity statistics 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) provides statistical information on electricity supply, production, trading and consumption in Switzerland in 2002. Apart from a general overview of the Swiss electricity supply that includes details on power generation, energy transfer with neighbouring countries and data on prices, average consumption and capital investment, the publication also includes graphical representations of electrical energy flows in and out of Switzerland. Tables of data give information on electricity production, import and export for the years 1950 to 2002, the data being supplied for each hydrological year and the summer and winter seasons respectively. The structure of power production in Switzerland is examined in detail and compared with that of foreign countries. Details are given on the development of production capacities and the various means of production together with their respective shares of total production. Further tables and diagrams provide information on power production in various geographical regions and on the management of pumped storage hydro-electricity schemes. A further chapter deals in detail with the consumption of electricity, its growth between 1984 and 2002 and its use in various sectors. A fifth chapter examines electricity consumption, generation, import and export on single, typical days, presenting data in tables and diagrams. The next chapter examines energy transfer with foreign countries and the trading structures involved. The next two chapters cover the future developments in energy exchange and trading with foreign countries and the possibilities of augmenting power generation capacities up to 2009. The final chapter looks at economic considerations involved in the supply of electricity. An annex provides detailed tables of data

  18. SwissFEL injector conceptual design report. Accelerator test facility for SwissFEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrozzi, M.

    2010-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility - in particular concerning the conceptual design of the injector system. The SwissFEL X-ray FEL project at PSI, involves the development of an injector complex that enables operation of a FEL system operating at 0.1 - 7 nm with permanent-magnet undulator technology and minimum beam energy. The injector pre-project was motivated by the challenging electron beam requirements necessary to drive the SwissFEL accelerator facility. The report takes a look at the mission of the test facility and its performance goals. The accelerator layout and the electron source are described, as are the low-level radio-frequency power systems and the synchronisation concept. The general strategy for beam diagnostics is introduced. Low energy electron beam diagnostics, the linear accelerator (Linac) and bunch compressor diagnostics are discussed, as are high-energy electron beam diagnostics. Wavelength selection for the laser system and UV pulse shaping are discussed. The laser room for the SwissFEL Injector and constructional concepts such as the girder system and alignment concepts involved are looked at. A further chapter deals with beam dynamics, simulated performance and injector optimisation. The facility's commissioning and operation program is examined, as are operating regimes, software applications and data storage. The control system structure and architecture is discussed and special subsystems are described. Radiation safety, protection systems and shielding calculations are presented and the lateral shielding of the silo roof examined

  19. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2017-01-01

    at identifying environmental hotspots and impact patterns across different energy sources. Based on this literature review recommendations and guidelines are issued to LCA practitioners on key methodological aspects that are important for a proper conduct of LCA studies of energy systems and thus ensuring......Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  20. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  1. Guidelines for the revision and extension of the Swiss energy consumption statistics regarding the industrial sector; Revision und Erweiterung der Energieverbrauchsstatistik der Industrie. Konzept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, R.; Scherer, R.

    1999-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents a proposal on how to revise and extend the Swiss energy consumption statistics regarding the industrial sector. Companies and officials admitted that the current procedure is no longer satisfactory, because of systematic bias related to the applied procedure. As the introduction of a tax on CO{sub 2} emissions is most probable in Switzerland, the energy consumption figures used to calculate the tax shall be incontestable. The suggested procedure described in the report fulfils this requirement. Instructions for the data collection are given together with the forms to be used in the survey, distinguishing the energy sources. Detailed indications on how many companies shall be randomly selected in each of the 18 industrial sectors (both manufacturing and services) and each of the categories 'small', 'middle-size' and 'large companies' have ben established. In this way, data extrapolation for the whole industrial sector will be reliable. Both the official offices and the industry representatives agreed to the suggested procedure. The sectorial structure has been defined in accordance with international practice.

  2. Opening the electricity market - the Swiss Confederation's perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2002-01-01

    This article discusses the possibilities offered by the opening of the Swiss electricity market in the European context. The importance of appropriate legislation that would enable Switzerland to actively take part in the shaping of a Europe-wide electricity market is stressed. Measures to be considered such as those in the areas of third-party access, tariffs, security of supply and the promotion of renewable sources of energy are discussed. Questions of public service are addressed and comparisons are made to solutions that have been implemented in other areas such as post, telecommunications and the railway system. The regulations and structures suggested in Swiss proposals for legislation are discussed in detail

  3. Impact of energy conservation policy measures on innovation, investment and long-term development of the Swiss economy. Results from the computable induced technical change and energy (CITE) model - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretschger, L.; Ramer, R.; Schwark, F.

    2010-09-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the Computable Induced Technical Change and Energy (CITE) model. The authors note that, in the past two centuries, the Swiss economy experienced an unprecedented increase in living standards. At the same time, the stock of various natural resources declined and the environmental conditions changed substantially. The evaluation of the sustainability of a low energy and low carbon society as well as an optimum transition to this state is discussed. An economic analysis is made and the CITE and GCE (Computable General Equilibrium) numerical simulation models are discussed. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  4. Swiss statistics on the use of geothermal energy in Switzerland for the years 2000 and 2001; Statistik Geothermische Nutzung der Schweiz fuer die Jahre 2000 und 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohl, T.; Andenmatten, N.; Rybach, L.

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project that involved the collection of data on the use of geothermal energy in Switzerland. Two categories of use are looked at: firstly, the thermal use of geothermal heat sources for heating purposes with the help of heat pumps and, secondly, the direct use of geothermal energy, mostly in thermal spas. Data is given on geothermal heat extraction using bore-hole heat-exchangers, buried ground-loops, ground-water, geothermal structures, deep bore-holes, tunnel drainage, deep heat aquifers and thermal springs. Recommendations are made on how data collection and reporting can be improved. Also, changes in the use of geothermal energy noted during the reporting period are commented on.

  5. Smart energy management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Aniruddha; Singh, Jugdutt

    2010-04-01

    Peak and average energy usage in domestic and industrial environments is growing rapidly and absence of detailed energy consumption metrics is making systematic reduction of energy usage very difficult. Smart energy management system aims at providing a cost-effective solution for managing soaring energy consumption and its impact on green house gas emissions and climate change. The solution is based on seamless integration of existing wired and wireless communication technologies combined with smart context-aware software which offers a complete solution for automation of energy measurement and device control. The persuasive software presents users with easy-to-assimilate visual cues identifying problem areas and time periods and encourages a behavioural change to conserve energy. The system allows analysis of real-time/statistical consumption data with the ability to drill down into detailed analysis of power consumption, CO2 emissions and cost. The system generates intelligent projections and suggests potential methods (e.g. reducing standby, tuning heating/cooling temperature, etc.) of reducing energy consumption. The user interface is accessible using web enabled devices such as PDAs, PCs, etc. or using SMS, email, and instant messaging. Successful real-world trial of the system has demonstrated the potential to save 20 to 30% energy consumption on an average. Low cost of deployment and the ability to easily manage consumption from various web enabled devices offers gives this system a high penetration and impact capability offering a sustainable solution to act on climate change today.

  6. Swiss energy research program on heat-pumps, combined heat and power and refrigeration for 2008-2011; Energieforschungsprogramm. Waermepumpen, Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung, Kaelte fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, T. [Hochschule fuer Technik HSR, Rapperswil (Switzerland); Eckmanns, A. [Swiss Federal Office of Energy (OFEN), Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-15

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the research programme on heat-pumps, combined heat and power and refrigeration for the years 2008 - 2011. Work proposed for the years 2008 - 2011 involves the following topics: Improvement of components and the thermodynamic cycles of heat pumps and refrigeration plants as well as the improvements in the efficiency of cogeneration plants and the reduction of emission of pollutants. Also, the overall optimisation of total systems is to be examined. Highly-efficient systems for sanitary hot water production are to be looked at, as are miniaturisation and new solutions for the installation of heating and cooling systems with heat pumps. Also the development of environmental-friendly working fluids for heat pumps and refrigeration plants is planned. Pilot and demonstration projects are also to be supported in all areas.

  7. Energy production systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Blair, Thomas Howard

    2017-01-01

    Energy Production Systems Engineering presents IEEE, Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA), and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards of engineering systems and equipment in utility electric generation stations. Electrical engineers that practice in the energy industry must understand the specific characteristics of electrical and mechanical equipment commonly applied to energy production and conversion processes, including the mechanical and chemical processes involved, in order to design, operate and maintain electrical systems that support and enable these processes. To aid this understanding, Energy Production Systems Engineeringdescribes the equipment and systems found in various types of utility electric generation stations. This information is accompanied by examples and practice problems. It also addresses common issues of electrical safety that arise in electric generation stations.

  8. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  9. EUROPE: Swiss role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    On its continual round of CERN Member States, the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) met in Bern, Switzerland, in March. With CERN based in Geneva, and with a national research centre at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), Villigen, Switzerland figures prominently in European particle physics. The Bern ECFA meeting provided a full picture of Swiss particle physics activities, project by project, and was prefaced by an overview by Claude Joseph of Lausanne. The number of experimental particle physicists in the country is about 200, with an academic staff of about 170. These are distributed among seven universities - Basel, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel and Zurich. In addition there are substantial research groups at ETH-Zurich and at PSI. Probably reflecting the proximity of CERN, the size of the national research community, when scaled to the population, is above the CERN Member State average. At CERN, there is a strong Swiss participation in research at the LEP electron-positron collider (concentrated on L3), with 44 physicists. There are also 33 physicists working at the LEAR low energy antiproton ring, in particular the Crystal Barrel and CP-LEAR studies. In addition there is interest in heavy ion research and in neutrino physics (NOMAD) as well as substantial participation in research and development work for experiments at the LHC. Away from CERN, there are 6 Swiss physicists working at the HERA electron-proton collider at DESY, Hamburg, with the national PSI programme involving about 40 physicists. (The PSI programme was covered at the Bern ECFA meeting by H.C. Walter.) Following the illustrious tradition of Fritz Zwicky, Switzerland also counts many astrophysicists. Theoretical physics, with a community of some 80 researchers, has a great tradition. Throughout the 20th century, leading Swiss research centres have been beacons of brilliance. Zurich, in particular, played a leading role, with Einstein, Schrödinger and Pauli among

  10. Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2013-01-01

    Energy systems are currently undergoing a transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy. This is occurring for a variety of reasons, which in an EU context includes: • To reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) • To reduce imported fossil fuels • To utilise local resources and create local jobs ...

  11. Energy Usage Analysis System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — The EUAS application is a web based system which serves Energy Center of Expertise, under the Office of Facilitates Management and Service Programs. EUAS is used for...

  12. Flow energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargsyan, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A cost-effective hydropower system called here Flow Energy Converter was developed, patented, manufactured and tested for water pumping, electricity generation and other purposes especially useful for the rural communities. The system consists of water-driven turbine with plane-surface blades, power transmission means and pump and/or generator. Working sample of the Flow Energy Converter was designed and manufactured at the Institute of Radio Physics and Electronics

  13. Solar Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Calibrated in kilowatt hours per square meter, the solar counter produced by Dodge Products, Inc. provides a numerical count of the solar energy that has accumulated on a surface. Solar energy sensing, measuring and recording devices in corporate solar cell technology developed by Lewis Research Center. Customers for their various devices include architects, engineers and others engaged in construction and operation of solar energy facilities; manufacturers of solar systems or solar related products, such as glare reducing windows; and solar energy planners in federal and state government agencies.

  14. Living Systems Energy Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-26

    The Living Systems Energy Module, renamed Voyage from the Sun, is a twenty-lesson curriculum designed to introduce students to the major ways in which energy is important in living systems. Voyage from the Sun tells the story of energy, describing its solar origins, how it is incorporated into living terrestrial systems through photosynthesis, how it flows from plants to herbivorous animals, and from herbivores to carnivores. A significant part of the unit is devoted to examining how humans use energy, and how human impact on natural habitats affects ecosystems. As students proceed through the unit, they read chapters of Voyage from the Sun, a comic book that describes the flow of energy in story form (Appendix A). During the course of the unit, an ``Energy Pyramid`` is erected in the classroom. This three-dimensional structure serves as a classroom exhibit, reminding students daily of the importance of energy and of the fragile nature of our living planet. Interactive activities teach students about adaptations that allow plants and animals to acquire, to use and to conserve energy. A complete list of curricular materials and copies of all activity sheets appear in Appendix B.

  15. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoes, Marcelo; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    devices, and a centralized distribution control. In order to establish a small wind energy system it is important to observe the following: (i) Attending the energy requirements of the actual or future consumers; (ii) Establishing civil liabilities in case of accidents and financial losses due to shortage...... or low quality of energy; (iii) Negotiating collective conditions to interconnect the microgrid with the public network or with other sources of energy that is independent of wind resources; (iv) Establishing a performance criteria of power quality and reliability to end-users, in order to reduce costs...... and guaranteeing an acceptable energy supply. This paper discuss how performance is affected by local conditions and random nature of the wind, power demand profiles, turbine related factors, and presents the technical issues for implementing a self-excited induction generator system, or a permanent magnet based...

  16. Energy saving synergies in national energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck; Lund, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In the transition towards a 100% renewable energy system, energy savings are essential. The possibility of energy savings through conservation or efficiency increases can be identified in, for instance, the heating and electricity sectors, in industry, and in transport. Several studies point...... to various optimal levels of savings in the different sectors of the energy system. However, these studies do not investigate the idea of energy savings being system dependent. This paper argues that such system dependency is critical to understand, as it does not make sense to analyse an energy saving...... without taking into account the actual benefit of the saving in relation to the energy system. The study therefore identifies a need to understand how saving methods may interact with each other and the system in which they are conducted. By using energy system analysis to do hourly simulation...

  17. The Smart Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurowetzki, Roman; Dyrelund, Anders; Hummelmose, Lars

    Copenhagen Cleantech Cluster has launched a new report, which provides an overview of Danish competencies relating to smart energy systems. The report, which is based on a questionnaire answered by almost 200 companies working with smart energy as well as a number of expert interviews, focuses...... on the synergies which are obtained through integration of the district heating and district cooling, gas, and electricity grid into a single smart energy system. Besides documenting the technology and innovation strengths that Danish companies possess particularly relating to wind, district heating, CHP...... production, large scale solar heat, fuel cells, heat storage, waste incineration, among others, the report draws a picture of Denmark as a research and development hub for smart energy system solutions....

  18. Improving energy efficiency for local energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se-Young; Binns, Michael; Yeo, Yeong-Koo; Kim, Jin-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Multi-period design methodology for heat recovery in local energy systems. • A systematic targeting for minimum utility requirements for urban utility systems. • Integration of industrial waste heat with local energy systems. • A case study providing insights for the heat recovery of discontinuous systems. - Abstract: This study aims to develop a novel design method for reducing the energy consumption and CO 2 emissions of local energy systems, simultaneously considering the recovery of industrial waste heat, and effectively dealing with the non-continuous nature of energy usage and heat recovery. A multi-period concept has been adopted for characterizing the change of heat demand and associated heat recovery in local energy systems which is used for targeting of the minimum energy consumption. In addition, techno-economic analysis is used to provide design guidelines for better heat integration. This design methodology also incorporates the impacts of heat storage and part-load performance of energy production equipment. Opportunities for utilization of low grade heat in process industries have been systematically considered for the minimization of energy generation in local energy systems together with the evaluation of the economic feasibility of such systems for integration of industrial low grade heat with local energy systems. Case studies are used to demonstrate the applicability and practicality of the heat integration methodology developed in this work, and to illustrate how a holistic approach can improve the overall energy efficiency of local energy systems

  19. Assessment of potential energy efficiency improvements in the traction sector of the Swiss Federal Railways; Potentialermittlung Energieeffizienz Traktion bei den SBB - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Menth, S.; Lerjen, M.

    2007-07-01

    Possibilities to reduce the consumption of 16.7-Hz traction energy of Swiss Federal Railways (SBB) have been investigated. Various proposals have been discussed together with experts of SBB's Passenger, Cargo and Infrastructure divisions. Based on numerical simulations for representative train runs, the total consumption of the SBB network could be calculated and compared with real values. The possible reduction e.g. by energy optimised driving could be derived from this comparison; it is between 3 and 5 % of the specific consumption both for the influence by train driver and by traffic control. Technical measures in traction units and passenger coaches lead to reductions of up to about 3%, depending on the vehicle type. It is important that all measures take into account the extremely dense traffic on SBB's network and do not reduce the attractiveness for the customers. (author)

  20. Market-pull report. Measures on the demand side accelerate development and market introduction of energy-saving technologies. Swiss examples in the international context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachmann, C.; Aebischer, B.

    1995-09-01

    International Energy Agency (IEA) experts met in Zurich in order to further develop international projects for the coordinated procurement of energy-saving technologies. On the occasion of this meeting, Swiss specialists from business and administrative circles presented examples of how the market can be purposefully influenced by implementing measures on the demand side. In order to ensure success, it is vital that all parties concerned - from the manufacturers to the consumers - are taken into account, and that tools are applied that have been adapted to each individual market. An international coordination of activities that are aimed at bringing about a change in procurement behaviour contributes considerably to an acceleration of the various processes. For the manufacturers, most of whom are active on an international level, it becomes simpler and more worthwhile to react. This applies in particular when instruments such as quality seals (labels) and target values are applied. (author) figs., tabs

  1. Environmental impacts of the Swiss collection and recovery systems for Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE): A follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waeger, P.A.; Hischier, R.; Eugster, M.

    2011-01-01

    While Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) collection and recovery have significantly gained in importance all over Europe in the last 15 years, comprehensive studies assessing the environmental loads and benefits of these systems still are not common. In this paper we present the results of a combined material flow analysis and life cycle assessment study, which aimed to calculate the overall environmental impacts of collection, pre-processing and end-processing for the existing Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, as well as of incineration and landfilling scenarios, in which the same amount of WEEE is either incinerated in a an MSWI plant or landfilled. According to the calculations based on the material flow data for the year 2009 and a new version of the ecoinvent life cycle inventory database (ecoinvent v2.01), collection, recovery and disposal result in significantly lower environmental impacts per t of WEEE for midpoint indicators such as global warming or ozone depletion and the endpoint indicator Eco-Indicator '99 points. A comparison between the environmental impacts of the WEEE recovery scenarios 2009 and 2004, both calculated with ecoinvent v2.01 data, shows that the impacts per t of WEEE in 2009 were slightly lower. This appears to be mainly due to the changes in the treatment of plastics (more recycling, less incineration). Compared to the overall environmental impacts of the recovery scenario 2004 obtained with an old version of ecoinvent (ecoinvent v1.1), the calculation with ecoinvent v2.01 results in an increase of the impacts by about 20%, which is primarily the consequence of a more adequate modeling of several WEEE fractions (e.g. metals, cables or CRT devices). In view of a further increase of the environmental benefits associated with the Swiss WEEE collection and recovery systems, the recovery of geochemically scarce metals should be further investigated, in particular. - Research Highlights: → Comprehensive MFA

  2. Energy systems transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangerman, A T C Jérôme; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim

    2013-02-12

    The contemporary industrial metabolism is not sustainable. Critical problems arise at both the input and the output side of the complex: Although affordable fossil fuels and mineral resources are declining, the waste products of the current production and consumption schemes (especially CO(2) emissions, particulate air pollution, and radioactive residua) cause increasing environmental and social costs. Most challenges are associated with the incumbent energy economy that is unlikely to subsist. However, the crucial question is whether a swift transition to its sustainable alternative, based on renewable sources, can be achieved. The answer requires a deep analysis of the structural conditions responsible for the rigidity of the fossil-nuclear energy system. We argue that the resilience of the fossil-nuclear energy system results mainly from a dynamic lock-in pattern known in operations research as the "Success to the Successful" mode. The present way of generating, distributing, and consuming energy--the largest business on Earth--expands through a combination of factors such as the longevity of pertinent infrastructure, the information technology revolution, the growth of the global population, and even the recent financial crises: Renewable-energy industries evidently suffer more than the conventional-energy industries under recession conditions. Our study tries to elucidate the archetypical traits of the lock-in pattern and to assess the respective importance of the factors involved. In particular, we identify modern corporate law as a crucial system element that thus far has been largely ignored. Our analysis indicates that the rigidity of the existing energy economy would be reduced considerably by the assignment of unlimited liabilities to the shareholders.

  3. Wind Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    During the 1920s and 1930s, millions of wind energy systems were used on farms and other locations far from utility lines. However, with passage of the Rural Electrification Act in 1939, cheap electricity was brought to rural areas. After that, the use of wind machines dramatically declined. Recently, the rapid rise in fuel prices has led to a…

  4. Small Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy; Farret, Felix Alberto; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    to the public distibutor, it can serve as a backup system, as a non-interruptible power supply (with storage aggregation), provide low-voltage support, or give a clean surplus of energy transferred to the public network under economical and technological basis. In this chapter, several factors are also...

  5. Association of Swiss Electrical Utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The report, reproduced in full, discusses Swiss energy policy in 1986, paying particular attention to the fall in confidence with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident. Statistical data on primary and secondary energy consumption and power generation are presented. Other sections include imports/exports, construction of power stations, transmission/distribution links, finance, constitution of council, committees and public relations. (G.T.H.)

  6. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should be disregarded but that it will be needed for other purposes in the future.

  7. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  8. Swiss statistics on renewable energy - Biogas - Collection of biogas data from regional wastewater treatment plants; Schweizerische Statistik erneuerbarer Energien - Teilstatistik Biogas - Erfassung Biogasdaten aus kommunalen ARA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buri, R.; Kobel, B.

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy presents the results of a project that involved the collection of data on the production of biogas in wastewater treatment plants that each serve at least 200 inhabitants. The methods used to collect and verify the data are described. The assessment methods used to evaluate the findings are discussed, as is the extrapolation method used. The results are compared with the data previously used. Further, a data collection concept for use in subsequent years is described that involves the segregation of the wastewater treatment plants into three size categories. A comprehensive annex provides details on the data collection and the paperwork used, a list of the addresses of the wastewater facilities involved, an estimate of electrical power consumption and individual power production, the calculation of average efficiencies and tables of data.

  9. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  10. The 'Energy-Hub-System' could be the future answer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellstein, J.

    2005-01-01

    This Interview with Klaus Froehlich, professor for Electrical Energy Transport Systems at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETHZ), presents new visionary ideas on how electrical energy could be transported in the future. Assuming that it were possible, a new, 'clean sheet' hybrid system was first developed at the Institute - i.e. working on the assumption that the present power grid did not exist. The new ideas looked at also fulfil other, more recent requirements, such as taking up power feeds from renewable energy sources such as wind power. The modelling methods used and new storage functions investigated are discussed, as are novel combinations of various interconnected energy sources in so-called 'hubs'. International co-operation with further European research centres and universities on the subject is discussed

  11. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Swiss Confederation and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in the Annex to this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 7 June 2000. It was signed on 16 June 2000 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 1 February 2005, the date upon which the Agency received from the Swiss Confederation written notification that the Swiss Confederation's statutory and/or constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  12. Wind energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, R.D.; McNerney, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    Wind energy has matured to a level of development where it is ready to become a generally accepted utility generation technology. A brief discussion of this development is presented, and the operating and design principles are discussed. Alternative designs for wind turbines and the tradeoffs that must be considered are briefly compared. Development of a wind energy system and the impacts on the utility network including frequency stability, voltage stability, and power quality are discussed. The assessment of wind power station economics and the key economic factors that determine the economic viability of a wind power plant are presented

  13. 21st Century's energy: Hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. Nejat; Sahin, Suemer

    2008-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the hydrogen energy system. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar-hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar-hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st century

  14. 21st century's energy: hydrogen energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veziroglu, T. N.

    2007-01-01

    Fossil fuels (i.e., petroleum, natural gas and coal), which meet most of the world's energy demand today, are being depleted fast. Also, their combustion products are causing the global problems, such as the greenhouse effect, ozone layer depletion, acid rains and pollution, which are posing great danger for our environment and eventually for the life in our planet. Many engineers and scientists agree that the solution to these global problems would be to replace the existing fossil fuel system by the Hydrogen Energy System. Hydrogen is a very efficient and clean fuel. Its combustion will produce no greenhouse gases, no ozone layer depleting chemicals, little or no acid rain ingredients and pollution. Hydrogen, produced from renewable energy (e.g., solar) sources, would result in a permanent energy system, which we would never have to change. However, there are other energy systems proposed for the post-petroleum era, such as a synthetic fossil fuel system. In this system, synthetic gasoline and synthetic natural gas will be produced using abundant deposits of coal. In a way, this will ensure the continuation of the present fossil fuel system. The two possible energy systems for the post-fossil fuel era (i.e., the solar hydrogen energy system and the synthetic fossil fuel system) are compared with the present fossil fuel system by taking into consideration production costs, environmental damages and utilization efficiencies. The results indicate that the solar hydrogen energy system is the best energy system to ascertain a sustainable future, and it should replace the fossil fuel system before the end of the 21st Century

  15. Thermoelectric energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peck, R.

    1980-01-01

    A thermoelectric energy system is described comprising: (A) at least first and second separated electrodes, said electrodes including copper; (B) a liquid electrolyte comprising a source of copper ions and a material for complexing the ions, the complexing material being selected from the group consisting of one or a combination of a source of tartrate, a source of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid,a source of gluconate, lactic acid, malic acid, citric acid, oxalic acid, and a source of silicon dioxide, the electrolyte being disposed between and in contact with the electrodes to provide a metal ion conduction path which extends substantially the entire distance between the electrodes; (C) an electric circuit connected to the electrodes for removal of electrical energy from the system; and (D) means for establishing a temperature gradient within said electrolyte whereby the average temperature of one of said electrodes will be greater than that of the other of said electrodes to thereby produce a voltage across the electrodes

  16. Wind energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrigg, Paul

    1987-01-01

    The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

  17. Hydrogen energy systems studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogden, J.M.; Steinbugler, M.; Dennis, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    For several years, researchers at Princeton University`s Center for Energy and Environmental Studies have carried out technical and economic assessments of hydrogen energy systems. Initially, we focussed on the long term potential of renewable hydrogen. More recently we have explored how a transition to renewable hydrogen might begin. The goal of our current work is to identify promising strategies leading from near term hydrogen markets and technologies toward eventual large scale use of renewable hydrogen as an energy carrier. Our approach has been to assess the entire hydrogen energy system from production through end-use considering technical performance, economics, infrastructure and environmental issues. This work is part of the systems analysis activity of the DOE Hydrogen Program. In this paper we first summarize the results of three tasks which were completed during the past year under NREL Contract No. XR-11265-2: in Task 1, we carried out assessments of near term options for supplying hydrogen transportation fuel from natural gas; in Task 2, we assessed the feasibility of using the existing natural gas system with hydrogen and hydrogen blends; and in Task 3, we carried out a study of PEM fuel cells for residential cogeneration applications, a market which might have less stringent cost requirements than transportation. We then give preliminary results for two other tasks which are ongoing under DOE Contract No. DE-FG04-94AL85803: In Task 1 we are assessing the technical options for low cost small scale production of hydrogen from natural gas, considering (a) steam reforming, (b) partial oxidation and (c) autothermal reforming, and in Task 2 we are assessing potential markets for hydrogen in Southern California.

  18. From theory to practice: itinerary of Reasons’ Swiss Cheese Model

    OpenAIRE

    Larouzée, Justin; Guarnieri, Franck

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Since the early 1990s, the Swiss Cheese Model (SCM) of the English psychologist James Reason has established itself as a reference model in the etiology, investigation or prevention of organizational accidents in many productive systems (transportation, energy, healthcare …). Based on the observation that it’s still today widely used, this article intends to revert to the history and the theoretical background of the SCM. By doing so, the article focuses on the collabo...

  19. Multiple Energy System Analysis of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    2015-01-01

    thermal grids and smart gas grids, Smart Energy Systems moves the flexibility away from the fuel as is the case in current energy systems and into the system itself. However, most studies applying a Smart Energy System approach deals with analyses for either single countries or whole continents......To eliminate the use of fossil fuels in the energy sector it is necessary to transition to future 100% renewable energy systems. One approach for this radical change in our energy systems is Smart Energy Systems. With a focus on development and interaction between smart electricity grids, smart......, but it is unclear how regions, municipalities, and communities should deal with these national targets. It is necessary to be able to provide this information since Smart Energy Systems utilize energy resources and initiatives that have strong relations to local authorities and communities, such as onshore wind...

  20. Energy System Analysis of 100 Per cent Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2007-01-01

    and designed a model for the future energy system of Denmark, putting emphasis on energy efficiency, CO2 reduction, and industrial development. The energy system analysis methodology includes hour by hour computer simulations leading to the design of flexible energy systems with the ability to balance...... the electricity supply and demand and to exchange electricity productions on the international electricity markets. The results are detailed system designs and energy balances for two energy target years: year 2050 with 100 per cent renewable energy from biomass and combinations of wind, wave and solar power......This paper presents the methodology and results of the overall energy system analysis of a 100 per cent renewable energy system. The input for the systems is the result of a project of the Danish Association of Engineers, in which 1600 participants during more than 40 seminars discussed...

  1. The Swiss strategy on the new Electricity Industry Decree ('Elektrizitaetswirtschaftsordnung', ELWO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, W.

    2003-01-01

    This lecture by Dr. Walter Steinmann, director of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, describes in three parts the efforts being made in the electricity sector to reorganise the Swiss electricity market. The first part deals with international aspects, including electricity trading between Switzerland and the European Union and the associated reciprocal agreements as well as the realisation of transnational European power trading systems. The second part of the lecture deals with cross-connections between ELWO and other related areas such as public services, energy and climate policies and long-term security of supply. The last part of the lecture examines the strategy behind the new ELWO legislation in detail

  2. International Nuclear Safety Experts Conclude IAEA Peer Review of Swiss Regulatory Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A team of international nuclear safety experts today completed a two-week International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) review of the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in Switzerland. The Integrated Regulatory Review Service (IRRS) mission noted good practices in the Swiss system and also made recommendations for the nation's nuclear regulatory authority, the Swiss Federal Nuclear Safety Inspectorate (ENSI). ''Our team developed a good impression of the independent Swiss regulator - ENSI - and the team considered that ENSI deserves particular credit for its actions to improve Swiss safety capability following this year's nuclear accident in Japan,'' said IRRS Team Leader Jean-Christophe Niel of France. The mission's scope covered the Swiss nuclear regulatory framework for all types of nuclear-related activities regulated by ENSI. The mission was conducted from 20 November to 2 December, mainly at ENSI headquarters in Brugg. The team held extensive discussions with ENSI staff and visited many Swiss nuclear facilities. IRRS missions are peer reviews, not inspections or audits, and are conducted at the request of host nations. For the Swiss review, the IAEA assembled a team of 19 international experts from 14 countries. The experts came from Belgium, Brazil, the Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Republic of Korea, Norway, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. ''The findings of the IRRS mission will help us to further improve our work. That is part of our safety culture,'' said ENSI Director General Hans Wanner. ''As Switzerland argued at international nuclear safety meetings this year for a strengthening of the international monitoring of nuclear power, we will take action to fulfil the recommendations.'' The IRRS team highlighted several good practices of the Swiss regulatory system, including the following: ENSI requires Swiss nuclear operators to back-fit their facilities by continuously upgrading

  3. Smart energy and smart energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the terms “Smart Energy” and “Smart Energy Systems” have been used to express an approach that reaches broader than the term “Smart grid”. Where Smart Grids focus primarily on the electricity sector, Smart Energy Systems take an integrated holistic focus on the inclusion of more...... sectors (electricity, heating, cooling, industry, buildings and transportation) and allows for the identification of more achievable and affordable solutions to the transformation into future renewable and sustainable energy solutions. This paper first makes a review of the scientific literature within...... the field. Thereafter it discusses the term Smart Energy Systems with regard to the issues of definition, identification of solu- tions, modelling, and integration of storage. The conclusion is that the Smart Energy System concept represents a scientific shift in paradigms away from single-sector thinking...

  4. Effect of Crude and Decaffeinated Extracts of Cola nitida Seeds on Male Reproductive System in Swiss Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O Ogundipe

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine is present in kola nut and xanthine stimulants which are used as a psychoactive drug. Therefore, the effect of kola nut (Cola nitida extract was carried out on male reproductive system in male albino rats. Aim and Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effect of oral administration of Crude Extract of Kola (CEK and Decaffeinated Extract of Kola (DEK on the reproductive function in male Swiss albino rats. Material and Methods: Twenty-four adult male albino rats were used for this study, they were assigned into three groups consisting eight rats each. Group 1 (control group received (8mg/kg bw of distilled water for six weeks, Group 2 (crude extract group received (8mg/kg bw of CEK for six weeks, and Group 3 (decaffeinated extract group was treated with (8mg/kg bw of DEK for six weeks. Result: CEK showed no significant decrease in the body weight and sperm count when compared with the control group. No significant difference in seminal parameter (motility, morphology, viability, organ weight (testis and hormonal assay (testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone when compared with the control group. DEK showed no significant different in body weight, hormonal assay (testosterone and follicle stimulating hormone, seminal parameter (sperm viability, count, morphology and motility, organ weight (testes and epipidymis of the animal; however significant increase was observed in luteinizing hormone when compared with control group. Asignificant increase in the sperm count of decaffeinated group was observed (p = 0.02 when compared with crude group. Conclusion: This study indicates that CEK and DEK have little effects on male reproductive system.

  5. Energy model in regional energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mura, P.G.; Baccoli, R.; Carlini, U.; Innamorati, R.; Mariotti, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this report is presented a computational model for analysis of energy, materials and mass flux in a complex energy system, at regional scale level. Specifically is described a calculation model of electric power generation for emission forecasting of CO 2 , SO x , NO x , particulate matter, ashes, limestone, chalks [it

  6. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics. Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  7. Integral Politics: A Swiss Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Fein

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This article tells the story of the Swiss NGO “Integrale Politik (ip” founded by about 20 people in November 2007 with the aim of becoming a regular political party at a later stage (www.integrale-politik.ch. We wish to make ip’s concepts and approaches known to a wider public. Inspired by integral thinkers such as Jean Gebser and Ken Wilber, ip develops its own ideas and interpretations of integral in view of the concrete challenges of Swiss and European politics.Integral political culture is understood, for example, as including practices addressing all senses, turning political commitment into an experience of meaningful activity and an expression of joy, ease and celebrating life. One of the most important challenges currently faced by the group is to perpetuate and further develop this working culture as the organization grows. Its success in doing this seems to be one of the main reasons for ip’s attractiveness to the Swiss cultural creative sector in general and the growing integrally-minded community in particular to whom it gives an increasingly visible face and a clear-cut voice. At the same time, the Swiss political system offers particularly favourable preconditions and thus, a fruitful ground for new political ideas and experiments such as this integral political one.

  8. GIS in Swiss Highschools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2003, the Swiss Geography Teacher Society from the German speaking area initiated the introduction of GIS to Swiss highschools. A very favourablecontract was made with the ESRI Company about using their software ArcView,thus as many as 44 highschools had GIS education in 2008.

  9. GIS in Swiss Highschools

    OpenAIRE

    Nedjeljko Frančula

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the Swiss Geography Teacher Society from the German speaking area initiated the introduction of GIS to Swiss highschools. A very favourablecontract was made with the ESRI Company about using their software ArcView,thus as many as 44 highschools had GIS education in 2008.

  10. Two energy system analysis - tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Andersen, Anders N.; Antonoff, Jayson

    2004-01-01

    The chapter illustrates some of the different types of problems that must be solved when analysing energy systems.......The chapter illustrates some of the different types of problems that must be solved when analysing energy systems....

  11. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Münster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable...... energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade...

  12. 8th Swiss National Photovoltaics Congress. Conference proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2010-01-01

    These congress proceedings contain the presentations made at the two-day 8 th Swiss National Photovoltaics Conference held in Winterthur, Switzerland, in February 2010. The presentations were grouped into six sessions. The first session dealt with promotional activities for photovoltaics (PV) in Switzerland. The presentations dealt with the present state of PV promotion, the cantonal support program in Basle and the Swiss photovoltaics market in a global context. The session was rounded off with a podium discussion on the Swiss cost-covering remuneration system for solar power. This theme was looked at in more detail in the second session of the conference; successes and hindrances in the system were discussed as well as an example of an alternative solar power 'exchange'. The third session looked at building-integration of PV systems; facade and roof integration and the use of flexible solar cells were discussed. The second day of the conference featured three further sessions. The first session dealt with transfer of know-how from research institutes to industry. A general overview was presented and specific examples of successful know-how transfer were reported on. The next session dealt with the great challenges presented by the efforts being made to expand the use of PV. Safety aspects were discussed, as were the certified testing of modules, mains integration and the training of personnel involved with the implementation of PV systems. The final session looked at the scenarios, perspectives and visions for Swiss and European PV business. PV systems were examined from the point of view of the semiconductor business, European energy planning, the role of PV in future energy supply and the roles of customers, investors and politics on the way to a renewable future.

  13. Wind Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke

    2017-01-01

    Wind power now represents a major and growing source of renewable energy. Large wind turbines (with capacities of up to 6-8 MW) are widely installed in power distribution networks. Increasing numbers of onshore and offshore wind farms, acting as power plants, are connected directly to power...... transmission networks at the scale of hundreds of megawatts. As its level of grid penetration has begun to increase dramatically, wind power is starting to have a significant impact on the operation of the modern grid system. Advanced power electronics technologies are being introduced to improve...... the characteristics of the wind turbines, and make them more suitable for integration into the power grid. Meanwhile, there are some emerging challenges that still need to be addressed. This paper provides an overview and discusses some trends in the power electronics technologies used for wind power generation...

  14. Tools in a clinical information system supporting clinical trials at a Swiss University Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Michael; Bucklar, Guido; Blaser, Jürg

    2014-12-01

    Issues concerning inadequate source data of clinical trials rank second in the most common findings by regulatory authorities. The increasing use of electronic clinical information systems by healthcare providers offers an opportunity to facilitate and improve the conduct of clinical trials and the source documentation. We report on a number of tools implemented into the clinical information system of a university hospital to support clinical research. In 2011/2012, a set of tools was developed in the clinical information system of the University Hospital Zurich to support clinical research, including (1) a trial registry for documenting metadata on the clinical trials conducted at the hospital, (2) a patient-trial-assignment-tool to tag patients in the electronic medical charts as participants of specific trials, (3) medical record templates for the documentation of study visits and trial-related procedures, (4) online queries on trials and trial participants, (5) access to the electronic medical records for clinical monitors, (6) an alerting tool to notify of hospital admissions of trial participants, (7) queries to identify potentially eligible patients in the planning phase as trial feasibility checks and during the trial as recruitment support, and (8) order sets to facilitate the complete and accurate performance of study visit procedures. The number of approximately 100 new registrations per year in the voluntary trial registry in the clinical information system now matches the numbers of the existing mandatory trial registry of the hospital. Likewise, the yearly numbers of patients tagged as trial participants as well as the use of the standardized trial record templates increased to 2408 documented trial enrolments and 190 reports generated/month in the year 2013. Accounts for 32 clinical monitors have been established in the first 2 years monitoring a total of 49 trials in 16 clinical departments. A total of 15 months after adding the optional feature of

  15. Verification of electricity savings through energy-efficient train management - Concept and system architecture - Annex 1; Verifizierung der Stromeinsparung durch energieeffizientes Zugsmanagement - Anhang 1: Konzept und Systemarchitektur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.; Lerjen, M.; Menth, S. [emkamatik GmbH, Wettingen (Switzerland); Luethi, M. [Swiss Federal Insitute of Technology (ETHZ), Institute for Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), Zuerich (Switzerland); Tuchschmid, M. [SBB AG, BahnUmwelt-Center, 3000 Bern (Switzerland)

    2009-11-15

    This appendix to a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses a system concept that can be used to help save energy in the Swiss rail network. The concept proposes that the highest level of energy savings can be achieved by controlling the trains to provide a high level of smooth flow as far as speed is concerned. In particular, various situations are described where, for example, double and single track working exists and unnecessary breaking when trains have to pass each other can be avoided. Predictor algorithms are described and discussed and possible indicators for train drivers are proposed. The system architecture required is examined and recommendations are made concerning the implementation of the system. Restrictions caused by the running of non-equipped foreign trains on the Swiss rail network are also discussed.

  16. The Swiss power generation industry after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucher, J.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl disaster a large proportion of the Swiss population has had its faith in nuclear power severely shaken. On technical grounds an accident with such serious consequences for humans is not considered possible in Switzerland. A sound energy policy must be conceived on long-term considerations and should not be altered needlessly in the short term. Consequently the aims of security of power supply, energy savings and oil substitution must be pursued in the future. A change in energy policy by the Swiss power generation industry, as a result of Chernobyl, is not considered necessary

  17. Swiss values of travel time savings

    OpenAIRE

    König, Arnd

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted by the Institute of Transport Planning and Systems (IVT), ETH Zurich and Rapp Trans AG, Zurich on behalf of the Swiss Association of Transport Engineers. It implements the recommendation of the scoping study on Swiss value of travel time savings (VTTS) (Abay und Axhausen, 2000) by estimating VTTS for private motorised and public travel by trip purpose on the basis of new stated-choice (SC) surveys. The survey participants were recruited as part of the continuous passe...

  18. Renewable energy covernance systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hvelplund, F.

    2001-01-01

    The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system introduces an inefficient competition between energy robots, and weakens the increasingly important competition between equipment producers. It hampers the competition between investors by making it difficult for neighbours and local investors to invest in wind turbines. Due to its mono price character, it gives too high profits to wind turbine owners at very good wind sites, and not high enough to wind turbine owners at poor wind sites. The 'political quota-/certificate price market' system is very far from being a market model, as the RE amount is politically decided and the certificate market price is also political influenced. The conclusion, therefore, is that it is time to find a RE governance model that considers the specific needs and characteristics of RE technologies. The present analysis strongly indicates that a 'political price-/amount market' model in this connection is far better than the 'political quota-/certificate price market' model. Furthermore, a common EU model, based on the principle of site efficiency, would be much more flexible, cheaper and easier to pursue than the 'political quota-/certificate price market', or mono price model, which is designed for uranium and fossil fuel technologies, and represents a governance model designed for the technologies of yesterday. (EHS)

  19. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    hydro-to-electric power system, which is being strongly recognized as a unique and unconventional renewable energy solution, is the marine and hydrokinetic energy conversion technology [8]. Hydrokinetic (In Stream, or water current) energy conversion implies the utilization of the kinetic energy of rivers, streams, tidal ...

  20. Smart Energy Systems and Energy Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duic, N.

    2016-01-01

    Transition to decarbonized energy systems is becoming more attractive with fall of investment costs of renewables and volatile prices and political insecurity of fossil fuels. Improving energy efficiency, especially of buildings and transport, is important, but due to long life of buildings, it will be a slow way of decarbonization. The renewable energy resources are bountiful, especially wind and solar, while integrating them into current energy systems is proving to be a challenge. Solar has reached grid parity making it cheapest electricity source for retail customers in most of the World, creating new prosumer markets. It has started to reach cost parity in sunny countries, and soon solar energy will be cheapest everywhere. The limit of cheap and easy integration for wind is around 20% of yearly electricity generation, while a combined wind and solar may reach 30%. Going any further asks for implementation of completely free energy markets (involving day ahead, intraday and various reserve and ancillary services markets), demand response, coupling of wholesale and retail energy prices, and it involves integration between electricity, heat, water and transport systems. The cheapest and simplest way of increasing further the penetration of renewables is integrating power and heating/cooling systems through the use of district heating and cooling (which may be centrally controlled and may have significant heat storage capacity), since power to heat technologies are excellent for demand response. District cooling is of particular importance to historic cities that want to remove split systems from their facades. In countries with low heat demand water supply system may be used to increase the penetration of renewables, by using water at higher potential energy as storage media, or in dry climates desalination and stored water may be used for those purposes, and reversible hydro may be used as balancing technology. Electrification of personal car transport allows

  1. Context-specific energy strategies: coupling energy system visions with feasible implementation scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trutnevyte, Evelina; Stauffacher, Michael; Schlegel, Matthias; Scholz, Roland W

    2012-09-04

    Conventional energy strategy defines an energy system vision (the goal), energy scenarios with technical choices and an implementation mechanism (such as economic incentives). Due to the lead of a generic vision, when applied in a specific regional context, such a strategy can deviate from the optimal one with, for instance, the lowest environmental impacts. This paper proposes an approach for developing energy strategies by simultaneously, rather than sequentially, combining multiple energy system visions and technically feasible, cost-effective energy scenarios that meet environmental constraints at a given place. The approach is illustrated by developing a residential heat supply strategy for a Swiss region. In the analyzed case, urban municipalities should focus on reducing heat demand, and rural municipalities should focus on harvesting local energy sources, primarily wood. Solar thermal units are cost-competitive in all municipalities, and their deployment should be fostered by information campaigns. Heat pumps and building refurbishment are not competitive; thus, economic incentives are essential, especially for urban municipalities. In rural municipalities, wood is cost-competitive, and community-based initiatives are likely to be most successful. Thus, the paper shows that energy strategies should be spatially differentiated. The suggested approach can be transferred to other regions and spatial scales.

  2. Probabilistic Approaches to Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    be useful on all levels of the energy systems, ranging from the highest level, where the transmission system operator is concerned with minimizing system failures and is aided by wind power forecasts, to the end user of energy where power price forecasts are useful for users with flexible power demand......Energy generation from wind and sun is increasing rapidly in many parts of the world. This presents new challenges on how to integrate this uncertain, intermittent and non-dispatchable energy source. This thesis deals with forecasting and decision making in energy systems with a large proportion...... of renewable energy generation. Particularly we focus on producing forecasting models that can predict renewable energy generation, single user demand, and provide advanced forecast products that are needed for an efficient integration of renewable energy into the power generation mix. Such forecasts can...

  3. Polish energy-system modernisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Polish energy-system needs intensive investments in new technologies, which are energy efficient, clean and cost effective. Since the early 1990s, the Polish economy has had practically full access to modern technological devices, equipment and technologies. Introducing new technologies is a difficult task for project teams, constructors and investors. The author presents a set of principles for project teams useful in planning and energy modernisation. Several essential features are discussed: Energy-efficient appliances and systems; Choice of energy carriers, media and fuels; Optimal tariffs, maximum power and installed power; Intelligent, integrated, steering systems; Waste-energy recovery; Renewable-energy recovery. In practice there are several difficulties connected with planning and realising good technological and economic solutions. The author presents his own experiences of energy-system modernisation of industrial processes and building new objects. (Author)

  4. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme 2008 edition - Summary report, annual project abstracts for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-04-15

    This comprehensive, illustrated report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of activities in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Photovoltaics Research Programme. Work completed in 2007 and the results achieved in the areas of cell technology, solar modules and building integration, electrical systems technology, supplementary projects and studies are summarised. National and international co-operation is examined. New, current and completed Pilot and Demonstration projects are reported on as are the prospects for the year 2008. The report is completed with lists of research and development as well as pilot and demonstration projects.

  5. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  6. Monitoring the impact of the DRG payment system on nursing service context factors in Swiss acute care hospitals: Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Rebecca; Spichiger, Elisabeth; Martin, Jacqueline S; Frei, Irena Anna; Müller, Marianne; Kleinknecht, Michael

    2014-01-01

    With this study protocol, a research program is introduced. Its overall aim is to prepare the instruments and to conduct the first monitoring of nursing service context factors at three university and two cantonal hospitals in Switzerland prior to the introduction of the reimbursement system based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) and to further develop a theoretical model as well as a methodology for future monitoring following the introduction of DRGs. DRG was introduced to all acute care hospitals in Switzerland in 2012. In other countries, DRG introduction led to rationing and subsequently to a reduction in nursing care. As result, nursing-sensitive patient outcomes were seriously jeopardised. Switzerland has the opportunity to learn from the consequences experienced by other countries when they introduced DRGs. Their experiences highlight that DRGs influence nursing service context factors such as complexity of nursing care or leadership, which in turn influence nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. For this reason, the monitoring of nursing service context factors needs to be an integral part of the introduction of DRGs. However, most acute care hospitals in Switzerland do not monitor nursing service context data. Nursing managers and hospital executive boards will be in need of this data in the future, in order to distribute resources effectively. A mixed methods design in the form of a sequential explanatory strategy was chosen. During the preparation phase, starting in spring 2011, instruments were selected and prepared, and the access to patient and nursing data in the hospitals was organized. Following this, online collection of quantitative data was conducted in fall 2011. In summer 2012, qualitative data was gathered using focus group interviews, which helped to describe the processes in more detail. During 2013 and 2014, an integration process is being conducted involving complementing, comparing and contrasting quantitative and qualitative findings

  7. Monitoring the impact of the DRG payment system on nursing service context factors in Swiss acute care hospitals: Study protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirig, Rebecca; Spichiger, Elisabeth; Martin, Jacqueline S.; Frei, Irena Anna; Müller, Marianne; Kleinknecht, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aims: With this study protocol, a research program is introduced. Its overall aim is to prepare the instruments and to conduct the first monitoring of nursing service context factors at three university and two cantonal hospitals in Switzerland prior to the introduction of the reimbursement system based on Diagnosis Related Groups (DRG) and to further develop a theoretical model as well as a methodology for future monitoring following the introduction of DRGs. Background: DRG was introduced to all acute care hospitals in Switzerland in 2012. In other countries, DRG introduction led to rationing and subsequently to a reduction in nursing care. As result, nursing-sensitive patient outcomes were seriously jeopardised. Switzerland has the opportunity to learn from the consequences experienced by other countries when they introduced DRGs. Their experiences highlight that DRGs influence nursing service context factors such as complexity of nursing care or leadership, which in turn influence nursing-sensitive patient outcomes. For this reason, the monitoring of nursing service context factors needs to be an integral part of the introduction of DRGs. However, most acute care hospitals in Switzerland do not monitor nursing service context data. Nursing managers and hospital executive boards will be in need of this data in the future, in order to distribute resources effectively. Methods/Design: A mixed methods design in the form of a sequential explanatory strategy was chosen. During the preparation phase, starting in spring 2011, instruments were selected and prepared, and the access to patient and nursing data in the hospitals was organized. Following this, online collection of quantitative data was conducted in fall 2011. In summer 2012, qualitative data was gathered using focus group interviews, which helped to describe the processes in more detail. During 2013 and 2014, an integration process is being conducted involving complementing, comparing and contrasting

  8. Challenges in the Energy Sector in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: An Evaluation of 18 Years of Swiss Economic Cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bonvin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanSwitzerland’s State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO has been working in the energy sectors of Eastern Europe and Central Asia since 1992, financing 41 projects to the value of CHF 316 million. In 2009 an independent evaluation was commissioned to assess the effects of these projects in the region and to draw lessons for future project funding. The evaluation found the projects to be highly satisfactory in terms of relevance, satisfactory in terms of effectiveness and sustainability, and — because of external factors relating to governance, transparency and political stability in a country — generally unsatisfactory in terms of efficiency.Lessons drawn from the successful projects will be used to further improve them in the future. With limited financial resources governments are attempting to find a balance between energy security and environmental sustainability. SECO will support this mission by helping to reduce inefficient consumption, to increase the share of renewable energy, to strengthen the sustainability of utility companies and to develop effective energy policies.

  9. Documentation on the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kannan, R.; Turton, H.

    2011-10-01

    This comprehensive report by the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI in Switzerland documents the development of the Swiss TIMES Electricity Model (STEM-E). This is a flexible model which explicitly depicts plausible pathways for the development of the Swiss electricity sector, while dealing with inter-temporal variations in demand and supply. TIMES is quoted as having the capability to portray the entire energy system from resource supply, through fuel processing, representation of infrastructures, conversion to secondary energy carriers, end-use technologies and energy service demands at end-use sectors. The background of the model's development and a reference energy system are described. Also, electricity end-use sectors and generating systems are examined, including hydropower, nuclear power, thermal generation and renewables. Environmental factors and the calibration of the model are discussed, as is the application of the model. The document is completed with an outlook, references and six appendices

  10. Advanced Energy Storage Systems (AESS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and demonstrate advanced Energy Storage System (AESS) technologies that meet NASA's space exploration needs for safe, abundant, reliable, and lightweight...

  11. Stochastic Energy Deployment System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-11-30

    SEDS is an economy-wide energy model of the U.S. The model captures dynamics between supply, demand, and pricing of the major energy types consumed and produced within the U.S. These dynamics are captured by including: the effects of macroeconomics; the resources and costs of primary energy types such as oil, natural gas, coal, and biomass; the conversion of primary fuels into energy products like petroleum products, electricity, biofuels, and hydrogen; and lastly the end- use consumption attributable to residential and commercial buildings, light and heavy transportation, and industry. Projections from SEDS extend to the year 2050 by one-year time steps and are generally projected at the national level. SEDS differs from other economy-wide energy models in that it explicitly accounts for uncertainty in technology, markets, and policy. SEDS has been specifically developed to avoid the computational burden, and sometimes fruitless labor, that comes from modeling significantly low-level details. Instead, SEDS focuses on the major drivers within the energy economy and evaluates the impact of uncertainty around those drivers.

  12. Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications presents analyses of sustainable energy systems and their applications, providing new understandings, methodologies, models and applications along with descriptions of several illustrative examples and case studies. This textbook aims to address key pillars in the field, such as: better efficiency, cost effectiveness, use of energy resources, environment, energy security, and sustainable development. It also includes some cutting-edge topics, such as hydrogen and fuel cells, renewable, clean combustion technologies, CO2 abatement technologies, and some potential tools for design, analysis and performance improvement. The book also: Discusses producing energy by increasing systems efficiency in generation, conversion, transportation and consumption Analyzes the conversion of fossil fuels to clean fuels for limiting  pollution and creating a better environment Sustainable Energy Systems and Applications is a research-based textbook which can be used by senior u...

  13. ENERGY-TRANSFER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thonemann, P.C.; Cowhig, W.T.; Davenport, P.A.

    1963-04-01

    This patent relates to the transfer of energy in a traveling electromagnetic wave to direct-current electrical energy in a gaseous medium. The traveling wave is generated by means of a radio-frequency oscillator connected across a capacitance-loaded helix wound around a sealed tube enclosing the gaseous medium. The traveling wave causes the electrons within the medium to drift towards one end of the tube. The direct current appearing across electrodes placed at each end of the tube is then used by some electrical means. (AEC)

  14. Fusion in the energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusion energy is the fundamental energy source of the Universe, as the energy of the Sun and the stars are produced by fusion of e.g. hydrogen to helium. Fusion energy research is a strongly international endeavor aiming at realizing fusion energy production in power plants on Earth. Reaching...... this goal, mankind will have a sustainable base load energy source with abundant resources, having no CO2 release, and with no longlived radioactive waste. This presentation will describe the basics of fusion energy production and the status and future prospects of the research. Considerations...... of integration into the future electricity system and socio-economic studies of fusion energy will be presented, referring to the programme of Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) under the European Fusion Energy Agreement (EFDA)....

  15. Two energy system analysis - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Antonoff, Jayson; Andersen, Anders N.

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents tow cases of energy system analysis, illustrating the types of tools and methodologies presently being used for these studies in Denamrk and elsewhere.......The chapter presents tow cases of energy system analysis, illustrating the types of tools and methodologies presently being used for these studies in Denamrk and elsewhere....

  16. Battery energy storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, C.S.P.; Evenblij, B.H.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to store electrical energy adds several interesting features to a ships distribution network, as silent power, peak shaving and a ride through in case of generator failure. Modern intrinsically safe Li-ion batteries bring these within reach. For this modern lithium battery applications

  17. Renewable Energy Devices and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are firstly discussed. A state of the art review section covers fundamentals of wind turbines and PV systems. Included are schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system topologies...... and the fundamental and increasing role of power electronics as an enabler for renewable energy integration, and for the future power system and smart grid. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants, as well for as residential and commercial...... applications are provided. Fuel cells, solar thermal, wave generators, and energy storage systems are also briefly presented and illustrated. Challenges and future trends for 2025 are summarized in a table for on-shore and off-shore wind energy, solar power, including photovoltaic and concentering, wave energy...

  18. Decarbonization of Croatian Energy System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2012-01-01

    Energy system decarbonization is reduction of greenhouse gases (CO 2 ) emission, chiefly from the fossil fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) combustion. The main objective of an energy system decarbonization is the climate change mitigation, and at the same time development of local industry and employment, better environment and health protection, as well as reduction of the fossil fuels import and foreign debt. Croatia has small fossil fuels reserves and large renewable energy sources (RES) reserves, energy efficiency (ENEF) is relatively low, and energy import, according to the actual Energy strategy 2009, should increase from 50% to 70% until 2020. Croatian energy system participates with about one third in the Croatian foreign trade deficit. The main measures of the Croatian energy system decarbonization should be: increasing ENEF (energy savings), switch from fossil fuels to RES, administrative measures (low carbon development strategy, environmental tax reform, and decoupling income from energy sales). By urgent application of these measures, Croatia could become fossil fuels free until the year 2050.(author)

  19. Integrated energy systems and local energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Henrik; Muenster, Ebbe

    2006-01-01

    Significant benefits are connected with an increase in the flexibility of the Danish energy system. On the one hand, it is possible to benefit from trading electricity with neighbouring countries, and on the other, Denmark will be able to make better use of wind power and other types of renewable energy in the future. This paper presents the analysis of different ways of increasing flexibility in the Danish energy system by the use of local regulation mechanisms. This strategy is compared with the opposite extreme, i.e. trying to solve all balancing problems via electricity trade on the international market. The conclusion is that it is feasible for the Danish society to include the CHP plants in the balancing of fluctuating wind power. There are major advantages in equipping small CHP plants as well as the large CHP plants with heat pumps. By doing so, it will be possible to increase the share of wind power from the present 20 to 40% without causing significant problems of imbalance between electricity consumption and production. Investment in increased flexibility is in itself profitable. Furthermore, the feasibility of wind power is improved

  20. Energy efficiency of uninterruptible power supply systems (UPS); Projekt Energieeffizienz von USV-Anlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnyder, G.; Mauchle, P.

    2005-03-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises and presents nine individual reports and documents concerning the topic of uninterruptible power supplies. The documents compiled for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy in earlier projects concerning the quality and energy efficiency of uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems dating from 1998 to 2000 have been revised and expanded in collaboration with a UPS Systems 'Trendwatch' group. The central documents such as 'Optimised use of UPS systems', 'Measurement procedures for UPS systems', 'Label for UPS systems' and 'Quality/Energy matrix' have been translated into English. These documents form the basis for the international distribution of the studies and findings relating to the quality and energy efficiency of UPS systems. These results are to be distributed by both European as well as American commissions. A label and codes of conduct are being developed. The nine individual reports are summarised in separate abstracts also recorded in the ETDEWEB database.

  1. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J.-M.

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  2. Decarbonizing the global energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruebler, A.; Nakicenovic, N. [International Inst. for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1996-09-01

    The study analyzes the long-term decarbonization of the global energy system, i.e., the decrease of the carbon emissions per unit of primary energy. Decarbonization appears as a continuous and persistent trend throughout the world, albeit occurring at very slow rates of approximately 0.3% per year. The study also discusses driving forces of the associated structural changes in energy systems such as technological change. Decarbonization also occurs at the level of energy end use and trends for final energy are shown. The quest for higher flexibility, convenience, and cleanliness of energy services demanded by consumers leads to decarbonization trends in final energy that are more pronounced than that of the upstream energy sector. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications for long-term scenarios of energy-environment interactions suggesting that decarbonization and its driving forces may still be insufficiently captured by most models and scenarios of the long-term evolution of the energy system. 32 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Swiss State Secretary visits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    The new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research recently visited CERN. Peter Jenni, the spokesperson for ATLAS, gave Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, the new Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, a tour of ATLAS and the LHC tunnel.On 2 April, the newly appointed Swiss State Secretary for Education and Research, Mauro Dell’Ambrogio, was welcomed to CERN by Director-General Robert Aymar. On arrival the Swiss minister was given a guided tour of ATLAS and the adjoining LHC tunnel by Peter Jenni, the ATLAS spokesperson. Dr Dell’Ambrogio was then greeted by Swiss scientists and attended presentations by young post doc physicists about Swiss contributions to CMS and LHCb, in particular their work concerning hardware contribution and data analysis. There are 120 physicists from Swiss universities working on CERN’s experiments, and many more Swiss people working at CERN in other departments due to Switzerland’s special position as a host state. Also before ...

  4. Principles of sustainable energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kreith, Frank

    2013-01-01

    … ""This is an ideal book for seniors and graduate students interested in learning about the sustainable energy field and its penetration. The authors provide very strong discussion on cost-benefit analysis and ROI calculations for various alternate energy systems in current use. This is a descriptive book with detailed case-based analyses of various systems and engineering applications. The text book provides real-world case studies and related problems pertaining to sustainable energy systems.""--Dr. Kuruvilla John, University of North Texas""The new edition of ""Principles of Sustainable En

  5. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  6. Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouro, Samir; Wu, Bin; Abu-Rub, Haitham

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents a comprehensive overview of grid-connected PV systems, including power curves, grid-connected configurations, different converter topologies (both single- and three-phase), control schemes, MPPT, and anti-islanding detection methods. The focus of the chapter has been on the ...

  7. How rich is the 2000 Watt society? Impact of energy conservation policy measures on innovation, investment and long-term development of the Swiss economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschger, L.; Ramer, R.; Schwark, F.

    2010-01-01

    The project has integrated endogenous growth theory into a multi-sector numerical model to evaluate the long-run effects of energy and climate policies in Switzerland. The continuous and sector-specific growth, has provided a successful foundation for predicting the development of the Swiss economy over the long and very long run. We have studied the effects of various measures aiming at realizing the goals of the 2000 Watt society and the carbon reduction commitments of the Copenhagen Accord. We find that these policies cause moderate but not negligible welfare costs, provided that we take development without consideration of climate change as a reference case. However, the reference case with considerable economic costs of undamped climate change is more likely. Compared to such a development, the costs of energy and carbon policies appear to be lower, even when the adopted measures are strict. However, to avoid the costs of climate change, international coordination of climate policies is needed. Specifically, we have to assume that the world as a whole will act according to the Copenhagen Accord; only this will lead to the desired effect on global emissions. Sectoral differences in the simulated growth rates are significant; they reflect energy intensities, sectoral linkages, and distinct specialization in capital goods. Under the considered conditions, all the sectors (except oil) will be able to grow in the future, though not with uniform, but rather sector-specific rates. The targets of the 2000 Watt society for 2035 entail somewhat lower welfare losses than the Copenhagen policy for 2050, because the required CO 2 reductions are larger in the second case. The distribution of tax revenues has an impact on consumption and welfare, which depends on the considered time horizon: in the shorter run, research subsidies cannot develop their full advantages for the economy, while in the long run, these subsidies are superior to the redistribution of revenues to

  8. The baltic states' energy system

    OpenAIRE

    Nikitaravičius, Martynas

    2006-01-01

    THE BALTIC STATES’ ENERGY SYSTEM SUMMARY The goal of paper – the comparative analysis of Baltic states‘ (i.e. of Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia) energy systems in 1990-2004. The main causes that affected the development of Baltic states’ energetics are indicated in this work. By the method of statistical analysis, the comparative advantages of Baltic states‘ energetics are detected. Moreover, the main trends of further development of integration of Baltic states ‘ energetics into the energetics o...

  9. Energy Monitoring System Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novan Zulkarnain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Government through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM encourages the energy savings at whole buildings in Indonesia. Energy Monitoring System (EMS is a web-based solution to monitor energy usage in a building. The research methods used are the analysis, prototype design and testing. EMSconsists of hardware which consists of electrical sensors, temperature-humidity sensor, and a computer. Data on EMS are designed using Modbus protocol, stored in MySQL database application, and displayed on charts through Dashboard on LED TV using PHP programming.

  10. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  11. Innovative nuclear energy systems roadmap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    Developing nuclear energy that is sustainable, safe, has little waste by-product, and cannot be proliferated is an extremely vital and pressing issue. To resolve the four issues through free thinking and overall vision, research activities of 'innovative nuclear energy systems' and 'innovative separation and transmutation' started as a unique 21st Century COE Program for nuclear energy called the Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems for Sustainable Development of the World, COE-INES. 'Innovative nuclear energy systems' include research on CANDLE burn-up reactors, lead-cooled fast reactors and using nuclear energy in heat energy. 'Innovative separation and transmutation' include research on using chemical microchips to efficiently separate TRU waste to MA, burning or destroying waste products, or transmuting plutonium and other nuclear materials. Research on 'nuclear technology and society' and 'education' was also added in order for nuclear energy to be accepted into society. COE-INES was a five-year program ending in 2007. But some activities should be continued and this roadmap detailed them as a rough guide focusing inventions and discoveries. This technology roadmap was created for social acceptance and should be flexible to respond to changing times and conditions. (T. Tanaka)

  12. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  13. Energy optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; de Bedout, Juan Manuel; Kern, John Michael; Biyik, Emrah; Chandra, Ramu Sharat

    2013-01-22

    A system for optimizing customer utility usage in a utility network of customer sites, each having one or more utility devices, where customer site is communicated between each of the customer sites and an optimization server having software for optimizing customer utility usage over one or more networks, including private and public networks. A customer site model for each of the customer sites is generated based upon the customer site information, and the customer utility usage is optimized based upon the customer site information and the customer site model. The optimization server can be hosted by an external source or within the customer site. In addition, the optimization processing can be partitioned between the customer site and an external source.

  14. Pollution-free energy supply system. Mukogai energy kyokyu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, H.; Tsukamoto, M.; Hayashibara, M. (Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-08-19

    This invention aims to solve the problems of stable supply of natural energy and the construction cost, enhancing the power output per unit area, producing a hydrogen gas which is free from pollution, thus stably supplying power and hydrogen fuel. In this invention, integration is made of the systems such as a light/heat collection system wherein the solar light is collected and converted into heat, a thermal power generating system which converts the heat into electricity, a wind power generating system wherein a wind receiving blade is rotated by the wind power and the rotation force is converted into electricity and a wave power generating system which converts the tidal force into electricity and a current power generating system. By this arrangement, the take out of electric energy per unit area was increased. In addition, hydrogen is produced by an electrolysis of water by utilizing this electric power. 3 figs.

  15. Control of Solar Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Camacho, Eduardo F; Rubio, Francisco R; Martínez, Diego

    2012-01-01

    Control of Solar Energy Systems details the main solar energy systems, problems involved with their control, and how control systems can help in increasing their efficiency.  After a brief introduction to the fundamental concepts associated with the use of solar energy in both photovoltaic and thermal plants, specific issues related to control of solar systems are embarked upon. Thermal energy systems are then explored in depth, as well as  other solar energy applications such as solar furnaces and solar refrigeration systems. Problems of variable generation profile and of the contribution of many solar plants to the same grid system are considered with the necessary integrated and supervisory control solutions being discussed. The text includes material on: ·         A comparison of basic and advanced control methods for parabolic troughs from PID to nonlinear model-based control; ·         solar towers and solar tracking; ·         heliostat calibration, characterization and off...

  16. Integrated roof wind energy system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonen S.P.G.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wind is an attractive renewable source of energy. Recent innovations in research and design have reduced to a few alternatives with limited impact on residential construction. Cost effective solutions have been found at larger scale, but storage and delivery of energy to the actual location it is used, remain a critical issue. The Integrated Roof Wind Energy System is designed to overcome the current issues of urban and larger scale renewable energy system. The system is built up by an axial array of skewed shaped funnels that make use of the Venturi Effect to accelerate the wind flow. This inventive use of shape and geometry leads to a converging air capturing inlet to create high wind mass flow and velocity toward a vertical-axis wind turbine in the top of the roof for generation of a relatively high amount of energy. The methods used in this overview of studies include an array of tools from analytical modelling, PIV wind tunnel testing, and CFD simulation studies. The results define the main design parameters for an efficient system, and show the potential for the generation of high amounts of renewable energy with a novel and effective system suited for the built environment.

  17. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Cogent Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdahl, Sonja E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-09

    NREL is collaborating with Cogent Energy Systems (Cogent) to introduce small-scale waste-to-energy technology in microgrids.The focus of the project is to test and demonstrate the feasibility, reliability, and usefulness of integrating electricity generated using a simulated syngas composition matching the syngas stream to be produced by a HelioStorm-based WTE gasifier to power a microgrid as a means of addressing and complementing the intermittency of other sources of electricity.

  18. Efficient use of unutilized energy and holonic energy system. Miriyo energy katsuyo to energy yuzu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, M. (Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-10

    In the present report, opinion is given about the activation of unutilized energy and circulative use of energy. The fuel imported to Japan is utilized by 35% and its balance of 65% is used to go for nothing. An estimation example of unutilized energy in Tokyo Metropolis indicates that, generally high on the exhaust heat, the denpendency is 34.5 and 31.4% on the refuse treatment plants and sewage treatment plants, respectively. The exhaust heat from the refuse treatment plants must be activated under a repowering system to heighten both the output power and efficiency, for which system the existing steam turbine is to be installed commonly with a gas turbine to structure a combined cycle. Then, needed are the circulative use and industrial purpose repowering of energy among different categories of both public and private industries. From the viewpoint of cogeneration system to require the supply and demand to be balanced, it is advisable to circulatively use and repower the energy among and by many producers of unutilized energy. Cooperation is needed of syndical and other organizations. A further need in of large capacity thermal source heat pump, and which is to utilize a low temperature however comparatively large capacity thermal source generated in the sewage treastment and other plants. The engine-driven heat pump is prior to the electrically driven one. 2 figs.

  19. Approaches to Energy System Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Jakobsen, Arne

    2002-01-01

    Considerations on selecting the appropriate modeling level when modeling energy systems are presented in this paper. A general three-level model leveling consisting of: "Overall efficiency", "Process" and "System" is suggested. As thermodynamic cycle models are central for modeling of the process...... of many energy systems, identification of so-called cycle specification variables, their physical meaning and their numerical implications are discussed specifically. The example chosen is a Rankine power or cooling cycle. Similarities between modeling of power cycles and cooling cycles are finally summed...... up....

  20. World energy data system (WENDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lareau, W.E.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents a unique application of System 2000: the storage of preformatted textual information in a completely user oriented data base. The World Energy Data System is an information system which allows qualified users online access to non-classified management level data on worldwide energy technology and research and development activities. WENDS has been used to transmit up-to-date informaion on foreign energy technology and research and development programs to DOE program divisions, the Congress, and other U.S. government officials going abroad. The WENDS concept is first described. Then, the method of storage of the textual information is discussed followed by a discussion of the retrieval system which is thoroughly designed to serve the user

  1. Introduction to Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter, the state-of-the-arts developments of renewable energy are reviewed in respect to the installed power and market share, where wind power and photovoltaic power generation are the main focuses due to the fast growing speed and large share of installed capacity. Some basic principles...... of operation, mission profiles, as well as power electronics solutions and corresponding controls are discussed respectively in the case of wind power and photovoltaic power systems. Finally a few development trends for renewable energy conversions are also given from a power electronics point of view....... It is concluded that as the quick development of renewable energy, wind power and PV power both show great potential to be largely integrated into the power grid. Power electronics is playing essential role in both of the systems to achieve more controllable, efficient, and reliable energy production...

  2. Adhoco - a remote-control system that permits the reduction of energy consumption in housing; Adhoco - Systeme de domotique sans-fil autoadaptif permettant une reduction importante de la consommation energetique dans les habitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemin, A.; Schumann, T.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a pilot project which tested an automatic control system for houses and apartments which was to make large energy savings possible by the use of an adaptive system. This system was installed in two apartments. The resulting savings of approximately 25% for heating energy and between 30% and 60% for artificial lighting are discussed. These figures are reported to be close to those obtained in a recent reference implementation (conducted in 2003 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne) which looked at the situation in offices. The electrical consumption necessary for the operation of the system is looked at and compared with amount of energy saved. Further advantages of the system, including increased comfort and safety, support for elderly people, and the provision of remote control functions, are examined and commented on.

  3. Energy efficient distributed computing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Young-Choon

    2012-01-01

    The energy consumption issue in distributed computing systems raises various monetary, environmental and system performance concerns. Electricity consumption in the US doubled from 2000 to 2005.  From a financial and environmental standpoint, reducing the consumption of electricity is important, yet these reforms must not lead to performance degradation of the computing systems.  These contradicting constraints create a suite of complex problems that need to be resolved in order to lead to 'greener' distributed computing systems.  This book brings together a group of outsta

  4. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atcitty, Stanley [Albuquerque, NM; Clark, Nancy H [Corrales, NM; Boyes, John D [Albuquerque, NM; Ranade, Satishkumar J [Las Cruces, NM

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  5. Photovoltaic power systems energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldini, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    Basically, the solar photovoltaic power system consists of: Array of solar panels; Charge/voltage stabilizer; Blocking diode and Storage device. The storage device is a very important part of the system due to the necessity to harmonize the inevitable time shift between energy supply and demand. As energy storage, different devices can be utilized, such as hydropumping, air or other gas compression, flywheel, superconducting magnet, hydrogen generation and so on, but actually secondary (rechargeable) electrochemical cells appear to be the best storage device, due to the direct use for recharge of the d.c. current provided by the solar panels, without any intermediate step of energy transformation and its consequent loss of efficiency

  6. HYDROKINETIC ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS: PROSPECTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    hydro-to-electric power system, which is being strongly recognized as a unique and unconventional renewable ... energy from the velocity of flowing water to drive a generator. It can also be defined it as low pressure ... technology for the generation of electric power for rural/off grid areas and for augmenting the production of ...

  7. Prospects of fusion energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohzaki, Yasuji; Seki, Yasushi; Motojima, Osamu

    1993-01-01

    Nuclear fusion energy that collects large expectation as the energy system of 21st century adopts the tokamak with DT fuel as the main line to advance the research and development, and succeeded in the confinement of plasma that nearly satisfies the condition of zero power output. However, as for nuclear fusion energy, other various generation and utilization forms are conceivable. At present, there are many subjects before the practical use, but as to nuclear fusion energy system which is considered to contribute greatly to mankind when it will be practically used in future, it is significant to clarify the present state of the research and the subjects of the research for the realization. Tokamak type fusion reactor, helical type fusion reactor, D-He-3 FRC fusion reactor, inertial fusion reactor,fusion-fission hybrid reactor, nuclear fusion rocket, muon catalytic nuclear fusion, normal temperature nuclear fusion and so on are described. As the final summary, on the basis of the concepts of individual nuclear fusion reactors, what possibility nuclear fusion energy has as a whole is considered, and the way of advancing the development hereafter is summarized. (K.I.)

  8. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-01-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented

  9. SwissFEL - Conceptual design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganter, R.

    2010-07-01

    This report issued by the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland takes a look at the design concepts behind the institute's SwissFEL X-ray Laser facility. The goal of SwissFEL is to provide a source of extremely bright and short X-ray pulses enabling scientific discoveries in a wide range of disciplines to be made, from fundamental research through to applied science. The eminent scientific need for such an X-ray source which is well documented in the SwissFEL Science Case Report is noted. The technical design of SwissFEL has to keep a delicate balance between the demand by experimentalists for breathtaking performance in terms of photon beam properties on the one hand, and essential requirements for a user facility, such as confidence in technical feasibility, reliable and stable functioning and economy of installation and operation on the other hand. The baseline design which has been defined is discussed. This relies entirely on state-of-the-art technologies without fundamental feasibility issues. This SwissFEL Conceptual Design Report describes the technical concepts and parameters used for this baseline design. The report discusses the design strategy, the choice of parameters and the simulation of the accelerator unit and undulator. The photon beam layout is discussed, as is the installation's tera hertz pump source. The components of the facility, including the laser and radio-frequency systems, timing and synchronisation systems, magnets, undulators, and mechanical support systems are discussed. Further, the concepts behind electron beam diagnostics, vacuum equipment as well as control and feedback systems are discussed. The building layout is described and safety issues are discussed. An appendix completes the report

  10. Energy Systems and Population Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy

  11. Effects of a mobility monitoring system on the cost of care in relation to reimbursement at Swiss nursing homes: learnings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Mario; Tietz, Rigo; Gattinger, Heidrun; Hantikainen, Virpi; Ott, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    Nursing homes in Switzerland are under pressure to efficiently coordinate staff activities to cover their personnel costs under the care financing system. In this study, the use of a mobility monitoring system accompanied with case conferences was investigated in order to improve sleep quality and estimate the cost benefit of this intervention. In an open two-phase randomized controlled trial at three nursing homes, residents with cognitive impairment were randomly assigned to an intervention group and a control group. In the intervention group, a 10-week period of intensive use of the monitoring system and case conferences led by an advanced nurse practitioner (Phase I) was followed by 3 months of reduced use of the monitoring system and case conferences led by an internal registered nurse (Phase II). In the control group, the monitoring system was only used for data acquisition. Nurses reported the activities with a specifically developed tool. Based on the recorded activities, the cost of care was calculated. The correlating reimbursement per patient was calculated from the care levels in the Swiss reimbursement system. Data from 44 residents was included in the analysis with a linear mixed model. Although analysis revealed no statistically significant effects, results indicate that the use of a monitoring system can guide nurses in organizing their tasks to increase effectiveness. Information systems such as the mobility monitor can help to identify single outliers that do not correspond with the overall situation. In the health care system, problematic individual cases can account for a disproportionally high cost levels. It was shown that information systems can have a significant economic impact in the long run. The study is registered at the German Clinical Trials Register under the Nr. DRKS00006829 .

  12. First Swiss bachelor in Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leutenegger, Tobias; Studer, Bruno

    2015-10-01

    Swissmem, the Swiss association of mechanical and electrical engineering industries, founded a new photonics group in 2013. This reflects the importance of this key technology for Switzerland. Swissmem requested from the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences to introduce a new bachelor program to fulfill the increasing demand of the Swiss industry of young academics in the field of photonics. Optech Consulting is investigating the Swiss photonics market since many years on behalf of Swissphotonics, the Swiss national thematic network for photonics. The study concluded that the total production volume of the Swiss photonics industry in the year 2013 was 3 billion Swiss francs and a slight growth is expected for 2014. The University of Applied Science HTW Chur is located in the Eastern part of Switzerland. This area of the Rhine valley is a technology cluster of innovative companies in the field of optics and electronics. The industry is growing and the R&D departments of the worldwide active companies are lacking well-educated photonics engineers. The HTW Chur is dedicated to establish the first Swiss bachelor in Photonics. Supported by strong industrial players and an excellent network, the HTW Chur developed different job descriptions and a complete curriculum, which reflect the needs of the Swiss photonics industry. Almost 60% of the ECTS of this national degree program are assigned to photonics specific courses and the practical projects are organized in close collaboration with the photonics industry. Curriculum, job descriptions and the industrial needs will be discussed in detail in this paper.

  13. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change.

  14. Energy storage system using superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chan Joong; Kim, Ki Baek; Park, Hae Woong; Hong, Kye Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-03-01

    As a result of continuous efforts, high critical current density exceeding 104 A/cm{sup 2} at 77K and strong levitation capacity has been achieved in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductor which is fabricated by melting technique. Various applications using the levitation properties of high-Tc superconductor is expected to come true in near future. Especially, by utilizing the levitation force between a permanent magnet and the superconductor, a flywheel system which store electrical energy as mechanical energy can be designed. (Author) 11 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Swiss cheese and a cheesy CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkenburg, Wessel

    2009-01-01

    It has been argued that the Swiss-Cheese cosmology can mimic Dark Energy, when it comes to the observed luminosity distance-redshift relation. Besides the fact that this effect tends to disappear on average over random directions, we show in this work that based on the Rees-Sciama effect on the cosmic microwave background (CMB), the Swiss-Cheese model can be ruled out if all holes have a radius larger than about 35 Mpc. We also show that for smaller holes, the CMB is not observably affected, and that the small holes can still mimic Dark Energy, albeit in special directions, as opposed to previous conclusions in the literature. However, in this limit, the probability of looking in a special direction where the luminosity of supernovae is sufficiently supressed becomes very small, at least in the case of a lattice of spherical holes considered in this paper

  16. SIA model for buildings: energy-efficiency path for commercial and residential buildings. Preliminary study on the Swiss model for buildings - Basics for the revision of the 'SIA energy-efficiency path' - Final report; Gebaeudeparkmodell 'SIA Effizienzpfad Energie', Dienstleistungs- und Wohngebaeude. Vorstudie zum Gebaeudeparkmodell Schweiz - Grundlagen zur Ueberarbeitung des SIA Effizienzpfades Energie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeren, N.; Gabathuler, M.; Wallbaum, H. [Institut fuer Bauplanung und Baubetrieb, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETHZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Martius, M.; Gross, N. [TEP Energy GmbH, Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project was to provide a basis for the revision of the so-called 'Efficiency Path' of the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects (SIA) in the context of the goals of the 2000-Watt-Society. Particularly, the objective is to find the conditions in which the specific goals of the 2000-Watt-Society for residential, school and office buildings could be reached. Considered indicators are the per capita primary energy use in terms of average power and the greenhouse gas emissions. A bottom-up model was developed to estimate final and primary energy demand of the mentioned building types, broken down by different types of energy utilisation. Assumptions were made regarding the most important physical drivers as well as for regarding energy efficiency parameters of new buildings, building retrofits, building technologies and other energy applications in the residential, school and office buildings. Two basic scenarios were developed: an ambitious efficiency scenario was compared to a reference scenario which included current and foreseeable energy policy elements. Regarding electricity supply three scenario-variants of the so-called Swiss Energy Perspectives of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) were used: variant I b 'business-as-usual - nuclear and central fossil plants', IV a: Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - nuclear' and, IV e 'Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - renewable energies'. With this respect it was found that in the case of the efficiency scenario the influence of the electricity generation mix is relatively small. This finding is explained by the fact that hydro power (which is held more or less at the current level) has a large share in the power supply mix in the case of the efficiency scenario with moderate electricity demand and that hydro power is efficient in terms of primary energy and has considerably low greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the study show that with the underlying

  17. Agent based energy management systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolter, Martin

    2012-07-01

    In liberalized, regulated energy markets, the different participants - namely producers and consumers of energy, transmission and distribution system operators as well as regulatory authorities - have partly divergent and partly convergent interests. Loads, power plants and grid operators try to maximize their own benefit in this highly complex environment accepting to act detrimentally to others. Although the relationship between the participants is mostly competitive, there are some fundamental shared interests, e.g. voltage stability, a constant system frequency or efficient energy production, transmission and distribution, which are endangered e.g. by increased injection of volatile sources in low and medium voltage grids, displacement of stabilizing bulk generation and the slowly progressing extension of the electric grid. There is a global consensus, that the resulting challenges can efficiently be faced using information and communication technologies to coordinate grid utilization and operation. The basic idea is to benefit from unused reserves by participating in deployment of system services e.g. reactive power supply to keep the voltage within certain bounds. The coordination can best be done by the grid operator. All activities of that kind are summarized under the umbrella term ''Smart Grid''. To simultaneously model the behavior and interests of different types of market participants and their convergent and divergent interests, multi-agent systems are used. They offer a perfectly fitting framework for this sort of game theory and can easily be adapted to all kinds of new challenges of electricity markets. In this work, multi-agent systems are used to either cooperatively or competitively solve problems in distribution and transmission systems. Therefore, conventional algorithms have to be modified to converge into multiple local optima using only small pieces of the entire system information. It is clearly stated, that personal

  18. Operation analysis of integrated energy supply systems with energy hubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Андрійович Веремійчук

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the operation properties of integrated intelligent energy supply systems that provide integration of self-organizing systems of electricity and heat consumption is conducted. Possibility of using energy hub models that combine disparate generate sources of heat and electricity energy for the consumers’ demand for energy is considered. The feasibility estimation of implementing energy hubs in terms of interaction of local energy systems in Ukraine at different levels of the organizational structure of the energetics in the energy market liberalization is made

  19. Hydrogen energy systems technology study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    The paper discusses the objectives of a hydrogen energy systems technology study directed toward determining future demand for hydrogen based on current trends and anticipated new uses and identifying the critical research and technology advancements required to meet this need with allowance for raw material limitations, economics, and environmental effects. Attention is focused on historic production and use of hydrogen, scenarios used as a basis for projections, projections of energy sources and uses, supply options, and technology requirements and needs. The study found more than a billion dollar annual usage of hydrogen, dominated by chemical-industry needs, supplied mostly from natural gas and petroleum feedstocks. Evaluation of the progress in developing nuclear fusion and solar energy sources relative to hydrogen production will be necessary to direct the pace and character of research and technology work in the advanced water-splitting areas.

  20. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  1. Two sustainable energy system analysis models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Goran Krajacic, Neven Duic; da Graca Carvalho, Maria

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy.......This paper presents a comparative study of two energy system analysis models both designed with the purpose of analysing electricity systems with a substantial share of fluctuating renewable energy....

  2. Waste-to-Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    simple hydrocarbons that resembles low-grade propane. TGER processes the liquid and food waste into a hydrous ethanol, which is blended with the syngas ...January-April 2009 Engineer 73 By Mrs. Rebecca C. Wingfield Waste -to-Energy Systems One of our newest resources is common, everyday trash. “Basic...petroleum. This idea has the potential to make companies a lot of money if they can solve some of the problems associated with turning waste (trash) into

  3. Energy harvesting solar, wind, and ocean energy conversion systems

    CERN Document Server

    Khaligh, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Also called energy scavenging, energy harvesting captures, stores, and uses ""clean"" energy sources by employing interfaces, storage devices, and other units. Unlike conventional electric power generation systems, renewable energy harvesting does not use fossil fuels and the generation units can be decentralized, thereby significantly reducing transmission and distribution losses. But advanced technical methods must be developed to increase the efficiency of devices in harvesting energy from environmentally friendly, ""green"" resources and converting them into electrical energy.Recognizing t

  4. Energy Systems Group. Annual Progress Report 1984

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohnheit, Poul Erik; Larsen, Hans Hvidtfeldt; Villadsen, B.

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risø National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff...

  5. Energy Systems Group annual progress report 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grohnheit, P.E.; Larsen, H.; Villadsen, B.

    1985-02-01

    The report describes the work of the Energy Systems Group at Risoe National Laboratory during 1984. The activities may be roughly classified as development and use of energy-economy models, energy systems analysis, energy technology assessment and energy planning. The report includes a list of staff members. (author)

  6. A Sustainable Energy System in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems.......This paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems....

  7. Swiss Biomass Programme - Overview report on the 2007 research programme; Programm Biomasse: Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This illustrated report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents an overview of the results obtained in 2007 within the framework of the Swiss Biomass research programme. The potential for biomass use in Switzerland is reviewed and the emphases of the national programme are discussed. The results obtained are noted for the following areas: process optimisation, including - amongst others - particle emissions and control aspects as well as combined wood-pellets and solar heating systems. Projects involving non-wood biomass are reported on, including biomass digesters and various biogas systems. Further reports deal with the analysis and optimisation of material flows, organic pollutants and methane losses. New conversion technologies are reported on. Further reports deal with basic strategies and concepts in the area of biomass usage. National and international co-operation is also discussed. A selection of innovative pilot and demonstration projects is also presented and research and development projects are listed.

  8. The development of the Swiss Adaptation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, R.; Köllner-Heck, P.; Probst, T.

    2010-09-01

    In summer 2009, the Federal Council mandated the Departement of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) to develop a Swiss adaptation strategy. This strategy aims to coordinate the efforts of all federal departments involved in adaptation, and to provide them with the necessary basic information. For the development of the Swiss adaptation strategy the following principles are fundamental. (1.) The strategy aims to achieve the overarching objectives of harnessing the opportunities that climate change presents, minimizing the risks of climate change to people and assets, and to increases the adaptive capacity of all resources. (2) The strategy is based on the most recent scientific knowledge about climate change and climate change impacts. (3.) It is based in on a sound and comprehensive analysis of climate change risks. (4.) It includes strategic goals for the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, i.e., water management, biodiversity management, agriculture, forestry, natural hazard prevention, health care, energy generation, tourism, land use. (5.) It thoroughly analyzes the interfaces between the sectoral strategies in order solve existing conflicts and profit form existing synergies. The Swiss Adaptation Strategy will be completed and submitted to the Federal Council by the End of 2011.

  9. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  10. Energy and environmental evaluation of tri-generation energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chicco, G.; Mancarella, P.

    2008-01-01

    Tri generation facilities manufactured with various technologies represent an important alternative solution for the development more efficient energy systems and low environmental impact. Are described the issues related to modelling and energy and environmental evaluation [it

  11. Battery storage for supplementing renewable energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2009-01-18

    The battery storage for renewable energy systems section of the Renewable Energy Technology Characterizations describes structures and models to support the technical and economic status of emerging renewable energy options for electricity supply.

  12. Analysis of Photovoltaic Concentrating Solar Energy Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Garo Pilawjian

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the photovoltaic concentrating solar energy systems are analyzed. Both the Fresnel lens light refraction and mirror light reflection concentrating optical systems are considered. The main parameters and properties of photovoltaic concentrating solar energy systems are outlined. It is shown that the multi-parameter cost optimization is necessary to conduct to reduce the cost of photovoltaic concentrating solar energy systems.

  13. Engineered Geothermal Systems Energy Return On Energy Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansure, A J

    2012-12-10

    Energy Return On Investment (EROI) is an important figure of merit for assessing the viability of energy alternatives. Too often comparisons of energy systems use efficiency when EROI would be more appropriate. For geothermal electric power generation, EROI is determined by the electricity delivered to the consumer compared to the energy consumed to construct, operate, and decommission the facility. Critical factors in determining the EROI of Engineered Geothermal Systems (EGS) are examined in this work. These include the input energy embodied into the system. Embodied energy includes the energy contained in the materials, as well as, that consumed in each stage of manufacturing from mining the raw materials to assembling the finished system. Also critical are the system boundaries and value of the energy heat is not as valuable as electrical energy. The EROI of an EGS depends upon a number of factors that are currently unknown, for example what will be typical EGS well productivity, as well as, reservoir depth, temperature, and temperature decline rate. Thus the approach developed is to consider these factors as parameters determining EROI as a function of number of wells needed. Since the energy needed to construct a geothermal well is a function of depth, results are provided as a function of well depth. Parametric determination of EGS EROI is calculated using existing information on EGS and US Department of Energy (DOE) targets and is compared to the minimum EROI an energy production system should have to be an asset rather than a liability.

  14. INTELLIGENT LIGHTING SYSTEM WITH ENERGY EFFICIENCY

    OpenAIRE

    Neha Patil*, Prof .A .C .Wani

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes Intelligent Lighting System to reduce energy consumption in lighting system. Now days’ saving energy is the most important issue, so many light control systems have been initiated in current market. But due to some designing limitations and energy inefficiency, the existing light control systems cannot be successfully installed in home and office buildings with energy efficiency and user satisfaction. This system uses motion, light sensors and wireless communication techn...

  15. Bio energy: Bio energy in the Energy System of the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finden, Per; Soerensen, Heidi; Wilhelmsen, Gunnar

    2001-01-01

    This is Chapter 7, the final chapter, of the book ''Bio energy - Environment, technique and market''. Its main sections are: (1) Factors leading to changes in the energy systems, (2) The energy systems of the future, globally, (3) The future energy system in Norway and (4) Norwegian energy policy at the crossroads

  16. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai; Davari, Pooya

    2017-01-01

    energy in different applications. This chapter will give an overview of challenges and possibilities in terms of energy saving and also energy efficient use. This includes a discussion on high efficiency power electronics devices and the systems they are used for energy loss reduction. The key enabling......In the development of the modern society, one of the key factors is to save energy in order to become more independent of other energy resources. Two important approaches can be taken—one is to change behavior and thereby save energy—the second one is to develop new technology which is able to save...... technologies are power electronics, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) as well as systems to carry the electrical energy through power transmission, conversion and distribution. A couple of examples will be given to demonstrate the energy saving possibilities by power electronics systems...

  17. Energy systems Diagnosis in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girod, J.

    1991-01-01

    Energy systems diagnosis is necessary to allow evaluation of energy balance by administration and political authorities of a country. First, the author describes the principle stages of energetic diagnosis. Then this work is divided into three parts: First part: Energy consumption diagnosis in several districts (families, utilities, agriculture, transport, industry) Second part: Energy supplies diagnosis (energy markets). Third part: Interactions between energy consumption and energy supply. 28 figs.; 52 tabs.; 107 refs

  18. Balmorel open source energy system model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiese, Frauke; Bramstoft, Rasmus; Koduvere, Hardi

    2018-01-01

    As the world progresses towards a cleaner energy future with more variable renewable energy sources, energy system models are required to deal with new challenges. This article describes design, development and applications of the open source energy system model Balmorel, which is a result of a l...... transport of local biomass as part of the optimisation and speeding up the model....

  19. Swiss Light Source SLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research.

  20. Swiss Light Source SLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    The Paul Scherrer Institute has begun work on the implementation of the Swiss Synchrotron Light Source (SLS). The construction of this facility, which will have international scope, is intended to provide a national focus for co-operation between various disciplines and for research in material sciences. Although basic research in physics and chemistry, biology, medicine and environmental sciences would seem to be in the foreground, industrial users also have an interest in the SLS. At present, this mainly centres on investigations into the structure of biological and chemical molecules, the use of high-performance methods of analysis, and the manufacture and investigation of microstructures. SLS is planned to be taken into service with an initial experimental installation by the middle of 2001. In this brochure an overview is presented on the main characteristics of the SLS facility and on its significance as a tool for interdisciplinary research

  1. Systems approach in energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutta-Choudhury, K.

    1993-01-01

    Several years ago when the author was working in the chemicals division of a paper company in Instrumentation and Controls, one experience had a lasting impact on his work approach which is systems approach. The maintenance manager told the author that a very important piece of boiler instrument of the power plant had broken down and delivery of the replacement needed to be expedited. The instrument was ordered over the phone in another city. The purchase order was personally delivered at the supplier's office and arrangements were made so the instrument was put on the next flight. A week later the maintenance manager indicated that the particular instrument still had not arrived in the plant and he could not run the power plant. Thus the company incurred substantial losses. Further inquiries showed that the instrument did indeed arrive at the plant stores on time. But, in the absence of any instructions thereon, the instrument was not delivered to the power plant. The sense of urgency was lost in the existing delivery process. In other words, the process or system failed. The whole process from requisitioning to delivery of ordered items was analyzed and corrective procedures were incorporated to prevent future repetitions. This brings up the subject of systems approach in engineering management in general and energy management in particular. This involves defining an objective and designing a system for an effective way of getting there

  2. The plasmacytoid dendritic cell as the Swiss army knife of the immune system: molecular regulation of its multifaceted functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karrich, Julien J.; Jachimowski, Loes C. M.; Uittenbogaart, Christel H.; Blom, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) have been regarded as the "professional type I IFN-producing cells" of the immune system following viral recognition that relies on the expression of TLR7 and TLR9. Furthermore, pDC link the innate and adaptive immune systems via cytokine production and Ag

  3. Federal Tax Incentives for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Katherine H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Settle, Donald E [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Investments in renewable energy are more attractive due to the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. The investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction may apply to energy storage systems such as batteries depending on who owns the battery and how the battery is used. The guidelines in this fact sheet apply to energy storage systems installed at the same time as the renewable energy system.

  4. Swiss pioneers enjoy success - in spite of all prophesies of doom; Allen Unkenrufen zum Trotz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2005-07-01

    This article takes a look at two Swiss companies, both founded in 1991, that were initially laughed at but are now two market leaders in their business segments. They demonstrate that renewable forms of energy are an economic factor that is to be taken seriously. The first company discussed is Sputnik Engineering who build and sell inverters for photovoltaic installations. The success of this Swiss company, especially in Germany, is discussed and the importance of reliable inverter technology for the high availability rates needed by solar installations is discussed. The second company looked at is the Kompogas AG, who manufacture and operate digester systems for green wastes from kitchens and gardens. These fermenters produce biogas which can be fed into the gas mains or used as a fuel for vehicles or combined heat and power units. Market chances at home and abroad are discussed.

  5. Renewable energy delivery systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Howard Andrew

    2013-12-10

    A system, method and/or apparatus for the delivery of energy at a site, at least a portion of the energy being delivered by at least one or more of a plurality of renewable energy technologies, the system and method including calculating the load required by the site for the period; calculating the amount of renewable energy for the period, including obtaining a capacity and a percentage of the period for the renewable energy to be delivered; comparing the total load to the renewable energy available; and, implementing one or both of additional and alternative renewable energy sources for delivery of energy to the site.

  6. An enterprise energy-information system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swords, B.; Coyle, E. [School of Control Systems and Electrical Engineering, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); Norton, B. [President, Dublin Institute of Technology, Aungier St., Dublin 2 (Ireland)

    2008-01-15

    This paper outlines the background, development, and assessment of a prototype enterprise energy information system (EEIS) that supports strategic energy-management by providing comprehensive energy monitoring and targeting, integrating with energy modelling software and enterprise business databases, and supporting measurement and verification (M and V). The EEIS prototype system was developed and assessed in an industrial site and a third-level education institution with colleges throughout Dublin. The industrial site provided the opportunity for the EEIS to meet the requirements of a large energy intensive site, and to integrate with energy modelling software. The higher education establishment accommodated the development of a networked energy-information system. (author)

  7. Career Directions--Renewable Energy Systems Integrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeman, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy systems are beginning to appear everywhere. Solar modules are creating "blue roofs" that convert the energy from the sun into household electricity. Solar thermal systems on roofs can generate hot water. Wind turbines catch breezes to provide even more electricity. Recommendations for saving energy, specifying systems for…

  8. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Zhang, Xiliang

    2011-01-01

    Along with high-speed economic development and increasing energy consumption, the Chinese Government faces a growing pressure to maintain the balance between energy supply and demand. In 2009, China has become both the largest energy consumer and CO 2 emitting country in the world. In this case, the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously. In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy system. The conclusion is that China's domestic renewable energy sources are abundant and show the possibility to cover future energy demand; the methodologies used to analyse a 100% renewable energy system are applicable in China. Therefore, proposing an analysis of a 100% renewable energy system in China is not unreasonable. (author)

  9. Evaluation of two typical distributed energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Miaomiao; Tan, Xiu

    2018-03-01

    According to the two-natural gas distributed energy system driven by gas engine driven and gas turbine, in this paper, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to measure the distributed energy system from the two parties of “quantity” and “quality”. The calculation results show that the internal combustion engine driven distributed energy station has a higher energy efficiency, but the energy efficiency is low; the gas turbine driven distributed energy station energy efficiency is high, but the primary energy utilization rate is relatively low. When configuring the system, we should determine the applicable natural gas distributed energy system technology plan and unit configuration plan according to the actual load factors of the project and the actual factors such as the location, background and environmental requirements of the project. “quality” measure, the utilization of waste heat energy efficiency index is proposed.

  10. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  11. Consumption of green tea epigallocatechin-3-gallate enhances systemic immune response, antioxidative capacity and HPA axis functions in aged male swiss albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rohit; Sharma, Anamika; Kumari, Amita; Kulurkar, Pankaj Markand; Raj, Rajneesh; Gulati, Ashu; Padwad, Yogendra S

    2017-06-01

    The present investigation assessed the potential of green tea phytochemical epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) in alleviating age-associated aberrations in immunity, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and redox homeostasis using 16 months old male Swiss albino mice. Four groups of animals (n = 6 per group) were supplemented with either aqueous EGCG at 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg/animal or vehicle control for 6 weeks. A concurrent analysis of CD4 + and CD8 + lymphocytes in splenocytes, differential leucocyte population, T cell differentiation markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), neutrophil functions, immunoglobulins profile in intestine, circulatory HPA axis hormonal levels as well as inflammatory and oxidative stress in the liver was performed. We observed a remarkable increase in plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) levels of 100 mg EGCG fed animals while eosinophils and monocytes counts in blood increased. EGCG consumption increased the fraction of CD3 + CD8 + cells in splenocytes and CD28 expression on PBMCs. The immunoglobulins profile revealed decreased production of secretory IgA, IgE and IgG1/IgG2a ratio. Liver extracts showed increase in superoxide dismutase activity and total antioxidant capacity while lipid peroxidation along with inflammatory markers (IL-6 and TNF-α) decreased. Our results collectively show that EGCG consumption during aging strengthens systemic immunity by enhancing cellular immune response and simultaneously attenuating antibody response aided by an increase in adrenal DHEA production. Thus, consumption of green tea may be beneficial in alleviating some of the deleterious aspects of aging and immunosenescence in elderly.

  12. The SwissFEL Experimental Laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, Christian; Hauri, Christoph Peter

    2016-09-01

    The hard X-ray laser SwissFEL at the Paul Scherrer Institute is currently being commissioned and will soon become available for users. In the current article the laser facility is presented, an integral part of the user facility, as most time-resolved experiments will require a versatile optical laser infrastructure and precise information about the relative delay between the X-ray and optical pulse. The important key parameters are a high availability and long-term stability while providing advanced laser performance in the wavelength range from ultraviolet to terahertz. The concept of integrating a Ti:sapphire laser amplifier system with subsequent frequency conversion stages and drift compensation into the SwissFEL facility environment for successful 24 h/7 d user operation is described.

  13. Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Alberg Østergaard, Poul

    2015-01-01

    This editorial introduces the seventh volume of the International Journal of Sustainable Energy Planning and Management. The volume presents part of the outcome of the project Energy Systems Modelling Research and Analysis (ENSYMORA) funded by the Danish Innovation Fund. The project carried out...... by 11 university and industry partners has improved the basis for decision-making within energy planning and energy scenario making by providing new and improved tools and methods for energy systems analyses....

  14. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.

    2014-12-01

    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  15. Technological change in Swiss thermal waste treatment: An expert-based socio-technical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spoerri, Andy; Lang, Daniel J.; Staeubli, Beat; Scholz, Roland W.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding technological change provides a crucial basis for governing sustainability transitions. In this paper we present an analysis of technological change using the example of Swiss thermal waste processing. In recent years, increased concerns about the low quality of residues from grate-firing systems led to the examination of alternative technologies. Yet despite clear indications of a potential better performance with respect to residue quality, none of these alternatives has been adopted. Based on a two-stage knowledge integration among 15 leading experts, in a retrospective analysis we identified factors that have significantly affected technological change in Swiss thermal waste processing. These factors were then related to three technological options representing different types of technological change, i.e., from incremental improvements of the existing to the implementation of a new technology. The results indicate that technological change is currently in a technological lock-in and provide detailed insights on the causes. The lock-in results in the step-wise further development of the status quo grate-firing system despite its limitations for improving the residue qualities. Almost all factors (legal, economic, societal, technological) of the existing 'thermal waste management' system have been well adapted to the cost- and energy-efficient grate-firing technology, blocking innovative technologies from entering the Swiss market. In addition, pressures from the context, e.g., societal pressure related to landfill risks, have not been strong enough to promote non-incremental change.

  16. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  17. Incentives for an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss transmission grid. Final version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twomey, P.; Neuhoff, K.; Newbery, D.

    2006-11-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses incentives necessary for the implementation of an adequate, economic and reliable Swiss electricity transmission grid. As Switzerland moves towards a more liberalised and competitive electricity market, an essential task of policy makers will be to ensure that incentives are in place for the construction, maintenance and operation of adequate, economic and reliable transmission infrastructure. As well as continuing to serve the domestic market, the location of Switzerland at the centre of Europe also means that policy should embrace opportunities in servicing the developing European Internal Market by providing transit and other services. Topics discussed include the economic evaluation of transmission investment proposals, regulated transmission investment, investments in transmission lines by power merchants, power auctions and congestion management as well as inter-TSO compensation mechanisms. European regulations and practice are discussed as are access questions and transmission charges. Developments in interconnection management and harmonisation are examined. The particular characteristics of the Swiss energy system, its prices and its legal frameworks are discussed. Cross-border trading and security of supply are also discussed

  18. Models of Energy Saving Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Jørgen Stig

    1999-01-01

    The paper first describes the concepts and methods around energy saving, such as energy chain, energy services, end-use technologies, secondary energy, etc. Next are discussed the problems of defining and adding energy services and hence end-use energy efficiency or intensity. A section is devoted...... to what is termed lifestyle efficiency, including the cultural values and the ability of the economy to provide the services wanted. As explained, integrated resource planning with its optimizing the whole energy chain cannot be combined with sub-optimizing part of it, for instance the supply technology...... only. The need for including also the economic policy in the energy planning is illustrated with what is termed the efficiency pittfall. This points towards difficulties in imaging an integrated resource planning combined with a liberalized market. The three variable parameters, population, energy...

  19. Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Beat; Kittelmann, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Taking up the common challenges in biocatalysis, a group of industrialists decided to react with a bottom-up solution, and created the Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC). The Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium is a pre-competitive working group to better implement and utilize existing know-how and resources in biocatalysis, and to influence and shape the economic and educational political environment. Recent examples of activities are outlined.

  20. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  1. Energy calibration of the photon tagging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Satoru; Niki, Kazuaki; Suzuki, Akira

    1989-07-01

    There is a photon tagging system at the 1.3 GeV Electron Synchrotron (ES), and the system is designed to produce a monochromatic photon beam with an energy resolution of ±5 MeV. To calibrate the energies of tagged photons produced by this system, electron beams of various energies from ES are injected directly into this system. As the result of this calibration, we conclude that the photon tagging system has the performance of designed values. (author)

  2. Studies on energy system for an energy-saving society; Sho energy gata shakai ni okeru energy system kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The system to which new energy technology and energy saving technology were introduced was constructed for case studies of urban areas including core cities and the peripheral areas, and the quantitative analysis was conducted on environmental effects, etc. In the energy supply system model, the following element technologies were all considered: cogeneration system, sewage water heat, river water heat, the photovoltaic power generation, energy storage/heat storage/cold heat storage, adsorption type refrigerator, etc. Also considered were power interchange between clusters, system power buying/power selling, heat interchange or no heat interchange, etc. As a result, it was found that when constructing the energy system which synthetically takes into account thermoelectric ratios, rates of simultaneous loads, ratios of daytime/nighttime in the energy supply and demand in the urban area, the energy saving effect multiplicatively increases, and the energy system using cogeneration and unused energy such as refuse and sewage in the urban area and river water brings an energy saving effect of 32% especially in the concentrated cluster. 83 figs., 45 tabs.

  3. Carbon negative energy systems using biomass and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Masao

    2015-01-01

    To cope with both the global warming issue and sustainable world energy supply issue, a Carbon Negative Energy System is investigated, which accomplishes the carbon dioxide removal and the hydrocarbon fuel supply integrally by the synergistic biomass-nuclear process. A vision for the Carbon Negative Energy System in Year 2065 is presented quantitatively, as follows; Primary Energy: Renewables and nuclear energy (No fossil fuels) 20.8 GtonOE, Electricity: 75% of the primary energy used for electricity generation, Fuel supply: 25% of the primary energy used for biomass-nuclear hydrocarbon fuel production, Carbon dioxide removal: 1.1 ∼ 4.5 GtonC removed from the global carbon cycle. (author)

  4. Energy technology sources, systems and frontier conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Ohta, Tokio

    1994-01-01

    This book provides a concise and technical overview of energy technology: the sources of energy, energy systems and frontier conversion. As well as serving as a basic reference book for professional scientists and students of energy, it is intended for scientists and policy makers in other disciplines (including practising engineers, biologists, physicists, economists and managers in energy related industries) who need an up-to-date and authoritative guide to the field of energy technology.Energy systems and their elemental technologies are introduced and evaluated from the view point

  5. Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, U. M.; Lee, K. B.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources are increased because of the depletion of natural resources and the increasing pollution level from energy production. The wind energy and the solar energy are most widely used among the renewable energy sources. Power electronics is needed in almost all kinds...... of renewable energy system. It controls the renewable source and interfaces with the load effectively, which can be grid-connected or van work in stand-alone mode. In this presentation, overview of wind and photovoltaic energy systems are introduced. Next, the power electronic circuits behind the most common...

  6. Energy management system certification in industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Bojana V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy management system is a set of interrelated or interacting elements aiming to establish an energy policy and energy objectives, including processes and procedures to achieve those objectives. Certification of energy management systems according to standards EN 16001 and new standard ISO 50001 is a way to sustain energy use in an organization. There has been a lot of research about different aspects of energy efficiency and energy management in global industries, but none about the state of certification of energy management systems in global industries. This paper aims to give a comprehensive review of certification of energy management systems in different industries and its subsectors globally. Statistical analysis of available ISO 50001 certification data was used in this research.

  7. Swiss nuclear industry in a mood of awakening - conference report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2006-01-01

    The 'nuclea' meeting of the Swiss Nuclear Forum with the focus on 'The Future of Nuclear Power in the Energy Mix' was held on the premises of the Swiss Leibstadt nuclear power station in late October. The electricity gap is a reality; the underlying facts are known by now, but this does not make them any less threatening and worrying. This is one of the key findings of the meeting. Experience over the past 3 decades has confirmed the close link between the gross domestic product and electricity consumption. Separating economic growth from the electricity requirement had remained wishful thinking. Consequently, the replacement and expansion of existing generating capacities had to take into account that nuclear power, among other things, met the stringent requirements with respect to climate protection and continuity of supply. There was agreement at 'nuclea' about nuclear power remaining an indispensable component in the energy mix for Swiss electricity supply. (orig.)

  8. A sustainable energy-system in Latvia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lotte Holmberg

    2003-01-01

    but a negative trade-balance. With this in mind, it is important that Latvia is able to meet the challenge and use the economic development to develop a sustainable energy-system and a sounder trade-balance. A combination of energy planning, national economy and innovation processes in boiler companies will form......The paper presents some of the problems in the Latvian energy-system, the Latvian economy and how a sustainable restructuring of the energy system with renewable energy, co-generation and the production of energy technology can help solve some of the problems. Latvia has economic growth...

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2015-01-01

    At a global level, it is essential that the world transfers from fossil fuels to renewable energy resources to minimize the implications of climate change, which has been clearly demonstrated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007a). At a national level, for most countries......, the transition to renewable energy will improve energy security of supply, create new jobs, enhance trade, and consequently grow the national economy. However, even with such promising consequences, renewable energy only provided approximately 13% of the world's energy in 2007 (International Energy Agency, 2009a......). Therefore, identifying how to utilize more renewable energy is one of the most pressing challenges facing many countries at present. Owing to the ever-growing complexity of modern energy systems, energy-system-analysis tools are often used to analyze the potential of renewable energy in future energy...

  10. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors A Key to Define, Analyze and Design Energy Systems Beyond Fossil Fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Orecchini, Fabio

    2012-01-01

    What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realisation of a worldwide sustainable ener...

  11. Energy Use in Food System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh, C.; Blonk, H.; Linnemann, A.R.

    2014-01-01

    Nature generates the raw materials for food, fuelled by energy from the sun. However, before food can be consumed, (mineral) energy is required for cultivation, transportation, preparation and conservation purposes. This paper presents and discusses the energy requirements for various categories of

  12. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  13. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems an interdisciplinary perspective on barriers, energy audits, energy management, policies, and programs

    CERN Document Server

    Thollander, Patrik

    2012-01-01

    Industrial energy efficiency is one of the most important means of reducing the threat of increased global warming. Research however states that despite the existence of numerous technical energy efficiency measures, its deployment is hindered by the existence of various barriers to energy efficiency. The complexity of increasing energy efficiency in manufacturing industry calls for an interdisciplinary approach to the issue. Improving energy efficiency in industrial energy systems applies an interdisciplinary perspective in examining energy efficiency in industrial energy systems, and discuss

  14. The intelligent energy system for tomorrow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Morthorst, Poul Erik; Bindslev, Henrik; Sonderberg Petersen, Leif

    2010-09-15

    In a future energy system non-fossil fuels have taken the lead, end-use technologies are highly efficient and closely interlinked to supply through intelligent energy systems. Climate change issues, security of supply and economic development need to be pursued concurrently. This calls for flexible and intelligent energy system infrastructures that effectively accommodate large amounts of fluctuating renewable energy and let the end-user interact with the supply through advanced ICT. The second important characteristic is intelligent integration of the entire transport sector. The third key area is advanced energy storage facilities in the system and the introduction of super-grids.

  15. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  16. Energy analysis of a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Munch; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    From 1995 to 1998, an energy test method for supermarket refrigeration systems was developed in a project financed by the Danish Energy Agency. The purpose of the energy test method is to provide the means for evaluating the energy efficiency of these systems. The test method requires measurements...... of air temperatures and energy consumption to be carried out on the selected supermarket refrigeration system. In addition to the measurements required by the method, more measurements of individual energy consumptions have been carried in the case described in this paper. The purpose of the additional...... systems and therefore the experience with its application is limited. In the future, the energy test method may be used for evaluation of the efficiency of a new system or the improvement in efficiency when optimising an existing system....

  17. Energy Flexibility in the Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Ma, Zheng; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    Energy flexibility can address the challenges of large scale integration of renewable energy resources and thereby increasing imbalance in the power system. Flexible power system can provide reliable supply, low electricity cost and sustainability. Various situations and factors influence...... to provide an overview of the current condition of the Philippines’ power system and discuss the energy flexibility in the Philippines’ power system. A further discussion and recommendation is conducted in the end of the paper....

  18. Environmentally-adapted local energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moe, N.; Oefverholm, E. [NUTEK, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Owe [EKAN Gruppen (Sweden); Froste, H. [Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1997-10-01

    Energy companies, municipalities, property companies, firms of consultants, environmental groups and individuals are examples of players working locally to shape environmentally adapted energy systems. These players have needed information making them better able to make decisions on cost-efficient, environmentally-adapted energy systems. This book answers many of the questions they have put. The volume is mainly based on Swedish handbooks produced by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development, NUTEK, together with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. These handbooks have been used in conjunction with municipal energy planning, local Agenda 21 work, to provide a basis for deciding on concrete local energy systems. The contents in brief: -The book throws new light on the concept of energy efficiency; -A section on the environment compares how air-polluting emissions vary with different methods of energy production; -A section contains more than 40 ideas for measures which can be profitable, reduce energy consumption and the impact on the environment all at the same time; -The book gives concrete examples of new, alternative and environmentally-adapted local energy systems. More efficient use of energy is included as a possible change of energy system; -The greatest emphasis is laid upon alternative energy systems for heating. It may be heating in a house, block of flats, office building or school; -Finally, there are examples of environmentally-adapted local energy planning.

  19. Successful Swiss solar bicycles in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    2000-01-01

    The article takes a look at the Swiss 'Spirit of Bike' team's success in the 'Power Challenge' race across Australia using solar-bicycles based on commercially available models. Apart from the sporting aspects of race, technical details on the cycles and their supply of solar power are given. Also, the history behind the success of the team is presented and the monitoring of man (and woman) and machine during the race is described. The article also discusses the electric bicycles that are commercially available and the potential of these energy-efficient vehicles in Switzerland

  20. Energy Doubler cryoloop temperature monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pucci, G.; Howard, D.

    1981-10-01

    The Cryoloop Temperature Monitor System is a fully electronic system designed to monitor temperature at key points in the Energy Doubler cryoloop system. It is used for cryoloop diagnostics, temperature studies, and cooldown valve control

  1. Future electricity supplies must be secured - Swiss outlook for 2035 / 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This comprehensive article reviews an update made in 2009 by the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises VSE on their paper 'Outlook 2006 on Swiss electricity supply for the period up to 2035 / 2050'. The association is of the opinion that the paper can still form the basis for issue-related public discussion on energy-related questions. The Swiss 'four-pillar' strategy - energy efficiency, renewable energy, large power stations and international energy policy - is noted and supported. The special role played by electricity in the Swiss energy mix is discussed and the issue of security of supply is examined. Possible shortages that could occur in the future are discussed, as is the question of carbon dioxide emissions. Economic viability and power prices are discussed. Energy efficiency and power production options are also examined. Combined heat and power, hydropower and nuclear power are examined and, finally, import and export options reviewed

  2. Potential of renewable energy systems in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2011-01-01

    , the inappropriate energy consumption structure should be changed. As an alternative, a suitable infrastructure for the implementation of renewable energy may serve as a long-term sustainable solution. The perspective of a 100% renewable energy system has been analyzed and discussed in some countries previously....... In this process, assessment of domestic renewable energy sources is the first step. Then appropriate methodologies are needed to perform energy system analyses involving the integration of more sustainable strategies. Denmark may serve as an example of how sustainable strategies can be implemented. The Danish...... system has demonstrated the possibility of converting into a 100% renewable energy system. This paper discusses the perspective of renewable energy in China firstly, and then analyses whether it is suitable to adopt similar methodologies applied in other countries as China approaches a renewable energy...

  3. Monitoring the energy systems of sustainable buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollin, Elmar

    2011-05-01

    The complexity of sustainable energy systems for buildings services calls for more transparency of the processes which provide energy for the buildings heating, cooling and power needs. In the frame of applied scientific research at University of Applied Sciences Offenburg, different systems and even buildings in total have been monitored over years to analyse their performance and to optimize the system installations and operations. New EU regulations like EN 16001 require an effective monitoring and a continuous commissioning of the energy relevant systems to certificate sustainable processes. On the other hand, new operation tools are necessary to handle the volatility of renewable energy sources and the buildings demand. Predictive building automation has shown good results when applied for energy systems with high inertia. Operating large-scale solar thermal systems and sustainable buildings over long-term periods the University of Applied Sciences provided evidence that monitoring is an essential system tool for an energy and cost efficient operation of sustainable buildings.

  4. Biomass energy research program 2008 - 2011; Energieforschungsprogramm Biomasse fuer die Jahre 2008-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermle, S.; Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2008-07-01

    This report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the Swiss research program on energy from biomass for the years 2008 to 2011. The Swiss government's energy research programs are defined every four years in co-operation with the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission. This paper describes the concept for the biomass area. Research into modern technological concepts and ways of transforming biomass into energy are discussed and main areas of research to be addressed are discussed. Three main technological areas are defined: combustion, gasification and anaerobic fermentation. Important themes to be examined include system optimisation and integration, quality assurance and the promotion of new technologies. National and international networking between research and practice is commented on, as are the possibilities for the funding of the work.

  5. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  6. An energy systems engineering approach to the optimal design of energy systems in commercial buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Pei; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.; Li Zheng

    2010-01-01

    Energy consumption in commercial buildings accounts for a significant proportion of worldwide energy consumption. Any increase in the energy efficiency of the energy systems for commercial buildings would lead to significant energy savings and emissions reductions. In this work, we introduce an energy systems engineering framework towards the optimal design of such energy systems with improved energy efficiency and environmental performance. The framework features a superstructure representation of the various energy technology alternatives, a mixed-integer optimization formulation of the energy systems design problem, and a multi-objective design optimization solution strategy, where economic and environmental criteria are simultaneously considered and properly traded off. A case study of a supermarket energy systems design is presented to illustrate the key steps and potential of the proposed energy systems engineering approach.

  7. Energy Invariance in Capillary Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Élfego; Guan, Jian H.; Xu, Ben; McHale, Glen; Wells, Gary G.; Ledesma-Aguilar, Rodrigo

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate the continuous translational invariance of the energy of a capillary surface in contact with reconfigurable solid boundaries. We present a theoretical approach to find the energy-invariant equilibria of spherical capillary surfaces in contact with solid boundaries of arbitrary shape and examine the implications of dynamic frictional forces upon a reconfiguration of the boundaries. Experimentally, we realize our ideas by manipulating the position of a droplet in a wedge geometry using lubricant-impregnated solid surfaces, which eliminate the contact-angle hysteresis and provide a test bed for quantifying dissipative losses out of equilibrium. Our experiments show that dissipative energy losses for an otherwise energy-invariant reconfiguration are relatively small, provided that the actuation time scale is longer than the typical relaxation time scale of the capillary surface. We discuss the wider applicability of our ideas as a pathway for liquid manipulation at no potential energy cost in low-pinning, low-friction situations.

  8. An energy saving system for hospital laundries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katsanis, J.S.; Tsarabaris, P.T.; Polykrati, A.D.; Proios, A.N. [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Athens (Greece). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Koufakis, E.I. [Public Power Corp. S.A., Crete (Greece)

    2009-07-01

    Hospital laundries are one of the largest consumers of water and electrical and thermal energy. This paper examined the energy savings achieved by a system using the hot wastewater from the washing process. Hospital laundries consume thermal energy using steam, which is produced in boilers by burning diesel oil or natural gas. Electrical energy for the mechanical drives, ventilation and also the lighting required in the laundry area are big consumers of energy. The paper presented the proposed system and discussed the parameters of the system and system dimensioning. The paper also provided and discussed an interpretation of steam and energy savings. The proposed system was considered to be economically viable, simple in its construction, installation and operation. From the application of the suggested system, the cost savings resulted in a satisfactory payback period for the capital invested of approximately three to five years. 14 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  10. Energy accounting in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.; Essam, P.; Stocks, K.

    1975-10-01

    Energy analysis is a systematic way of tracing and accounting for the flows of energy through an industrial system and apportioning a quantity of the primary energy input of the goods and services sent out. The application of energy accounting to nuclear power stations and their growth in generating systems is discussed. Misunderstandings arising from discrepancies and weaknesses in some published simple analyses of hypothetical growth situations are outlined. Results of a more complex energy flow analysis are used to demonstrate that current nuclear energy programs are running at an energy profit. Large fossil fuel savings will occur in a real electrical grid system under anticipated nuclear power growth rates. These savings will give a new dimension in planning the use of fossil energy resources which will still be needed for transport and industrial processes, such as steel-making, for some time to come. (author)

  11. Energy accounting in nuclear power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symonds, J.L.; Essam, P.; Stocks, K.

    1976-01-01

    Energy analysis is a systematic way of tracing and accounting for the flows of energy through an industrial system and apportioning a quantity of the primary energy input to each of the goods and services sent out. The application of energy accounting to nuclear power stations and their growth in generating systems is discussed. Misunderstandings arising from discrepancies and weaknesses in some published simple analyses of hypothetical growth situations are outlined. Results of a more complex energy flow analysis are used to demonstrate that current nuclear energy programs are running at an energy profit. Large fossil fuel savings will occur in a real electrical grid system under anticipated nuclear power growth rates. These savings will give a new dimension in planning the use of fossil energy resources which will still be needed for transport and industrial processes, such as steelmaking, for some time to come. (author)

  12. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System (SAMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    types of DER include, but are not limited to, solar photovoltaic ( PV ), energy storage (ES), and combined heat and power (CHP). Solar PV Systems The...Energy Commission CHP Combined Heat and Power CIO Chief Information Officer DCS Distributed Control System DER Distributed Energy Resources...Short circuit 69 • Arc Heat (arc flash) • Power Systems Optimization (optimal power flow) Six scenarios were evaluated against the power analysis

  13. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  14. Mobilisation of the potential for the renewal of energy systems in existing buildings; Mobilisierung der energetischen Erneuerungspotenziale im Wohnbaubestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ott, W.; Baur, M.; Kaufmann, Y. [econcept AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Ott, A. [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the findings of an energy-policy project that looked into the potential for the renewal of energy systems in existing buildings. The report presents an analysis of the situation as far as buildings, their ownership and the development of renovation work is concerned. Also, the results of a survey made under the owners of buildings and managers of real estate with respect to building renovation aspects are presented and discussed. Further, an analysis of problems arising from deficits in the renewal of energy-relevant components is provided and background and motivation for the renewal of buildings are looked at. Also, economic aspects and sustainability issues are considered. A further chapter covers strategies and measures that can be used to mobilise the renewal potential, including legislature and labelling systems.

  15. Evaluation of a novel inhalation exposure system to determine acute respiratory responses to tobacco and polymer pyrolysate mixtures in Swiss-Webster mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werley, Michael S; Lee, K Monica; Lemus, Ranulfo

    2009-07-01

    Modern cigarette production processes are highly automated and yield millions of cigarettes per day. The forming cigarette and its components contact many different materials in the production process, some of which may leave minute residues. The potential for small inclusions of non-cigarette materials such as wood, plastic, cardboard and other materials exists from the bulk handling and processing of tobacco, in spite of vigilant workers and numerous online systems designed to keep the tobacco stream clean. Currently, there are no published methods that describe an approach to evaluate the potential toxicological impact of these non-tobacco residues and inclusions on the biological activity from exposure to the complex mixture of tobacco smoke. There are, however, many methods which describe toxicological evaluation approaches for pure materials, particularly synthetic polymers. We used the Deutsche Institute fur Normung (DIN) 53-436 tube furnace and nose-only exposure chamber in combination to conduct pilot studies in Swiss-Webster mice in order to develop a standardized methodology for the evaluation of sensory irritation and other potentially useful biological endpoints for predicting any potential hazards. Sensory and/or pulmonary irritation was assessed based on respiratory function parameters using the ASTM E981-84 method described by Alarie (1966) in mice, exposed to test atmospheres of 100% tobacco pyrolysate or tobacco/polymer pyrolysate mixtures. Other biological evaluations included respiratory function parameters, clinical signs, body weights, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis, carboxyhemoglobin, blood cyanide concentrations and histopathology of the respiratory tract. These pilot studies have demonstrated that such an approach can detect biological changes resulting from exposure to unique tobacco/polymer pyrolysates. Small differences were detected in the sensory irritation responses (respiratory function), activation state of pulmonary

  16. MIND. Optimization method for industrial energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, Katarina.

    1990-04-01

    It is of great importance to encourage the consciousness of energy demand and energy conservation issues in industrial applications as the potential for savings in many cases is very good. The MIND optimization method is a tool for life cycle cost minimization of a flexible range of industrial energy systems. It can be used in analyses of energy systems in response to changes within the systems, changes of the boundary conditions and synthesis of industrial energy systems. The aim is to find an optimal structure in the energy system where several alternative process routes and kinds of energy are available. Equipment alternatives may concern choices of recondition, exchange, new tehnology, time of investment and size considerations. Energy can be supplied to the industrial energy system as electricity, steam and with various kinds of fuel. Energy and material flows are represented in the optimization as well as non-linearities in energy demand functions and investment cost functions. Boundary conditions and process variations can be represented with a time division where the length of each time step and the number of time steps can be chosen. Two applications are presented to show the flexibility of the MIND method, heat treating processes in the engineering industry and milk processing in a dairy. (36 refs.).

  17. Proceedings of the Alternate Energy Systems Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The Alternative Energy Systems Seminar was held on March 30, 1978, and was sponsored jointly be the Southwest District Office of the U.S. Department of Energy and JPL. The seminar was an experiment in information exchange with the aim of presenting, in a single day, status and prospects for a number of advanced energy systems to a diverse, largely nontechnical audience, and to solicit post-seminar responses from that audience as to the seminar's usefulness. The major systems presented are: (1) Solar Photovoltaic; (2) Geothermal; (3) Cogeneration Power; (4) Solar Thermal; (5) Solar Heating and Cooling; (6) Wind Energy; and (7) Systems Considerations.

  18. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Alberg Østergaard

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change mitigation calls for energy systems minimising end-use demands, optimising the fuel efficiency of conversion systems, increasing the use of renewable energy sources and exploiting synergies wherever possible. In parallel, global fresh water resources are strained due to amongst others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO driven by electricity and Multi Stage Flash (MSF desalination driven by Cogeneration of Heat and Power (CHP. The two systems impact the energy systems in different ways due to the technologies’ particular characteristics. The systems are analyses in the energy systems analysis model EnergyPLAN to determine the impacts on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving cause to Critical Excess Electricity Production (CEEP even at relatively modest wind power penetrations. Here RO assists the energy system in decreasing CEEP – and even more if water storage is applied.

  19. Summary of Operating Experience in Swiss Nuclear Power Plants 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-05-01

    The five Swiss nuclear power units produced a net total of 23.6 TWh of electricity in 1999 - not as high as the all-time record (24.45 TWh in 1998), but nonetheless a solid operational performance. The nuclear share in overall electricity production was 35.3%, again lower than the previous year's 40%. In general, plant operation in 1999 was practically as undisturbed and as reliable as in 1998, reflecting the ongoing tradition of careful maintenance that contributes so much to keeping the plants in excellent condition. However, due to exceptional outage activities at Beznau 2 (steam generator replacement) and an unplanned shut-down at Goesgen to replace a hydrogen seal on the main generator, 1999 nuclear production could not match that of the previous year. Also, record hydro power production caused the nuclear share in total electricity production to drop. With the exception of Beznau 2, all refueling and maintenance outages were once again short. The Leibstadt outage lasted 26 days, Goesgen 33 days, Beznau 1 lasted 29 days, Beznau 2 89 days and Muehleberg 27 days. At Goesgen, MOX fuel was loaded for the third time in 1999. Of the 44 freshly-loaded fuel elements, 20 were MOX elements. Non-electrical energy supplies from the Beznau and Goesgen nuclear power plants functioned flawlessly. Beznau fed 143.6 GWh of heat energy into the Refuna district heating system, while Goesgen supplied 169 GWh of process heat to the neighboring Niedergoesgen cardboard factory. At the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2000 all Swiss nuclear units continued to operate flawlessly - notwithstanding the challenges posed by the 'Lothar' storm that hit Western Europe in late December and the so-called Y2K computer bug that threatened to hit shortly afterwards, during the 'millennial' change-over. (authors)

  20. Defense Utility Energy Reporting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-24

    collectively as "the DoD Components.") The termO "Military Services," as used herein, refers to the Army, the Navy, the Air Force, and the Marine...and evaluation, disposal, incineration and similar activities will be designated industrial process energy activities. b. Facilities used primarily for...administration, housing, education and training, medical, research, staff, and headquarters functions will be designated facility energy activities

  1. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  2. Energy database system of NEDO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Noburu

    1990-01-01

    As to the offer of technical information and others to foreign countries by Japan, the state of more import than export has been criticized internationally. The NEDO energy data base explained in this report is to make the international contribution of information, and based on the Energy Technology Data Exchange Agreement concluded between 13 countries taking part in the IEA and France, the participating countries offer their own technical information on energy, the operating organization collects them and makes the data base, and NEDO systematizes it for distribution. The IEA and the activities of exchanging information, the course of starting the Energy Technology Data Exchange Agreement and its contents, and the works of NEDO based on the Agreement are described. As for the literatures which are not sold on the market, their texts are exchanged. As to the composition of the data base, according to the example in 1988, about 1/3 were directly related to energy, and the rest 2/3 were indirectly related to energy technology. The features of the data base and the method of its utilization are explained. (K.I.)

  3. Programming models for energy-aware systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Haitao

    Energy efficiency is an important goal of modern computing, with direct impact on system operational cost, reliability, usability and environmental sustainability. This dissertation describes the design and implementation of two innovative programming languages for constructing energy-aware systems. First, it introduces ET, a strongly typed programming language to promote and facilitate energy-aware programming, with a novel type system design called Energy Types. Energy Types is built upon a key insight into today's energy-efficient systems and applications: despite the popular perception that energy and power can only be described in joules and watts, real-world energy management is often based on discrete phases and modes, which in turn can be reasoned about by type systems very effectively. A phase characterizes a distinct pattern of program workload, and a mode represents an energy state the program is expected to execute in. Energy Types is designed to reason about energy phases and energy modes, bringing programmers into the optimization of energy management. Second, the dissertation develops Eco, an energy-aware programming language centering around sustainability. A sustainable program built from Eco is able to adaptively adjusts its own behaviors to stay on a given energy budget, avoiding both deficit that would lead to battery drain or CPU overheating, and surplus that could have been used to improve the quality of the program output. Sustainability is viewed as a form of supply and demand matching, and a sustainable program consistently maintains the equilibrium between supply and demand. ET is implemented as a prototyped compiler for smartphone programming on Android, and Eco is implemented as a minimal extension to Java. Programming practices and benchmarking experiments in these two new languages showed that ET can lead to significant energy savings for Android Apps and Eco can efficiently promote battery awareness and temperature awareness in real

  4. Energy Systems Integration: Demonstrating Distributed Resource Communications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Overview fact sheet about the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Schneider Electric Integrated Network Testbed for Energy Grid Research and Technology Experimentation (INTEGRATE) project at the Energy Systems Integration Facility. INTEGRATE is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Grid Modernization Initiative.

  5. Modelling of Integrated Renewable Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akella, A. K.; Saini, R. P.; Sharma, M. P.

    2007-10-01

    Energy is supplied in the form of electricity, heat or fuels and an energy supply system must guarantee sufficient production and distribution of energy. An energy supply system based on renewable energy can be utilized as integrated renewable energy system (IRES), which can satisfy the energy needs of an area in appropriate & sustainable manner. Given the key role of renewable energy in rural electrification of remote rural areas, the IRES for a given area can be modeled & optimized for meeting the energy needs. In the present paper, Jaunpur block of Uttaranchal state of India has been selected as remote area. Based upon the data collected, the resource potential and energy demand has been calculated & presented. The model on the basis of unit cost of the energy has been optimized using LINDO software 6.10 version. The results indicated that the optimized model has been found to the best choice for meeting the energy needs of the area. The results further indicated that for the above area, either an IRES consisting of the above sources can provide a feasible solution in terms of energy fulfillments in the range of EPDF from 1.0 to 0.75.

  6. From sectorial studies towards decision support through integral assessment of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirschberg, S.; Dones, R.

    1999-01-01

    The public, opinion leaders and decision-makers ask for clear answers on issues concerning the energy sector and electricity generation in particular. Is it feasible to phase out nuclear power in countries extensively relying on nuclear electricity supply and simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas emissions? What are the environmental and economic implications of enhanced uses of cogeneration systems, renewable sources and heat pumps? How do the various energy carriers compare with respect to accident risks? How would internalisation of external costs affect the relative competitiveness of the various means of electricity production? What can we expect from the prospective technological advancements during the next two or three decades? Which systems or energy mixes come closest to the ideal of being cheap, environmentally clean, reliable and at the same time exhibit low accident risks? The Swiss GaBE Project on 'Comprehensive Assessment of Energy Systems' provides answers to many issues in the Swiss and international energy arena. A systematic, multi-disciplinary, bottom-up methodology for the assessment of energy systems, has been established and implemented. It covers environmental analysis, risk assessment and economic studies, which are supported by the extensive databases developed in this work. Apart from technical and economic aspects an integrated approach needs to consider also social preferences. The applications of multi-criteria analysis within GaBE demonstrate the use of a framework that allows decision-makers to simultaneously address the often conflicting socio-economic and ecological criteria. Case studies are being conducted in order to evaluate the performance of energy systems with respect to sustainability. Based on these experiences EnergyGame, a tool primarily intended for communication but having a substantial analytical power, has been developed. It offers any interested user to evaluate the various electricity supply options by combining the

  7. Extensions to the energy system GMM model: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S

    2006-09-15

    This report describes recent extensions to the energy-systems GMM (Global Multiregional MARKAL) model undertaken by the Energy Economics Group (EEG) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland (hereon referred to as PSI-EEG) in the context of the SAPIENTIA project sponsored by the European Commission (DG Research) and the Swiss National Centre for Competence in Research on Climate (NCCR-Climate). GMM is a multi-regional 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that endogenizes technology learning. The model has been developed and is used at PSI-EEG. The main extensions undertaken here concern the incorporation of a clusters approach to technology learning, the introduction of an improved representation of the transportation sector with emphasis on the passenger sub-sector and the implementation of marginal abatement curves for CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, two main non-CO{sub 2} greenhouse gases. Also, a linear representation of the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O has been included. Other changes are related to the inclusion of additional technologies for production of synthetic fuels (hydrogen and Fischer- Tropsch liquids) and the inclusion of CO{sub 2} capture in fossil-based and biomass-based hydrogen production. Several of the developments described here follow the work of Turton and Barreto (2004, 2006) for the ERIS model at the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Program of IIASA. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the basic structure of the GMM model, the main assumptions for the scenario developed and the basic approach to endogenize technology learning in the model and examine the effects of R+D and D+D programs. Section 3 discusses the implementation of technology clusters and describes the key components chosen here. Section 4 presents the improvements to the transportation sector with emphasis on the passenger car subsector. Section 5 briefly

  8. Extensions to the energy system GMM model: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreto, L.; Kypreos, S.

    2006-09-01

    This report describes recent extensions to the energy-systems GMM (Global Multiregional MARKAL) model undertaken by the Energy Economics Group (EEG) of the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland (hereon referred to as PSI-EEG) in the context of the SAPIENTIA project sponsored by the European Commission (DG Research) and the Swiss National Centre for Competence in Research on Climate (NCCR-Climate). GMM is a multi-regional 'bottom-up' energy-systems optimization model that endogenizes technology learning. The model has been developed and is used at PSI-EEG. The main extensions undertaken here concern the incorporation of a clusters approach to technology learning, the introduction of an improved representation of the transportation sector with emphasis on the passenger sub-sector and the implementation of marginal abatement curves for CH 4 and N 2 O, two main non-CO 2 greenhouse gases. Also, a linear representation of the atmospheric concentration of CO 2 , CH 4 and N 2 O has been included. Other changes are related to the inclusion of additional technologies for production of synthetic fuels (hydrogen and Fischer- Tropsch liquids) and the inclusion of CO 2 capture in fossil-based and biomass-based hydrogen production. Several of the developments described here follow the work of Turton and Barreto (2004, 2006) for the ERIS model at the Environmentally Compatible Energy Strategies (ECS) Program of IIASA. The remainder of this report is organized as follows. Section 2 describes the basic structure of the GMM model, the main assumptions for the scenario developed and the basic approach to endogenize technology learning in the model and examine the effects of R+D and D+D programs. Section 3 discusses the implementation of technology clusters and describes the key components chosen here. Section 4 presents the improvements to the transportation sector with emphasis on the passenger car subsector. Section 5 briefly describes the new technologies for synthetic fuel

  9. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; S.B. Sitton; S.J. Yoon; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing demand of energy and costs of the fossil fuels, coupled with the environmental concerns have resulted in an increased interest in alternative energy sources. Nuclear hybrid energy systems (NHES) are being considered which incorporates renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy combined with nuclear reactor and energy storage to meet the peak hours demand imposed on the grid, along with providing process heat for other potential industrial applications. This concept could potentially satisfy various energy demands and improve reliability, robustness and resilience for the entire system as a whole, along with economic and net efficiency gains. This paper provides a brief understanding of potential NHES system and architecture along with the challenges

  10. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

      The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet...... the higher level of energy demand....

  11. Microelectronic circuit design for energy harvesting systems

    CERN Document Server

    Di Paolo Emilio, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the design of microelectronic circuits for energy harvesting, broadband energy conversion, new methods and technologies for energy conversion. The author also discusses the design of power management circuits and the implementation of voltage regulators. Coverage includes advanced methods in low and high power electronics, as well as principles of micro-scale design based on piezoelectric, electromagnetic and thermoelectric technologies with control and conditioning circuit design. Provides a single-source reference to energy harvesting and its applications; Serves as a practical guide to microelectronics design for energy harvesting, with application to mobile power supplies; Enables readers to develop energy harvesting systems for wearable/mobile electronics.

  12. Implementation of Renewable Energy Systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I

    1997-01-01

    Denmark has been one of the first countries in the world to commit itself to a sustainable energy development. This has been substantiated by two official action plans from 1990 and 1996 with emphasis on energy efficiency and supply systems based on renewable energy. In year 2005, renewable energy...... sources are planned to cover 12-14% and in year 2030 about 35% of total Danish energy demand. This paper reviews the experiences with implementation of renewable energy in Denmark with a focus on wind power and biomass....

  13. Restructuring the Energy System. Report of the Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The commission was instructed to examine the current energy policy programs for restructuring and developing the energy system (i.e. phasing out nuclear power and moving to renewable sources) and to analyze the needs for changes; to propose measures for ensuring an efficient electricity supply under the new conditions of a liberalized electricity market; and to present proposals for a schedule for reorganizing the energy system. The report gives a full picture of the Swedish energy system including supply, consumption, prices, environmental impacts, R and D, and international aspects. The commission concludes that one nuclear power plant can be closed during the 1990's without upsetting the power balances. Phasing out all nuclear plants by year 2010 will create problems with the price levels of electricity supply, and will conflict with the CO 2 reduction objective. The proposals for economic control measures for performing the restructuring include: An environmental bonus (or investment support) for environmentally sound electricity production financed by an electricity tax, a tax on nuclear power increasing with the age of the reactors, a reorganization fund to finance new and environmentally acceptable electricity production. Also, energy research should be allotted greater resources, in particular for new technology for electricity production. The commission points towards the possibilities for reducing energy consumption, and especially electricity consumption. Space heating should gradually move away from electric heating. Examples are given on measures for improving energy efficiency and problems with financing such measures should be studied

  14. Energy Saving and Efficient Energy Use By Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Wang, Huai; Davari, Pooya

    2017-01-01

    , such as in the applications of adjustable speed drives and solid-state lighting systems. Power electronics gives also a high flexibility when renewable power production is introduced to electrical energy systems. Future research opportunities and challenges will finally be discussed....

  15. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  16. Wind energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the results of a series of telephone interviews with potential users of information on wind energy conversion. These interviews, part of a larger study covering nine different solar technologies, attempted to identify: the type of information each distinctive group of information users needed, and the best way of getting information to that group. Groups studied include: wind energy conversion system researchers; wind energy conversion system manufacturer representatives; wind energy conversion system distributors; wind turbine engineers; utility representatives; educators; county agents and extension service agents; and wind turbine owners.

  17. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  18. ADVANCES IN ZERO ENERGY TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Othman

    2017-01-01

    Hyperloop mass transportation systems are activelydeveloped at the moment. They represent the forefront development of the ZeroEnergy Transportation systems where air drag is minimized by travelling in avacuum and friction is reduced by non-contact bearings. Hyperloop supportersare confident that the cost of their transportation systems would be lowcompared to existing transportation systems because of the low loss andtherefore low energy consumption as well as other cost-saving techniquesdoc...

  19. Expected energy production evaluation for photovoltaic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Peng, Wang

    2011-01-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) system consists of many solar panels, which are connected in series, parallel or a combination of both. Energy production for the PV system with various configurations is different. In this paper, a methodology is developed to evaluate and analyze the expected energy production...

  20. The Island Smart Energy System and Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Zheng; Billanes, Joy Dalmacio; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2017-01-01

    and influential factors impact on the development of the singleisland or multi-island smart energy system are different. This paper presents the influential factors of the island smart energy system development by the literature analysis. Meanwhile, taking Philippines as a case study to investigate...

  1. Secure Automated Microgrid Energy System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) Committee and the team members, Spirae, Conner Networks , OSI Soft, and Viridity Energy. The...Analytics’ Paladin suite. Paladin suite lays the foundation for SAMES and is the source of the real-time dynamic microgrid network model . Paladin...25 7.1 COST MODEL

  2. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  3. Thermal energy systems design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Penoncello, Steven G

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionThermal Energy Systems Design and AnalysisSoftwareThermal Energy System TopicsUnits and Unit SystemsThermophysical PropertiesEngineering DesignEngineering EconomicsIntroductionCommon Engineering Economics NomenclatureEconomic Analysis Tool: The Cash Flow DiagramTime Value of MoneyTime Value of Money ExamplesUsing Software to Calculate Interest FactorsEconomic Decision MakingDepreciation and TaxesProblemsAnalysis of Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionNomenclatureThermophysical Properties of SubstancesSuggested Thermal Energy Systems Analysis ProcedureConserved and Balanced QuantitiesConservation of MassConservation of Energy (The First Law of Thermodynamics)Entropy Balance (The Second Law of Thermodynamics)Exergy Balance: The Combined LawEnergy and Exergy Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesDetailed Analysis of Thermal Energy CyclesProblemsFluid Transport in Thermal Energy SystemsIntroductionPiping and Tubing StandardsFluid Flow FundamentalsValves and FittingsDesign and Analysis of Pipe NetworksEconomi...

  4. Multiobjective optimisation of energy systems and building envelope retrofit in a residential community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Raphael; Mavromatidis, Georgios; Orehounig, Kristina; Carmeliet, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous optimisation of building envelope retrofit and energy systems. • Retrofit and energy systems change interact and should be considered simultaneously. • Case study quantifies cost-GHG emission tradeoffs for different retrofit options. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for a multi-objective and simultaneous optimisation of building energy systems and retrofit is presented. Tailored to be suitable for the diverse range of existing buildings in terms of age, size, and use, it combines dynamic energy demand simulation to explore individual retrofit scenarios with an energy hub optimisation. Implemented as an epsilon-constrained mixed integer linear program (MILP), the optimisation matches envelope retrofit with renewable and high efficiency energy supply technologies such as biomass boilers, heat pumps, photovoltaic and solar thermal panels to minimise life cycle cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its multi-objective, integrated assessment of building transformation options and its ability to capture both individual building characteristics and trends within a neighbourhood, this method is aimed to provide developers, neighbourhood and town policy makers with the necessary information to make adequate decisions. Our method is deployed in a case study of typical residential buildings in the Swiss village of Zernez, simulating energy demands in EnergyPlus and solving the optimisation problem with CPLEX. Although common trade-offs in energy system and retrofit choice can be observed, optimisation results suggest that the diversity in building age and size leads to optimal strategies for retrofitting and building system solutions, which are specific to different categories. With this method, GHG emissions of the entire community can be reduced by up to 76% at a cost increase of 3% compared to the current emission levels, if an optimised solution is selected for each building category.

  5. International Energy Agency Ocean Energy Systems Task 10 Wave Energy Converter Modeling Verification and Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendt, Fabian F.; Yu, Yi-Hsiang; Nielsen, Kim

    2017-01-01

    This is the first joint reference paper for the Ocean Energy Systems (OES) Task 10 Wave Energy Converter modeling verification and validation group. The group is established under the OES Energy Technology Network program under the International Energy Agency. OES was founded in 2001 and Task 10 ...

  6. Environmental assessment of current and future Swiss electricity supply options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Christian; Heck, Thomas; Hirschberg, Stefan; Dones, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Options for near future electricity supply are currently one of the main topics in the Swiss energy policy debate. Contrary to the total energy demand per capita the trend of rising electricity demand per capita is still visible. This paper presents a comparative environmental assessment of a broad portfolio of current and future electricity generation technologies including nuclear, fossil, and renewable power plants with their associated energy chains. The evaluation, based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), is carried out quantifying ten different environmental indicators, grouped in the categories greenhouse gas emissions, consumption of resources, waste, and impact on ecosystems. Hydropower shows minimal environmental impacts for all indicators; for other systems, the picture is diverse. The comparison of non-aggregated indicators allows preliminary conclusions about the environmental performance of the assessed systems. Establishing ranking of technologies calls for aggregating the indicators, which can be done by weighting of the indicators based on individual or stakeholder group preferences, either within a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) framework or with Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) methods. Calculating total costs of electricity by adding external costs due to impacts on human health and ecosystems to the electricity production costs poses another option for ranking of technologies. (authors)

  7. Self-consistent nuclear energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujiie, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of self-consistent energy systems (SCNES) has been proposed as an ultimate goal of the nuclear energy system in the coming centuries. SCNES should realize a stable and unlimited energy supply without endangering the human race and the global environment. It is defined as a system that realizes at least the following four objectives simultaneously: (a) energy generation -attain high efficiency in the utilization of fission energy; (b) fuel production - secure inexhaustible energy source: breeding of fissile material with the breeding ratio greater than one and complete burning of transuranium through recycling; (c) burning of radionuclides - zero release of radionuclides from the system: complete burning of transuranium and elimination of radioactive fission products by neutron capture reactions through recycling; (d) system safety - achieve system safety both for the public and experts: eliminate criticality-related safety issues by using natural laws and simple logic. This paper describes the concept of SCNES and discusses the feasibility of the system. Both ''neutron balance'' and ''energbalance'' of the system are introduced as the necessary conditions to be satisfied at least by SCNES. Evaluations made so far indicate that both the neutron balance and the energy balance can be realized by fast reactors but not by thermal reactors. Concerning the system safety, two safety concepts: ''self controllability'' and ''self-terminability'' are introduced to eliminate the criticality-related safety issues in fast reactors. (author)

  8. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  9. Greener energy systems energy production technologies with minimum environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    Jeffs, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Recent years have seen acceleration in the development of cleaner energy systems. In Europe and North America, many old coal-fired power plants will be shut down in the next few years and will likely be replaced by combined cycle plants with higher-efficiency gas turbines that can start up and load quickly. With the revival of nuclear energy, designers are creating smaller nuclear reactors of a simpler integrated design that could expand the application of clean, emission-free energy to industry. And a number of manufacturers now offer hybrid cars with an electric motor and a gasoline engine t

  10. Energy Management of Smart Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Bananeh

    Electric power distribution systems interface the end-users of electricity with the power grid. Traditional distribution systems are operated in a centralized fashion with the distribution system owner or operator being the only decision maker. The management and control architecture of distribution systems needs to gradually transform to accommodate the emerging smart grid technologies, distributed energy resources, and active electricity end-users or prosumers. The content of this document concerns with developing multi-task multi-objective energy management schemes for: 1) commercial/large residential prosumers, and 2) distribution system operator of a smart distribution system. The first part of this document describes a method of distributed energy management of multiple commercial/ large residential prosumers. These prosumers not only consume electricity, but also generate electricity using their roof-top solar photovoltaics systems. When photovoltaics generation is larger than local consumption, excess electricity will be fed into the distribution system, creating a voltage rise along the feeder. Distribution system operator cannot tolerate a significant voltage rise. ES can help the prosumers manage their electricity exchanges with the distribution system such that minimal voltage fluctuation occurs. The proposed distributed energy management scheme sizes and schedules each prosumer's ES to reduce the electricity bill and mitigate voltage rise along the feeder. The second part of this document focuses on emergency energy management and resilience assessment of a distribution system. The developed emergency energy management system uses available resources and redundancy to restore the distribution system's functionality fully or partially. The success of the restoration maneuver depends on how resilient the distribution system is. Engineering resilience terminology is used to evaluate the resilience of distribution system. The proposed emergency energy

  11. Urban energy systems an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Keirstead, James

    2013-01-01

    Energy demands of cities need to be met more sustainably. This book analyses the technical and social systems that satisfy these needs and asks how methods can be put into practice to achieve this.Drawing on analytical tools and case studies developed at Imperial College London, the book presents state-of-the-art techniques for examining urban energy systems as integrated systems of technologies, resources, and people.Case studies include:a history of the evolution of London's urban energy system, from pre-history to present daya history of the growth of d

  12. Energy consumption in the food supply system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Andreas; Østergård, Hanne; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... that the increasing world population and the increasing demand for resource intensive food and life style will require a strategy for the future food supply system centred on energy reduction.......Historically, productivity gains have been possible by the application of energy intensive technologies. In the future, new technologies and practices based on energy from renewable resources are central for the development of our food supply system and they will contribute in two different ways....... As the energy sector increasingly bases energy supply on renewable sources, the energy requirements of the food sector will automatically substitute renewable energy for non-renewable energy in all stages of food supply. In principle, the food sector does not need to change if renewable energy is sufficient...

  13. CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Renewables in a changing climate - Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems; CISBAT 2005 proceedings. Energies renouvelables et climat - Enveloppes et systemes environnementaux innovatifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scartezzini, J. L. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    These proceedings include the contributions presented at the 2005 CISBAT conference, held in Lausanne, Switzerland. Hosted by the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL) in Lausanne and jointly organised by the Solar Energy and Buildings Physics Laboratory at the EPFL, Cambridge University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), this international conference looked at 'Innovation in building envelopes and environmental systems'. Along with three keynote presentations on climate change, the use of renewables in the European Union and Swiss policies on solar energy, these 632-page conference proceedings include the conference's 106 presentations grouped in 10 sections. These cover the following topics: Design and renovation of building envelopes (33 contributions); solar collectors (16 contributions); active and passive cooling (9 contributions); indoor environment quality and health (10 contributions); optimisation of daylighting and electric lighting (5 contributions); advanced building control systems (2 contributions); environmental impacts of construction (4 contributions); networks and decentralised energy production (1 contribution); sustainable urban development (12 contributions) and software and new information technologies (14 contributions). Organised each second year, the two-day CISBAT international conference 2005 attracted more than 200 participants from all over the world.

  14. Integrated electrofuels and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva

    in energy systems and could play an important role in future energy systems. The cross-sector approach in the fuel production, by redirecting the excess electricity to the transport sector, is creating the flexibility and storage buffer for fluctuating electricity. The key concern in the short term should...... energy into chemical energy by means of electrolysers, thus connecting fluctuating renewable energy to the vast amount of fuel storage already available in today’s energy systems. The conducted research indicates that electrofuels for heavy-duty transportation are technically and economically viable......It is necessary to rethink the production cycle of needed gaseous or liquid hydrocarbons for some modes of transport while at the same time creating flexibility that will enable an extensive penetration of fluctuating sources into the electric grid. The aim of electrofuels, is to convert electrical...

  15. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  16. Carbonless Transportation and Energy Storage in Future Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, G. D.; Lamont, A. D.

    2001-01-01

    Electricity is the highest quality energy carrier, increasingly dominant throughout the world's energy infrastructure. Ultimately electricity use can expand to efficiently meet virtually all stationary energy applications, eliminating stationary end-use carbon emissions. This approach is unlikely to work in transportation, however, due to the high cost and low energy density of electricity storage. Chemical energy carriers, such as hydrogen, can more effectively serve transportation fuel and energy storage applications, offering much higher energy density at lower cost. Electrolytic hydrogen, extracted from steam with renewable energy, stored as a high pressure gas or cryogenic liquid, and reconverted to electricity in fuel cells and or used to power hydrogen vehicles, will reduce emissions from both transportation and electric generation. Renewable resources and modular electrolytic technology also permit decentralized hydrogen production, circumventing distribution issues and barriers to market entry. In contrast, sequestration-based fossil-fueled systems must achieve economies of scale by relying on centralized production and hierarchical transmission and distribution of electricity, hydrogen fuel, and carbon (dioxide).

  17. Swiss President to visit CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Pascal Couchepin, President of the Swiss Confederation, will visit CERN on 4 June to participate in the official inauguration of the underground cavern for the laboratory's ATLAS experiment. As the first new experimental cavern to be handed over to CERN by civil engineering contractors, this represents an important milestone for the Laboratory" (1 page).

  18. Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems -- Energy Storage (SEGIS-ES).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J.; Ton, Dan T. (U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C.); Boyes, John D.; Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the concept for augmenting the SEGIS Program (an industry-led effort to greatly enhance the utility of distributed PV systems) with energy storage in residential and small commercial applications (SEGIS-ES). The goal of SEGIS-ES is to develop electrical energy storage components and systems specifically designed and optimized for grid-tied PV applications. This report describes the scope of the proposed SEGIS-ES Program and why it will be necessary to integrate energy storage with PV systems as PV-generated energy becomes more prevalent on the nation's utility grid. It also discusses the applications for which energy storage is most suited and for which it will provide the greatest economic and operational benefits to customers and utilities. Included is a detailed summary of the various storage technologies available, comparisons of their relative costs and development status, and a summary of key R&D needs for PV-storage systems. The report concludes with highlights of areas where further PV-specific R&D is needed and offers recommendations about how to proceed with their development.

  19. Policies for 100% Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede

    2014-01-01

    The official Danish energy policy goal is both to increase the wind power share of electricity consumption from 33% in 2014 to 50% by 2020 and to have a 100% renewable energy based energy system by 2050. This is a huge technological change from stored, scarce and polluting fossil fuels...... to fluctuating, abundant and clean energy sources. “Stored” fossil fuels can be used when needed; fluctuating energy sources must be captured when available and transformed to meet the energy needs of society in the right amounts and at the right time. We are amidst this change. Renewable energy has come of age...... and is no longer a minor technology experimenting in the corner of the energy scene, but has become a large new technology taking away considerable market shares from the old fossil fuel technologies....

  20. Model Predictive Control for Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus

    In this thesis, we consider control strategies for flexible distributed energy resources in the future intelligent energy system – the Smart Grid. The energy system is a large-scale complex network with many actors and objectives in different hierarchical layers. Specifically the power system must...... significantly. A Smart Grid calls for flexible consumers that can adjust their consumption based on the amount of green energy in the grid. This requires coordination through new large-scale control and optimization algorithms. Trading of flexibility is key to drive power consumption in a sustainable direction....... In Denmark, we expect that distributed energy resources such as heat pumps, and batteries in electric vehicles will mobilize part of the needed flexibility. Our primary objectives in the thesis were threefold: 1.Simulate the components in the power system based on simple models from literature (e.g. heat...

  1. An Empirical Model for Energy Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosewater, David Martin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Scott, Paul [TransPower, Poway, CA (United States)

    2016-03-17

    Improved models of energy storage systems are needed to enable the electric grid’s adaptation to increasing penetration of renewables. This paper develops a generic empirical model of energy storage system performance agnostic of type, chemistry, design or scale. Parameters for this model are calculated using test procedures adapted from the US DOE Protocol for Uniformly Measuring and Expressing the Performance of Energy Storage. We then assess the accuracy of this model for predicting the performance of the TransPower GridSaver – a 1 MW rated lithium-ion battery system that underwent laboratory experimentation and analysis. The developed model predicts a range of energy storage system performance based on the uncertainty of estimated model parameters. Finally, this model can be used to better understand the integration and coordination of energy storage on the electric grid.

  2. Complex energy system management using optimization techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridgeman, Stuart; Hurdowar-Castro, Diana; Allen, Rick; Olason, Tryggvi; Welt, Francois

    2010-09-15

    Modern energy systems are often very complex with respect to the mix of generation sources, energy storage, transmission, and avenues to market. Historically, power was provided by government organizations to load centers, and pricing was provided in a regulatory manner. In recent years, this process has been displaced by the independent system operator (ISO). This complexity makes the operation of these systems very difficult, since the components of the system are interdependent. Consequently, computer-based large-scale simulation and optimization methods like Decision Support Systems are now being used. This paper discusses the application of a DSS to operations and planning systems.

  3. Kinetic Storage as an Energy Management System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Tabares, L.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of storing energy is increasingly important and necessary. The reason is that storage modifies the basic equation of the energy production balance which states that the power produced should equal the power consumed. When there is a storage device in the grid, this equation is modified such that, in the new balance, the energy produced should equal the algebraic sum of the energy consumed and the energy stored (positive in storage phase and negative when released). This means that the generation profile can be uncoupled from the consumption profile, with the resulting improvement of efficiency. Even small-sized storage systems can be very effective. (Author) 10 refs

  4. Sustainable Energy, Water and Environmental Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Duic, Neven

    2014-01-01

    This issue presents research results from the 8th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems – SDEWES - held in Dubrovnik, Croatia in 2013. Topics covered here include the energy situation in the Middle East with a focus in Cyprus and Israel, energy planning...... methodology with Ireland as a case and the applicability of energy scenarios modelling tools as a main focus, evaluation of energy demands in Italy and finally evaluation of underground cables vs overhead lines and lacking public acceptance of incurring additional costs for the added benefit of having...

  5. A Novel Home Energy Management System Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2011-01-01

    The number of electronic devices found in home environments is increasing, leading to an increase in the energy consumption in users’ premises. Introducing a Home Energy Management System (HEMS) into user residences might provide the necessary tools to reduce and optimize the energy consumption...... in home environments. However, this is not an easy task as devices can use different communication technologies and be manufactured by different producers which can lead to interoperability issues. This paper presents a home gateway designed for a HEMS system that offers interoperability between...... the different devices at the service level and provides the necessary tools to apply energy management strategies....

  6. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  7. Photovoltaic energy systems. Program summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-01-01

    The ongoing research, development, and demonstration efforts of the Photovoltaics Program are highlighted and each of the US Department of Energy's current photovoltaics projects initiated or renewed during fiscal year 1981 is described, including its title, directing organization, project engineer, contractor, principal investigator, contract period, funding, and objectives. The Photovoltaics Program is briefly summarized, including the history and organization and highlights of the research and development and of planning, assessment, and integration. Also summarized is the Federal Photovoltaic Utilization Program. An exhaustive bibliography is included. (LEW)

  8. Applied Data Analysis in Energy Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kychkin А.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Software and hardware system organization is presented as an example for building energy monitoring of multi-sectional lighting and climate control / conditioning needs. System key feature is applied office energy data analysis that allows to provide each type of hardware localized work mode recognition. It is based on general energy consumption profile with following energy consumption and workload evaluation. Applied data analysis includes primary data processing block, smoothing filter, time stamp identification block, clusterization and classification blocks, state change detection block, statistical data calculation block. Time slot consumed energy value and slot time stamp are taken as work mode classification main parameters. Energy data applied analysis with HIL and OpenJEVis visualization system usage experimental research results for chosen time period has been provided. Energy consumption, workload calculation and eight different states identification has been executed for two lighting sections and one climate control / conditioning emulating system by integral energy consumption profile. Research has been supported by university internal grant №2016/PI-2 «Methodology development of monitoring and heat flow utilization as low potential company energy sources».

  9. Energy efficiency of milkmaid systems in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LLanos, E.; Astigarraga, L.; Jacques, R.; Picasso, V.

    2013-01-01

    Reducing fossil fuel consumption and increasing energy efficiency of agricultural systems may result in environmental and economic benefits. The aim of this study was to analyze dairy production systems from an energy perspective, to identify the main variables affecting energy efficiency and fossil energy consumption, through a model of inputs and outputs. The model included as inputs energy costs of food, labor, electricity, agrochemicals, fuels and machinery, and as outputs dairy and meat production. We analyzed a database of 30 dairy farms from southern Uruguay, from the Cooperative Nacional de Product ores de Leche (Conaprole), organized in three strata based on their dairy productivity per hectare. The fossil energy use was 2.40, 3.63 y 3.80 MJ.l-1 for productivity strata low, medium and high respectively (P<0.01). Energy efficiency averages were 1.40, 0.90 y 0.86 for the same strata (P<0.01). Fossil energy of agrochemicals and fuel accounted for more than 80% of the energy consumed in the three strata. The greater the percentage of concentrate in the diet, the lower energy efficiency (P<0.01). These results suggest the existence of a negative relationship between the intensification of dairy production and energy efficiency

  10. Swiss electricity grid - Benchmarking pilot project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This article is a short version of the ENET number 210369. This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) describes a benchmarking pilot project carried out as a second phase in the development of a formula for the regulation of an open electricity market in Switzerland. It follows on from an initial phase involving the definition of a 'blue print' and a basic concept. The aims of the pilot project - to check out the practicability of the concept - are discussed. The collection of anonymised data for the benchmarking model from over 30 electricity utilities operating on all 7 Swiss grid levels and their integration in the three areas 'Technology', 'Grid Costs' and 'Capital Invested' are discussed in detail. In particular, confidentiality and data protection aspects are looked at. The methods used in the analysis of the data are described and the results of an efficiency analysis of various utilities are presented. The report is concluded with a listing of questions concerning data collection and analysis as well as operational and capital costs that are still to be answered

  11. Energy-Aware Cognitive Radio Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bedeer, Ebrahim

    2016-01-15

    The concept of energy-aware communications has spurred the interest of the research community in the most recent years due to various environmental and economical reasons. It becomes indispensable for wireless communication systems to shift their resource allocation problems from optimizing traditional metrics, such as throughput and latency, to an environmental-friendly energy metric. Although cognitive radio systems introduce spectrum efficient usage techniques, they employ new complex technologies for spectrum sensing and sharing that consume extra energy to compensate for overhead and feedback costs. Considering an adequate energy efficiency metric—that takes into account the transmit power consumption, circuitry power, and signaling overhead—is of momentous importance such that optimal resource allocations in cognitive radio systems reduce the energy consumption. A literature survey of recent energy-efficient based resource allocations schemes is presented for cognitive radio systems. The energy efficiency performances of these schemes are analyzed and evaluated under power budget, co-channel and adjacent-channel interferences, channel estimation errors, quality-of-service, and/or fairness constraints. Finally, the opportunities and challenges of energy-aware design for cognitive radio systems are discussed.

  12. Wind Energy Conversion Systems Technology and Trends

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride th...

  13. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... and for residential and commercial applications, are provided. Fuel cells, solar thermal, wave generators, and energy storage systems are also briefly presented and illustrated. Challenges and future trends for the technologies in 2025 are summarized in a table for onshore and offshore wind energy; solar power...

  14. Industrial Compressed Air System Energy Efficiency Guidebook.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    Energy efficient design, operation and maintenance of compressed air systems in industrial plants can provide substantial reductions in electric power and other operational costs. This guidebook will help identify cost effective, energy efficiency opportunities in compressed air system design, re-design, operation and maintenance. The guidebook provides: (1) a broad overview of industrial compressed air systems, (2) methods for estimating compressed air consumption and projected air savings, (3) a description of applicable, generic energy conservation measures, and, (4) a review of some compressed air system demonstration projects that have taken place over the last two years. The primary audience for this guidebook includes plant maintenance supervisors, plant engineers, plant managers and others interested in energy management of industrial compressed air systems.

  15. Buildings Interaction with Urban Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred; Wyckmans, Annemie; Zucker, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The goal towards a fossil free energy system is expressed in amongst others European and national targets, and puts pressure on the application of renewable energy sources combined with energy efficiency. Many cities are even more ambitious than their national targets and want to be among the first...... to demonstrate that they can become not only smart fossil-free energy cities but sustainable in a wider sense, including water, waste, transportation and more. In the current paper, the research agenda to support such goals through smart city efforts is presented for a few European cases as examples, focusing...... on the impacts that buildings play in the overall energy system. Here buildings are not only consumers but rather prosumers that are able to produce renewable energy themselves. Buildings moreover offer potential storage capacities that can be utilized in demand shifting, which is necessary to enable increased...

  16. Late-Glacial radiocarbon- and palynostratigraphy in the Swiss Plateau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, B.; Lotter, A.F.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed Late-Glacial radiocarbon stratigraphy for the Swiss Plateau has been established on the basis of over 90 accelerator 14 C dates on terrestrial plant macrofossils. A comparison of the radiocarbon ages derived from terrestrial, telmatic and limnic material at different sites on the Swiss Plateau yields a proposal for modifying the zonation system of Welten for the Late-Glacial. By retaining the limits of chronozones and by refining the palynostratigraphic criteria for the limits of biozones, a separation between chrono- and biozonation at the beginning of the Boelling and the Younger Dryas becomes obvious. 54 refs

  17. Planning for rural energy system: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devadas, V.

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses the central importance of energy inputs in development, and presents the complex interactions within subsystems that contribute a Rural Energy System. This paper also brings about the importance of the primary data for realistic renewable energy planning at the micro level in a given rural system. Factors that render secondary data somewhat inadequate for such applications are discussed. The differences between energy related data from secondary and primary sources in respect of representative villages in Kanyakumari District of Tamil Nadu, India, are detailed. A rural system model for computing the output from various components of a rural system is also presented. This projection is made by making use of a set of technical coefficients, which relate the inputs to the outputs from individual segments of the rural production system. While some of the technical coefficients are developed based on previously published data, a large number have been quantified on the basis of careful survey. The usefulness of the model is discussed. The paper also presents a Linear Programming Model for optimum resource allocation in a rural system. The objective function of the Linear Programming Model is maximizing the revenue of the rural system where in optimum resource allocation is made subject to a number of energy and non-energy related relevant constraints. The model also quantifies the major yields as well as the byproducts of different sectors of the rural economic system. (Author)

  18. Miniature photovoltaic energy system for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this project a miniature photovoltaic energy system has been designed and developed, that may be used in remote areas and villages for lighting purposes. System sizing is the important part of the project because it affects the cost of the system. Therefore, first of all system sizing has been done. For conversion of dc voltage of the battery into ac voltage, an inverter has been designed. To charge the battery when the sun is not shining, a standby system has been developed using a bicycle and dynamo. To indicate the battery's state of charge and discharge, a battery monitoring circuit has also been developed. Similarly, to protect the battery from over discharging, a battery protection circuit has been designed. In order to measure how much energy is going from standby system to the battery, an efficient dc electronic energy meter has been designed and developed. The working of the overall system has been tested and found to give good performance. (author)

  19. Holonic path in the energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Yoichi

    1987-06-20

    Meaning of a holonic path was described by examining the long term characteristics of the energy system development. The energy system has expanded in parallel with the progress of the society establishing a reasonble structure in accordance with the economic principle. Since around 1960, external economical problems of environment and unnecessary expenses due to too much expansion of the system itself appeared in sight and a claim that the decentralized type of management was better in both economical viewpoint and resources and environment than the large scale concentrated systems have come out. However, in view of the fact that individual equipments in the system has a scale merit already in the present situation, the future direction of the energy system may be a holonic path wherein the present system management can be supplemented by the distributed power source, cogeneration, and the load management by means of an informational technology. (3 figs, 8 refs)

  20. Trend of burnout among Swiss doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigoni, F; Bovier, P A; Sappino, A P

    2010-08-09

    Over the last decade the Swiss health care system has undergone several changes, resulting in stronger economic constraints, a heavier administrative workload and limited work autonomy for doctors. In this context we examined the change in burnout prevalence over time among Swiss doctors surveyed during this period. Cross-sectional survey data collected by mail in 2002, 2004 and 2007 throughout the country were used. Measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), several socio-demographics (gender, living alone, having children), and work-related characteristics (number of years in current workplace, hours worked). Answers to the MBI were used to classify respondents into moderate (high score on either the emotional exhaustion or the depersonalisation/cynicism subscale) and high degree of burnout (scores in the range of burnout in all three scales). Rates of moderate-degree burnout increased from 33% to 42% among general practitioners (p = 0.002) and from 19% to 34% among paediatricians (p = 0.001) (high degree of burnout: 4% to 6% [p = 0.17] and 2% to 4% [p = 0.42] respectively). After adjustment for significant socio-demographic and work-related characteristics, an increased risk of moderate burnout was found for doctors surveyed in 2004 and 2007 (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 to 2.0), general practitioners (OR 1.6, 95%CI 1.3 to 2.0) and French-speaking doctors (OR 1.5, 95%CI 1.3 to 1.9). An increased risk of high-degree burnout was found only for general practitioners (OR 1.8, 95%CI 1.05 to 3.0). Burnout levels among Swiss doctors have increased over the last decade, in particular among French-speaking doctors.

  1. Energy accumulation in photovoltaic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, G.

    1988-01-01

    The photovoltaic demonstration plant, DELPHOS, in Manfredonia, Italy, is described. The plant was designed to produce 1.2 MW peak. This report assesses the performance, after one year of operation, of the first 300 kW section, developed by ENEA (Italian Commission for Nuclear and Alternative Energies). This section, not equipped with a D.C. converter, uses a set of fixed photovoltaic panels which supplies an isolated user installation or connects to the national grid. The site of the pilot plant receives 58% of maximum theoretical sunlight. The accumulator set consists of 250 elements in series (500 V nominal voltage) which can put out 2500 A-hours (10 hour discharge period). The camp is subdivided into 6 blocks of 50 kW peak nominal power. In total, 5760 modules, comprising about 300,000 silicon cells, were used. Different makes of polycrystalline cells were chosen to allow comparative evaluation.

  2. Army Energy and Water Reporting System Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deprez, Peggy C.; Giardinelli, Michael J.; Burke, John S.; Connell, Linda M.

    2011-09-01

    There are many areas of desired improvement for the Army Energy and Water Reporting System. The purpose of system is to serve as a data repository for collecting information from energy managers, which is then compiled into an annual energy report. This document summarizes reported shortcomings of the system and provides several alternative approaches for improving application usability and adding functionality. The U.S. Army has been using Army Energy and Water Reporting System (AEWRS) for many years to collect and compile energy data from installations for facilitating compliance with Federal and Department of Defense energy management program reporting requirements. In this analysis, staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory found that substantial opportunities exist to expand AEWRS functions to better assist the Army to effectively manage energy programs. Army leadership must decide if it wants to invest in expanding AEWRS capabilities as a web-based, enterprise-wide tool for improving the Army Energy and Water Management Program or simply maintaining a bottom-up reporting tool. This report looks at both improving system functionality from an operational perspective and increasing user-friendliness, but also as a tool for potential improvements to increase program effectiveness. The authors of this report recommend focusing on making the system easier for energy managers to input accurate data as the top priority for improving AEWRS. The next major focus of improvement would be improved reporting. The AEWRS user interface is dated and not user friendly, and a new system is recommended. While there are relatively minor improvements that could be made to the existing system to make it easier to use, significant improvements will be achieved with a user-friendly interface, new architecture, and a design that permits scalability and reliability. An expanded data set would naturally have need of additional requirements gathering and a focus on integrating

  3. Stochastic Modelling of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2001-01-01

    In this thesis dynamic models of typical components in Danish heating systems are considered. Emphasis is made on describing and evaluating mathematical methods for identification of such models, and on presentation of component models for practical applications. The thesis consists of seven...... of component models, such as e.g. heat exchanger and valve models, adequate for system simulations. Furthermore, the thesis demonstrates and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using statistical methods in conjunction with physical knowledge in establishing adequate component models of heating...... research papers (case studies) together with a summary report. Each case study takes it's starting point in typical heating system components and both, the applied mathematical modelling methods and the application aspects, are considered. The summary report gives an introduction to the scope...

  4. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  5. Analytical energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Honghua; Xie, Qiongtao; Lee, Chaohong; Guan, Xiwen; Gao, Kelin; Batchelor, Murray T

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum for hybrid mechanical systems described by non-parity-symmetric quantum Rabi models. A set of analytical solutions in terms of the confluent Heun functions and their analytical energy spectrum is obtained. The analytical energy spectrum includes regular and exceptional parts, which are both confirmed by direct numerical simulation. The regular part is determined by the zeros of the Wronskian for a pair of analytical solutions. The exceptional part is relevant to the isolated exact solutions and its energy eigenvalues are obtained by analyzing the truncation conditions for the confluent Heun functions. By analyzing the energy eigenvalues for exceptional points, we obtain the analytical conditions for the energy-level crossings, which correspond to two-fold energy degeneracy. (paper)

  6. Power Management for Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel

    by the industrial applications, and defining economic objectives that reect the real physics of the systems as well as our control objectives; 3) solving the involved, non-trivial optimization problems eciently in real-time; 4) demonstrating the feasibility and potential of the proposed methods by extensive...

  7. Environmental benefits of domestic solar energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalogirou, Soteris A.

    2004-01-01

    All nations of the world depend on fossil fuels for their energy needs. However the obligation to reduce CO 2 and other gaseous emissions in order to be in conformity with the Kyoto agreement is the reason behind which countries turn to non-polluting renewable energy sources. In this paper the pollution caused by the burning of fossil fuels is initially presented followed by a study on the environmental protection offered by the two most widely used renewable energy systems, i.e. solar water heating and solar space heating. The results presented in this paper show that by using solar energy, considerable amounts of greenhouse polluting gasses are avoided. For the case of a domestic water heating system, the saving, compared to a conventional system, is about 80% with electricity or Diesel backup and is about 75% with both electricity and Diesel backup. In the case of space heating and hot water system the saving is about 40%. It should be noted, however, that in the latter, much greater quantities of pollutant gasses are avoided. Additionally, all systems investigated give positive and very promising financial characteristics. With respect to life cycle assessment of the systems, the energy spent for manufacture and installation of the solar systems is recouped in about 1.2 years, whereas the payback time with respect to emissions produced from the embodied energy required for the manufacture and installation of the systems varies from a few months to 9.5 years according to the fuel and the particular pollutant considered. Moreover, due to the higher solar contribution, solar water heating systems have much shorter payback times than solar space heating systems. It can, therefore, be concluded that solar energy systems offer significant protection to the environment and should be employed whenever possible in order to achieve a sustainable future

  8. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N.; Lechon, Y.; Labriet, M.; Cabal, H.; Rua, C. de la; Saez, R.; Varela, M.

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  9. Smart Cities and National Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellufsen, Jakob Zinck

    Energy system analysis follows two tracks, either through plans for future transitions of national energy systems, or local development of smart cities and regions. These two tracks seldom overlap. National plans neglect the local implementation of intermittent renewable technology and use of local...... resources, and smart cities and local development do not relate to national targets and fail to evaluate sub-optimization. Thus, there is a need for approaches that help researchers creating links between country analyses and local energy system transitions. This paper investigates the effects...... of such an approach, by investigating Western Denmark. By splitting Western Denmark into regions, it is possible to create individual energy systems for each region. Through interconnection, these regions can exchange electricity with each other. This enables analyses of interaction between smart cities and national...

  10. Renewable Energy Systems: Technology Overview and Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ionel, Dan M.; Yang, Yongheng

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, essential statistics demonstrating the increasing role of renewable energy generation are first discussed. A state-of-the-art review section covers the fundamentals of wind turbine and photovoltaic (PV) systems. Schematic diagrams illustrating the main components and system...... topologies are included. Also, the increasing role of power electronics is explained as an enabler for renewable energy integration and for future power systems and smart grids. Recent examples of research and development, including new devices and system installations for utility power plants......, including PV and concentrating solar power; wave energy; fuel cells; and storage with batteries and hydrogen, respectively. Recommended further readings on topics of electric power engineering for renewable energy are included in the final section....

  11. Unlocking Flexibility: Energy Systems Integration [Guest Editorial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Malley, Mark; Kroposki, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    The articles in this special section focus on energy systems integration (ESI). Electric power systems around the world are experiencing great changes, including the retirement of coal and nuclear plants along with a rapid increase in the use of natural gas turbines and variable renewable technologies such as wind and solar. There is also much more use of information and communications technologies to enhance the visibility and controllability of the grid. Flexibility of operation, the ability of a power system to respond to change in demand and supply, is critical to enable higher levels of variable generation. One way to unlock this potential flexibility is to tap into other energy domains. This concept of interconnecting energy domains is called ESI. ESI is the process of coordinating the operation and planning of energy systems across multiple pathways and/or geographical scales to deliver reliable, cost-effective energy services with minimal impact on the environment. Integrating energy domains adds flexibility to the electrical power system. ESI includes interactions among energy vectors and with other large-scale infrastructures including water, transport, and data and communications networks, which are an enabling technology for ESI.

  12. A First Standardized Swiss Electronic Maternity Record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murbach, Michel; Martin, Sabine; Denecke, Kerstin; Nüssli, Stephan

    2017-01-01

    During the nine months of pregnancy, women have to regularly visit several physicians for continuous monitoring of the health and development of the fetus and mother. Comprehensive examination results of different types are generated in this process; documentation and data transmission standards are still unavailable or not in use. Relevant information is collected in a paper-based maternity record carried by the pregnant women. To improve availability and transmission of data, we aim at developing a first prototype for an electronic maternity record for Switzerland. By analyzing the documentation workflow during pregnancy, we determined a maternity record data set. Further, we collected requirements towards a digital maternity record. As data exchange format, the Swiss specific exchange format SMEEX (swiss medical data exchange) was exploited. Feedback from 27 potential users was collected to identify further improvements. The relevant data is extracted from the primary care information system as SMEEX file, stored in a database and made available in a web and a mobile application, developed as prototypes of an electronic maternity record. The user confirmed the usefulness of the system and provided multiple suggestions for an extension. An electronical maternity record as developed in this work could be in future linked to the electronic patient record.

  13. 3rd annual biomass energy systems conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-10-01

    The main objectives of the 3rd Annual Biomass Energy Systems Conference were (1) to review the latest research findings in the clean fuels from biomass field, (2) to summarize the present engineering and economic status of Biomass Energy Systems, (3) to encourage interaction and information exchange among people working or interested in the field, and (4) to identify and discuss existing problems relating to ongoing research and explore opportunities for future research. Abstracts for each paper presented were edited separately. (DC)

  14. Energy Innovation Systems Indicator Report 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitkou, Antje; Borup, Mads; Iversen, Eric

    This report is the first report in a series of reports on energy innovation system indicators produced as part of the activities in the “EIS Strategic research alliance for Energy Innovation Systems and their dynamics – Denmark in global competition”. The work is based on a number of existing...... have informed this EIS report. The activities in the EIS research alliance are funded by the Danish Council for Strategic Research, primarily, and by the involved research organisations....

  15. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, William C. (Inventor); Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An optical power transfer system comprising a fiber spooler, a fiber optic rotary joint mechanically connected to the fiber spooler, and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the fiber optic rotary joint with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, through the rotary joint, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy.

  16. Technical Design of Flexible Sustainable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid.......The paper presents technical designs of potential future flexible energy systems in Denmark, which will be able both to balance production and demand and to secure voltage and frequency requirements on the grid....

  17. Power Contro Energy Management and Market Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Addison; Andrew Stanbury

    2005-12-15

    More efficient use of the nation's electrical energy infrastructure will result in minimizing the cost of energy to the end user. Using real time electrical market information coupled with defined rules, market opportunities can be identified that provide economic benefit for both users and marketers of electricity. This report describes the design of one such system and the features a fully functional system would provide. This report documents several investigated methods of controlling load diversity or shifting.

  18. The challenge of greening energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joseph, A.; Hughes, L.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of world energy supply and demand was examined along with future challenges facing population growth, economic growth, energy-demand growth, fossil energy supply, technology improvements, renewable energy solutions, and conservation measures. It was suggested that in order to implement cleaner and greener energy technology, it is important to understand the nature of global energy systems. The challenge of defining the related ideologies of green energy and sustainability was discussed. In this paper, green energy was defined as indicating environmental compatibility with little or no negative environmental impact. This differs from the concept of sustainability, which was defined as an action that can be repeated continuously without depleting or diminishing resources. In general, green energy options include most technologies that do not involve fossil fuels. However, this paper considered a spectrum of shades of green with some options being low-impact and cleaner, and others having high environmental impacts. As an example, the authors presented the ongoing debate over nuclear energy and hydro power. Although both energy sources can be sustainable over hundreds of years, they may or may not be environmentally compatible because they are often considered to have problematic attributes. Energy from renewable sources currently accounts for less than 20 per cent of world primary energy supply because price and implementation challenges in the renewables sector do not generally compare well to other energy sources. With high energy-demands beginning to strain finite fossil-energy supplies, the energy sector is now subject to more frequent disruptions and price fluctuations. Future growth from emerging economies will demand more energy and resources. This paper also emphasized that the proportion of green sources of energy has not increased substantially in the past 3 decades, and despite many technological advances, there continue to be significant

  19. The captains of energy systems dynamics from an energy perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Prantil, Vincent C

    2015-01-01

    In teaching an introduction to transport or systems dynamics modeling at the undergraduate level, it is possible to lose pedagogical traction in a sea of abstract mathematics. What the mathematical modeling of time-dependent system behavior offers is a venue in which students can be taught that physical analogies exist between what they likely perceive as distinct areas of study in the physical sciences. We introduce a storyline whose characters are superheroes that store and dissipate energy in dynamic systems. Introducing students to the overarching conservation laws helps develop the analog

  20. High energy density, long life energy storage capacitor dielectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, D.H.; Wilson, S.R.

    1977-01-01

    The evolution of energy storage dielectric systems shows a dramatic improvement in life and joule density, culminating in a 50% to 300% life improvement of polypropylene film-paper-phthalate ester over paper-castor oil depending on service. The physical and electrical drawbacks of castor oil are not present in the new system, allowing the capacitor designer to utilize the superior insulation resistance, dielectric strength, and corona resistance to full advantage. The result is longer life for equal joule density or greater joule density for equal life. Field service proof of the film-Geconol system superiority is based on 5 megajoule in operation and 16 megajoule on order

  1. WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS - A TECHNICAL REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. RAMESH BABU

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power production has been under the main focus for the past decade in power production and tremendous amount of research work is going on renewable energy, specifically on wind power extraction. Wind power provides an eco-friendly power generation and helps to meet the national energy demand when there is a diminishing trend in terms of non-renewable resources. This paper reviews the modeling of Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS, control strategies of controllers and various Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT technologies that are being proposed for efficient production of wind energy from the available resource.

  2. Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

    The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

  3. Cheap heat pump heating system for low-energy-consumption housing -- Design handbook; Kostenguenstige Waermepumpenheizung fuer Niedrigenergiehaeuser: Technisches Handbuch: Grundlagen, Planungsvorgehen und Beispiele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afjei, T. [Fachhochschule beider Basel, Muttenz (Switzerland); Buehring, A. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany); Duerig, M.; Keller, P.; Zweifel, G. [Fachhochschule Zentralschweiz, School of Engineering and Architecture, Lucerne (Switzerland); Huber, A.; Widmer, P. [Huber Energietechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Shafai, E. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Institut fuer Mess- und Regeltechnik, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a technical handbook on the principles and planning processes involved in designing and installing heating systems for low-energy and so-called passive houses with air-renewal systems and provides examples taken from practice. The manual is intended to provide guidance to architects, planners and manufacturers. In the first part of the three-part manual, the basics of energy balances, ecological assessment and modern control techniques are dealt with, the second part covers integral planning, feasibility and manufacturing techniques and the third part gives examples of three houses built to so-called 'Minergie' low-energy and 'passive house' standards. The factors to be taken into account when planning low-energy and passive houses heated with heat pumps are discussed and calculation tools aiding the dimensioning and simulation of the systems are introduced.

  4. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, A.L.R. [Wind Energy Group, Recife (Brazil); Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J. [DEE, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  5. Annual Cycle Energy System concept and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyers, J. C.; Hise, E. C.

    1977-01-01

    The Annual Cycle Energy System (ACES), under development at ERDA's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promises to provide space heating, air conditioning, and water heating at a significantly lower expenditure of energy than conventional space conditioning and water heating systems. The ACES embodies heat pumping, thermal storage and, where climate dictates, solar assistance. The concept is described, along with variations in design that permit flexibility to maximize energy conservation or to provide load management capabilities. Installations that exist or are under construction are described and variations that are incorporated to meet specific objectives are discussed.

  6. State energy-price system: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, J.M.; Imhoff, K.L.; Hood, L.J.

    1983-08-01

    This report updates the State Energy Price Data System (STEPS) to include state-level energy prices by fuel and by end-use sectors for 1981. Both physical unit prices and Btu prices are presented. Basic documentation of the data base remains generally the same as in the original report: State Energy Price System; Volume 1: Overview and Technical Documentation (DOE/NBB-0029 Volume 1 of 2, November 1982). The present report documents only the changes in procedures necessitated by the update to 1981 and the corrections to the basic documentation.

  7. Energy system impacts of desalination in Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Lund, Henrik; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    2014-01-01

    others population and wealth increase and competitive water uses from agriculture and industry is causing many nations to turn to desalination technologies. This article investigates a Jordanian energy scenario with two different desalination technologies; reverse osmosis (RO) driven by electricity...... on energy system performance. Results indicate that RO and MSF are similar in fuel use. While there is no use of waste heat from condensing mode plants, efficiencies for CHP and MSF are not sufficiently good to results in lower fuel usage than RO. The Jordanian energy system is somewhat inflexible giving...

  8. Design for Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhou, Dao; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2017-01-01

    Power electronics are widely used in renewable energy systems to achieve lower cost of energy, higher efficiency and high power density. At the same time, the high reliability of the power electronics products is demanded, in order to reduce the failure rates and ensure cost-effective operation...... of the renewable energy systems. This paper thus describes the basic concepts used in reliability engineering, and presents the status and future trends of Design for Reliability (DfR) in power electronics, which is currently undergoing a paradigm shift to a physics-of-failure approach. Two case studies of a 2 MW...

  9. A fuzzy-based approach for strategic choices in electric energy supply. The case of a Swiss power provider on the eve of electricity market opening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguene, Gustave Nguene; Finger, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    Risk evaluation and strategic choice has become very complex for power providers, because of the growing number of uncertain parameters involved, such as energy market prices, water inflow, and demand. The lack of information and the absence of the decision maker's perception are just some of the many elements that must be accounted for. Therefore, with an approach based on fuzzy set theory, this paper aims to propose a methodology based on strategic choices that will enable decision makers to evaluate the performance of their strategies and portfolios through the computation of an indicator of economic performance, for different time-horizons. By subsequently considering the different imprecise parameters - such as the electricity spot price, the natural gas market price, rainfall and snow, etc. - in the assessment of different strategies and the analysis of their impacts through scenario analysis, it is concluded that the resulting profit depends not only on the perception of the market player, but also on the imprecision of the variables - the same strategy may produce two different results under a different combination of parameters - as well as on the time-horizon considered. On a simple basis, it has also been possible to compare portfolios of customers. (Author)

  10. Guidelines for Datacenter Energy Information System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Reshma [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mahdavi, Rod [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mathew, Paul [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Granderson, Jessica [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shukla, Yash [Center for Environmental Planning and Technology (CEPT) Univ., Ahmedabad (India)

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide structured guidance to data center owners, operators, and designers, to empower them with information on how to specify and procure data center energy information systems (EIS) for managing the energy utilization of their data centers. Data centers are typically energy-intensive facilities that can consume up to 100 times more energy per unit area than a standard office building (FEMP 2013). This guidance facilitates “data-driven decision making,” which will be enabled by following the approach outlined in the guide. This will bring speed, clarity, and objectivity to any energy or asset management decisions because of the ability to monitor and track an energy management project’s performance.

  11. Insight into a reversible energy transfer system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ming Xuan; Zou, Hong Yan; Gao, Peng Fei; Liu, Yue; Li, Na; Li, Yuan Fang; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2016-09-15

    Resonance energy transfer (RET) processes have wide applications; these processes involve a unidirectional energy transfer from a particular donor to a particular acceptor. Here, we report a plasmonic resonance energy transfer (PRET), which occurs from the surface of gold nanoparticles to fluorescent organic dyes, and coexists with a nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) that operates in the reverse direction. The coexistence of both PRET and NSET in opposite directions means that the roles of both donor and acceptor can be interchanged, which could be identified by using spectrofluorometric measurements and light scattering dark field microscopic imaging. The experimental data could be further theoretically supported using Persson and Lang's model, the quasi-static approximation and finite-difference time-domain simulation. Moreover, disruption of the PRET process by altering the energy transfer pairs suggests that interactions occur inside the reversible energy transfer system, which manifest by increasing the fluorescence quenching efficiency of the NSET process.

  12. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, B.V.; Lund, H.; Nørgård, Per Bromand

    2007-01-01

    Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...... transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy....... No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Transport must be integrated into energy planning, as electricity and heating. In this paper, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energy planning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable...

  13. ATLAS honours two Swiss companies

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    On 18 June 2003, ATLAS presented awards to two Swiss companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, the suppliers of the electrodes and the composite bars for the electromagnetic calorimeter. "Physicists' dreams could not become reality without industry's active participation and creativity", said Peter Jenni, ATLAS spokesman, congratulating two of the collaboration's suppliers, to which it presented awards on 18 June. Swiss quality was the order of the day, since the two companies, Cicorel SA and Isola Composites AG, which are both involved in the production of components for the electromagnetic calorimeter, are located in Switzerland's Jura region. "You have taken up and met a challenge that bordered on the impossible", added Peter Jenni. The suppliers who received the ATLAS award: Hans Wyss from Cicorel SA (left) and Constant Gentile from Isola Composites (right).Circorel SA produced enough electrodes to cover an entire football pitch. Each electrode, measuring 2 square metres, consists of three layers of...

  14. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    Members of the personnel and their families, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2001, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-009/1-015. Members of the personnel will be notified by the Social and Statutary Conditions Group, HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: If you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  15. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR DIVISION

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a photocopy (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, building 33/1-025Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  16. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders ofSWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  17. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDSdue to expire during the year 2000, need to change them.Those concerned should bring:-\ta recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back)-\tthe expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to:Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011.HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.Human Resources DivisionTel. 79494-74683

  18. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: ­ a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) ­ the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011 Members of the personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsability in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  19. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication)to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-011. Members of personnel will be notified by HR Division as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  20. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring : - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bât 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available. Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organization will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  1. RENEWAL OF SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des Ressources Humaines; Human Resources Division; Tel. 79494-74683

    2000-01-01

    Members of the personnel, holders of SWISS LEGITIMATION CARDS due to expire during the year 2000, need to change them. Those concerned should bring: - a recent passport photo (with NAME and first name on the back) - the expired (or due to expire) card and a recto-verso photocopy on A4 size paper (for certified authentication) to: Bureau des cartes, bldg 33.1-009/1-011. HR Division will notify members of personnel as soon as the new cards are available.Be careful: if you are in possession of expired cards (Swiss or French), or if you present non-certified copies, the Organisation will not take any responsibility in case of difficulties with the customs authorities or the police.

  2. Reminder: Swiss and French cards

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of personnel concerned that they are obliged to: • hold a valid Swiss  Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; • return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken towards the member of personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide. Users and Unpaid Associates must contact the Users Office HR Department Tel.: 729...

  3. Swiss and French cards - Reminder

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2011-01-01

    Communication from the HR Department to members of personnel holding an employment or association contract, above 50% and for more than 3 months, with the Organization. The HR Department would like to remind all members of the personnel concerned that they are obliged to: hold a valid Swiss Légitimation card AND a valid French card (“Titre de séjour spécial” or “attestation de fonctions”) at all times during the exercise of their functions in the Organization; return these documents as soon as their functions in the Organization cease. Not following these rules could be prejudicial to the Organization and appropriate measures may be taken with respect to the member of the personnel concerned. Information and procedures concerning Swiss and French cards (first application, renewal, theft/loss, etc.) are available in the Admin e-guide: https://cern.ch/admin-eguide/cartes/proc_cartes_home.asp Users and Unpaid Associates must ...

  4. Advanced energy system with nuclear reactors as an energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Y.; Ishizuka, T.; Nikitin, K.

    2007-01-01

    About two-thirds of the energy generated in a light water reactors (LWRs) core is currently dissipated to the ocean as lukewarm water through steam condensers; more than half the energy in helium (He) gas turbine high temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGRs) is dissipated through pre-coolers and inter coolers. The new waste heat recovery system efficiently recovers the waste heat from reactors using boiling heat transfer of 20 degree C liquid carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) instead of conventional sea water as a cooling medium. The CO 2 gasified in the cooling process is used directly as a working fluid of mechanical heat pumps for hot water supply. In LWRs, the net energy utilization fraction to total heat generation in the core exceeds 85% through the waste heat recovery. This cogeneration system is about 2.5 times more effective than current systems in reducing global warming gas emissions and long half- life radioactive material accumulation. It also increases uranium resource utilization relative to current LWRs. In the HTGR cogeneration system, the waste heat is also useful for cold water supply by introducing an adsorption refrigeration system since the gas temperature is still as high as about 190 degree Celsius. When the heat recovery system is incorporated into the HTGR, the electricity to heat-supply ratio of the HTGR cogeneration system accommodates the demand ratio in cities well; it would be suited to dispersed energy sources. The heat supply cost is expected to be lower than those of conventional fossil-fired boilers beyond operation of about four years. The waste heat recovered is able to be utilized not only for local heat supply but also for methane and methanol production from waste products of cities and farms through high-temperature fermentation, e.g., garbage, waste wood and used paper that are produced in cities, along with excreta produced through farming. The methane and methanol can be used to generate hydrogen for fuel cells. The new waste heat

  5. Nuclear technologies for local energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonnell, F.N.; Lynch, G.F.

    1990-03-01

    If nuclear energy is to realize its full potential as a safe and cost-effective alternative to fossil fuels, applications beyond those that are currently being serviced by large, central nuclear power stations must be identified and appropriate reactors developed. The Canadian program on reactor systems for local energy supply is at the forefront of these developments. This program emphasizes design simplicity, low power density and fuel rating, reliance on natural processes, passive systems, and reduced reliance on operator action. The first product, the SLOWPOKE Energy System, is a 10 MW heat source specifically designed to provide hot water to satisfy the needs of local heating systems for building complexes, institutions and municipal district heating systems. A demonstration heating reactor has been constructed at the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment in Manitoba and has been undergoing an extensive test program since first operation in 1987 July. Based on the knowledge learned from the design, construction, licensing and operational testing of this facility, the design of the 10 MW commercial-size unit is well advanced, and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited is prepared to commit the construction of the first commercial unit. Although the technical demonstration of the concept is important, it is recognized that another crucial element is the public and regulatory acceptance of small nuclear systems in urban areas. The decision by a community to commit the construction of a SLOWPOKE Energy System brings to a sharp focus the current public apprehension about nuclear technologies

  6. Optimization of energy storage in power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou Chacra, F.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a century, electric transmission and distribution systems have been developed assuming that electric energy was almost impossible to store. Technical progress, new environmental requirements and electrical industry reforms now lead us to believe that storage in the future will be one of the main challenges in the development of power systems. Storage would have potential applications to deal with current technical constraints such as the system load, peak-load value, faults in parts of the system, control issues, etc. and economic ones such as upgrades deferral, renewable energy deployment, etc. In this study, energy storage is considered in two strategic locations in the French power system: HT/MT substations and wind farms. Possible applications and economic flags are formulated and appropriate optimization methods (genetic algorithms, Pareto) are used to maximize the project net present value. This optimization results in defining optimal capacities and control strategies for the energy storage system, taken from a set of storage technologies suitable for this problem, and in assessing the technical-economic impact of energy storage as a solution in power systems. (author)

  7. Energy Systems Analysis of Waste to Energy Technologies by use of EnergyPLAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie

    the potential of using waste for the production of transport fuels such as upgraded biogas and petrol made from syngas. Biogas and thermal gasification technologies are interesting alternatives to waste incineration and it is recommended to support the use of biogas based on manure and organic waste. It is also......Even when policies of waste prevention, re-use and recycling are prioritised, a fraction of waste will still be left which can be used for energy recovery. This report asks the question: How to utilise waste for energy in the best way seen from an energy system perspective? Eight different Waste-to-Energy...... technologies are compared with a focus on fuel efficiency, CO2 reductions and costs. The comparison is made by conducting detailed energy system analyses of the present system as well as a potential future Danish energy system with a large share of combined heat and power and wind power. The study shows...

  8. New law on Swiss nationality

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    CERN has recently been informed by the Swiss authorities that the Swiss Parliament adopted a new law on Swiss nationality in June 2014, which is due to enter into force in the autumn of 2016.   Under the new law, naturalisation can be granted only if the following conditions are met at the time of application: 1. the applicant must hold a settlement permit (autorisation d’établissement or permis C); and 2. the applicant must supply proof that he or she has resided in Switzerland for a total of ten years, including during three of the five years preceding the application (see Article 9 below). For the purposes of calculating the length of residence in Switzerland, any period of residence as a holder of a residence or settlement permit (autorisation de séjour or autorisation d’établissement), a temporary admission document (admission provisoire), or a legitimation card (carte de légitimation) issued by the DFAE will be taken...

  9. History of heat pumps - Swiss contributions and international milestones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, M.

    2008-05-15

    Compared to conventional boilers, heating by heat pumps cuts down fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions to about 50%. Compared to electric resistance heating, the energy consumption is even reduced up to 80%. Therefore, the impressive market penetration growth of heat pumps will continue. Swiss pioneers were the first to realize functioning vapour recompression plants. The first European heat pumps were realized in Switzerland. To date it remains one of the heat pump champions. Swiss pioneering work in the development of borehole heat exchangers, sewage heat recovery, oil free piston compressors and turbo compressors is well known. The biggest heat pump ever built comes from Switzerland. Although there is a fairly comprehensive natural gas distribution grid, 75% of the new single-family homes built in Switzerland are currently heated by heat pumps. This paper presents some of the highlights of this success story focusing on Swiss developments and relating them to the international milestones. In order to indicate the direction in which the future development might go to, some recent Swiss research projects are presented as well. (author)

  10. MESSAGE TO MEMBERS OF THE PERSONNEL OF SWISS NATIONALITY

    CERN Multimedia

    Legal Service

    2002-01-01

    15 November 2002 Reimbursement of Swiss income tax The Swiss authorities have introduced a new system of taxation with effect from this year onwards. The main feature of this new system is that the tax year henceforth coincides with the year in which income is earned. One major practical consequence is that Swiss members of the personnel will receive a provisional income tax demand that must be settled by the date shown; however, the final income tax demand will not be sent until up to several months later. Hitherto, the CERN Administration only recognised this final demand as proof of payment for the reimbursement of Swiss income tax. In view of the delay the new procedure will generate between the settlement of the provisional demand and receipt of the final demand, and to avoid members of the personnel having to bear the cost of an advance payment, the CERN Administration has decided to align its reimbursement procedure with the new system of taxation. In future, the provisional income tax demand will also...

  11. World Energy Projection System model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutzler, M.J.; Anderson, A.T.

    1997-09-01

    The World Energy Projection System (WEPS) was developed by the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting within the Energy Information Administration (EIA), the independent statistical and analytical agency of the US Department of Energy. WEPS is an integrated set of personal computer based spreadsheets containing data compilations, assumption specifications, descriptive analysis procedures, and projection models. The WEPS accounting framework incorporates projections from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product GDP), and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by natural gas, coal, and renewable energy sources (hydroelectricity, geothermal, solar, wind, biomass, and other renewable resources). Projections produced by WEPS are published in the annual report, International Energy Outlook. This report documents the structure and procedures incorporated in the 1998 version of the WEPS model. It has been written to provide an overview of the structure of the system and technical details about the operation of each component of the model for persons who wish to know how WEPS projections are produced by EIA

  12. Exergy Analysis of Complex Ship Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Marty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With multiple primary and secondary energy converters (diesel engines, steam turbines, waste heat recovery (WHR and oil-fired boilers, etc. and extensive energy networks (steam, cooling water, exhaust gases, etc., ships may be considered as complex energy systems. Understanding and optimizing such systems requires advanced holistic energy modeling. This modeling can be done in two ways: The simpler approach focuses on energy flows, and has already been tested, approved and presented; a new, more complicated approach, focusing on energy quality, i.e., exergy, is presented in this paper. Exergy analysis has rarely been applied to ships, and, as a general rule, the shipping industry is not familiar with this tool. This paper tries to fill this gap. We start by giving a short reminder of what exergy is and describe the principles of exergy modeling to explain what kind of results should be expected from such an analysis. We then apply these principles to the analysis of a large two-stroke diesel engine with its cooling and exhaust systems. Simulation results are then presented along with the exergy analysis. Finally, we propose solutions for energy and exergy saving which could be applied to marine engines and ships in general.

  13. Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering Curriculum Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGowan, Jon G. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Manwell, James F. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States); Lackner, Matthew A. [Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA (United States)

    2012-12-31

    Utility-scale electricity produced from offshore wind farms has the potential to contribute significantly to the energy production of the United States. In order for the U.S. to rapidly develop these abundant resources, knowledgeable scientists and engineers with sound understanding of offshore wind energy systems are critical. This report summarizes the development of an upper-level engineering course in "Offshore Wind Energy Systems Engineering." This course is designed to provide students with a comprehensive knowledge of both the technical challenges of offshore wind energy and the practical regulatory, permitting, and planning aspects of developing offshore wind farms in the U.S. This course was offered on a pilot basis in 2011 at the University of Massachusetts and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), TU Delft, and GL Garrad Hassan have reviewed its content. As summarized in this report, the course consists of 17 separate topic areas emphasizing appropriate engineering fundamentals as well as development, planning, and regulatory issues. In addition to the course summary, the report gives the details of a public Internet site where references and related course material can be obtained. This course will fill a pressing need for the education and training of the U.S. workforce in this critically important area. Fundamentally, this course will be unique due to two attributes: an emphasis on the engineering and technical aspects of offshore wind energy systems, and a focus on offshore wind energy issues specific to the United States.

  14. Trust and the transformation of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rayner, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The author looks at diverse concepts and roles of trust in the challenge of decarbonising energy systems, drawing on 25 years of personal experience in the fields of energy and environmental policy research. The paper focuses on three issues-public trust in science, institutional trust in making technology choices, and the idea that high-trust societies are more sustainable than those exhibiting low-trust. While trust is a key concept in understanding the public acceptability of technology choices, it is only one of a suite of interrelated concepts that must be addressed, which also includes liability, consent, and fairness. Furthermore, rational distrust among competing institutional world views may be critical in understanding the role of social capital in socioeconomic and technological development. Thus the concept of trust has become a portmanteau, carrying a diverse range of ideas and conditions for sustainable energy systems. The paper concludes with three emphases for decision makers. First, the issue is the energy system, not particular generating technologies. Second, the energy system must be recognized to be as much a social system as it is a technical one. Third, the system requires incorporation of the minimum level of diversity of engineering technologies and social actors to be sustainable.

  15. Synergies in the Asian energy system: Climate change, energy security, energy access and air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vliet, Oscar van; Krey, Volker; McCollum, David; Pachauri, Shonali; Nagai, Yu; Rao, Shilpa; Riahi, Keywan

    2012-01-01

    We use the MESSAGE model to examine multiple dimensions of sustainable development for three Asian regions in a set of scenarios developed for the Asian Modelling Exercise. Using climate change mitigation as a starting point for the analysis, we focus on the interaction of climate and energy with technology choice, energy security, energy access, and air pollution, which often have higher policy priority than climate change. Stringent climate policies drive the future energy supply in Asia from being dominated by coal and oil to a more diversified system based mostly on natural gas, coal with CCS, nuclear and renewable energy. The increase in diversity helps to improve the energy security of individual countries and regions. Combining air pollution control policies and universal energy access policies with climate policy can further help to reduce both outdoor and indoor air pollution related health impacts. Investments into the energy system must double by 2030 to achieve stringent climate goals, but are largely offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution abatement. Strong focus on end-use efficiency also helps lowering overall total costs and allows for limiting or excluding supply side technologies from the mitigation portfolio. Costs of additional energy access policies and measures are a small fraction of total energy system costs. - Highlights: ► Half of added investments in energy offset by lower costs for O and M and air pollution. ► Costs for achieving universal energy access much smaller than energy system costs. ► Combined emissions and access policies further reduce air pollution impacts on health. ► Strong focus on end-use efficiency allows for more flexibility on energy sources. ► Stringent climate policy can improve energy security of Asian regions.

  16. Pulsed power liner for PLT energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armellino, C.A.; Bronner, G.; Murray, J.G.

    1975-01-01

    PLT is Princeton University's latest Tokamak machine in the controlled thermonuclear fusion research effort. The OH (ohmic heating) and SF (shaping field) systems for the machine place a very high energy pulsed current load on the AC line feeding them. This paper describes the two systems and the steps taken to insure minimum effect on line regulation during the pulsed operation

  17. DNA - A Thermal Energy System Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    DNA is a general energy system simulator for both steady-state and dynamic simulation. The program includes a * component model library * thermodynamic state models for fluids and solid fuels and * standard numerical solvers for differential and algebraic equation systems and is free and portable...

  18. Applying Systems Engineering on Energy Challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safi, J.; Muller, G.; Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Systems engineering is a discipline with methods and techniques to address complex problems. We want to study how Systems Engineering methods can help to address today's grand challenges, such as the energy problem. The first step is problem definition which aims at articulating the problem in its

  19. Simulation approach towards energy flexible manufacturing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beier, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This authored monograph provides in-depth analysis and methods for aligning electricity demand of manufacturing systems to VRE supply. The book broaches both long-term system changes and real-time manufacturing execution and control, and the author presents a concept with different options for improved energy flexibility including battery, compressed air and embodied energy storage. The reader will also find a detailed application procedure as well as an implementation into a simulation prototype software. The book concludes with two case studies. The target audience primarily comprises research experts in the field of green manufacturing systems. .

  20. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, J. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems,this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  1. Systems Evaluation at the Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Williamson and S. Puttagunta

    2013-09-01

    Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) monitored several advanced mechanical systems within a 2012 deep energy retrofitted home in the small Orlando suburb of Windermere, FL. This report provides performance results of one of the home's heat pump water heaters (HPWH) and the whole-house dehumidifier (WHD) over a six month period. In addition to assessing the energy performance of these systems, this study sought to quantify potential comfort improvements over traditional systems. This information is applicable to researchers, designers, plumbers, and HVAC contractors. Though builders and homeowners can find useful information within this report, the corresponding case studies are a likely better reference for this audience.

  2. District heating with SLOWPOKE energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    The SLOWPOKE Energy System, a benign nuclear heat source designed to supply 10 thermal megawatts in the form of hot water for local heating systems in buildings and institutions, is at the forefront of these developments. A demonstration unit has been constructed in Canada and is currently undergoing an extensive test program. Because the nuclear heat source is small, operates at atmospheric pressure, and produces hot water below 100 degrees Celcius, intrinsic safety features will permit minimum operator attention and allow the heat source to be located close to the load and hence to people. In this way, a SLOWPOKE Energy System can be considered much like the oil- or coal-fired furnace it is designed to replace. The low capital investment requirements, coupled with a high degree of localization, even for the first unit, are seen as attractive features for the implementation of SLOWPOKE Energy Systems in many countries

  3. The role of electrolysers in energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridjan, Iva; Hansen, Kenneth; Sorknæs, Peter

    Short and long-term role of electrolysis for grid balancing is investigated in this report, followed by an analysis on the feasibility of implementing electrolysis in the energy system and their potential for gas market balancing. Firstly, a literature review is conducted to determine the state......-of-the-art knowledge on using electrolysis for grid balancing. Secondly, based on Danish energy system models for 2020 and 2035, which can simulate the operation of electrolysis, the role of both alkaline and SOEC electrolysers is analysed in terms of electricity system balancing. Thirdly, different electrolyser...... capacities are simulated in 2020 and 2035 to investigate how electrolysis can aid the integration of for renewable energy, followed by a gas-grid balancing analyses. Finally, a comparison is made between SOECs and alkaline electrolysers in the 2035 system, due to the uncertainty of commercializing SOEC...

  4. Rethinking Participation in Smart Energy System Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imke Lammers

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the technical layout of smart energy systems is well advanced, the implementation of these systems is slowed down by the current decision-making practice regarding such energy infrastructures. We call for a reorganisation of the decision-making process on local energy planning and address the question ‘how can decision-making on the design and implementation of Smart Energy Systems be accelerated?’ Inspired by engineering design thinking and based on two workshop sessions, we identify five design phases and an implementation phase, and distinguish between a design component and a participation component. This allows for the effective participation of external stakeholders at four specific moments in the decision-making process. This way, efficiency and effectiveness in smart energy system planning can be increased, without compromising on participation. When applied to the Dutch context of energy planning, the developed decision-making model is useful for project participants as well as policy-makers in a wide variety of settings.

  5. Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project was interdis......This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project...... energy and environmental analysis tools as well as analyses of the design and implementation of future renewable energy systems. For practical reasons, the work has been carried out as an interaction between five work packages, and a number of reports, papers and tools have been reported separately from...... of the different project parts in a coherent way by presenting tools and methodologies as well as analyses of the design and implementation of renewable energy systems – including both energy and environmental aspects. The authors listed in the report represent those who have contributed directly as well...

  6. Energy-aware design of digital systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruian, F.

    2000-02-01

    Power and energy consumption are important issues in many digital applications, for reasons such as packaging cost and battery life-span. With the development of portable computing and communication, an increasing number of research groups are addressing power and energy related issues at various stages during the design process. Most of the work done in this area focuses on lower abstraction levels, such as gate or transistor level. Ideally, a power and energy-efficient design flow should consider the power and energy issues at every stage in the design process. Therefore, power and energy aware methods, applicable early in the design process are required. In this trend, the thesis presents two high-level design methods addressing power and energy consumption minimization. The first of the two approaches we describe, targets power consumption minimization during behavioral synthesis. This is carried out by minimizing the switching activity, while taking the correlations between signals into account. The second approach performs energy consumption minimization during system-level design, by choosing the most energy-efficient schedule and configuration of resources. Both methods make use of the constraint programming paradigm to model the problems in an elegant manner. The experimental results presented in this thesis show the impact of addressing the power and energy related issues early in the design process.

  7. Risoe energy report 7. Future low carbon energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Hans; Soenderberg Petersen, L. (eds.)

    2008-10-15

    This Risoe Energy Report, the seventh of a series that began in 2002, takes as its point of reference the recommendations of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007. The IPCC states that if anticipated climate change is to remain in the order of 2 to 3 degrees centigrades over the next century, the world's CO{sub 2} emissions would have to peak within the next 10-15 years and ultimately be reduced to approximately 50% of their present level by the middle of the century. The IPCC states further that this would be possible, provided that serious action is taken now. The different regions and countries of the world are in various states of development, and hence have different starting points for contributing to these reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. This report presents state-of-the-art and development perspectives for energy supply technologies, new energy systems, end-use energy efficiency improvements and new policy measures. It also includes estimates of the CO{sub 2} reduction potentials for different technologies. The technologies are characterized with regard to their ability to contribute either to ensuring a peak in CO{sub 2} emissions within 10-15 years, or to long-term CO{sub 2} reductions. The report outlines the current and likely future composition of energy systems in Denmark, and examines three groups of countries: i) Europe and the other OECD member nations; ii) large and rapidly growing developing economies, notably India and China; iii) typical least developed countries, such as many African nations. The report emphasises how future energy developments and systems might be composed in these three country groupings, and to what extent the different technologies might contribute. The report addresses the need for research and demonstration together with market incentives, and policy measures with focus on initiatives that can promote the development towards CO{sub 2} reductions. Specifically, the report identifies system

  8. Energy Data Management (EDM) in a liberalised energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulbricht, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the role of Energy Data Management (EDM) in a liberalised Swiss energy market in the light of increasing international dynamics in this area. The requirements placed on such EDM systems are reviewed and the changes necessary in the structures and processes of electricity supply organisations are discussed. A possible design for future software systems is presented. Such systems have to be flexible enough to cover various structural possibilities as Swiss legislation on the subject has not yet been passed. The handling of data on energy-flow balances when third-party power is transferred in shared mains systems is discussed and scheduling aspects of power generation and transmission are looked at. The billing of power to customers with a free choice of supplier is looked at, as is the situation involving utilities that supply not only electricity but gas, district heating and water too

  9. Biomass - Overview of Swiss Research Programme 2003; Biomasse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2003-07-01

    This overview for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the results obtained in 2003 in various research projects worked on in Switzerland on the subject of biomass. In the biomass combustion area, subjects discussed include system optimisation for automatic firing, combustion particles, low-particle pellet furnaces, design and optimisation of wood-fired storage ovens, efficiency of filtering techniques and methane generation from wood. Also, an accredited testing centre for wood furnaces is mentioned and measurements made on an installation are presented. As far as the fermentation of biogenic wastes is concerned, biogas production from dairy-product wastes is described. Other projects discussed include a study on eco-balances of energy products, certification and marketing of biogas, evaluation of membranes, a measurement campaign for solar sludge-drying, the operation of a percolator installation for the treatment of bio-wastes, the effects of compost on the environment and the fermentation of coffee wastes. Also, statistics on biogas production in 2002 is looked at. Finally, a preliminary study on biofuels is presented.

  10. Renewable energy in energy efficient, low-pollution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Bengt

    1997-03-01

    Energy use accounts for the dominating fraction of total sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. In this thesis, different strategies for reducing these emissions are evaluated, using a bottom-up approach. CO{sub 2} emissions from electricity and heat production in western Scania, Sweden, can be reduced by 25% and the emissions of acidifying gases (SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}) by 50% by the year 2010, compared with 1988 levels, using energy systems based on efficient end-use technologies, cogeneration of heat and electricity, renewable energy sources and low-pollution energy conversion technologies. Exhaust-pipe NO{sub x} emissions from the Swedish transportation sector can be reduced by 50 percent by the year 2015, compared with 1991, by implementing the best available vehicle technologies. Exhaust-pipe emissions of CO{sub 2} can be stabilized at the 1991 level. With further technical development and the use of fuels from renewable sources of energy, NO{sub x} emissions can be reduced by 75 percent and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80 percent compared with 1991 levels. Swedish biomass resources are large, and, assuming production conditions around 2015, about 200 TWh/year could be utilised for energy. Major reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions could be achieved by substituting biomass for fossil fuels in heat, electricity and transportation fuel production. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass are likely to be less expensive than transportation fuels from conventional biomass feedstocks such as oil plants, sugar-beet and cereals. 90 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs

  11. Sustainability assessment of a hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afgan, Nain H.; Carvalho, Maria G.

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid energy system in the form of the Object structure is the pattern for the structure of options in the evaluation of a hybrid system. The Object structure is defined as: Hybrid Energy System {[production (solar, wind, biomass, natural gas)] [utilization(electricity, heat, hydrogen)]}. In the evaluation of hybrid energy systems only several options are selected to demonstrate the sustainability assessment method application in the promotion of the specific quality of the hybrid energy system. In this analysis the following options are taken into a consideration: 1.Solar photo-voltaic power plant (PV PP), wind turbine power plant (WTPP) biomass thermal power plant (ThSTPP) for electricity, heat and hydrogen production. 2.Solar PV PP and wind power plant (WPP) for electricity and hydrogen production. 3.Biomass thermal steam turbine power plant (BThSTPP) and WPP for heat and hydrogen production. 4.Combined cycle gas turbine power plant for electricity and hydrogen production. 5.Cogeneration of electricity and water by the hybrid system. The sustainability assessment method is used for the evaluation of quality of the selected hybrid systems. In this evaluation the following indicators are used: economic indicator, environment indicator and social indicator

  12. System Energy Assessment (SEA, Defining a Standard Measure of EROI for Energy Businesses as Whole Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Zarnikau

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A more objective method for measuring the energy needs of businesses, System Energy Assessment (SEA, measures the combined impacts of material supply chains and service supply chains, to assess businesses as whole self-managing net-energy systems. The method is demonstrated using a model Wind Farm, and defines a physical measure of their energy productivity for society (EROI-S, a ratio of total energy delivered to total energy expended. Energy use records for technology and proxy measures for clearly understood but not individually recorded energy uses for services are combined for a whole system estimate of consumption required for production. Current methods count only energy needs for technology. Business services outsource their own energy needs to operate, leaving no traceable record. That uncounted business energy demand is often 80% of the total, an amount of “dark energy” hidden from view, discovered by finding the average energy estimated needs for businesses far below the world average energy consumed per dollar of GDP. Presently for lack of information the energy needs of business services are counted to be “0”. Our default assumption is to treat them as “average”. The result is a hard measure of total business demand for energy services, a “Scope 4” energy use or GHG impact assessment. Counting recorded energy uses and discounting unrecorded ones misrepresents labor intensive work as highly energy efficient. The result confirms a similar finding by Hall et al. in 1981 [1]. We use exhaustive search for what a business needs to operate as a whole, tracing internal business relationships rather than energy data, to locate its natural physical boundary as a working unit, and so define a business as a physical rather than statistical subject of scientific study. See also online resource materials and notes [2].

  13. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO 2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  14. Evaluating architecture impact on system energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shijie; Yang, Hailong; Wang, Rui; Luan, Zhongzhi; Qian, Depei

    2017-01-01

    As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially valuable for High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter environment hosting tens of thousands of servers. One obstacle hindering the advance of comprehensive evaluation on energy efficiency is the deficient power measuring approach. Most of the energy study relies on either external power meters or power models, both of these two methods contain intrinsic drawbacks in their practical adoption and measuring accuracy. Fortunately, the advent of Intel Running Average Power Limit (RAPL) interfaces has promoted the power measurement ability into next level, with higher accuracy and finer time resolution. Therefore, we argue it is the exact time to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the existing architecture designs to understand their impact on system energy efficiency. In this paper, we leverage representative benchmark suites including serial and parallel workloads from diverse domains to evaluate the architecture features such as Non Uniform Memory Access (NUMA), Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) and Turbo Boost. The energy is tracked at subcomponent level such as Central Processing Unit (CPU) cores, uncore components and Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) through exploiting the power measurement ability exposed by RAPL. The experiments reveal non-intuitive results: 1) the mismatch between local compute and remote memory node caused by NUMA effect not only generates dramatic power and energy surge but also deteriorates the energy efficiency significantly; 2) for multithreaded application such as the Princeton Application Repository for Shared-Memory Computers (PARSEC), most of the workloads benefit a notable increase of energy efficiency using SMT, with more than 40% decline in average power consumption; 3) Turbo Boost is effective to accelerate the workload execution

  15. Evaluating architecture impact on system energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shijie; Wang, Rui; Luan, Zhongzhi; Qian, Depei

    2017-01-01

    As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially valuable for High Performance Computing (HPC) and datacenter environment hosting tens of thousands of servers. One obstacle hindering the advance of comprehensive evaluation on energy efficiency is the deficient power measuring approach. Most of the energy study relies on either external power meters or power models, both of these two methods contain intrinsic drawbacks in their practical adoption and measuring accuracy. Fortunately, the advent of Intel Running Average Power Limit (RAPL) interfaces has promoted the power measurement ability into next level, with higher accuracy and finer time resolution. Therefore, we argue it is the exact time to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the existing architecture designs to understand their impact on system energy efficiency. In this paper, we leverage representative benchmark suites including serial and parallel workloads from diverse domains to evaluate the architecture features such as Non Uniform Memory Access (NUMA), Simultaneous Multithreading (SMT) and Turbo Boost. The energy is tracked at subcomponent level such as Central Processing Unit (CPU) cores, uncore components and Dynamic Random-Access Memory (DRAM) through exploiting the power measurement ability exposed by RAPL. The experiments reveal non-intuitive results: 1) the mismatch between local compute and remote memory node caused by NUMA effect not only generates dramatic power and energy surge but also deteriorates the energy efficiency significantly; 2) for multithreaded application such as the Princeton Application Repository for Shared-Memory Computers (PARSEC), most of the workloads benefit a notable increase of energy efficiency using SMT, with more than 40% decline in average power consumption; 3) Turbo Boost is effective to accelerate the workload execution

  16. Energy Systems Integration Partnerships: NREL + Hawaiian Electric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-23

    NREL and the Hawaiian Electric Companies are collaborating with the solar and inverter industries to implement advanced inverters, allowing greater solar photovoltaic (PV) penetrations that will support the State of Hawaii's goal to achieve 100% renewable energy by 2045. Advanced inverters will help maintain stable grid operations by riding through grid disturbances when the PV output is needed, operating autonomously to smooth voltage fluctuations, and coordinating the start-up and reconnection of PV systems and other distributed energy resources.

  17. McCabe wind energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, R.; McCabe, F.; MacMichael, G.

    1995-01-01

    A wind machine utilizing novel low-speed air foils and shrouds has been developed and is now undergoing a refinement process. Energy generated by the machine at a variety of wind speeds is significant. Use of the machine to compress air, which can serve a variety of applications, simplifies the total power producing system ranking it economical and practical for use at a variety of locations to fill many energy requirements. (author)

  18. McCabe wind energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, R. [Wyndmoor (United States); McCabe, F. [Levr/Air, Inc., Doylestown (United States); MacMichael, G. [Regional Technical College, Galway (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    A wind machine utilizing novel low-speed air foils and shrouds has been developed and is now undergoing a refinement process. Energy generated by the machine at a variety of wind speeds is significant. Use of the machine to compress air, which can serve a variety of applications, simplifies the total power producing system ranking it economical and practical for use at a variety of locations to fill many energy requirements. (author)

  19. Planning, budgeting and performance management at Swiss hospitals – Are Swiss hospitals at a crossroads – Will these medical specialist organisations in future develop into institutions with a business orientation? [Die Krankenhäuser der Schweiz am Wendepunkt von der medizinischen Expertenorganisation hin zu betriebswirtschaftlich geführten Institutionen? – Untersuchung zu deren Performance-Management-System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walser, Konrad

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] This article explores the question of how Swiss hospitals can establish a coherent performance management system with a long term orientation. With the introduction of competitive mechanisms (DRG system in the new Medical Insurance Act, a business orientation with regard to hospital management has become a key factor for market survival. The present study is based on a written survey of all Swiss hospitals in the German-speaking regions of the country. They were asked about the status quo and the targets for their performance management systems, based on a general maturity model for performance management, ed for hospitals. The descriptive evaluation of the data indicates that most hospitals are on the right road. Planning and Controlling are highly matured (in terms of processes, but the strategic importance of an effective performance management system (Reporting, IT integration is still widely underestimated. Thus most hospitals already have extensive planning mechanisms, but do not give these mechanisms priority when it comes to IT support.Bivariate analyses (correlation matrices of the results of the survey show that IT, in particular, plays a central role as a carrier medium or platform for performance management. At the same time, these detailed analyses indicate that (management oriented hospital planning is the actual driver for the establishment and extension of sound performance management systems. The study shows that well-developed IT infrastructures and clear planning figures will allow for performance management of detailed content.It should also not be forgotten that a well-functioning performance management system also has an organisational component. It is only when the tasks, skills and responsibilities of hospital management as these relate to business outlook, medical treatment and care are coordinated that hospitals can be managed in a more performance-orientated way.[german] Der Beitrag behandelt die Frage, wie

  20. Energy Conservation In Compressed Air Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusuf, I.Y.; Dewu, B.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Compressed air is an essential utility that accounts for a substantial part of the electricity consumption (bill) in most industrial plants. Although the general saying Air is free of charge is not true for compressed air, the utility's cost is not accorded the rightful importance due to its by most industries. The paper will show that the cost of 1 unit of energy in the form of compressed air is at least 5 times the cost electricity (energy input) required to produce it. The paper will also provide energy conservation tips in compressed air systems

  1. Building Energy Information Systems: User Case Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, Jessica; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2010-03-22

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  2. World energy projection system: Model documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-06-01

    The World Energy Project System (WEPS) is an accounting framework that incorporates projects from independently documented models and assumptions about the future energy intensity of economic activity (ratios of total energy consumption divided by gross domestic product) and about the rate of incremental energy requirements met by hydropower, geothermal, coal, and natural gas to produce projections of world energy consumption published annually by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the International Energy Outlook (IEO) (Figure 1). Two independently documented models presented in Figure 1, the Oil Market Simulation (OMS) model and the World Integrated Nuclear Evaluation System (WINES) provide projections of oil and nuclear power consumption published in the IEO. Output from a third independently documented model, and the International Coal Trade Model (ICTM), is not published in the IEO but is used in WEPS as a supply check on projections of world coal consumption produced by WEPS and published in the IEO. A WEPS model of natural gas production documented in this report provides the same type of implicit supply check on the WEPS projections of world natural gas consumption published in the IEO. Two additional models are included in Figure 1, the OPEC Capacity model and the Non-OPEC Oil Production model. These WEPS models provide inputs to the OMS model and are documented in this report

  3. Building energy information systems. User case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granderson, J.; Piette, M.A.; Ghatikar, G. [Lawrence Berkeley, National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Measured energy performance data are essential to national efforts to improve building efficiency, as evidenced in recent benchmarking mandates, and in a growing body of work that indicates the value of permanent monitoring and energy information feedback. This paper presents case studies of energy information systems (EIS) at four enterprises and university campuses, focusing on the attained energy savings, and successes and challenges in technology use and integration. EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems to store, analyze, and display building energy information. Case investigations showed that the most common energy savings and instances of waste concerned scheduling errors, measurement and verification, and inefficient operations. Data quality is critical to effective EIS use, and is most challenging at the subsystem or component level, and with non-electric energy sources. Sophisticated prediction algorithms may not be well understood but can be applied quite effectively, and sites with custom benchmark models or metrics are more likely to perform analyses external to the EIS. Finally, resources and staffing were identified as a universal challenge, indicating a need to identify additional models of EIS use that extend beyond exclusive in-house use, to analysis services.

  4. Decision Support System for a Low Voltage Renewable Energy System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Stamatescu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a decision support system (DSS for a low-voltage grid with renewable energy sources (photovoltaic panels and wind turbine which aims at achieving energy balance in a pilot microgrid with less energy consumed from the network. The DSS is based on a procedural decision algorithm that is applied on a pilot microgrid, with energy produced from renewable energy sources, but it can be easily generalized for any microgrid. To underline the benefits of the developed DSS two case scenarios (a household and an office building with different energy consumptions were analyzed. The results and throw added value of the paper is the description of an implemented microgrid, the development and testing of the decision support system on real measured data. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the approach in rule-based decision switching.

  5. Wastewater treatment: Self-controlling, frost-free system as a way of saving lots of energy; Selbstregelndes Frostschutzsystem als grosser Energieeinsparer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haag, J.

    2002-07-01

    This article describes the new heating elements fitted to the tops of the concrete walls of the settlement basin at the wastewater treatment plant in the Swiss mountain resort of Davos. The original system, which featured electrical heating elements cast in the concrete of the basin's walls, was slow to react and its continuous use led to high electricity bills. The article describes the new system, which keeps the tops of the walls ice-free using surface-mounted heating tapes. The reasons for the reduction in energy consumption, which is even lower than predicted, and the self-regulating behaviour of the heating tapes are discussed.

  6. Energy systems analysis of biogas systems; Energianalys av biogassystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, Maria; Boerjesson, Paal

    2003-05-01

    The aim of this study was to calculate the net energy output and energy efficiency, from a life-cycle perspective and for Swedish conditions, in anaerobic digestion of various raw materials. Our calculations are based on literature reviews concerning the total primary energy input required for the production of biogas (i.e. direct and indirect energy inputs, e.g. when producing and distributing diesel fuels, electricity, fertilisers) as well as the biogas yield from various raw materials. Our analyses include handling and transportation of raw materials, operation of the biogas plants, and transportation and spreading of digested residues, as well as the biogas yield from manure, ley crops, tops and leaves of sugar beets, straw, municipal organic waste, slaughter waste, and grease separator sludge. All calculations concern individual raw materials. The net energy input required to run a biogas system (i.e. centralised biogas plant) typically corresponds to approximately 20-40% of the energy content in the produced biogas. Theoretically, the raw materials could be transported for some 200 km (manure) up to 700 km (slaughter waste) before the net energy output becomes negative. The variations in energy efficiency between studied biogas systems depend mainly on the type of raw material studied and the calculation methods used. Raw materials with high water content and low biogas yield (e.g. manure) require rather large energy inputs compared to the amount of biogas produced. Energy demanding handling of the raw materials, such as ley crops, could correspond to as much as approximately 40% of the net energy input. Varying energy efficiency in different parts of the biogas system, but most of all, changes in the biogas yield, could considerably affect the total net energy output. In general, operation of the biogas plant is the most energy demanding process in the biogas systems, corresponding to some 40-80% of the net energy input in the biogas systems. This implies

  7. Smart power systems and renewable energy system integration

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a wider spectrum of researches, developments, and case specific studies in the area of smart power systems and integration of renewable energy systems. The book will be for the benefit of a wider audience including researchers, postgraduate students, practicing engineers, academics, and regulatory policy makers. It covers a wide range of topics from fundamentals, and modelling and simulation aspects of traditional and smart power systems to grid integration of renewables; Micro Grids; challenges in planning and operation of a smart power system; risks, security, and stability in smart operation of a power system; and applied research in energy storage. .

  8. Photovoltaic Energy Harvester with Power Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a photovoltaic energy harvester, realized in 0.35-μm CMOS technology. The proposed system collects light energy from the environment, by means of 2-mm2 on-chip integrated microsolar cells, and accumulates it in an external capacitor. While the capacitor is charging, the load is disconnected. When the energy in the external capacitor is enough to operate the load for a predefined time slot, the load is connected to the capacitor by a power management circuit. The choice of the value of the capacitance determines the operating time slot for the load. The proposed solution is suitable for discrete-time-regime applications, such as sensor network nodes, or, in general, systems that require power supply periodically for short time slots. The power management circuit includes a charge pump, a comparator, a level shifter, and a linear voltage regulator. The whole system has been extensively simulated, integrated, and experimentally characterized.

  9. Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W.; Sullivan, P.; Mai, T.; Mowers, M.; Uriarte, C.; Blair, N.; Heimiller, D.; Martinez, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a deterministic optimization model of the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States into the future. The model, developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Strategic Energy Analysis Center, is designed to analyze the critical energy issues in the electric sector, especially with respect to potential energy policies, such as clean energy and renewable energy standards or carbon restrictions. ReEDS provides a detailed treatment of electricity-generating and electrical storage technologies and specifically addresses a variety of issues related to renewable energy technologies, including accessibility and cost of transmission, regional quality of renewable resources, seasonal and diurnal generation profiles, variability of wind and solar power, and the influence of variability on the reliability of the electrical grid. ReEDS addresses these issues through a highly discretized regional structure, explicit statistical treatment of the variability in wind and solar output over time, and consideration of ancillary services' requirements and costs.

  10. Biomass energy inventory and mapping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasile, J.D. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1993-12-31

    A four-stage biomass energy inventory and mapping system was conducted for the entire State of Ohio. The product is a set of maps and an inventory of the State of Ohio. The set of amps and an inventory of the State`s energy biomass resource are to a one kilometer grid square basis on the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) system. Each square kilometer is identified and mapped showing total British Thermal Unit (BTU) energy availability. Land cover percentages and BTU values are provided for each of nine biomass strata types for each one kilometer grid square. LANDSAT satellite data was used as the primary stratifier. The second stage sampling was the photointerpretation of randomly selected one kilometer grid squares that exactly corresponded to the LANDSAT one kilometer grid square classification orientation. Field sampling comprised the third stage of the energy biomass inventory system and was combined with the fourth stage sample of laboratory biomass energy analysis using a Bomb calorimeter and was then used to assign BTU values to the photointerpretation and to adjust the LANDSAT classification. The sampling error for the whole system was 3.91%.

  11. The effect of price and production risks on optimal farm plans in Swiss dairy production considering 2 different milk quota systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, S; Finger, R

    2013-04-01

    The amount of milk produced on Swiss dairy farms is restricted by contracts between the farmers and their marketing agent. In the past, these contracts have been calculated on a yearly base. Due to a switch in agricultural policy, these yearly contracts are currently more and more replaced by contracts calculated on a monthly base. These new contracts are assumed to restrict the flexibility of farmers to react on changes in milk price as well as on changes in fodder availability. Thus, the contract design is expected to influence farmers' ability to cope with risks and, thus, to influence the farm's gross margin variability. Applying a bioeconomic whole-farm model, the effects of price and weather risk as well as different risk-management strategies on the gross margin and the variability of the gross margin in Swiss dairy production are assessed under the 2 contract designs. We consider both risk-neutral and risk-averse behavior of farmers in our study. Results show that gross margin is slightly higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. Variability of gross margin is also higher under the yearly than under the monthly contract. If the farmer is assumed to be risk averse, under both contracts he can reduce the coefficient of variation of the gross margin by almost 20% at opportunity costs below 1% of the gross margin. To reduce variability of gross margin under both contracts the size of the feedstock needs to be increased. This increase, however, must be considerably higher under the monthly contract than under the yearly contract. An additional risk-management strategy under a monthly contract is an increase in the area used as intensive pasture to ensure fodder availability in years with unfavorable weather. Under the yearly contract, an increase in the area used as extensive pasture is shown to be more favorable because it increases the amount of direct payments the farmer will receive. Additional restrictions in farm management due to a monthly

  12. Materials handbook for fusion energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the Materials Handbook for Fusion Energy Systems (MHFES) is to provide a readily available source of data to those involved in the design and analysis of fusion reactors or their components. Initially the focus of this Handbook will be on materials properties necessary for the design and analysis of the first wall and blanket structure of both near and long term fusion reactor concepts. However, as more data become available, this effort will be expanded to other aspects of fusion energy systems such as magnets and plasma heaters

  13. Solar energy control system. [temperature measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, J. R. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A solar energy control system for a hot air type solar energy heating system wherein thermocouples are arranged to sense the temperature of a solar collector, a space to be heated, and a top and bottom of a heat storage unit is disclosed. Pertinent thermocouples are differentially connected together, and these are employed to effect the operation of dampers, a fan, and an auxiliary heat source. In accomplishing this, the differential outputs from the thermocouples are amplified by a single amplifier by multiplexing techniques. Additionally, the amplifier is corrected as to offset by including as one multiplex channel a common reference signal.

  14. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  15. Revisit ocean thermal energy conversion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.C.; Krock, H.J.; Oney, S.K.

    2003-01-01

    The earth, covered more than 70.8% by the ocean, receives most of its energy from the sun. Solar energy is transmitted through the atmosphere and efficiently collected and stored in the surface layer of the ocean, largely in the tropical zone. Some of the energy is re-emitted to the atmosphere to drive the hydrologic cycle and wind. The wind field returns some of the energy to the ocean in the form of waves and currents. The majority of the absorbed solar energy is stored in vertical thermal gradients near the surface layer of the ocean, most of which is in the tropical region. This thermal energy replenished each day by the sun in the tropical ocean represents a tremendous pollution-free energy resource for human civilization. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology refers to a mechanical system that utilizes the natural temperature gradient that exists in the tropical ocean between the warm surface water and the deep cold water, to generate electricity and produce other economically valuable by-products. The science and engineering behind OTEC have been studied in the US since the mid-seventies, supported early by the U.S. Government and later by State and private industries. There are two general types of OTEC designs: closed-cycle plants utilize the evaporation of a working fluid, such as ammonia or propylene, to drive the turbine-generator, and open-cycle plants use steam from evaporated sea water to run the turbine. Another commonly known design, hybrid plants, is a combination of the two. OTEC requires relatively low operation and maintenance costs and no fossil fuel consumption. OTEC system possesses a formidable potential capacity for renewable energy and offers a significant elimination of greenhouse gases in producing power. In addition to electricity and drinking water, an OTEC system can produce many valuable by-products and side-utilizations, such as: hydrogen, air-conditioning, ice, aquaculture, and agriculture, etc. The potential of these

  16. Air quality and future energy system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral Mourao, Zenaida; Konadu, Dennis; Lupton, Rick

    2016-04-01

    Ambient air pollution has been linked to an increasing number of premature deaths throughout the world. Projected increases in demand for food, energy resources and manufactured products will likely contribute to exacerbate air pollution with an increasing impact on human health, agricultural productivity and climate change. Current events such as tampering emissions tests by VW car manufacturers, failure to comply with EU Air Quality directives and WHO guidelines by many EU countries, the problem of smog in Chinese cities and new industrial emissions regulations represent unique challenges but also opportunities for regulators, local authorities and industry. However current models and practices of energy and resource use do not consider ambient air impacts as an integral part of the planing process. Furthermore the analysis of drivers, sources and impacts of air pollution is often fragmented, difficult to understand and lacks effective visualization tools that bring all of these components together. This work aims to develop a model that links impacts of air quality on human health and ecosystems to current and future developments in the energy system, industrial and agricultural activity and patterns of land use. The model will be added to the ForeseerTM tool, which is an integrated resource analysis platform that has been developed at the University of Cambridge initially with funding from BP and more recently through the EPSRC funded Whole Systems Energy Modeling (WholeSEM) project. The basis of the tool is a set of linked physical models for energy, water and land, including the technologies that are used to transform these resources into final services such as housing, food, transport and household goods. The new air quality model will explore different feedback effects between energy, land and atmospheric systems with the overarching goal of supporting better communication about the drivers of air quality and to incorporate concerns about air quality into

  17. An important year for Swiss Electricity Politics - President's speech at the shareholder's meeting of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the speech made by Rudolf Steiner, president of the Swiss Association of Electricity Enterprises, in Bad Ragaz in September 2004. Steiner comments on 2004 as being an important year with respect to energy politics in Switzerland. A public vote turned down the idea of opting out of nuclear energy, the Federal Court decided that the Restricted Trade Practices act was also applicable to the Swiss electricity supply industry and the EU parliament passed guidelines on the opening of the European power market. The effects of large-scale blackouts in America and Europe on the public's perception of secure supplies are commented on. The importance of the Association as a provider of services for its members and as a partner for the government is stressed

  18. Solar energy system economic evaluation: IBM System 2, Togus, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The economic analysis of the solar energy system, is developed for Torgus and four other sites typical of a wide range of environmental and economic conditions in the continental United States. This analysis is accomplished based on the technical and economic models in the f-chart design procedure with inputs taken on the characteristics of the installed system and local conditions. The results are expressed in terms of the economic parameters of present worth of system cost over a projected twenty year life, life cycle savings, year of positive savings and year of payback for the optimized solar energy system at each of the analysis sites. The sensitivity of the economic evaluation to uncertainties in constituent system and economic variables is also investigated. Results demonstrate that the solar energy system is economically viable at all of the five sites for which the analysis was conducted.

  19. Automated drawing system of quantum energy levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stampoultzis, M.; Sinatkas, J.; Tsakstara, V.; Kosmas, T. S.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to derive an automated system that provides advantageous drawings of energy spectra for quantum systems (nuclei, atoms, molecules, etc.) required in various physical sciences. The automation involves the development of appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system based on raw data insertion, theoretical calculations and experimental or bibliographic data insertion. The system determines the appropriate scale to depict graphically with the best possible way in the available space. The presently developed code operates locally and the results are displayed on the screen and can be exported to a PostScript file. We note its main features to arrange and visualize in the available space the energy levels with their identity, taking care the existence in the final diagram the least auxiliary deviations. Future improvements can be the use of Java and the availability on the Internet. The work involves the automated plotting of energy levels in molecules, atoms, nuclei and other types of quantized energy spectra. The automation involves the development of an appropriate computational code and graphical imaging system.

  20. Energy Storage System for a Pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Maisonnier, D.; Hayward, J.

    2006-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for DEMO, some of which will operate in pulsed mode. Since a fusion power plant will be required to deliver continuous output, this challenge must be solved. For the reference DEMO, energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWhe with a capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. Although DEMO is scheduled to be built in about 30 years, the design of the energy storage system must be based on current technology, focusing on commercially available products and on their expected future trends. From a thorough review of the different technologies available, thermal energy storage, compressed air energy storage, water pumping, fuel cells, batteries, flywheels and ultracapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage for a pulsed DEMO. An outline of each of these technologies is described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. Following this review, the most suitable methods capable of storing the required energy are examined. Fuel cells are not suitable due to the power requirement. Compressed air energy storage has a lower efficiency than the required one. Thermal energy storage, based on molten salts, so more energy can be stored with a better efficiency, and water pumping are shown as the main solutions, based on existing technology. However, those are not the only solutions capable of solving our challenge. Hydrogen production, using water electrolysis, hydrogen storage and combustion in a combined cycle can achieve our energy and power requirements with an acceptable efficiency. All these solutions are studied in detail and described, evaluating their current cost and efficiency in order to compare them all. (author)

  1. Biomass programme: Overview of the 2006 Swiss research programme; Programm Biomasse. Ueberblicksbericht zum Forschungsprogramm 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binggeli, D.; Guggisberg, B.

    2007-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done within the framework of the Swiss biomass research programme in 2006. The programme concentrates on the efficient conversion of biomass into heat, electrical power and motor fuels. Projects concerned with the optimisation of processes are reported on, including low-particle-emission systems, control systems for bivalent heating installations, use of demanding biomass fuels, combined pellets and solar heating systems and the elimination of ammonia emissions. In the material flow area, measurement campaigns, organic pollutants in compost, the effects of fermented wastes in agriculture and methane losses in biogas conditioning are reported on. New conversion technologies are reviewed, including hydro-thermal gasification, plant-oil fuelled combined heat and power units, flameless burners and catalytic direct liquefaction. In the area of basics, studies and concepts, eco-balances and life-cycle analyses are reported on; the production of synthetic natural gas and the influence of combustion particles are discussed and decentralised power generation from solid biomass is reported on. National and international co-operation is reviewed. The report is concluded with a review of eight pilot and demonstration projects, a review of work to be done in 2007 and a list of research and demonstration projects.

  2. Energy Storage Applications in Power Systems with Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghofrani, Mahmoud

    In this dissertation, we propose new operational and planning methodologies for power systems with renewable energy sources. A probabilistic optimal power flow (POPF) is developed to model wind power variations and evaluate the power system operation with intermittent renewable energy generation. The methodology is used to calculate the operating and ramping reserves that are required to compensate for power system uncertainties. Distributed wind generation is introduced as an operational scheme to take advantage of the spatial diversity of renewable energy resources and reduce wind power fluctuations using low or uncorrelated wind farms. The POPF is demonstrated using the IEEE 24-bus system where the proposed operational scheme reduces the operating and ramping reserve requirements and operation and congestion cost of the system as compared to operational practices available in the literature. A stochastic operational-planning framework is also proposed to adequately size, optimally place and schedule storage units within power systems with high wind penetrations. The method is used for different applications of energy storage systems for renewable energy integration. These applications include market-based opportunities such as renewable energy time-shift, renewable capacity firming, and transmission and distribution upgrade deferral in the form of revenue or reduced cost and storage-related societal benefits such as integration of more renewables, reduced emissions and improved utilization of grid assets. A power-pool model which incorporates the one-sided auction market into POPF is developed. The model considers storage units as market participants submitting hourly price bids in the form of marginal costs. This provides an accurate market-clearing process as compared to the 'price-taker' analysis available in the literature where the effects of large-scale storage units on the market-clearing prices are neglected. Different case studies are provided to

  3. Swiss electricity production into the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmann, Walter

    2008-01-01

    In January 2007 the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's work on energy perspectives up until 2035 were concluded and presented. The results form the basis for political debate on the future direction of Switzerland's energy and climate policies. The energy perspectives point to an increase in demand for electricity in Switzerland by 2035 of around 20% and a deficit of roughly 17 billion kWh if no extra measures are taken. This corresponds to twice the annual production of a Swiss nuclear power station. This development and the unharnessed potential in the areas of efficiency and renewable energies prompted Switzerland's Federal Council to decide on a reorientation of its energy policy in 2007. This is based on four pillars: 1. Improved energy efficiency; 2. Promotion of renewable energy; 3. Targeted extension and construction of large-scale power stations; 4. Intensification of foreign energy policy, particularly in terms of cooperation with the EU. 2008 has got off to a strong start in terms of energy policy - the CO 2 tax on fuels has been introduced and the first package of the new Energy Supply Act (StromVG) has entered into force. The new Electricity Supply Act creates the necessary conditions for a progressive opening of Switzerland's electricity market. From 2009 some 50,000 large customers with an annual electricity consumption of over 100 megawatt hours will be able to benefit from this partial opening and be free to choose their power suppliers. But all other power consumers will benefit right from the start too because their electricity suppliers will also be able to buy in their electricity from the free market and pass on any price savings to their customers. Furthermore, the Electricity Supply Act delivers a clear legal framework for cross-border trade in electricity. In actual fact the opening of the electricity market is already well advanced around Switzerland. Liberalisation also results in cost transparency: As the opening of the electricity market

  4. Energy efficiency comparison between geothermal power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Chao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The geothermal water which can be considered for generating electricity with the temperature ranging from 80℃ to 150℃ in China because of shortage of electricity and fossil energy. There are four basic types of geothermal power systems: single flash, double flash, binary cycle, and flash-binary system, which can be adapted to geothermal energy utilization in China. The paper discussed the performance indices and applicable conditions of different power system. Based on physical and mathematical models, simulation result shows that, when geofluid temperature ranges from 100℃ to 130℃, the net power output of double flash power is bigger than flash-binary system. When the geothermal resource temperature is between 130℃ and 150℃, the net power output of flash-binary geothermal power system is higher than double flash system by the maximum value 5.5%. However, the sum water steam amount of double flash power system is 2 to 3 times larger than flash-binary power system, which will cause the bigger volume of equipment of power system. Based on the economy and power capacity, it is better to use flash-binary power system when the geofluid temperature is between 100℃ and 150℃.

  5. Renewable Energy Options for a Utility System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Lena; Panjeshahi, M. Hassan; Perry, Simon

    2009-05-01

    In this paper, renewable energies have been re-addressed with respect to the potentials and feasibility of being incorporated in process industries. Within a process, utility system is considered to be the most appropriate place for using sustainable energies. For integrating the renewable energies, the pinch analysis is applied as the main tool to provide opportunity for energy conservation. The results demonstrated that the power generation by the wind is the most cost effective and environmentally friendly option for energy conservation in comparison to the other sustainable resources. However the tidal energy stands the least due to the long payback period. Also, a computer program has been developed, using MATLAB 7.3, to screen out different scenarios and perform economic study. The outcome data showed that, there are several different opportunities for the integration of alternative energies. Finally, this method has been applied to a case study and various retrofit projects have been identified, each of which has certain amount of CO2 reduction and estimated values for the required investment, saving potential and payback period.

  6. Smart energy control systems for sustainable buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Spataru, Catalina; Howlett, Robert; Jain, Lakhmi

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread interest in the way that smart energy control systems, such as assessment and monitoring techniques for low carbon, nearly-zero energy and net positive buildings can contribute to a Sustainable future, for current and future generations. There is a turning point on the horizon for the supply of energy from finite resources such as natural gas and oil become less reliable in economic terms and extraction become more challenging, and more unacceptable socially, such as adverse public reaction to ‘fracking’. Thus, in 2016 these challenges are having a major influence on the design, optimisation, performance measurements, operation and preservation of: buildings, neighbourhoods, cities, regions, countries and continents. The source and nature of energy, the security of supply and the equity of distribution, the environmental impact of its supply and utilization, are all crucial matters to be addressed by suppliers, consumers, governments, industry, academia, and financial institutions. Thi...

  7. Energy harvesting devices, systems, and related methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotter, Dale K.

    2016-10-18

    Energy harvesting devices include a substrate and a plurality of resonance elements coupled to the substrate. Each resonance element is configured to collect energy in the visible and infrared light spectra and to reradiate energy having a wavelength in the range of about 0.8 .mu.m to about 0.9 .mu.m. The resonance elements are arranged in groups of two or more resonance elements. Systems for harvesting electromagnetic radiation include a substrate, a plurality of resonance elements including a conductive material carried by the substrate, and a photovoltaic material coupled to the substrate and to at least one resonance element. The resonance elements are arranged in groups, such as in a dipole, a tripole, or a bowtie configuration. Methods for forming an energy harvesting device include forming groups of two or more discrete resonance elements in a substrate and coupling a photovoltaic material to the groups of discrete resonance elements.

  8. Smart Operations in Distributed Energy Resources System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Li; Jie, Shu; Zhang-XianYong; Qing, Zhou

    Smart grid capabilities are being proposed to help solve the challenges concerning system operations due to that the trade-offs between energy and environmental needs will be constantly negotiated while a reliable supply of electricity needs even greater assurance in case of that threats of disruption have risen. This paper mainly explores models for distributed energy resources system (DG, storage, and load),and also reviews the evolving nature of electricity markets to deal with this complexity and a change of emphasis on signals from these markets to affect power system control. Smart grid capabilities will also impact reliable operations, while cyber security issues must be solved as a culture change that influences all system design, implementation, and maintenance. Lastly, the paper explores significant questions for further research and the need for a simulation environment that supports such investigation and informs deployments to mitigate operational issues as they arise.

  9. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO 2 emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO 2 reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO 2 emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO 2 emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic value of these

  10. Biomass in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Paal

    1998-04-01

    In this thesis, aspects of an increase in the utilization of biomass in the Swedish energy system are treated. Modern bioenergy systems should be based on high energy and land use efficiency since biomass resources and productive land are limited. The energy input, including transportation, per unit biomass produced is about 4-5% for logging residues, straw and short rotation forest (Salix). Salix has the highest net energy yield per hectare among the various energy crops cultivated in Sweden. The CO{sub 2} emissions from the production and transportation of logging residues, straw and Salix, are equivalent to 2-3% of those from a complete fuel-cycle for coal. Substituting biomass for fossil fuels in electricity and heat production is, in general, less costly and leads to a greater CO{sub 2} reduction per unit biomass than substituting biomass derived transportation fuels for petrol or diesel. Transportation fuels produced from cellulosic biomass provide larger and less expensive CO{sub 2} emission reductions than transportation fuels from annual crops. Swedish CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by about 50% from the present level if fossil fuels are replaced and the energy demand is unchanged. There is a good balance between potential regional production and utilization of biomass in Sweden. Future biomass transportation distances need not be longer than, on average, about 40 km. About 22 TWh electricity could be produced annually from biomass in large district heating systems by cogeneration. Cultivation of Salix and energy grass could be utilized to reduce the negative environmental impact of current agricultural practices, such as the emission of greenhouse gases, nutrient leaching, decreased soil fertility and erosion, and for the treatment of municipal waste and sludge, leading to increased recirculation of nutrients. About 20 TWh biomass could theoretically be produced per year at an average cost of less than 50% of current production cost, if the economic

  11. Next generation of energy production systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouault, J.; Garnier, J.C.; Carre, F.

    2003-01-01

    This document gathers the slides that have been presented at the Gedepeon conference. Gedepeon is a research group involving scientists from Cea (French atomic energy commission), CNRS (national center of scientific research), EDF (electricity of France) and Framatome that is devoted to the study of new energy sources and particularly to the study of the future generations of nuclear systems. The contributions have been classed into 9 topics: 1) gas cooled reactors, 2) molten salt reactors (MSBR), 3) the recycling of plutonium and americium, 4) reprocessing of molten salt reactor fuels, 5) behavior of graphite under radiation, 6) metallic materials for molten salt reactors, 7) refractory fuels of gas cooled reactors, 8) the nuclear cycle for the next generations of nuclear systems, and 9) organization of research programs on the new energy sources

  12. Biomass energy systems information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-02-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on biomass energy systems are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. This report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. Results from 12 biomass groups of respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Nonfederally Funded Researchers (2 groups), Representatives of Manufacturers (2 groups), Representatives of State Forestry Offices, Private Foresters, Forest Products Engineers, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and System Managers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  13. Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    This report presents a summary of results of the strategic research project “Coherent Energy and Environmental System Analysis” (CEESA) which was conducted in the period 2007-2011 and funded by the Danish Strategic Research Council together with the participating parties. The project...... energy and environmental analysis tools as well as analyses of the design and implementation of future renewable energy systems. For practical reasons, the work has been carried out as an interaction between five work packages, and a number of reports, papers and tools have been reported separately from...... each part of the project. A list of the separate work package reports is given at the end of this foreword while a complete list of all papers and reports can be found at the end of the report as well as at the following website: www.ceesa.dk. This report provides a summary of the results...

  14. Nuclear energy in Canada: the CANDU system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.

    1979-10-01

    Nuclear electricity in Canada is generated by CANDU nuclear power stations. The CANDU reactor - a unique Canadian design - is fuelled by natural uranium and moderated by heavy water. The system has consistently outperformed other comparable nuclear power systems in the western world, and has an outstanding record of reliability, safety and economy. As a source of energy it provides the opportunity for decreasing our dependence on dwindling supplies of conventional fossil fuels. (auth)

  15. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  16. Environmental impact of energy systems in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauscas, V.; Mishkins, V.

    1994-04-01

    Environmental impact of energy systems and an improvement of environmental situation in Lithuania are discussed. The number of polluting plants exceeds 40 thousand, the most harmful are power plants and boilers. The non-homogenous distribution of power and industrial plants cause very different contamination in Lithuania. fig

  17. Distribution System Pricing with Distributed Energy Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hledik, Ryan [The Brattle Group, Cambridge, MA (United States); Lazar, Jim [The Regulatory Assistance Project, Montpelier, VT (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-08-16

    Technological changes in the electric utility industry bring tremendous opportunities and significant challenges. Customers are installing clean sources of on-site generation such as rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. At the same time, smart appliances and control systems that can communicate with the grid are entering the retail market. Among the opportunities these changes create are a cleaner and more diverse power system, the ability to improve system reliability and system resilience, and the potential for lower total costs. Challenges include integrating these new resources in a way that maintains system reliability, provides an equitable sharing of system costs, and avoids unbalanced impacts on different groups of customers, including those who install distributed energy resources (DERs) and low-income households who may be the least able to afford the transition.

  18. An Interactive Energy System with Grid, Heating and Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker

    , flexibility definition and quantification, stochastic impact assessment of LV networks and control of the demand response in LV networks. In a first stage, different residential and non-residential loads are modelled with system analysis purposes. The active loads considered can be categorized as...... of this research work the control of the demand response in LV networks is tackled. The hierarchical structure presented aims to control the operation of heat pumps and plug-in electric vehicles to satisfy technical and commercial aspects of LV grids. This strategy allows system operators to perform their energy......The environmental consciousness and the fact of achieving greater energy independency have led many countries to apply important changes in their energy systems. The intensive renewable energy growth of the last decades represents the most notorious example at this moment. However, this is not only...

  19. Lower-Energy Energy Storage System (LEESS) Component Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonder, J.; Cosgrove, J.; Shi, Y.; Saxon, A.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-10-01

    Alternate hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) energy storage systems (ESS) such as lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) modules have the potential for improved life, superior cold temperature performance, and lower long-term cost projections relative to traditional battery storage systems. If such lower-energy ESS (LEESS) devices can also be shown to maintain high HEV fuel savings, future HEVs designed with these devices could have an increased value proposition relative to conventional vehicles. NREL's vehicle test platform is helping validate the in-vehicle performance capability of alternative LEESS devices and identify unforeseen issues. NREL created the Ford Fusion Hybrid test platform for in-vehicle evaluation of such alternative LEESS devices, bench testing of the initial LIC pack, integration and testing of the LIC pack in the test vehicle, and bench testing and installation of an EDLC module pack. EDLC pack testing will continue in FY15. The in-vehicle LIC testing results suggest technical viability of LEESS devices to support HEV operation. Several LIC configurations tested demonstrated equivalent fuel economy and acceleration performance as the production nickel-metal-hydride ESS configuration across all tests conducted. The lowest energy LIC scenario demonstrated equivalent performance over several tests, although slightly higher fuel consumption on the US06 cycle and slightly slower acceleration performance. More extensive vehicle-level calibration may be able to reduce or eliminate these performance differences. The overall results indicate that as long as critical attributes such as engine start under worst case conditions can be retained, considerable ESS downsizing may minimally impact HEV fuel savings.

  20. 17th European photovoltaic solar energy conference and exhibition, Munich 22.-26.10.2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, S.

    2002-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) summarises the photovoltaics (PV) conference and exhibition held in Munich in October 2001 from the Swiss point of view. The contributions made by representatives of Swiss institutions and companies are presented including papers on the progress being made in third generation crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon technology, amorphous and micro-crystalline silicon solar cells, thin film solar cells based on compound semiconductors and thermo-photovoltaics. Further papers deal with PV modules on the market, building-integrated solar power systems and new developments in PV systems technology. The exhibition that accompanied the conference, including the 12 Swiss exhibitors who were present, is reviewed as are international market developments. Contributions concerning the application of photovoltaics in developing countries are also reviewed

  1. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  2. Energy and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the further education concepts of the Swiss Federal Government and the Swiss Cantons in the energy area with particular emphasis on post-graduate courses on energy and sustainability in building and civil engineering. The activities of a working group on further education in these areas and the basic objectives of the concepts in the planning, implementation and operational areas are discussed. The courses offered by various Swiss technical colleges in the building and energy areas are examined and experience gained within the framework of the Swiss 'Energy 2000' programme is discussed. Finally, the Penta Project on renewable energy sources, set up jointly by the SwissEnergy programme and various professional associations to provide further education and training for target audiences in the energy and building technical services areas, is looked at

  3. Energy storage system for a pulsed DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.; Cortes, M.; Mendez, P.; Hayward, J.; Maisonnier, D.

    2007-01-01

    Several designs have been proposed for the DEMO fusion reactor. Some of them are working in a non-steady state mode. Since a power plant should be able to deliver to the grid a constant power, this challenge must be solved. Energy storage is required at a level of 250 MWh e with the capability of delivering a power of 1 GWe. A review of different technologies for energy storage is made. Thermal energy storage (TES), fuel cells and other hydrogen storage, compressed air storage, water pumping, batteries, flywheels and supercapacitors are the most promising solutions to energy storage. Each one is briefly described in the paper, showing its basis, features, advantages and disadvantages for this application. The conclusion of the review is that, based on existing technology, thermal energy storage using molten salts and a system based on hydrogen storage are the most promising candidates to meet the requirements of a pulsed DEMO. These systems are investigated in more detail together with an economic assessment of each

  4. Energy Transition Dynamics; Understanding Policy Resistance in the Dutch Energy System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gooyert, V. de; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.; Kranenburg, H.L. van; Freeman, R.E.; Breen, H.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Various countries seek to establish an energy transition, a structural change towards a more sustainable energy system. Countries implement a combination of energy policies aimed at establishing an energy transition, but these policies frequently result in unintended negative consequences. This

  5. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  6. ENERGY SYSTEM CONTRIBUTIONS DURING INCREMENTAL EXERCISE TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rômulo Bertuzzi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the relative contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems during an incremental exercise test (IET. Ten male recreational long-distance runners performed an IET consisting of three-minute incremental stages on a treadmill. The fractions of the contributions of the aerobic and glycolytic systems were calculated for each stage based on the oxygen uptake and the oxygen energy equivalents derived by blood lactate accumulation, respectively. Total metabolic demand (WTOTAL was considered as the sum of these two energy systems. The aerobic (WAER and glycolytic (WGLYCOL system contributions were expressed as a percentage of the WTOTAL. The results indicated that WAER (86-95% was significantly higher than WGLYCOL (5-14% throughout the IET (p < 0.05. In addition, there was no evidence of the sudden increase in WGLYCOL that has been previously reported to support to the "anaerobic threshold" concept. These data suggest that the aerobic metabolism is predominant throughout the IET and that energy system contributions undergo a slow transition from low to high intensity

  7. Solar Energy Systems for Lunar Oxygen Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony J.; Heller, Richard S.; Wong, Wayne A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2010-01-01

    An evaluation of several solar concentrator-based systems for producing oxygen from lunar regolith was performed. The systems utilize a solar concentrator mirror to provide thermal energy for the oxygen production process. Thermal energy to power a Stirling heat engine and photovoltaics are compared for the production of electricity. The electricity produced is utilized to operate the equipment needed in the oxygen production process. The initial oxygen production method utilized in the analysis is hydrogen reduction of ilmenite. Utilizing this method of oxygen production a baseline system design was produced. This baseline system had an oxygen production rate of 0.6 kg/hr with a concentrator mirror size of 5 m. Variations were performed on the baseline design to show how changes in the system size and process (rate) affected the oxygen production rate. An evaluation of the power requirements for a carbothermal lunar regolith reduction reactor has also been conducted. The reactor had a total power requirement between 8,320 to 9,961 W when producing 1000 kg/year of oxygen. The solar concentrator used to provide the thermal power (over 82 percent of the total energy requirement) would have a diameter of less than 4 m.

  8. Analysis and design of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajura, R.A.; Marston, C.H.; Tstsaronis, G.

    1989-01-01

    The 1980s saw growing public awareness of environmental issues. Events such as an unusually hot and dry summer in parts of the world, contamination of community drinking water supplies by leakage from abandoned waste disposal sites, and the discovery of a hole in the ozone layer in the upper stratosphere over Antarctica made headlines in the popular press. The long-range impact of these events on the environment or on human health is still being debated by the scientific and technical communities. In the interim, however, it is prudent to mitigate any possible environmental problems by continuing to develop high-efficiency energy utilization systems that are also cost effective and environmentally sound. High-efficiency fossil energy systems have a number of environmental benefits: carbon dioxide production is reduced and this, in turn, reduces the potential environmental insult which may occur during resource extraction or shipping. Thermodynamic analysis coupled with economic analysis is a useful tool to identify practical, high-efficiency systems. The Symposium on the Analysis and Design of Energy Systems is intended to provide a forum to present both advances in analytical techniques for this type of system and case studies applying these techniques

  9. Systems Engineering Model for ART Energy Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Cruz, Carmen Margarita [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rochau, Gary E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wilson, Mollye C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The near-term objective of the EC team is to establish an operating, commercially scalable Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) to be constructed for the NE - STEP demonstration system (demo) with the lowest risk possible. A systems engineering approach is recommended to ensure adequate requirements gathering, documentation, and mode ling that supports technology development relevant to advanced reactors while supporting crosscut interests in potential applications. A holistic systems engineering model was designed for the ART Energy Conversion program by leveraging Concurrent Engineering, Balance Model, Simplified V Model, and Project Management principles. The resulting model supports the identification and validation of lifecycle Brayton systems requirements, and allows designers to detail system-specific components relevant to the current stage in the lifecycle, while maintaining a holistic view of all system elements.

  10. Solar/electric heating systems for the future energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furbo, S.; Dannemand, M.; Perers, B. [and others

    2013-05-15

    The aim of the project is to elucidate how individual heating units for single family houses are best designed in order to fit into the future energy system. The units are based on solar energy, electrical heating elements/heat pump, advanced heat storage tanks and advanced control systems. Heat is produced by solar collectors in sunny periods and by electrical heating elements/heat pump. The electrical heating elements/heat pump will be in operation in periods where the heat demand cannot be covered by solar energy. The aim is to use the auxiliary heating units when the electricity price is low, e.g. due to large electricity production by wind turbines. The unit is equipped with an advanced control system where the control of the auxiliary heating is based on forecasts of the electricity price, the heat demand and the solar energy production. Consequently, the control is based on weather forecasts. Three differently designed heating units are tested in a laboratory test facility. The systems are compared on the basis of: 1) energy consumption for the auxiliary heating; 2) energy cost for the auxiliary heating; 3) net utilized solar energy. Starting from a normal house a solar combi system (for hot water and house heating) can save 20-30% energy cost, alone, depending on sizing of collector area and storage volume. By replacing the heat storage with a smart tank based on electric heating elements and a smart control based on weather/load forecast and electricity price information 24 hours ahead, another 30-40% can be saved. That is: A solar heating system with a solar collector area of about 10 m{sup 2}, a smart tank based on electric heating element and a smart control system, can reduce the energy costs of the house by at least 50%. No increase of heat storage volume is needed to utilize the smart control. The savings in % are similar for different levels of building insulation. As expected a heat pump in the system can further reduce the auxiliary electricity

  11. Wind energy systems control engineering design

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Sanz, Mario

    2012-01-01

    IntroductionBroad Context and MotivationConcurrent Engineering: A Road Map for EnergyQuantitative Robust ControlNovel CAD Toolbox for QFT Controller DesignOutline Part I: Advanced Robust Control Techniques: QFT and Nonlinear SwitchingIntroduction to QFTQuantitative Feedback TheoryWhy Feedback? QFT OverviewInsight into the QFT TechniqueBenefits of QFTMISO Analog QFT Control SystemIntroductionQFT Method (Single-Loop MISO System)Design Procedure OutlineMinimum-Phase System Performance SpecificationsJ LTI Plant ModelsPlant Templates of P?(s), P( j_i )Nominal PlantU-Contour (Stability Bound)Trackin

  12. Measuring the sustainability of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroger, W.

    2001-01-01

    Today's energy policies are characterised by a contradictory position. In theory, there is a clear will to respond to emerging threats, e.g. evidence of man-made climate change, irresponsible use of limited resources, geopolitical discrepancies with unbalanced satisfaction of vital needs. In practice, decision making is dominated by economic competitiveness and maximization of short-term profit. The use of fossil fuels is unbroken and still increasing. A recent Green Paper concluded that the EU countries have to reduce growing structural weaknesses by limiting dependence on fuel imports and to give priority to energy systems that do not emit global warming gases. (authors)

  13. The perspectives of fusion energy: The roadmap towards energy production and fusion energy in a distributed energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Korsholm, Søren Bang

    2014-01-01

    at very high temperature where all matter is in the plasma state as the involved energies are orders of magnitude higher than typical chemical binding energies. It is one of the great science and engineering challenges to construct a viable power plant based on fusion energy. Fusion research is a world...... The presentation will discuss the present status of the fusion energy research and review the EU Roadmap towards a fusion power plant. Further the cost of fusion energy is assessed as well as how it can be integrated in the distributed energy system......Controlled thermonuclear fusion has the potential of providing an environmentally friendly and inexhaustible energy source for mankind. Fusion energy, which powers our sun and the stars, is released when light elements, such as the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium, fuse together. This occurs...

  14. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  15. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme, 2004 Edition - Overview (French) for 2003; Programme photovoltaique, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in French) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies and in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links.

  16. Swiss Photovoltaics Programme, 2004 Edition - Overview (German) for 2003; Programm Photovoltaik, Ausgabe 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, S.

    2004-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in German) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links.

  17. Spatial–Temporal Analysis of the Heat and Electricity Demand of the Swiss Building Stock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schneider

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2015, space heating and domestic hot water production accounted for around 40% of the Swiss final energy consumption. Reaching the goals of the 2050 energy strategy will require significantly reducing this share despite the growing building stock. Renewables are numerous but subject to spatial–temporal constraints. Territorial planning of energy distribution systems enabling the integration of renewables requires having a spatial–temporal characterization of the energy demand. This paper presents two bottom-up statistical extrapolation models for the estimation of the geo-dependent heat and electricity demand of the Swiss building stock. The heat demand is estimated by means of a statistical bottom-up model applied at the building level. At the municipality level, the electricity load curve is estimated by combining socio-economic indicators with average consumption per activity and/or electric device. This approach also allows to break down the estimated electricity demand according to activity type (e.g., households, various industry, and service activities and appliance type (e.g., lighting, motor force, fridges. The total estimated aggregated demand is 94 TWh for heat and 58 TWh for electricity, which represent a deviation of 2.9 and 0.5%, respectively compared to the national energy consumption statistics. In addition, comparisons between estimated and measured electric load curves are done to validate the proposed approach. Finally, these models are used to build a geo-referred database of heat and electricity demand for the entire Swiss territory. As an application of the heat demand model, a realistic saving potential is estimated for the existing building stock; this potential could be achieved through by a deep retrofit program. One advantage of the statistical bottom-up model approach is that it allows to simulate a building stock that replicates the diversity of building demand. This point is important in order to

  18. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  19. 24 CFR 203.18a - Solar energy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Solar energy system. 203.18a... § 203.18a Solar energy system. (a) The dollar limitation provided in § 203.18(a) may be increased by up... to the installation of a solar energy system. (b) Solar energy system is defined as any addition...

  20. Prognostication of regional energy system development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoriy Borisovich Korovin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes practice and development of new methodological approaches to forecasting the development of regional energy systems. It is shown that the energy complex is involved in a variety of forward and backward linkages as an element of socio-economic systems, and the quality and availability of energy resources largely determines the structure and pace of economic, social and environmental development of the region. Analysis of existing current practice of territorial and sectoral forecasting implemented in Russia and abroad, suggests that such practice is inadequate in its theoretical and methodological elaboration. This is confirmed by the frequent discrepancy between actual results and plans, as well as their regular revision. The methods are mostly based on extrapolation of existing tendencies and not taking into account many factors and emerging trends related to the complexity and openness of the social and economic systems. Post-industrial level of civilization is characterized by fast development of technology; knowledge, information, technological and institutional innovation become the main resources. The greatest importance is attached to such development properties as instability, various orderliness, nonlinearity, interactions etc. Current approaches to forecasting the future are described by a number of theories that are generally called self-organization theory, taking into account these singularities. These concepts should be included in the theoretical basis for the development and implementation of regional development forecasts. Using the synergetic approach assumes that, along with organizational processes, processes of self-organization and self-development are very important in the system, they are characterized by spontaneous, unexpected formations and emerging structures. The development of such systems can generate stable and efficient new structure. The presence of crisis is an integral feature of complex